Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00059
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: March 10, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00059
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
Bureau of Arig. Econ.,
U. S. Dept. of Arig.,


F L 0 R 1 Winte


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit



Official Publication of the

0 a Y Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81, Volume III
$2.00 a Year rus Growers Clearing House Association, MARCH 10, 1931 1928, at the postoffce at Winter Haven,
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven. Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8. 1879. Number 11

Borax Patent Case
Decided in Favor
Of Fruit Growers

The .Clearing House Provides
Help Needed To Beat
Royalty Nuisance
Borax as a wash decay preventive
is at last available to the Florida cit-
rus industry without the payment
of royalty. This development marks
the end of a six-year legal battle be-
tween the American Fruit Growers
and the Brogdex Company, a fight
the Clearing House entered about a
year ago, and which move proved to
Sbe the ultimate factor in obtaining
a decision from the United States
Supreme Court granting the use of
Borax without payment of royalty.
The case has been in the federal
courts since April, 1926, the Brog-
dex Company seeking $100,000
damages for alleged infringement
cf its patents on the use of borax.
The suit, brought originally in
the Federal District Court of Dela-
ware, was won there by the Brogdex
Company, and an appeal to the Cir-
cuit Court of Appeals in Philadel-
phia likewise resulted favorably for
the Brogdex Company. Then it was
that the Clearing House threw its
influence into the fight, because to
have the case reviewed before the
United States Supreme Court, it
was necessary that it merit interest
among those allied with the citrus
industry of the entire country.
States' Support Obtained
The support of Florida, Califor-
Snia, Texas, Louisiana, Arizona, Ala-
bama and Georgia was obtained, of-
Sficials of the various states working
whole-heartedly with the Clearing
House. Effective work was done by
Governor Carlton, Attorney General
Fred H. Davis and Commissioner
Mayo, while the Clearing House, on
its own initiative, employed legal
help in Washington in an effort
(that proved successful) to have the
case reviewed by the Supreme
Officials of the Clearing House
were greatly pleased at the victory,
(Continued on Page Three)

Nominees for Board Are Selected

Pratt Advocates Cutting

Movement of Grapefruit

To Help Stimulate Prices

(By A. M. PRATT, Manager) past week (week ending Feb. 28)
In our Citrus Summary of Feb-Florida averaged at auction only
In our Citrus Summ y of $2.30 delivered. With no more

JruaiJry yuur aui ien i was ca ll
to the fact that from March 1 on,
Florida will have no more grape-
fruit to market than it sold from
that date on two years ago. Two
years ago, from March 1 on, grape-
fruit averaged $3.24 per box, on
3416 cars that sold at auction. This

grapefruit to move than we had two
years ago, I cannot believe that any
one of our shippers has lost his con-
fidence so much or his general per-
spective as to believe that we need
to take practically $1 a box less on
grapefruit than two years ago.
(Continued on Page Three)

Nominees for Directors
(From State at Large-Four to be Elected)
J. C. Chase ------------------------------...... Winter Park
O. F. Gardner --- --- ----- Lake Placid
J. A. Griffin -----------Tampa
Douglas Igou .------------------ ........ Eustis
C. W. Lyons (withdrew) ------ Tampa
F. G. Moorhead ----------- ---------- -----... DeLand
John A. Snively ------Winter Haven
R. B. Woolfolk --- ------Orlando
(One Nominee from Each District to be Elected)
District One-H. E. Fairchild, Babson Park; John
F. May, Winter Haven; A. M. Tilden, Winter Haven.
District Two-J. T. Swann, Tampa; S. A. Whitesell,
Clearwater; S. F. Wooten, Tampa.
District Three-Joe Knight, Elfers; William Snod-
grass, Clermont; E. E. Truskett, Mt. Dora.
District Four-W. F. Glynn, Crescent City; J. W.
Perkins, DeLand; M. J. Timmons, Ocala.
District Five-L. L. Payne, Orlando; Phil C. Peters,
Winter Garden; R. M. Shearer, Orlando.
District Six-Earl Hartt, Avon Park;R. B. LaRoche,
Cocoa; A. R. Trafford, Cocoa.
District Seven-E. C. Aurin, Ft. Ogden; F. G. Janes,
Wauchula; F. W. Perry, Ft. Myers.

Committee of Fifty
Names Candidates
For Coming Season

Other Nominations May Be
Made By Petition By
Grower Members
Nominees for the Clearing House
Board of Directors to serve next
season were selected by the Com-
mittee of Fifty at a meeting held
in Orlando, March 9. As provided
for in the By-Laws, eight nominees
were selected from the state-at-
large, four of whom will serve on
the Board, and three nominees were
selected from each district, one of
whom will be elected in each dis-
trict. The election of the Directors
will be held Tuesday, April 7.
May Nominate By Petition
While the By-Laws of the Clear-
ing House place the responsibility
of selecting nominees for Directors
upon the Committee of Fifty, the
By-Laws also make it possible for
the grower-members to select addi-
tional nominees if they so desire.
Additional nominees may be select-
ed for district directors as well as
directors from 'the state-at-large,
these nominations being made by
petition. Seventy-five growers in
any district may nominate any
grower or growers by signing a pe-
tition and presenting it to the Board
of Directors of the Clearing House
not later than midnight of March
25. Three hundred growers may
place in nomination the name of
any grower or growers to be voted
upon for directors-at-large by the
same method.
In selecting nominees for the
Board, the Committee of Fifty first
named the eight nominees to serve
from the state-at-large, four of
whom will be elected. Following
completion of these nominations,
the representatives of the Commit-
tee from each district decided upon
(Continued on Page Three)

If You Aren't A Member, Sign Up With the Clearing House and Vote April 7

S. Postage
1c. Paid
r Haven, Fla.
rmit No. 1

Mar. 7
Florida Oranges Shipped........ 976
Total ...................................... ---------19571
Florida Grapefruit Shipped.... 878
Florida Tangerines Shipped-... 74
Total............------------.. 3005
Florida Mixed Shipped............ 448
California Oranges Shipped.... 1523
Florida Oranges Auctioned.... 588
Average................................. $3.40
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned 375
Average................................---------- $2.40
Florida Tangerines Auctioned 78
Average..---------.............................. $2.95
California Oranges Auctioned 358
A ....... o n

*Orange Situation Good
The decidedly heavier movement
of oranges from California for the
week ending February 28 (1625
cars, including 112 by boat) has had
time to reach the eastern markets,
but Florida has held its own. This
further confirms the fact that our
Florida oranges compared with Cal-
iforn-ias--are doing. very well, Our
iaucton prices: this week show a gen-
eral, Y.'age 'of- $.40 delivered

Page 2

Feb. 28


compared with $2.85 two years ago,
or 55c advance, even though we
sold through the auctions 120 cars
more than two year ago in the
same auctions. California, on the
other hand, sold 300 cars at only
20c advance over two years ago
when it sold 88 cars more at'auc-
tion, than this week. Our rolling un-
sold Friday night shows up much
lighter than the average of the last
.four .or.. five weeks, Our roling- to-
auction is about an average.

