Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00062
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: April 25, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00062
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

0. Stine, ,
Bu au of Agri. Economics I
Wa hington, D. 0. FLO I


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit

$2.00 a Year
10 Cents a Copy

Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Association,
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven. Fla.


APRIL 25, 1931

U. S. Postage
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1


Official Publication of the

Entered as second-class matter August 31,
1928, at the postoffce at Winter Haven.
Florida, under the Act of March S. 1879.

Volume III
Number 14

.Fewer Offerings At

Auction Are Noted

In Season's Record

New York Leads Other Mar-
kets With Average of $3.29
-Low Is $2.85

The Clearing House has kept a
- running record of the accumulated
average at each auction market by
- varieties. Through the week ending
April 17 the nine auction markets
- sold 12,942 cars of oranges at a gen-
eral average of $3.19 delivered.
"New York tops them all at a sea-
son's average of $3.29. Boston is
Next at $3.17. Philadelphia and Chi-
cago tie at $3.16, Cleveland at
$3.06, Pittsburgh at $2.98, Cincin-
nati at $2.96, St. Louis at $2.86,
Sand Detroit at $2.85.
Fewer Auction Offerings
These figures show that 41%/ of
the total orange movement, includ-
ing proper proportion of mixed cars,
has been auctioned in these nine big
markets in contrast with 46% auc-
Stioned in these same markets last
year. This speaks well for the dis-
Atribution of the crop. The Clearing
House has consistently endeavored
'to help its shippers guard against
over-loading the auction markets
and see the need of selling in a big
crop year every car they could in
Private sale markets as big crop
years always tend to have auction
Returns net considerably less money
to the grower than private sales.
The season's average on grape-
Sfruit in all auction markets for the
week ending April 17 is $2.61. Chi-
cago leads with an average of $2.70,
then New York $2.66, Boston $2.59,
.Detroit $2.55, Philadelphia $2.54,
Pittsburgh $2.53, Cleveland $2.51,
aCincinnati $2.49 and St. Louis
Fair Average Difficult
Our grower-members naturally al-
Sways want to transpose these auc-
tion prices to what they mean in net
.returns on the tree on an average
to the grower. Because of the bear-
ling freight rates not only from the
same point in Florida to the differ-
e nt auction markets but because of
the bearing freight rates from the
different points in Florida to the
(Continued on Page Four)

More Accurate Crop Estimate

One of Industry's Big Needs

The Clearing House again has em-
phasized in every way possible the
necessity of dependable estimates,
and has shown the crying need ex-
isting in Florida for more compre-
hensively and accurately determin-
ing the total crop figures covering
oranges, grapefruit and tangerines,
but Florida is far from perfection in
this respect. It is true scattered
properties make it far more difficult
to estimate than in California where
practically all citrus groves are ad-
jacent in their various groups. It is
also true that the non-bearing acre-
age and those groves that are young
and increasing in volume make it
more difficult to estimate the Flor-
ida crop than in California where
their groves are "settled" and one
knows what to count on because of
their maturity. We are still young
and unaccountable in comparison.
Managers' Responsibility
On the other hand, it is time that
Florida growers and shippers recog-
nize the necessity of more efficient-
ly, honestly, and accurately meeting
this need of dependable estimates.
It never will be met accurately until
every packing house manager and
field man intelligently assumes the
full responsibility that is his in
knowing absolutely what he has to
handle not only at the first of the
season but from time to time as an
estimate is called for. The packing
house manager, or foreman, or field
man that is so indifferent as not to
be thoroughly familiar with each
grove that he is picking, and that
does not care enough to keep his
record right up to date so that he
knows what he actually must han-
dle, has no right to fill the job.he is
occupying. Nor has he any right to
fill such a job if he does not recog-
nize the necessity of telling the ab-
solute truth so far as he knows it
when asked for such information by
his superior.
Crop estimates are vital. There is
no more vital need in Florida today
than accurately knowing ahead of
time the job that we are supposed
to handle intelligently. If every
packing house manager was under
such discipline or had such loyalty
as to tackle this end of his job in

dead earnest by personally assuming
the responsibility of knowing that
every grove he handled was sized up
as to crop conditions, not by looking
at it from the automobile, but by
physically going through it and see-
ing these conditions, there would
then be the right beginning for ac-
curate crop estimates.
Must Know His Groves
This fundamental need should be
so keenly sensed as to make every
man responsible for such data in
every packing unit realize that the
measurement of his efficiency or
worth in dollars and cents was just
as dependent upon his absolute
familiarity with his individual prop-
erties that he was responsible for,
as for his getting additional volume,
holding growers in line, and other
similar duties, and there are many.
The Clearing House has been
struggling with this estimate prob-
lem. All of its difficulties are not
entirely due to deliberate misrepre-
sentation. This temptation tends to
be self-corrected, as the shipper who
deliberately over-estimated is held
up for ridicule before his fellow
shippers when the actual shipments
are put against his estimates. The
system followed by the Clearing
House in openly showing to all of
its shipper-members such contrast-
ing facts is an element of discipline
that is helpful. This element of dis-
cipline must go still deeper, right
back to the individual packing unit,
and the same system followed where
there will be keen rivalry on the
part of each packing house head in
attempting to show that he does
know what he is talking about by
his actual shipments at the end of
the season as against his black and
white figures at the beginning.
Preposterous Figures
To be more specific, we received
from our shipper-members an esti-
mate as of Oct. 10. Applying the
cars shipped to date of our mem-
bers against this estimate, our mem-
bers would have left to move from
this time on 9,137 cars of oranges
and 11,833 cars of grapefruit.
Whereas, we all know this is easily
(Continued on Page Four)

Directors Prepare


For Maturity Law

Clearing House Advocating
Several Changes, Including
Cannery Standards

The Clearing House Board of
Directors, mindful of the general
demand for a "better green fruit
law," has been giving careful con-
sideration during the past few
months to the possible enactment of
such a law as will meet the needs
of the industry. The question has
been debated hotly by practically
all groups allied with the industry.
As in most questions of paramount
interest there are three groups-
those who believe the present law is
too severe, those who believe it not
severe enough, and those who feel
that it is serving the needs of the
industry. As a matter of fact, there
really are four viewpoints on the
subject of green fruit legislation,
and it is somewhat toward the view-
point of the fourth group that the
Clearing House Directors lean. This
is the attitude that radical change
from the present maturity standards
in either direction might be unwise
in that there are few if any indi-
viduals in the state in a position to
actually know just how far from a
scientific standpoint, we should go
in attempting to better our present
Working Along Two Lines
Although the Clearing House is
not taking this viewpoint exclusive-
ly, it is working toward a solution
which should answer the purposes
until thorough and comprehensive
information can be obtained indicat-
ing the kind of a law that will be
best. The manner of going about
this solution might, be said to be
from a two-angle l4asis; the Clear-
ing House Directors have determin-
ed upon certain recommendations
(which are practicAlly in line with
the more conservative, recommenda-
tions for changes). While the Com-
mittee of Fifty has shouldered the
task of seeing to it that no radical
changes "either up or down" are
The Clearing House Directors'
recommendations are similar to
(Continued on Page Four)



Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending April 25, 1931)

Apr. 25
Florida Oranges Shipped........ 862
Total....--......------------ 25793
Florida Grapefruit Shipped.... 970
Total--...........................--------- 27777
Florida Tangerines Shipped.... 1
Total..--..................-------------. 3055
Florida Mixed Shipped...----. 237
Total ..........-------------13580
California Oranges Shipped.... 1150

Apr. 25, 29


Florida Oranges Auctioned.... 428 392 138 488
Average ........----------- $3.75 $3.80 $7.05 $3.59
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned 367 451 191 289
Average ......---.--- ...----. $2.55 $2.50 $4.79 $3.16
Florida Tangerines Auctioned .--- -.- -- .
-Average..-... --..-. ......---- .-
Califbrnia Oranges Auctioned' 494 505 445 422
Average-..--....-------------. $3.15 $3.10 $6.12 $4.11

