Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00076
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: November 25, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00076
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

ersenting more than 10,000
iers of Oranges and Grapefruit

0 a Year
ents a Copy



NOVEMBER 25, 1931

rary--Perio1. Dlv.,
hingtcn, D.C.

Entered as second-class matter August 31.
1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven,
Florida. under the Act of March 3. 1879.

Volume IV
Number 4

Tangerine Market Opens Strong

Clearing House Initiates General Move
To Hold Fruit Not Meeting Requirements

lorida's tangerine market this year is vast-
ifferent from what it was at the same time
r ago, which is to say that tangerines are
king about a dollar a box more this year
Swas the case last year.
he Clearing House, in a large degree, can
much of the credit for the successful tan-
ne market opening, for it was due to initial
>n taken by the Clearing House that led to
Almost universal effort by tangerine ship-
to keep off the market all tangerines not
b the state's maturity standard. The plan.
realized at a meeting of the shipper mem-
of the Clearing House held Nov. 12. At
meeting the danger of the situation was
missed from every angle by the representa-
of the various agencies attending the
ring. Finally the shippers, united as one
; decided to enter a gentlemen's agreement
to enroll in the movement as many of the
pers outside the Clearing House as would
killing to co-operate.
Lst year the tangerine markets were flood-
*ith heavy shipments commencing Nov. 16,
i the tangerine maturity law was no longer
!tive. Practically all shippers at that time
the same brilliant idea-that they-would.
the jump on the other shippers by fast
;, and take advantage of a bare market. In-
1 everybody was caught in a slump. The
ring House jumped into the situation, allo-
I some of the cars, issued stop orders on
ing of tangerines, and in that manner man-
Sto keep the threatened red ink to a mini-
lis year, benefiting by last season's experi-
, the Clearing House took hold of the tan-
ie situation well in advance. Calling upon
missioner of Agriculture Mayo for co-
ation, a plan was worked out under which
hipper members of the Clearing House and
ral other marketing agencies voluntarily
red into a gentlemen's agreement to accept
Ficial tangerine inspection.
ate inspectors, after inspection ended Nov.
iad no authority to confiscate tangerines
did not pass the seven to one standard. As
ts proved, it was not necessary for them to
such authority for almost to a man the
ceting.agencies entering into the agree-

ment moved only such tangerines as actually
passed the state requirements.
The gentlemen's agreement was a great suc-
cess; the auction markets are paying this year
a dollar and more per box over the average that
was obtained a year ago. During the week end-
ing Nov. 22 a year ago the auction average on
tangerines was $3.60 delivered. For the week
ending Nov. 29 a year ago the auction average
had dropped to $3.15. This year for the week
ending Nov. 21 the auction average was $4.50,
and the indications are that the average for the
week ending Nov. 28 this year will be a dollar
or more higher than was the case a year ago.
It illustrates as perhaps nothing else could
how effective can be the industrial efforts of

the Clearing House. It has been an outstand-
ing example of "orderly competition" which is
essentially the real objective of the Clearing
House. "The successful opening of the tange-
rine market," Manager A. M. Pratt said, "is by
no means just a piece of good luck. The same
efficiency can be duplicated with our oranges
and grapefruit if we can all work together as
whole-heartedly as we have done with the tan-
gerines. In fact, it should be easier to bring
about orderly competition in the handling of
our oranges and grapefruit than it is with tan-
gerines in that we have the entire season in
which to work out the marketing problems. The
handling of the tangerines is almost an emer-
gency job; it must be done hurriedly in that the
season is short."

Cold Wave Hits California Groves;

Extent of Damage Thought Slight

California orange growers in some sections
of the Pacific coast state suffered more or less
damage from the cold wave which visited the
Rocky Mountain district Nov. .21-23, tele-
graphic advices to the Clearing House indicate.
The extent of the damage will not be known
for several days, but temperature reports from
various sections indicate that some of the young
trees were hit hard.
Upon receipt of telegraphic information
from authoritative sources in California the
Clearing House bulletined on Nov. 23 its ship-
per members advising them of the damage as
reported. Two telegrams received from Cali-
fornia are quoted herewith as follows':
"As usual conditions apparently very spot-
ted. Corona reports twelve hours temperature
below twenty-nine. Damage probably slight.
Riverside, Rialto, Redlands temperature low as
twenty-two in isolated spots with minimum
twenty-six over wide area for part of time.
Probably serious damage these districts in
colder spots. Glendora, San Bernardino reports
minimum twenty-six. Some sections state wind
after midnight prevented serious damage,
other sections no wind. Apparently Tulare
County not seriously alarmed. Report twenty-
six or lower in low spots Central California

but seem to think no heavy damage except in
low spots. Most serious part of situation is
many growers unprepared for such early cold
weather, not ready with smudging equipment."
The other wire reads as follows:
"Weather has been freakish. Believe mini-
mum temperature about twenty-five. Contrary
to usual, the higher elevations were colder the
forepart of the night than the lowlands. This
due to heavy snow in mountains and higher
foothills. Quite heavy smudging throughout
Southern California. Don't believe any damage
in smudged orchards although might be slight
damage in groves not smudged. Central Cali-
fornia reports some smudging in lower flat land
district, but no smudging necessary in higher
hill districts. Lowest temperature in Central
California where groves located reported as
twenty-eight. Warmer weather predicted for
Manager Pratt, in commenting on the infor-
mation, stated that he did not size up the dam-
age as being general.
"Cold weather this early is more likely to
catch some of the growers unprepared with
their orchard heaters," he said, "also, the fruit
this early is more susceptible to cold. However,
(Continued on Page Eight)

U. S. Postage
1c. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1


O ficia lI ft


Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Association,
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla.


Page 2 FL

Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association)
(Week Ending Nov. 21, 1931)


Nov. 21
Fla. Org's Shpd..... 839
Total ----------- 1862
Fla. Gft. Shpd....... 570
Total --------- 3549
Fla. Tang. Shpd-- 140
Total ----------- 162
Fla. Mixed Shpd .- 375
Total _------ 880
Texas Gft. Shpd.__ 183
Total ----------- 1153
Cal. Org's Shpd -- 1061
Fla. Org's Auc.__. 270
Average------ $3.30
Fla. Gft. Auc.--. 282
Average----- $2.55
Fla. Tang. Auc..__- 55
Average ----- $4.50
Texas Gft. Auc.___ 6
Average ----- $2.92
Cal. Org's Auc..... 578
Average.......-----....... $3.35

Nov. 14

Nov. 21, '30


Week End. Shpd. Sld. Av. Shpd. Sld. Av.
Nov. 14 ... 97 46 $2.58 28 17 $2.20
Nov. 21 -197 87 $2.56 46 15 $2.20
Dif. -. +100 +41 -.02 +18 -2

GFT. No. 1 GFT. No. 2
Week End. Shpd. Sid. Av. Shpd. Sld. Av.
Nov. 14 -- 79 29 $1.69 48 20 $1.42
Nov. 21.... 87 21 $1.62 51 21 $1.40
Dif. --.--- +8 -8 -.07 +3 +1 -02

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1929- 1928- 1927- 1
Ending Year 30 29 28
Nov. 14 ---- 914 420 1016 771
Nov. 21 ------- 777 663 751 935 1
Nov. 28----- 675 737 612 1080 1
California Oranges
Week Last
Ending Year 1929 1928 1927
Nov. 14.---- 987 631 1335 116 1
Nov. 21 ---- 782 622 1078 408 1
Nov. 28 -- 1555 1293 1638 1204

Nov. 14.-..
Nov. 21 .--
Nov. 28 -.-

Nov. 14 .--
Nov. 21--.-
Nov. 28 --.

