Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00047
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: September 13, 1930
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00047
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
Abrary Comp..
bureau of Arig. Econ..
1. S. Dept. of Arig.,
yaahifffflton, D :


Sec. 435%, P. L. & R.
U. S. Postage
Fi R ID i A Ic. Paid
SIN I J- Winter Haven, Fla.
Sx .". Permit No. 11


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit


Official Publication of the

10 Cents a Copy eDT 1 nVolume II
$.W a oYear SEPTEMBER 13, 1930 Number 23

Growers Appeal To State To Aid In Advertising 1930 Crop

Pick-Up Of Drops To

SStart By October 10,

Fly Regulations Say
Conditions under which property
certificates will be issued, as re-
' quired by the remaining federal and
state quarantine regulations in re-
spect to the Mediterranean fruit fly
were announced early this month by
W. C. O'Kane, chairman of the Fed-
eral Fruit Fly Board.
Under the regulations it is neces-
sary that any grove or farm of-
Sfering host fruits or vegetables for
shipment shall have a valid property
certificate. Requirements for prop-
erty certification were given as fol-
"SPRAYING. No further bait
spraying in addition to that already
done by the growers will be requir-
ed unless and until due notice has
Been given.
"CLEAN-UP. All drops, wind-
falls and old ripe fruit must be re-
moved from any property before a
property certificate is issued there-
on. Until further notice, weekly
Removal of drops and windfalls will
be required, beginning when picking
Starts in a given property, and in
ani event not later than October
10, 1930.
NANTS. Following the conclusion
of the harvesting of any crop of
host fruits, produced on a property
for which a property certificate has
r6been issued, all crop remnants will
he removed and disposed of, in ac-
Scordance with the regulations. (In
the case of crop remnants from host
vegetables, further instructions will
be given at a later date).
TION. If at any time the district
4 inspector shall determine that any
owner, tenant or person in charge
of any property, on which a prop-
erty certificate has been issued, has
failed to properly comply with the'
foregoing requirements, the prop-
erty certificate may be suspended or
revoked. (If an infestation is found
Son any property, upon notice from
the Orlando offices of the Plant
Quarantine and Control Administra-
tion all property certificates on all

Grapefruit Juice Minimum

Unties Green Fruit Tangle

Mayo Confers With Growers And Shippers And Obtains
Their Views; Weather Has A Part in Checking
Acid Test Passings.

That much-dreaded problem of
Florida's citrus industry-the ship-
ment of green fruit-probably has
been solved this season. And the
solution has come about in a decid-
edly interesting, if rather dramatic
manner, and all within less than two
weeks. Samples of grapefruit, a
few cars of which were moved early
this month, were found to pass the
state maturity test without diffi-
culty, but although passing the acid
test lacked sufficient juice to make
them unquestionably "fit for human
consumption," and of a quality cus-
tomarily expected by the consumer.
This condition of the fruit being an
unusual one, Commissioner of Agri-
culture Nathan Mayo, acted upon
his law-given powers to promulgate
regulations that would meet the
new problem. The new regulation
is the adoption of a certain standard
of juice content, the juice content
to be considered along with the acid
test in order to insure palatability
cf the fruit.
Mayo Asked To Act
Several factors entered into the
situation; the Commissioner of Ag-
riculture, the Clearing House, and
even the weather taking a part in
the solving of the problem. Mem-
bers of the Committee of Fifty
upon learning from the state in-
spection forces that the grapefruit
although passing the maturity test
lacked sufficient juice to make it as
palatable as Floridians at any rate

properties, or separately and dis-
tinctly bounded parts of properties,
within at least one-half mile of such
infestation, will be immediately re-
voked and withdrawn. Thereafter,
the host fruits and vegetables pro-
duced on such properties will be
under the special regulations apply-
ing to infested areas.)"

prefer it, immediately requested
Commissioner Mayo to take some
action. Manager Archie M. Pratt of
the Clearing House had had the
same idea, and he too had request-
ed Mr. Mayo to see what could be
The Commissioner immediately
called a meeting of growers and
shippers, a hundred or more, most
of whom were members of the
Clearing House, meeting in Winter
Haven, Monday, Sept. 8. At this
meeting, presided over by State
Senator Edge, the matter was dis-
cussed from all angles. Commis-
sioner Mayo made it plain that while
he was given the power to handle
the situation as he might deem fit,
that he wanted to have practical
suggestions from those most inter-
ested and to learn likewise what
their feeling in the matter was.
The result of this meeting was a
selection of a committee of eigh-
teen composed of six members of
the Clearing House Committee of
Fifty, six members from the Oper-
ating Committee, and six shippers
not in the Clearing House named by
Commissioner Mayo. Commissioner
Mayo advised the growers and ship-
pers attending the meeting that the
chemists would go into the matter,
short though the time was, and
would do their best to find some
solution of the problem.
Three days later, or on Thursday,
September 11, Commissioner Mayo
called his committee of eighteen to
Winter Haven. There, Assistant
State Chemist Joe Taylor presented
committee members with the result
of his experiments as regards a de-
sirable juice content for grapefruit.
After considerable discussion of the
standards submitted, the committee
requested Mr. Mayo to put the
standards into effect and to continue
(Continued on Page Five)

Committee of Fifty

Turns To Business

Interests In Move

Advisory Group Seeking To
Learn How Membership
Actually Feels

The question of a more compre-
hensive Clearing House advertising
campaign to increase consumer de-
mand for our oranges and grape-
fruit has attained concrete shape
this month. Development in the
matter has been accomplished by
the Committee of Fifty through an
advertising sub-committee which has
given the question considerable
thought since last June.
In that the reduced Clearing
House retain, a cut of from 4c to 2c
having been made, is not sufficient
to provide a fund for advertising
this season's crop, the Committee of
Fifty advertising committee has
taken steps to determine whether or
not the growers approve of an ad-
vertising assessment. A surplus of
a little more than $100,000, derived
from last year's advertising appro-
priation, curtailed because of the
quarantine restrictions, is the only
money available at present in th~e
Clearing House budget which may
be used for advertising during this
season. Hence, the Committee of
Fifty has taken it upon itself to
determine whether or not Clearing
House growers favor a special re-
tain for advertising to supplement
the admittedly insufficient sum of
Appeals to Business Interests
An appeal to the business inter-
ests of the state to help put across
an enlarged advertising campaign
this year, and issuance of a ques-
tionnaire to growers in the state
asking them whether or not they
favor an advertising campaign, are
two of the most important actions
taken by the Committee of Fifty in
the movement. The questionnaire
to the growers was mailed out by
the Committee of Fifty last month,
but the votes of the growers are
still coming into the Clearing House
(Continued on Page Three)

Page 2

Weekly Citrus Si

Sept. 13
Florida Oranges Shipped-..........----.
Total.----.......------------.. -
Florida Grapefruit Shipped............ 185
Total-............--------------- -- 236
California Oranges Shipped............ 581



Sept. 6


Sept. 13 '29


Florida Grapefruit Auctioned........ 38 -
Average---................ -------. $4.60 N.Y. $5.80
California Oranges Auctioned........ -
Average.......--------.--.--.-- ....

Grapefruit No. Is Grapefruit No. 2s
Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
as eek ....--------. 12 6 $4.67 12 2 $4.00
50% 17%
This week ............ 49 16 $4.70 41 11 $4.05
33% 27%

Difference ........ +37 +10 +.03 +29 + 9 +.05

Florida Oranges
Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Last week........ -- 1 -
This week ........ 1
Next week --- ... -
California Oranges
Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Last week........ 1045 696 631 637 444 584
This week........ 1327 748 836 563 388 636
Next week ...... 983 723 863 690 434 624 -
Florida Grapefruit
Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Last week........ 33 2 -2 2
This week........ 86 1 23 14 -14
Next week ...... 161 21 74 14 40 2 109
Florida Mixed
Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Last .week....... -- -
This week-- .. -.. -- No
Next week .... --- 1 8 -- Record

Next Week's Shipments
It was felt unnecessary to make
a formal request to our members
for their prospective shipments this
coming week. Each operator will
probably be shipping what he can
in accordance with his experience
from day to day, with the two ma-
turity standards and sizes. No ship-
per can tell just what he can ship
because nature and state maturity
standards are the limiting factors.
Last year for the corresponding
week Florida shipped 161 cars. That
was unusual, however, as the previ-
ous years for the same week show
21, 74, 14, 40, 2, 109, respectively,
or an average for the past .seven
years of 60 cars.