Oranges No. 1 Oranees No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Apr. 18------........ 247 95 $2.88 188 77 $2.64
38% 41%
Apr. 25 ............ 284 119 $2.95 193 86 $2.70
42% 44%0
Difference..........+37 +24 +.07 +5 +9 +.06

Grapefruit No. 1 Grapefruit No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Apr. 18.................. 84 31 $1.70 145 58 $1.54
37 % 40 %
Apr. 25 ........--- .. 84 18 $1.77 199 67 $1.55
21% 34%
Difference---.......... -13 +.07 +54 +9 +.01
Grapefruit No. 1 Grapefruit No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Apr. 18 --.......--- 63 41 $2.23 77 44 $1.95
65% 57%
Apr. 25.................. 98 44 $2.32 104 58 $2.01
45% 56%
Difference..........+35 +3 +.09 +27 +14 +.06


Week Last
Ending Year
April 18.......... 44
April 25.......... 10
May 2............. 7

Week Last
Ending Year
April 18.......... 1525
April 25.......... 1422
May 2.............. 1175

Week Last
Ending Year
April 18.......... 110
April 25......... 23
May 2.............. 24

Week Last
.Ending Year
April 18.......... 82
April 25......... 28
May 2............. 8

Florida Oranges
1928- 1927- 1926-
29 28 27
684 230 455
1247 221 322
1046 150 272

California Oranges
1928- 1927- 1926-
29 28! 27
1683 1400 1950
1701 1176 1883
1958 902 1816

Florida Grapefruit
1928- 1927- 1926-
29 28 27
734 415 518
796 379 492
717 404 455

Florida Mixed
1928- 1927. 1926-
29 28 27
204 105 153
302 81 90
257 67 101




No Rcrd.
No Rcrd.
No Rcrd.

Apr. 18


Apr. 25, '30


What's Left In Grapefruit
Our shippers' estimate of 5648
cars at first seemed staggering but,
when it is recognized in what heavy
proportion grapefruit is going into
culls and the waste that is coming
from dropping, the Operating Com-
mittee at their meeting April 24,
were in accord in believing that the
estimate as turned in could be heav-
ily discounted when figuring on the
actual cars that will move forward
from now on. Some of the members
of the Operating Committee figured
there would not be much over 3000
cars that would be shipped and none
of them estimated the total state
movement from this time on at over
5000 cars.
Using the previous estimate we
had of the total crop of grapefruit
as 28,500 cars and adding in the
proper proportion of mixed with the
straight cars of grapefruit moved
to date, there would be left just
3000 cars in the state. After talking
over this grapefruit estimate from
many different angles with several
of our shippers my own conviction
is that 5000 cars from April 26 on
is about what will be shipped. That
means that after next week there
will be only 4000 cars left as every-
thing points to a heavy movement in
grapefruit this coming week (end-
ing May 2). You will notice the es-
timate shows 1000 straight cars of
grapefruit and adding 30% of the
mixed would make an estimated
movement of 1075 cars for the week
ending May 2.
Just to visualize the movement,
let's assume that for the week end-
ing May 9th, 1000 cars moved, May
16th, 750; May 23, 750, then on
the week ending May 30th, 600 cars.
This would have marketed 4175
cars, leaving 450 cars for the week
ending June 7 and 375 for the week
ending June 13 to make a total car-
lot movement of 5000 cars in the
next seven weeks.
Storage For Summer Market
There is a possibility of extending
the marketing period for several
weeks longer than indicated in the
above schedule by selecting careful-
ly that grapefruit which can be held
in cold storage and distributing it
from the middle of June to the first
of August. It is true that canta-
loupes are going to be coming on
the market but they will.not reach
their peak movement until about
May 25 when our grapefruit move-
ment probably will be about half as
much as present shipments. Straw-
berries of course also affect grape-
fruit and the hazard of storage can-
not be ignored any more than the
chance of selling on a much higher
market exists for that fruit which
could be stored successfully from a
keeping standpoint. By May 9 cer-
tainly the last of the common grape-
fruit that is being forced on account
of its condition into the packing
houses should have been picked.
What's Left In Oranges
Our shippers' estimate indicates
4800 cars left in oranges. Assuming
this represents 80%, this would
mean 6000 cars to move from now
on from the state. This checks up

very closely to our previous figure
we were working on of the esti-
mated total state crop of 39,500
cars, of which 33,420 (including
proper proportion of mixed) have
been shipped, leaving 6080 cars. We
have estimated next week's move-.,
ment as 1000 straight cars of or-
anges and 250 mixed which would
make the orange movement, includ-
ing 70% of the mixed, 1175 cars.
Let's assume for the week ending
May 9th a movement of 1000 cars,"
the same for May 16th, then 950,
then 850 ending May 30th, leaving
600 cars to move for the week end-
ing June 7 and 425 cars for the
week ending June 13. This would
cover the shipment of 6000 cars es-
timated. Some of our shippers think
this 6000 estimate for the state is&
too high.
Good Valencia Market
The Valencia market is in good
shape, especially compared with Cal-
ifornia prices. The auction average
this week on 428 cars sold at the
nine auctions was $3.75 delivered,.
which is 15c more per box than
what Valencias sold for two years
ago and 60c a box more than what
California sold for this week. Cali-
fornia's average this week at auc-
tion of $3.15 is $1.00 per box less
than what California sold for two
years ago. From a cost of produc-,
tion standpoint, California's average
is $1.10 less than our Florida return-
on this week's auction showing.
California's Low Prices
Why California should be selling
$1.00 less than two years ago and
Florida selling for 15c and 25c more
than two years ago and why Califor-
nia should be selling for so much,
less money than Florida still con-
tinues to be asked. Apparently we
haven't got used to being in such
good relative position. Turning to a
letter dated April 11 from a friend
in California, it reads as follows:
"Navels are still arriving sound
and giving good satisfaction and
with weather conditions rather
favorable for last week, no good
reason for the price condition can
be given except over-supply. More
fruit will no doubt be moved this
week but it is hoped the peak of
arrivals has passed and that the
supplies available will slowly de-
crease through the sale of a suf-
ficient number of cars a week to
more than compensate for ship-
From the above statement it
seems that California shippers all
agree that the fruit is giving good
satisfaction and explain the low
prices only by over-supply.
A superior inside merit of Florida
oranges possibly has been recog-
nized this year as never before.
On top of this there has been a
wider distribution of Florida or-
anges than ever before. Notwith-
standing our having the biggest crop
ever produced, only 41% of the or-
anges have so far been sold at auc-
tion as compared with 46% last
year. And, by the way, grapefruit
shows a still more remarkable dis-
(Continued on Page Four)