Florida Grapefruit
Last 1929- 1928-
Year 30 29
- 477 309 485
- 408 428 509
- 476 415 857

Florida Mixed
Last 1929- 1928-
Year 30 29
-.- 399 195 235
-_ 540 296 263
_ 372 366 274
Florida Tangerines

Week Last
Ending Year
Nov. 14 __------- 107
Nov. 21 .........--------_ 452
Nov. 28 -- -------.123





7- 1926-
a 27
,9 421
19 650
'5 814

!7- 1926-
8 27
14 225
47 219
!8 269


The general auction average this week on
Florida oranges of $3.30, as compared with
the California average at auction of $3.35, is
again a fine showing for this early in the year.


Last week, you will remember, we were 25c
under. A year ago at this time we were
under. A year ago at this time were were
$2.05 under California's auction average; two
years ago 60c under California's auction aver-
age and three years ago $2.65 under Cali-
fornia's average. In fact, no other seasons
have shown Florida doing so well compared
with California in the public auction prices as
this season.
It is true we are behind our normal move-
ment, but the solids are running high which
means an exceptionally fine eating orange,
rich in flavor. For the first time, California
with her new crop, up to date, has made -heav-
ier shipments than Florida, but if we could
keep up our relative position in price levels
compared with the past that we have so far,
compared with California, we would have a
season's record that would make California
sit up and take notice as never before.
It depends chiefly upon a sensible, even dis-
tribution of our shipments throughout the sea-
son, with every precaution of course being
exercised in the field to prevent bruising or
decay (we have been exceptionally free from
decay so far). We are severely handicapped
as compared with California with an over-
abundance of 250s and smaller. The truck and
bulk movement should be the means of dis-
tributing these excess small sizes. We should
not be picking small sizes in excess of what
can be moved by truck and bulk to the cheaper
private sale markets. The auction markets
are the worst possible place for an excess sup-
ply of these small sizes, and with the heavier
shipments that may show up this coming week,
the Operating Committee asked that our ship-
pers be warned against picking excess quanti-
ties of 250s and smaller. They agreed that
these small sizes that could be sold definitely
in bulk or by truck before shipments at a rea-
sonable net return to the grower should
naturally be picked and shipped, but that our
growers and shippers should be discouraged
from picking at this time any of these small
sizes that would be compelled to move into the
auction markets, particularly. Attention was
also called to the fact that, with the truck and
bulk markets supplying to a great extent these
Southern and Western points, it would be
rather difficult to sell heavy proportions of
small sizes, packed, to the rest of the markets
that usually want medium size oranges. Every
member of the Operating Committee express-
ed himself as believing that these small sizes
would do much better later, most varieties con-
tinuing to grow and the small sizes naturally
being more marketable in the spring.
In view of the fact that Florida is behind
her normal movement in oranges, considering
the size of her crop, it was felt that it would
be unwise to ask our members to restrict their
movement this coming week, except in the
matter of emphatically guarding against dis-
proportionate supplies of small sizes. We are
estimating this coming week's movement at
1050 straight cars of oranges, which is 300 to
400 cars higher than the last three years for
the corresponding week, though less than the
average for the years prior to the formation
of the Clearing House.

November 25, 19:

You will notice in the index that during t]
past three years when the Clearing House w
strongly influencing shipments, the shipment
for the last week in November were in eai
case held down very much lower than the se
sons prior. This was because the Thanksgi
ing market, having been pretty well supplic
it was thought wise to restrict the moveme
that would immediately follow the ThanksgS
ing supplies. This season shows a change
form because of the late start we made, al
the desirability of moving a high proporti
prior to the grand rush which many are fi
ing on for the Christmas markets.
We are estimating that 600 straight cars
grapefruit will be shipped this coming we
This is heavy on top of this past week and t
week previous, but the recent supreme co
decision compells a heavy movement of gra
fruit that had heretofore been held back a
that must be moved by December 6, the grape
fruit being much heavier in proportion th
oranges involved in this decision. If
amount is moved as estimated, we will be o
300 cars behind our normal movement, ba
on habits of the past for the last eight year
applied to the estimated grapefruit crop.
this reason, it would seem sensible that th
who can start holding their fruit for later
ket, especially as prices are by no means h
and nearly everyone is severely reducing t
estimates on the total grapefruit crop beca
of small sizes, dropping and drought.
General satisfaction is being expressed
garding the common sense way in which ta
erine shipments are being held down. Th
will of course be a certain percentage who
violate the faith into which we all went
agreeing to hold down our shipments to a 7
1 test, but the fact that Florida has ship
this week 150 cars against 452 cars a year
speaks well for us. Next week a year a
you.remember, everybody was stopped in t
picking, with the result that only 123 strai
cars of tangerines went forward, whereas,
are estimating the Florida movement for n
week at 250 cars.
Many are indignant, possibly a greater n
ber puzzled, as to some of the recent sen
tional publicity given to Florida papers
fruit interests not affiliated with the Clear
House. No matter what the motive, the da
aging talk of calamity, ten million dollars 1
sharp decline in the market, and special r
erence to spray materials that might cause
uninformed consumers in the North to becoi
panicky is again a supreme illustration of t
Florida press and those that contribute s
articles being Florida's worst enemy. If C
ifornia has any troubles, real or imagine'
(and the same can be said of Texas), the pr
and the people have the loyalty and good se
to keep their troubles to themselves. In fa
California and Texas are permitted legally
use that type of spray material which Flori
has attempted to stop. California's heavy
shipments from the Central part of the sta
as well as Texas', boast that its grapefr
needs no sugar, may be attributable in part
intelligent use of the very materials that Fl

November 25 1931

ida this week has given such unwise publicity
to. A careful analysis of all of our sales does
.not indicate that the independent shippers of
'Florida have been making the cut in prices or
losing their heads such as suggested to the pub-
Slic at large through our public press. In fact,
Sit is obvious, the only damage out of this all is
the shortsighted publicity that has been fed to
Florida readers, and we only hope and pray
it will stop there.
As shown in our index, you will notice No. 1
oranges have been averaging this week $2.56,
No. 2s $2.20; Grapefruit No Is $1.62, No. 2s
S$1.40, with the usual discount on off-sizes. It
would be natural to expect, with somewhat
heavier shipments this coming week, slightly
less prices f. o. b. as well as at auction, and in
"view of the heavier shipments, we urge all
shippers to sell freely f. o. b. rather than ab-
normally lowering auction levels, which im-
Smediately lowers f. o. b. prices as well.
There will be a regular meeting of the ship-
per members of the Clearing House next Fri-
day, November 27, at 6:30 P. M., Haven Cafe.
Among other matters will be discussed the
possibility of reaching an agreement declining
to sell cannery grapefruit for less than 50c
f. o. b. the platform. Each shipper is requested
to give this matter consideration so that the
Wisdom of such a step can be decided upon at
this meeting.

