Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00057
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: February 10, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00057
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

. Nils


U. S. Postage
Ic. Pid
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit

A -



Official Publication of the

$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81, Volume III
rus Growers Clearing House Association. FEBRUARY 10, 1931 1928, at the postoffee at Winter Haven,
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8, 1879. Number 9

Californians Also

Having Trouble In

Getting Back Costs

Westerners' Shipments Are
Behind Schedule With
Much Yet To Move
Confidence in the future and dis-
appointment in the present to date
is reflected interestingly in an analy-
sis of California shipments this year
as compared with two years ago,
the most comparable season. The
California orange crop this year is
estimated at 72,000 cars. The heavi-
est crop of oranges ever before ship-
ped from California was for the sea-
son 1928-'29, when 69,786 cars went
forward. This year's crop is esti-
mated as exceeding two years ago
something over 2000 cars, after
making deductions for extra cull-
age and elimination on account of
frost damage.
However, California has shipped
through Feb. 8 only 14,187 cars
compared with 16,278 cars through
the same week two years ago. Cali-
fornia is behind the movement of
that year 2000 cars, although hav-
ing 2000 cars more to move for the
entire season, or 4000 cars more to
move from now on.
California Is Behind
California estimates 35,000 cars
navels, 1000 cars seedlings, bloods,
St. Michael and miscellaneous varie-
ties, and 36,000 cars Valencias, or a
total of 72,000 cars. If California
moved its navels and odd varieties
per week at the same rate it did in
1928-'29, it would take until May
15 to move the balance of the navels
and odd varieties.
There are about 3000 cars more
navels to move this year than two
years ago and about the same num-
ber of odd varieties. The average
shipment per week from California
for the next 14 weeks would have
to be 1550 carloads to move all of
the oranges except Valencias by
May 15. During the past eight
weeks California has averaged only
900 cars per week, whereas ship-
ments must increase 65 percent over
the past eight weeks average to
move the navels by May 15.
Auction prices have been decid-
(Continued on Page Three)

Bankers Get Explanation

Of Work Clearing House Is

Doing for Citrus Industry

Financial Men Plan To
Help Growers of State
And Are Invited To An-
alyze This Organization.

Unification of the Florida citrus
industry is fast being realized, the
Board of Directors of the Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing House As-
sociation, has advised a special com-
mittee of the Florida State Bankers'
Association in an open letter ad-
dressed to that group last week.
Presentation of the letter followed
announcement by the Bankers' As-
sociation that they desire to inves-
tigate the citrus industry and to
give any assistance possible in the
move to help the citrus growers.
The Clearing House letter was in
the nature of an explanation as to
its accomplishments and objectives

and included an invitation to the
bankers' committee to study the
work the Clearing House is doing.
The letter sent to the individual
members of the Bankers' Agricul-
tural Committee reads as follows:
"We have just learned of your
appointment for the purpose of in-
vestigating conditions generally in
the citrus industry and lending your
valuable assistance towards further-
ing efforts to improve it.
Same Objective
"Since your motives and desires
are identical with the motives and
desires which resulted in the organ-
ization of this Clearing House, and
which are today inspiring its work,
we are offering this Association to
you as a medium through which to
carry out your endeavors towards
further improvement.
(Continued on Page Four)

Lack of Cooperation Is

Cited as Biggest Problem

Confronting Our Industry

Florida citrus growers stand to Clearing House Committee of Fifty;
lose more through lack of coopera- A. M. Pratt, manager of the Clear-
tion than through any supposed lack ing House; Senator J. S. Taylor,
of enforcement of early fruit laws. Largo, and Judge Allen E. Walker,
This was the substance of several Winter Haven, former Clearing
talks given a large gathering of House president, representing the
growers who attended the Growers' recently organized green fruit legis-
Day program during the Florida lation committee, and Dr. John R.
Orange Festival, held in Winter Ha- Winston, pathologist, United States
ven the last of January. Speakers Department of Agriculture, Orlando.
joined in emphasizing the import- Commissioner Mayo spoke on the
ance of "getting together" in spirit problems of enforcing the green
if not in organic union. The meet- fruit law and read recommendations
ing, as usual, was sponsored by the he recently gave to the press to
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing make the maturity law more effec-
House Association, President Alfred tive and to more nearly assure a
M. Tilden presiding. high quality of fruit. (Editor's
Speakers included Nathan Mayo, Note: Excerpts from these recom-
commissioner of agriculture; Chas. mendations were published in the
A. McKeand, secretary Tampa News Jan. 25th).
Chamber of Commerce; J. C. Mor- The need for continued close co-
ton, Auburndale, chairman of the (Continued on Page Three)

Late Fruit Should

Be Held Back 'Til

Markets Clean Up

Clearing House to Boost
Marsh Seedless And
Valencia Prices
Florida's late varieties of oranges
and grapefruit, namely the Valencia
and Marsh Seedless, which invari-
ably return satisfactory prices to
the grower, will not be put into the
markets this year in competition
with the mid-season fruit if the
Clearing House can prevent it. Ac-
tion looking toward this policy was
taken at a meeting of the Commit-
tee of Fifty held Feb. 10, the Com-
mittee passing a resolution request-
ing that the Valencia oranges be
held back until March 1st.
Both the Board of Directors and
the Operating Committee of the
Clearing House are in accord with
the policy of holding the late fruit
back, both bodies having taken ac-
tion several days ago similar to that
taken by the Committee of Fifty.
Members of the Committee of Fifty
in discussing prospects for good re-
turns from the late fruit pointed
out that the appetite of the trade
could be whetted only by holding
back shipments. According to a re-
cent Clearing House bulletin, the
mid-season fruit probably will be
cleaned up within three or four
weeks. If the late fruit is held back
it will enable the markets to clean
up before they are permitted to
handle the Valencias and Marsh
Seedless grapefruit, and both the
mid-season fruit as well as the late
varieties will be benefited by such
Cultivation Warning
The Operating Committee has
gone a step further in its recom-
mendations. This step has been the
issuance of a request to Clearing
-louse members that the fine quality
of the Valencias be not impaired.
Members of the Operating Commit-
tee at a meeting held Jan. 30 pass-
ed a resolution cautioning our grow-
ers against cultivating their Valen-
cia trees at this time. The reason
for this warning, it was pointed out,
is because cultivation tends to stim-
(Continued on Page Three)

Feb. 7, '31
Florida Oranges Shipped........ 1234
Florida Grapefruit Shipped.... 855
Florida Tangerines Shipped.... 193
Total-..-....-.....-- .-------.. 2583
Florida Mixed Shipped............ 782
Total ................ ..---- 9137
California Oranges Shipped.... 907
Florida Oranges Auctioned.... 590
Average -.................----- $2.85
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned 370
Average .....-.....-... ...----- $2.40
Florida Tangerines Auctioned 150.
Average..........----...------ $3.20
California. Oranges Auctioned 423
Average .................------ $3.30

Pao'2 9


Jan. 31, '31


Oranges No. 1
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shil
Last week.............. 273 98 $1.91 3
This week ............ 263 88 $1.91 2

Difference ....-... -10 -10

Grapefruit No. 1
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg.
Last week.............. 218 80 $1.78
This week ............ 133 54 $1.80

Feb. 7, 30


Feb. 7, '29


Oranges No. 2
pped Sold Avg.
13 116 $1.65
72 111 $1.69
41 -5 + .04

Shipped Sold
263 117
201 104
9 Co.

