Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00030
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: December 25, 1929
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00030
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
!i. Economics




Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit



of the


10 Cents a Copy n f Volume II
$2.00 a Year DECEMBER 25, 1929- Number 6

Clearing House Similar to California Fruit Growers Exchange

Last "Call" Given

Outsiders To Join

The-Clearing House

Invitation Extended With
Explanation of Work As-
sociation Is Doing

A definite and cordial invitation
Sto.all shippers of Florida citrus who
as yet have not joined the Associ-
ation, is being extended by the
Clearing House this month. The
invitation, in the form of a letter
to the outside shippers, points out
the advantages of working with the
Association's membership-explain-
ing how the Clearing House is clear-
ly demonstrating its value to the
industry-and announces also that
the organization's books will be
closed to new shipper-members on
Jan. 1st.
The letter in full is as follows:
All Citrus Shippers of Florida
Outside of the Clearing House:
Our own shipper-members, as
well as our growers, are enthusi-
astic about what we are accomplish-
ing by the means of the Clearing
-1ise, maybe partly from the
Christmas spirit which we always
get as Christmas comes along, as
well as from a business standpoint,
but they want you to share the good
things of the Clearing House with
Not only are we finding that our
prorating plans on shipments are
working out constructively and
profitably to all concerned but also
our prorating plans at the auction
markets are demonstrating their
need. The price information is now
so complete to our shipper-members
as to leave no one in the dark. Guess
work is pretty well eliminated and
every shipper-member has the privi-
lege of talking with the Manager
in confidence. There is such a
correlation of our joint marketing
effort that there is a self-confidence
on the part of every Sales Manager
that has never before been enjoyed.
Aside from all these things there
(Continued on Page Twelve)

Emergency Appropriation of

$1,290,000 Ends Probability

Of Embargo Upon Our Citrus

Faced by the probable establish-
ment of a complete embargo on cit-
rus fruits and vegetables, Florida
today is breathing a sigh of relief
with the passage by Congress of an
emergency appropriation of $1,290,-
000 with which to continue fruit
fly eradication work. This appro-
priation measure, passed the middle
of the month, is expected to enable
the United States Department of
Agriculture to carry on its work in
Florida until the last of June.
Funds Had Given Out
Due to the fact that the eradica-
tion funds had given out and that
the Appropriation Committee of the
Lower House had not had time in
which to study the bill recommend-
ing an appropriation of some $15,-
000,000 and that consideration of
the bill would not be given until
late next month on account of the
holiday recess, there was every like-
lihood, it was pointed out, that erad-
ication work would have to be halt-
ed with the result that the Govern-
ment would be compelled to place a
complete embargo on our fruit.
This emergency fund of $1,290,-
000 is expected to permit the Agri-
cultural Department to continue its
campaign until Congress acts on the
budget recommendation for an addi-
tional appropriation of $15,381,000
for the next fiscal year. The House
Appropriation Committee will hold
hearings on this bill after the Christ-
mas recess. Of the emergency fund
just appropriated, $290,000 is to be
used to restore to regular Depart-
mental appropriations amounts di-
verted to carry on current activities
of the Department. The remaining
$1,000,000 is to be used to continue
quarantine inspection and scouting
$15,000,000 Needed
The house committee in its re-
port on the emergency bill pointed
out that Congress made available

$4,250,000 for the eradication, con-
trol and prevention of the spread
of the fruit fly which "thus far has
been confined to the State of Flor-
"This sum was carried in a joint
resolution approved May 2, 1929,"
the report said, "and in addition
thereto sums aggregating $290,000
have been transferred from other
Department of Agricultural appro-
priations, making an aggregate
amount of $4,540,000, all of which
is practically exhausted. On Dec.
9, last, the President submitted a
budget estimate for $15,381,000 to
continue the control, prevention of
spread, and eradication program
until June 30th, next, of which
$290,000 was allotted to reimburse
departmental funds for the amounts
heretofore transferred to the fruit
fly work.
"The amount recommended to be
appropriated by this joint resolution
is $1,290,000," the report continued,
"of which $290,000 is to restore to
regular departmental appropriations
the amounts diverted therefrom in
order that current activities of the
department may not be impeded and
the remaining $1,00,000 is an in-
terim emergency fund to enable the
department to continue quarantine,
inspection and scouting work.
No Additional Funds
"The committee is not willing at
this time to appropriate any addi-
tional funds for eradication work,
and while the appropriation is avail-
able for eradication as well as quar-
antine and inspection activities, it
is not anticipated that any part of it
will be so used unless some press-
ing necessity therefore, not now ex-
isting should arise. It has been
more than four months since a Med-
iterranean fruit fly has been seen in
Florida and, while it may exist in a
dormant condition, it is agreed by
(Continued on Page Three)

Our Organization

More Centralized'

By Its Contracts

Eating Quality of Oranges
Can't Always Off-Set
Rivals' Appearance

(General Manager, Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Assn.)
To market a crop involves differ-
ent ideas depending upon the vol-
ume. The original idea of "mar-
keting" doubtless originated with
the farmer who drove to market and
traded in his eggs, pork, fruit or
vegetables either for other mer-
chandise or sold it for a definite
amount to the retail grocer. He
was doing his own marketing. Like-
wise one of our growers who sells
his crop of oranges and grapefruit
outright to some local Florida buyer
does his own marketing. There
would be no marketing organiza-
tion for Florida citrus if all Florida
growers could and did do their own
marketing. Mass production in one
locality brings about a serious over-
supply of that comzTiJW in that-..
particular region. This brings about
a different type of marketing. The
greater the volume produced and
the greater the distance from the
market, the greater the need of
more organized means for market-
California Exchange Like
Clearing House
The truth of this statement is
seen in California's marketing meth-
ods, particularly on cirtus. It will
be news to most growers, and pos-
sibly some shippers, to know how
similar the California Fruit Grow-
ers Exchange is in their marketing
of citrus fruit to our Clearing
House. In the season just closed
this organization had a problem of
marketing about 65,000 cars. The
California Fruit Growers Exchange
acted to a great extent as a clear-
ing house. By contract the central
(Continued on Page Nine)


The citrus growers of Florida can
look forward to the new year with
confidence and happiness. Our in-
dustry has made wonderful strides.
Compared with the old year the new
year should show in round figures
about $1.00 per box higher net re-
turns. The difference would be an-
other 50c or $1.00 higher if we were
through with our eradication pro-
gram. We believe we will be through
with the eradication program with
this season's crop.
Every grower, every shipper and
every citizen of Florida should meet
the new year with this one confident
hope and determination that we
complete the big job that Uncle
Sam has tackled with us and finish
it with the finishing of the crop.
Never again will we have the happy
combination that we have had this
year where we can move our crop by
April 1st and still get returns that
will warrant moving the crop from
an economic standpoint. We have
only a third as many grapefruit left
to move as a year ago and only half
as many oranges left as a year
ago. California also has only about
half a crop.
Fourteen Weeks Left
Fourteen weeks are left in which
to move the crop before April 1st.
This means only 900 cars of oranges
per week and 375 cars of grapefruit
per week. This can be moved by
April 1st and it should be moved by
that time so that the Administration
at Washington may have no misgiv-
ings in pronouncing the eradication
completed because of the fact that
we have all the months of April,
May, June, July, August and Sep-
tember, (six months) in which there
will be no host fruits available for
the Mediterranean fly on which to
Commercially the fly has disap-
peared. If our growers and public-
minded citizens will see that the
d..drops are closely picked up and
Srecog'ize that there is no more im-
portant thing to do for the welfare
of the State than to bury all drops
under three feet or more of soil, we
believe with the wonderful elimina-
tion that has been made and with
the opportunity that we have to get
all of our crop shipped by April 1st
that we have absolutely within our
grasp the completion of our eradi-
cation. This must be a hope that
will be unquestionably realized this
New Spray Sought
Bait spraying material when the
spring and warmer weather comes
will have to be applied again as a
matter of necessity. However, con-
structive work is going forward to
find some spray material that will
not'tend to stunt the tree or cause
die-back or otherwise injure the
fruit or tree and yet effectively at-
tract and kill any Mediterranean
fy. Very encouraging news has been
;'rumored regarding the possible use
f. of Silica Flouride. It is claimed that

this does not have the same effect
upon the enzymes. It permits the
acidity of the fruit to be normal and
so far as reported has none of the
objectionable features of our pres-
ent bait spray. This information is
not official but is given to show the
line of effort that is being made by
leaders and all actively interested
in working out the problem together.
Real Teamwork Exists
Never before was there such real
teamwork for industry betterment
as now exists. Shipments are being
controlled from week to week and
offerings at auction from day to day
through the medium of the Clearing
House. There is no further useless
price cutting as of yore for the ship-
pers of Florida are fully acquainted
with price possibilities and are work-
ing together with confidence in each
other and themselves such as they
have never had before.
Without this teamwork, even with
our short crop, we would have a de-
moralized situation because we are
compelled to ship into the eleven
northeastern states an undue pro-
portion of our crop, as these are the
only States which permit shipment
from our eradication area without
processing. The effects of heat ster-
ilization are such as to also make
another serious handicap which has
to be met. These things together
with the neecssity of moving the en-
tire crop by April 1st would all tend
to cause timidity and break our
morale in our marketing program
were it not for the organized effort
and teamwork resulting from 80
percent or more of the industry co-
operating so finely through the
Clearing House.