SFertilizer Should Be Held

Until After Rains Start
SCitrus fertilizers applied to a dry soil will
Likely be poorly distributed and partly lost
when the next rain falls, explains E. F. De-
Busk, citriculturist with the Florida Agricul-
tural Extension Service.
In most groves the soil is now very dry and
Swill be extremely difficult to wet. An inch of
rainfall will rush to the places that quickly
f absorb it and carry some of the fertilizer
eep down into the soil at these spots, he said.
k'"The first rain will improve the absorbing ca-
pacity of the soil and prepare it for a more
uniform absorption of the next rainfall, and
consequently a more efficient distribution of
the fertilizer applied."
i During the recent drouth the soil has been
losing its moisture in proportion to the root
concentration. The highest concentration is in
Sthe first foot of soil, and consequently that
area has lost its moisture first. The result is
that the roots have been forced to lower
L depths for moisture and a high concentration
of roots may be found two or three feet be-
-low the surface. Many small rootlets have
Also been killed off. The result will be a larger
and more deeply penetrating root system than
would have been found had the drouth not
.. This condition makes favorable the utiliza-
,tion of more ammonia than ordinarily used in
ithe spring, he added. "A liberal application
,of ammonia, well distributed throughout this
,extensive root zone by ample rainfall or irri-
gation, by the middle of January, will be
Highly favorable to a heavy setting of fruit
next spring."

November 25 1931


New Members Seated On

Board, Operating Group
The official family of the Clearing House
was increased by four this month, the direc-
torate being increased from eleven to thir-
teen members and the Operating Committee
from nine to eleven. The two new directors
who will serve on the Board were elected Nov.
12 from the state-at-large and are E. C. Mc-
Lean, Palmetto, and S. J. Sligh, Orlando. The
two new members on the Operating Commit-
tee, elected at a meeting of the shipper-mem-
bers of the Clearing House on the same day
the Board met, are A. E. Fowler, Lakeland,
and Senator J. J. Parrish, Titusville.
Further changes in the organization are be-
ing made in the Committee of Fifty also.
-Places on the Executive Committee from Dis-
tricts 2, 3, 4 and 5 are to be filled in the near
The two new members on the Board of
Directors are well known throughout all of
Florida's citrus area. Both have large citrus
holdings and have been actively interested in
the business for many years. Their election
to a seat on the Board followed the Board's
decision to increase the directorate from
eleven to thirteen, an action which has been
contemplated for some time, so as to make
the body as representative as possible.
Messrs. A. E. Fowler, affiliated with the
Chandler-Davis Co. of Lakeland, and J. J.
Parrish, president of the Nevins Fruit Co. of
Titusville, are, like the new directors, promi-
nent figures in the industry. Senator Parrish,
by virtue of his service in the State Legisla-
turs for many terms, probably has as broad a
view of the state's most important industry as
any man in Florida. Clearing House officials
feel that the addition of these two men to the
Operating Committee will be of immense
value to that group as well as to the Clearing
House itself.

Change In Contract
Official action was taken by the Board of
Directors of the Clearing House at its meet-
ing Nov. 12, reducing the amount of liqui-
dated damages stipulated in the grower's con-
tract for violation of the Clearing House
agreement. This action of the Board reduces
the amount of the liquidated damages from
fifty cents per box to ten cents per box, the
clause in the grower contract now reading as
"4. It is mutually understood and agreed:
"(a) That if Grower should market any


Large Stocks Pumps, Pipe and Other
Materials for immediate delivery.

The Cameron & Barkley Co.

Page 3

part of Grower's citrus fruit other than
through a shipper, distributors, or agency that
has entered into contract with the Asociation,
Grower shall pay the Association, as liqui-
dated damages, at the rate of ten cents per
box for all citrus fruit so marketed or dis-
posed of by Grower, together with all costs,
premiums for bonds, expenses and fees, aris-
ing out of or caused by litigation, and reason-
able attorney's fees expended or incurred, and
all such costs and expenses shall be included
in any judgment obtained in any such action."
A motion seconded and passed directing
that in the future all contracts signed will be
on the reduced liquidated damages, included
also the decision to officially notify present
grower members of this reduction.

Yep, we're beginning to crowd California on
orange prices.

Brogdex Means..
Sound Delivery
Better Appearance
Less Refrigeration
Better for the Dealer

More Money

THE first thing a buyer looks for is a
high bulge pack-if the straps are loose
he suspects decay. Brogdex controls de-
cay and shrinkage and almost without
exception brings the fruit into the mar-
ket as sound as a dollar, with the high
bulge pack still standing and the straps
still tight. Market buyers recognize the
advantages of better keeping fruit and
have come to rely upon the keeping qual-
ities of Brogdexed fruit to build a big-
ger and more profitable retail trade and
a better satisfied consumer market.
Oranges and grapefruit are bought by
the eye-fruit must look attractive if it
is to move out of the dealer's hands.
Any visible evidence of decay, any ap-
parent aging or wilt, even a dullness of
the shine-will slow up sales. Brogdex-
ed fruit looks better because it carries
more wax, is double polished and is rare-
ly refrigerated. A car of Brogdexed
fruit uses 7 pounds of wax. It passes
through two polishers, which give it a
splendid shine. By shipping standard
vent-without either pre-cooling or icing
-this shine is retained clear through to
the consumer.
This is a specialized service no other
agent or concern is competent or quali-
fied to perform-a service worth the
thoughtful consideration of any grower
who has fruit to pack. If we were real-
izing high prices the economies of Brog-
dex might not seem so important-you
could get by and still have a profit; but
with prices low and little prospect of
much improvement, the savings possible
through Brogdex become of vital im-

Florida Brogdex

Distributors, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
Dunedin, Florida.