Page 2

April 25, 1931


Cover Crops in Citrus Groves

And Their Relation to Insects

SBy J. R. WATSON, been calling it. This is particularly
Entomologist, Florida Experiment Station.
r (Radio Address Over Station WRUF) a pest of the early spring growth.
This is the season when the citrus There is a fungus which sometimes
Grower is beginning to give thought does good work late in the aphid
to the subject of a summer cover season, and of course a good cover
,crop in his grove, crop will be a help to this fungus.
Much has been said and written A cover crop in a citrus grove is a
concerning the beneficial results, help to combat aphids in another
from the fertilizer standpoint, of a way. Since these aphids commonly
cover crop in citrus groves, but not do serious damage only during the
so much has been said about the early spring, a summer cover crop
relation of this cover crop to insect is of course of little use. But there
damage and the production of first are certain crops which could be
-quality fruit. Yet, a cover crop has planted during the winter time
an important bearing in this respect. which will breed other species of
'Perhaps the most important effect aphids, but not the citrus aphid.
of a cover crop is through its en- Aphids are commonly preyed upon
:' couragement of the growth of the by many different kinds of lady-
entomogenous fungi, the fungi beetles and syrphus flies. These also
which destroy injurious insects, attack the citrus aphid so that the
Moisture Condition Retained presence of these other aphids in a
The reason for this is probably citrus grove offers considerable pro-
that it keeps the conditions in the section against the citrus aphid.
tree more moist. Our hot summer Among the winter cover crops which
.sun reflected from the bare sand in will serve this purpose are oats, rye,
a clean cultivated citrus grove raises Australian winter peas, and Vetch.
the temperature and dries out the They are all more or less attacked
interior of a citrus tree, making by different kinds of aphids, but not
,conditions less favorable for these the citrus aphid. However, these
fungi. In other words, it acts some- ladybeetles, syrphus flies, and other
S-what like a mirror in that respect. predators, congregate on these cover
I will not have time to go into any crops during the winter and as the
lengthy discussion of the role of latter die down in early spring these
these entomogenous fungi in de- predators will turn their attention
Sstroying insect pects of citrus. That to any citrus aphids which may be
will be taken up at other times. on the trees. I am well aware that
I wish to call your attention to the soil in most citrus groves is not
the fact that rust-mites are often adapted to the growing of these
,4ery effectively controlled by a fun- winter cover crops, but those who
gus disease. It is well known that have groves in better water-holding
oranges grown in a low, moist situa- soils, particularly the growers of
tion, particularly where there is Satsumas in the northern part of
more or less shade, such as in some the state, might well give more
of our hammocks, are usually bright thought to the growing of a winter
as far as rust-mite discolorations cover crop.
are concerned. Indeed, in some of What Cover Crop?
*these hammock groves, it is very The next question that we grow-
seldom necessary to take any meas- ers are considering is what cover
lires against rust-mites. The nearer crop? Now, in reckoning the advis-
we can come to producing these ability of any cover crop, it is essen-
hammock conditions in groves in tial that it must not breed any pests
more exposed situations, the less which are liable to attack citrus.
trouble we will have with rust-mites. Fortunately the main pests of citrus
It has long been observed that trees, i. e., whitefly, scale insects,
'groves with a good cover crop are and citrus aphis, will not breed on
less liable to be troubled with rust- any of our common cover crops.
'mites than one with a poor cover The exceptions are plant bugs. Cer-
crop during the spring and summer, tain plant bugs do breed on many
Whitefly, too, are commonly at- of our cover crops and are liable to
tacked by three species of these en- attack the fruit of the citrus tree,
tomogenous fungi. Here again there and sometimes even the branches.
are some low hammock groves The most common and destructive
"where it is seldom necessary to do of these is the Southern green stink
ny spraying for whitefly because bug, commonly called "pumpkin bug"
of the effectiveness of these fungi, in Florida, and in the Satsuma belt,
The purple scale, too, has three especially, the leaf footed plant bug.
common entomogenous fungi, and These bugs attack most of the cover
the Florida red scale another. Mealy crops commonly raised in Florida.
bugs, too, are very commonly at- Of course, cowpeas are their first
tacked by a fungus disease. All of choice, followed by beggarweed, vel-
these fungi will do better in a grove vet beans, Crotalaria striata, and
.with a good cover crop. Crotalaria spectabilis, in the order
Early Cover Crop Helps given, the last named being less
The relation of aphids in a cover liable to attack.
crop is somewhat different. The only These pumpkin bugs breed all the
.aphid which usually gives much summer long and to become very
trouble is the green citrus aphid, or abundant in a grove they must have
sthe new citrus aphid, as we have a constant food supply. The thing to


avoid then in a grove is to give them
this constant food supply. Cowpeas
may be planted in the early part of
the season and if they are mowed or
otherwise destroyed, in late August
there will be no particular danger
to citrus, as there will be no food
supply there for them in the early
fall. Beggarweed is attractive only
during the latter part of the sum-
mer and early fall. The same is true
of velvet beans.
Don't Mix Cover Crops
The Crotalarias will breed pump-
kin bugs in any considerable num-
bers only when they are carrying
green pods. In the case of Crotalaria
striata this is over a considerable
period. In the case of Crotalaria
spectabilis this period is much
shorter. The thing then to do is to
avoid mixing these different cover
crops in such a way as to give these
pumpkin bugs a constant food sup-
ply throughout the entire summer
and fall. I was in a Satsuma grove
last summer which well illustrated
how not to manage a cover crop. In
order to compare cowpeas, Crotal-
aria, and beggarweed, the owner
had planted a third of his orchard in
each cover crop. Well, the pumpkin
bugs started in early on the cow-
peas. By August when they were
pretty well finished, the bugs moved
on in large numbers to the beggar-
weed, and after feeding on this for
a generation or two, moved on in
greatly increased numbers to the
Crotalaria. This they quickly strip-
ped of its pods, and then made their
last migration of the season, this
time to the Satsumas, of course,
with disastrous results. So which
ever of these cover crops you adopt,
don't mix them.
Fruiting Season Short
The reason that Crotalaria spect-
abilis is less liable to the attacks of
pumpkin bugs is that the fruiting
season, during which it blossoms and
produces its seed pods, is compara-
tively short. Instead of blossoming
and producing pods all summer, as
does Crotalaria striata, it does not
bloom until early fall and sets a
heavy crop of pods all at once. This
does not give the pumpkin bugs
time to breed upon it in large num-
bers. I must warn the citrus grow-
ers, however, that Crotalaria spect-
abilis has not done as well in dry,
sandy soil as has Crotalaria striata.
In general, one must consider the
adaptability of the soil in deciding
what cover crop to use.
The message I wish to bring this
afternoon is that if the growers will
plant some cover crop it will have a
tendency to reduce the amount of
insect injury in his grove, particu-
larly rust-mites. With other things
being equal, the larger the growth
the cover makes, and the more the
ground is shaded, the more bene-
ficial will be the results from the
standpoint of insect control.

Ralph: "I had to kill my dog last
Charlie: "Was he mad?"
Ralph: "Well, he didn't seem any
too pleased about it."-Ex.

P ae 3

Banana Regarded

As Bug Menace By

Western Magazine

The plant quarantine laws of the
United States and of some individ-
ual states have been the subject of
much discussion from time to time.
There is no doubt that they have
done a lot of good. However, there
are people who believe that these
laws have sometimes been used for
other purposes than just keeping
out serious insects and diseases.
Many Americans are saying similar
things in regard to the British reg-
ulations on spray residue.
However these things may be, our
plant quarantine exponents would
do well to give attention to the ba-
nana in this connection. Just recent-
ly, an official report of the :U-:S.
Department of Agriculture stated
that bananas were now being fumi-
gated because Japanese beetles, a
terrible pest, had been discovered
with them. We all know that now
and then, a tarantula, the deadly
spider, gets into the country with
bananas. There are many serious
insects and diseases that we do not
yet have which are present in the
West Indies and Central America,
and the danger of bringing them in
with bananas is great. When the
Mediterranean fruit fly was found
in Florida, there were persistent re-
ports from various sources that it
probably came in with bananas.
That is came from the West Indies
there can be little doubt. Jamaica,
which sends us large quantities of
bananas, is seriously infested with
the fly.
With all these things in mind, the
folks in charge of the quarantine
laws would do well to give attention
to the banana. The quarantine is
now being used to keep out fruit
which are not nearly as likely to
Bring in serious pests as the banana.
American fruit growers will not
care how far the quarantine officers
go in enforcing the law against ba-
nanas. If some state like California
which applies its quarantine laws
very ragidly and is very jealous of
'its own fruit markets, would invoke
*the law against the banana and thus
Start the ball rolling along this line,
it could do a lot of good.-Chas. E.
Durst, in "Better Fruit."

Pat's Quick Mind
Pat and Mike were working on a
new building. Pat was laying bricks
'and Mike was carrying the hod.
Mike had just come up to the fourth
floor when the whistle blew.
"I hate to walk down," he said.
"Take hold of this rope," Pat
said, "and I'll let you down." Pat
let him down half way and then let
go of the rope. Mike landed in a
mortar bed, not much hurt but
"And why did you let go of the
rope?" he demanded.
"I thought it was going to break,"
said Pat, "and I had presence of
mind enough to let it go."