Mar. 7, '30


Mar. 7, '29

00 O00

Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending March 7, 1931)


Mid-Season Oranges Should Be
Moving Freely
California will have to be moving
her crop at the rate of 1600 to
1800 cars per week, some weeks
possibly around the latter part of
April and May running up to 2000
cars. She will have to move her crop
during the next few weeks consid-
erably heavier than two years ago.
It is our opinion that mid-season or-
anges should be moved in the next
two weeks instead of waiting longer
as the decay hazard will be far
greater on mid-seasons than on
Valencias if held too long and they
will not hold up with the trade so
No Hurry On Valencias
On the other hand, there is no
great hurry in moving the Valencia
crop. The Valencia prices received
this week do not average up with
the mid-season oranges, indicating
that the trade as a whole are not
quite ready for them. Most of the,
Valencias will be better eating by a
week or two from now and, with
Florida Valencias such a meritori-
ous orange compared with Califor-
nia navels, it has a splendid chance
of doing well this year if we will
spread out our shipments as we are
now contemplating. They should
have better keeping qualities than
the California navel. Part of the
low prices, by the way, on Califor-
nia navels has been decay. Usually
California does not have to do much
in the way of refrigeration until
the middle of March or later. Fol-
lowing her usual custom of shipping
ventilated, they found that the rains
and winds some time ago had so
weakened the navels as to cause
more than the usual amount of de-
cay. Refrigeration started quite
generally last week in California.
Our Valencias, on the other hand,
should hold up better in the hands
of retailers and jobbers than Cali-
fornia navels. There should be an
increasing preference for our Va-
lencias over California navels be-
cause of the increasing hazard of
decay in the navels as the season
Two-thirds Orange Crop Moved
In round figures, including proper
proportion of mixed, the carlot
movement to date is 26,000 cars
oranges. We are estimating 13,500
cars yet to be shipped, including
about 12,000 Valencias. This would
make a total orange crop of 39,500
cars. This is a little more than we
were figuring on a little while ago.
It may be that our $3.00 idea on
Valencias was too high on an aver-
age, but it would seem as if we
were warranted in expecting an av-
erage of $2.75 on No. Is and $2.25
on No. 2s. This is about 25c more
than what the market has shown
this week on private sales and very
much more than the auction sales
on Valencias. From this time on
two years ago, our total orange
movement from the state, including
proper proportion of mixed, was
13,770 cars, a very comparable
figure to the estimated number of
cars of oranges Florida has to move
this year (13,500).

March 10, 1931

Indications Fairly Good Valencia
Taking an average of the last 40
cars of Valencias on which we have
received manifests, we find a 360
load averaging as indicated in the
following figures on Valencias in
contrast with our mid-season sizes,
which are indicated in the set of
figures immediately beneath the
Valencia figures:
96 100 126 150 176
Valencias 3 12 76 83 79
Mideason 2 21 42 78
200 216 250 288 324
Valencias 43 36 21 9 3
Midseason 59 70 54 26 8
From the above it does not look
as if we are going to have such ter-
ribly large size Valencias, and our
shippers have advised that most of
the cars of Valencias they have been
picking so far were picked because
they were afraid they were going
to get too large and coarse.
Good Grapefruit Market Later .
At our well-attended shippers'
meeting March 6 most of the time
was spent in discussing the grape-
fruit situation. It was agreed that it
was really quite remarkable that
such heavy shipments of grapefruit
as have gone forward during the
past six weeks could have actually
been consumed, even though prices
have been so distressingly low.
Nearly 1100 cars a week is a tre-
mendous quantity of grapefruit,
and it was generally felt that we
had reached the point where the
growers would be ready and where
the Clearing House should start pro-
rating so that the balance of the
grapefruit crop would turn back to
its growers at least a fair return
instead of the distressing returns
which have been so general during
the past heavy movement.
Grapefruit Left
It is estimated that about 10,000
cars of grapefruit are left in the
state. The total grapefruit ship-
ments to date, including proper pro-
portion of mixed, figures 18,160
cars. If there are 10,000 cars left,
after the week ending March 7, this
would give us a grapefruit crop of
28,000 cars.

Small cities in the west, the Rocky
Mountain region, and the south offer
the most promising field for develop-
ment of the mixed-car business in
fruits and vegetables, according to
a survey by the Bureau of Agricul-
tural Economics. This is because
there are relatively few large pri-
mary markets in these regions from
which produce can be redistributed
by motor truck.
Shipments of mixed cars have in-
creased from 30,108 cars in 1922 to
49,275 cars in 1929. A larger in-
crease might have been expected,
say the marketing specialists, J. W.
Park and Brice Edwards, who made
the survey for the bureau, had it
not been for the active competition
of the motor-trucking of produce,
whereby an increasing volume of
supplies is redistributed from pri-
mary markets to smaller consuming
centers within a radius of 200 miles.

average .....--- ---------------------- .uu 0~o.tu pu.0o o.o
Oranaes No. 1 Oranfes No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Feb. 28.................. 248 76 $2.55 240 117 $2.30
31% 49%
Mar. 7...... .............. 234 117 $2.54 191 109 $2.31
50% 57%
Difference......... -14 +41 -.01 -49 8 .01

Grapefruit No. 1 Grapefruit No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Feb. 28.................. 121 73 $1.55 216 138 $1.31
60% 64%
Mar. 7.. ---................. 109 49 $1.54 203 101 $1.37
45% 50%
Difference-......... -12 -24 -.01 -13 -37 +.06

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Feb. 28 .......... 1031 954 485 796 764 747 940
Mar. 7............ 732 1002 499 712 757 646 1294
Mar. 14............ 641 1064 376 589 602 559 1249
California Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Feb. 28 ......---.. 834 1413 1137 1341 1165 1006 1221
Mar. 7.......... ---- 1107 1394 959 1371 1099 950 923
Mar. 14............ 1355 1412 1158 1748 1354 1010 1146
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Feb. 28 .......... 589 638 497 695 621 688 615
Mar. 7............ 489 601 486 713 497 694 696
Mar. 14 ............ 638 868 487 690 522 654 595
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Feb. 28 ......... 412 280 198 212 154 138 No Rcrd.
Mar. 7......... 249 275 207 181 135 136 No Rcrd.
Mar. 14 ............ 289 266 157 145 121 140 No Rcrd.

March 10, 1931


(Continued from Page One)
During the past five weeks, the
total grapefruit output this year
(including proper proportion of
mixed) has been 5446 cars. The
same five weeks two years ago (in-
cluding proper proportion of mixed)
was 4164 cars, or 1282 cars more
this year than two years ago, an
average of 256 excess cars per week.
During the past five weeks this year,
Florida has sold at auction 1938
cars at a general average of $2.38
delivered. During the same five
weeks two years ago, Florida sold
1412 cars at a general average of
$2.98 delivered, 60c per box more
than our average this year.
If instead of getting 60c a box
more we had only got 30c a box
more by holding our shipments
down. to those of. two, years ago,
our growers would have gotten in
gross return, even under the reduc-
ed shipments, $25 for every $16 re-
turned this year, and would have
received 60c a box instead of 30c
a box, which is the most that I think
any of us would grant the growers
have averaged doing the past five
weeks. But that is in the past. May-
be it couldn't be helped. Maybe we
were too weak-kneed. But at any
rate we can't help what has hap-
pened. We can help what is going
to happen by doing the right thing.
We Have A Clear Duty
If there were no Clearing House
I would agree that what we have
been doing is what we will unques-
tionably continue to be doing. If we
didn't take hold of this thing to-
gether it would be unavoidable. It
would just be too bad. Each fellow
would blame the other, and the re-
turns made to growers would be
mostly explanations with very little
money. But we have a Clearing
House! It is your Clearing House.
It is the Clearing House belonging
to the growers that have asked that
we get together and meet emergen-
cies of just this kind. We cannot
side-step the responsibility that ex-
With no more grapefruit to move
from now on than two years ago,
and with prices two years ago being
$1 per box higher than our present
price, no one can convince me that
we haven't a clear duty. It must be
handled decisively, immediately, or
I cannot see how we can have
proper respect for ourselves as em-
ployees or members of the Clearing
House, nor proper respect for our-
selves as shippers.
It is quite possible that we may
not be able, with the same number
of cars, to realize from now on the
average of two years ago, $3.24,
but, with the same quantity, cer-
tainly we can expect to gain half of
the difference of $1 which would
bring up our auction average from
$2.30 to $2.80 and be returning our
growers about three times as much
money and still be marketing the
whole crop.
The very fact that our average


of 1100 cars per week of grapefruit
have actually been consumed is a
remarkable fact. This is something
that has never happened before. It
has been good advertising because
the fruit has been so good, *but it
has been an extremely expensive
type of advertising. It has cost prob-
ably 30c a box. We can reap the
benefit, however, of that advertising
if we will straighten ourselves out
and adopt a sensible, orderly ship-
ping program for the balance of the
season and stay with it at all costs.
It will take time to make the trade
believe that we have some con-
fidence in ourselves and to show
them that we are running the busi-
ness. It won't take over two weeks.
I cannot believe that the growers of
Florida are so absolutely panicky
and short-sighted that, if each of
you shippers will with utmost frank-
ness present to them the facts of
this situation, you cannot persuade
the big majority of them to do the
thing that seems so clearly our duty
and our opportunity to carry out.
Recommended Shipping Schedule
In the following tabulated figures
I am offering the recommended
movement from week to week that
I should like to see our shipper-
members adopt Friday night. In con-
trast with this schedule I am show-
ing the movement of grapefruit of
a similar volume of cars from Jan.
31 on, two years ago. I emphatical-
ly question the fairness of letting
our grower members continue to
participate in such unnecessary
losses even though by so doing they
are deliberately making room for
the growers who have enough cour-
age and foresight to hang on. I can-
not but believe that most grower
.members will do what our shippers
and their local representatives earn-
estly request, and I think we have
a duty to growers having regular
grapefruit as well as to those hav-
ing Marsh Seedless grapefruit. The
thing is not beyond our control and