Pare 4



Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.
E. C. AURIN ......... Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE . . . . Winter Park
0. F. GARDNER . . .. Lake Placid
W. J. HOWEY ..... Howey in the Hills
L. P. KIRKLAND . . . ... .Auburndale
J. H. LETTON . . . . .. Valrico
E. C. McLEAN . . . .... Palmetto
M. O. OVERSTREET . . . .. .Orlando
S. J. SLIGH . . . . . .. Orlando
A. M. TILDEN . . ... Winter Haven
A. R. TRAFFORD. . . . ... Cocoa
E. H. WILLIAMS. . . .. .Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK ....... . Orlando

Trade Association Idea

Would Be Helpful
We wish that every reader of The
Citrus Industry might read and care-
fully study the address "Trade Associ-
ations and Business Stabilization" by
Frederick M. Feiker, director of the
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com-
merce, which is printed in full else-
where in this issue.
As Mr. Feiker points out, there never
was a time when trade associations
were so essential to the welfare of in-
dustry and the stabilization of business
as now. This is quite as true of the
citrus industry as of any other indus-
try; indeed, it would seem that the
need in our particular industry is
greater at this time than in any other.
The Citrus Industry does not subscribe
to the theory advanced by professional
pessimists or chronic crape hangers
that the industry has gone to the dem-
nition bow-wows and that nothing short
of a major operation will cure our ills.
Rather, we believe that the industry,
ill though it may be, will solve its own
difficulties and cure its own ailments
through its own efforts. In bringing
about this recovery, the trade associa-
tion will, we believe, play a major and
an important part.
In summing up the situation as re-
gards the business situation, Mr. Feiker
"In a nut shell, it may be said that
we have two camps of thought: One
believing that force must be brought
to bear to change or to direct the ma-
chinery of trades and industries; and
the other that the machinery in trades
and industries will not change the eco-
nomic laws, and that the sure, and in
the long run the better method, is the
slower process of education."

Page 4


That Mr. Feiker himself is inclined
to the second viewpoint, is shown by a
further quotation from his address:
"To me the most practical angle to
a stabilization program is the emerg-
ence of the idea of deeper significance
of commercial research in its relation
to American industry and trade. Be-
hind the curtain of immediate prob-
lems of business is a junk pile of worn-
out and obsolete methods. The only
approach to turning this junk pile of
waste into savings for the customer,
wages for labor and capital, and profit
for the manager is through organized
commercial research."
So far as the citrus industry of Flor-
ida is concerned, we have now the set-
up of an organization planned and put
into operation for the specific purposes
suggested by Mr. Feiker-the educa-
tion of those concerned with the wel-
fare of the industry through commer-
cial research and the dissemination of
such findings to the members of the in-
dustry. The Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association was cre-
ated to achieve for the industry in
Florida just those things so urgently
stressed by Mr. Feiker education
based upon commercial research.
Few indeed among the citrus grow-
ers of Florida, we believe, are in sym-
pathy with the thought that force must
be used to direct the machinery of the
industry. Most growers, we believe,
subscribe to the doctrine that the bet-
ter method, and the only permanent re-
lief must come from a thorough under-
standing of the situation and a con-
certed effort on the part of a united in-
dustry to solve its problems in the light
of facts ascertained through commer-
cial research.
For the carrying out of such a pro-
gram, the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association was de-
signed. It is now functioning along the
lines suggested by Mr. Feiker for all
trade associations. If it has failed to
achieve 100 per cent. efficiency, at
least a part of such failure must be
charged to lack of that united support
to which such an effort is entitled. The
organization is here; its principles are
sound; its set-up is government ap-
proved; its workings have been on the
whole successful. What is now needed
to make the organization thoroughly
effective is the united support and co-
operation of all citrus factors. If
minor changes are needed, they can
easily be made, but the structure itself
is sound.
Let us hope that the Clearing House
may become for the citrus industry of
Florida what Mr. Feiker sees as the
ultimate word in trade associations.-
Citrus Industry.

Common Cause
Justice: "How did the accident happen?"
Student: "I was just hugging a curve."
Justice: "Yeah! that's the way most of them

November 25, 1931

Clearing House Cuts Retain

From Two to One Cent a Box
Commencing with shipments Nov. 1 the
Clearing House retain has been reduced for the
balance of the season from two cents to one
cent per box. Action making the reduction
operative was taken by the Clearing Housed
Board of Directors at its meeting Nov. 12.
The reduction of the retain was necessary in
order to enlist the support of members of the
Fruitmen's Association, as well as some other
shippers who were outside of the Clearing
House. In reducing the assessment it was de-
cided to apply it more generally than has been
the custom in the past. This season the retain
will cover truck shipments and sales, both pack-
ed and loose; and all packing done by any,
Clearing House shipper for outside shippers or
growers. The retain also covers all types of
operation regardless of volume, grade, or va-
riety, with the exception of fruit sold and de-'
livered to the canners, and culls that are not
marketed in any way.
Although new members who have recently
joined the Clearing House will materially in-
crease the tonnage, the reduction in the retain
amount will reduce somewhat the income on
which the Clearing House operates. The elimi-
nation of advertising represents the largest,
necessary retrenchment of Clearing House ac-
tivities. Inspection work also has been greatly
curtailed, although due to progress made on
standardization during the past three years
there is less need today for as detailed an in-
spection as has been the case in the past. A
good pack has "become a habit" among Clear-
ing House shippers.
Other changes have been made in the meth-)
ods of operation in order to make the Clearing
House as economical in operation as possible;
The market information issued by the Clearing
House to shipper members, for instance, is now
sent by collect wire in accordance with the,
wishes of the shippers receiving such service.
In this way the shipper members will subscribe.
only for such wire information as they feel is
necessary to their individual business. Due to'
the elimination of advertising and the curtail.
ment of inspection work it has been possible to
materially reduce the personnel of the Clearing,
House working force and to reduce as well the
salaries of employees retained.

It Still Holds Good
Florida citrus growers are a plucky and de-
termined people. Adversity and even tough
problems don't discourage them. Two years
ago, almost to a day, the Times-Union, o?
Jacksonville, gave some advice to Florida
growers. Not all of the growers read the ad-
vice; they didn't really need it for they have
followed the advice whether they read it or
Here's what the newspaper said:
"Do not sell your Florida citrus grove in'
haste. Take your time and consider any offer
well and be sure that you are getting what
your property is worthy. Remember that thd
price of Florida grove property is mounting
upward each year. The man who has,,
healthy citrus grove in Florida has a gold