Tell the Good News

Instead of the Bad,

Is Word Given State

The Clearing House, by virtue of
its representation of Florida's citrus
growers, is rapidly assuming a posi-
tion of help and leadership for the
State as a whole. This is reflected
in the recent move to present to the
outside world more of the optimistic
and encouraging news concerning
the State than disastrous and sensa-
tionally harmful news. It has been
a standing joke in Florida for many
years that California never permits
news of that State's difficulties to
find its way east of the Rockies. As
a result the western State has over-
come tremendous handicap in that
her difficulties have not been broad-
cast to the world as has been the
case in Florida.
Show Real Achievements
The Clearing House has taken the
lead in the matter of presenting to
the world more of the favorable and
less of the unfavorable news con-
cerning Florida. Early this month

Prospects for the New Year

General Manager Archie M. Pratt
appeared before members of the
Florida State Press Association at
the annual meeting of that body,
held in Orlando, wherein he empha-
sized the importance to Florida in
the showing of our real achieve-
ments and of not emphasizing in
sensational fashion some of the dif-
ficulties that have confronted us.
"Florida should no longer be dis-
tracted with its troubles," he said.
"Having gone through what we
have and having received the pub-
licity given to past troubles we have
reached the point where it is the
best kind of news to show accurate-
ly the rapid recovery that has been
made and the real achievements ac-
Part of Mr. Pratt's talk, which
impressed favorably the newspaper
men present at the meeting, is given
herewith as follows:
Ban False Optimism
"False optimism is distinctly out
of place after the experience that
Florida has gone through, yet there
never was a time when confidence
was so well warranted, when con-
fidence in Florida was so deserved
and when the backing of the finan-
cial world was so surely in the mak-
ing, not in an excited manner that
cannot last, but in the slow-but-sure
manner that becomes a permanent
part of Florida itself, for Florida
has been sobered down to hard
thinking habits and is thinking
things through as never before. The
fallacy of false optimism and the
strength that comes from courage-
ously recognizing stern necessity's
laws has been lived through and
made a part of our present reac-
tions. Facts rather than sentiments
have convinced us of the necessity
of team work, co-operation, and con-
fidence in each other.
"That these things pay is shown
in dollars and cents. Because of
organized effort and orderly mar-
keting resulting, Florida today is
realizing a dollar per box more on
its citrus fruits than a year ago.
Public auction records show that
for the corresponding week a year
ago Florida averaged but $3.00 de-
livered on 238 cars of grapefruit.
This year our average is $4.25 for
253 cars of grapefruit. Our f.o.b.
prices are similarly strikingly higher
than a year ago. For this week a
year ago Florida averaged but $3.23
delivered on 387 cars of oranges
whereas this season the week's of-
fering shows $4.00 delivered on 447
cars of oranges. Our f.o.b. prices
on oranges show an average this
year of $3.40 for the week against
last year's average of $2.35.
Organized Effort Succeeds
"These excellent returns have
been made possible only because
Florida has become more industrial-
minded. Had there not been organ-
ized effort on the part of growers
and shippers the administration at
Washington would not have been
informed of the essential practical
facts of our citrus industry. This
organized effort in turn made it pos-
sible to co-operate most closely with
the .Department of Agriculture at

Washington, the State Plant Board
and other interests connected with
effectively meeting bour quarantine.
"Florida should no longer be dis-
tracted with its troubles. Having
gone through with what we have
and having received the publicity
given to past troubles we have
reached the point where it is the
best kind of news to accurately show
the rapid recovery that has been
made and the real achievements ac-
Cultivate Confidence
"As citizens we should then culti-
vate the habit of feeling, thinking
and talking in terms of confidence,
which has been established, and get
out of the old habit of apparently
taking a delight in gossiping about
our difficulties and in advertising
them to the world through the press
and otherwise.
"There is only one reason why
newspapers publish news derogatory
to an individual community or State
and that is because there is such a
keen demand for such things from
its readers. The public mind of
Florida is reaching that point where
it sees the fallacy of such unhealthy
indulgence in news which it has
heretofore sought. I am confident
the press, always feeling as it does
the public pulse, will respond to
just as high a level of self-contain-
ment and constructive effort as our
own citizens hold under the new re-
gime we are now entering for the
press always supplies that which is
in greatest demand."

Federal Officials

Invited to Address

Growers at Festival

Visitors to the Florida Orange
Festival to be held January 21st to
25th in Winter Haven will have
an opportunity to hear discussed
various problems concerning agri-
culture generally and Florida citrus
in particular by authorities and of-
ficials familiar with their subjects.
Invitations have been sent out
through the Clearing House by a
committee to Secretary of Agricul-
ture Arthur M. Hyde; Dr. Lee A.
Strong, Chief, Plant Quarantine and
Control Administration; Dr. Wilmon
Newell and Commissioner Nathan
Mayo to make talks January 24th,
which day has been designated as
"Growers' Day." General Manager
A. M. Pratt of the Clearing House
also is to speak.
Representative Citrus Exhibits
The Festival itself is expected to
eclipse last year's event, according
to the management, in both citrus
and commercially allied exhibits.
Citrus exhibits from every section
of the State are expected to be in-
cluded in the Festival, assurances
from nearly a score of counties hav-
ing been given early this month in-
dicate according to J. B. Guthrie,
manager of the Festival.
Members of the State Plant Board

Pane 2

__December 25, 1929

BBf ==

December 25, 1929








For Health Drink Orange
and Grapefruit Juice









AND ...........


For Health Drink Orange
and Grapefruit Juice

have expressed themselves as pleas-
ed that the Festival is to be given
This year if for no reason than that
it will show the thousands of north-
ern visitors to Florida that this
State has in no wise been devastat-
ed by the Mediterranean fruit fly
as the sensational press of the coun-
try would have had its readers be-
TION OF $1,290,000 ENDS
(Continued from Page One)
the Secretary of Agriculture, the
committee and Florida representa-
tives in the house, that the sum
recommended in the accompanying
joint resolution will be sufficient to
continue the quarantine which the
Department of Agriculture main-
tains, and to carry on inspection
and scouting work until such time as
further development of the situa-
tion and additional investigation will
.present a clearer view of what real
necessities of the case may prove
to be.
Money Can't Stand in Way
"The fruit crop is very important
to Florida and its movements to the
-normal markets should not be ham-
pered, under government quaran-
tine regulations, by any lack of
funds with which to maintain it
properly, so long as the Department
of Agriculture deems it necessary to
be maintained.
"The committee, therefore, rec-
ommends immediate passage of the

resolution in order that it may be-
come a law before the approaching
recess of Congress for the holidays."

California Attack

On Florida Halted

By Clearing House

Some unusually vicious propagan-
da detrimental to Florida, instigated
by the California State Department
of Agriculture, has just been defi-
nitely blocked by the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association.
The propaganda, which took the
form of a placard extremely sensa-
tional in nature, received wide dis-
tribution. The placard, at the re-
quest of the California Agricultural
Department, had been carried for
some time in the Pullman cars of
the Southern Pacific and Sante Fe
railways running into the Western
States. The placard, photostatic
copy of which the Clearing House
obtained early this fall, reads as fol-
Stop The Spread of
Fruit Fly
Consume Or Destroy All Fruits
Before Reaching The Pacific Coast
The Spirit Of Your
This or This
In the lower left hand corner of
the placard appears a photograph of

an infested grapefruit showing fly
maggots in the pulp. In the lower
right hand corner of the placard is
another photograph of a citrus
grove showing the ground covered
with fruit with a caption reading:
"Fruit Infested with Mediterranean
Fruit Fly Dropping From Trees in
Florida." In the center of the plac-
ard is a large illustration in natural
colors of a Mediterranean fruit fly
with wings and legs outspread.
Association Gets Busy
The Clearing House upon learning
that this placard-large reproduc-
tions of which literally cover the
State of California--had been
placed in the Pullman cars of the
Southern Pacific and Sante Fe lines
immediately took steps to have such
a manifestly unfair example of
propaganda checked. The publicity
department immediately entered
into correspondence with the rail-
way companies. N. W. Ayer & Son,
advertising counsel for the Clearing
House, wrote to the Passenger Traf-
fic Department of the Sante Fe Rail-
way calling attention to the placard
and explaining at some length the
true situation in this State.
The San Francisco and Chicago
offices of N. W. Ayer & Son also
jumped into the fight with the re-
sult that the placards very soon
were removed from the Pullman
cars on both lines.
Blamed on State Department
Of further interest to Florida,
letters to N. W. Ayer & Son, from
the Passenger Traffic Managers of