Page 3



(Continued from Page One)
those recently made by the State
Composite Committee and which
have been published in the News.
The Directors differ in a few re-
spects as follows: In the matter of
a maturity law for canned grape-
fruit, the Directors at a meeting
April 24 passed a resolution urging
the canners of the state to formu-
late a proper and reasonable stand-
ard for cannery grade grapefruit
and submit it to the Legislature.
The resolution also included a re-
quest of the Legislature that its
members enact a cannery grapefruit
maturity law in which the same
standard adopted for fresh grape-
fruit shall be written if the canners
do not agree upon a standard.
Recommendation Changes
The Clearing House Board also
advocated that the existing law as
to the sugar and acid ratio for or-
anges remain as it is, but that there
be a solids requirement of 7. On
grapefruit the Directors approved
the standard as set up by the Com-
posite Committee with the excep-
tion that the solids to acid ratio on
grapefruit having solids of over 9
and up to 11, be not lower than 5.50
to 1. The Composite Committee's
recommendation on grapefruit is
that solids be not less than 8, and
that with a solid content between 8
and 9, that the minimum ratio be
6% to 1. The Board likewise was
in accord with the general recom-
mendation that the standard for
tangerines be changed to 7% to 1,
and that the inspection period be ex-
tended to Dec. 1.
One of the most important phases
of the proposed green fruit legisla-
tion likewise is being given support
by the Clearing House Board. This
is legislation for the purpose of ap-
propriating sufficient funds so that
the Department of Agriculture can
make "exhaustive and extensive ex-
periments in the field of citrus ma-
turity prior to the next meeting of
the Legislature." There never have
been as comprehensive and scientific
studies made of Florida citrus fruit
as regards its maturity as our fruit
deserves. The state and federal de-
partments of agriculture probably
have done more this year than ever
before, but admit that much yet re-
mains to be done along this line.
Committee of Fifty Working
The Committee of Fifty in carry-
ing out its particular share of this
work has selected a committee of
ten members to go to Tallahassee to
endeavor to defeat any radical leg-
islation that may be attempted. Rep-
resentatives from each of the seven
districts in the fruit belt were
named on this special committee so
that all sections of citrus Florida
will have due consideration. The
members of this committee are:
Fred Henderson, Winter Haven, H.
M. Carson, Lutz; J. G. Grossen-
bacher, Plymouth; W. F. Glynn,
Crescent City; M. O. Overstreet, Or-

Wrong! They're Stolen Oranges


Polk County is going after the men who were driving the truck pic-
fruit thieves-and "is getting her tured above. The fifty sacks would
man!" have packed out about forty boxes,
According to George Williams, man-
The above picture shows a load ager of the Winter Haven packing
of fifty sacks of Valencias which house.
were recovered from five men at Due to existence of an ancient
Winter Haven a short time ago. The Florida statute, the charge which
men at the time the photograph was can be placed against the men will
taken had been hustled off to the be merely that of a misdemeanor in
Polk County jail at Bartow, and ac- that the fruit was picked from the
cording to information obtainable trees, and in the eyes of the law
probably will be convicted on a dis- was no greater sin than that of mere
demeanor charge. A special detec- trespassing. Had the fruit which was
tive hired by the Winter Haven C. stolen by the men been picked and
G. A., together with three watchmen placed in field boxes for the con-
who have been doing guard duty for venience of the thieves, the charge
one of the larger groves in the Win- against them would have been lar-
ter Haven vicinity, caught the five ceny, according to Mr. Williams.


(Continued from Page One)
same auction markets, it is difficult
to give averages that will not be
confusing, especially when there is
always a wide divergence in hauling
expenses as well as in picking.
However, we have talked over this
matter with several of our shippers
that endeavor to give such informa-
tion, and assuming that $2.15 might
be a fairly accurate average on
grapefruit costs from the tree to the
auction market, and $2.30 on or-
anges because of the additional ex-
penses in picking, slight additional
expense in packing as well as icing,
it would mean that the season's auc-
tion average of $2.61 on grapefruit
would approximate a 46c tree re-
turn per box to the grower, and the
$3.19 auction average on oranges
would approximate a tree return of
89c per box to the grower. With
Valencias selling at $3.75 delivered
this $3.19 average of course will be
pulled up considerably by about
2400 cars of Valencias that prob-
ably will sell at auction the balance
of this season.
Tangerines are the variety that

lando; M. T. Baird, Vero Beach; R.
H. Prine, Terra Ceia; C. D. Gunn,
Haines City; Max Waldron, Babson
Park, and Jim Morton, Auburndale.

show the low net return for this sea-
son. 2849 cars of tangerines sold in
the nine auction markets this year
at a general average of $3.09 de-
livered. Because of the far greater
expense of picking tangerines as
well as packing them, and the vary-
ing charges resulting in difference
in size, it is hard to make an esti-
mate as to what the tree return
figure on an average should be.
After talking with several of our
members it would seem safe to haz-
ard that this $3.09 average should
mean a net return of from 15c to

(Continued from Page Two)
tribution,-only 38% at auction as
compared with 50% last year.
California Valencias
California Valencias have been
moving from Central California or
Tulare County around 45 or 50 cars
per day. A considerable proportion
of this movement is reported as still
going to export. And the estimated
volume from Central California is
being reduced over earlier esti-
mates. The movement of Valencias
from Southern California will prob-
ably not commence until about the
5th or 10th of May. Her Valencias
will run very much smaller than
ours and will be thicker skinned and
cannot compare in eating quality.
On the other hand, every precaution


(Continued from Page One)
twice as much as what is left. Then'
a later estimate was drawn up as of
Jan. 1. Deducting the cars shipped
up to Jan. 1, our members would
have 11,816 cars of oranges left at
this time, and the preposterous fig-
ures of 16,715 cars of grapefruit.'
Our last estimate of April 24 from
our shipper-members was 4,800 cars'
of oranges and 5,600 cars of grape-
fruit, but in discussing the grape-
fruit figures our shippers agree that
this volume will never be moved be-
cause of dropping, severe coloring,
etc., and probably the Valencia es-'
timate is again too high.
The Clearing House has a respon-
sibility in figuring out some ways
and means to correct the evils in
this estimate problem that are so
manifest. Most certainly there is
some way to do it, but that way can
never be carried out effectively un-
less from top to bottom there is as
recognition of the need, and unless
we all show how we are only fool-.
ing ourselves in any lack of integ-
rity, and unless we also see and our
growers demand that every man in
his respective territory recognizes.
that he must know what he is doing
and must turn in accurate as well as-
honest estimates.

should be used in watching the in-
dividual groves to see that those
groves that are tending towards
dryness, particularly in the larger
sizes, are given precedence oven-
those that can be held. Florida has
today such a strong preference that
it would be the sheerest kind of
short-sightedness to suddenly lose
the advantage we have gained by
destroying the confidence of the
trade in the inside merit of our or-
anges. The trade swing very sudden-.
ly in their preferences, wherever
they feel they have been misled.
This applies to individual brands as
well as the whole crop from a cer-
tain section, if a wrong tendency is
generally noted by the trade.
If every packing house in Florida
will zealously eliminate by selling to?
the juice canneries or otherwise any
large size Valencias that are start-
ing to dry at the stem end and see
that this fruit does not reach the
consumers, there is no question in
my mind but what Florida will be
continuing in her relative high posi-
tion over California, Valencias as
well as navels.

More There
"James," asked teacher, sternly,
"where did you get that gum?"
"Under the seat," exclaimed the
lad. "There's more there. Do you
want some, teacher?"

First Reveller: "Isn't it lucky our
wives don't know where we were
last night?"
Second Reveller: "Very lucky! By
the way, where were we?"