This season seems early and in
view of the much heavier shipments
this week compared with any other
season it is probable that we may
see 190 or possibly more cars ship-
ped the coming week.
Sizes Limiting Factor
All manifests from the shippers
have not reached us but compiling
the first bunch that we have, we
find sizes shipped at the start very
small. Recent size sheets are show-
ing better and our shipper members
will be doing more "spot" picking
for size as the smaller sizes in some
districts are not passing, and in
many cases are getting too low
prices to warrant picking when a
grower figures the increased volume
he will have by letting his grape-
fruit size up. .
This year's first test on sizes com-


pared with a year ago shows as fol-
Average Sizes Starting Grapefruit
36 46 54 64
This year.............. 5 20 25
Last year.............. 11 43 85 61

This year...... 35
Last year...... 54

96 126 150
110 50 10
35 9

From the above it is readily seen
that we cannot continue to ship
such small sizes to advantage and
our size analysis of next week is
bound to show much more normal
sizes shipped. It is the small sizes
that have brought down the auction
averages as 80s and larger sold very
Clearing House Proportion Early
Shipments Small
Only 99 cars of the 185 cars of
grapefruit shipped this week are
Clearing House fruit. Manatee
County shippers outside the Clear-
ing House are as usual shipping
freely. Manatee County picking has
not been confined to sizes and they
have run very small, some cars con-
taining as many as 100 boxes of
150s. Because of low prices on
126s and 150s shipments from there
may slow up some.
Last Year's Grapefruit Prices
For the week ending September
27, 75 cars of grapefruit averaged
at auction last year $5.69, the week
following 72 cars averaged $5.61,
then 140 cars $5.33, then 220 cars
(for the week ending Oct. 18) aver-
aged $4.35. The auction average
for the year was $4.28. It would
therefore seem wise to bring our
operations a little more to normal
for so early, both as to sizes and
volume, and not be too feverish
about moving. The canneries will
take liberal quantities later on.
With the good sizes we will have
later and the good quality that will
go in boxes aren't we just a little
too pell-mell in the start we made?
Our Shippers Agree Too Early To
Move Oranges
None of our shippers are expect-
ing to move oranges although some
oranges might pass. The fruit is
too green in color and too poor eat-
ing to move at present, and several
shippers agreed it would be the
height of folly to attempt moving
any oranges until color, juice con-
tent, etc., are much better, especial-
ly with California moving about 700
cars per week of ripe, fully colored
late valencias. It will be about Oct.
1.5 before California's late valencia
crop is all shipped.

He colored up his green fruit to
a lovely yellow, but he did not an-
rounce that it was artificially col-
ored. He sent it to market, and got
$10 a box-a $10 gold piece.
That is, he thought he did. The
coin turned out to be a quarter,. ar-
tificially colored.-"Gulf Gleam"-
Tampa Tribune.

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)


September 13, 1930

Shippers Asked To

Abandon Processing

By Committee of 50

Members of the Committee of
Fifty attending the monthly meet-
ing held Sept. 12 in Arcadia took'
part in an unusually busy and in-
teresting session. A feature of the
meeting was the heavy attendance
of growers of District 7, all parts
of the district being well repre-
Most of the Committee's work at
the meeting in question concerned
the problems of properly advertis-
ing Florida citrus fruit and the
green fruit difficulty which arose
early this month. More detailed ac-
counts of the Committee of Fifty's
discussions and actions in these two
matters will be found elsewhere in
this issue of the News.
In considering the matter of quar-
antine regulations considerable op-
timism was manifested not only at
the prospects of more liberal move-
ment for the- coming season, but in
the clean condition of the state as
regards the fly.
A resolution was introduced call-
ing upon the shippers of the state to
refrain as far as possible from pro-
cessing the fruit. The committee's
resolution pointed out the absence
of any flies with the consequent use-
lessness in preventative measures.
This resolution reads as follows:
Processing Is Useless
Whereas, there has been a most
careful survey of the entire citrus
area of the State of Florida and this
survey shows the state free from
the Mediterranean fruit fly, and
Whereas, because of the unfav-
orable reaction of the trade and
consumer to the sterilized fruit
shipped last year,
Now, therefore, let it be resolved
by the Committee of Fifty assem-
bled in regular session this 12th day
of September at Arcadia, Florida,
that we do hereby request all ship-
pers to refrain, as far as possible,
from sterilizing any fruit this sea-
Reference also was made to im-
maturity of grapefruit imported
into the United States, discussion
upon the question shortly resolving
itself into a motion "that the Board
of Directors be requested to inves-
tigate and have tests made of the
imported grapefruit as to its pass-
ing the United States standards of
Those In Attendance
Those attending the meeting were
J. C. Morton, Auburndale; Harry
Askew, Lake Garfield; F. E. Brig-
ham, Winter Haven; John D. Clark,
Waverly; Dr. J. A. Garrard, Bar-
tow; Dr. James Harris, Lakeland;
C. F. Lathers, Winter Haven; F. M.
O'Byrne, Lake Wales; A. F. Pick-
ard, Lakeland; James Thompson,
Winter Haven; Theron Thompson,
Lake Hamilton; T. C. Bottom, Val-
rico; C, W. Lyons, Tampa; I. W.
Watts, Valrico; S. .A. Whitesell,
Clearwater; J. C. .Merrill, Leesburg;


PLUNK! Here Come the Discounts


See those nails sticking their vicious points out into the fellow, more so than the other one, and is almost invisible to
grading belt and in the frame between the sizer roll and the the naked eye. The above is just a reminder of how easy it is
bin? (The photographer retouched the nail on the right a trifle to overlook such dangers for those nails will do untold damage
too much which makes it exaggerated, but a nail it is neverthe- to the fruit that scrapes past them.
less). The nail in the photo on the left is an inconspicuous


(Continued from Page One)
headquarters. Indications at the
time the News went to press are
that close to 90 % of the growers
as indicated by the questionnaires
returned are in favor of a nation-
wide advertising campaign this sea-
son and an additional assessment
for advertising purposes.
The appeal to the business inter-
Sests of the state was made at the
Committee of Fifty's meeting in
Arcadia, Sept. 12. At this meeting
the advertising committee of the
Committee of Fifty brought out the
point that a national campaign to
increase the consumer demand for
our fruit is imperative this year. A
report presented by John D. Clark,
Waverly, chairman of the sub-com-
mittee, reviewed the marketing re-
sults of the past few years, stress-
ing the unvarying poor returns oc-

J. B. Prevatt, Tavares; J. R. Done-
Sgan, Narcoossee; C. A. Garrett, Kis-
simmee; J. G. Grossenbacher, Ply-
mouth; M. T. Baird, Vero Beach;
R. R. Gladwin, Fort Pierce; W. M.
Reck, Avon Park; Alfred Skinner,
Cocoa; D. S. Boreland, Fort Myers;
Henry G. Murphy, Zolfo Springs;
R. H. Prine, Terra Ceia; Rupert
Smith, Arcadia; R. K. Thompson,
Sarasota; R. S. Windham, Punta
A vote of thanks was tendered
Committee Member Rupert Smith
of Arcadia, as the "Host" to the
Committee, and he was commended
highly for the large turnout of
growers at the meeting. The Octo-
ber meeting of the Committee will
be held in Orlando, definite date to
be announced later.