No. 2

Difference.......... -85 -26 +.02 -62 -13 .05

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Jan. 31 ....--... 679 1086 624 1087 662 1022 1094
Feb. 7 ........-.. 641 1092 489 1018 734 1166 1214
Feb. 14 .......... 796 1196 372 834 746 1074 1260
California Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Jan. 31-....--... 837 1013 962 1133 943 513 609
Feb. 7 ......... 959 871 956 860 664 470 949
Feb. 14 .---......... 1026 1438 1123 474 828 650 1181
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Jan. 31--.....--- 534 820 527 635 421 672 564
Feb. 7.......... --- 415 685 394 549 477 866 593
Feb. 31 .......... 544 750 391 605 496 942 679
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Jan. 31............ 392 386 215 207 159 166 No Rcrd.
Feb. 7 .......... 337 393 213 229 173 199 No Rcrd.
Feb. 14 .......... 351 354 205 221 153 170 No Rcrd.

Shipments To Date
Converting our mixed cars into
their' proper proportion, the state
has moved to date 20,193 cars of or-
anges, 13,854 cars of grapefruit and
4,012 cars of tangerines.' If.our or-
ange' movement of 36,000 cars for
the state is correct, there should be
left 16,000 cars of oranges, of
which about 12,000 are Valencias,

4000 mid-season; 14,000 cars of
grapefruit out of a total crop of 28,-
000, of which 6000 might be figured
as Marsh Seedless and 8000 as reg-
ular :grapefruit.
SGrapefruit Dropping
From the reports coming in of
depreciation of the crop on the
trees due to advance maturity and
skin-pox, as well as the serious

Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending February 7, 1931)



dropping that is taking place, it is
doubtful if 8000 cars of regular
grapefruit will be moved from now
on in carload lots, especially with
the market so low where the move-
ment of the crop is purely a matter
of salvage in an endeavor to get
something for the grower before he
loses too much by dropping and de-
preciation. So far, it seems as if
grapefruit has not been recognized
by the families over the United
States as a necessary household ar-
ticle. It is still in the special class
from a food standpoint. Neverthe-
less, never before have as many
grapefruit gone into consumption
and probably never before as fine
eating grapefruit. If there are 8000
regular grapefruit left and no
Marsh Seedless were moved, it
would take at the present rate of
shipping grapefruit until the week
ending March 28 to move those cars
on about 1150 cars per week. This
week, including the proper propor-
tion of mixed, will show about 1025
cars of grapefruit as leaving the
state, last week 1100 and the week
before 934.
If we did not start on the 6000
cars of Marsh Seedless until after
March 28 and moved them at the
rate of 1000 cars per week, we
would have the entire crop of 14,-
000 cars shipped by May 9. Where-
as, if we would move this 6000 cars
of grapefruit evenly through to
June 6 it would take only 600 cars
per week which should give us a
chance to see some wonderfully fine
prices on Marsh Seedless grapefruit,
especially if there is moved from
now on as is quite probable only
6000 cars of regular grapefruit in-
stead of 8000, thereby permitting
the movement of Marsh Seedless ex-
clusively starting one or two weeks
earlier. The fact that we have been
moving over 1000 cars a week for
the past three weeks, including this,
and that the market is not glutted
entirely shows that the grapefruit
is moving into consumption even
though at such extremely low prices.
This same fact indicates that when
we can reduce this abnormal pres-
sure of volume from over 1100 cars
a week to 600 cars a week, with so
many families having eaten grape-
fruit that have not customarily done
so, there should be a fine reaction
in the way of decidedly good prices.
Florida has the only grapefruit
that will be competing, with the ex-
ception of Porto Rico grapefruit,
which it is.estimated will be moved
about as follows:
Febraury ...................... 85,150
March ..... --.....---....----114,600
April ............................166,100
May ..............................234,500
June ............................. 266,750

(2345 Cars)
Advice from Porto Rico further
states that the movement in--the
above months will probably be'less
rather than more as Porto Rican
operators are seriously considering
extending their grapefruit move-
ment into August if Florida is not


February 10, 1931

sufficiently out of the way and
prices do not advance very mate-
Cold Storage Possibilities
Aside from the above considera-
tions which may make a happy end-
ing to our grapefruit story, there is
the possibility of extending our sea-
son from two to four weeks longer
by cold storage. In the face of all
this, particularly with the demand,
now existing in the west for Marsh
Seedless grapefruit, with Texas hav-
ing less than 300 or 400 cars left,
the Operating Committee felt war-
ranted in strongly urging the Man-
ager to show the strength of our po-'
s;tion on Marsh Seedless grapefruit
and for that reason moved that-
minimum quotations for next week
on Marsh Seedless grapefruit should
he $2.50 f. o. b. on No. Is and $2.25
on No. 2s and that no Marsh Seed-
less grapefruit should move for-
ward unless our shippers felt war-
ranted in expecting this minimum.
Bulk Grapefruit Price
It was further moved that all
shippers be advised that minimum
quotations on bulk grapefruit, grove
run, quality and size, washed and
polished, shall be $1.00 per box. ItV
was felt that if we would all hold
firmly to this $1.00 minimum on-
bulk grapefruit that we could have
this price just as well as not.
Bulk Orange Price
All agreed that the recommenda-
tion issued this week asking all of,
our shippers to raise their bulk
price on oranges to $1.25 was im-
mediately reflected in a much
stronger situation and advanced
prices. Some of our members are
now getting $1.35 f. o. b. and some
are anticipating as much as $1.50
f. o. b. on bulk oranges before the
top is reached.
Orange Situation
Should we continue moving our
oranges at the rate this week and
last have moved forward (or over
1700 cars per week), three weeks
hence, or February 28, we would
have moved an additional 5100 cars
which should give us from March 1
on a market exclusive for our Val-
Valencia Prospects
If these Valencias move forward
at 1000 cars a week, commencing on
March 1, we would have the entire
12,000 cars moved by May 23.
Those who have Valencias that could
be held until the week ending June
13 should have a good chance of
realizing still higher money. Even if
we moved the Valencias at 1000 cars
a week, compared with 1725 or-
anges this week, 1752 last week,
1323 the week before, 1127 week
ending Jan. 17, 1040 week ending
Jan. 10, 1400 week ending Jan. 3,
certainly we all would agree that it
looks as if we should see relatively
high prices on Valencias. With the
mid-season oranges, due to their
dropping so rapidly and advanced
maturity forcing such an early clos;
ing of mid-season shipments, there
i- nothing to warrant moving Val-
encias now.
(Continued on'Page Three)

