Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00056
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: January 25, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00056
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
Library Comp.,
Bureau of Arig. Econ.,
U. S. Dept. of Arig.,
Washington, D- C.

Growers of Or
Headquarters: WI



more than 10,000
anges and Grapefruit
!\ .. r .t'" ;*? :,

U. S. Postage
1c. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1


Official Publication of the

$2.00 a Yer Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- "'13- Entered as second-class matter August 81, V
Cp a r rus Growers Clearing House Association, J- 1 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Havenume
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven. Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8, 1879. Number 8

Grower Committee Formed

To Handle Applications Of

Those Suffering Fly Losses

State-wide Body Is
Divided Into Dis-
tricts; Growers
Urged To Estimate

Damage Carefully

During the "Mediterranean Fruit
Fly" infestation, growers of fruits
and vegetables suffered severe losses
; by virtue of the restrictions impos-
ed upon them by the quarantine
rules and regulations. These losses
came about through confiscation of
'citrus, other fruits and vegetables,
destruction of growing crops, by en-
forced sterilization of citrus fruits
and by the use of arsenical sprays.
Recently a committee was formed
and is now working under the title
of "Florida Growers Reimburse-
ment Committee" wtih the object
in view of obtaining from all grow-
ers of both citrus and vegetables, a
comprehensive statement of their
losses suffered by virtue of the
'"Quarantine" in dollars and cents.
In order to collect this data this
committee has divided the fruit and
vegetable sections of Florida into
fifteen districts. It is the desire of
A this committee that this work be ac-
complished in the shortest possible
time and in order to complete this
work full and complete cooperation
Supon the part of the growers with
the committee is necessary and de-
See Local Committeeman
Forms that will be used have been
devised and are now in the hands
of the committeemen throughout the
state. These forms are headed "Ap-
Splication for Reimbursement" and
are to be filled out in triplicate.
Space has been provided in detail
for the purpose of setting forth
damages that growers have suffered
under the quarantine regulations.
These forms, when completed, must
be. acknowledged before an officer
S (Continued on Page Two) .

Maturity Law Was

Enforced Better

Than Many Knew

Mayo Says He's Willing To
Be Relieved of Task
of Enforcement

The Florida Green Fruit Law has
been in the hands of the State De-
partment of Agriculture since its
passage in 1925. Its enforcement
has been attended with many diffi-
culties, varying with the changing
conditions of each season. Criticism,
pro and con, has been freely offer-
ed, some of which has been as free-
ly accepted by this department.
Many suggestions have been made
recently, one of which was that the
enforcement of this law be taken
from the Department of Agriculture
and placed in other hands.
The supervision of the green fruit
law would bring grief to whomso-
ever it m'ght be entrusted. It has
been the source of more trouble to
ne than any other activity in the
department and personally, I would
be better off without it. I am anxi-
Dus for the citrus industry to be
served in the most efficient way and
if it can be improved upon, I sin-
cerely welcome it. With no desire
to boast, I feel that taken all in a)l,
this law has been successfully en-
forced by our department.
Clearing House Helps
Improved methods of handling
have been adopted from time to
;ime, the most notable of which was
nade at the request of the Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing House As-
sociation and was a cooperative
agreement between the State De-
partment of Agriculture and the Bu-
reau of Agricultural Economics of
the Federal Department of Agricul-
Lure under which the employment of
all inspectors and the direction of
S.. (Continued on Page Four)

Commissioner Mayo's
Recommendations to
Make Law Effective

NUMBER ONE. That the inspec-
tion season covering oranges and
grapefruit be extended to December
NUMBER TWO. That the inspec-
tion season covering tangerines be
extended to December 1st.
NUMBER THREE. That every
closed package containing oranges,
grapefruit or tangerines shall bear
conspicuously upon the outside
thereof, in plain view, the statement
NUMBER FOUR. That the or-
onge standards be made as follows:
That the minimum total soluble sol-
ids of the juice is not less than 9
and the minimum ratio of total sol-
uble solids to anhydrous citric acids
shall be 8.50 to 1.
NUMBER FIVE. That the stand-
ard for grapefruit be changed so
that a minimum ratio of 6.50 to 1
will be the lowest ratio at which
grapefruit will be deemed to be ma-
ture, as follows: For a total solu-
ble solids of 8.50 a ratio of solids to
acid of 7.00 to 1. As the solids in-
crease from 8.50 to 10.00 the ratio
of solids to acid will decrease on a
graduated scale froth 7 to 1 to 6.50
to 1. All grapefruit having a total
soluble solids of over 10.00 will be
deemed mature only when they
make a ratio of solids to acid of
6.50 to 1 or more.
That the juice content .require-
ment on grapefruit be raised to read
as follows: CC of
Sizes Juice
36 ........... ................ ..... 230
46 .................................. 215
54 .... ..................... 200
64 ...............- ..- ................. 180
70 ................................. 160
80 .................. ................ 145
96 ................................... 125
126 ........................................ 105
That no tolerances be permitted
in passing grapefruit until Novem-
ber 1st and then only at the discre-
tion of the Commissioner of Agri-
NUMBER SIX. That.the green
fruit law shall be amended so as to
(Continued on Page'Fi ) ::

Pinch.of Curtailed

Shipments Is Felt

By Every Shipper

Clearing House Board Trying
To Adjust Proportion Of
All Members

The Clearing House has been
criticized. This is to be expected,
especially in a season like this. Let
us thirni for a minute what the
Clearing House is. It is composed
of grower members who are affili-
ated in turn with our various ship-
per members. Our shipper members
are frankly competitive. There
would be no need of a Clearing
House if it did not include openly
competitive interests. They came
together because of recognizing this
need of some one body working
things out from an industry view-
point, knowing that individually the
Florida citrus industry could not be
handled efficiently without this co-
ordination of effect.
It is most natural, therefore, that
the Clearing House, which is a
holding company for this group of
competitive shippers, should find it-
self criticized. That is a part of its
job. One of the healthiest condi-
tions that has made the Clearing
House the effective instrument it
has been in representing the com-
bined thought of its leaders has
been the frank discussions of the
various viewpoints dealing with
marketing, distribution, prorating,
etc., in the Operating Committee
meetings. In a way it is remark-
able that a group of shippers so
highly competitive have been able to
get together week after week, har-
monize their various viewpoints and
agree finally on those things that
are for the best interest of the
growers they represent. The Oper-
ating Committee has been the week-
ly medium used to iron out the
many perplexing problems that have
had to be met.
Board Studying Problem
Until recently the Board of Di-.
rectors has not been called upon to
settle any matters connected with
marketing plans and policies be-
cause. the -members of -the Operat-
ing- Committee were able to settle
:--(Contiiited on ayge Tvrae)-- -*

Page 2

Jan. 24, '31
Florida Oranges Shipped........ 983
Total..... ---------............................ 12528
Florida Grapefruit Shipped.... 783
Total.................... ......... ..... 9766
Florida Tangerines Shipped ... 83
Total................................-----... 2213
Florida Mixed Shipped........... 629
Total...................................... 7599
California Oranges Shipped.... 1428
Florida Oranges Auctioned.... 509
Average..........................-------...... $2.80
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned 340
Average---------............................--. $2.50
Florida Tangerines Auctioned 162
Average........................... ---------$2.50
California Oranges Auctioned 289

Oranaes No. 1
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg.
Last week.............. 162 55 $1.76
This week ............ 213 79 $1.86
Difference........ +51 +24 +.10

Grapefruit No. 1
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg.
Last week.............. 129 65 $1.75
This week ............ 178 71 $1.87