both the Sante Fe and the Southern
Pacific are quoted herewith:
From the Southern Pacific Rail-
"Referring further to your letter
of November 14th and my reply of
the 16th regarding Mediterranean
Fruit Fly poster issued by the Cal-
ifornia State Department of Agri-
"Upon looking into the matter I
find that this poster was placed in
the trains of all California Terminal
lines at request of the State Depart-
ment of Agriculture, but am glad
to inform you that these poste i are
no longer displayed in any of our
passenger trains."
"Can't Ignore State"
From the Sante Fe Railway: 4
"Yours November 14th in refer-
ence to display of posters and other
literature in passenger trains con-,
cerning Mediterranean fruit fly.
"Investigation develops that these
posters were placed in passenger.
cars of the Sante Fe and other Cal-
ifornia lines at the instance of State
authorities. As you well know, we
cannot ignore requests from that
source. Will also add that the Plant
Quarantine and Control Administra-
tion of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture was likewise
very active in this question.
"If you care to pursue the ques-
tion further, permit me to suggest
you have your San Francisco office
take the matter up direct with the
Agricultural Department of the
State of California."




Page 8



Hustling Manager's

Care Pays Dividend

On Ft. Pierce Grove

Better than three boxes of tan-
gerines to the tree with an acre
average of 200 boxes, is a goal
worth any grower's time and ef-
This is what Richard Whyte's tan-
gerine block in his 35-acre grove at
Fort Pierce probably will do for
him this season. AND THE TREES
Mr. Whyte is, however, a little
more fortunate than some of us-
aside from the prospective income
from these aforesaid tangerines-in
that he has a grove manager, Joe
Edwards by name, who has forgot-
ten more about raising citrus than
lots -of the wise birds ever will
learn. Joe Edwards is part of the
Whyte secret of producing heavy
crops of high quality fruit.
Knows Every Tree
Obviously Joe has his own ideas
as to how to get the most out of
those trees, for he's been handling
the Whyte grove for twenty-odd
years. He does all the work him-
self, except to call in his son to help
with the spraying, and knows every
one of those 2,000 orange, grape-
fruit and tangerine trees by their
first name.
How he gets his results is a story
-and a long one-in itself. Water,
of course, there is aplenty in the
vicinity of the Whyte grove. It's
nothing unusual to have water
standing in the wide middles during
the wet season! This may sound
preposterous to the unitiated Cen-
tral Florida .grower, but in the
Whyte section you know, the wide
middles are simply a small grand
canyon with the trees, so to speak,
perched up on the ridge more or
less above the ditch water.
"Lone Live Bermuda"
Bermuda grass ("Howl if you
want to," says Joe), is the only
cover crop Joe will use. And with
the plowing laid out on a once-in-
three-year basis, he isn't eternally
battling to kill out the Bermuda,
either. His reason is practical and
is that the crotalaria breeds pump-
kin bugs and is poisonous to his
mules and the Bermuda is guiltless
on both of these counts and further-
more most certainly is NOT killing
the trees.
, Incidentally Mr. Whyte's fruit
looks like the samples usually seen
at,.county fairs. In other words it
ia "show" fruit. Joe sprays with
lime, and sulphur and whale oil soap.
He sprayed in April and June and
will repeat the dose with whale oil

soap this month and next. Dusting
is "nix" as far as Joe is concerned.
"Lots of 'em don't believe it," Joe
remarks with a shrug of the shoul-
der, "but dust cakes up on the
leaves and breeds scale. Nope, no
dusting for me."
After 24 o'clock Joe finds a little
time in which to nurse along a ten-
acre grove of his own which lies
conveniently near the Whyte place.
Go and call on Joe some day.
Don't worry about missing him. He
will be right there on the job.
Exit Texas; enter Florida grape-
fruit-on the menu of the Jeffer-
son Davis 'hotel in Montgomery,
Ala. And therein lies a tale. Not
so long ago the menu of this parti-
cular hotel called attention to the
Texas grapefruit and in the same
breath spoke disparagingly of the
Florida product tainted with the
fruit fly. The Clearing House got
busy. The Texas grapefruit faded
away. The proprietor, who at heart
says he's a Florida booster, lost no
time in changing his menu and now
the breakfast guest reads: "This
Morning We Suggest First FLOR-
The Pasco County NEWS passes
on the suggestion that after the
fruit season closes the processing
rooms in the various packing houses

I Buddies I

Above is snap of Joe Edwards and his
"side partner" in front of their home on
the Whyte grove. The two are bosom
friends and where one is, the other is
quite likely to be also.

Knows His Grapefruit

J. A. Nyman of Sharpes, standing be-
side one of his heavily-laden grapefruit
trees. It so happens that the light was
rather poor when the above photo was
snapped, hence the grapefruit does not
show up in the picture as it does in a
most convincing manner to the personal

be turned into turkish baths for the
tired business man. By the same
token, the pre-cooling rooms could
be used for some of these birds who
are always beefing about "how hot
it is in Florida in the summer."
* *
J. A. Nyman, Sharpes grower, is
wearing a contented smile these days
and a glance at his loaded grape-
fruit trees will give the reason. Not
only are his trees showing a big
crop but the fruit itself is as pretty
as anyone could ask. Brights pre-
dominate overwhelmingly and he is
counting upon receiving some fancy
Mr. Nyman has been raising cit-
rus for about fifteen years. A na-
tive of Kansas and a railroader by
trade, he brought with him to Flor-
ida an inherent ability and willing-
ness to work as well as a shrewd
and inquiring mind. The result be-
gan to show itself at an early date
after launching into the business
of raising citrus. Today, while his
grove is comparatively a small one,
his place is numbered among the
truly profitable grove properties of
the East Coast.
Last season Mr. Nyman's crop
was somewhat light, but the 1,410
boxes he produced netted him the
satisfactory sum of $2,956. From
31 Marsh Seedless grapefruit trees,
he picked 379 boxes, the fruit net-
ting $3.64 per box, while the sea-
son before 496 boxes netted him
$1,600 from these same trees.
All of this might not sound ex-
ceptional unless it was explained
that the cold of 1917 froze these
trees to the ground, hence they are
today only 13 years old.

Fust Among



Knight Tells Wood

Of Real Situation

Existing in Florida

Unofficial individual efforts by
residents of Florida, and other
States too for that matter, to in-
terfere with the U. S. Department
of Agriculture's request of Congress
for an appropriation with which to
eradicate the fruit fly have been the
subject of considerable condemna-
tion by citrus growers and Floridans
generally during the past few
It has been repeatedly pointed out
by the Clearing House through its
special representative, Col. Peter O.
Knight of Tampa, that the Federal
Government should be given full
rein in this matter so that there
could be no likelihood of Congress
refusing to grant the- necessary ap-
propriation and hence bring about
the placing of an embargo upon our
fruit-which catastrophe was nar-
rowly averted the middle of this
Knight Summarizes Situation
Colonel Peter.O. Knight recently
summarized the Florida situation in
a letter to Congressman Win. R.
Wood, Chairman of the House Ap-
propriation Committee, which letter
together with one written Colonel
Knight by Congressman Wood ii
published herewith in full as fol-
December 16, 1929.
"Honorable William R. Wood,
"Chairman, Appropriation Com-
"House of Representatives,
"Washington, D. C.
"My Dear Mr. Wood:
"Your letter of December 12 has
just been received and I thank you
for the same.
"The facts in this matter are that
when the Mediterranean fruit fly
was discovered President Hoover
appointed a committee to come to
Florida to investigate the situation.
It was composed of very distinguish-
ed men. They did" make an iiiveti '-
gation and recommended, I think,
an appropriation of some thirty-
three million dollars upon the part
of the government to take care of
the situation. This was afterwards
reduced by the Agricultural Depart-
ment to twenty-six million dollars,
and Sdcretary of Agriculture Hyde
stated publicly that the Agricul-
tural Department, upon the recom-
mendation of this committee, would
ask congress to appropriate twenty-
six million dollars to-continue erad-
ication work. Afterwards, because
of so many adverse statements be-
ing made by people of Florida to.
you, evidently, you stated that you
probably would be opposed to such
a large appropriation. Thereupon
another committee was appointed
which I understand was at your sug-
gestion, and their report more than
sustained the report of the original
committee appointed by Mr. Hoover.
Based upon the report of the last.
committee Mr. Hoover sent his