- -


Florida's Radio

, Stations Aiding

In Sale of Fruit

Broadcasters Contributing
Stations in Effort To
Swell Consumption

Florida's radio stations have un-
dertaken to help the Florida Citrus
SGrowers Clearing House Association
bring a million or two dollars more
into the state for the crop of won-
derful fruit that is being moved
-into the north.
The effort being made by the
radio stations is a unique piece of
cooperation that is not commonly
experienced in this commercial age.
The radio stations are contributing
their time and broadcast facilities,
the Clearing House paying a small
sum for the talent.
Reluctance on the part of the
great buying public in the north to
spend any more money than was
necessary has given the Florida
grower a tremendous obstacle to
overcome in marketing the current
.season's crop. The consuming pub-
lic in the north is still laboring under
the fear brought about by the 1930
depression. It was to make this po-
Stential customer substitute Florida
oranges and grapefruit for some
v-other form of food that the radio
stations, at the request of the Clear-
.ing House, stepped into the picture
to see what could be done. The re-
sult has been that a schedule of
thirty minute programs has been
drawn up for practically every night
in the week, one or more Florida
radio stations plugging away night-
ly with their messages about Flor-
ida's oranges and grapefruit. Clear-
ing House officials have expressed
themselves as being deeply grateful
for the help the Florida stations are
giving. Many Florida radio fans
probably do not appreciate the fact
that the Florida stations reach well
into the north. It is true that the
'Florida stations, are not as power-
ful as some of those in the large
northern cities, but the fact remains
that they do reach well into the
northeastern and middlewestern sec-
On the theory that Florida, in the
Sees of the northerner, is the land
of sunshine and recreation, the pro-
Sgrams going out over the air from
the Florida stations have been built
up to emphasize this same idea.
Florida's most famous song, Suwan-
nee River, is used as the "theme
song" and the entire program plan-
ned so as to offer the greatest temp-
tation possible to the individual in
the cold north to buy Florida or-
enges and grapefruit "since they
can't come here."
The following is a list of the sta-
tions cooperating and the schedule
of programs: WDAE (Tampa) Fri-
day nights, 11:00 to 11:30; WDBO
(Orlando) Friday nights, 10:15 to
10:45; WFLA (Clearwater) Mon-

day nights, 9:00 to 9:;0; WJAX
(Jacksonville) Wednesday nights,
11:00 to 11:30; WSUN (St. Peters-
burg) Tuesday nights, 11:00 to
11:30; WQAM' (Miami) Thursday
nights, 11:00 to 11:30; WRUF
(Gainesville) Friday night, Feb. 13,
6:30 to 7:00; Thursday night, Feb.
19, 6:30 to 7:00.


(Continued from Page Two)
The Operating Committee, there-
fore, "moved that Valencias be held
back until all mid-season oranges
are out of the way; and if any ship-
per desires to ship Valencias before
mid-seasons are out of the way that
he confer with the manager before
shipping." It was further agreed
that every effort should be made to
get a definite break between the
supplies of mid-season oranges be-
fore commencing Valencias so as to
permit the trade to clean up the
mid-season oranges closely before
Valencias are offered in competi-
California Shipments Light
A wire from the California Ex-
change advises that shipments have
been light this week, due to rainy
weather. Instead of shipping this
week the 1400 cars estimated, the
California movement will be about
975 cars. Advice from the Exchange
is that next week's movement will
probably be 1400 cars. Regardless
of the fact that California has a
much bigger crop than last year,
the orange movement from South-
ern California to date is only 5914
cars compared with 6603 last year.
Weather is partly the cause, also the
disappointing prices. During the
past eight weeks our auction aver-
ages on oranges have shown from
20c to 70c a box less than two years
ago, with the week ending Jan. 31
showing practically the same as two
years ago. California, on the other
hand, has been ranging from 60c to
$2.05 less than two years ago, the
drop on this year's weekly auction
averages compared with two years
ago for the same weeks showing as
Difference Auction
Averages Two Yrs.
Ago with This
Week Ending Calif. Fla.
Dec. 21 ................ 1.50 .60
Dec. 28 ................ 2.05 .70
Jan. 4 ............... -2.00 .45
Jan. 11 ................ 1.90 .60
Jan. 18 ................ 1.45 .55
Jan. 25 ..........- .. 1.15 .25
Jan. 31 ................ .60 .00
Feb. 7 ..--........--. ..70 .20
With California having experi-
enced a relative drop from two to
four times as great as our relative
price level drop, it is quite natural
that the pressure to move on the
part of growers so far has not been
as great in California as that here
in Florida. California probably has
about 21,000 cars of navels left,
1000 odd varieties and 37,000 cars
of Valencias. The Valencias will not
start moving in any volume until


(Continued from Page One)
edly disappointing to the California
growers, their average for all sales
at auction this year during the last
eight weeks being $3.23 delivered
on 2705 cars compared with $4.60
deliver two years ago on 2569 cars
sold at auction. This is a drop of
$1.37 over California's previous
heaviest crop year, yet California
shipments during this time have
been 1327 cars less this year than
two years ago, though she has been
compelled to put in 236 cars more
at auction. This likewise indicates
the restricted demand California is
experiencing in her private sale ter-
ritory, especially when compelled to
take a drop of $1.37 on auction
sales with shipments 1327 cars
lighter than in these eight weeks of
two years ago.
On the other hand, Florida has
shipped a little over 1000 cars more
during the same eight weeks than
she did two years ago. During this
time Florida has sold at auction only
266 cars more than two years ago,
or about the same excess at auction,
with shipments 1000 cars heavier as
contrasted with California's ship-
ments being over 1000 cars lighter.
Florida's average at auction dur-
ing these eight weeks is $2.81 de-
livered, in contrast with $3.23 de-
livered two years ago, or a drop of
42c in contrast with California's
drop of nearly $1.00 more or $1.37.
It is interesting to note that our av-
erage two years ago at auction for
this period is practically Califor-
nia's average this year. To get cost
of production out of oranges, Flor-
ida should realize $3.00 delivered at
auction and California $3.75. This
again shows that during the past
eight weeks California has averaged
50c less than cost of production
with Florida averaging 19c less than
cost of production.
From the above analysis we may
think we feel rather bad down here
in Florida but California growers
are having a decidedly harder time
in meeting production costs. We
have moved our increased crop
while California has held back hop-
ing for better market conditions
from the middle of February on.
We both have the same sincere hope
that both states from now on will
enjoy better prices on oranges. In
the meantime, let's not feel too
sorry for ourselves because it be-
gins to look as if Florida has done
better than we have given ourselves
credit for when we realize what the
entire citrus industry, including
California, is up against.


(Continued from Page One)
ulate growth in size as well as
coarseness in texture.

or greenish tinge thereby losing the
rich orange color. By leaving the
Valencia undisturbed by cultivation,
the tendency to dryness at the stem
end also will be decreased. The
Operating Committee included in its
warning a suggestion to the grower
to be careful in the application of
quick acting nitrogenous fertilizers
until after the fruit has been picked.


(Continued from Page One)
operation among growers and the
apparent weaknesses of the present
marketing system was emphasized
by virtually all the speakers. Chair-
man Morton, who recently made a
trip to the middle west, was em-
phatic in urging commodity citrus
advertising, declaring the state's
crop should be advertised as a whole
rather than attempting to advertise
the numerous brands.
"We don't need to have different
Florida sales organizations adver-
tising their products against one
another," said Mr. Morton. "What
we need is to convince the world
that Florida as a state produces by
far the best citrus in the world."
Depression Is Factor
Senator Taylor declared Florida's
citrus troubles go back many years
and are a constantly recurring prob-
lem. Present conditions he laid
largely to the general depression
throughout the country.
Judge Walker presented legal
aspects of enforcing green fruit
laws and suggested that California,
Arizona, Texas and Florida should
get together on a common fruit law
that would strengthen the general
industry. He placed the blame for
present unsatisfactory conditions
equally on the grower and the ship-
Dr. Winston, second se speaker on
the program, pointed out that much
of Florida's trouble is due to rough
handling of the fruit when picked,
packed and transported.
Value of Water Haul
Mr. McKeand spoke on water
transportation of citrus out of Tam-
pa, showing that 585,000 cases of
canned grapefruit alone had been
shipped through that port to Eng-
land the last season.
Manager Pratt, of the Clearing
House, responded briefly to lauda-
tory remarks by President Tilden
and declared the Clearing House
stood ready to assist "in any emer-
gency that might arise."
Committee of Fifty Meets
The Committee of Fifty of the
Clearing House held its monthly
business meeting in the morning
with Chairman Morton presiding.
Chief interest centered around the
presentation of recommendations of
the recently organized green fruit
committee by F. E. Brigham, Win-
ter Haven, a member of the com-

Stimulation also tends to turn a mittee representing the Committee
Valencia back toward a pale yellow of Fifty.