Board's Action On Prorating
Tuesday, January 20, our Board
of Directors took action on the sub-
ject of prorating as follows:
: "The Board recommends to the
:Operating Committee that only
the first grade fruit and that part
.of the. balance which can be sold
.at profit to the grower, be pack-
ed unt Clearing House estimates


Week Week
Ending Ending
Jan. 17, '31 Jan. 24, '30
824 800
11545 9142
607 497
8983 7337
177 35
2130 764
562 408
6970 4794
911 547



Shipped Sold
208 69
236 80
+28 +11

Shipped Sold
178 75
204 66

Jan. 24, '29


can be checked (the manager be-
ing instructed to make this check
at once) and further attempt
can be made to work out a pro-
rating program with the outside
Therefore, a wire to this effect
was sent out to each of our shipper
members asking for allotments.
This action was taken, as indicated

No. 2


No. 2

Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending January 24, 1931)


in the motion, partly because the
shipper group outside the Clearing
House has been shipping so heavily
as compared with Clearing House
members that it seemed to the Board
unwise to carry out as severe cur-
tailment in shipments as has been
required unless we find it possible
to work out an effective prorating
plan with the shipper group outside
the Clearing House. It was also
partly the result of endeavoring to
arrive at a revised and a corrected
basis of individual allotments to our
shipper members. The estimates
have been received and are being
carefully checked over to determine
their true meanings, hoping to draw
therefrom conclusions that may be
fair to all concerned and practical
in their application.
F. O. B. Privilege of Over-shipment
Withdrawn Under Curtailed
Very full discussion was given to
the f. o. b. privilege which some
shippers have availed themselves of
in shipping more than their allot-
ment. The Board fully recognized
the purposes of this special conces-
sion where f. o. b. business was un-
usually heavy and could not see
that it was unfair under normal pro-
rating where the Clearing House
was distributing the crop through
the entire season in an orderly man-
ner and distributing what seemed
to be the entire commercial crop.
All agreed, however, that, if there
was going to be any deliberate sche-
dule worked out whereby the Oper-
ating Committee and the Board,
acting for the shippers and growers,
deliberately contemplated moving
only part of the crop for the pur-
pose of bringing up prices from an
abnormally low level, this clause
could not be interpreted as applic-
able and that at the time the reso-
lution was passed it was not con-
templated that such an extremely
curtailed prorating program would
ever be attempted. Therefore, the
Board passed the following motion:
"If it becomes necessary, in the
opinion of the Operating Com-
mittee, to make allotments on the
basis of a curtailed movement
which contemplates moving only
part of the crop, all privileges of
any nature whatever to exceed
the allotments in any way are to
be withdrawn."
Further Board Action On Prorating
Because of the difficulty in get-
ting accurate crop estimates from
our shipper members, the Board
also took action as follows:
"Prorating shall be based on
past performance and present es-
timates and shall be recommend-
ed by the Manager and approved
by the Board, subject to revision
at such intervals as the Board
may direct."
In connection with the above mo-
tion, it is the intention of the Board
to view this prorating from a stand-
point of individual allotments in an
effort, after getting past perform-
ance records and the recommenda-
tion of the Manager, to determine
upon an equitable basis of arriving
at individual percentage allotments.

January 25, 1931

(Continued from Page One)
qualified to receive such an ac-
knowledgment. Only actual and im-
mediate damage, such as can be rea-
sonably substantiated, should be
listed, not a loss which is only in-
directly attributed to the quaran- ,
tine Extravagant or inaccurate
claims would not only damage the
grower but would tend to impair
the motive behind the entire move-
ment. All honest losses, regardless
of their size, should be filed with the
committee and it is now contem-
plated that Feb. 15 will be set as the
extreme date that claims may be
filed with the Florida Growers Re-
imbursement Committee.
The Committee of Fifteen whose
names with post office addresses fol-
low, have full power and authority
to appoint sub-committees in order
to facilitate the entire program.
These sub-committees have been ap-
pointed and the growers may ob-
tain, fill out, and deliver their ap-
plication for reimbursement with
the committeeman serving in their
neighborhood. If the name of the
committeeman in your neighbor-
hood is not known to you, you may
obtain his name by communicating
to the nearest district committee-
man named below:
W. J. Howey, chairman, Howey
in the Hills.
Judge J. W. Perkins, DeLand,
J. V. D'Albora, Cocoa, Fla.
Homer K. Needles, Ft. Pierce,
W. R. O'Neal, Orlando, Fla.
Allen E. Walker, Winter Haven,
H. L. Frost, Forest City, Fla.
H. C. Babcock, Orlando, Fla.
J. C. Chase, Sanford, Fla.
C. D. Walker, Eustis, Fla.
Wm. C. Norvell, Lakeland, Fla.
Fred L. Hall, Winter Park, Fla.
Dr. E. B. Lytle, Wiersdale, Fla.
W. T. Bland, Lake Gem, Fla.
R. C. Middleton, Crescent City,
For the information of the grow-
er, it is stated that all committee-
men are serving without compensa-
tion and there is no charge to the
grower for the services rendered by
this committee.
The Florida Growers Reimburse-
ment Committee is a fact finding
committee who sincerely hope that
as the result of their work, favor-
able Congressional action may be
taken in the securing of an appro-
priation to cover the losses set forth
by the affidavits mentioned above.
The committee feels that without
concrete supporting evidence to sub-
stantiate claims, that reimburse-
ment will not be received by those
who suffered losses during the Med-
iterranean fruit fly infestation quar-
antine. They therefore request the
full cooperation of growers con-


Difference........ +49 + 6 +12 +26 -9 +.08

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Jan. 10............ 776 1134 378 688 771 1197 651
Jan. 17-........... 800 1119 510 599 666 487 833
Jan. 24............ 679 1086 624 1087 662 1022 1094
California Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Jan. 10............ 314 1080 710 1089 836 933 887
Jan. 17............ 547 1089 799 1173 956 880 784
Jan. 24............ 837 1013 962 1133 943 513 609
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Jan. 10............ 462 655 249 592 589 580 428
Jan. 17............ 497 662 456 772 466 372 470
Jan. 24............ 534 820 527 635 421 672 564
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Jan. 10............ 414 357 152 145 190 215 No Rcrd.
Jan. 17............ 408 395 192 118 150 117 No Rcrd.
Jan. 24............ 392 386 215 207 159 166 No Rcrd.


Better Market Data

Is Stressed As Need

In California Survey

A survey of agricultural economic
conditions in California has led to
the following recommendations by
agricultural economists of the Uni-
versity of California:
Further development of the work
of obtaining accurate information
regarding markets for California
crops and the trends of production
in competing regions; consideration
of the feasibility of revising the tax
system; speedy adjustment of dif-
ficulties between bondholders and
farmers in defaulting bonded dis-
tricts; new type of credit facilities;
better regulation of real estate deal-
ers, finance companies and market-
ing agencies, and better utilization
of land and water sources.
. The economists say in their re-
port that "by collecting and dissim-
inating truthful statements and reg-
ulating the activities of their mem-
bers, chambers of commerce, real
estate associations and other agen-
cies can curtail unsound schemes
I and render assistance in taking care
of excessive production. More care-
ful analysis and interpretation of
information relating to agriculture
would enable lending agencies to
carry on their credit operations bet-
ter. The marketing situation can be
improved by further coordination or
consolidation of marketing agencies.
Farmers can improve their incomes
by a better selection of crops and
livestock; by giving more thought
to available information on the ag-
ricultural situation; by keeping ac-
counts of their farm activities, and
by using care in the selection of
marketing agencies."
The survey was made at the di-
rection of the last California legis-
lature, and the report was submit-
ted to the governor of the state.