April 25, 1931


Paoe 4


Cover Crop Is the Most

Practical Method Known

To Improve Soil Quality

By H. G. CLAYTON and vigor of the cover crop.
(District Extension Agent)
T (is rict Ets Ag cover crop being of much qu
The wild citrus trees growing in cover crop being of much qutree
v Florida were found in the ham- wth thaeeen te citrus tree
mocks around the lakes and rivers. the experienced growr ind be e
These trees were all growing in a are evident in the citrus trees.
fairly good type of soil containing which grow vigorous cover
large amounts of organic matter are as a general rule also in
and considerable plant food. This tion to grow good citrus
type of soil does not usually occur When the cover crop fails to
in large bodies, is rather limited in in spots and begins to show
amount and is expensive to put of decline this is evidence tha
under cultivation. Such soils are less the condition is corrected
often spoken of as natural citrus soon will begin to lose vigor.
soils by old time growers. of proper drainage, too late
When man undertook to build a too much cultivation, or area
citrus industry in Florida vast acre- void of organic matter are
ages were set in trees. The freezes causes of cover crop decline.
of 1895 and 1899 caused the indus- treatments for much of the
try to move southward and trees are obvious and in the last ca
,-were set upon different types of limited areas manure may be
soil. Freedom from likelihood of to supply organic matter or
frost damage made elevation desir- and weeds may be cut and haul
able for citrus growing and the from other places in order to
ridge section of the state was large- come this deficiency of organic
ly planted. Large acreages in one ter.
body or tract were planted. Florida The more we study and
soil varies greatly and many soil about cover crops as a pra
types were planted to citrus trees. means of supplying organic
Most groves were handled very to citrus the more their value
much like some of the early planted preciated in citrus culture. Her
groves. Many of the seedling a few of the high points in this
groves, in fact, most of them were section:
small varying from 5 to 20 acres in
Size, were usually fertilized largely (1) Experiments to date inc
by cowpenning the grove with range that on ordinary citrus soil
or native cattle and clean cultiva- greater tonnage of cover crops
tion was practiced. These small can be grown, the larger the
seedling groves were usually plant- tity of fruit produced per acr<
ed on land above the average in con- the more vigorous the tee gro
tent of organic matter and fertility. (2) Under Florida climatic
editions organic matter in the s
Organics Burned Out rapidly used up and therefo
With the development of large takes a heavy tonnage of
acreages of citrus and the use of crop to take care of this con
tractors and improved machinery loss.
for cultivation we passed through a (3) Cover crops during the
period when clean cultivation versus season help to pump water o
partial cultivation and the use of the soil, take up plant food
summer cover crops were the most otherwise would leach away
discussed phases of citrus culture. s ul or ai c matter that wiy
Time has proved that clean culture supply organic matter that wi
Time has proved that clean culture crease the water-holding capaci
burned out the organic matter con- the soil in the dry months and
trained in the soil at a rapid rate make for a more uniform moi
and with this depletion lessened re- condition for trees throughout
sponse to applications of fertilizers
was secured and troubles affecting (4) A soil containing plen
the trees developed. At the present organic matter responds to cor
time a minimum of clean culture is cial fertilizer while soils low i
in practice and most growers are ganic matter give poor response
striving to produce all the cover allow much plant food to leac
crops they can. (5) Legume cover crops g
The soil is of necessity the very nitrogen from the air and so
foundation of successful culture, the most valuable of plant foo
The larger portion of our citrus the soil.
trees are budded on either sour or- (6) Cover crops tend to ba
ange or rough lemon stocks. Sour improper fertilization in that
stock is used for the heavier types convert a portion of such fert
of soil and lemon stock (a gross into forms most acceptable fol
feeder) is used generally on the rus production.
lighter soils and warmer portions of (7) Organic matter in the
the state. Therefore, we see that improves the quality of fruit b:
by root stocks certain soil condi- abling the tree to have moi
tions have been overcome, and available plant food more
The condition of the soil is most formly.
surely indicated by the character (8) Growing cover crops inci

Book Review

The Culture of the Orange and Allied
Fruits, by H. Clark Powell, professor of
horticulture, University of Pretoria, Pre-
toria, South Africa, 355 pages, 83 illus-
trations. Price 21 shillings (approximate-
ly $5.25). Central News Agency, Ltd.,
Johannesburg, Transvaal, South Africa.

An interesting picture of citrus
growing in South Africa is contain-
ed in Prof. H. Clark Powell's "The
Culture of the Orange and Allied
Fruits," just off the press. While
the book is based on scientific re-
search as well as practical demon-

grow the humidity in citrus and thereby
signs favor the growth of friendly fungi
t un- that prey on scales and white flies.
trees (9) Where organic matter from
Lack cover crops is added to the soil the
an cheaper chemical sources of plant
us dl food can be used.
usual (10) Plenty of organic matter in
The the soil insures a suitable home for
ibove the soil bacteria and results in a
se on live, active soil condition that en-
used ables citrus trees to best utilize
grass plant food, thereby becoming strong
ed in and vigorous and resistant to dis-
over- ease, insect pests and freezes.
Supply of Organics
learn To sum up, we may say that
ctical most of the soil problems existing in
latter the ecitrus belt largely can be solv-
is ap- ed by increasing the organic con-
e are tent of these soils and cover crops
;con- are to date the most practical meth-
od of supplying large quantities of
this material.
icate In the choice of a cover crop, the
Sthe one which will give the largest ton-
that nage per acre is to be preferred
quan- under most conditions, and this will
Sanddifferent grove condi-
vary with the different grove condi-
w. tions. On Norfolk sandy soil cro-
con- talaria has produced the greatest
;oil is tonnage and the grasses (natal and
re it crab) second greatest. Recent ex-
cover periments also have shown that the
stant best utilization of the cover crop is
had when it is broken up in the top
rainy soil sufficiently to eliminate fire
ut of hazards. When heavy cover crops of
that grass. are incorporated into the soil,
and quickly available nitrogen sufficient
11 in- to feed the bacteria which break
ty of this down should be added, other-
thus wise they will temporarily rob the
sture trees of the available nitrogen in
t the the soil. Legume cover crops con-
tain sufficient nitrogen to feed these
;y of bacteria.
imer- We have seen ammoniation caused
n or- by turning under a heavy crop with
e and the plow, thereby tearing up tree
h. roots and upsetting the tree bal-
ather ance. We also have seen fruit dam-
add aged by pumpkin bugs in groves
ds to where cover crops of crotalaria,
beggarweed or cowpeas were allow-
lance ed to stand too long. Cover crops
they must be handled with judgment.
ilizer We have, however, never seen a soil
r cit- that was not improved by the addi-
tion of cover crops when properly
soil done.
y en- With heavy tonnages of cover
sture crops properly handled, we elimi-
uni- nate many soil problems and secure
increased yield, improved quality
grease and reduced operating costs.

stations and personal observations,
Professor Powell has written his
book for the layman, avoiding tech-
nical phrases and botanical terms.
The purpose of the book as describ-
ed in the preface is "to discuss the
general problems of citrus fruit
growing in as simple a manner as
possible. Although in the main the
book as a whole deals with condi-
tions in Southern Africa, many of
the conditions apply equally well to
other countries.
"The citrus industry of South
Africa and Southern Rhodesia is of
recent development and is expand-
ing rapidly," Professor Powell says.
"For the stabilization of the new in-
dustry there must be an improve-
ment in cultural practices as well as
a more co-ordinated action in regard
to the marketing of the crop. It is
the earnest hope of the writer that
what he has presented may be of
some aid in placing the citrus indus-
try on a sound basis and thus en-
hancing the prosperity of the coun-
The subjects treated in the book
include origin, spread and commer-
cial significance of citrus species;
citrus varieties, the citrus nursery,
establishment of a citrus grove, bud
selection and tree records; citrus
root stocks, fertilizers and manures,
cultural operations-irrigation, cul-
tivation, pruning, top working, pick-
ing and packing, marketing and or-
ganization, common citrus diseases
and their control, insect pests and
their control through fumigation
and spraying, citrus industry of
Florida, citrus industry of Califor-
nia, and citrus growing in West In-
dies, British Honduras and Pales-
Some of Professor Powell's ideas
on the marketing problem confront-
ing the citrus industry generally,
and of South Africa in particular,
are given herewith as follows:
"A considerable expansion of the
fruit industry of the world can be
traced directly to the fact that
fruits have come to be recognized
as an essential part of the human
diet. Large scale advertising to stinm-
ulate consumption of fruit per cap-
ita has also enhanced the cultivation
of fruit.
"The greatest available market
for South African fruits, both de-
ciduous and citrus, is to be found in
Great Britain and the countries on
the European continent. These mar-
kets are from 6,000 to 7,000 miles
from the citrus areas of South Afri-
ca, but because of the rapid, refrig-
erated steamship transportation,
South African fruits can be placed
in the overseas markets in first class
"Conditions for growth in South
Africa are suitable and transporta-
tion is available. There remains the
question of the capacity of the over-
seas markets."
The author asserts that with the
young trees coming into bearing
that exports from South Africa
within the next ten or fifteen years
will aggregate 5,000,000 cases a