Clearing House Replies to Exchange,

Appointing Committee for Conference

Members of the Clearing House, as this
issue of the News goes to press, await with in-
terest a reply from the Florida Citrus Ex-
change to the resolution presented that organ-
ization the middle of this month by the Clear-
ing House Board of Directors in answer to the
Exchange on the re-uniting of the two organ-
The Exchange early this month presented a
resolution to the Clearing House outlining
certain conditions under which that organiza-
tion would be willing to rejoin the Clearing
House. The resolution was summarized in
nine points (which are reprinted here in con-
densed form). The Clearing House in its re-
ply to the Exchange assured that organization
that it would welcome the Exchange into the
Clearing House, pointing out at the same time
that certain phases of Clearing House opera-
tion have been altered to meet changing con-
ditions and that this in itself should make it
possible for the Exchange to return to the
Clearing House ranks.
A committee was selected from the Clearing
House Board of Directors, the Committee of
Fifty and the Operating Committee and au-
thorized to discuss with the Exchange the re-
turn of that organization to the Clearing
House. On this committee are Messrs. A. M.
Tilden, O. F. Gardner, R. B. Woolfolk, W. J.
Howey, S. J. Sligh, W. H. Mouser, N. H. Vis-
sering and Manager A. M. Pratt.
The conditions under which the Exchange
has stated it would be willing to rejoin the
Clearing House differ in several respects from
those which they set forth last May as the
conditions under which they would be willing
to remain in the Clearing House. Last May
the Exchange specified that they would be
willing to continue with the Clearing House
provided the retain was reduced to not more
than 1/2c per box; "and that except by unani-
mous consent of shipper members, activities
having to do with marketing, distribution, in-
spection and advertising be discontinued."
The conditions set forth in the resolution
presented the Clearing House this month are
briefly as follows:
Four-cent advertising retain, the respective
brands or trademarks of all Clearing House
shipper members being advertised (in compe-
tition with each other);
Each marketing agency to pay for such
market information as he instructs the Clear-
ing House to send him;
* That respective marketing agencies have
the option of Clearing House, governmental,
or their own inspection service, paying for
what each receives;
That 85% of the state volume be signed
with the Clearing House;
Proration of shipments be on a basis of
signed contract holdings;
That a minimum price fixing policy be ad-
hered to;
That the business management be placed in
a Board of Directors selected by the growers;

That the Operating Committee as such be
That the activities be restricted to the
above conditions and those mutually agreed
The resolution in answer to these condi-
tions which was presented to the Exchange by
the Clearing House Board of Directors reads
as follows:
"Inasmuch as the Clearing House, under
the authority of the Board of Directors, has
already taken steps which it became evident
were necessary to carry out the spirit and in-
tent of the purposes of the Clearing House
and has thereby made it possible for a big
majority of the growers and marketing agen-
Scies outside of the Florida Citrus Exchange to
become united for the welfare of the Florida
citrus industry through the medium of the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Asso-
ciation, and
"Inasmuch as we have simplified the obliga-
tions of members and affiliated shippers and
have eliminated the features which heretofore
have been objectionable to some, to the point
where affiliation should be acceptable from a
practical standpoint to all interests involved
in the complex problem of marketing;
"We therefore hereby invite the Florida
Citrus Exchange and its grower members to
affiliate with the Clearing House in an effort
to bring about orderly competition for the
purpose of netting to the growers of Florida
the greatest returns possible under the seri-
ous existing conditions;
"And the Board feels that the Exchange
will find acceptable the modified terms, condi-
tions and contracts that have been acceptable
to the shippers and growers that have recent-
ly joined as well as our growers and shippers
that have continued their allegiance to the
Clearing House through the unsettled period
which we have successfully passed;
"Therefore, a committee has been appoint-
ed and authorized to further discuss without
reservation with the Florida Citrus Exchange
the service to be rendered by the Clearing
House to the industry, so that all marketing
factors may be brought together along such
fundamental, simple lines as may be accept-
able to those already obligated to the Clear-
ing House as well as the Florida Citrus Ex-
change and its members."

Morton to Speak on Citrus
Municipal officials of a number of Florida
towns and cities will hear something of the
citrus fruit industry when members of the
Florida League of Municipalities attend the
semi-annual convention at New Smyrna Dec.
3. Jim Morton, of Auburndale, member of the
Committee of Fifty, has been asked by the
League to deliver a talk on the citrus industry
at the convention. Morton has selected for
his subject "The Citrus Maze and the Way



THE experts are saying now
that the days of high prices for
our citrus fruit have passed.
Whether that is true or not
(and we hope it isn't) we all
should realize that production
costs must be lowered; we've
got to keep in step.

THE purchase of Glen Trees,
at materially reduced prices,
affords a convenient chance to
trim your production costs.
What is more important, the
quality of our stock has been
maintained at its customary
high level. If only quality fruit
is destined to bring satisfac-
tory returns, as marketing au-
thorities tell us, is it not impor-
tant that the trees you plant be
Glen Grown trees-the kind
that produce for you a maxi-
mum volume of high quality

BJEAR in mind, Glen Grown
And our replacement policy
assures you a 100 percent
stand. Let us quote you on your


for a copy of our new

Ieursec aint la

WY/urseries 00.



November 25, 1931

Page 5


Grapefruit Could Slow Up,

Shipment Schedule Shows
A tentative weekly shipment schedule, re-
vised to meet the estimated reduction of 10%
in this year's crop, has just been issued by
the Clearing House and is shown in the ac-
companying table. The schedule has been
worked out as a guide for growers and ship-
pers so that if they care to they may follow
the weekly movement and in so doing com-
pare it week by week with past performances.
The column of figures following the dates
of the month, represent the percentage of the
average weekly shipments during the past
eight years. In the second columns (for both
oranges and grapefruit, respectively) will be
found the schedule of shipments which it is
assumed will represent the weekly tonnage
for this season. This schedule was worked out
by applying the eight-year average percent-
ages to the estimated crop to be moved this
season. The third columns, for both oranges
and grapefruit, respectively) show actual
shipments of this season to date, all mixed
cars being reduced to their respective pro-
portions of oranges and grapefruit. The fourth
and last columns show last year's shipments
as they actually moved.
In further explanation of the table, it will
be seen, for instance, that through the week
ending Nov. 21, the movement on oranges
should be 4,256 cars. Actually the state has
shipped 2,319 cars of oranges against 5,657 a
year ago. In grapefruit, through Nov. 21, the
normal movement should be 4,158 cars.
Through Nov. 21, 3,885 cars have been ship-
ped as against 5,220 cars a year ago. In other
words, shipments are behind on the normal
orange movement 1,937 cars and 273 cars be-
hind what could be moved in grapefruit.
Analysis of the table indicates that grape-
fruit is moving out a little faster than is nec-
essary, even though still behind the schedule
that will enable the state to move the fruit
efficiently. The state got off to a late start
and there appears to be a tendency to try to
catch up. With the amount of grapefruit that
is dropping with the resulting likelihood of a
further decrease in the grapefruit estimate it
would appear that the state could afford to
ease off shipments a little more.

Muck In Dried Ponds

Makes Good Fertilizer
It's a long dry spell that brings nobody any
With ponds over Florida low as a result of
the continued dry weather, muck on their bot-
toms, particularly around the edges, is' becom-
ing accessible. Dr. R. M. Barnette, associate
chemist with the Florida Experiment Station,
suggests that citrus growers, bulb growers,
and others haul this muck onto nearby groves
and fields as fertilizer. It usually contains
from 2 to 3 percent nitrogen, when dry, he
A slightly acid condition is usually its
greatest drawback, but this is not often
enough to seriously affect the land to which
it is applied. Its value does not justify hauling
it long distances, he says.