February 10. 1931

Page 3


Florida Says: "Here's To America's Governors!"

The above pictures were snapped at the Flor-
ida Orange Festival, held in Winter Haven last
month. During the week the Clearing House
cooperated with Governor Doyle E. Carlton in
sending boxes of fruit from the Festival to the
governors of the 47 other states. Incidentally
the newspapers of the country were made aware
of the gift, in that several photos of the fruit
were taken while pretty girls who are residents

of the various states, posed in front and on top
of the huge pyramid of boxed fruit.
The photos above, reading from left to right:
Upper Left: Governor Carlton and Miss
Bertha Knight, Queen of the Festival, drinking
a toast of Florida Orange Juice to each other.
Upper Right: The Festival Queen, a bevy
of Florida bathing beauties and old Ponce de
Leon himself.

Center: The prize-winning Citrus Exhibit of
the Florence Citrus Growers Association at
Florence Villa.
Lower Left: The crowd at the opening of
the Festival. The huge pillars are likenesses of
glasses of orange juice.
Lower Right: The prize-winning float of the
Winter Haven Exchange Club.

(Continued from Page One)
"We invite your consideration of
the following accomplishments and
plans of the Clearing House, and
invite you to confirm our statements
through a first-hand investigation to
be made by your committee:
"The Clearing House.has brought
together some forty competitive
shippers in the State of Florida and
has provided a means for coordinat-
ing their efforts. In this way it has

practically unified the Florida cit-
rus industry. Today eighty percent
of the fruit of Florida is represent-
ed in the Clearing House.
Standardization Work
"Through the work of the Clear-
ing House, the grade and pack of
its shipper-members has been stand-
ardized and built up to a point
where cars complying with Clearing
House requirements cannot be legal-
ly rejected at the buying end of the
line. Buyers of Florida fruit which
is packed by Clearing House mem-
bers know they can depend upon

uniformity of grade and pack. Much
confidence in our fruit has been es-
tablished through the carrying out
of this one Clearing House funda-
"During the Mediterranean fruit
fly campaign, united effort and rep-
resentation in presenting our prob-
lems in Washington was made pos-
sible through the Clearing House
Association. Step by step, through
our coordinated efforts we were
freed from that pest and its accom-
panying embargoes.
"During the fly campaign, when

embargoes restricted the buying
territory, Clearing House control
and distribution enabled the indus-
try to market its crop to an ad-
"Clearing House advertising has
increased the demand for Florida
fruit. All fruit shipped from Flor-
ida has the advantage of this adver-
tising, since no competitive brands
or trademarks are advertised but
simply the superior qualities of
Florida fruit above that of competi-
tive fruit.
"Clearing House prorating in

Page 4

February 10. 1931


Florida and in the auction markets
has resulted in an even distribution
of supplies, and prevented the glut-
Sting of markets. It is saving the
growers from a vast amount of red
ink this season, even though gen-
eral depression and a heavy crop
in both California and Florida are
bringing low prices to both states.
SIn the matter of controlling our
supplies, or prorating, very equit-
Sable plans are followed, and all
shippers given like treatment.
Doing Our Part
"Since the first of December the
Clearing House has been constantly
urging the shippers who are outside
of the Clearing House to either join
the Clearing House or form an or-
ganization which would enable them
to work with the Clearing House in
prorating and distributing supplies.
This is essential under the depress-
ing conditions obtaining now. The
SClearing House shippers week after
week have cut their shipments away
Sbelowuthe-percentage-to which-they.
are entitled, only to find the state's
shipments built up by over-ship-
ments on the part of this outside
group. If a way could be developed
for those shippers to work with the
SClearing House in but this one way
-prorating-it would mean mil-
4 lions to the Florida citrus industry.
"Clearing House members are
constantly working towards better
general conditions. For instance, by
vote at a meeting early this season,
our shippers decided not to ship any
Sbulk fruit during the season. As the
season progressed, however, and it
was recognized that it would be im-
possible to market the large volume
of small size fruit without bulk
shipments, the Operating Commit-
tee, without dissenting vote from
either the co-operative or indepen-
dent shippers represented, changed
this action and left the matter open
for each shipper to handle bulk if
it seemed best.
Iron Out Difficulties
"The Clearing House presents the
opportunity for the industry to be
considered as a whole. Petty differ-
ences arising from competitive sit-
uations are ironed out and a re-
markable spirit of unity is main-
tained. Hundreds of industry ques-
tions are being considered constant-
ly by the Operating Committee,
composed of shippers, which meets
once each week, and by the Board
of Directors and the Committee of
"The Clearing House presents a
united front for consideration of
problems with the canners, and
many efforts have been made to
work out problems together. With-
out this Association, it would be
impossible for the canners or any
other outside body, to get together
with the citrus shippers for action.
"The Clearing House is the main
support of the Growers and Ship-
pers League, which league has saved
millions of dollars for the industry
in securing lower freight and refrig-
eration rates and preventing higher
"This is a resume touching but a

I expect that agricultural prob-
lems go even farther back than that
Chinaman of 7000 years ago. I be-
lieve the first agricultural problem
arose in the Garden of Eden with
the setting of Eden's first autumn
sun and the rising of earth's first
golden harvest moon. I am inclined
to think that Adam and Eve sat
down in the cool of the evening and
discussed the production of larger
and tougher fig leaves and some
that would wear better than those
they had. All these agricultural
problems are going to be discussed
to the end of time. A lady said to

few of the accomplishments of the
Clearing House. We ask that your
committee consider these, believe
that you will find in our set-up and
in the efforts which are already be-
ing made, just what you will need
to carry out your own ambitions
and desires for the industry, and we
seek your cooperation and counsel.
"The Clearing House has many
constructive plans for carrying on
the work in the future, to bring in-
creasingly more benefits to the
growers and the industry, in the
natural growth in volume as well as
efficiency which may be expected
from such an organization that is
only in its third year.
More Advertising Needed
"We hope the growers will grant
a larger advertising assessment an-
other season. Much has been done
this year by our advertising depart-
ment in working out the best means
and methods for telling the story of
Florida's citrus industry. We are
now making a try-out of radio ad-
vertising in Chicago, which we ex-
pect will show real results. Experi-
ence is showing that what is known
as dealer service work in the mar-
kets is valuable and we hope to be
able to work along these lines.
"We know that if you will accept
our invitation to investigate closely
just what we have done, are now
doing, and are planning to do, you
will find that your committee can
accomplish much by joining forces
with us. We ask this fully recog-
nizing what exceptionally splendid
aid would be afforded us by your
"We also call your attention
again to the enclosed report of in-
vestigation made of the Clearing
House by the United States Cham-
ber of Commerce, believing this
may encourage you to accept our
invitation to make an impartial in-
vestigation and thereby give our
body the benefit of your recommen-
dations for further betterment of
industry matters.