(Continued from Page One)
the natural differences of viewpoint
by getting together and thrashing
things out until whatever was up
for discussion could be agreed upon.
However, increasing difficulties
have attended the general problem
of prorating shipments. This is be-
cause the Clearing House decided
that it had a duty calling for a pol-
icy more severe and more difficult
than it ever had before, namely,
that of deliberately so reducing sup-
plies as to attempt to get for the
grower members a proper propor-
tion of the money due its growers.
It was recognized that to accom-
plish this thing each shipper would
have to plan on being so restricted
that he could not move all of his
growers' fruit.
This called for personal sacrifice
on the part of shippers as the plan
necessarily cut down the packing
and marketing profits of our pri-

vate operators as well as increasing
the overhead expenses of the co-
operative operators. It interfered
with each member's ambition to do
as big a business as possible wheth-
er that man be the shipper, the
packing house manager, an associa-
tion manager, or whatever his rela-
tionship. Nevertheless, the Operat-
ing Committee felt they were called
upon to set aside their personal am-
bitions and voluntarily accepted a
policy that called for severe self-
discipline. It was recognized as a
situation where the good to be ac-
complished probably would meet
many and severe criticisms from
some of their own individual grower
members who felt they were being
discriminated against in not being
allowed to move their crop more
Real Sacrifice Needed
Nevertheless, it is greatly to the
credit of the shipper members that
they faced this situation with such
earnestness and with such loyalty
to their growers, recognizing that
the grower has every right to every
possible protection even though in
a season like this it calls for a real
sacrifice on the part of those hand-
ling the crop as their representative
shippers. Schedule C was adopted
by the Operating Committee which
called for a curtailment not only
for a certain few weeks but for the
entire season.
Immediately the effects of this
policy were acutely felt. Instead of
the Clearing House shipping as it
had prior to its prorating program
81% of the oranges and 78% of
the grapefruit, it began dropping
rapidly in its relative position to the
state movement. On Dec. 6, when
Schedule C came into effect, it drop-
ped to 66% of the orange move-
ment and 67% of the grapefruit,
on the week ending Dec. 13 to 65%
and 63% and on Dec. 20 to 47%
and 44% respectively.
The Operating Committee, upon
seeing the Clearing House percent-
age drop to such a low point, and
recognizing that the shippers out-
side the Clearing House were ship-
ping more than the Clearing House,
felt that it could not go ahead under
such a severe program and that in
controlling our own supplies we
were not controlling the market be-
cause of dropping down to such a
small proportion of the state move-
ment. The more severely our sup-
plies were controlled the less con-
trol we had of the industry. Yet
this very thing would be true of
any organization deliberately with-
holding from the market a consider-
able proportion of their crop while
those not in that organization delib-
erately were shipping as fast as pos-
Where Curtailment Pinched
Even after going to these ex-
tremes in an effort to bring up
prices by reducing supplies, there
were those who severely criticized
the Clearing House for the occa-
sional shipment on the part of some
of its members in excess of their al-
lotments. Our own grower members
and our own shipper members in

some instances failed to recognize
broadly the supreme effort being
made and the accomplishment of
greatly reduced supplies that were
actually permitted to the market
from our shippers and growers.
Each shipper became increasingly
alarmed over his own situation as
to how he could ever pick and ship
anything like his proportion. Quite
naturally each shipper felt that his
proportion was not as high as it
should be and he viewed with sus-
picion anything that looked like un-
due activity on the part of his fel-
low shipper. Our grower members
in many cases also were putting
strong pressure on our shipper
members to move their crop.
Is it any wonder that under such
extreme conditions our shippers felt
pushed almost to the breaking point
with finally our largest shipper, the
Florida Citrus Exchange, openly
claiming that the Clearing House
was not giving it its fair percentage
in allotments?
Because the Exchange is our
largest shipper member, the Man-
ager twice asked the Operating
Committee to determine what the
Exchange percentage should be.
Under the original estimate turned
in by the Exchange as compared
with the rest of the operators, the
estimate indicated 51.4% of the to-
tal oranges and 49% of the total
grapefruit. The Exchange shipped
last year 48.5% of the total Clear-
ing House orange movement and
46.7% of the total Clearing House
grapefruit movement. On the mid-
season oranges the Exchange origi-
nal estimate this year indicated
47.6% of the total mid-season or-
anges in the Clearing House. Never-
theless, the Manager advised the
Operating Committee that unless he
was instructed otherwise he would
give the Exchange a 50% allot-
ment. At the time, the Exchange
was insisting upon 52%.
Estimates Are Revised
Revised estimates of Jan. 1 were
called for with the result that the
total orange volume was increased
2814 cars over the original estimate
and the grapefruit volume increased
2722 cars. The shippers' original
estimate at the beginning of the sea-
son was generally felt as being too
large. With the shippers January
estimates being still further increas-
ed, this brings up the question of
how our shippers' estimates have
been as against what they actually
shipped. The first year's estimates
show that all but eight shippers
over-estimated their crop, the over-
estimates of the balance of the ship-
pers being 10,607 cars. This was
caused to a great extent by the
quarantine situation and the vast
amount of fruit which was lost at
the last on account of market as
well as quarantine conditions. The
moral pressure of publishing esti-
mates against actual performance
also proved constructive as the sec-
ond year actual shipments against
estimates showed up very much bet-
ter. Only 10 shippers over-esti-
mated in turning in their estimates

of Jan. 1; of this 10, seven over-
estimated thirty cars or less, the
total over-estimate being 2239 cars.
These facts of actual shipments
compared with estimates and many
others, have to be considered when
endeavoring to arrive at a shipper's
proper percentage. If all estimates
could be correct the solution would
be very simple, but, inasmuch as
the total estimate from our Clear-
ing House shippers indicates a crop
far greater than any of us are will-
.ng to recognize we have, the Board
will be compelled to arrive at a
figure that seems fair to the Ex-
change as well as to the rest of the
operators. In an effort to get fur-
ther light on the situation, especial-
ly in view of the fact that the Ex-
change has expressed itself as feel-
ing that the balance of the esti-
mates as a whole are inflated, the
Exchange has been asked to show in
detail their losses and gains by
growers, including the amount of
fruit which they shipped last year
for each grower that is not with
them this year and including a list
of new growers with the individual
estimate on each grove in this new
grower list. In this way it is hoped
that the facts may be so conclusive
as to show what the Exchange per-
centage should be based on, the loss
and gain grower account.
Performance And Estimate
It is obvious that the Directors
and the Manager should do every-
thing possible to arrive at a fair de-
cision on this and similar matters.
So far the Manager has been com-
pelled to determine the percentage
of allotment given each shipper in
the face of past performance rec-
ords, as well as claims as to volume
this season and unquestionably the
decision reached by the Board and
the Manager will be as near right as
such things can be determined when
compelled to deal with such intang-
ible claims as exist in the estimates
turned in by our shippers. Past per-
formance records are facts, esti-
mates are guesses and the enthus-
iasm of each packing house man-
ager as to the volume he expects to
ship inevitably seems to have its ef-
fect in tending towards inflated es-
timates, particularly when it is
known that those estimates have
some bearing on the allotment
which will be given to each packing
If every grower who ships through
our shippers turned in to the Clear-
ing House an exact record of what
he shipped the past season and then
his decision as to whom he would be
shipping through for the current
season, the Clearing House would
have a most accurate means of de-
termining what each shipper was
entitled to in a prorating program.
Where the growers had actually
contracted their fruit this informa-
tion would be still more positive. It
is the fruit that is not signed up but
which goes usually to some of our
shippers that prevents knowing ac-
curately before the crop is market-
ed what each shippers' true percent-
ages should be for the new season.