Paee 4

__December 25, 1929

December 25, 1929

special message to congress, I im-
agine, recommending the suggest-
ed appropriation.
"There was panic and chaos in
this State in June and. July because
of the situation. The bank failures
that we had at that time were due
entirely to the Mediterranean fruit
fly situation. In such a condition it
was necessary that there should be
some concentrated action to under-
take to stabilize conditions and to
devise a way out of it if possible.
"The Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association there-
upon wanted to employ me as their
counsel to take care of this entire
matter for the citrus industry. I
declined to be employed to do this
first, because I have de-
voted a great deal of my
life to public work, all of
it without compensation;
secondly, because I did not
believe I could be of any
assistance in Washington
if I went there as a paid
"Therefore, I agreed to represent
without compensation the Clearing
House Association, which in turn
represents eighty-five percent of the
citrus industry of this State, pro-
vided everything, policy, publicity,
etc., etc., was given to me, unre-
stricted and unhampered, for me to
do with as I pleased. This the Clear-
ing House Association did. So,
sTiice' the bidinning of August I
have occupied that position.
"After a full investigation I sat-
isfied myself that it was the duty of
the people of this State implicitly
to abide by whatever the Federal
Quarantine Board and the Agricul-
tural Department of the United
States might say was necessary; and
my principal object has been to keep
the people of this State quiet and
united in their support of what ever
the -Quarantine Board and the Agri-
cultural Department of the United
States demanded.
"It has been one hell of a job. I
do not want any more like it.
"But the exigencies of the situa-
tion in this State have been such as
that it would have been folly to
have pursued any other course.
"Florida had in 1925 a senseless
boom; since that just as senseless a
deflation; in 1926 a hurricane; in
the winter of 1927 a freeze; in the
continuedd on Page Eleven)

How does a tree lift water
to its top-most branches? If
you know the answer, fame
and reknown awaits you, for
scientists have been trying in
vain for years to ascertain
the answer.

The solution of this same vexing
problem is not given herewith, as
you may have assumed, but the dif-
ficulties confronting those inter-
ested are detailed briefly and will
prove of interest to ctirus growers.
The following is an excerpt from an
article written by Charles D. Stew-
art which appeared in a recent issue
A Live Tree Is Dead
In any tree, however live and
growing, the substance composing
runk and branch is inert and life-
less matter. The heartwood of a
tree, the heaviest and solidest part,
extending a considerable distance
from the center, is dead in every
sense of the word. Its tubes no
.onger convey the sap upward, be-
2ause their walls have become
.hickened and filled with lignin. In
Lhem there is not even the sembl-
ance of vital activity. From the
heartwood outward to a point very
near the surface we find the water-
conveying structure consisting of
long tubes; and these tubes are
mere conduits, inert and lifeless.
They serve a useful purpose in con-
veying the water upward, but they
are not themselves alive.
The only part of a tree that is
really alive, in trunk and root and
branch, is a thin sheath of cells at
the surface of the wood called the
cambium layer. It is this live part
that keeps building and making the
tree larger.
A Biography In Circles
When a tree is cut down, the
circling grain on the stump tells
something of the age and the story
of growth. A cut across a tree near

the ground may show three hun-
dred annual rings, while cuts at
higher points will disclose but a
hundred, or fifty or forty. The
rings become fewer and fewer.
If we take a particular ring and
follow it up we find that it grows
smaller and smaller till it diminishes
to a point, a ring near the center
of the stump coming to an end at
no great distance from the ground,
while one a greater distance from

the center reaches to a correspond-
ingly greater height. And each of
these rings, according as it is the
fortieth or fiftieth or hundredth
from the center, will show the
height as well as the thickness that
the tree has attained in that number
of years.
What a Thirst!
A tree, like other forms of life,
is engaged in the constant circula-
tion of fluid through its tissues. Life
processes, animal or vegetable, can
go only so long as each individual
cell is surrounded by a fluid con-
taining nutriment. To meet this
demand and to provide for a large
amount of evaporation, a tree passes
up a great deal of water. A fairly
large beech tree will use about
sixty-five gallons of water on a dry,
hot day, while a large oak will re-
quire much more. Even a sunflower
will use two pounds. And this
water in the large species of trees,
will have to be lifted two hundred
and even three hundred feet.

Anyone who is familiar with pres-
sures in a tall standpipe or water
tower, or who has even taken p th
problem of 'raising 'Wiar to tVe
second story of a country residence,
must be interested in asking; How
is the supply of water taken to the
top of such tall trees? This ques-
tion, in the present state of man's
knowledge of physics, cannot be
answered. We do not know.

Go Ahead and Think
I dare say that anyone with an
everyday knowledge of physics, such
as might be learned from a lamp
wick, would be able to suggest ways
and means of getting the water up
there; but it would be difficult to
think of anything that has not al-
ready been considered and found
wanting. The lamp wick principle,
capillary attraction, will not go far
in raising water. Water rises in a
capillary or fine tube to a height
in proportion to the fineness of the
tube; and the viscosity of water is
such that if the tube is very fin&
it will not rise at all. Capillary
attraction would not raise water to
the top of even a moderate-sized
Root pressure or osmosis, a sort
of powerful absorption due to un-
balanced chemical pressure between
the soil water outside of the. root
membranes and the denser solute
inside of it, has been taken into
consideration. By cutting off a
plant near the ground and fasten-
ing a glass tube upright on the
stem, it is possible to ascertain the
height to which its sap will rise by
pressure from below. Under favor-
able conditions a grapevine will
exert a pressure sufficient to raise
a column 36.5 feet, while a birch
has tested as high as 84.7 feet. This
might seem a promising line of in-
quiry were it not that root pressure
takes place in woody plants only in
early spring, and especially in the
morning. It has been found that
when the tree is evaporating the
greatest quantities of water, on dry,
hot days of summer, there is no root
pressure whatever. This fact, once
it was established, naturally set root
pressure aside and left the problem
unsolved. Even if such pressures
were not seasonable and unusual,


How Does A Tree Lift Water

To Its Top Branches? Solve

This One and Fame Is Yours


Pare 5


they would not serve to send water
to the tops of the tallest trees.
We Know It's Pulled
It has been proved beyond ques-
tion that the rise of water in the
tubes of a tree is caused by a pull
from above. That there is a strong
pull upward can be demonstrated by
means of any branch taken from a
growing plant. Such a branch, if
its cut end is inserted in an air-
tight manner in a glass tube, will
draw a supply of water from the
tube with such force as to pull a
column of mercury up after it. This
demonstration, one might suppose,
would set us definitely ahead in the
solution of the problem. But here
a difficulty intervenes.
The nature of the difficulty will
be quickly apprehended by anyone
who has had to learn the laws of
an ordinary cistern or suction pump.
A suction pump at its best will lift
water but thirty-three feet; conse-
quently it is not advisable to in-
stall one in the third story of your
house. Since a column of water is
not strongly cohesive, and since you
cannot take hold of the end of a
long pipeful of water and pull up
any quantity desired, as if it were
a rope (a ridiculous enough sup-
position, let us say), it can be lifted
from above only by suction. The
pump, by the lift of its piston, re-
moves air pressure from the upper
surface and tends to create a
vacuum, in consequence of which
the water is pushed up the pipe
from below by the weight of the
atmosphere, a pressure of fifteen
pounds to the square inch at sea
level. The weight of water being
what it is, such pressure will bal-
ance a column of thirty-three feet.
No invention can be made which
will pull more than the laws of
physics will enable it to. And
thirty-three feet falls far short of
reaching the top of a sequoia.
A Rope of Water?
But water has got to go up those
tubes to the top of a tree. It will
and does. This being the case,
,scientists began to consider whether
water in thin columns, as in these
fine tubes, has not an actual power
of coherence, a tensile strength,
sufficient to stand a strong pull.
Possibly, after all, water may be
drawn up from the top as if it were
a rope. Strange as it may seem,
experimentation has gone quite far
in proving this to be the case. It
seems that such a column of water
has a power of coherence great