me the other day, "Do you think we
will ever have our citrus problems
solved?" and I told her I had hoped
at one time we would be able to
see the last one solved but now felt
sure that Gabriel's horn would dis-
turb a meeting of Florida growers
discussing their citrus problems.
Must Work Together
I don't have much to tell you ex-
cept this, that I am going to give
you some lessons I learned a couple
of weeks ago in the north. It was
my first experience seeing Florida
fruit under northern marketing con-
ditions and I came back more en-
thused than ever on the great" ieed
of the Florida citrus industry to
still further cooperate. I don't mean
exactly getting together in one mar-
keting organization, as much as I
am in favor of cooperative market-
ing, but I mean every grower and
every marketing organization in
this state uniting together in one ef-
fort to solve the state's problems.
I thought while north that I had
met the two largest producers of
citrus fruit in the world. The two
men who produce all the oranges
and all the grapefruit, or rather the
two men who produce all the or-
anges in this United States, and one
of them is named California and the
other one is named Florida.
I also met the largest consumer
of this crop and his name is Uncle
Sam. And Uncle Sam said to me,
"Jim, Mr. Florida isn't playing fair
with me when he sends the fruit up
to me to buy," and you know that
thought carried home to me that
we aren't a bunch of individual
growers here in Florida, but one
group seeking to sell fruit to Uncle
"Getting Repeat Orders"
While going to lunch at noon in
the Arcade, a lady stepped out and
offered me a glass of orange juice.
I asked her who they were repre-
senting and she told me they were
advertising a mail order program
and upon asking her what success
they were having she said they were
having wonderful success and get-
ting repeat orders. I asked her what
she accredited the repeat orders to
and she replied, "We are playing
fair with our consumers and selling
them none but the best fruit, pack-
ed and shipped properly so that the
fruit reaches them in good condi-
tion, and we are getting lots of re-
peat orders."
And I thought, what a wonderful
lesson for Mr. Florida for it's Mr.
Florida who is marketing this fruit.
We must learn to select it carefully,
sell only the best, not sell until fit
to eat, properly graded and then
tastefully, packed, and see that it
reaches the consumer in good shape.

Jim Morton Said:
The following is an extract from the talk given Growers' Day at
the Orange Festival by Jim Morton, chairman of the Committee of
Fifty. As usual, Jim went straight into the heart of the problems
confronting the citrus industry and his remarks given herewith are
worthy of serious thought by every grower in the state.

We then will have repeat orders.
We can't count on doing that until
we solve first of all the green fruit
shipments the first of the season. I
want to say that all the laws that
could be passed and all the Commis-
sioners of Agriculture that could be
congregated in the State of Florida
will not solve this green fruit prob-
lem until we growers back there in
the fields have an awakened consci-
ousness to the fact that the fruit
permitted to be picked out of our
groves is fruit that we ourselves
would eat.
Personally Watch Picking
And coming back, the one man is
Mr. Florida and that one man is
you. Unless you personally step into
your grove in the fall of the year
when the pickers come to pick your
fruit and see that they pick nothing
but what you would eat yourself,
Uncle Sam is not going to give us
any repeat orders. It doesn't lie
merely with Mr. Mayo, it doesn't lie
.withjoulr .packing house, or the
state law; it lies with you and until
we growers come to realize all the
damage we are doing to Mr. Flor-
ida in sending our best customer,
Mr. Uncle Sam, green fruit, we are
not going to get the repeat orders to
which we are entitled and our mar-
keting problem is going to remain
with us. I want you to remember
that and carry it home with you.
Another thought we have been
terribly concerned with this year is
about the prices we have been re-
ceiving for fruit. It seems that we
have a new problem each year. Last
year it was the Mediterranean fruit
fly. But we have something else that
is almost unknown in Florida and
that is the dollar bill! Everybody is
blaming somebody else for the low
prices they have been receiving.
Don't turn around and blame the
shipper, don't blame the Florida
Citrus Exchange, don't blame the
Clearing House, don't blame your-
self or your neighbor. For there is
this truth, there is a depression all
over the country.
Many Commodities Down
Are you aware that rubber today
is selling in Liverpool at less than
it takes to transport it to that port?
Wheat is selling for less in Liver-
pool than it has since the days of
Good Queen Elizabeth or since the
sixteenth century. You also prob-
ably know that wheat is being burn-
ed in this country by farmers for
fuel. You are aware of the difficul-
ties of the cotton producers in this
country. Apples are having difficul-
ties and the growers in Calfiornia
with their wonderful organization,
splendid control and their big adver-
tising program are receiving less
after you take off the cost of pro-
duction than we in Florida are, and
we must face the fact that no one
is to blame. We are simply shipping
in a period of depression that is all
over the world, and we must keep
this idea first, the reason for which
I can't discuss and wouldn't if I
We want to carry from that this
thought, that we growers in the
State of Florida are in a worse fix

February 10, 1931


Pag'e 5

Pare 6

today than we would have been had
we listened to the Committee of
Fifty last summer and insisted that
there be a more adequate advertis-
ing program behind this crop of
fruit. Some will say, "Why, Jim, you
are contradicting yourself, because
California is spending one and
three-quarters millions on her crop
and is not much better off than we
are." I am not contradicting myself
because we are marketing our fruit
on the advertising that California
is doing and had we had money to
help that California program it
would have been helping us and
them too.
Must Raise Price Level
The fight for an advertising pro-
gram last year ended with the deci-
sion that brand advertising was nec-
essary and that commodity advertis-
ing was worthless. Florida must put
on an advertising program in order
to raise the price level for the state.
What does it matter if some fellow
gets 5c more per box with brand ad-
vertising if none are getting the
cost of production? If we can raise
the price level to pay $3.00 per box,
I am not concerned whether I get
5c more per box than you or wheth-
er you get 5c more per box than I
do because we are both making
money. Every box that leaves Flor-
ida would be bearing an adequate
assessment for an advertising pro-
Everyone seems to think that ad-
vertising is black and white stuff in
a paper or colored stuff in a maga-
zine. Let me talk about dealer serv-
ice. I don't know just what could be
accomplished if we had adequate
dealer service. Florida never has
had a better crop than she has to-
day. In Chicago I met a young man,
a splendid fellow of Italian descent,
who got his start in life by selling
baskets of bananas. He was a hust-
ler from Hustlerville. He told me he
received this year a carload of or-
anges in bushel baskets from Or-
lando and didn't know just what to
do with them. There is in Chicago
a large chain of Walgreen Drug
Stores. This fellow put a bushel
basket of these oranges in the back
of his car and went down town to
find the manager of these Walgreen
Drug Stores and tried to sell him
the idea of using Florida oranges
instead of California which they
were using. He wasn't getting any-
where. He said "just wait a minute,"
and he brought in some of those or-
anges. He asked that they first go
to the juice extractor. They took
some of those oranges and tested
for juice content against California
oranges and then they tested them
for palatability. Of course they
passed the juice content test better
than the California oranges. They
are better than California oranges.
He sold the carload of fruit and
many others followed for the chain
is now using Florida fruit exclu-
"Used Only Floridas"
I was in at least six of their stores
and asked if I could have California
orange juice. They said they used
Only Florida oranges because they
Started better and had more juice.