(Continued from Page One)
for the saving to the industry in
dollars and cents will be tremen-
The American Fruit Growers, in
the opinion of those in the citrus
industry who have followed the
fight since its inception, have well-
earned the gratitude of growers and
shippers not only in Florida, but in
Texas and California as well. The
A.F.G. has persistently carried on
in the firm belief that they were
working in a just cause, and the re-
sults now show that that organiza-
tion has performed a service to the
fruit industry that can scarcely be
measured in dollars and cents.
President Alfred M. Tilden and
Manager Archie M. Pratt of the
Clearing House, both of whom have
worked closely with Judge S. L.
Holland, counsel for the Clearing
House, since the organization step-
ped into the case, declared that the
Clearing House, in winning the suit,

it is our job to "sit on the lid" and
do something about it. Your grower
members, if taken into your con-
fidence on this situation, providing
you have the same convictions that
it would seem all of us must have,
will immediately create an alto-
gether different atmosphere on this
Our shippers have considered
carefully these recommendations,
analyzing the grapefruit situation
and offering a recommended sche-
dule on grapefruit. This recommend-
ed schedule in contrast with grape-
fruit shipments two years ago, is
shown in the following table, and a
recommended schedule on Florida
orange movement from now on, as
well as the orange movement two
years ago:

State Shipments Including Mixed Grouped with Oranges and
Oranges Orapges Grapefruit Grapefruit
Week This Two This Two
Ending Year Years Ago Year Years Ago
Jan. 31............ 1752 1356 1100 936
Feb. 7.............. 1649 1367 1066 803
Feb. 14............ 1664 1444 1090 856
Feb. 21............ 1566 1472 1175 847
Feb. 28--........... 1538 1150 1015 722
March 7 .......... 1226 1194 1003 684

Total to Date..
March 14........
March 21........
March 28........
April 4..........
April 11..........
April 18..........
April 25..........
May 2..............
May 9.........
May 16............
May 23............
May 30............
June 6............
June 13 ..........

26,111 24,926 18,178 15,050
*1250 1250 800 948
1250 1230 850 828
1200 1259 850 803
1200 1207 850 847
1150 1090 850 920
1150 827 850 795
1150 1458 850 887
1150 1228 800 794
1100 883 800 727
1000 913 800 814
650 889 650 574
500 740 550 335
450 397 300 154
300 401 200 106

Total from
March 7.......... 13,500
Season's Total 39,611




* Recommended this year from week ending March 7 on.

Pan 3R

has settled for all time the question
of restricting the use of common
handling processes known to have
been in general use.
"Victory Is Far-Reaching"
"This victory means more than
having the right to use borax in
washing our fruit without payment
of royalty," President Tilden said.
"The decision of the Supreme Court
is of tremendous significance in that
it has settled for all time our right
to follow generally adopted methods
and mediums of handling our fruit,
so far as being compelled to pay
somebody a royalty is concerned.
Our victory also shows without
question what the Clearing House
means to the Florida citrus indus-
try. Had there been no Clearing
House it would have been difficult
to have aroused interest and thus
obtained support for the fight. The
Clearing House contributed finan-
cially as well as lending moral sup-
port and this too wasan,imp9 otAn.t
"Had Governor Carlton and the
Attorney General not quickly sensed
the importance of this, the case
would have been lost and the pack-
ing houses of the state subject prob-
ably to payment of damages. The
growers of the state have cause to
be grateful for the way in which the
Governor and the Attorney General
met the emergency."


(Continued from Page One)
the three nominees for their respec-
tive districts. Ballots containing the
names of the nominees as shown
on the first page of this issue of the
News, will be mailed out to the
members ten days before April 7,
which will be ample time to enable
the growers to mark their ballot and
mail it back in to the Clearing
Voting Is By Mail
To simplify the work of holding
the election, all voting, which as
usual will be secret, will be done by
-mail. Ballots together with blank
contracts for membership in the
Clearing House will be sent out
also to growers, many of whom have
indicated an interest in the Clear-
ing House but who as yet have not
joined the organization. These non-
members will be entitled to vote
provided their ballot is returned to
the Clearing House accompanied by
their signed contract.
The members of the Board serv-
ing this year are as follows:
From the state-at-large: J. C.
Chase, Winter Park; O. F. Gardner,
Lake Placid; J. A. Griffin, Tampa;
R. B. Woolfolk, Orlando.
District Directors: District one,
A. M. Tilden, Winter Haven; Dis-
trict two, J. T. Swann, Tampa; Dis-
trict three, E. E. Truskett, Mt.
Dora; District four, F. G. Moor-
head, DeLand; District five, Phil C.
Peters, Winter Garden; District six,
A. R. Trafford, Cocoa, and District
seven, E. C. Aurin, Ft. Ogden. -

Pav 3~-*


Clearing House Comes In

For Congratulations Upon

Its Work in Borax Victory

Many telegrams of congratula-
tion were received by the Clearing
House following announcement of
the Borax victory, officials of the
American Fruit Growers, the other
states that helped in the fight and
many others sending in their praise
for the work performed by this or-
ganization. Clearing House officials
were particularly pleased at the
commendation given by Florida's in-
dustry rivals on the Pacific Coast-
the California orange growers. Paul
S. Armstrong, assistant manager
of the California Fruit Growers Ex-
change, said:
"Mr. Dezell (the general mana-
ger) and myself congratulate your
organization on your timely and ef-
fective assistance to the American
Fruit Growers in winning their Su-
preme Court case. A significant de-
cision for the citrus industry." -
Other telegrams were as follows:
Doyle E. Carlton, Governor of the
State of Florida, said: "It is difficult.
to measure the beneficial results on
court decision in Brogdex case. It.
means the saving of thousands to
citrus growers and will probably
establish precedent to prevent fur-
ther throttling citrus industry. Am
very happy for citrus growers over
the fine results."
Attorney General Fred H. Davis:
(now Justice of the State Supreme
Court) said: "The United States Su-
preme Court decision in the Brog-
dex case is one hundred percent vic-
tory for Florida citrus growers and
shippers because court held invalid
not only article claims but process
claims as well, which means that
neither the process of using Borax
wash on citrus nor the processed
fruit after it is washed is subject to;
claims of Brogdex patent, thereby,
'eliminating future royalties on usei
as well as damage claims for past:
transactions. Governor Carlton and;
Commissioner Mayo were very help-:
ful in enlisting aid of other citrus;
growing states thereby materially!
siding victory by impressing Su-i
lreme'Court with importance of this:
-case so as to get it reviewed on its'
merits after adverse decisions inl
two lower courts in favor of patent:
claims. Due credit should be given:
them by the growers in helping toi
win this victory."
SRi B..; oolfolk, vice-president of:
the.lAn4rican Fruit Growers, defen-i
danjip the borax'case, declared the
victory means a saving of millions.:
Mr. W.pq)folk's wire said: "Decision
handed .down by Supreme Court of
.1rited, States reversing decision of
lower courts in Brogdex case gives
us leanJicut victory and means the
sa~gv of-.millions of dollars to the
citrus. growers of country. The
Floria' CGitrus Growers Clearing
House Association should be given
great credit for the action they took