enough to withstand the pull. And
the osmotic force in the leaves, a
strong pull of absorption, might be
sufficient to raise the columns of
water to the necessary height. This.
is the theory that at present comes
nearest to satisfying scientific
minds. But further experimenta-
tion has caused more difficulty to
The rise of water to the top of
a tree is dependent upon evapora-
tion. It is evaporation that makes
room for the continual upflow of
water; and it is evaporation that
causes the chemical concentration
in the living cells which gives rise
to the strong absorptive pull, or
osmosis. This being true, one thing
is evident. If a plant, or a branch
of a tree is placed in an atmosphere
so saturated with moisture that
evaporation is impossible, it will be
unable to keep the water flowing
up its stem. Experiment has shown
that the intake persists, though it
is slowed up, even when the leaves
are entirely submerged in water.
It is difficult to see how this can
be unless the leaves have some way
of secreting or disposing of the
water regardless of evaporation.
It's Still a Mystery
Everything considered, we may
say that the rise of the water is a
mystery, provided we do not mean
to imply that there is anything
mystic about it.
Between a cell in the sea and one
in the topmost twig there is no
essential difference of situation.
And the reason is that every-
thing is done 'to control evapor-
ation and hold it within bounds.
Every leaf is coated with a
preparation that most effectually
seals it. Air can enter and water
escape only through microscopic
openings called stomates on the un-
der sides of the leaves; and every
stomate is capable of being opened
or closed according to conditions.
The whole trunk and every limb of
the tree are jacketed in the pro-
tective, suberized bark.. There is
nothing more waterproof than bark,
more stubbornly impermeable. It
is because cork is so waterproof
that it makes stoppers for bottles
and gaskets for engines. It is be-
cause it is so impermeable that it
is ground up to make linoleum. A
tree, from head to foot, is armored
against evaporation. Consequently
its cells, though they hang in the
very eye of the sun, are in water
as wet as that which surrounded
them in the sea.

Suggested Merger of Pacific

Cooperatives Dies in Making

California's citrus interests in Growers Exchange. The plan was
matters of co-operative effort, con- suggested by C. C. Teague, member
Stinue to find points of differences, of the Federal Farm Board and pres-
press dispatches reveal, following ident of the California Exchange,
Section taken recently by the Mutual to C. P. Earley, manager of the M.
rB9nge Distributors to consider 0. D., another non-profit growers
ing with the California Fruit co-operative organization which


handles about eleven percent of the
California citrus crop.
Earley, according to press dis-
patches, declined the invitation to
confer with Teague and a committee
from the Exchange, declaring that
he does not believe in "one hundred
percent co-operative marketing con-
trol." Manager Earley, during the
annual meeting of his organization,
voiced his views on the matter, de-
claring such an arrangement impos-
sible of practicable accomplishment.
"There is a vast and important
difference between 100 percent co-
operation and this fallacious doc-
trine of 100 percent control," de-
clared Mr. Earley. "One points to-
ward the solution of many of the
grower's economic ills; the other but
leads into more confusion and less
security for the individual producer.
"Farm Board Would Nullify Good
"If the Federal farm body public-
ly announces or advocates the limi-
tation of all competition from the
field of co-operative marketing then
it is time for agriculture to let its
voice be heard. To sponsor such a
program, a program impossible of
accomplishment, would be to destroy
confidence in the body and to nul-
lify its good work, and agriculture
expects too much of the Federal
Farm Board to have its hopes shat-
tered by the spectre of '100 percent-
"The ultimate solution of agricul-
ture's problems will come out of un-
derstanding, not confusion; out of
friendliness, not selfishness and,
above all, out of the practice of that
old, yet powerful precept-'Do unto
others as ye would that they should
do unto you.' "
Recent development in the pro-
posal for merging of the two co-
operatives is the receipt of Mr. Tea-
gue's communication asking a con-
ference on the subject. Mr. Earley,
in reply, expressed the view that
such a conference would be futile.
Proposes Conference
Mr. Teague's communication in
part follows:
"No doubt you are informed re-
garding efforts of the Federal Farm.
Board in attempting to consolidate
existing co-operative organizations
into national grower-owned and
controlled sales organizations in
order to more effectively control dis-
tribution and sale of agricultural
fruit the board has been attempting
to strengthen and consolidate co-
operative organizations handling cit-
rus fruit in Florida.
Merges in Florida
"Through these efforts, a number
of large grower interests have been
affiliated with Florida Citrus Ex-
change and Florida United Growers
have also agreed to merge with
Florida 'Citrus Exchange, which
would increase percentage of fruit
handled by that organization from
less than one-third to about 50 per-
cent. It is hoped that if the (Flor-
ida) exchange can be developed to a
point where it can control a large
percentage of the Florida product
that through some sort of working

understanding with California some
of the unsatisfactory market condi-
tions which prevail during move-
ment of Florida crop and when it
directly competes with California
navels can be avoided.
Conference Requested
"Would you be willing to appoint
a committee for the purpose of
meeting with a committee from the
California Fruit Growers' Exchange
and with me, representing the Fed-
eral Farm Board? If you indicate
that you would be willing to do this
and will wire before I leave for Cal-
ifornia on December 15th, I will en-
deavor to arrange a date for such a
conference while I am in Califor-
Opposes Proposal
To which Mr. Earley replied as
"Mr. C. C. Teague,
"Care Federal Farm Board,
"Washington, D. C.
"Replying to your telegram of
December 11: While we are in ac-
cord with a policy of encouraging a
limited co-ordination of co-opera-
tives, we believe the greatest bene-
fit to an industry can come only
from a policy of unrestricted com-
petition as between at least two well
organized grower-owned, grower-
controlled co-operatives, handling a
single commodity such as the citrus
crops of California.
Must Consider Trade
"Aside from the necessity of at
least two organizations to take care
of the situation at the point of pro-
duction, we must consider, also, the
jobber, the wholesaler and the re-
tailer, who, deprived of their na-
tural desire to barter and trade,
would lose interest. Their initiative
would dwindle, and the final out-
come would be a slackening of effort
and a greatly reduced and narrow-
ed distribution.
"Our clientele has been built up
over a period of 23 years of inten-
sive effort to render a highly spe-
cialized service. Inasmuch as the
Federal Farm Board, as you state, is
putting forth every effort to consol-
idate existing co-operative organi-
zations into national sales organiza-
tions, thereby eliminating competi-
tion between co-operatives, and our
views being diametrically opposed to
that policy, a conference such as you
suggest would be fruitless."
Dezell Disappointed
Disappointment over the reported
refusal of the Mutual Orange Dis-
tributors to accept the Federal Farm
Board's invitation to confer with a
committee of his organization on
possible consolidation of the two cit-
rus marketing co-operatives was ex-
pressed by E. G. Dezell, general
manager, of the California Fruit
Growers' Exchange.
Adjustment Prevented
The refusal, according to Dezell,
precludes the possibility of an ad-
justment of misunderstandings ex-
istent among growers and conse-
quent improvement of the handling
of the citrus industry's problems.
"We were very much pleased to
receive the invitation from the

Page 6

SDecember 25, 1929

Deceinber 25, 1929

Board to discuss the possible con-
solidation," Dezell said. "It prom-
ised a golden'opportunity practical-
ly to eliminate the destructive and
useless competition of one Califor-
nia citrus grower with another. In
our opinion, such an arrangement
if in effect the past season would
have materially assisted in securing
better results for the excessive crop
running to extreme small sizes
which we had to market.
Growers Not Satisfied
"While it may be debatable
Whether there was a surplus of or-
anges and grapefruit in the markets
the past season, the results were not
satisfactory to many growers and
the citrus acreage already planted
in California, Arizona, Texas and
Florida is sufficient to produce much
larger crops than last year's in sea-
sons of favorable climatic condi-
tions. Should a real surplus be pro-
duced, the California orange grow-
ers are not in a great deal better
position to handle it successfully
than were the grape and canning-
Speach producers, nor the California
lemon growers, until over 90 per-
Scent of them got together and ac-
tively took hold of their problem.
"Certainly the positions taken by
!% he Mutual Orange Distributors and
'the California Fruit Growers' Ex-
Schange as indicated in their replies
to the invitation of the Federal
SFarm Board, cannot both be in the
interest of the growers, and the
grower's interest is identical wheth-
er he markets through one or the
other co-operative organization.
"A conference as suggested by
the Federal Farm Board might have
ironed out misunderstandings and
pointed the way to an improved
handling of the industry's prob-
Replying to Dezell's statement,
Earley reiterated his advocacy of
"100 percent co-operation, but not
100 percent control."
"Mr. Dezell is quoted as stating
that our refusal to consider the pro-
Sposal 'precludes the possibility of
an adjustment of misunderstandings
existent among growers, and the
consequent improvement of the
handling of the citrus industry's
problems,' Mr. Earley said.
Willing to Confer
"This may be Mr. Dezell's atti-
tude, but we are willing at all times
and at any time to get together to
Adjust any misunderstanding in any
detail of what we understand to be
for the improvement of the indus-
try. But we are not willing to get
together for a merger into a nation-
al sales organization of the citrus
Industry, as was outlined in the mes-
sage from Mr. Teague.
"Mr. Dezell states that his organi-
zation was very much pleased to get
the invitation to discuss consolida-
tion; in other words, he was pleased
'to get -the invitation to have the
Mutual Orange Distributors join the
'California Fruit Growers' Exchange.
Doing Good Work
''We believe that we are doing a
Good work for the industry. For in-
stance, Mr. Dezell refers to the de-


velopment of foreign markets. We
have always taken pride that our
work in sales abroad is outstanding.
"We agree with Mr. Dezell's
statement that the position taken by
the Mutual Orange Distributors and
the California Fruit Growers' Ex-
change, as indicated in their replies
to the invitation of Mr. Teague, can-
not both be in the interest of the
grower. But our growers as well as
ourselves believe that our attitude is
the right one. And we also believe
that the majority of persons most
vitally interested, agree with us."