2urring in big crop years. At the
conclusion of the discussion upon
the need for advertising, the grow-
ers present at the Arcadia meeting
were practically unanimous in sig-
nifying their desire for an advertis-
.ng campaign.
Review of Question
It would not be amiss here for
the News to review briefly, for the
benefit of such growers who may be
unfamiliar with the facts, the events
of the past few months leading up
to the present agitation for an ad-
vertising campaign. A survey com-
mittee was appointed by the Florida
Citrus Exchange last spring to study
the operations of the Clearing
House. This committee recommend-
ed to its own organization that a
Clearing House retain of Ic would
be sufficient, declaring that in its
.pinion a larger Clearing House re-
tain would serve to drive members
cut of the organization. In the
meantime, however, the Clearing
[louse Board of Directors had ap-
pointed a fact finding committee to
,o into the advertising and member-
.hip question. This committee call-
3d meetings of shippers of the
Clearing House and the Committee
of Fifty and conferred as well with
the Exchange suvey committee. The
outcome of these conferences was
in expression (numerically) over-
whelmingly in favor of retention of
the 4c retain. In tonnage, however,
adherents of a cut in the Clearing
House retain were in the majority.
The Clearing House fact finding
committee then recommended to the
Board that the Clearing House re-
tain be reduced to 2c. This was the
action taken.
Immediately afterward the 'Com-
mittee of Fifty appointed an adver-
tising sub-committee to give the ad-
vertising matter thorough study and

determine whether or not the grow-
ers themselves approved the retain
cut in view of the fact that it would
not enable the Clearing House to
carry on a comprehensive advertis-
ing campaign.
Growers' Attitude Sought
At each of its meetings in various
sections of the state, the Committee
of Fifty called upon growers to ex-
press themselves. Without excep-
tion the growers at these meetings
signified a desire for a more com-
prehensive advertising campaign.
Objection was expressed by only a
very few. Further activity in the
Committee's move culminated at the
Arcadia meeting in the appeal to
the state for help in putting across
the advertising idea, the appeal be-
ing based upon the fact that pros-
perity in the citrus industry direct-
ly affects the welfare of Florida
The foregoing thus explains why
the question of advertising occupied
such an important part in the pro-
ceedings of the Arcadia meeting.
The discussion participated in by
several members of the Committee
of Fifty as well as many individual
growers attending the meeting fol-
lowed presentation of the advertis-
ing committee's report, part of
which is given herewith. Chairman
Clark of the advertising committee
reminded the growers in his report
that they are facing catastrophe if
the present large crop is not mar-
keted effectively.
"We are facing such a situation
this year," Clark declared, "and if
we sit passively by and do nothing
to encourage the northern consum-
ers to buy our fruit, we are going
to take the consequences that have
befallen us in every big crop year.
"Must Create A Demand"
"What are we going to do with

Page 3

this 1930 crop?" he asked. "Are we
going to dump on the markets, as in
past years, regardless, and take
what is offered, or are we going to
take the necessary steps to build a
market and create a demand which
will be adequate to absorb it at a
living price to the grower?
"It is the surplus of a commodity
that demoralizes a market. All we
need to do is build the demand for
this surplus of some five or eight
million boxes. We have 120,000,000
people to work on. Just a little
more consumption all around and
the surplus is taken care of. Can
it be done? Of course it can, but
it will taken an advertising program
to do it.
"Realizing there was some oppo-
sition and in order to arrive at the
grower sentiment to such a pro-
gram, we mailed out questionnaires
to all growers of the state and we
are pleased to report that well over
2,000 replies have been received'tb
date. About 90 percent of those
replies are in favor of advertising.
"We believe these replies will
prove a strong factor in persuading
the Clearing House to make a
special advertising assessment yet
this year in spite of opposition
which appears to exist to their do-
ing so. Grower sentiment at least
would appear to be strongly in favor
of such action.
"On Monday, Sept. 8, the Direc-
tors of the Clearing House were
called together for the special pur-
pose of meeting this committee and
hearing its report. After listening
to us and giving respectful consid-
eration to the results of the grower
poll they passed the following reso-
Board's Attitude
"'The Directors of the Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing House
Association are willing to state
that an advertising campaign is
necessary for the 1930-'31 crop
of fruit; that we have always be-
lieved it was necessary; that we
were anxious to levy a larger re-
tain but were forced to levy a
2-cent retain because the majori-
ty of the fruit in the Clearing-
House as represented by the ship-
pers said they would not stay in
if a retain larger than 2 cents was
assessed; and that if a majority
of the fruit as represented by the
shippers will come back asking
for a larger retain the Board will
be glad to give the request prop-
er consideration.' (Editor's Note
-The Board took this action
asking for an expression from
the volume vote as represented
by shippers, as the shipper mem-
bers under the existing by-laws
and contracts are those to whom
the Clearing House must look for
collection of assessment, all as-
sessments being collected exclu-
sively through the shippers and
the shippers being responsible for
"Because the successful outcome
of this campaign means not only
the welfare of the grower of citrus
but also goes beyond and involves
(Continued on Page Four)

Page 4


Railroads Cut 24 Hours Off

Perishable Schedule To The East

(Executive Vice-President, Growers &
Shippers League of Florida)
One of the greatest steps forward
for the citrus industry in recent
years, will be the inauguration Oct.
I of freight schedules from all
points in Florida, twenty-four hours
shorter' to eastern markets than
were in effect for many years past.
The new schedules will be main-
tained by all Florida lines in con-
junction with their northern connec-
tions. The movement on the new
schedule via the Florida East Coast
Railway will begin with their train
out of south Florida, Sept. 29.
In October of last year, the Oper-
ating Committee of the Clearing
House requested the Growers and
hpippers League, which handles
transportation matters for the grow-
ers and shippers, to undertake to
get the Florida lines with their con-
nections to make reduction of twen-
ty-four hours in the freight schedule
to the east. The League held a con-
ference with the operating officials
of the Atlantic Coast Line, Seaboard
and the Florida East Coast railways
in Jacksonville, Oct. 31, 1929. In
the conference the carriers admitted
they could reduce the schedule then
in effect only by twelve hours, but
in order to make reduction of the
full twenty-four hours which was
requested, it would require advanc-
ing the closing hour for loading at
points in the southern parts of the
state by at least twelve hours. This
was considered entirely impractical.
The League proceeded to compile
data of schedules then in effect, de-
lays at terminals, etc., with which
to convince operating officials that
the schedules could be reduced by
them twenty-four hours, by the
elimination of these apparently un-
necessary delays. Another confer-
ence with the operating officials was
requested for January, 1930, but
owing to conflicting engagements,
the second conference was not held.
Meanwhile, the operating officials
of some of the lines conferred with
the Bureau of Service of the Inter-
state Commerce Commission which
body was interested in improving
the service for perishables from
Florida. The Atlantic Coast Line
arranged with its connections and
lan several test trains to demon-
strate to their satisfaction that the
faster schedule could be maintain-
Although the second conference
with carriers' operating officials was
not arranged, the League continued
its correspondence on the subject,
and on May 9 the first announce-
ment of the carriers' intention to
establish and maintain fourth morn-
ing arrival to eastern markets was
made to the League by Director of
Transportation Brown and General
Freight Traffic Manager McD. Davis
of the Atlantic Coast Line railroad.
The League was requested not to
make official announcement to its