April 25, 1931


Paee 5


Florida Continues

To Lead California

In Orange Returns

Florida continues to show the way
to California in the struggle to ex-
cel in the markets, Florida oranges
returning from 50c to almost a dol-
lar more per box in the auction mar-
kets than is being paid for the Cali-
fornia fruit.
The general average for Florida
oranges for the sales Monday, April
27, was $4. The average for Cali-
fornia was $3.45. In every auction
market Florida beat California
from about 25c to as high as $1.05
per box. And this is not all of the
story. Monday's general average,
for instance, of $4 was 50c per box
higher than the average obtained in
the auctions for Florida oranges two
years ago. This average was' 55c
higher than the average for Califor-
nia oranges. California, in contrast
to Florida, showed a decreased re-
turn from two years ago of 60c per
box, the average for California or-
anges on this date two years ago
being $4.05 as against $3.45 on
Monday, April 27.

Citrus Exports

The following figures, furnished
by the United States Department of
Commerce, show the grapefruit, or-
ange and tangerine exports from
New York, Jacksonville, Los An-
geles and Tampa for the weeks end-
ing March 7, March, 14, March 21,
March 28, April 4 and April 11:
Week Ending March 7
New York-London ................ 6,158
New York-Southampton ....... 1,106
New York-Glasgow ................ 1,151
New York-Liverpool ............. -772
Tampa-Montreal, Canada* -__ 1,608
Tampa-Toronto* ..................- 915
Tampa-Glasgow, Scotland* .. 940
Tampla-Belfast, Ireland*....... 300
Tampa-Avonmouth, England* 50

Total................................. 13,000
New York-London .........---- 3
Los Angeles-London .-........-- 8,257
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 8,705

Total- -----................................... 16,965
New York-London .----............... 83
Week Ending March 14
New York-London ................ 7,984
New York-Liverpool .............. 3,490
New York-Southampton ..... 898
New York-Glasgow ....--.--.. 770
New York-Bristol ....----.............. 372
Jacksonville-Liverpool .......... 7,884
Jacksonville-Liverpool* ..... 475
Jacksonville-Manchester* .... 100
Jacksonville-Winnipeg* ........ 1,400
Tampa-Aruba, D. W. I......... 50
Tampa-Rotterdam, Holland* 60
Tampa-Amsterdam, Holland* 35
Tampa-Marseilles, France* .. 25

Tampa-Wellington, N. Z.*.... 25

New York-London ................ 51
New York-Southampton ...... 160
Los Angeles-London .......-..... 4,625
Los Angeles-Liverpool ..........10,580
Jacksonville-Liverpool -........ 650
Tampa-Aruba, D. W. I..--.... 75

Total- --................ .......-.... 16,141
Week Ending March 21
New York-London ..---- ...... 7,095
New York-Liverpool .........-... 2,149
New York-Southampton ........ 588
New York-Hull ...........------ 112
Jacksonville-Newcastle* ........ 150
Jacksonville-Hull* ......- ---- 125
Jacksonville-Dublin* ........ 50
Tampa-London* -.......--........ -13,840
Tampa-London** .---.....-....... 76

Total --... ------- -- 24,185
New York-Hull .....--- --------. 60
Los Angeles-Liverpool -....- 6,000
San Francisco-Liverpool ...-.. 1,200
San Francisco-London ........ 800

Total .------------.. 8,060
Week Ending March 28
New York-London ........-----11,410
New York-Liverpool .-........-- 4,295
New York-Southampton ........ 712
New York-Glasgow ................ 854
Jacksonville-London ----...... 12,614
Jacksonville-Liverpool .......... 9,915
Jacksonville-London* ----............ 4,843

Los Angeles-Liverpool ..........14,956
Los Angeles-London .............. 3,333
Los Angeles-Hull ..-....----.----. 2,552
Los Angeles-Edinburgh ....... 500
Jacksonville-London ............. 1,080
Jacksonville-Liverpool .......... 504

Citrus fruit exported from the
United States (Jacksonville, Tampa,
New York and Los Angeles) to
Great Britain during 1930-31 sea-
son up to February 1, 1931:
Fresh Canned Or-
Gpft. Gpft. anges
Jax .......... 89,790 19,495 7,034
Tampa.... 15,616 24,117 89
N. Y ......-157,528 22,254
Los Ang... 16,061 21,553

Total-...278,995 43,612 50,930
Week Ending April 4
New York-London ....------... 10,661
New York-Liverpool .............. 2,292
New York-Southampton ........ 928
New York-Hull ..------.................... 150
New York-Liverpool .............. 3,000
Los Angeles-London .............. 1,900
Total------------................................... 4,900

Week Ending April 11
New York-London ..................
New York-Liverpool ..............
New York-Southampton ........
Los Angeles-Liverpool ..........
Los Angeles-London ..............
Jacksonville-Glasgow* ..........
Tampa-Liverpool* ..................


Growers Shown How

To Mix Fertilizer

By U.S. Government
To assist farmers with the rigid
economy which the drought has
made necessary in many sections,
the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils
of the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture has just published Leaflet
70-L, giving advice on the home
mixing of fertilizers.
If only a small quantity of ferti-
lizer is to be used, the department
advises against home mixing.
The mixing of fertilizer materials

Tampa-Glasgow* -................. 775
Tampa-Manchester* .............. 532
Tampa-Cardiff* ...................... 250
Tampa-Leigh* ........................ 175
Tampa-Newcastle* ................ 175
Tampa-Southampton* ...-----. 75
Tampa-Avonmouth* .............. 50
Tampa-Hull* ......................... 50
Tampa-Dundee* ...........----. 50

Total.................................. 27,295
Los Angeles-London .............. 9,261
Los Angeles-Liverpool ......-... 6,818

Total............... ---------....................16,079
New York-London ............-..... 20

Canned grapefruit
** Canned grapefruit juice.