Growers and Shippers

League Proves Value

To Clearing House

A penny saved is a penny earned.
Likewise, a contemplated charge
for the use of refrigerator cars pro-
posed for bananas and cocoanuts
and which might have spread to cit-
rus fruits, but which was averted in
the case of the bananas and cocoa-
nuts, is a distinct earning. The re-
cent work of the Growers and Ship-
pers League of Florida in defeating
a move by railways to make an ex-
tra charge for the use of refrigera-
tor cars very likely saved the citrus
growers of Florida many thousands
of dollars.
Means $800,000 Saving
The proposed tariffs which called
for a charge of $12.50 per car for
iced refrigerator cars or for $5.00
per car when refrigerator cars are
used without ice in bunkers would
have meant an expenditure to Flor-
ida citrus and vegetable growers
last season of more than $800,000.
All of which is of direct interest
to Clearing House growers in that
the Association virtually supports
the Growers and Shippers League
and hence is directly responsible for
its accomplishments in obtaining
and maintaining better freight rates
for Florida citrus growers. Last
season the Clearing House con-
tributed more than $20,000 to the
League or about 90 percent of the
League's revenue. This season the
Clearing House probably will pro-
vide an even larger proportion of
support to the League.
The value of the League to the
Clearing House growers is apparent
in the instance of the proposed re-
frigerator car charge mentioned
over. It may readily be seen that
the League is actually indispensa-
ble to the growers and the Associa-
tion's support more of an invest-
ment than an unremunerative con-
The proposed charge for the
movement of bananas and cocoanuts
in refrigerator cars developed more
than two years ago when the Sea-
board Air Line Railway and the At-
lantic Coast Line Railroad filed tar-
iffs to and from certain points pro-
viding for the assessment of the
special charges. According to J.
Curtis Robinson, Executive Vice-
President of the League, this pro-
posal indicated a "beginning" by the

carriers of the assessments of charges
for the use of refrigerator cars for
perishables moving either under ven-
tilation or refrigeration which if ap-
plied to citrus fruits and vegeta-
bles shipped last season would have
imposed an additional penalty on
Florida growers of more than $814,-
"Car Rental" Charge Sought
Requests for suspension of the
.ariff were filed with the Inter-State
Commerce Commission with a brief
opposingg imposition of charges for
:he use of refrigerator cars. Florida
barrierss previously had made efforts
;o establish a "car rental" charge
For the use of refrigerator cars in
shipping Florida perishables. In
1923 carriers proposed a charge of
$5.00 per car for the use of refrig-
erator cars, the charge later being
withdrawn. In 1924 the Atlantic
Coast Line published a tariff to
-harge from $5.00 to $15.53 (de-
pending on destination of ship,
ments) for the use of refrigerator
cars. The League secured suspen-
sion of this tariff and the carrier
later agreed to withdraw it.
Again the carriers published a
tariff upon bananas from Tampa
carrying a car rental charge for the
use of refrigeration. This was not
protested and went into effect.
Shortly after carriers published a
charge of $5.00 per car for the use
of refrigerator cars for less than
-arload shipments of fruits and veg-
etables moving intra-state in Flor-
ida. The League opposed this charge
and the State Commission adopted a
rule which virtually prohibits the
charge although the charge still is
applied in defiance of the State
Commission's ruling.
Several other proposals for refrig-
erator car charges have been made
and defeated, the League ever be-
ing on the alert and watching with
a jealous eye any attempts made by
the railroads to increase the grow-
ers' transportation burden.

Growers and Canners

Must Work Together

There is only one-third as much
grapefruit left in the State today as
there was a year ago at this time.
Our own estimate is 6,300 cars of
grapefruit left in the State. Last
year at this time there were 18,000
cars of grapefruit shipped after
Christmas. To add further to the
strong situation we find that the
canneries have made commitments
which, if filled, should require 400,-
000 boxes or over 1,000 cars. We
understand canneries are paying $1
on the roadside net to the grower or
paying the same price at the pack-
ing house for the large off sizes that
are being discounted and the 2nd.
and 3rd grade which is being dis-
A dollar is a good living price,
particularly for such sizes and
grades, and growers should so far
as practical make a special effort to
see that the canneries are supplied.
The canning business is one of the

Paane 7

important things in the grapefruit
business. Every off size or off grade
grapefruit that is taken off the mar-
ket and put into cans insures higher
prices for the fresh grapefruit ship-
ped, not only because of lowering
the total supply but because fruit
unattractive to the eye is removed
from the market.
The canneries have the problem
of irregular supplies. If the busi-
ness could be stabilized and thor-
oughly reliable parties on both sides
contract for several years ahead to
furnish canneries grapefruit at a
dollar net to the grower on the road-
side, it should make a highly satis-
factory price to the growers and
stabilize the canning business where
the canners could merchandise their
product, well in advance.
Canner Advances Suggestion
Some interesting sidelights upon
this season's situation were ad-
vanced recently by Claude E. Street,.
president of the Florida Canners'
Association, who brought out the
point that profit for both the grower
and the canner will be possible only
through co-operation between the
"It is certain that the grapefruit
canning industry cannot be built
upon a permanent basis until the
grower makes a profit upon his oper-
ations," Mr. Street said.
"It is also a fact that the grower
cannot realize that degree of pros-
perity to which he is entitled with-
out a conserving industry to absorb
the fruit that should not go to the
fresh fruit markets.
"Therefore the interests of the
citrus conserving industry and of
the grower are mutual. Their com-
mon problems should be solved in a
spirit of co-operation rather than of
"Bearing these truths in mind, we
should look the mistakes of both
parties in the face with a view of
correcting them and constructing a
program that will be mutually
"On account of 'undue broker in-
fluence,' last summer some of the
canners sold futures at lower prices
than crop and fresh fruit marketing
conditions warranted.
"On the other hand many grow-
ers allowed the packing houses to
ship large sizes to the fresh fruit
market when they should have beefing
sold to the canners. On account b.f-.
this situation the grower lost moieb1
and the canner lost fruit that should
have gone into cans.
"Many thousands of boxes of
large sizes this season either brought
returns 'in the red,' or very much
less than the canner would willingly
have paid. In addition, this fruit
was put into competition with more
desirable sizes and grades to the
disadvantage of the growers' pocket-
"If the growers will give this
problem immediate consideration,
and if the canners will do likewise,
much large size fruit can yet be
kept off the fresh fruit market and
diverted into cans. Thus everybody
will be happier and more prosper-


Page 8


Committee of 50 Members

Are Urged to Exert Effort

To Strengthen Association

Membership in the Committee of
Fifty is viewed as an obligation to
contact growers and pass on to them
information concerning the Clear-
ing House, in a report made by a
special, committee of this body at
its monthly meeting held Dec. 20th
at Clearwater. The report was re-
quested at the meeting held in Lake-
land in October and covered in full
the duties and responsibilities of
members of the Committee of Fifty.
Other matters of importance
transacted and discussed at the
Clearwater meeting are as follows:
Messrs. W. M. Reck, John D.
Clark and James C. Morton reported
on their attendance at the meetings
of the Operating Committee and
gave an interesting description of
these meetings, particularly lauda-
tory to the earnestness of the opera-
A. W. Hanley, of the Clearing
House, spoke on the accomplish-
ments of the Association, emphasiz-
ing the fact that the Clearing House
is not "sold" to the average grower
because of a lack of knowledge on
the part of the growers of the ac-
complishments of the Clearing
House. He emphasized also the fact
that 75 percent of the Clearing
House tonnage is present at the
Operating Committee meetings
every Friday night. Among other
things that he mentioned as having
been accomplished by the Clearing
House in the present year, are the
Green Fruit Law, control of 80 per-
cent of the crop, modifications of
the quarantine by unified effort, the
convincing of the people of the
Southeastern States of the goodness
of Florida fruit, the correction of
public opinion in the North, the pro-
rating of fruit in the various mar-
kets, the estimating of the crop to
(showthe existing shortage) for the
protection of the growers, proper
price information for the benefit of
the shippers and the Federal and
State department marketing infor-
mation bureau and the standardiza-
tion of grade and pack.
The following report was made by
W. M. Reck, following out the re-
quest made at the Lakeland meet-
ing some time ago:
The Committee of Fifty of the
Florida Citrus Growers Clear-
ing Houpe,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Your committee, appointed some
time ago to report on what the
standing and duties of this commit-
tee are, beg to submit the following:
: The Florida Citrus Growers Clear-
ing House rests on four bodies: The
Board, the Manager, the Operating
Committee and the Directors' Ad-
i isory Committee ,commonly known
'a ithe Committee of Fifty.