members at the time until details of
the schedule could be worked out.
This accounts for no previous an-
nouncement having been made.
The Seaboard and Florida East
Coast railways likewise have ar-
ranged schedules for fourth morn-
ing arrival in eastern markets and
the Southern Railway and its con-
nections north of Jacksonville like-
wise will join in maintaining fourth
morning arrival in eastern markets,
on such traffic as may be routed in
their care.
This recognition of the shippers'
needs and friendly response by the
railroads to our request, should be
appreciated by every grower and
shipper in the state. Perhaps the
facilities of the carriers were such
that the schedules previously could
not have been reduced, but, with
the laying of heavier steel rails,
some double tracking of certain
lines, the installation of longer pass-
ing tracks and automatic signals, to
enable handling with safety the rap-
idly increasing passenger traffic, as
well as the prospective increasing
Florida freight traffic in general,
has made it possible for this reduc-
tion in schedules to be put into
The schedules cannot be maintain-
ed and will not be of the antici-
pated benefit to the industry unless
all shippers -sufficiently appreciate
the railroads' efforts to give better
service. Shippers must load cars
promptly after placement and be
faithful in providing billing for
them in ample time so that they
may move from the various points
of origin on the schedules which
will be outlined by the railroads.
The sales managers for shippers
likewise will have to anticipate ar-
rival of cars at diversion points
twenty-four hours earlier than here-
tofore and make diversion in ample
time, otherwise the cars will move
on to the destination to which at
first billed.
In addition to the advantage to
the shippers of having their pro-
ducts reach the market twenty-four
hours earlier than heretofore, the
carriers also will be benefietted un-
doubtedly by some saving to them
in the amount of ice necessary for
them to furnish to refrigerate ship-
ments in transit (for which the
same stated refrigeration charge as
heretofore in effect will be made).
Another saving to the carriers will
be in a probable quicker release of
refrigerator equipment for return
to Florida for re-loading. This will
make it possible for them to handle
the entire crop with a less number
of refrigerator cars than has been
necessary in the past.

Once there was an elephant and a
flea going over a bridge. When
they got over the bridge, the flea
said: "We sure shook that one,
didn't we, big boy?"


(Continued from Page Three)
every business interest in the state
of Florida, we are going to encour-
age and invite every business inter-
est of the state to interest itself ac-
tively in behalf and in support of
the program.
"The failure to properly mer-
chandise our citrus crop has cost
the growers more than $50,000,000
;n the last ten years. There must
be added to this the further loss in
property values of untold millions
more. The staggering economic
condition of our states and our peo-
ple is directly traceable to the crip-
pled condition of the state's great-
est industry.
Importance To State
"Growers, merchants, bankers
and especially the editors of our
papers must be aroused to what
this means to the state of Florida.
Every newspaper will be quick to
realize the important part the press
must play if this thing is to succeed.
"We, of the committee, feel that
we have about exhausted the field
within our reach and we now seek
to enlist the support of other state
interests in the hope that with their
aid the 1930-'31 citrus crop will for
the first time have an adequate ad-
vertising program back of it.
"Is 1930-'31 going to be another
disaster for Florida? In the out-
come of this campaign lies our
Following presentation of Clark's
report, Dr. James Harris, Lakeland,
introduced the resolution calling
upon the business interests of the
state to help put across an adver-
tising campaign.
His resolution follows:
"All Business Affected"
"Whereas, the citrus crop of Flor-
ida for the season 1930-'31 will be
large unless unforeseen damage
arises, and
"Whereas, the cash results se-
cured from this crop will affect
every business of every kind in
every part of Florida favorably if
marketed successfully, and unfav-
orably if the citrus grower is com-
pelled to sacrifice his fruit, and
"Whereas, the main reliance for
the consumption of Florida citrus
depends upon increased knowledge
in northern states of the superior
quality of matured Florida fruits,
"Therefore be it resolved that
the advertising committee of the
Committee of Fifty requests the aid
of every business interest in Florida
in putting on an enlarged advertis-
ing campaign to stimulate consump-
A rising vote among the growers
present as to whether or not they
favor the advertising of Florida cit-
rus, brought every person but two
in the large DeSoto County court
room to his or her feet. Several
growers present, among them mem-
bers of the Committee of Fifty,
spoke at some length on the need
for more advertising. Only one or
two indicated doubt as to the advis-

September 13, 1930

Crop In California

Estimated At 57,000

Cars To 73,000 Cars

California's crop appears to be
about the same as was her crop of
1928-1929, according to telegraphic
advices from reliable sources there
received by the Clearing House.
Something more than 4,000 cars of
Valencias remained the first week
this month yet to be moved. The
wire received here reads as follows: -
"Estimated total is slightly over
4,000 cars. Expect to move around
700 cars weekly, finishing about
Oct. 15 on Valencias. Our prelimi-
nary estimate indicates next year's
crop is largely dependent upon
sizes. It may be nearly equal to
the 1928-1929 (orange crop). We
have heard rumors that your crop
is probably in excess of the pub-
lished estimate of 12,000,000 boxes
of oranges and 8,000,000 boxes of
grapefruit. Is this correct? How
is the fruit maturing? What quan-
tity, if any, do you anticipate ship-
ment separately during September
for oranges and grapefruit? Would
also appreciate your estimate on
October shipments. We anticipate
somewhat earlier maturity than last
year, probably about the same .as
in 1928 for the navels."
Other estimates from California i
received by the Clearing House re-
veal a difference of opinion as to
the Pacific crop. Some believe the
crop will reach the 73,331 carload
total of 1928-1929, while others
think it will be about 57,000 cars-
the total moved in 1926-1927.

Shootin Forbid. Trespaser will
be Persekuted to the Full Exten of
2 Mean Mungrel Dogs which just
Hate Strangers and 1 Dubbel Barl
Shot Gun Dang if I Ain't tire of
This Hel-Raisin on My Property.
Signs are wonders, sometimes.
The Hotel Tyrolerhof, in Innsbruck,
posts in every guest-room the rules
of the house and the usual state-
ment of the limitation of the liabil-
ity of the management, etc. The
sign is printed in four languages,
German, French, Italian and Eng-
lish. The latter version in part as
"Adhesion for stolen objects from
rooms by closed doors cannot be
accepted but to legal maximum
amount. For money and objects of
value only by giving them depot in
our hotel office safes are disposible
free of charge.
"It is not allowed to make use of
electric apparatus as for smother-
ing, etc., in the rooms."-Fruit Dis-

ability of such a campaign. In the
opinion of committee members,
there appeared to be an overwhelm-
ing sentiment in favor of advertis-