Weekly Shipment Schedule
bo C4 Vii' C11 Id 0
a .;N aN V : E V
ri- u,. ^V 6 > 0,

Sept. 5 .--. ---- -- --- .1 21 6. 51
Sept. 12---- .- ...... .2 42 - 191
Sept. 19 -----. -- ... 3 .5 105 -... 317
Sept. 26 ---.-.... -- --. 5 .7 147 63 375
Oct. 3 .------- .1 28 ---- 6 1.1 231 134 286
Oct. 10--- .4 112 1 59 1.8 378 266 543
Oct. 17 ----..... .8 224 15 393 2.3 483 470 511
Oct. 24 -- 1.2 336 130 855 2.2 462 697 373
Oct. 31 ..------ 2.0 560 246 1008 2.6 546 567 656
Nov. 7 -------- 2.8 784 258 1140 3.3 693 354 759
Nov. 14 ...----- 3.8 1064 640 1125 2.6 546 654 593
Nov. 21----.- 4.1 1148 -- 1063 2.4 504 565
Nov. 28 .----..------ 4.3 1204 -. 871 3.4 714 --.--- 584
Dec. 5 6 5.5 1540 --2- 1520 3.0 630 899
Dec. 12 --.......... 6.2 1736 .....- 1910 2.5 525 811
Dec. 19.-------- 2.4 672 1192 1.5 315 471
Dec. 26 .---- .-. 2.2 616 620 1.8 378 ..... 384
Jan. 2 ..----.---. 4.6 1288 ..-- 1396 3.5 735 -- 859
Jan. 9 -..-... 3.8 1064 1038 3.1 651 771
Jan. 16.-------- 3.1 868 ..-- 1123 2.9 609 -- 759
Jan. 23 1------- 3.1 868 1324 3.1 651 956
Jan. 30 ------. 3.9 1092 .- 1707 3.5 735 --- 1111
Feb. 6 ----.-------- 4.0 1120 _... 1689 3.4 714 1044
Feb. 13 ----------.. 3.8 1064 -- 1541 3.6 756 ---- 1017
Feb. 20 .------ 4.0 1120 ..--- 1566 3.9 819 1101
Feb. 27 -------- 3.6 1008 1530 3.5 735 ------ 985
Mar. 5 ----- 3.4 952 ...... 1227 3.5 735 1056
Mar. 12. 3.2 896 1246 3.8 798 --- 1321
Mar. 19. ---- 3.0 840 1312 3.4 714 1114
Mar. 26 ----------- 3.0 840 -. 1322 3.3 693 .... 1066
Apr. 2 ------------. 2.8 784 ------ 827 3.7 777 1119
Apr. 9 .2------ 2.6 728 817 3.5 735 --- 1167
Apr. 16 -------- 2.1 588 .. 862 2.7 567 831
Apr. 23 -------. 2.2 616 .. 989 2.8 588 -- 1096
Apr. 30.-------- 1.9 532 1283 2.5 525 ...... 1014
May 7 -------- 1.6 448 ---- 1088 2.3 483 1094
May 14 ------ 1.3 364 725 2.0 420 850
May 21 -----.----- 1.1 308 779 1.4 294 416
May 28 .--------- .9 252 ---- 643 1.1 231 -- 461
June 4 ----.--- .5 140 .. 408 .7 147 399
June 11 --.-------- .4 112 ..- 314 .4 84 --- 202
June 18 ---.... .2 56 .. 209 .2 42 123
June 25 ------- .1 28 84 .1 21 .. 50
July 2 .---. 1- --- --.. 13 20
July 9 ----- -- 6 .1 21 19
July 16. ---2... ..... 2 12
Total ..--- .... 100% 28000 38840 100% 21000 30402
I10/ 10 00

Stink Bugs Seek Citrus As

Drouth Hurts Cover Crop
The stink bug situation is becoming serious
in many citrus groves because much dry
weather has caused them to leave the cover
crop and attack the fruit, explains J. R. Wat-
son, entomologist with the Florida Experi-
ment Station.
Mowing the cover crop now would only
make matters worse. The bugs prefer the
cover crop blooms to citrus, but over most of
the citrus belt Crotalaria striata has stopped
blooming and in many cases has dropped its
pods. In such cases the bugs will be forced
to go to the citrus for food. They will suck
the juice from the ripening fruit and cause
it to fall quickly. Even if the fruit is ripe,
molds and rots are likely to set in where the
fruit is punctured and prevent it from going
to market.
At this time of the year the bugs prefer
Satsumas, Parson Browns, Tangerines, and
Pineapple oranges. It is unusual for them to

do much damage to Valencias and grapefruit.
No satisfactory spray has been found to
control these bugs. Even if there were a safe
spray, Mr. Watson says it is much cheaper to
collect the bugs in pans or nets and kill them
with kerosene. He suggests a muslin cloth net
about three feet in diameter and on a long
handle. The bugs should be shaken off into
the net and the net dipped into kerosene. By
such a method the bugs in an average grove
can be collected at a cost of about three dol-
lars per acre, he said.
There is little danger of stink bug damage
if the cover crop is Crotalaria spectabilis. In
most cases it has about ripened its seed and
there are no stink bugs on it.

A gushing hostess at an evening party rush-
ed up to George Bernard Shaw and asked him
what he thought of a new violinist she had dis-
covered and who had played that evening.
"He reminds me of Paderewski," comment-
ed G. B. S.
"But Paderewski is not a violinist."
"Just so, just so," came Shaw's reply.

Page 6

November 25, 1931


Packing Houses of Shipper Members

For the convenience of our grower-members we are listing below, alphabetically by cities,
packing houses of our present shipper members.
Alturas W. H. Mouser & Co.
American Fruit Growers, Inc. Patterson Pkg. Co. (Chase & Company).
Southern Fruit Distrs., Inc. Lake Wales

American Fruit Growers, Inc.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Browder-Fowler Co.
R. W. Burch, Inc.
DeSoto Packing Co., Inc.
Welles Fruit & Live Stock Co.
Avon Park
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
G. & J. Maxcy.
L. Maxcy, Inc.
Adams Packing Co.
Babson Park
Babson Park C.G.A. (W. H. Mouser & Co.)
Alexander & Baird Co.
Blanton Citrus Growers, Inc.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
L. Maxcy, Inc.
David Bilgore & Co.
Clearwater Citrus Co.
Oakhurst Fruit Co.
Richardson-Marsh Corp.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Nevins Fruit Co.
Crescent City
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
W. H. Mouser & Co.
Dade City
David Bilgore & Co.
Holly Hill Fruit Products Co.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Alexander & Baird Co.
DeLeon Springs
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Chase & Company.
J. M. Mitchell (David Bilgore & Co.)
R. D. Keene & Co.
Fellsmere Growers, Inc. (American Fruit
Growers, Inc.)
J. W. Keen & Son, Inc.
L. Maxcy, Inc.
Ft. Meade
Richardson-Marsh Corp.
Ft. Myers
Lee County Packing Co.
Ft. Pierce
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Haines City
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Highland City
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Vaughn-Griffin Pkg. Co.
Isleworth (Windermere)
Chase & Company
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Lady Lake
S. A. Fields & Co.
Lake City
R. W. Burch, Inc.
Lake Jem
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Lake Placid
Lake Placid C. G. A. (Chase & Company).
Chandler-Davis Co.
L. E. Ellis ,
Lakeland Growers, Inc. (American Fruit
Growers, Inc.)