in supporting us. Every citrus grow-
er both large and small in the State
of Florida should show his apprecia-
tion by becoming members of our
Clearing House."
J. C. Chase, president of the
Florida Citrus Exchange, said:
"This will acknowledge receipt of
your welcome message, carrying
with it the decision of the Supreme
Court setting aside the Brogdex pat-
ents and giving back to the growers
the use of borax as a preservative'
without paying tribute to anyone.
We have always felt that it was un-,
fair to pay for the use of borax for'
this purpose, as all of the original
experimental work has been carried,
on by the United States Department;
of Agriculture for the benefit of the:

growers. The saving on the present
crop, and all future crops of citrus
fruit, and other fruits, for Florida,
California and other fruit produc-
ing states is too huge to be esti-
"The writer wishes to congratu-
late the Clearing House on inter-
fering at a critical time after there
had been two adverse decisions by
the lower courts and backing up the
efforts of the American Fruit Grow-
ers and thereby winning an indus-
trial victory. This one success for
the Clearing House is worth many
hundred times all the Clearing
House has ever cost to the Florida
growers. The Clearing House was,
instrumental in inducing other or-!
ganizations, and also the State of
Florida, and thereby bringing in:
other states, to show an interest,'
which must have carried a weight,'
if not with the court, with the grow-'
ers throughout the country. This
shows what can be done by proper;
team work, which is only another
word for co-operation."
W. H. Mouser, chairman of the

Clearing House Operating Commit-
tee, said: "The favorable decision
by the Federal Supreme Court in
the Brogdex case again demon-
strates the value to the Florida cit-
rus industry of the Clearing House
Association. This victory is worth
more to the citrus growers than all
the assessments paid by the growers
to the Clearing House since its or-
Percy Saint, attorney general of
Louisiana, said: "The decision of
the Supreme Court in the Brogdex
case will emancipate the citrus fruit
industry of America."
State Senator J. J. Parrish, said:
"Feel you have won a great victory
for the citrus growers of Florida.
This means saving of millions for
the growers in years to come."
F. E. Godfrey, shipper of Orlan-
do, said: "Congratulations to you
and others associated in hard fought
Brogdex case. Your great victory
well deserved and your united ef-
forts will be appreciated by all in-
terested directly and indirectly in
the success of Florida citrus indus-

Coloring Methods

To Be Discussed at

Managers' Meetings

Clearing House to Help Pack-
ing House Men Solve
Their Problems

The Clearing House in response
to the state-wide interest on the
subject of fruit coloring and fruit
coloring methods, has undertaken
to hold a series of meetings
throughout the fruit belt so as to
pass on to shippers and packing
house managers some of the results
of work being done on coloring.
The meetings will be held in the
evenings so as to enable packing
house managers and house foremen
to attend without interfering with
their work. Dr. J. R. Winston, U. S.
D. A., who has been conducting in-
vestigational work on coloring
throughout the season, will deliver
lectures on this subject and will be
prepared also to discuss the results
and peculiarities found at various
packing houses.
Meetings Are 'Timely
The Clearing House, in sending
out notices of the meetings, pointed
out that the early maturity of valen-
cias probably indicates that they
will be turning green unusually
soon. A large portion of the crop,
therefore, will need coloring. It is
important that the coloring be well
done so that the fruit will not be-
come dull nor show severe decay.
During the current season the
Clearing House has employed men
who have been working under.Dr.
Winston on the coloring problem
and an account of their findings
soon will be issued for the packing
house managers. The following gives
the dates and meeting places for

Regional Meetings
District One
Haines City-City Hall....---.........--....Monday, March 16, 7:30 p.m.
Bartow-City Hall .....................-.........Friday, March 20, 7:30 p.m.
Frostproof-City Hall ............ ...........Friday, March 20, 2:30 p.m.
Lakeland-Commissioners' Rooin
City Building ..........------ -------.---Friday, March 27, 7:30 p.m.
Lake Wales-City Hall, Court oom..Monday, March 30, 7:30 p.m.
Winter Haven-Grammar School
Auditorium ..........................i......Thursday, April 2, 2:30 p.m.
Auburndale-City Hall .................. Thursday, April 2, 7:30 p.m.
District Two
Tampa-Chamber of Commerce ......Tuesday, March 24, 2:30 p.m.
Valrico-Village Hall ............-------......Tuesday, March 24, 7:30 p.m.
Lutz-Home Demonstration
Club House ..............................Wednesday, March 25, 7:30 p.m.
Clearwater-Commissioners' Room,
Court House .......................--..Wednesday, March 25, 2:30 p.m.
District Three
Eustis-City Hall .....................--------.......Monday, March 23, 7:30 p.m.
Leesburg-City Hall ........-----..............Tuesday, March 24, 2:30 p.m.
Tavares-Court House ......................Tuesday, March 24, 7:30 p.m.
Dade City-Court House ............Wednesday, March 25, 7:30 p.m.
Clermont-City Hall ....................Wednesday, March 25, 2:30 p.m.
District Four
Sanford-City Hall ......................Wednesday, March 18, 2:30 p.m.
Crescent City-High School ..........Thursday, March 19, 2:30 p.m.
DeLand-Chamber of Commerce
Building .....................................Thursday, March 19, 7:30 p.m.
Ocala-Council Chamber, City Hall..Monday, March 23, 2:30 p.m.
District Five
St. Cloud-Community House .......Tuesday, March 17, 2:30 p.m.
Kissimmee-County Agent's office.Tuesday, March 17, 7:30 p.m.
Apopka-North Orange Land Co. Wednesday March 18, 2:30 p.m.
Orlando-Chamber of Commerce
Building .................................. Wednesday, March 18, 7:30 p.m.
Winter Garden-Winter Garden
Ladies' Club ..................................Friday, March 20, 7:30 p.m.
District Six
Cocoa-Elementary School
Auditorium ......................................Friday, March 20, 2:30 p.m.
Vero Beach-Court House ............Thursday, March 26, 7:30 p.m.
Sebring-Council Chamber ............Thursday, March 26, 7:30 p.m.
Fort Pierce-City Hall ......................Friday, March 27, 2:30 p.m.
District Seven
Bradenton-Court House ----.................Monday, March 16, 7:30 p.m.
Sarasota-Chamber of Commerce
Building ............................-........Monday, March 16, 2:30 p.m.
Arcadia-Court House .................. Tuesday, March 17, 2:30 p.m.
Wauchula-City Hall ..----.................-..Tuesday, March 17, 7:30 p.m.
Ft. Myers-City Auditorium ...... Wednesday, March 18, 2:30 p.m.