Factors Influencing Handling

Cost of Fruit, Tree to Car

(Associate Professor in Marketing, State College of Agriculture)
These data, with a few excep- assisted in the management, travel
tions, are based on the operation of )f the manager and any prerequi-
99 packing houses for the season sites received by the manager such
1924-25. as a house or bonus. The firm hav-
The cost includes all expenses of ing the lowest management cost was
getting the fruit from the tree, 1/20 of a cent per box, while the
through the packing house and load- frm with the highest management
Sed on the car. cost was 18 cents per box. The av-
These costs have been classified erage management cost was 4 cents
under eleven items as follows: per box.
(1) Materials-Material cost (7) and (8) Building and Field
which includes boxes, paper, nails, cyuipment-These items of cost
straps, labels and paste amounted to onsst o interest on the investment
36 cents per box, or 38 percent of n these items, taxes, insurance, de-
the total cost of handling the fruit preciation and repairs.
from the tree to the car. The vari- Packing house building cost per
ation in material cost was usually box varied from 0.2 to 11 cents
due to the quality and quantity of Nith an average of 3 cents.
materials used and kind and size of Field equipment cost per box va-
fruit. ried from 0.2 to 10.5 cents, with an
(2) House Labor House la- average of 2 cents.
bor includes labor for packing, (9) Office-Office salaries, office
grading, washing, loading on car supplies, telephone, telegraph and
and all other labor from the time interest taxes, insurance, deprecia-
the fruit arrives at the house until -ion and repairs on the office equip-
it is loaded on the car. This cost .nent and building made up the of-
amounted to 18 cents per box, or 19 fice cost.
percent of the total cost. House la- Office cost per box varied from .1
bor except packing amounted to 11 to 6 cents with an average of 2
cents per box and packing labor 7 cents.
cents per box. The packing labor (10) Pre-cooling -All the ex-
varied from 4 cents to 14 cents per pense of pre-cooling the fruit was
box and the house labor except put into pre-cooling cost. Only 11
packing varied from 7 cents to 35 firms had pre-cooling plants. The
cents per box. average pre-cooling cost for these
(3) Picking Picking included 11 firms was 8 cents per box. How-
the labor for picking, the field fore- aver, when all the firms were con-
man salary and cost of trucks used 'idered the pre-cooling cost amount-
in transporting pickers to and from ed to only 1 cent per box.
the groves. The picking cost was (11) Other Cost-The remaining
doubtless influenced by size of tree, expense which was, for most firms,
size of crop, kind and size of fruit. interestt on borrowed money, bad
The cost for picking amounted to debts, truck expense except for field
10 cents per box with a range of 5 ise, side track, frost insurance, em-
cents per box for the firm with the ployees' insurance, etc. This cost
lowest picking cost to 23 cents per averaged 2 cents per box.
box for the firm with the highest Factors Influencing Cost
picking cost. The total handling cost for each
(4), Hauling -Under hauling is of a number of packing houses
included the actual cost to the classified by volume follows:
grower when it was hired and when For those packing houses with a
done by the packing house the cost volume of less than 30,000 boxes of
of operating the trucks, labor in the fruit, only three or 14 percent of
field for loading the fruit on the them had cost below the average.
trucks and when used teams to haul In the volume group with 30,000
the fruit from the groves to the to 60,000 boxes only two, or 11
road. Distance of grove from pack- percent of the firms had cost below
ing house was the greatest factor of the average. The volume group
cost in hauling fruit. The cost for having from 60,001 to 90,000 boxes
hauling varied for individual firms there were 13 firms, or 58 percent
from 4 cents to 24 cents per box. with a cost below the average. In
The average cost for hauling was 10 the volume group from 90,000 to
cents per box. 150,000 boxes there were 11, or 50
(5) Light, Water, Power and percent with a cost below the aver-
House Equipment-This item of age. In the group handling over
cost includes interest on the invest- 150,000 boxes there were 11, or 69
ment in house equipment, deprecia- percent of them having cost below
tion, taxes, insurance and repairs the average. One firm had a cost
of house equipment and, also, the of handling per box of $1.50 while
cost of lights, water and power. another had a cost of only 74 cents
This cost varied from 2 cents to 32 per box. The average cost was 94
cents per box with an average of cents per box. The firm with the
6 cents. handling cost of only 74 cents per
(6) Management -Under man- box had a volume of 80,850 boxes.
agement cost is the salary of the The items of cost that were af-
manager, salary of the officers who fected most by volume were man-

agement, light, water, power and
house equipment, and packing house
building and land. Other items
whose costs were influenced by vol-
ume were floor labor and field
equipment. Items whose cost were
affected little if any by volume were
packing labor, office, material, pick-
ing and hauling.
Those firms with a volume aver-
aging only 17,584 packed boxes had
an average cost per box of approxi-
mately 4 cents for floor labor; 5
cents for management; 3 cents for
packing house building and land; 7
cents for light, water, power and
house equipment; and 3 cents for
field equipment, higher than those
firms with an average volume of
217,287 boxes.
Small Volume But Low Cost
In still another analysis figures
compiled showed that some firms
with a small volume were able to
handle fruit at a low cost and some
firms with a large volume had cost
as high as the average. But, gen-
erally the cost decreased as the vol-
ume increased. A statistical analy-
sis of volume and cost show that for
each increase in volume of 10,000
boxes there was a decrease in cost
of 1.1 cents per box. On the face
this does not seem to be very great,
but it means that a packing house
handling a volume of fruit of 200,-
000 boxes would have on the aver-
age a cost of 16.5 cents per box
less than a packing house having a
volume of 50,000 boxes. This means
that a house with a volume of 200,-
000 boxes will handle that amount
of fruit for $33,000.00 less than ii
it were packed in four packing
houses of 50,000 boxes each.
Growers who desire a more com-
plete analysis of the handling cost
of citrus fruit from the tree to the
car, may obtain this information
from the Florida Experiment Sta-
tion Bulletin, No. 202.

(Continued from Page One)
experiments along the same line
during the remainder of the inspec-
tion season.
Juice Standards
The juice content minimum ex-
pressed in cubic centimeters and
liquid ounces is given for grapefruit
sizes as follows:


in CC's

in Ounces

In the meantime, the weather man
had stepped into the situation.
Rains throughout a large area of
the citrus belt quickly resulted in
the automatic halting of shipments
of much of the fruit that otherwise
might have been moved. The fruit
that had been passing the maturity
test prior to the rains failed to
meet the requirements two or three

days after the showers started in.
Hence, in that respect at least it
appeared as though the new regu-
lations might not even be necessary.
Commissioner Mayo, however, de-
clared his intention to promulgate
the new regulation and so for a
time the matter appeared settled.
Growers Keep Behind Move
Feeling in the state, however, has
been at such a point that the Com-
mittee of Fifty of the Clearing
House has pushed the matter even
further. At the Committee of Fifty
meeting in Arcadia the day follow-
ing adoption of the juice standards,
telegrams were received from a
number of growers from all parts
of the state urging the Committee
of Fifty to keep behind the matter
until the danger of green fruit ship-
ments could be entirely removed. A
resolution endorsed by both Com-
mittee of Fifty members and grow-
ers attending the meeting was pass-
ed, the resolution commending Coif-i
missioner Mayo for his work in
halting the shipment of ricey or
juiceless fruit. The committee's
resolution requested Commissioner
Mayo to see to it also that the juice
content test, as well as the acid test,
be made on the grapefruit up until
October 15, or some extension of
that date that the Commissioner
might consider necessary. The com-
mittee also appealed to all growers
of the state not to ship nor allow
to be shipped any fruit that may be
unfit for human consumption. The
Commissioner was requested to be-
gin experiments on the juice con-
tents of oranges and tangerines as
well as continue his experiments on
the grapefruit.
Members of Commissioner Mayo's
"committee of eighteen" are as fol-
lows: J. J. Parish, Titusville; B.
Kilgore, Clearwater; John Over-
street, Palmetto; Ed. McLean, Pal-
metto; Phil Caruso, Orlando; Dr. P.
Phillips, Orlando; F. E. Brigham,
Winter Haven J. G. Grossenbacher,
Plymouth; Dr. James Harris, Lake-
land; C. D. Gunn, Haines City; Har-
ry Askew, Lake Garfield; J. C. Mor-
ton, Auburndale; D. H. Lamons, Ft.
Myers; R. B. Woolfolk, Orlando; C.
C. Commander, Tampa; L. Mikxey,
Frostproof; W. H. Mouser, Orlando;
Lawrence Gentile, Orlando.

The Federal State marketing
service of California was compelled
to develop a short wave radio tele-
graphic communicating system be-
cause of the distance separating
California from principal consuming
centers, and because of the tremen-
dous volumes of words necessary to
cover the widely diversified list of
products on which reports are neces-
This public service agency, con-
structed for the specific purpose of
gathering and dissseminating Cali-
fornia information regarding sup-
plies, shipments, prices, market con-
ditions and all other practical mar-
ket data for farm commodities,
operates at the present time through
eight short wave radio telegraphic
stations, many of which also serve
adjoining states.