January 25, 1931

Pace 8


Results of Clearing House
It is not the purpose of this re-
port to pass judgment on the de-
gree of success of the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Asso-
ciation. The organization has been
in operation for too short a period
to permit of any final conclusions
of this kind.
However, some comparisons may
be made between the 1929-30 sea-
son, when the Clearing House pro-
rating system was in full operation,
and the 1928-29 season, when it
was not. The 1928-29 season was
marked by an unusually large crop
of citrus fruits, both in Florida and
in California. The 1929-30 crop
was smaller in both states, and
under normal conditions the price
outlook for the Florida citrus crop
would have been favorable. But the
Mediterranean fruit fly quarantine
regulations required all of the Flor-
ida citrus crop to be picked and
either shipped out of the state or
placed in cold storage by April 1,**
two months before the normal close
of the shipping season. The quaran-
tine furthermore allowed unprocess-
ed fruit coming from most of the
citrus belt access only to the eleven
northeastern states. Since process-
ed fruit met with an unfavorable
reception in southern and western
markets, the effect of this quaran-
tine restriction was to concentrate
an unusually large proportion of
the crop in northeastern markets.
** The time limit later was extended to
April 15.
Auction Results
According to a comparative an-
alysis of marketing results of the
1928-29 and 1929-30 seasons, pub-
lished by the Clearing House, 8123
cars of Florida grapefruit were
shipped into the eleven northeastern
states between October 17, 1929,
and April 1, 1930, compared with
7888 cars during the same period in
1928-29. Cuba and Porto Rico put
1190 more cars into these states
during the 1929-30 season than dur-
ing the preceding season. The total
excess of grapefruit in these states
during the later season, therefore,
was.1425 cars.
Nevertheless, the average price
received for Florida grapefruit in
the four princpial auction markets
in the northeastern states, New
York, Boston, Philadelphia and
Pittsburgh, in 1929-30 was 73 cents
.a box higher than in 1928-29.
This higher price apparently was
obtained partly by pushing f. o. b.

sales and preventing an over-supply
at the auctions. In spite of the fact
that 1425 more cars of grapefruit
were shipped into the northeastern
states in 1929-30 than during the
preceding season, only 4075 cars
were sold at auction, compared with
4599 the year before. The Clearing
House review, however, attributes a
great share of the higher price to
the prorating of shipments, to the
information furnished by the Clear-
ing House on cars rolling to each
auction market and to the prorating
of auction offerings, all of which
inspired confidence among bidders
that their markets would not be
Advertising Campaign
There is a difference of opinion
among Clearing House members as
to the value of the advertising cam-
paign for Florida citrus fruits.
Some of the growers and shippers
favor it strongly. Others are doubt-
ful as to whether a commodity ad-
vertising campaign can be carried
on effectively, with no brand name
to advertise, without a much larger
sum than could be secured by an
assessment which Clearing House
grower members would be willing
to pay. The reduction in the as-
sessment for the Clearing House
for the year 1930-31 to 2 cents a
box will necessitate some reduction
in the amount spent for advertising.
Next Year a Critical Year
During the 1929-30 marketing
season, the Clearing House had lit-
tle trouble in enforcing its weekly
prorating of shipments. During a
heavy crop year, however, greater
difficulty might be experienced in
Folding shippers to their allotments.
Present prospects are for a fairly
large citrus crop in Florida in 1930-
31. If these prospects materialize,
and if the Mediterranean fruit fly
quarantine regulations shortening
the marketing season and restrict-
ing the distribution of the crop are
continued, this year will be a criti-
cal period for the Clearing House.
If it can maintain its prorating sys-
tem, effect an even distribution of
the crop and prevent price demor-
alization against such odds, it will
have demonstrated its usefulness
beyond the shadow of a doubt.
The Clearing House and Cooperative
While sentiment in Florida in
general appears to be in favor of
the Clearing House, the opinion has
been expressed in some quarters
that its existence tends to perpetu-
ate the present system under which
the Florida citrus crop is marketed
by a large number of distributors

Survey of Clearing House

U. S. Chamber of Commerce

The following is the last article reprinted as an excerpt from the published
report of the survey of the Clearing House made by the United States Chamber
of Commerce. The report is "neither an endorsement nor a criticism of the
clearing house principle or this organization," the Chamber explains, but the
report unquestionably will be of interest to Florida citrus growers.

and to delay the time when the bulk
of the crop might be marketed by a
single grower-owned agency, as the
California citrus crop now is mar-
keted. Without entering into a dis-
cussion as to the relative merits of
the two systems, or presuming to
forecast the ultimate effect of the
Clearing House upon the coopera-
tive marketing situation in Florida,
we may point out that the Florida
Citrus Exchange, the largest co-
operative marketing association in
Florida and the largest shipper
member of the Clearing House, has
continued its growth during the two
years that the Clearing House has
been operating. In 1928-29 the Ex-
change marketed 31 percent of the
total state carlot shipments. In
1929-30, to April 1, it had market-
ed nearly 37 percent of the total.

Other Clearing Houses
Several other clearing house as-
sociations are, or have been, in
operation in various sections of the
United States. Clearing house ac-
tivities have been carried on by
growers and shippers of California
grapes, California and Arizona head
lettuce and Florida celery. Attempts
have been made in the past to or-
ganize clearing houses for the apple
and fresh prune industries in Wash-
ington and Oregon.
Opportunities for successful clear-
ing house operation appear to be
greatest where there is a perishable
crop to be marketed whose produc-
tion is fairly well localized, where
the marketing of the crop is in the
hands of a number, but not too
large a number, of shippers and
where growers and shippers show a
willingness to cooperate for the
common benefits which promise to
result from the stabilization of their


(Continued from Page One)
their work has been more success-
fully carried out and at a cost de-
cidedly less than formerly.
We have in preparation a detail-
ed report covering the operations of
our organization during the last in-
spection season which ended Dec.
1st, 1930. This report will soon be
available for distribution and will
show, among other things, that more
than twenty-seven thousand boxes
of citrus fruits were condemned and
destroyed during the inspection sea-
son,- this being the largest amount
destroyed in any year since the pass-
ing of the green fruit law. In this
connection, let it be borne in mind
that a large quantity of grapefruit
which would have been destroyed
was diverted to the canning indus-
The canning industry, while still
in its infancy in Florida, undoubted-