Adams Packing Co.,. Inc__Auburndale
Alexander & Baird Co., Inc.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
~~_ _________Orlando
Bilgore, David & Co....-Clearwater
Browder-Fowler Fruit Co.....Arcadia
Burch, R. W., Inc._ ..----Plant City
Dixie Fruit & Pro. Co..........-Tampa
Fields, S. A. & Co.--........--Leesburg
Florida Citrus Exchange---.... Tampa
Florida Mixed Car Co.....--Plant City
Fosgate, Chester C. Co.--...Orlando
Gentile Bros. Co....-------...... Orlando
Herlong, A. S. & Co..--.......Leesburg
Hills Bros. Co. of Florida, The
.......................-............... Tampa
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.
---- ------ __ Davenport
Keen, J. W...............------F.. rostproof
Keene, R. D. & Co ............---_Eustis
Lee County Packing Co.....Ft. Myers
Lee, J. C., Sr..............------- Leesburg
Mammoth Grove, Inc.....Lake Wales
Maxcy, G...............................Sebring
Maxcy, L., Inc......---_..---. Frostproof
McKenney-Steck, Inc...........Orlando
Milne-O'Berry Packing Co.
------.... --- ------- St. Petersburg
Mouser, W. H. & Co..---.....Orlando
Nelson & Co., Inc.................-----Oviedo

for use on the farm is so simple that
any tight floor or wagon box and
tools at hand will serve, says Dr. C.
C. Fletcher, associate chemist of the
division of soil fertility of the bu-
reau, author of the leaflet. He
warns, however, that home mixing
has its disadvantages, as certain in-
gredients when mixed together will
cake badly or lose plant food by
chemical reaction. To guide the
farmer in avoiding such mistakes, a
chart in the leaflet shows which ma-
terials should never be mixed, which
mixtures must be applied quickly to
the land, and which ones are safe to
store. The leaflet should also serve
as a practical handbook for the
farmer who wishes to know just
vhat percentage of nitrogen, phos-
phoric acid, or potash the principal
fertilizer materials .contain. It tells
how to make home mixtures to meet
the needs of various crops.
By home mixing, says the leaflet,
the farmer can know exactly what
kind of plant food is in his mixture,
can apply slowly available or quick-
ly available fertilizer ingredients as
required and can often employ his
labor in fertilizer mixing at a time
when other work on the farm is
Only those who are willing to
study the subject should attempt
home mixing, says the leaflet.
'Usually home mixing will show a
profit, but the farmer will have to
investigate what materials and mix-
ed goods cost in his community and
then make his decision."

Orange Belt Packing Co...--. Eustis
Richardson-Marsh Corp.__ _Orlando
Roe, Wm. G........---.....Winter Haven
Roper, B. H._---_--- Winter Garden
Stetson, John B. Est. of_____DeLand
Sullivan, H. C.-- _Frostproof
Welles Fruit & Live Stock Co.
._____--__ --__ Arcadia
Associated With Other Shipper-
Babson Park Citrus Growers Assn.
_______..--- Babson Park
Chase & Co.....---... .-- ------ Sanford
Citrus Grove Dev. Co., The
.....----- -_- -- Babson Park
DeLand Packing Co._---___-___ DeLand
Fellsmere Growers, Inc.-- Fellsmere
Holly Hill Grove & Fruit Co
: ... ---_...................Davenport
Indian River Fruit Growers..........
...................-..- .....Wabasso
International Fruit Corp. Orlando
Johnson, W. A.....-----.-- Ft. Ogden
Lakeland Co., Inc. The......Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.
_----__ __ ----_ Lake Wales
Middleton, W. D.--__....- sle of Pines
Mitchell, J. M.......---.......-------Elfers
Nocatee Packing Co., Inc.....Nocatee
Ulmer, H. D.........-------..... Clearwater
Valrico Growers, Inc.............Valrico
West Frostproof Packing &
Canning Co.........West Frostproof

Shipper-Members of Association
The shippers named herewith are members of the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association and they are the ONLY members of this organization.
In fairness to these shippers who are supporting the Clearing House, as well as
helping to build the organization, grower-members should urge their neighbors
to join and ship through one of these operators.

April 25, 1931


Pare 6

The Grower's Voice
Under this heading will be published communications from grower members
of the Clearing House Association, who desire to voice opinions upon matters of
general interest to Florida citrus growers. The Association cannot, of course,
assume responsibility for the opinions expressed in these letters, but believes
growers should have the opportunity of expressing themselves if they are willing
to assume the responsibility. Communications should be as brief as possible-
preferably not more than 250 words in length--and MUST be signed with the
writer's name and address (although not necessarily for publication).

Honest With Clearing House
Bonita Springs
I Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association,
SWinter Haven, Fla.
Just a few lines to express my
views about some of the problems
that confront us; just one small one
and one not so small either. Just to-
day, I saw a large truck off from
the road a short distance from Ft.
Myers loading fruit from a' dump
pile of culls. That fruit will go
either to Georgia or Miami and be
sold as good fruit. A fruit buying
company representative of Miami
told me right here in Dr. Matheson's
grove that he would like to buy the
whole crop and pay a good price for
it, but that there was not but one
grade over there and that was the
best. I can prove that fruit which
was picked up from dump piles was
carried over and sold as Indian
River fruit. That doesn't look good
to me. It would be all right to trade
some of our fruit to Georgia trucks
for bacon, potatoes and syrup if
they always got good fruit.
Another problem is this selling of
drop grapefruit to canning plants
as low as thirty and forty cents a
'box which is sold in competition
with your good fruit. It is a tough
proposition. The Clearing House is
all right. Give it time. The trouble
is that people are not honest with
the Clearing House. I remember the
first year it was organized a concern
up the road a little ways claimed to
have 65,000 boxes of fruit but they
lacked 50,000 boxes having it.
Very truly yours,
,(Signed) H. J. DOWNING.

"Cheaper Than Beef"
Gainesville, Fla.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Referring to the editorial on slo-
'gans to be printed on envelopes, let-
ter heads, etc., in your issue of the
Florida Clearing House News for
Feb. 10, permit me to suggest one
that had its origin with the late Dr.
F. W. Inman. The undersigned is
'not certain now whether or not he
heard Dr. Inman himself make this
Remark, or whether it came to him
indirectly. At all events, it sounds
good, has the facts back of it, and I
hope that your organization will see
fit to use it as a slogan on letters,
etc., or as an essential part of larger
Herewith follows the statement
and quotation from Dr. Inman as I
submitted it some weeks ago to the
editors of the Agricultural News
"The much lamented Dr. In-
man once remarked, in answer to

the query whether or not he al-
lowed his hotel guests to help
themselves to fruit in the grove
surrounding Florence Villa Inn:
'Certainly, oranges are much
cheaper than western beef.' And
he might have added, better for
many people."
Will suggest the following as an
appropriate slogan:
"Oranges are cheaper than west-
ern beef."-Dr. F. W. Inman. And
better for many people, he might
have added."
Very sincerely,
(Signed) E. W. BERGER,
State Plant Board.

Packing House Expenses
Lakeland, Florida
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association,
Winter Haven, Fla.
In all the conferences, speeches,
and discussions on the growers' mis-
fortunes, I do not notice one word
in regard to reduction of packing
house expenses.
We pay quite heavily for picking,
hauling, grading, packing, etc., to
say nothing of freight, storage, com-
missions, and advertising. All these
charges can be cut materially, but I
would increase rather than reduce
advertising. Improvident p e o p 1 e
come to Florida from Georgia, Ten-
nessee and other points north and
pull down from $4 to $5 a day,
while others stand by with their
fingers in their mouths, who would
gladly work for $1.50 to $2 per day
instead of piece work. A minimum
production could be established
from past experience and the non-
productive employee can be elimi-
I know of a man and his wife who
draw about $8 per day and they
could be replaced for half that
amount, though they would not be
as efficient at the start. I know of
employees from Tennessee who
could not get work at home at any
price, who would consider $2 per
day as a God-send.
The working force will not stand
for reductions but why not adver-
tise in rural weeklies in late sum-
mer and list up applications at $2
and start out with a lower rate of a
flat price with local help.
Put it another way: Is it good
business to pay high rates when
there are idle and needy persons
who will be glad to take less? This
is not a "welfare" proposition, but
a suggestion for helping the poor
devil of a grower. With best wishes
for citrus, I remain
Yours truly,
(Signed) G. E. DAVIS.

"Ship Only the Best"
Saint Paul, Minn.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association,
Winter Haven, Fla.
I have been in the game since
July, 1919, when I purchased a 4-
year-old grove that perhaps had not
had the best of care because the
caretaker was green at the business
and the owner was not willing to
put up the funds to give it the care
it required, which you know and I
have found out, is necessary if we
desire a grove that will produce a
crop of quality fruit when a good
price prevails as well as in a season
like the present when prices are
anything but good. I have been pay-
ing out more than I took in every
year except the season of 1929-30,
when I had a large crop and others
did not and the price consequently
was good. As a result, last year I
reduced the net cost of my grove
There will soon come a time when
there will be a large crop every
year, and I estimate, from available
figures, that from and after 1936
there will be so many trees in full
bearing that if they are well cared
for there will be so much citrus pro-
duced that something really radical
will have to be done.