September 13, 1930

Page 5

Page 6


Radio Talk Delivered September 5, Over

(Citrus Pathologist and Entomolo-
gist, Agricultural Extension

To keep down pumpkin bugs and
to facilitate handling the cover crop,
it is a general practice to mow bear-
ing groves in September. At this
point, your attention is called to an
item that is often overlooked. The
living organisms that carry on the
work of decomposing the cover crop
when it is mowed, disced down, or
otherwise incorporated in the soil,
often consumes more nitrogen in
the.: decomposition processes than
the crop itself contains. The le-
gume cover crops usually contain
sufficient nitrogen to feed the or-
ganisms that decompose the crop
but the grasses and some of the
wild seeds do not. Consequently,
the organisms are forced to take ni-
trogen from the soil. This may re-
sult in a deficiency of available ni-
trogen to the citrus tree, followed
by a yellow foliage and a general
weakened condition-a condition
very unfavorable, especially in the
case of a cold winter.
Cover crops that contain less than
1.7 percent nitrogen are usually
found to be deficient in nitrogen
supply to carry on the decomposi-
tion of the plant and render the
plant food it contains available to
the crop. As a matter of safety,
therefore, it is considered good
practice to apply about one hun-
dred pounds (100 lbs.) nitrate of
soda or seventy-five pounds (75
lbs.) sulphate of ammonia or forty-
five pounds (45 lbs.) calurea per
acre for the average grass cover
crop at the time the crop is mowed
or incorporated with the soil, unless
the fall application of fertilizers,
containing a large percentage of in-
(eganio-nitrogen, is applied at this
Problems in Handling Fruit
The citrus growers of Florida are
losing annually around three mil-
lion dollars ($3,000,000.00) as a
result of blue-mold and green-mold
decay. This decay is due to spores
of fungi (Penicillium) which does
not have the power of penetrating
the rind of sound fruit. The decay,
therefore, depends upon different
kinds of cuts and abrasions on the
fruit through which spores of the
fungi enter and develop the dis-
ease. These wounds in the rind of
fruit are largely the result of care-
less handling and are traceable in a
very large measure to the picking
and handling of the fruit from the
tree to the packing house.
Careless handling of the fruit
often results in an extremely high
picking cost as the final cost of pick-
ing citrus fruits depends upon the
percentage of picking defects that
result in decay. For example, wlen


a picker is paid ten cents (10c) per
box for picking, and his picking
shows fifteen percent (15%) de-
fects, the total cost of his picking
to the grower, including the loss in
decay from injuries to the fruit, is
around seventy cents (70c) per
box. This represents the grower's
loss through careless picking and
handling of fruit as any discount in
the market resulting from decay is
cieducted from the grower's check.
If he sells his fruit on the trees, the
buyer will make allowances in his
price for the usual losses resulting
from careless picking and handling.
The matter is in the hands of the
growers. They produce the fruit
and pay the bills, whether they re-
ceive the returns or not. Therefore,
they have the power to reduce to a
reasonable minimum this loss re-
sulting from improper handling ol
their fruit. But as long as they
wash their hands of all responsibil-
ity for the manner in which their
fruit is picked and handled, they
must suffer the losses.
An essential part of a picking
equipment is a competent, energetic
kicking foreman. He will see that
all pickers are equipped with the
Roperr kind of clippers, picking
aags, gloves, (to prevent injury to
.ruit from finger nails), and that
3ach piece of equipment is kept in
food repair as long as it is in use.
A competent foreman will tolerate
anly a minimum percentage of clip-
,er cuts and long stems. These are
.elics of the old days. He knows
;hat a clipper cut means at least one
decayed fruit, that a long stem will
puncture the rind of other fruit, al-
lowing blue-mold spores to enter
mnd it may mean a dozen or more
decayed fruit on arriving at the
The Florida orange is very juicy
-nd heavy. Only a short drop will
bruise it. It would seem needless
to say here that field boxes should
not be filled above the level. How-
aver, this is often done. If fruit is
purchased by the field box, fill them
"on the level" and thereby keep
lown decay or bruised and mashed
Why Fruit Grades Low
When a crop of fruit grades low
ind brings a poor price, the grower
of that fruit usually lays the blame
an the packing house manager. The
fruit may have graded low because
af improper cultivation practice or
disease and insect injuries in the
grove, resulting in poor quality-
conditions over which the packing
house manager has no control. In
)rder to clear such cases, place the
responsibilities where they belong,
and pave the way for improvements,
it is important for the packing
house manager to make a record of
the condition of each grower's fruit,
especially the groves running heavy
to low grades. While the grower's
fruit is being packed, packing house
foremen should either go through a
few field crates and estimate a per-
centage of the different items that
caused the fruit to grade low and
record same, or look over the dif-
ferent grades in the bins and check

They Are Interested
Near Tampa, Fla.,
Florida Clearing House News,
Winter Haven, Fla.
I suspect the reason we growers
appear to be such a wooden, seem-
ingly unappreciative set, is because

the conditions there. Only a few
minutes is required to complete such
a record of a crop or shipment. This
record should be then filed in the
office of the packing house manager
and the attention of the grower
called to same at the opportune
time. His attention can then be
called to the reason for his fruit
grading low and to the importance
of removing the causes over which
he has control as far as it is practic-
able and economical to do so. Pack-
ing house managers may either give
him detailed instructions as to how
to go about improving the quality
of his fruit or refer the matter to
the County Agricultural Agent or to
the Extension Citrus Specialist in
charge of the particular branch of
the work involved. This method of
making contact with the problem
places responsibilities where they
should rest and opens the way for
White Fly Control
White fly infestations are very
heavy in spots over the citrus belt.
As a rule, these heavy infestations
are in groves where they did not re-
ceive the usual rain-fall during July.
This shortage of rain-fall resulting
in a condition unfavorable to the
development of beneficial fungi,
especially the red Aschersonia.
Groves heavily infested with
white fly should be sprayed with a
standard oil emulsion as soon as the
temperature drops enough to make
it safe from the standpoint of fruit
injury from the oil spray. In case
the infestation is only light, spray-
ing may be postponed for a while to
catch a more desirable condition
for the fall spraying and thus take
care of both white fly and scale in-
sects at the same time.
Lookout For Rust Mites
Bear in mind our fruit is not out
of danger from rust mite injuries
until it is in the field crate. Do not
forget that rust mites do their dirty
work during dry, warm weather.
Growers should watch for their rav-
ages right on during the warm days
of the fall, winter and spring. When
they appear in dangerous numbers,
dust or spray with sulphur or if
rust mites are present in large num-
bers when the fall clean-up spraying
with oil emulsion is done, add three
pounds of soda of sulphur to each
one hundred gallons of oil spray
and thereby make the spraying
more efficient in rust mite control.

September 13, 1930

each humbly thinks what they could
say would be valueless. But I admit
to keep preaching to unfilled benches
in a meeting house would tax the
spirit of even a Quaker (my first 12
years were lived in a Quaker neigh-
borhood) and to keep doing and
printing things for the good of so
apparently unresponsive a group as
we growers have heretofore been,
seems a little on that line.
But, late as it is, I do say I think
the organization has functioned
nobly during its short lifetime. It
seems, indeed, to have taken care
that the grower was benefited rather
than being the benefactor. May it
keep on going forward as faithful-
ly, and its officials be chosen as
wisely, for then it can never fail;
for "the steps of a good man are
ordered by the Lord." I do not
know that you could "improve the
information you try to give us"
through the "Clearing House News."
But I do not doubt you have a more
interested company of readers than
you suspect. I always read my pa-
per through to learn how things are
coming, and probably that is the
way other growers also have done,
silently satisfied.
Probably now that there is a sec-
tion, "The Grower's Voice" put so
invitingly at our disposal, the tim-
idity we felt may melt away and we
get courageous enough to tell you
we like to have the interest taken in
us that the Clearing House has
taken. So, to the outgoing and in-
coming Board of Directors, the
Operating Committee and the new
Committee of Fifty, I say: "God
bless you, and wisdom's patience
give you."
An orange tree lover,
(Signed) (MRS.) E. G. WRAY.

Approves Monthly Meetings
Thonotosassa, Fla.,
Flor:da Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
The open letter to grower mem-
bers in recent copy of "Clearing
House News" interested me very
much, particularly the suggestion to
hold monthly community meetings.
I would like to see the idea attempt-
ed, though I have some misgivings
as to the results.
I sometimes think that some of
our fruit growers possess a differ-
ent mentality than ordinary indi-
viduals. They don't seem to see any
good in anything outside their own
backyards. They don't like the Ex-
change and they don't see any good
ir- the Clearing House.
I know several men who think
they are saving money by staying
out of the Clearing House. They
(Continued on Page Eight)

The Grower's Voice
Under this heading will be published communications from grower members
of the Clearing House Association, who desire to voice opinions upon matters of
general interest to Florida citrus growers. The Association cannot, of course,
assume responsibility for the opinions expressed' in these letters, but believes
growers should have the opportunity of expressing themselves if they are willing
to assume the responsibility. Communications should be as brief as possible-
preferably not more than 250 words in length-and MUST be signed with the
writer's name and address (although not necessarily for publication).