ly gives promise of being the outlet
through which tremendous quanti-
ties of off-color and otherwise objec-
tionable though edible fruit can be
diverted from the grove to the can-
nery and there put up for distribu-
tion to the markets throughout the
world. Economists are agreed that
if this huge waste can be utilized in
this way, we shall do much to stabi-
lize our ever-expanding citrus in-
dustry. To stop criticism that has
been leveled at some of our can-
ners, I believe it would be wise for
the canning industry to adopt a sys-
tem of labeling by which each indi-
vidual caner would assume full re-
sponsibility for the product which
he offers to the public. A system of
labeling by which each canner's
name and location would appear on
every can of his product would dis-
courage those who might be tempt-
ed to can inedible products and
would be the best possible advertis-
ing practice for our Florida canners.
The adoption of some system as
this would make it impossible for
industries to can our fruits and veg-
etables without indicating on the
label that they were produced in
Florida. That this is being done at
present in the case of the Del Monte
grapefruit cannery at Tampa is well
known. This concern is sending out
Florida grapefruit under a label
which says nothing about Florida
but leaves the impression that it is
California grapefruit.
Arsenical Spray
A large percent of the trouble
we have had with green fruit during
the last two years has been due to
the arsenical spray used in the Med-
iterranean fruit fly extermination
work. This spray left its effect on
the fruit, in many cases rendering it
inferior. To correct this, we are
taking steps to have rigid grove in-
spection and those who are found
making use of the arsenical spray
will be vigorously prosecuted. In-
spectors will be placed in the fields
within the near future.
It seems rather singular that crit-
icism of the green fruit law and its
enforcement crops up only in years
when there is a poor market. It
would seem from this that these
critics are of the impression that if
the green fruit law is enforced all
other conditions necessary to a prof-
itable year adjust themselves auto-
matically. This line of reasoning of
course would mean that in years
when the market is good, the green
fruit law is entirely satisfactory and
its enforcement all that could be de-
sired. Or is it just a desire on the
part of certain individuals to blame
something or somebody and, there-
fore, from force of habit, they
blame the green fruit law and those
enforcing it?
It might be well to consider the
season of 1929. No criticism was
voiced at the end of that season but
on the contrary, very complimen-
tary statements were made on the
successful enforcement of the same
law which is now criticised. During
the season just closed, the law was


January 26. 1981

Pa-e 4


enforced just exactly on the same
policy as that of 1929, by the same
,authorities, under the same coopera-
tive agreement with the govern-
ment, supervised by practically the
same district men, and if anything,
With a stronger force of inspectors
employed. It may be said that no
abnormal conditions developed in
1929 as did in 1930 when the dry
,and ricey grapefruit appeared the
first half of September. On the con-
trary, a more serious condition ex-
isted in 1929. Hundreds of carloads
4 of oranges left the state that were
insipid and tasteless which condi-
tion was caused by arsenical sprays
used to eradicate the fruit fly. In
-1930, not to exceed 100 cars of dry
and ricey fruit left the state before
Sit was stopped by bringing in the
pure food and drug law to control
"'an abnormal condition not antici-
pated when the green fruit law was
passed. In 1929, these inferior or-
anges didn't go on the market for a
m.period of only two weeks as did
grapefruit this year but continued
throughout the season.
Have Had Trying Year
The difference was marked. Con-
ditions in 1929 were very favorable
otherwise it would have been im-
'possible to so successfully overcome
all the handicaps, such as steriliza-
tion, a very irregular quality of or-
anze, all the southern states closed
-anuimany other things. Conditions
this year are very unfavorable,
which is not due to the enforcement
of the green fruit law. We have the
"largest crop in our history, poor
economic conditions in the consum-
ing states which restricts buying,
, heavy decay in the early shipments
had its effect as did heavy shipments
of Porto Rican grapefruit early in
our season and continuous heavy
shipments of California oranges.
It is well to keep a diligent eye
$on the green fruit law and its en-
forcement but it certainly doesn't
help the situation to blame it for
evils or conditions for which it is
not responsible. In doing this, the
causes for the poor marketing sit-
uation will be passed by and cor-
rections that would actually be a
"'benefit to the industry continually
A perfect green fruit law with
perfect enforcement would not have
improved the economic conditions in
the consuming states. It could not
have reduced the large supply we
,.had to conform to the reduced buy-
ing power of the public. It could
not have overcome the law of sup-
ply and demand. It could not have
Prevented the heavy decay that
showed up in early shipments, which
made the wholesalers and retailers
reluctant to buy on account of wast-
-age. It could not have changed a
marketing system that encourages
Stonnage more than quality. These
and many other things are clearly
South of the control of a green fruit
law and yet they are vital factors
in establishing a market. Let us
not blame our green fruit law for
,everything-Signed, Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture.

Prevent Spring Thrips
Damage By Destroying
Nearby Weed Blossoms

Thrips, though scarce at present,
have plenty of time to develop in
large numbers, and cause many cit-
rus blossoms to drop as well as scar
young fruit, J. R. Watson, entomol-
ogist at the Florida Experiment Sta-
tion, recently explained. Unless the
crop of bloom is scarce, blooms that
are caused to drop will do little
harm, but the ugly scars that the
thrips are likely to put on the fruit
about March will lower its grade.
These scars resemble those made by
the wind, except that they are
smooth and somewhat sunken. They
are permanent, and rather conspic-
January and February are the
proper time to take precautions
against these thrips. He explained
that spraying for them is expensive
and not entirely satisfactory, and
that a much cheaper way to combat
thrips is by destroying weeds in
which they hide and breed. The cit-
rus grove is almost the only breed-
ing place of thrips, and they prefer
to hide in blossoms that have rather
small crannies into which they can
crawl. They do not like blossoms
which produce a large amount of
nectar. One of their favorites is the
white blossomed Spanish needle, or
stick-tight. Spanish bayonet is an-
other favorite. A two months' pe-
riod, beginning now, in which weed
blossoms are kept out of the field
will practically limit thrips numbers
to those which fly in. Thus weeds
should not be allowed to blossom
anywhere in the grove during this

(Continued from Page One)
eliminate the words "willfully and
knowingly" when used in connec-
tion with the manner of its viola-
tion. I suggest this because of the
fact that with these words in the
law it is extremely difficult to ob-
tain a conviction.
NUMBER SEVEN. That no fruit,
after it enters the packing house
shall be diverted to the canning
plant unless it meets the maturity
NUMBER EIGHT. That the law
be amended to allow the inspection
of all packing house records by duly
authorized inspectors.
NUMBER NINE. That all fruit
passing through the packing house
shall be handled in separate lots
under such numbers and regulations
as may be prescribed by the Com-
missioner of Agriculture.
NUMBER TEN. There is so little
known about the proper maturity
for canning purposes that the De-
partment of Agriculture does not
desire to suggest a maturity stand-
ard but would recommend that the
canners themselves, through proper
research, establish a standard which
will assure the canning of only fruit
of good quality.

Railroads Refuse

Emergency Rate To

Help Our Industry

Clearing House Request Is
Turned Down Despite
Tonnage Promise

When the market reached a point
last Fall where sales of fruit were
failing to return production costs to
the growers, it became evident that
the movement of the crop must be
severely curtailed. From that point
on, the Clearing House has endeav-
ared to hold the movement down to
a point where the markets would
pay something for it but not always
successful because the tone of the
markett has been very bad.
As the weeks went by, it became
apparent that unless something rad-
'cal happened, the entire crop would
be moved only with great difficulty
md so it seemed proper to approach
;he southern railroads and ask them
for an emergency rate. Emergency
rates are nothing new. The rail-
roads serving California in times of
emergency have granted emergency
rates, believing that what was good
for the industry was eventually good
for the railroads.
Request Is Refused
And so, early in January, a re-
quest was made through the Grow-
ers & Shippers League for a meet-
ing with the executives of the south-
ern railroads originating traffic in
Florida. The meeting was held in
Jacksonville Jan. 19 and the cause
of the citrus industry was present-
ed to the railroads by the Clearing
House and its affiliated shippers.
The railroad executives, a few days

later, met in St. Augustine and re-
fused to put into effect any emer-
gency rate. Immediately, they were
asked to reconsider but they stood
firm on their original action, saying
that the northern railroads would
not agree. This, of course, was a
great disappointment.
We felt that there would be no
loss of revenue to the railroads be-
cause they would handle a much
greater number of cars and thereby
give more work to their employees
and permit of our giving more work
and business to our crate mills, pa-
per mills, packing house labor and
farm labor with resultant good to
Could Have Aided in South
Even if the northern railroads
did not agree to this request for an
emergency rate, nevertheless, the
southern railroads might put into
effect this rate on their own lines.
and thus give us the benefit of it as
far north as Richmond and through-
out the southern states, generally,
and, as we believe, without loss of
revenue to themselves.
The organized industry has done
all it can-it has made a clear, hon-
est presentation of the emergency
existing and has, it believes, demon-
strated that it is reasonable and
right and useful to everyone.
Under this emergency, the answer
probably will be greatly increased
shipments by water and motor trans-

Maid-"You know the old vase
you said had been handed down
from generation to generation."
Maid-"Well, this generation has
dropped it."