AMarch 10, 1931

Pa-e 4

Pno' 4

the series of evening meetings plan-
'hed by the Clearing House together
with the name of the Clearing
B house director who will preside:
March 16-DeLand, Court House,
(F. G. Moorhead); March 17-Ta-
vares, Court House, (E. E. Trus-
kett); March 18-Winter Garden,
Women's Clubs Rooms, (Phil E. Pe-
ters); March 19-Winter Haven,
,Clearing House Offices, (A. M. Til-
den); March 20-Tampa, Tampa
Union Terminal (J. T. Swann);
March 23-Arcadia, Court House,
(E. C. Aurin); March 24-Fort
Pierce, City Hall, (A. R. Trafford);
AJarch 25-Cocoa, New South De-
velopment Company's offices, (A. R.
Better Understanding
Development of the findings of
Dr. Winston and his assistants dur-
ing the current season are expected
to bring about a better understand-
ng within the industry of the col-
oring problem. Heretofore there
'has been considerable opposition to
the practice of coloring fruit, op-
ponents being firmly convinced that
,coloring of the fruit not only af-
fected its taste and keeping quali-
ties but was a deliberate method of
cheating the consuming public. Op-
ponents of coloring felt that if en-
couragement was given to the color-
ing of fruit that it would simply re-
sult in the flooding of markets, by
Unscrupulous growers and shippers,
With immature fruit which had been
given an artificial color.
Sentiment in the state began to
,change somewhat about two years
ago, and came about particularly
during the 1929 session of the State
Legislature which at that time was
giving consideration to the shipment
of green fruit. Members of the Leg-
islature at that time were given an
opportunity to comment on the
Practice of coloring fruit. Opposi-
tion appeared immediately. Two
boxes of Valencia oranges, one of
which had been artificially colored
and the other being characteristi-
cally greenish in tint, were placed
'before the legislators to be sam-
pled. Those of the legislators who
-were not familiar with the coloring
of fruiti"-*re 'Ustonished :when they
discovered that the green and un-
colored fruit tasted exactly like the
yellow fruit which had been arti-
ficially colored.
SHelps To Lengthen Season
Dr. Lon A. Hawkins, principal
physiologist and recognized author-
ity in the United States on fruit
coloring, strongly advocates color-
ing as a sensible business practice.
As Dr. Hawkins sees the problem,
*refusal to color green fruit merely
results in the shortening of the sea-
fon by two or three months which
means that the market is "handed
,over" to those who do color their
fruit. In the case of Florida, refusal
to color the fruit results in stiff
competition with California in that
the coloring of our early fruit would
enable us to obtain a higher price
before the heavy movement of Cali-
fornia navels gets under way.
Better methods of coloring are
rapidly being developed under the


The above photographs show two of the prize-winning ex-
hibits at the Central Florida Exposition, held at Orlando last
month. The photo on the left shows Zellwood's exhibit which

Cutting Costs Of

Growing Fruit Is

Topic of Meetings

Selection of Committee of
50 Men Will Be Done at
Educational Sessions

Cutting costs and at the same
time producing more and better
fruit is a problem that is being
given more serious thought this
year than ever before by Florida
citrus growers. An opportunity to
get practical pointers on the ques-
tion of cutting production costs will
be given all growers at a series of
Regional Meetings to be held this
month throughout the fruit belt.
All growers are invited to attend
these meetings, (the schedule ap-
pears elsewhere in the News) the
Clearing House having arranged the
entire series. A short business ses-
sion will be held during the meet-
ing for the purpose of selecting
Committee of Fifty representatives
in the various districts, but the
greater part of the sessions will be
given over to discussions of citrus
production problems.
Authorities Give Services
Five men, all of whom are recog-
nized authorities on citrus culture
problems particularly along practi-
cal lines, will address the growers
at these meetings. These men who
have generously consented to dis-
cuss fruit problems with the grow-
ers are Professor E. F. DeBusk, ex-
tension citriculturist; Professor E.
L. Lord, professor of horticulture,
both of the State Agricultural Col-
lege; Albert DeVane, who is in
charge of sixteen hundred acres of
citrus grove at Lake Placid; Louis

sponsorship of the Clearing House,
and the meetings to be held this
month are expected to solve many
cf the problems that have been con-
fronting packing house managers
during the past few years.

won the First Community Citrus Award. The photo on the
right is that of the Lake County exhibit, which won the first
prize in the County Citrus contest.

H. Alsmeyer, Highlands County
Agent, and K. C. Moore, Orange
County Agent. All of these men are
well known in the state, and all of
them have had many years of prac-
tical experience in citrus growing
as well as having had wide oppor-
tunities to observe various methods
of citrus culture throughout the
In spite of similarity in cultural
methods generally every grower has
individual problems that frequently
are'wholly different from those con-
fronting his nearest neighbor. Con-
dition of trees, age of trees, charac-
ter of fertilizer material used, quan-
tity of cover crop, and numberless
other factors entering into the item
of cost, vary with the individual
grower. Experienced though a
grower may be there invariably
comes a time when he is in doubt
as to just what to do; perhaps it is
a question of skipping a fertilizer
application, or perhaps merely a
problem of what fertilizer mate-
rials to use, or the condition of his
trees may be such that previous
practice does not meet present
needs. Obviously, working out the
problem isn't always an easy thing
to do. It is well recognized that
growing conditions in the various
sections of Florida's citrus belt vary
tremendously and methods of pro-
ducing good fruit in one section do
not always mean that results will
be similar in other sections.
Following the talks at the Re-
gional Meetings, the speakers will
answer questions asked by the
growers and endeavor to cover as
many individual problems as pos-

Music For the Occasion
Mother (to Bobby): "Surely you
did something else but eat at the
school treat?"
Bobby: "Yes, mummie, after tea
we sang a hymn called 'We can sing,
full tho we be.' "
Mother learned later that the
hymn selected had been "Weak and
sinful tho we be."

Arsenic Spray Evil

Is Made Target By

Committee of Fifty

Growers Recommend Changes
In Green Fruit Law at
an All-Day Meeting

Selection of nominees for the
Clearing House Board of Directors
to serve next season, and recom-
mendations for changes in the cit-
rus fruit maturity law, differing
somewhat from the recommenda-
tions recently made by the state-
wide Composite Committee, gave
the members of the Committee of
Fifty a busy session at their meet-
ing in Orlando, March 9. The result
of the Committee's work in select-
ing nominees for the new Board of
Directors is carried elsewhere in
this issue of the News.
Meeting Well Attended
The meeting was well attended
by the Committee members and the
work accomplished indicated a real
earnestness and an interest' i fif-th-
industry's problem. Following the
work of selecting nominees for the
Board, Manager A. M. Pratt, of the
iClearing House, who was present
during part of the day's session,
spoke briefly on the present market
situation. He told first of the recom-
mendations which the Clearing
House has made for the moving of
the balance of this year's crop. He
then touched on the California
movement, declaring that he would
like to see the remainder of the
early oranges moved out of Florida
as rapidly as possible. Mr. Pratt
compared the 1928-29 prices and
the morale of the growers through
the fly campaign with the present
situation, stating that he anticipates
good prices for the Valencias if they
are spread properly over the bal-
ance of the season. He pointed out
the fact that there is no more
grapefruit than there was in 1928-
29. During that year the Florida

Prize-Winners at Central Florida Exposition

March 10, 1931

Page 5

- -

Page 6

growers averaged $3.24 at auction
against today's general average of
$2.30 to $2.40, or at least 80c less
per box.
Must Raise Price Level
Mr. Pratt said that the time has
come to take hold of the grapefruit
problem and pull the grapefruit
market up to a reasonable level. He
then informed the Committee mem-
bers that grapefruit had been put
back on a prorating schedule, this
action having been taken by the
Operating Committee at its meeting
March 6. He declared that if the
grapefruit situation is handled as
the Clearing House has suggested,
that he feels the growers will
realize an advance of at least half
the difference between current
prices and the average of 1928-29.
He said that more grapefruit has
been consumed in the past six weeks
than ever before in any similar
period in the history of the busi-
ness. He closed his talk by describ-
ing how the Clearing House has in-
augurated a new method of record-
ing daily the citrus market situation
which is expected to enable the ship-
pers to keep even better informed
and help them obtain a better re-
turn for their growers.
Green Fruit Law
Recommendations for changes in
the green fruit law then were taken
up. The Committee's recommenda-
tions on tangerines reads: "We
recommend that the inspection pe-
riod for tangerines be extended to
Dec. 1, and that the ratio standard
be 7% to 1."
After considerable discussion on
a test for oranges, the Committee
finally decided on a solids mini-
mum of 8 and a sugar and acid
ratio of 9 to 1.
Introduction of a solids test
which heretofore has never been
required on oranges was done pri-
marily to discourage arsenic
spraying. The inability of Parson
Brown oranges in some sections to
reach a solids standard as high as
some other varieties led the Com-
mittee to establish the solids at
eight, which still will tend to dis-
courage arsenic spray.
Juice Content Standards
Recommendations for a juice con-
tent standard for grapefruit also
were adopted, the Committee de-
ciding on the following scale:
CC of
Size Juice
36 .................................... 300
46 ..................................- 275
54 ............................... ----- 245
64 .................................... 215
70 ........................----------- 190
80 ..-....--- ..... ---------. . 165
96 ...............................- .. 145
126 ..........................----------.. 125
Decision to recommend the above
juice content standards was reach-
ed after a thorough discussion of
the factors affecting the maturity
of grapefruit. Adoption of a juice
content standard was deemed nec-
essary because some opponents of
a change in the grapefruit maturity
standards have opposed the use of
i~ iuice content measurement. Ex-
perience in grapefruit last fall, in



On Coloring
This is the second of three articles by
Robert Tilden, formerly of the U. S. D.
A., who has been assisting Dr. J. R.
Winston in the work of perfecting col-
oring processes in Florida. These arti-
cles are written for the layman, and af-
ford the reader an unusually interesting
picture of this important phase of pre-
paring our fruit for the markets.