The original charter, Article VII
(a) states: "There shall be consti-
tuted an advisory board in each of
the citrus districts provided for in
the by-laws, which number of mem-
bers shall not exceed fifty for the
entire State, and they shall be ap-
portioned among the districts ac-
cording to the number of member-
ships in this association in each dis-
trict. They shall be elected or chosen
by the members of this association
who reside in the respective dis-
tricts, and their powers and duties
shall be provided in the by-laws of
this association."
In the. by-laws, Article VII, sec-
tion 1, we read:
"Directors' Advisory Committee:
In each of the districts provided for
herein for the election of directors,
the members of each district at the
time of electing the director there-
from shall elect a specified number
of members to act as advisors to the
director. The board of directors
shall determine the number of mem-
bers in each district and shall ap-
portion the total number of advisors
to be elected in all the districts,
namely fifty, among the various dis-
tricts on the basis of membership in
the association according to each
district. Until such election the in-
corporating director in each district
shall appoint the advisors in his dis-
trict. In addition to advising with
the director elected in each district,
the advisors elected therein may
perform such other functions as
may be prescribed by the board of
In the original charter, through
oversight, no method of nominating
directors was provided. Therefore


Article IV, section 2, was amended
to read and provide as follows:
"The members of the Directors'
Advisory Committee of Growers in
each district shall place in nomina-
tion three growers residing in said
district, to be voted upon as a direc-
tor of said association at any elec-
tion held in said district; and all the
members of the Directors' Advisory
Committee of Growers from all the
districts combined shall place in
nomination eight men to be voted
on for the election of four directors
at large of the association. All such
names for nomination by the Direc-
tors' Advisory Committee shall be
filed with the Secretary of the asso-
ciation at least twenty days before
the date of any election. The Sec-
retary of the association shall notify
members of the Directors' Advisory
Committee at least thirty days be-
fore the date of any selection to
place in nomination the names of
growers for election to said board.
In addition to the above method of
nominating," etc.
Thus the standing of the Direc-
tors' Advisory Committee of Grow-
ers (which is usually known by the
original name Committee of Fifty)
is clearly defined in the charter and
by-laws, original and amended. This
committee is part of the set-up of
the Clearing House and the charter
and by-laws of the Clearing House
are its charter and by-laws. There
is therefore no place for another
charter. The committee standing is
much greater than it would be under
a separate charter.
The functions of this committee
may be defined in general as:
First: The Advisory Committee
of the Board of Directors.
Second: The committee in direct
contact at all times with the grow-
Third: The Nominating Commit-
tee for Directors of the Clearing
All three highly important func-
tions if exercised. There is not any
danger of the third item being over-

A Show Spot in Wabasso

Here is the comfortable home of E. E. Smith at Wabasso, one of the most at-
tractive places in that section of the East Coast. Mr. Smith's crop this season is
comparatively light, owing to some extent to storm damage, but his trees are fast
returning to normal condition and to all appearances promise a good crop for next
Mr. Smith has been growing citrus for many years, is keenly interested in all new
citrus culture developments and is a consistent booster for good quality fruit.

December 25. 1929

looked but how well are we working
at the other two? Each Committee
of Fifty man should take these mat-
ters seriously. Does he? To fulfill
the mission of the committee and
perform really effective work, each
member of the Committee of Fifty
should give some time and serious
thought each month to the condition
and welfare of the industry, post
himself on conditions in his own ter-
ritory and come to each meeting
prepared to give and receive infor-
mation. This will greatly increase
the interest in and usefulness of the
committee and make it the really
helpful and progressive force it
should be. Don't forget that all
meetings of the Board and Operat-
ing Committee are open to any
member who wishes to be present
and this is particularly so in the
case of any member of the Commit-
tee of Fifty.
The growers' contact is a most
important item. The Board and
management at the offices in Winter
Haven are always ready to give all
possible information to any member
of the Committee of Fifty calling,
writing or telephoning for same, but
how many members do this? If
every member did and viewed his
membership in the Committee of
Fifty as an obligation to contact
monthly as far as possible with the
growers in his territory, pass on to
them Clearing House information,
combat some of the misleading
statements that are on the wing
much of the time and see that the
facts are known, the net result would
be to greatly strengthen the Clear-
ing House and increase the useful-
ness of the committee.
Fifty men in fifty different citrus
sections devoting a little time each
month to the welfare of the Clear-
ing House among the growers would
naturally become one of the great
forces in the association.
So we see that the Committee of
Fifty has a mission, a real and con-
tinuing one, to perform-if it does
it. If the Clearing House is not all
we want it to be, it is much the best
thing the growers of Florida ever
had. The Committee of Fifty has in
its power, to make .the:.Clearing
House stronger and more helpful to
the grower all the time. All depart-
ments are working now on a more
harmonious and efficient basis than
ever before; the Committee of Fifty,
should be a strong factor in keeping
this condition up and improving it.
But simply meeting each month for
discussion and then forgetting all
about it in the intervening period
will not fulfill the mission of the
committee. Let us be on the job all
the time, honestly, fearlessly, pati-
ently and with persistence, giving
our full measure of co-operation
for the betterment of our great in-
dustry, placing it on a firmer, more
enduring and business-like founda-
The following resolution also was
read, and a motion made and car-
ried that it be approved:
WHEREAS, efforts are being
made by certain groups in the State
to prevent the United States Gov-
ernment from appropriating such

December 25, 1929

December 25, 1929

sums of money as may be required
to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit
fly from the United States,
that we, the Committee of Fifty, of
the Florida Citrus Growers Clear-
ing House Association, express our
confidence in the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, its experts
and those associated with them, and
urge that they be equipped with suf-
ficient funds to enable them to ef-
fectively and efficiently carry on the
eradication efforts in this and other
States, to the end that if possible
this pest and enemy of agriculture
Smay be wiped out and that this res-
olution be presented to the Board
of Directors of the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Associa-
* tion.
SA motion made, seconded and car-
ried that the next meeting 6f the
Committee of Fifty be held on
Growers' Day, Jan. 24th, at the
Florida Orange Festival. at Winter
Haven, and that every member of
Sthe Committee of Fifty be particu-
larly urged to be present and bring
with him as many growers as possi-
Those present at the Clearwater
meeting are as follows:
SJames C. Morton, Auburndale;
John D. Clark, Waverly; J. G. Gros-
Ssenbacher, Apopka; T. S. Carpen-
ter, Jr,, Crescent City; J. C. Merrill,
Leesburg; H. G. Murphy, Zolfo
Springs; W. M. Reck, Avon Park;
A. R. Trafford, Cocoa; F. E. Brig-
ham, Winter Haven.

(Continued from Page One)
body in Los Angeles does not have
jurisdiction over the prices that this
fruit shall be sold for or even over
the markets to which the car shall
be billed or diverted. The various
sub-exchanges have by contract that
sole authority. The responsibility
is divided because. the volume of
Business requires that division of
labor which calls for initiative de-
cision and detailed supervision on
the part of each sub-exchange man-
-ager. In fact the sub-change man-
ager has right by contract to de-
I terminewhen to pick and how fast
to ship the product of its local as-
sociations. The structure of this
organization, which is held up as
Sa model to the public, is not as
centralized in contract relations as
- our own Clearing House.
Up to Sub-Exchanges
The wires pour into the central
office in Los Angeles, the work
there being divided so that a cer-
4 tain clerk or assistant in the sales
will contact by phone the sub-ex-
4. change manager on that part of the
wires which particularly refer to
That special sub-exchange. The sub-
exchange manager is told of the
quotations made, the counter-offers
received, the best offers obtainable,
r the condition of his cars and the