Water Transportation

Our Citrus Saviour

By MARK HYDE, E. M., Member B. A. R.

The following analysis of the
growth of consumption of citrus in
recent years doesn't show for much
vim and vigor in our sales cam-
Per Capita Consumption
U. S. A., 1924-26................20.3 lbs.
U. S. A., 1927-29--..---... 22.0 lbs.
Canada, 1924-26-- --_---- 17.0 lbs.
Canada, 1927-29 -------------- 20.9 lbs.
U. S. A., 1924-26 .------- 5.23 lbs.
U. S. A., 1927-29............... 5.38 lbs.
England, 1924-26 -----------. .38 lb.
England, 1927-29 -_____---_ 1.17 lbs.
It's apparent we are planting
more than we can sell at the pres-
ent rate of progress, and high time
we prepare to reap what we have
sown, by better distribution.
First of all I call your attention
to certain significant truths: Cali-
,fornia is covering as much Ameri-
can territory by water delivery as
possible, and putting fruit into New
York via refrigerated steamers
cheaper than we can via rail; and
in fully as good condition in spite
of the elapsed time. Texas will not
only fight for the Atlantic seaboard
'and export markets with water-
borne deliveries, but will have a
vital edge on us in the Mississippi
Valley-one of our best markets.
Texas is our only quality competi-
tor in grapefruit, and, while her
climate is hazardous to uniform
output from a frost and drought
viewpoint, we would be inexcusably
short-sighted to cut our cloth on
that assumption.
Porto Rico, Spain, Brazil and
South Africa rely entirely on water,
and all European countries are be-
ing educated to consider fruit from
the ship as the freshest and best;
and it actually is, even were water
and rail rates the same.
Florida Oranges Best Inside
'Tis-a- prank of fate that Florida
oranges should beat the world on
the inside and yet bear no evidence
of it on the outside. Every foreign
competitor grows a beautiful ball
,of gold; but, like many other beau-
ties, juiceless and heartless inside
-yet, the lust of the eye will al-
ways prevail over common sense
and fruit will always sell first by
its appearance. Our oranges, with
twenty per cent more and sweeter
juice, will therefore always be pen-
alized when sold in the rind.
Fortunately the day of frozen
orange juice is nigh-if not already
here; and through this outlet must
come the solution for undergrades.
That calls for refrigerated transpor-
tation at low temperatures-a
phase in which ships excel rail car-
riers, both in efficiency and cost.
And when our by-products move by
water it is but logical to -forward
our fruit in the rind the same way.

Another factor, and the most im-
portant of all, which forces water
transportation to the fore, is the
necessity of extending distribution
over the summer months. For, un-
less we solve this problem at once,
we face no hope of marketing the
tonnage even now on the trees.
Fruit, to stand summer storage,
must be picked green (before ac-
tivity gets beyond low temperature
control); must be thoroughly
washed in a borax solution to pre-
vent mold spore germination; must
be doubly sealed with a paraffin
coating to prevent withering; and
above all must be stored in field
crates, permitting a flow of air be-
tween all pieces. Oranges require
a different storage treatment from
grapefruit. Forced, conditioned air
only may be used as the refrigera-
tion medium; and this air must at
intervals be borax treated. Such
fruit to be packed in the holding
coolers prior to shipment in stand-
ard containers; with overripes put
into frozen juice or cans.
This calls for ship-side assembly
in storage within the State and
contiguous to the growing centers,
for the following reasons:
1. Field crates cannot be shipped
out of the state and returned ex-
cept at prohibitive costs.
2. By-product outlets are not
available at outside points.
3. Re-packing is prohibitive.
4. The tie-up of capital in freight
charges before the goods are sold
is prohibitive.
5. If goods are assembled inside
the State they can be shipped to
any point free of freight penalty.
If assembled at major markets they
must be consumed in those markets
and are at the mercy of jobbers
clever in smashing prices on com-
modities overstocked in local cold
storage. If shipped to other points
the back-haul charge is again pro-
6. Fruit packed under our stand-
ard bulge is so checked from pres-
sure, a long hold is out of the ques-
tion, even with a paraffin seal care-
fully applied.
Ship Refrigeration Service
All of which forces the industry
to turn to ship-side assembly and
water transportation for salvation.
That shipping companies appreciate
this is evidenced by the number of
lines already offering refrigerated
service at fair tariffs; and by the
magnificent terminal already in
operation in Tampa.
Nor is the matter of time a fac-
tor with water hauls. Fruit stored
in refrigerated chambers aboard
ship is under as perfect control as
in the finest land storage ever
built, and even though water takes
a day or two longer, less deprecia-
tion occurs than in the shorter time

Adams Packing Co., Inc.-Auburndale
Alexander & Baird Co., Inc.
......---- ___.....__. Beresford
American. Fruit Growers, Inc.
........---.... --- - ------... Orlando
Browder-Fowler Fruit Co....Arcadia
Burch, R. W., Inc.......----- Plant City
Emca Fruit Co...... --- Crescent City
Fields, S. A. & Co. ...-----Leesburg
Florida Citrus Exchange..... Tampa
Florida Mixed Car Co .....-Plant City
Fosgate, Chester C. Co....-- Orlando
Gentile Bros. Co ..---- ----- Orlando
Herlong, A. S. & Co.-....... Leesburg
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.
---------------------------- -------Davenport
Keen, J. W......--...-_----_--. Frostproof
Keene, R. D. & Co ....-------. Eustis
Lamons, D. H. -------Ft. Myers
Lee, J. C., Sr. -..--- Leesburg
Lovelace Packing Co Winter Haven
Mammoth Grove, Inc.....Lake Wales
Maxcy, Gregg .------------ Sebring
Maxcy, L., Inc. ---- Frostproof
McKenney-Steck, Inc...........Orlando
Merrion & Dodson _-Winter Haven
Milne-O'Berry Packing Co.
----------------------St. Petersburg
Mitchell, J. M. -- -- Elfers
Mouser, W. H. & Co..---- Orlando
Nelson & Co., Inc ...------- Oviedo

with the uneven higher temperature
resultant from rail refrigeration
under ice. And remember this: our
best markets are the summer
months, both at home and abroad.
To have fruit available for them it
must have been carried from the
green state in cold storage, and,
once placed under refrigeration
must remain at exactly that tem-
perature till it reaches the jobber.
Only ship refrigeration can econom-
ically solve this problem.
During the winter months when
packed, treated fruit can be suc-
cessfully shipped via rail under ven-
tilation (owing to the fact that
ship's ventilation is forced by fans
and is more efficient than rail,
which relies on the movement of
the train only); the same fruit may
be shipped via water, under venti-
lation, and stand one or two addi-
tional days en route and arrive in.
fully as good condition.
Pack Too High
Our next step forward should be
the elimination of the extreme
bulge pack if we hope to win the
overseas market. Where we pack
today and sell in domestic markets
within the week the vicious results
of the bulge have not had time to
manifest themselves. But where
we expect to ship that fruit to a
pre-cooler for a week, and then load
aboard ship for another two weeks,
and then submit it to the abuse of
the foreign stevedores, truckers,
etc., it simply can't stand the gaff.
Florida fruit has the thinnest of all
rinds and yet we throw it onto the