Grove Protective Service

NAME OF OW NER.................................. ..........................................
NAMEO--WNE-----""'^---- --- ----------------
(Cut Along This Line)
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Please send me five of the "No Trespassing" signs shown above,
for which I enclose herewith $1 in (currency) (check) (Money
(Order). It is understood that this money will be refunded to me
if the plan for inaugurating a Grove Protective Service appears im-
practicable at this time.

Nam e.... ........................................................................................

Street......................... ..........................................................................

Tow n.........................................................................................................

January 25, 1931

Page 5


Outsiders Boost Volume

When Clearing House Cuts

Own Members' Proportion

The following statement shows
the movement by outside shippers
through the week ending January
24, as well as our own movement.
Through the week of November 15,
our mixed car assortment showed
61% oranges, 39% grapefruit,
therefore, the mixed cars from the
state were figured on the same
basis. For the next two weeks our
mixed car movement showed 53 %
oranges, 29% grapefruit and 18%
tangerines so the weeks of Nov.
22nd and 29th were figured on this
basis. Then commencing with Dec.
6 through January 24, on account
of our mixed cars showing a still
higher percentage of tangerines,
we used a mixed car average of54 %

oranges, 24% grapefruit and 22%
You will notice up to Nov. 15
that, shipping normally without the
prorating, our Clearing House ship-
ments show 81% of the total or-
ange movement; whereas, since
Nov. 15, under our severe prorat-
ing plan, our members were re-
stricted so severely as compared
with the industry that the Clearing
House shipped only 53% of the or-
anges. Likewise, on grapefruit we
dropped from 73% of the move-
ment up to Nov. 15 to 55% of the
movement from that time to Jan.
24. Tangerines have not been pro-
rated and our movement shows
71% of the state crop.

Clearing House Outsiders Clearing House Outsiders

35 a 5 -

0 5 c3 l V r .
r 0 a O a 0

Aug. 30 10 100
Sept. 6 30 .70 13 .30
Sept 13 130 .68 60 .32
Sept. 20 3 100 220 .69 98 .31
Sept. 27 6 100 294 .77 81 .23
Oct. 4 6 .75 2 .25 221 .77 65 .23
Oct. 11 47 .80 12 .20 445 .82 98 .18
Oct. 18 349 .89 44 .11 357 .70 154 .30
Oct. 25 719 .84 136 .16 249 .67 124 .33
Nov. 1 825 .82 183 .18 489 .75 167 .25
Nov. 8 973 .83 193 .17 609 .76 188 .24
Nov. 15 845 .73 312 .27 445 .70 188 .30
Nov. 22 740 .70 323 .30 367 .65 199 .35
Noy,,29 652 .75 219 .25 426 .73 158 .27
Dec.6 1,004 .66 516 .34 593 .67 297 .33
Dec. 13 1,238 .65 672 .35 510 .63 301 .37
Dec. 20 557 .47 632 .53 205 .44 265 .56
Dec. 27 395 .64 225 .36 229 .60 155 .40
Jan. 3 861 .62 538 .38 598 .70 262 .30
Jan. 10 611 .59 429 .41 494 .66 259 .34
Jan. 17 672 .60 455 .40 511 .69 231 .31
Jan. 24 811 .61 512 .39 634 .68 300 .32

Total 11,314 .53 5,363 .47 8,056 .55 3,663 .45

Don't Economize

On Nitrogen To

Cut Grove Cost

Citrus growers who are trying to
economize in grove expenditures
were recently warned that nitrogen
is a limiting factor in citrus pro-
duction, by E. F. DeBusk, extension

citriculturist, who was speaking
from state radio station WRUF. He
explained that this winter's heavy
rainfall means that much of the ni-
trogen that usually accumulates in
the soil during dry winters has
leached out. Growers should not
wait for the foliage to show a need
for nitrogen, but should give an
ample supply of some quickly avail-
able form immediately to enable the
tree to bloom and set a heavy crop
of fruit.

Experiments conducted by the
Florida Experiment Station have
shown that the amount of potash
may be varied from 3 to 10 percent,
and phosphoric acid from 3 to 25
percent, with about the same re-
sults, but that when nitrogen varies,
production varies accordingly. De-
Busk explained that this may be due
to a phosphate and potash reserve
that has been built up in the soil,
while no nitrogen has accumulated.
Analyses have shown that citrus
fruit production takes nitrogen,
phosphorus and potash from the soil
in about a 4-1-5 ratio, while the
ratio for tree growth is about 4-1-4.
He stated that phosphoric acid
may be left off for the year and
potash may be omitted in the spring
application without impairing the
quality of the fruit or injuring the
trees, but that the trees must have
ample nitrogen if they are to grow
and set fruit.
The nitrogen equivalent of 1
pound of nitrate of soda, or %
pound of sulphate of ammonia, is
required to produce a 100-pound
box of citrus. A 19-year-old grape-
fruit tree has been found to con-
tain in its entire makeup the nitro-
gen equivalent of about 30 pounds
of nitrate of soda. When using these
facts as a guide for applying nitro-
gen, remember that some nitrogen
will be lost by leaching. One to 2
pounds of nitrate of soda, or % to
1 % pounds of sulphate of ammonia,
per box capacity is not considered

Active 0
Adams Packing Co., Inc-Auburndale P(
Alexander & Baird Co., Inc. Ri
_ ._. ___ Beresford R(
American Fruit Growers, Inc. R(
__-__Orlando St
Bilgore, David & Co.......Clearwater W
Browder-Fowler Fruit Co.....Arcadia
Burch, R. W., Inc.___......Plant City
Dixie Fruit & Pro. Co...........Tampa
Fields, S. A. & Co.______----_---Leesburg
Florida Citrus Exchange .---. Tampa B
Florida Mixed Car Co.----- Plant City
Fosgate, Chester C. Co... Orlando Cl
Gentile Bros. Co .....--. Orlando Ci
Herlong, A. S. & Co... Leesburg
Hills Bros. Co. of Florida, The D
.. ........................................Tampa F
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc. H
.............. ... -- Davenport I
Keen, J. W.. .............. ---- Frostproof In
Keene, R. D. & Co...-------...... Eustis Jo
Lamons, D. H.........---- ----... Ft. Myers Li
Lee, J. C., Sr.......-- .._ ----...Leesburg L
Mammoth Grove, Inc._Lake Wales
Maxcy, Gregg--...... .......... Sebring M
Maxcy, L., Inc. -...... ... -Frostproof M
McKenney-Steck, Inc...........Orlando U
Milne-O'Berry Packing Co. V
.-- -. -....St. Petersburg V
Mouser, W. H. & Co.-......-__Orlando W
Nelson & Co., Inc.-----......---- Oviedo

In The Grove

Set citrus trees, water, and
bank if cold danger has not pass-
ed. Continue pruning out dead
wood until new growth appears.
Fertilize, using high percent sol-
uble nitrogen, and begin cultiva-
tion. Irrigate if needed. Spray (i
for scab with 3-3-50 Bordeaux
plus 1 percent oil, or 1-30 lime-
sulphur just before new growth
appears. Watch for rust mites,
and destroy aphids on new

excessive for the spring application'
and it is not necessary to work this
material into the soil for best re-
He stated that nitrate of soda,
sulphate of ammonia, calurea, or
calcium nitrate may all be applied
liberally without danger, provided,
excessive cultivation is not practic-
ed, and cover crops have supplied
organic matter.