Page 6


Every young man in those Welgreen
stores is boosting Florida fruit. If
that could be multiplied throughout
this country there is no end to the
amount of fruit that could be sold
and sold profitably.
There are about 3000 chain stores
in Chicago not handling Florida or-
anges. What would have happened
if you fellows had taken a few cents
a box and told the house wives of
the United States to go to the groc-
ery store and ask for Florida or-
anges? There would not have been
3000 chain stores not handling the
Florida fruit. And we can do this
if we will by putting a proper ad-
vertising program back of our fruit.
My good friend, John Clark, said in
the summer we were going to pay
for an advertising program. Some
of us think that we haven't paid for
one but we have paid for an adver-
tising program and haven't had it,
and have paid for it by lower re-
turns in the market. We have paid
for it and haven't got it. Some day
when we view this industry, not as
somebody else's industry, not as my
neighbor's orange grove or some
other fellow's grove but as one unit,
we will put on an advertising pro-
gram for Florida fruit that will be
heard around the world.
"Mine No Better Than Yours"
I want to compare commodity ad-
vertising against brand advertising.
Let's presume that I own an orange
grove. I have a good crop of fruit
on it and in order to determine the
merits of one marketing organiza-
tion against another I determine to
ship one-half of my fruit through
one organization and one-half
through another. Now here are two
of my oranges picked from the same
grove, possibly from the same tree.
This one I am marketing through
the Blue Goose, this one I am mar-
keting with Sealdsweet. I face a
four cents a box assessment for ad-
vertising on each of these. For what
purpose? To tell Uncle Sam that
this Sealdsweet is better than that
Blue Goose, and to tell him that this
Blue Goose is better than that
Sealdsweet. What I should be doing
is to tell him that both of these or-
anges are .grown in Florida and bet-
ter than any grown anywhere else.
Now I don't want to take up any
more of your time but I want to
say this that our Florida problem
never will be solved by petty fights
in the State of Florida. It never will
be solved by criticising one organi-
zation against another, but by
loyal support to the organization to
which you are affiliated. We have
bigger things to do and the thing
that will solve Florida's problem,
the thing that will bring back
money to the citrus growers of
Florida is for you and me and all
the other growers to cooperate to-
gether, not with an idea of selfish
interest, but because I cannot suc-
ceed unless you do and you cannot
succeed unless I do. We have got to
get together in an organization that
will be so strong and so efficiently
managed, giving expert attention to
careful picking, packing, hauling
and grading of our fruit, and so ex-


Directors Analyze

New Estimates For

Year's Percentages

Outsiders Will Not Work
With Clearing House
on Prorating

New crop estimates, shippers out-
side the Clearing House, Valencia
shipments, and possible downward
revision of operating expenses, were
among the most important subjects
discussed by the Clearing House
directors at the meeting of the
Board Feb. 6.
After disposing of a few routine
matters the Directors heard a re-
port from President Tilden on the
subject of the outside shippers.
The outsiders, known as the Fruit-
men's Association, in a letter to the
Clearing House which Mr. Tilden
read, explained their status at the
present time. The outsiders have
been able to secure the membership
of only about half of the outside
shippers and have advised the Clear-
ing House that they do not feel that
there is anything they can do to-
wards working with the Clearing.
House on prorating.
Allotment Changes
Manager Archie M. Pratt, follow-
ing out the request made by the
Board at a previous meeting, pre-
sented figures which had been fur-
nished by the Florida Citrus Ex-
change supporting that shipper mem-
ber's request for an increased Clear-
ing House allotment. The previous
action taken by the Board in this
meeting was based upon the neces-
sity of obtaining new crop estimates
from the shipper-members of the
Clearing House in that it was known
that there had been losses and gains
in tonnage with several of the ship-
per-members. As changes in volume
would mean change in the shipper-
members' Clearing House allot-
ments, it has been realized that the
proportion allotted the various mem-
bers., in prorating, during...the first
half of the season probably would
not be fair as a season proportion.
In the case of the Exchange, an-
alysis of the figures presented show-
ed that the percentage of allotment
given up to Jan. 1st-50%--was
correct, based on information which
was in the hands of the Clearing
House at the beginning of the sea-
son. Information which has been
furnished by the Exchange during
the past week indicates an increase
in business during the season, which
entitles the Exchange to a higher
basic percentage for the season, and
the Manager recommended a basic
season percentage of 52.4%. It was
clearly understood that this is an
average percent for the whole sea-
son and that the quantity of each

variety which the Exchange or any
other shipper member ships must be
taken into consideration in deter-
mining the correct percentage for
prorating each variety. The Mana-
ger stated that the Exchange has a
large percentage of Valencias and
Marsh Seedless grapefruit and that
this will be taken into consideration
when the late fruit movement gets
under way.
Recommendation Accepted
Further analysis of the shipment
and tonnage records finally resulted
in the decision to place the Ex-
change basic percentage from this
time on at 54%, the following rec-
ommendation by Manager Pratt be-
ing approved by the Board:
"WHEREAS, the figures available
at the beginning of the season show-
ed that the Exchange percentage
was approximately 50% of the
Clearing House volume, and
"WHEREAS, further data of
gains and losses by growers as of
Feb. 1, submitted to the Clearing
House, show that the Exchange
basic percentage for the season
should be 52.4%, and
"WHEREAS, from the apparent
amount of fruit now remaining in
the Exchange, their basic percent
for all varieties should be 54%,
SOLVED that the Exchange basic
percentage from now on shall be
54% until such time as the Board
shall again revise the percentages
either of all fruit or by varieties."
A motion also was passed that
the manager make further recom-
mendations for variations for the
basic percentage by varieties.
"Hold Back Valencias
Considerable discussion then en-
sued as to the necessity of holding
back Valencia shipments until the
mid-season oranges are out of the
way. Manager Pratt pointed out to
the Directors that the mid-season
oranges will be well off the market
within the next three or four weeks
and the Board unanimously recom-
mended to the Operating Commit-
tee that the markets be given an
opportunity to clean up before
nrovement of the Valencias is be-
Mr. Moorhead as chairman of a
special budget committee, Messrs.
E. E. Truskett and 0. F. Gardner
being the two other members, asked
the Board to study the revised
budget and to offer suggestions as
to possible curtailment of expenses.
It was pointed out that operating
costs are being given the most care-
ful scrutiny, and economies being
effected wherever possible.

Merely Curious
Bank Teller: "What's the name,
Indignant Depositor: "Don't you
see my signature on that check!"
Bank Teller: "Yes, I do-that's
just what aroused my curiosity."

Well Seasoned
Mrs. Newlywed: "I wept oceans
of tears over this meal!"
Mr. N.: "Well, it does taste pret-
ty salty, dear!"

February 10, 1931

tensively advertising and distribut-
ing it that every box of Florida
fruit will bring back a profitable re-
turn to the man who produced it.