Orange Belt Packing Co..-.... Eustis
Richardson-Marsh Corp..._-_ Orlando
Roper, B. H._._-----_--_Winter Garden
Stetson, John B. Est. of.... -_DeLand
Sullivan, H. C. ----...-. Frostproof
Sunny South Packing Co_ ..Arcadia
Welles Fruit & Live Stock Co.
------------------ -......... Arcadia
Associated With Other Shipper-
Armstrong, F. C. ----------. Palmetto
Babson Park Citrus Growers Assn.
-- ----------.Babson Park
Chase & Co.- --------- ----Sanford
Citrus Grove Dev. Co., The
---------- ---.. ... Babson Park
DeLand Packing Co ... ... DeLand
Fellsmere Growers, Inc._. Fellsmere
Holly Hill Grove & Fruit Co
--------__--- Davenport
Indian River Fruit Co-...- Wabasso
International Fruit Corp. Orlando
Johnson, W. A. -------.... Ft. Ogden
Lakeland Co. Inc., The ...Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.
S------ __- Lake Wales
Middleton, W. D.... _.Isle of Pines
Ulmer, H. D.---------........-- Clearwater
Valrico Growers, Inc..--....--__ Valrico
Vaughn-Griffin Packing Co. Howey
West Frostproof Packing &
Canning Co ---.. West Frostproof

world's markets against thick skin
competition from Africa, Brazil
and California (none of which have
found it possible to use a high
bulge), and wonder why we're so
seriously penalized; it's the eight
rots in the eight top corners that
do the work.
Educational Campaign Necessary
By proper use of water transpor-
tation, we can hold the Atlantic
Coast against all comers. We can
grow sufficient differential over
Texas and California to hold at
least half of the Mississippi Valley
against all comers. If we'-start--air
educational campaign in Europe
teaching the merits that lie beneath
the tawny, russet rind of a Florida
grapefruit, we will hold that mar-
ket against all comers; and so, gen-
tlemen, I submit, our industry has
but one thing to fear-lack of ap-
plication of common sense on our
part in distribution. We grow the
finest fruit in the world and grow
it at the lowest cost per box. Sure-
ly in this day of eat-more-fruit we
have a place in the sun.

"Does yo' take this woman for thy
lawfully wedded wife?" asked the
colored parson, glancing at the di-
minutive, watery-eyed, bow-legged
bridegroom, who stood beside two
hundred and ten pounds of femi-
nine assurance.
"Ah takes nothing, responded the
bridegroom, gloomily. "Ah's being
tooked."-Tit-Bits (London).

Shipper-Members of Association
The shippers named herewith are members of the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association and they are the ONLY members of thip organization.
In fairness to these shippers who are supporting the Clearing House, as well as
helping to build the organization, grower-members should urge their neighbors
to join and ship through one of these operators.

Page 7

September 13. 1930

Pave 7





SEPTEMBER 13, 1930

Published Semi-monthly by the FLORIDA CITRUS
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Florida.

Entered as second-class matter August 31, 1928, at
the postoffice at Winter Haven, Fla., under the Act of
March 3, 1879.




S. t. Ogden
SWinter Park
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
.. Cocoa
Mt. Dora



Per Year: $2.00 Single Copies: 10c

Shipping Schedule Cut
To Be Big Help

The reduction of 24 hours in the schedule
for Florida. citrus fruit to eastern markets as
officially announced by the Atlantic Coast
Line railroad Sept. 2, and which will also be
made effective by other Florida lines and
their connections, will be warmly welcomed
by all citrus and vegetable shippers of the

This action on the part of the Florida rail-
roads and their connections, in recognizing
the necessity of placing citrus fruit and vege-
tables from Florida on the eastern markets on
a faster schedule, and on a better ratio with
schedules maintained by railroads from other
large producing areas, demonstrates fully the
vast importance to them of the citrus and
vegetable traffic of our state.

The reduction of twenty-four hours in the
schedules for citrus to eastern markets was
secured from the carriers through the efforts
of the Growers and Shippers League, at the
request of the Operating Committee of the
Clearing House, supplemented by requests
from vegetable shippers. This demonstrates
again the benefits that can be achieved for
Florida growers and shippers by maintaining
a state-wide organization, such as the Grow-
ers and Shippers League, whose sole purpose
is to handle transportation problems affecting
the citrus and vegetable industries of the state
as a whole.


Apples and Oranges
A recent survey of 100 families employed
by the Ford Motor Company conducted by
the United States Department of Commerce,
gives some interesting facts on living costs
and the position of oranges, lemons and
grapefruit on the family budget.
The survey shows that food items take the
greatest percentage of the annual income
with 32 percent. Rent and clothing rank next
with 22 percent and 12 percent respectively.
Of the total spent for food, approximately 6
percent represents the amount expended for
fresh fruits. Among the fresh fruit items,
apples and oranges easily outrank other
fruits; apples with 186 pounds consumed by
each family of four per year and oranges with
102 pounds consumed. Bananas ranked third
with 67 pounds, while lemons are farther
down the list with 11 pounds and grapefruit
6 pounds.
The average cost of apples for each family
is shown to reach $10.10 for 186 pounds,
while the cost of oranges was $9.56 for the
102 pounds consumed by each family. The
figures further show that 100 percent of the
families used oranges, while 99 percent used
apples and bananas, and 97 percent bought
lemons. Thirty percent of the homes used
grapefruit.-Skookum News.

A Remark From Indiana
"Florida started with a big advantage. She
had the orange market before California
started. But California has outrun her. Flor-
ida oranges are still sold extensively in sea-
son, in the northern and eastern markets, but
California oranges seem to be developing into
a year-round staple.
"Why this conquest? Florida is far nearer
the big market. California oranges are good
oranges, but not necessarily better than the
Florida product. The former are seedless
and easy to eat, but the latter are usually
juicier and many prefer their flavor.
"The difference in public demand is ex-
plained as a direct result of advertising. The
California growers make regular and liberal
advertising an essential part of their business.
They automatically contribute five cents a
box for oranges and ten cents a box for
lemons, to tell the nation's consumers about
them. That makes a big fund and usually
insures the marketing of their crops at profit-
able figures.
"Perhaps there are other farm problems
that could be solved this way. Undoubtedly
many industrial problems could."-Evans-
ville (Ind.) Courier.

Read the NEWS and keep abreast of Clear-
ing House activities.

Florida citrus growers soon will
number as a neighbor another sub-
ject of Great Britain according to
Mr. William Laws, Jr., of New
Smyrna. Mrs. E. A. K. Coales, an
attorney of Wellingborough, Eng-
land, plans to set out twenty acres (o
of grapefruit and oranges next Feb-
ruary at Oakhill. More acreage will
be planted each year.
Mrs. Coales has a number of
friends interested in Florida's citrus
industry and may induce some of
her fellow countrymen to adopt her
new home with her. Mrs. Coales-
spent several weeks in Florida last
spring on her visit to the United
States, incidentally her first, and de-
clared that she was very much im-
pressed with the citrus industry as
well as with Florida's wonderful
sunshine and climate.

Page 8


(Continued from Page Six)
don't believe the Clearing House in-
fluenced the Department of Agricul-
ture at Washington to reduce dras-
tice quarantine rules and regula-,
tions when the fly scare started a
year ago. They don't credit the
Clearing House with the splendid
marketing results obtained this past
shipping season, and I don't believe
many of them would attend more
than one community meeting. They
would go to one out of curiosity, ,
still, I think the idea of monthly
meetings throughout various sec-
tions of the fruit growing districts
is a good idea, and I hope the Com-
mittee of Fifty will put it into ef-
I want to express my appreciation
of the splendid work accomplished
by the several Clearing House com-
mittees, and their unselfish devotion i,
to the welfare of the citrus industry
as a whole.
Very truly,
(Signed) W. H. STEACY.

Backed By Experience
Lake Wales, Fla.,
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
"In "Open Letter" in the "News"
of May 25th the grower-members
are requested to give their opinion
in regard to holding "monthly meet-
ings." I think they would be very .
beneficial, although I could not at-
tend because of being incapacitated.
I am wholly in accord with the
Clearing House and don't believe in
hampering it in any way. I am con-
vinced that the line-up behind it
consists of the most experienced and
substantial men in the citrus indus- ;,
Yours very truly,
(Signed) J. S. MASON.

The Treasury Department receiv-
ed the following letter:
"I have received your application, /
but as I already belong to several
good orders I do not care to join
your income tax at this time."


September 13, 1930

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