Chris L. Christensen has tendered
to Chairman Legge of the Federal
Farm Board his resignation as Sec-
retary of the Board, effective in the"
early spring. Mr. Christensen will
leave the Board to become Dean of C
the College of Agriculture and Di-
rector of the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station of the University of

range Belt Packing Co.. __-..Eustis,
eace River Fruit Co...........Arcadia
.chardson-Marsh Corp.--__ Orlando
oe, Wm. G...............Winter Haven
oper, B. H........-----.Winter Garden '
etson, John B. Est. of .-. -DeLand
Illivan, H. C.- Frostproof
elles Fruit & Live Stock Co.
Associated With Other Shipper-
abson Park Citrus Growers Assn.
-----------BaBabson Park
iase & Co.-----------... Sanford
trus Grove Dev. Co., The
-Babson Park-
eLand Packing Co............DeLand
ellsmere Growers, Inc ...-Fellsmere -
olly Hill Grove & Fruit Co
--- -----------Davenport i
dian River Fruit Co..-... Wabasso
international Fruit Corp. Orlando
hnson, W. A.........-------. Ft. Ogden
akeland Co. Inc., The .-...Lakeland
ike Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.
S-----------_.Lake Wales
iddleton, W. D.--__I-...sle of Pines
itchell, J. M.----------------____ ....Elfers
nmer, H. D.---_---_----_. Clearwater
alrico Growers, Inc.---___ Valrico
aughn-Griffin Packing Co..-Howey
est Frostproof Packing &
Canning Co.... West Frostproof

Shipper-Members of Association
The shippers named herewith are members of the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association and they are the ONLY members of this organization.
In fairness to these shippers who are supporting the Clearing House, as well as
helping to build the organization, grower-members should urge their neighbors
to Join and ship through one of these operators.

Page 6

January 25, 1931


Orange County Citrus Growers


(Radio Address Over Station WRUF)
County Agent, Orange County
The status of citrus production
pn Orange County and immediate
outlook must be considered with the
background of the terrific disorgan-
ization of plans during the year
1929, when this was the center of
the infestation of the Mediterranean
Fruit fly. About 400,000 boxes of
That year's Orange County fruit
"were destroyed. The fertilizing of
groves was neglected, and, where
this neglect occurred on certain
aged trees, many of these trees were
'damaged by the bait spray.
Notwithstanding the fact that Or-
ange County sustained the greatest
loss in these respects of any county
:in the state, during the past sum-
mer the grove owners of this county
made a most commendable record
in cleaning up their groves at the
end of the shipping season and in
applying the new formula bait
spray, which was furnished by the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association. With the assist-
ance of some of the strongest grow-
ers and shippers in the county an
independent non-partisan temporary
county-wide committee was organ-
ized with the county agent as sec-
retary. And these jobs were put
over practically 100 percent. The
Records of the Plant Quarantine and
Control Administration show that
over 97% of the 33,000 acres of
citrus in Orange County received
the bait spray. The glory for this
accomplishment must be given pri-
marily and in greatest measure to
the growers themselves.
Ill Feeling Aroused
SThere was undoubtedly more ani-
mosity and hostility engendered
among the Orange County growers
by irresponsible employees of the
Plant Board than in any section of
the state. And their response to
this bait spray regulation showed a
clear thinking body of citizens. And
'more so because this regulation was
never made a prerequisite to obtain-
ing shipping permits by the P. Q.
C. A. Credit is also due to the com-
mittee which instigated and planned
this work, and to Mr. C. E. Haw-
kins, employed by the Clearing
House Association to assist the
county agent in the details of the
distribution of materials and spray-
ers from the depots from which the
growers obtained their supplies.
Orange County is shipping the
cleanest crop of fruit that they have
ever produced. The weather during
ithe past year has been almost ideal
for restoring the trees from last
year's condition, and for keeping in-
sect enemies in control by their
ratural enemies.
ConWol of Rust Mite
Four of tie associations of the
Florida Citrus Exchange began in
the early spring a service of rust

Scientific Methods

mite control on the properties of
their grower members. This service
has wonderfully aided in obtaining
the high percentage of bright fruit,
and in stimulating non-members of
the exchange in keeping their fruit
also bright. This service is likely to
lead to other similar undertakings
by the exchange local organizations.
In 1928 there were three groves
in Orange County which were plant-
ed to the cover crop-crotalaria at
the suggestion of the county agent.
In 1929 arrangements were made
for the co-operative purchase of
crotalaria seed with the assistance
of the county agent, and 28 grow-
ers bought 8,000 pounds of seed in
a club order. In 1930, 85 growers
bought 23,000 pounds of seed co-
operatively, planting about 3,500
This program of soil building in-
dicates the trend of practice of the
growers of citrus fruits in Orange
County. In fertilizer purchases they
are investigating before they in-
vest. These investigations have led
q large number of them to the coun-
ty agent's office and many to the
Experiment Station at Lake Alfred.
During the past year there have
been several parties to make trips
from Orange County to the Lake
Alfred Experiment Station mainly
with the idea in view of seeing the
fertilizer plots and talking to the
director of the station on results.
Fertilization Studied
The largest party went in a mo-
torcade on August 7th. In this mo-
torcade there were 26 cars and ap-
proximately 75 interested growers,
besides other members of their fam-
ilies. Many of our growers have
adopted the policy of trying to find
out what the trees want and feeding
their trees accordingly. With a
larger acreage each year growing
organic materials, the trend is to-
ward the use of chemical fertilizers.
This past year has supplied abun-
dant moisture to all groves in Or-
ange County. However, our grove
owners have realized that these con-
ditions do not occur in average
years. Within the past three years
there have been over 200 irrigation
systems installed in Orange County
groves. It is reasonable to suppose
that this number will be increased
in the near future on the higher
types of soil where the fluctuation
of moisture supply of the tree is
very great.
We are beginning to realize that
these great fluctuations in moisture
supply and the consequent fluctua-
tions in the concentration of ferti-
lizer elements in the soil are respon-
sible for some of the unhealthy tree
conditions constantly occurring in
many groves.
Packing Facilities Improved
Every exchange association house
in Orange County has been enlarged

January 25, 1931

Keep every number of
the News. There isn't
an issue that doesn't
contain some informa-
tion you will want to
refer to, some of these

Just fill in the coupon
below and mail it in to
the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House As-
sociation at Winter Ha-
ven, together with dol-
lar bill, check or money
order and the binder
will be forwarded to


and has received a thorough renova-
tion of the old machinery during the
last summer. In three of these
houses the last word in the handling
of fruit has been installed, so that
the efficiency of these houses is
greatly increased. Practically every
independent shipper as well as these
exchanges has likewise renovated
the house equipment. The exchange
houses were enabled to do this by
the timely aid of the Federal Farm
Board. This universal enlargement
of capacity is an indication of the
forward-looking ability of men in
charge of the sales end of the in-
dustry, and of future expectations
of the industry in Orange County.
However, within the last year
there have been very few new
groves planted. And the sentiment
among the growers seems to be that
large increase in acreage at this
time should not be encouraged.
During the past summer the Or-
lando Canning Company has en-
larged its capacity for canning
grapefruit and installed machinery
for the handling of juice. The Trop-
ical Vitamin Company has equipped
a plant for the manufacture of a
chocolate bar with preserved fruit
centers with a capacity of four or
five carloads per day of second or
third grade fruit. The Vacuum Pro-
cess Canning plant began operations

Eradication of Fly
Called Outstanding By
Entomological Group

Officials of the State Plant Board
of Florida have just received copy
of a resolution commending them
and the Plant Quarantine and Con-
trol Administration of the United
States Department of Agriculture
for work done to date in the eradi-
cation of the Mediterranean fruit
fly from Florida. The resolution
was passed by the American Asso-
ciation of Economic Entomologists
at its meeting in Cleveland, Ohio,
early in January.
The resolution states that the
fruit fly constituted a serious me-
nace to the horticultural interests
of the South and West, and that
the progress to date of eradication
work has been far beyond expecta-
tions. The work done so far is
classed as outstanding in the history
of economic entomology.

this December 1st. They manufac-
ture various kinds of marmalade
and conserves as well as canned
grapefruit, which is their main line
of product. Their capacity takes
about 400 boxes per day.