Rough Handling of Fruit

Is Responsible for Decay,

Government Expert States

(Extracts from talk delivered by Dr. J. ant duty to call on jobbers and re-
R. Winston, U. S. D. A., at Growers' Day
meeting in Winter Haven. Dr. Winston tailers in New York, Philadelphia,
has been engaged for some time in study- Washington and Chicago and to ask
ing some of our fruit problems-from the
commercial handling viewpoint-and is de- them whether they preferred to
veloping some valuable data at this time handle California or Florida citrus
relative to coloring methods)fruits. Without exception the reply
One hundred years ago a man by was: "California." My next ques-
One hundred years ago a man by t w hall-

the name of Clark, writing from St. tion was: "Why do you prefer Cali-
the name of Clark, writing from St. fornia fruit?" Almost without ex-
Augustine, then the center of the fornia fruit Almost without ex-
citrus industry of Florida, stated exception the reply was: "Florida
that most of our fruit decay was the fruit ecays too rapidly, or words
result of rough and careless hand- to that effect.
ling. He also noted that- fruit Please understand I am speaking
handled roughly did not ship well about that type of decay which re-
b and often would develop heavy de- sults from rough and careless hand-
cay before it could be gotten to New ling. It is known variously as blue
York. Such fruit was unfit for the mold,green mold, white -mold, soft
rot, water rot, pin head rot-repre-
export trade. There were, however, rot, water rot, p head rotrepre-
some growers in that community sending various stages of develop-
who picked and otherwise handled ment of the same general decay. We
their fruit carefully and shipped it Floridians usually refer to it as blue
their fruit carefully and shipped it m ld
in barrels to London, via New York. mold although the olive green type
SThis carefully handled fruit almost predominates and this decay, ac-
always arrived in London in a sound cording to official figures, causes a
Condition some thirty or forty days financial loss six times as great as
afcndition some thirty or forty days. that resulting from stem end rot,
ater picking the only other decay of consequence
Carefulness Possible found on Florida citrus fruits.
Later, when the California citrus Sanitation Not All Of It
industry developed shippers they The spores of blue mold are found
had lots of trouble with decay that mo
caused heavy financial losses. The floating in the air almost every-
U. S. Department of Agriculture where, in the grove, packing house,
sent a group of men of Agriculture to and perhaps in this very room.
sent a group of men ou there to e Grove and packing house sanitation
determine the cause of the trouble r o om h n reducing the
and to develop corrective measures. are of some help inon, butcing the de-
chances of infection, but the de-
These investigators soon determin- sired end cannot be accomplished
ed that most of the trouble resulted si aot ao lish
from rough handling. They made by all know that the spores of
numberless tests and demonstrations We all knw incapable of pene
that satisfied the shippers that it trat unbroken citrus rind tissue
was commercially practical to han- treating unbroken citrus rind tissue
was commercially practical to han- and they never enter the fruit
dle fruit with the degree of care through the stem; therefore, when
necessary in eliminating the decay ever we see a fruit decaying with
that results from rough handling, blue mold we know that somebody
Last summer it became my duty or some thing has paved the way for
to make inspections of California this decay by rupturing the rind. Ii
fruit on the New York market at peaches were handled as roughly a,
Intervals of about thirty days. I ex- oranges there would be few dishe:
amined fruit all night for five con- of peaches and cream served in th
r secutive nights before finding the larger cities.
first decay, and that one had been We sometimes are inclined to be
injured by a box nail. Mind you this come lax in our daily routine ant
fruit had been picked more than follow the line of least resistance
two weeks. We saw no signs of clip- Such laxness is sometimes excuse
per cuts, long stems or box bruises. on the score that it is impractical t
Dealers Fear Decay handle fruit much more carefullJ
Only yesterday I had the pleas- than is now being practiced. Bul
ure of meeting a fruit merchant California has demonstrated the
from Portland, Oregon. He said the fact that it is both practical ant
northwest takes our grapefruit in profitable to handle fruit with suf
Preference to almost any fruit, but, ficient care to practically eliminate
he added, Florida fruit rots so rap- decay. We often hear it claimed
Sidly that both the dealer and the that our fruit is naturally more ten
consumer are afraid to buy in quan- der than California fruit, hence
titles that would tend to stimulate other things being equal our frui
increased consumption. He stated will develop more rapid decay. Tha
that our fruit might arrive there in in a measure may be true, but thi
sound condition but within a period fact remains that much of our deca:
of three or four days a goodly por- can be eliminated even in the cas
tion of it would be decaying. He of the weakest fruit that we cai
urges us to so handle our fruit that produce.
it will not be subject to rapid spoil- Pitfall in Humidity
age. Fruit should not be picked during
In the past it became my unpleas- a fog or other periods of high hu

February 10. 1931

February 1013















midity, or immediately after rainy
spells. Such weather conditions
seem to predispose fruit to rapid
Ladders, too often, are banged
against the tree bruising more fruit
than you might imagine.
The common scissors type of clip-
per are responsible for most of our
clipper cuts and long stems. Clip-
pers with a short shearing surface
are much less likely to cause
Fruit with long stems are respon-
sible for a considerable amount of
decay. They woody stems puncture
or scratch the rinds of other fruits
during the packing operations.
Few picking foremen insist upon
careful dumping of the picking bag.
Have you ever listened to pickers
dumping fruit into a field box?
What happens if there are splinters
in the bottom of the box, or if cover
crop stubbles are sticking between
the cracks of the box?
Our field boxes are much too
large and too heavy when filled. The
Florida field box holds about ninety
pounds of fruit, and the California
field box holds only fifty-five pounds.
Naturally the heavier box is handled
less carefully especially after the
workmen begin to tire.
Box Too Full
Our field boxes are often filled
too full resulting in the top fruit
being badly bruised before it gets
to the packing house.
Fruit should not be subjected to
coloring room conditions any longer
than is necessary and it should be
packed and put under ice or shipped
as rapidly as is consistent with care-
ful handling.
Improperly adjusted packing
house machinery is a source of
bruises, especially is this true in the
case of badly worn equipment.
Long fingernails on the ungloved
hands of pickers, graders and pack-
ers are responsible for a great deal
- of our trouble.
The high bulge pack is a common
source of decay, especially on the
top layer.
f It is impossible for graders to de-
s tect and throw out every injured
s fruit. Fresh bruises and slight rind
e abraisions are extremely difficult to
detect, hence it is all the more im-
portant that our fruit be handled
I carefully at all stages of the pack-
Sing operation.
d There is a tendency among opera-
o tors of certain packing houses
y equipped with pre-coolers to become
t lax in general handling practices on
e the assumption that pre-cooling will
d ward off decay. Unfortunately pre-
cooling does not prevent decay; it
e simply retards decay. Blue mold
d decay can develop at very low tem-
peratures, but of course the lower
e the temperature the slower the rate
t of development. Fruit that has been
t roughly handled but pre-cooled may
e arrive at market in an apparently
Y good condition but within a few
e days a goodly percentage of decay
n is likely to develop, causing the
buyer to become dissatisfied. This is
not a mere possibility, it has hap.
g opened in hundreds of instances thi,

Page 7

Then too there are some opera-
tors who feel that they can get by
with rough handling if they use an-
tiseptics in the soaking tanks. A
wide range of so-called are in use.
Some are good for the purpose for
which they are intended while others
are practically worthless. The use of
antiseptics often tends to promote
a false security in the minds of the
operators with an occasional disas-
trous consequence. As a general
rule fruit handled in the usual but
rough way and treated with antisep-
tics arrives at market in worse con-
dition than does carefully handled
fruit without the aid of antiseptics.
Some of our packing houses are
making wonderful records, records
that we have a right to be proud of.
I know of some six or eight houses
with perfect records for the season.
These houses are widely scattered
and handle fruit grown on various
soil types. Those operators have
demonstrated the fact that they
know how fruit should be handled
and they put their knowledge into
Just a few figures and I am
through, from two hundred inspec-
tions of first and second grade fruit
that had been graded and sized the
following data were obtained: 17%
of these inspections showed the
presence of bruises varying in
amount from less than 1% to 3%.
Twenty-five percent of these inspec-
tions showed the presence of long
stems, varying in amounts from less
than 1% to 5%. Fifteen percent
of these inspections showed the
presence of clipper cuts varying in
amounts from less than 1% to 9%.
Think of it, 9% of the fruit with
clipper cuts. 'Is there any wonder
that our fruit has the reputation of
decaying rapidly?
From any angle you choose to
view the situation there is no sub-
stitute for careful handling.