Temperature is probably next in
importance. It has long been known
that fruit ripens and colors much
more rapidly at a warm tempera-
ture than at a cold one. Heat
hastens all chemical reactions. What
then is the best temperature for
coloring citrus fruit? It can't be
held much above 95 degrees Fahren-
heit for long without at least injur-
ing the flavor of the fruit. Fruit
colors very, very slowly below 80
degrees Fahrenheit. Setting 95 de-
grees Fahrenheit as the maximum
and 80 degrees Fahrenheit as the
minimum limit, what temperature is
best? Here we find an unhappy co-

the minds of the committee mem-
bers, indicated that a juice content
standard is imperative in that last
fall much of the early grapefruit
passed the maturity test but was
woefully lacking in juice. The Com-
mittee felt it advisable to have both
an acid test and a juice content
standard in that other opponents of
a change in the Green Fruit Law
advocated a juice content standard
only. Committee members felt this
inadvisable in that grapefruit may
derive considerable juice during a
rainy period, by heavy irrigation, or
other cultural practises, and still be
unpalatable. Hence, the committee
favors both an acid test and a juice
content standard.
Discussion of the administration
of the green fruit law resulted in
the passage of a resolution recom-
mending that enforcement be
placed in the hands of the State
Plant Board. This move was taken
in that it was felt that the State
Plant Board, because of its staff of
citrus canker inspectors and others,
would be in a position to provide
maturity inspectors more closely in-
terested in the citrus industry. The
State Plant Board inspection staff,
committee members felt, therefore
would prove more satisfactory for
this important work.
Even though the proposed green
fruit legislation recommended by
the Committee is expected to mini-
mize the use of arsenical spray
(which as a matter of fact is a vio-
lation of a Florida law) the Com-
mittee will recommend to the Clear-
ing House Board of Directors that
a practical spray bill be prepared
and submitted at the State Legisla-
ture session next month. It was
recommended also that the direc-
tors prepare a proper brief on the
green fruit law changes recom-
mended which will be presented be-
fore the citrus committee at the
legislative session.


incidence between coloring and de-
cay. Apparently the optimum color-
ing temperature would be 90 de-
grees Fahrenheit. Unfortunately, 90
degrees Fahrenheit is also the op-
timum temperature for the develop-
ment of the various strains of diplo-
dia and melanose fungi commonly
known as stem end rot. This illus-
trates how one must consider, and
often compromise with, relative fac-
tors even when coloring fruit. The
relation of coloring to blue mold
(pericilium or whatever) decay is
more happy. This fungus enjoys a
low damp temperature most. The
high coloring temperature naturally
checks it. It may be, that for fruit
mature enough to require only the
shorter coloring exposures, as below
48 hours, a temperature of 95 to
100 degrees Fahrenheit, quickly
established and with the proper hu-
midity control, will be used. This is
one of the many possibilities yet to
be definitely worked out.
Time Element Important
You will notice the suggestion of
a quickly established coloring tem-
perature. I want to change that
from a suggestion to a strong point.
During cold weather especially, it is
important. In the old rooms the bot-
tom fruit often would never reach
a coloring temperature. Even in the
modern rooms as they are operated
at present it is common for the bot-
tom fruit temperature to be allowed
to drag along for 24, 36 and some-
times 48 hours before getting it up
to an efficient coloring point. The
top fruit usually comes up much
faster. Now the time element in the
coloring room is worthy of note.
Consider what would be saved, both
in time and uniformity, if the fruit
were brought up to the optimum
coloring plane the first few hours.
The desirability granted, let us
take up ways and means. First we
can start off a room containing cold
fruit by running the air tempera-
ture up extra high, 95 or 100 de-
grees Fahrenheit, as rapidly as pos-
sible, letting the lower fruit come
up to about 80 degrees Fahrenheit
(the upper fruit will be some
higher), then cutting the air back
and leveling the fruit off at about
85 degrees Fahrenheit. This will
take considerable heat. What kind?
Dry? No. Why not? Because here
we run into the humidity question.
Humidity And Temperature
Humidity and temperature work
together, but adversely like that old
pair of mules you remember. In
speaking of humidity we refer to
the relative humidity, the precent-
age ratio of the water vapor in the
air to its full capacity at a given
temperature. The air's capacity in-
creases greatly as the temperature
rises, therefore the adverse opera-
tion. During cold dry weather the
relative humidity of the outside air
is very low. Consequently when it
is heated to twice its temperature
the humidity becomes extremely
low, wilting or drying the fruit. A
higher humidity is more conducive
to coloring. A high humidity greatly
facilitates the heating of the fruit.
The solution (we are now trying,

March 10, 1931

Jan. 15, 1931) to the situation ah
lows us to kill several ugly ducklings,
with one stone. The stone is steam,
live steam used as an aid to the dry'
The use of live steam enables us
to correct the initial deficiency in
humidity and to get the tempera-
tures up much faster at the samw
time. The temperature and humid-
ity schedule for cold weather would
therefore be something as follows:
Start With Live Steam
Start room with air temperature
raised to 95 or 100 degrees F. as
rapidly as possible. Use live stean,
at first to raise both temperature
and humidity. This will wet the
fruit. If the fruit temperatures are
coming up pretty well after two or
three hours or so, cut off the live
steam. If not, use live steam a little
longer. On the other hand, if the
fruit temperatures can be brought,
up rapidly without the necessity of
using enough steam to wet the fruit,
cut it off when the relative humidity
reaches 80 degrees or at the first
indication of the bottom fruit be-
coming wet. After four or five hours
or when the fruit temperatures
come up around eighty degrees F.e,
and after the fruit has been dried
off, cut the air temperature back to,
between 85 and 88 degrees F. and
hold. Then with 80 to 85 degrees as
the maximum limit, use live steam
to regulate the humidity as high as
possible without wetting the bot-
tom fruit. This point depends uponr
the fruit temperature. The colder
the fruit, the lower the percentage,
relative humidity of the room air at
which condensation takes place upon
the fruit surface, and vice versa.
For instance, with a room air.
temperature of 95 degrees F., fruit
at 50 degrees F. would be below the
dew-point even with a relative hu-
midity as low as 25 degrees, while'
fruit at 85 degrees F. would be
above the dew-point at a relative.
humidity as high as 70 degrees F.
Therefore, in order to keep the fruit
dry during cold weather it is neces-
sary to have the relative humidity'
of the room air fairly low, say 60
degrees or lower depending .upgif
the fruit temperature and build it
up gradually as the fruit warms up-A
This is another reason why it is de-
sirable to get the fruit temperature
up as soon as possible.
If necessary, the fresh air intake
on a room of cold fruit may be.
closed the first few hours so as to
hasten the raising of the tempera-,
During warm sultry weather such
as we have at the first and last of
cur shipping season, there is a dif--
ferent story to tell. The tempera-
tures and humidity are often trour-
blesomely high and it is not so easy
to get them down. The cold water.
sprays in' the chamber of the mod-
ern room might help if not used to
the extent of washing out all the
gas. It has been suggested that the
fresh air supply at such a time could
be drawn from the cold dry air or
the precooler. More work for the
We have just considered humidity