We will have to think of the ad-
visability of having a real strong
one hundred percent organization
and ship only No. 1 grade fruit,
over sizes, under sizes, and second
grades being sent to the canneries.
In this way we will limit the pack-
ing to a very desirable quality ex-
hibit. If the canneries cannot ab-
sorb it it would be even better to
dump and bury the second grade
fruit than kill the price for the first
grade crop by trying to sell all of it.
The public should be guaranteed a
good article and the grower a living
price for his product. Another thing
is a fact, and that is, that something
must be done about the shipping of
fruit too early in the season. From
my own observations, I would say
that grapefruit arriving here before
Dec. 1 is usually sour and disgusts
the consumer, the commission men
and retailers, and the consumer
turns to Texas fruit which really
does ripen earlier than ours and
gives us a merry chase early in the
season. However, I am able to state
that the Texas fruit becomes flabby
at the close of the season when ours
is at its best. I am sorry that I can-
not forbid the picking and shipping
north before Dec. 1.
I think that our boxes are com-
pressed too much which squeezes
(Continued on Page Eight)

They're Scattered

Get a binder for your back copies >
of the r


Keep every number of
the News. There isn't
an issue that doesn't
contain some informa-
tion you will want to
refer to, some of these

Just fill in the coupon
below and mail it in to
the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House As-
sociation at Winter Ha-
ven, together. with dol-
lar bill, check or money
order and the binder,
will be forwarded to





Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Please send me a binder for my back copies of the Florida
Clearing House News. I am enclosing $1.00 ($1.25 out of the
U. S.) currency, check, money order.
N am e ................................... ............... ...................
Street............ .... ..... ............................. ........
Town ................ ................................... ...

April 25, 1931



Page 7





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of dis-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information daily.
Standardizing grade and pack through an impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding
among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.




Ft. Ogden
Winter Park
Lake Placid
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
S. Cocoa
Mt. Dora

Better Merchandising
On Tangerines
Florida has a monopoly on tangerines. Until
this year Florida never met in a severe man-
ner the demands calling for intensive mer-
chandising. We do not believe that tangerine
growers should figure that because of the low
returns this year we cannot expect better
money other years, even with an equal or
larger crop. Prior to this season tangerines
had more or less marketed themselves. Proper
preparation was not made for this year's tan-
gerine crop. The public in general are not yet
acquainted with Florida's tangerine. There
are thousands and thousands of families that
have never eaten a tangerine and don't know
what they are. The tangerine is the favorite
of all citrus to any child, not only because of
its wonderful flavor but because of its ease in
peeling as well as the eye appeal.
We would not have our members think that
a real effort hasn't been made on tangerines.
The fact is to the contrary as shown in the de-
cidedly lower percentage of tangerines sold
at auction this year as compared with last
year. 5216 cars of tangerines were shipped
from the state this year including proper pro-
portion of the mixed based on the actual per-
centage of tangerines in these mixed cars as
determined by our own Clearing House
records from month to month.
Therefore, Florida sold at auction this year
54.6% of the total tangerine movement. Last
year, including the same percentage of mixed,
there were 1772 cars of tangerines shipped,
of which 1280, or 72.2%, sold at auction. Year
before last 71.2% of the total tangerine move-

ment (including proper proportion of the
mixed) was sold at auction. It, therefore,
shows that Florida did make a desperate ef-
fort this year to widen her distribution in the
private sale markets.
Another thing pointing conclusively to this
effort is the fact that the distribution record
as recently compiled by the Winter Haven of-
fice of the Federal and State Departments of
Agriculture shows a decided increase of tan-
gerine sales in markets, many of which never
saw tangerines before, at least in car lot
At the same time it is generally recognized
that Florida has a wonderful opportunity to
intensively take hold of its tangerines as a
product of a different class than any of its
other citrus productions. Many of our ship-
pers are eager for plans to be laid out cover-
ing a personal merchandising campaign in
intensively applied dealer service in the
smaller markets backed up by attractive dis-
play cards and literature as well as by local
publicity and advertising that would be con-
centrated in the markets that are not yet ac-
quainted with Florida's tangerines.
Carrying with this same thought is a ten-
dency on the part of our shippers to believe
that the tangerines moving to the key mar-
kets, namely the nine auction markets, should
be controlled by the Clearing House not only
as to volume but also as to destination. In
fact, many are talking of the desirability of
placing a special assessment of 15c or 20c a
box to take hold of the entire tangerine prob-
lem in all of its fundamentals. The Clearing
House, however, would not act as a market-
ing agent, but would work closely with its
shipper members from whom it is proposed
a special tangerine committee would be em-
powered to act with the manager in determin-
ing not only advertising, merchandising and
distribution policies, but also fair minimum
prices to stabilize private sale efforts and
create confidence on the part of the trade in
vigorously taking hold of tangerines the com-
ing season. The low returns of this year call
for decided constructive action and the Clear-
ing House can take hold vigorously of such
responsibilities if its growers, shippers and
the Board of Directors decide it a wise course
to follow. In the meantime the Clearing
House is making a further survey analysis
and will be calling upon all shippers as soon
as proper time can be given to it for final
destinations not only in carload lots but in
box lots as to tangerines shipped with other
varieties. The call seems to be more and more
urgent that the Clearing House step into this
additional responsibility and if it can do so
without violating the wishes of its members,
it stands ready to assume whatever responsi-
bility may be placed upon this organization.

Red Spider Finding

His Way Onto Trees,

Growers Are Warned

The season is approaching when
citrus growers should be on the look-
out for red spiders and rust mites,
J. R. Watson, entomologist with the
Florida Experiment Station, recent-
ly stated over WRUF. Rust mites
are not likely to trouble the new or-
ange or Satsuma crop for several
weeks, but young grapefruit are
liable to be injured now. Red spiders
are most apt to trouble grapefruit
that has not been picked or the crop
just coming on.
There are two pests known as red
spiders; the purple mite, and the six-
spotted mite. The purple mite is
most injurious to Satsumas, causing
the leaves to turn ashen grey. The
six-spotted mite works mostly on the
underside of the leaves, and is par-
ticularly apt to trouble grapefruit
at this season.
The best insecticide for these
pests is the commercial lime sulphur
solution, Mr. Watson stated. At this
time of the year it should not be
used stronger than 1 part to 40
parts of water. During very hot
weather one can get fair control by
dusting with sulphur, but at this
season the spray will give better-
Sulphur is also the proper insecti-
cide for rust mites, and whether to
spray or dust it on will depend on
the equipment on hand, size of the
grove, etc. Dusting with sulphur is
preferred by most growers, but
small grove owners who do not have
power dusters usually spray with
lime sulphur. At this season 1 part
of lime sulphur should be used to
about 50 parts of water.
A good summer cover crop will
help a great deal in keeping down
rust mites. They are always more
destructive in clean cultivated

(Continued from Page Seven)
the fruit and creates decay and loss
to the retailer. The box from Cali-
fornia is not bulged up 214 inches
the way ours is and there is very
little loss from squeezing.
Just now Florida grapefruit is
arriving in a wonderful state of
sweetness and plumpness and the
Temple oranges are favorably re-
ceived. I think this is the first that
I have ever soon here. I have also
learned from dealers that the grape-
fruit from Texas was not as good
this year as in past years.
With best wishes for better con-
ditions in the years to come, I am
Yours very truly,

Wise Client
Lawyer: "I must know the whole
truth before I can successfully de-
fend you. Have you told me every-
Prisoner: "Except where I hid the
money. I want that for myself."

April 25. 1931

Page 8

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