Citrus Exports

The following figures, furnished
by the United States Department of
Commerce, show the grape-fruit, or-
Sange and tangerine exports from
SNew York, Los Angeles, Jacksonville
and Tampa for the weeks ending
Jan. 3, Jan. 10:
Week Ending Jan. 3
New York-London ................ 1,707
New York-Southampton ........ 411
New York-Liverpool .............. 93
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 3,500
STampa-Toronto* ............------- 1,065
Tampa-Windsor* .............-----------.. 50

Total................----------------- 6,826
New York-Liverpool .............. 2,483
New York-London ..........----- 1,103
New York-Southampton ........ 402
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 3,898

Total-...............---- ------------- 7,886
Week Ending Jan. 10
- New York-London ..---------. 2,684
s New York-Southampton ...--..... 475
(Continued on Page Eight)





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of dis-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information daily.
Standardizing grade and pack through an impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding
among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.




. Ft. Ogden
Winter Park
.Lake Placid
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
Mt. Dora

Solving The Problem
Of Over-Production
That the organization of the Clearing
House three years ago was a sound economic
move has become more apparent this year
than ever before.
Organizers of the Clearing House when en-
rolling the growers during the spring of 1928
pointed out the necessity for improvement in
distribution methods in that production of cit-
rus fruit was approaching dangerously near
saturation. Only by properly distributing the
fruit and increasing the consumer demand for
it could this problem of over-production be
solved, the organizers said.
This prediction has become only too true.
The Clearing House beyond any question of a
doubt is needed more today in Florida than
even its organizers realized three years ago.
The marketing of Florida's oranges and
grapefruit has become a problem that can be
solved only by efficient business methods.
Team work is a phrase that frequently is over-
done, and it has almost become worn out.
There is no substitute for the phrase however
-team work with a capital "T" is essential.
And the Clearing House is providing this
same essential. It is the only organization at
the present time that can represent the in-
Talk of over-production of citrus some-
times is frowned upon. There is no use, how-
ever, in closing our eyes to the situation.
There is a tremendous acreage in the United
States of both oranges and grapefruit, and
this acreage is increasing every year. The
trend of grapefruit production particularly is
sharply upward not only in Florida but in all
grapefruit producing sections. Florida has
about 80,000 acres in grapefruit. Most of the
trees are in bearing, but many are not yet full
size, according to the U. S. D. A. report for

Page 8

1931 just issued. Texas has 60,000 acres of
grapefruit and, get this, only 17% of the
trees are of bearing age. In further reference
to the Texas situation the Government re-
ports that a survey of plantings in the lower
Rio Grande valley (the chief producing area
in Texas) made in April, 1930, by the Federal
P. Q. C. A. indicated some 713,000 grapefruit
trees five years old or older; 300,000 trees
four years old; 445,000 trees three years old;
814,000 trees two years old; 1,214,000 trees
one year old and 716,000 trees under one
year of age. The 1930 freeze set back Texas
production only temporarily, the Government
The U. S. D. A. admits that it is impossible
as yet to forecast accurately the prospective
production of Texas and Arizona grapefruit.
Freezing, grove neglect, faulty water require-
ment, estimates and other factors may curtail
yields. "However," says the Government, "if
by 1936 the production from trees now stand-
ing in Texas and Arizona averages two boxes
per tree (or the same as the ten year average
in Florida for trees five years old and older)
total United States production of grapefruit
from present plantings would show a total
of 23,000,000 boxes." In line with this com-
ment the Department of Agriculture goes on
to remind us that previous to the season of
1929 no grapefruit crops exceeding 9,000,000
boxes have on the average netted the growers
as much as one dollar per box on the trees!
As to increasing consumption of grapefruit
in foreign countries, the Department of Agri-
culture admits that this will continue, but pro-
duction in Palestine, the West Indies, Brazil,
and South Africa is increasing to meet this
demand, hence Florida must expect more
competition in the European markets than
has been felt in the past.
All of which brings us right back to the
point that our own fruit business will require
a real one hundred percent cooperative effort.
By the very nature of its set-up, the Clearing
House gives promise of being the most practi-
cal solution to the problem.

From time to time growers and others in
Florida have endeavored in a small way to
help increase consumption of Florida oranges
and grapefruit. As a rule these efforts have
been messages concerning our fruit which
have been printed on envelopes or letterheads
used by the individuals interested.
There is no question but what this form
does some genuine good. A few growers and
business men of the state probably have car-
ried such slogans on their stationery for many
years and some good probably has resulted.
If such a movement could be inaugurated
upon some basis approaching state-wide ef-
fort, the resulting benefits probably would be
appreciable within a short time. The Clear-
ing House only recently has been advised of
work along this line, the Manatee Hammock
Fruit Company of Manatee and the Lions
Club of Arcadia, being among those who
have "put into practice what they are preach-
ing." Printing on the bottom of one's letter-
head or on an envelope a line reading for in-
stance: "For Health's Sake, Eat More Florida
Oranges and Grapefruit" would add practi-
cally nothing to the cost of stationery and
would more than pay its cost.

February 10, 1931

Competition From

Florida Felt By

Pacific Growers

California is feeling the effects
of Florida competition in no uncer- e
tain manner these days.
This was revealed in a dispatch
just received by the Clearing House
from the Pacific Fruit World, a
weekly bulletin service published in
California. The Fruit World bulle-
tin is somewhat optimistic in that
it feels that the low values existing
should insure a heavy consumer de-
mand. The bulletin reads as fol-
"A generally dull and unsatisfac-
tory market has prevailed on Cali-
fornia Navel oranges the past week.
The markets have heavy supplies of 4
both Florida and California oranges,
but with the bumper crops in both
states, there must necessarily be
heavy supplies and the low values
on all sizes should insure a heavy
consumer demand.
"Florida shippers are flooding
middle western markets with bulk
oranges that are selling at ruinous
prices. Heavy sales of these cheap
oranges are hurting the market on
packed fruit. Florida's 1930-31 or-
ange crop is only a little more than
half shipped which means that Flor-
ida oranges will be in the market
for several months yet.
"Considering the splendid eating
quality; high color and low prices on
California Navel oranges a larger
volume of fruit should be moving.
Best quality Navels size 324s are
retailing at 19c per dozen as com-
pared with 34c last year at this
time; 288s at 22c compared with
40c; 252s at 24c compared with 47c;
216s at 28c compared with 53c;
200s at 31c compared with 56c;
176s at 35c compared with 60c;
150s at 40c compared with 61c; 126s
at 48c compared with 67c, and 100s
at 60c compared with 76c per dozen
last season at this time.
"F. O. B. California quotations on
Fancy Navels are on a basis of $2.25
to $2.50 on 150s and smaller; $2.75
to $3.00 on 126s; $3.00 to $3.50 on

(Continued from Page Seven)
New-York-Liverpool ............ 362
Los Angeles-London .............. 2,100
Jacksonville-London ..............14,494
Jacksonville-London* ........ 3,795
Jacksonville-Glasgow* ......... 100

Total............................. 24,010
New York-London ............ 74
New York-Southampton ........ 103
Jacksonville-London ........... 955

Total................... ........... 1,132
New York-London ................ 90
Jacksonville-London ............. 720

Total.................................. 810


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