March 10, 1931

,jn relation to temperature. It also
deserves a little space to itself. The
,humidity doesn't seem to affect the
rate of coloration itself very mark-
edly although the higher humidi-
ties appear more favorable. It is
A mostly a question of wilt or drying,
decay and disbuttoning. If the hu-
pnidity is too low the fruit will be-
come soft or wilted. Sometimes
with a very low humidity and thin
skinned, smooth textured fruit, the
peel becomes somewhat shriveled
and dry. When the fruit is bruised
fit produces, especially around the
stem end where the peel is larger
telled and more tender, a brown
patching commonly attributed to a
so-called "color-burn." You can get
that same "color scald" in plain
warm dry air where there is no
trace of coloring gas. Thus, a low
"humidity ages the fruit. A humidity
that is too high is conducive to the
growthh of decay fungi and tends to
make the fruit lose its stems. The
Y'appy medium- according to my ob-
servations is from 80 to 85 degrees
after the room has "leveled off."
The relative humidity can be easily
"calculated by tables from readings
of the spread between the wet and
fry thermometers of the simple Ma-
son type hygrometer. I have found
several cases where the wet bulb
reading was taken as the humidity
reading. This is a mistake. Care
should be taken to use the hygro-
meters properly and accurately ac-
cording to directions.
Fruit Needs Air

>\ Fruit that is coloring needs air
just as does any other living thing.
A green plant in the sunlight uses
carbon dioxide gas and gives off
'oxygen, but in the -respiration of
coloring fruit a reverse chemical
action takes place. In ripening fruit
the chlorophyll breaks down, starches
becomee sugars, and acids are les-
sened. Therefore, oxygen is requir-
ed while carbon dioxide is given off.
When the action is greatly stimu-
lated in the coloring room the fruit
.needs an extra supply of air, con-
taining over 20 percent oxygen, and
also to be freed of the suffocating
"'aste products. We have done con-
siderable work in trying to deter-
Anine the supply of fresh air needed.
The scientific method would be to
find just what amount of oxygen
,given fruit used during a given
time under given conditions and
that amount of stale gases were
given off. Then the flow of fresh air
would be regulated by adjusting the
size of the intake according to the
ratio of the atmospheric pressure
outside of the intake to that inside.
LHowever, we have worked on a
more practical basis. There are too
T nany factors that upset theoretical
behavior where they are not all
.understood and allowances made
for them. We have based our fresh
'air adjustments on stale gas an-
alyses of the room air, using carbon
dioxide as the index.
Sizes Of Air Openings
Because of the variation in fac-
tors mentioned it is hard to give any
specific fresh air aperture. It. de-
pends largely on the draft, the air-

Sizing in the Grove
Paisley, Fla.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
What has gone wrong with the
citrus industry? We see fruit that
goes to market not paying its way
to the consumer or there are not
enough consumers to eat the fruit.
In either case, it is putting the
grower in the straights financially
to undertake to raise and send his
fruit to market. What are we to do
about it? Obviously -quit -raising
such large quantities or find more
months to consume what we now
are producing.
Many years ago the, orange grow-
er sized his fruit by eye and picked
them out one by one with his fingers
or again he used two straight sticks
spaced a little apart and a little
more open at one end than the other
and inclined so the fruit would roll
down and there were divisions mark-
ed on the sticks to indicate the sizes
of fruit. Neither of these methods
were patented. Then there were the
ring-chain and rope sizers, more
elaborate in design and patented.
The point is the grower got all of
his fruit, little and big, to market

tightness of the room, and possibly
on the fruit. Take an air-tight room,
if any. The static pressure within
the room would gradually be built
up by the incoming air until it part-
ly off-set the draft through the fresh
air vent; whereas a leaky room with
the same fan and motor would let
air out as fast as the fresh came in,
thereby dissipating the pressure
that would otherwise back up
against the intake draft. It might be
diduced frbmithis fhalt a few leaks
are an advantage to a room.
On the whole, my specifications
for the fresh air supply would be
about this: With the larger fans
(Sturtevant) commonly used, an
aperture of three square inches for
one car rooms and five square inches
for two car rooms when the fan is
run at high speed. With the motor
at low speed an opening of five
square inches for a one car room
and ten for a two car room should
be sufficient during most of the sea-
son. A considerable increase, up to
double the above supply, might be
needed with green fruit the first of
the season. Too much fresh air is
bad for obvious reasons and reasons
not so obvious. The gas equilibrium,
temperatures and humidity are up-
set. More heat from the boiler is
required. A room one-third full of
fruit of course doesn't need as much
fresh air as a full room.
(To Be Continued)

without wasting any of it. But now
it would be more advantageous if
he could keep the little oranges off
the market and utilize them at
Build small and light sizers that
one or two men can handle after the
idea of one or the other types above
mentioned and when a picking crew
goes into a grove to pick the crop
give the fruit a preliminary sizing
then and there and leave the small
fruit and culls on the ground for
the hogs and milk cow. When the
sized oranges reach the packing
house if they need a more accurate
sizing run them through a more
elaborate machine.
A moderate amount of grove
work would soon demonstrate how
many pickers one of the small sizers
would take care of and there need
be no superfluous duplicating ma-
chines in the grove.
This system would add many
more mouths to eat the small or-
anges, would save transporting to
and handling them at the packing
house, would diminish the size of
the packing houses and the quanti-
ty of machinery in them, and would
save putting inferior fruit on the
market to compete with the better
grades and would be feeding his
hogs and cows.
(Signed) N. LAFON.

Florida's Superiority
Tampa, Fla.
Florida Clearing House News,
Winter Haven, Fla.
In the article "More Confidence
in Ourselves" in a recent issue, re-
viewing Mr. Pratt's "analysis" of
the prices of California and Florida
citrus fruits, Mr. Pratt points out
in effect that;
Because California's cost of pro-
duction is approximately $1 more
per box than Florida's cost of pro-
duction, that she is entitled to $1
more per box on the market
Instead of
The fact that Florida's fruit is far
superior, in every way, to Califor-
nia's, (and also that the Florida box
is considerably more in cubic con-
tent and decidedly more in weight
and juice content) that the Florida
fruit if as intelligently marketed as
the California fruit is marketed, is
unquestionably entitled to bring $1
to $2 more per box than the Cali-
fornia fruit-regardless of cost of
What does it profit us (Florida
citrus growers) if we can raise our
fruit at less than half it costs Cali-
fornia to raise hers and she can sell
hers at a profit and we have to sell
ours at a loss?
Very truly yours,
(Signed) S. H. MOORE.

The Grower's Voice
Under this heading will be published communications from grower members
of the Clearing House Association, who desire to voice opinions upon matters of
general interest to Florida citrus growers. The Association cannot, of course,
assume responsibility for the opinions expressed in these letters, but believes
growers should have the opportunity of expressing themselves if they are willing
to assume the responsibility. Communications should be as brief as possible-
preferably not more than 250 words in length-and MUST be signed with the
writer's name and address (although not necessarily for publication).