Hills Bros. Co. of Florida. .
Lake Wales Fruit Pkrs., Inc. (American
Fruit Growers, Inc.)
Tower City Pkg. Co. (J. W. Keen & Son,
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
S. A. Fields & Co.
A. S. Herlong & Co.
Lake Weir Pkg. Co. (L. Maxcy, Inc.)
E. B. Peter.
S. J. Sligh & Co.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Chase & Company.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
New Smyrna
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Chase & Company.
Nocatee Pkg. Co. (American Fruit
Growers, Inc.)
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Richardson-Marsh Corp.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Chester C. Fosgate Co.
C. A. Marsh, Inc.
W. H. Mouser & Co.
Richardson-Marsh Corp.
S. J. Sligh & Co.
Southern Fruit Distrs., Inc.
Nelson & Co., Inc.
Lake Charm Fruit Co.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
W. H. Mouser & Co.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
D: M. Courtney.
Four Friends Pkg. Co. (C. A. Marsh, Inc.)
E. C. McLean.
Peerless Fruit Co.
Alexander & Baird Co.
Plant City
R. W. Burch, Inc.
Florida Mixed Car Co.
Chase & Company.
Gregg Maxcy.
David Bilgore & Co.
South Tampa
Moss Packing Company.
Sulphur Springs
Florida Mixed Car Co.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Hills Bros. Co. of Florida.
Moss Packing Company.
Terra Ceia
Terra Ceia C. G. A.
Terra Ceia Island
E. C. McLean.
Nevins Fruit Co.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Vero Beach
Nevins Fruit Co.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.

Alexander & Baird Co.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
L. Maxcy, Inc.
Waverly C. G .A.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
West Frostproof
West Frostproof Pkg. & Can. Co. (Ameri-
can Fruit Growers, Inc.)
Monarch Orange Co. (American Fruit
Growers, Inc.)
Winter Garden
R. D. Keene & Co.
B. H. Roper
S. J. Sligh & Co.
Southern Fruit Distrs., Inc.
Winter Haven
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Belle Ridge Fruit Co. (L. Maxcy, Inc.)
Chase & Company.
Wm. G. Roe & Co.
Winter Haven Imperial Fruit Co.
Winter Park
Winter Park Land Co.

The Grower's Voice
Under this heading will be published communications
from grower members of the Clearing House Associa-
tion, who desire to voice opinions upon matters of gen-
eral interest to Florida citrus growers. The Association
cannot assume responsibility for opinions expressed in
these letters, but believes growers should have the op-
portunity of expressing themselves if willing to assume
the responsibility. Communications should be as brief
as possible-preferably not more than 250 words in
length--and MUST be signed with the writer's name and
address (although not necessarily for publication.)

Minneapolis, Minn.,
November 18, 1931.
Florida Clearing House News,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Our grove is under the direction of Mr.
.....-......-,- and he is co-operating with the
Clearing House Association.
The reason I am writing you is the market-
ing of Florida fruit in Minnesota.
This year it has been next to impossible to
buy Florida fruit, except in cans. The gro-
ceries all feature Texas fruit. The other day,
at Witt's, the largest and most exclusive
grocer here, I asked for Florida fruit and was
told "it's not so good as Texas fruit. We can't
sell it in competition with Texas fruit."
Now this is serious. If this condition exists
here it exists in other places. To my mind the
Texas fruit has a decided lemon taste and can-
not begin to compare in flavor with a tree-
ripened Florida grapefruit. Texas groves are
paying better returns when compared with
same age trees and acreage of Florida groves.
I know for I have talked with Texas grove
In place of fighting each other the Florida
grove owners and marketing organizations
must get together; put aside petty jealousy, or
else take second place in the citrus industry
and have the value of groves depreciate ac-
cordingly. It is even now apparent that a
Texas grove fifteen years old pays better and
is valued higher in the real estate market.
I realize I am a non-resident grove owner,
and not supposed to know all the conditions,
but I want to know why Texas is pushing
Florida off the map in Minnesota.
Yours truly,
(Signed) Clifford E. Henry,

November 25, 1931

Page 7


Careful Picking and Handling of Fruit

Pays Dividends by Cutting Down Decay
By E. F. DeBusk, Extension Citriculturist

The amount of money annually lost to
Florida citrus growers from decay of fruit is
enormous. Dr. Fawcett says, "It has been
found by many experiments that a large part
of this decay may be avoided by the careful
picking, packing and shipping of fruit."
Florida fruit keeps well when properly
handled. The rind is comparatively thin and
the fruit is very juicy; consequently must be
handled carefully to avoid decay. Those han-
dling our fruit should always bear in mind
that the rind is the natural seal against the
organisms that cause decay. If this rind is
broken by any kind of rough handling the
chances are seven to ten that the wound will
result in decay before the fruit is consumed.
It seems needless to repeat at this time
what has been said over and over again about
the importance of handling our fruit careful-
ly, but it has been noted that when fruit is
cheap there is a tendency to handle it with
less care. This is perhaps only a psychological
reaction. It is obvious that present conditions
demand the greatest of care in picking, han-
dling and grading our fruit to keep decay
losses reduced to the minimum and to with-
hold from the markets all decaying and doubt-
ful fruit.
The first thing to do in improving the pick-
ing is to supply pickers with the type of clip-
per with which they can do the best work. A
competent, energetic picking foreman should
be employed. Crews should not be too large
for the foreman to exercise a certain amount
of personal supervision over each picker. In
arranging the scale of wages for picking, an
incentive for quality work should be provid-
ed. The picking foreman should inspect every
day a few boxes picked by each man in his
crew to determine the quality of his picking.
It has been found that improvement results
from paying a picker a bonus per box based
on the percentage of defects in his picking.
Artificial coloring in the early part of the
shipping season brings out practically all of
the fruit blemishes. The more intense bruises
and other wounds develop into green or
brownish green spots. Oil liberated from the
cells of the rind of the fruit by any cause pro-
duces this characteristic spotting. The liber-
ated oil spreads over the surface of the fruit
and injures it.. When the fruit is put through
the coloring process the injured spots either
remain green or turn to a brownish green.
Fruits so affected are in great danger of de-
cay. This must be materially reduced by
more careful handling of the fruit. Fruit
should not be picked soon after a rain or while
the dew is on it. The rain makes the fruit
more turgid and renders it more susceptible
to injuries.
The condition of the field boxes is an im-
portant factor in keeping down decay. Old
field boxes are frequently repaired by com-
mon laborers with little skill at driving nails
and often with less thought as to the damage