- - - - - - - - - -
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Please send me a binder for my back copies of the Florida
Clearing House News. I am enclosing $1.00 ($1.25 out of the
U. S.) currency, check, money order.
Name ........................................ ..........................
Street............................................................ ............... .................
Tow n ...................................................................................................

Pare 7

They're Scattered

Get a binder for your back copies
of the






Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of dis-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information daily.
Standardizing grade and pack through an impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding
among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.





. Ft. Ogden
Winter Park
SLake Placid
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
Mt. Dora


The grapefruit canning industry occupies
an unique position because it is so localized
in southern Florida and controlled by com-
paratively few companies. It would seem as
though it need not get into the chaotic condi-
tion that the fresh fruit industry has gotten
into. Nevertheless, it has.
The canners have been purchasing fresh
fruit from the packing houses and growers
at all sorts of prices. Most of these prices
have represented but little more than picking
and hauling. Many growers have been de-
livering drops and cannery stock picked from
the trees to the canners only to find that their
packing houses have, for this reason, been
unable to sell cannery stock graded out in
the packing houses and on which picking and
hauling charges have already been made.
Thus, growers are losing picking and hauling
charges on their own fruit which they have
taken to their own packing houses, and at
the same time would not really be making
any money by delivering fruit from their
groves so the net result has been that as the
canners were able to purchase fruit at con-
stantly-lowering prices, they, in turn, began
to quote their manufactured product at con-
stantly lowering prices. Of course, this was
upsetting to the trade. No dealer can afford
to buy heavily on a declining market. This
attitude on the part of the dealers caused
further declines until the price of canned
fruit reached a point where there was no
profit, even to the canners.
SThe total result to date has been that the
canning industry has not been of much.bene-
fit to the fresh fruit producers. It is obvious
that if the canning industry is to continue to
operate di~d-6n chi dl rograi, that it Will prob-.

ably continue to be of little use to the fresh
fruit producers.
Some canners, who are also growers, called
a meeting at the Clearing House office some
few weeks ago to see what could be done to
stabilize prices of both the fresh fruit and the
canned product. After much discussion, the
Clearing House agreed to lend its services in
stabilizing the fresh fruit prices. The meet-
ing seemed to think that stabilizing fresh
fruit prices would, in turn, stabilize the
canned goods prices. So, the Clearing House
has agreed to place inspectors in every can-
nery that participates in the agreement.
These inspectors would act as receiving
clerks, receiving fruit from anyone who
brought it in and furnishing a copy of the re-
ceipt to the Clearing House. The growers or
packing houses would then send the inspec-
tor's invoices to the Clearing House which
would in turn invoice the canneries and upon
receipt of the money, pay the growers or
shippers who furnished the fruit. In this
way, every canner could be assured that his
competitors were purchasing their fresh pro-
duct at the proper price and would imme-
diately stop some of the unnecessary price
The meeting agreed that this proposal was
sound and that the canners would immediate-
ly go to work and line up their forces to put
it into effect. So far, they have not done so
and chaos still reigns.
The Clearing House acting for the growers
is perfectly willing to lend its services but of
course it cannot lend them unless they are
It seems so unnecessary that this condition
should exist. With the industry so localized
and in the hands of such a comparatively few
people, its problems should be worked out for
the benefit of the industry.

"When Business Is Poor,
California orange growers are refusing to
be "licked" by the depression in the north
that is holding down prices on oranges and
other commodities. Members of the Califor-
nia Fruit Growers Exchange have just raised
a special fund as $500,000 which will be add-
ed to this season's advertising appropriation.
Incidentally, the fund will bring the Califor-
nia advertising appropriation up to more than
two and a quarter million dollars.
It was at first planned to devote this special
fund of $500,000 to purchase of the surplus
in the orange crop, the fruit to be destroyed
and the markets relieved by that much. Fur-
ther consideration of this plan eventually led
to a decision to add the money to the adver-
tising appropriation. The action of the Cali-
fornians has brought forth favorable com-
ment throughout the country, advocates of in-
creased advertising appropriations during
hard times pointing to the Californians' de-
cision as being in line with the policies put
into operation by some of the biggest interests
in the country.
It is, of course, possible that the decision to
.spend the $500,000 in advertising rather than
purchasing the surplus fruit was caused by
the realization that extra effort would be
needed to.convince the trade that the Decem-
'blr freeze: had. not.:injured .the. California

oranges as much as the trade pos-
sibly fears. Whether or not this is
the explanation is beside the point.
The fact remains that the Califor-:,
nians realize full well the value of
advertising and show no hesitancy
in putting into practice their be-
liefs. Fortunately the growers of
Florida likewise are coming to an
appreciation of the value of adver-
tising, and while the amount spent
in this state is considerably less thanU
that which is being spent by our
Pacific competitors, we are quite
likely to give the westerners some
keen competition before our indus-
try is very much older.

Central Florida's

Exposition To Be

Held Next Month

Citrus exhibits will play an im-
portant part in the Central Florida
Exposition which celebrates its
twenty-first anniversary this year in
Orlando from Feb. 24 to Feb. 28.
The Department of Agriculture
at Tallahassee will offer a cup to
the county putting on the best ex-
hibit of citrus fruits. This cup has
been won twice by Brevard County
and once by Lake County. This
year these two counties again will
make an effort to win this cup,
which will be competed for also by
Marion, Osceola and Seminole coun-
The Orange County sub-exchange,
of the Florida Citrus Exchange, will
have a massive display in the center
of the main exhibition building, a
place they have held for many years,
and the American Fruit Growers,
Inc., again will put on a splendid
display representing the Blue Goose
products. This exhibit as usual will
be novel and attractive.
Citrus generally will be empha-
sized also in the fourteen communi-
ty exhibits, and substantial awards
will be made for the citrus features
of these displays.
Many of the fertilizer, insecti-
cide, and canning companies will be
represented with their exhibits at
the Exposition. There will be nota-
ble displays put on by the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, U. S. De-
partment of Commerce, American
Forestry Association, Florida Forest
Service, State Fish and Game Com-
mission, and six of the station in-
Governor Carlton will open the
Exposition on Tuesday, Feb. 24.
Carnival attractions and nightly
fireworks displays will furnish
amusement and entertainment
throughout the week.
Last year more than 60,000 per-.
sons visited this Exposition in five
days, according to Karl "'Lthma nn,"
secretary-manager of the- Exposi-
tion, and every .indicpion points Lto
the .breaking#, of tat. record.: this;
year. .... .:..


January 25, 1931


Page 8

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