"Hard Work Will Do It"
Chicago, Ill.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
I am interested in the effort now
being put forth by your association
and realize that you have many ob-
stacles to meet with but believe that
ultimately you will succeed and
place Florida oranges and grape-
fruit on the map where it belongs.
I remember a meeting of lawyers
at Macinac Island some years ago
in which different lawyers were en-
gaged in short talks regarding the
operation of a successful law office,
and one chap from Louisville listen-
ed for a time and finally arose, and
assuming a rather bored air said,
"Oh hell, the whole thing can be
covered in the following, 'Early to
bed and early to rise, work like hell
and advertise.' "
Success in the Florida Clearing
House venture or in the life of A.
M. Pratt can be covered by the same
I have often wondered why it
would not be possible to sell direct
to some of our large department
stores; they not only consume large
quantities but sell in volume.
For 17 years I have acted as gen-
eral counsel for the Produce Re-
porter Company, Chicago, and
handled the troubles of fruit and
produce men all over the country,
acting as a representative for ship-
pers, receivers, brokers, distribu-
tors, and know from actual experi-
ence some of the mistakes that have
been made and prevented profits.
I have just returned from one of
our neighboring fruit stores and find
that the Greek in charge has about
as many Texas grapefruit as Indian
River grapefruit for sale. Has the
Texas variety made inroads on the
profits heretofore obtained by the
Florida specie?
Very truly,

"Growers Must Unite"
Killbuck, Ohio.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearinrg House Assn.,- --
Winter Haven, Fla.
In regard to the present "fiasco"
of the Florida citrus growers it
seems as though as far as this sea-
son's prices and profits are concern-
ed "the goose is cooked," and I dare
say permanently cooked for those
who have played their cards.
The economic depression, the
placing of green fruit on the mar-
ket, and over-production are the
causes of the present debacle, and
although there will likely be some
improvement in prices later on, we
cannot expect to salvage much from
this season's crop.
The present condition of the
grower is both a farce and a trag-
edy. For many who have hung on
through years of adverse conditions
of one thing and another, it means
almost complete ruin. The more for-
tunate may be able to pull through
(Continued on Page Eight)



Paee 7





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of dis-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information daily.
Standardizing grade and pack through an impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding
among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.



Ft. Ogden
Winter Park
.Lake Placid
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
Mt. Dora

Control By The
The hardest part of the Committee of
Fifty's task which at best is a thankless one,
is that of keeping the growers in their respec-
tive territories advised as to the work the
Clearing House is doing. Some of the Com-
mittee members devote considerable time to
this work, and correcting false impressions
is not the least of their tasks. Despite the fact
that the Clearing House is in its third year
of operation, there still seem to be some grow-
ers who feel they are not a part of the Clear-
ing House and that they have no voice in its
affairs. Committee of Fifty members who
have been confronted with this sort of criti-
cism have in the main cleared up such mis-
understanding. Attacks on the Clearing
House that have been made from time to
time, and which center mostly around the
false accusation that the Clearing House is
controlled by shippers, are more difficult to
answer in that they are made by individuals
who refuse to help their fellow-growers work
out their industry problem. The Clearing
House set-up provides for absolute direction
and government of the Clearing House by the
Board of Directors (who are nominated and
elected by growers). Even the work of the
Operating Committee, upon whose shoulders
rests the task of directing the marketing
plans and policies of the Clearing House, is
subject to final approval by the Board of
Directors. This point the growers should bear
in mind, and those who hesitate to join the
Clearing House because of the fear that they
will have no voice in its government, need
only to question the Committee of Fifty on
this point to be set aright. And hence it is-
for the benefit of those "on the outside look-
ing in"-that the Clearing House will be just
what the growers make it. Control it they do,
and in the hands of the growers alone lies

March 10, 1931

Page 8

the success of this undertaking. The growers
elect the Board of Directors, and the Board
.of Directors, with the Committee of Fifty
acting in an advisory capacity, manage and
control the affairs and business of the Clear-
ing House.

Committee Does
Its Part
Grower-members of the Clearing House
again will have an opportunity to select their
representatives on the Clearing House Board
of Directors at the third annual election
which this year falls on April 7. The Commit-
tee of Fifty, in its capacity as an advisory
body to the Board, has performed its duty as
far as the election of directors is concerned
by selecting nominees to serve next season.
Election of these nominees now rests with the
individual grower-members, and their choice
in the men who will direct the affairs of the
Clearing House will be final.
Members of the Committee of Fifty in
selecting the nominees (whose names appear
on the front page of this issue of the News)
shoulder a serious responsibility. Like most
organizations the Clearing House has re-
ceived its share of criticism during the past
season. Committee of Fifty members prob-
ably feel that some of this criticism has been
merited, while some of it has been unfair. In
spite of this, the Committee of Fifty repre-
sentatives indicated their faith in the sincer-
ity and ability of the present members of the
Board of Directors by nominating all of them
to run in the coming election. Realizing that
there are other growers in the state who
might be equally as sincere and able as those
who have been serving this season, the Com-
mittee of Fifty selected still other nominees
who have been highly recommended by the
growers and whose qualities as prominent
men in the industry entitle them to considera-
tion as members of the Board.
In the matter of the directors from the
state-at-large the Committee of Fifty selected
eight men of exceptional ability. In addition
to the directors who are now serving from
the state-at-large-Messrs. J. C. Chase, O. F.
Gardner, J. A. Griffin, and R. B. Woolfolk-
the Committee of Fifty selected Douglas Igou,
of Eustis; C. W. Lyons, of Tampa; F. G.
Moorhead, of DeLand (now serving as direc-
tor from District 4) and J. A. Snively, Win-
ter Haven, member of the Board in 1928-'29.
In selecting nominees for the district direc-
tors the Committee of Fifty named some of
its own members, these being S. A. Whitesell,
of Clearwater; S. F. Wooten, of Tampa; W.
F. Glynn, Crescent City and M. J. Timmons,
Ocala. The other nominees for district di-
rectors likewise are prominent growers in
their respective sections and in the opinion
of the Committee of Fifty representatives are
well fitted to help administer the affairs of
the Clearing House.
In order that the growers will always have
the right and the power to select their own
directors, the Committee of Fifty which
created the Clearing House, wisely took care
to make this possible. The By-Laws provide
that nominations for the Board of Directors
be made by the Committee of Fifty. This was
a logical move in that the Committee of Fifty
.. .. -.. :. . : .

is the group in direct contact witl
the growers themselves. Realizing
the responsibility they had of select-,
ing nominees who would have the'
confidence of the growers generally,
the Committee of Fifty sent letters
to the grower-members of the
Clearing House the first of this
month asking the growers to adviser
the Committee of Fifty representa-
tives in their respective districts asx
to their choice of nominees for next
year's directorate. The By-Laws of
the Clearing House, however, pro-
vide yet another opportunity to the!
individual grower to select a Clear-
ing House director in case the se&'
election of the Committee of Fifty
representatives is not satisfactory-
with the grower. The By-Laws pro-
vide that additional nominees may
be selected by petition, seventy-five
growers having the right to nomi-
nate a grower or growers to serve
from their district, and three hun-2
dred growers having a right to nom-
inate by petition a grower to serve'
from the state-at-large.

(Continued from Page Seven)
and continue the farce for another
year or two, but many will be com-
pletely sunk with their lifetime sav-
How long are the growers going
to put up with these conditions?
Are they going to continue to do
nothing, remain idle on the sidelines,
and let disaster completely over-
whelm them? If prices cannot be
raised to bring a profit, why not try
the other end of the game?
Reduce the costs all along the
line. Let the other factors of the
industry do something to save it-
instead of putting all the burden on
the grower. The picking and pack-
ing house costs must be reduced.
The shipper and commission men,
must also reduce their costs to the"
minimum and the same applies to,
the fertilizer houses and to every-
thing that profits from the citrus
We may be entering an era of
low prices. Some of our leading
economists say we are going to have5
low prices on all agricultural prod-
ucts for years to come. Some say.
they will never be as high again.
Whether they be right or wrong, it's
up to the Florida citrus industry to
clean house, to organize with iron-
clad rules, to dispense with all use-
less overhead expense, and to be oln
their guard against the spector of
over-production which has already
caught the wheat grower.
The emergency is here-the sit-
uation is desperate. There must be a
house cleaning. The industry must'
organize now-not next year. It
must try to increase the sale prices'
of its fruit, and to reduce the costs
of raising same. If neither of these
results can be accomplished, his in-
vestments will not be worth ten
cents on the dollar. 1930 will mark
the end of many a poor unfortunate
in the citrus business. Let us Unite.
and see if we can save anything
worth while from the wreck.:_.,. !,
Yours truly, .... .....
(Signed) ..: H..A, LENT'Z..
"' . . ." ".' : :'. : -

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