protruding nails may do to the fruit. In a
poorly supervised packing house it was found
that 32% of the field boxes contained from
one to four protruding nails each. It so hap-
pened that these boxes were being filled twice
a day. It is easy to see what a careless prac-
tice may mean in loss of fruit and reputation
as well.
In grading the fruit in the packing house
extreme care should be exercised in an effort
to cull out every fruit, the rind of which has
been broken or otherwise subjected to decay.
Everyone knows that ten decayed oranges in
a box of two hundred arriving on a weak mar-
ket lowers the selling price much more than
the 5 % of fruit actually lost. The reputation
of the other 190 oranges in the same box is
Considerable decay often results from the
use of an extreme bulge pack. The pack should
not be made so high that the fruit must be
crushed or bruised in nailing the covers on the
boxes. It is still too common upon opening
boxes of fruit at the markets to see the blue
and green mold decays more prevalent near
the ends and the middle of the top layer. A
good tight pack with a medium bulge, in which
no fruit is injured in putting on the top, will
carry better than a pack with a three to four
inch bulge.
The movement of fruit to the markets by
trucks presents many new problems. Very few
of the men in so handling our fruit are ex-
perienced in the least and have any concep-
tion whatever of the.importance of careful
handling. True this fruit takes the short
route to the consumer which is an important
factor in reducing losses through the decay.
But even then too much of the fruit is crush-
ed and bruised by being loaded in deep truck
bodies and filled to the top without any parti-
tion or other arrangement for protecting the
fruit from the pressure of the deep load or
pitching to and fro of the truck on rough
roads. The speaker has seen truck loads of
tangerines leaving a stream of juice on the
road from the crushed condition of the fruit.
Decay is bound to develop under such condi-
tions of handling fruit before it can be con-
Aside from the quality of the fruit and the
supply in relation to the demand, the larg-
est factor which determines the price paid by
the wholesaler or jobber is the amount of de-
cay in the fruit upon its arrival on the mar-
ket. Fruit with a considerable percentage of
decay arriving on even a fair market usually
sells for less than the amount of the picking,
packing and transportation charges. The pre-
vention of this great annual toll exacted of
the Florida citrus industry can be accomplish-
ed only by constant vigilance in the handling
of the fruit from the time it leaves the tree
until it reaches the consumer. We must sat-
isfy the consumer before we can hope to re-
ceive his repeat orders.

Shipper-Members of Association
The shippers named herewith are members of the
Florida Gitrus Growers Clearing House Association and
are the ONLY members of this organization. In fairness
to these shippers who are supporting the Clearing House,
grower-members should urge their neighbors to join and
ship through one of these operators.

Adams Packing Co., Inc.---------.. Auburndale
Alexander & Baird Co., Inc .-----.-..Beresford
American Fruit Growers, Inc.. .-- ---. Orlando
Bilgore, David & Co.----.------------------ Clearwater
Blanton Citrus Growers, Inc. .-- -----. Blanton
Browder-Fowler Fruit Co.----....------.Arcadia
Burch, R. W., Inc--.......-.-------- Plant City
Chandler-Davis Co. ---------- Lakeland
Chase Citrus Sub-Exchange--------......-Sanford
Clearwater Citrus Co .------ -..------.Clearwater
Courtney, D. M. ____ ---.----------. Palmetto
DeSoto Packing Co., Inc.. ---- ______-- Arcadia
Ellis, L. E......----.............. ------..............Lakeland
Fields, S. A. & Co....-----.----------.. Leesburg
Florida Mixed Car Co. --------_____. Plant City
Fosgate, Chester C. Co.....-------..----- Orlando
Herlong, A. S. & Co. .. -----------Leesburg
Hills Brothers Co. of Florida, The..-..-Tampa
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc..--- Davenport
Keen, J. W.._ _____....---------------- Frostproof
Keene, R. D. & Co. -------------- Eustis
Lake Charm Fruit Co. .- ---------Oviedo
Lee County Packing Co.------_. .Fort Myers
Marsh, C. A., Inc. ----------------------- Orlando
Maxcy, G. -------------- Sebring
Maxcy, L., Inc..-----------------_-. Frostproof
McLean, E. C. ----------- Palmetto
Moss Packing Co. .----.------------------- Tampa
Mouser, W. H. & Co..---------. Orlando
Nelson & Co., Inc. ......-------------------.... Oviedo
Nevins Fruit Co. ---------- Titusville
Oakhurst Fruit Co., Inc. .-------- Clearwater
Peerless Fruit Co., Inc.. ----- ...------ Palmetto
Peter, E. B. ------------ Leesburg
Richardson-March Corp. ...------------Orlando
Roe, Wm. G. & Co., Inc. ----. Winter Haven
Roper, B. H. __----Winter Garden
Sligh, S. J. & Co ..----....-----------...... Orlando
Southern Fruit Distributors, Inc. Orlando
Terra Ceia Citrus Growers Assn. --Terra Ceia
Vaughn-Griffin Packing Company--
................... Howey-in-the-Hills
Waverly Citrus Growers Assn-...._---__- Waverly
Wells Fruit & Live Stock Co.................----Arcadia
Winter Haven Imperial Fruit Co. _.----
------------ Winter Haven
Winter Park Land Co............-----Winter Park

Affiliated With Other Shipper Members
Babson Park Citrus Growers Assn ..---
------------ Babson Park
Belle Ridge Fruit Co., Inc. --...Winter Haven
Citrus Grove Development Company, The
------------ Babson Park
Fellsmere Growers, Inc ...----------... Fellsmere
Lakeland Co., Inc., The --------... Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc..- Lake Wales
Mitchell, J. M. ------------------- Elf ers
Nocatee Packing Co., Inc. .-----Nocatee
Valrico Growers, Inc.._------.--------. Valrico
West Frostproof Packing & Canning Co. --
---------- West Frostproof

Cold Wave Hits California
(Continued from Page One)
I would not size up the damage as general. The
percentage damaged will probably be slight as
the Weather Bureau is well organized and
closely co-operating with all packing interests
so that warnings of impending cold weather
are usually given in time so that growers can
protect themselves, providing they have al-
ready laid in their oil supply and heaters."

Theatre Attendant: "I shall have to ask you
to leave if you persist in hissing the perform-
ers, sir."
Smithers: "Hissing! I w-w-was s-s-simply
s-s-saying that the s-s-singing was s-s-superb."

November 25, 1931

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