general marketing situation. It is
the sub-exchange manager's privi-
lege to accept or decline these of-
fers, determine whether to sell or
divert and to what point to divert.
The central office, of course, offers
its advice and general direction
looking upon the whole distribution
with due perspective but it can be
seen that the California Fruit Grow-
ers Exchange acts primarily as a
clearing house for market informa-
tion which comes in and is classi-
fied in accordance with the various
sub-exchanges and relayed to those
respective sub-exchanges for their
direction or approval.
The sub-exchange manager in
some instances in turn consults cer-
tain of his association managers be-
fore deciding. After gathering the
required data he may phone back
to Los Angeles to the proper clerk
or assistant the decision he has
reached. Not until Los Angeles re-
ceives the approval or decision from
the sub-exchange manager does the
Los Angeles office give its final di-
rections through their sales agents
in the various markets on the im-
mediate business involved in the
Supply Control Fundamental
The regulation of shipments at
the time I left California for Flor-
ida was handled by power of attor-
ney granted from week to week, or
for longer periods, by sub-exchanges
to the central body. The California
Fruit Growers Exchange, like our
Clearing House, found that control
of supplies was its most fundamen-
tal step in bringing about orderly
marketing. Similar to our Clear-
ing House it also found it quite
necessary to control supplies at auc-
tion. This control of supplies at
auction was an assumed control se-
cured under the advice and with
the consent of its sub-exchange
California recognized, as the
Clearing House does, that the auc-
tions with their quick dissemination
of prices by wire to the trade be-
come the most influential price
barometers in affecting the buyers'
attitude. One of the most delicate
and exacting phases of marketing
is that of nicely balancing the prob-
able prices that will be secured at
auction against the known prices
that are made available by inter-
change of wires with the trade in
the private sale markets.
Auction Affect Private Sales
The nearer the private sale mar-
kets to the auction markets more
obviously those private sale mar-
kets are affected by auction sale
prices. For this reason California
shippers generally think of their
Western markets bordering the
Pacific ocean as the most desirable
because it is possible to get a higher
price F. O. B. in these Western mar-
kets than the corresponding value
at auction markets at Chicago, St.
Louis and the East.
Individual judgment plays its
part with each car in determining
an F. O. B. sale. The minds of
the seller and buyer must meet to


effect a sale and no sale is made
without the consent of the seller.
Bidding Decides Prices
At auction this is not true. The
prices are determined by highly
competitive bids of the accredited
customers of the auction, the seller
having practically n'o control of his
product except the privilege of with-
drawal. This privilege is seldom
used because auction bidders usual-
ly try to get even with a shipper
that exercises such a policy. Cars
at auction are sold -"as is"-each
car being unloaded on the dock with
the auction company having opened
representative samples of each size
and lot. Before the auction opens
the prospective bidders hurriedly
examine the various samples opened
giving preference to those brands
cr sizes that they are particularly
interested in. When a car is of-
fered the highest bidder usually has
his choice of the car. Those bid-
ding against hinr might have a dif-
ferent size in mind than he has but
he calls the lot number that he
wants and it is knocked down to
Confidence Is Essential
Confidence of the trade at auc-
tion is equally as essential as con-
fidence of the trade in the private
sale markets. These auction bid-
ders have a vast amount of fruit
to hurriedly examine. They buy
not only California and Florida cit-
rus fruits but also, when in season,
plums, peaches, pears, grapes and
many other commodities. Their
work, of necessity, must be very
rapid, their judgment keen and
based on long experience to be a
good buyer at auction. But with
this all, in the vast number of dif-
ferent lots that must be marked
up on his catalogue, any auction
bidder of necessity must go also
upon his previous experience with
that particular brand from that par-
ticular shipper. It is for this reason
that brands going regularly into
auction of uniformly good grade
may command a premium over an
untried brand of which a true sam-
ple may show up considerably bet-
ter. They know that this uniform-
ly good brand has not been tam-
pered with by some one who is
slyly trying to fix the sample. They
also have certain customers that
they in turn sell this regular brand
to. It is for these reasons that
auction companies urge the neces-
sity of regular supplies of certain
brands and discourage somewhat
sporadic shipments of unknown
Sensing That Last Bid
The only real control of any con-
sequence that any shipper has over
the auction market is the supply
that he puts there jointly with the
rest of the shippers doing so on
the same day. The prices paid, as
was said before, are not the result
of the buyer and seller agreeing
but rather the result of bidders
rapidly bidding against each other
to supply their needs. It is the
buyer's judgment of value together
with the auctioneer's ability to
rapidly sense the last bid possible

Page 9

that determines the price of cars
at auction.
In this connection it should be
interesting to our grower-members
to note the changes from day to
day on Florida prices. Also some
of our growers have asked why
California oranges seem to be so
consistently outselling Florida or-
anges this season. This cannot be
attributed to superior marketing
ability for we see that the organiz-
ation marketing the fruit has no
control over prices except in the
mass volume that shall be offered
at auction that day. The same bid-
ders who are buying California or-
anges are to a great extent the same
men who buy Florida's. They are
inspired by the same impulses and
the only reason that they do not
bid each other up on Florida's to
the same level as California's is
because they do not see the value
there in reselling at a probable
-profit,- ***" ***- -- ... --- - .r,
Appraised Resale Value
If Florida has, as it has, through
the prorating plan at auction a
common sense control of the supply
of Florida fruit to be offered from
day to day, the difference in value
-if it shows up-is simply the dif-
ference of the appraised resale
value that the auction bidders place
upon the fruit.
This brings us to one rather seri-
ous thought that we must consider,
even though we would rather not,
and that is that where California
outsells Florida oranges at auction
it is not due to any special market-
ing plan or superior salesmanship
or to a larger box (for Florida has
a larger box) or to a better packed
box (for Florida's pack averages
better than California's) but rather
it is due to difference in appear-
ance. All of California's oranges
are Brights. There are no Russets
or Goldens. We know that on an
average Florida oranges are better
eating, have far more juice and bet-
ter flavor. We know that a Florida
176 size is larger than California's
176 size. Not only that but the
skin is thinner, giving, actually, an
additional amount of orange to eat:
Nevertheless when California out-
sells Florida at auction it is because
the auction bidders know-that peo-
ple buy with their eye thinking they.
are satisfying their stomach.
Skin We Love to Touch
Our fruit is far smoother' and
thinner skinned, feels better to the
fingers and tests better but when
Florida's are outsold by California's
it is only because Florida's are not
as pretty to look at because of
melanose, rust mite, whitefly and
other skin blemishes. They say
that "beauty is only skin deep."
This is emphatically true of Florida
oranges with their superior inside
content, nevertheless mankind goes
on appearance and Florida growers
cannot ignore the necessity of not
only having "a skin we love to
touch" but one that is a delight to
the eye for therein lies the differ-
ence in value and the only differ-
ence placed by the auction bidders
in their eagerness to bid against


each other or something they hope Clearig House
they can sell profitably. Influence of Clearing House

We have Jumped from California
to New York in this rambling chat
regarding our problem but as we
have done so I am wondering if
our grower-members have deter-
mined whether or not the Clearing
House is a marketing organization.
We daily assemble through our
shippers and pass back to them the
complete composite picture of the
current day's shipments and sales
with the number of cars rolling un-
sold to private sale markets, the
number of cars rolling to auction
and their destinations and the num-
ber of cars sold at auction and the
general average at each auction
with a representative brand show-
ing the price differential between
sizes. Our shippers, like the sub-
exchange managers mentioned, exer-
cise their right to determine prices
under the general guidance of the
e"arfig -House's advice. Our total
shipments are directly controlled by
our central office. Our auction
supplies are prorated at the prin-
cipal auction markets. We know
that we are doing a vast amount of
good in the steps we have so far
taken. Whether or not we are
generally directing the marketing
of Florida's citrus crop depends
upon the definition one gives to the
word "marketing," which you will
remember is a very expansive term.
National Marketing Plan
The Farm Board, by the way,
through its representative, advised
the National Association of Market-
ing Officials, when I was recently
with them in Chicago, that it was
their purpose to bring about one
national marketing organization for
each commodity. Mr. C. C. Tea-
gue, a leading member of the Farm
Board and president of the Califor-
nia Fruit Growers Exchange, work-
ing doubtless with this in mind,
sought to bring about consolidation
of the Mutual Orange Distributors
and the California Fruit Growers
Exchange, the former being the
Largest cooperative in California
-' citrus outside the Exchange. So
far he has been unsuccessful.
Assuming, however, that this may
be brought about and that our
Clearing House will continue with
its 80% or 90% control of thd
crop, there remains the possibility
of one national marketing organiz-
ation along the same general lines
that our Clearing House is function-
ing. Of necessity a national or-
ganization would be dealing with
supplies in such huge quantities,
over such diverse sections, with
:'such divergent problems that the
S"marketing" direction of such a
'-problem would probably have to be
-"even more general than that of our
Clearing House and the first thing
that would be necessary would be
-the control of the total supplies
-' from week to week and the next
'thing probably the auction markets
or they are the key markets. How
i h.further one could go will have
oe. left to the imagination of. our
p ient readers.
Lp ,-

In Helping Market Situation

Commended by 4

The probable trend of the citrus
market during the present shipping
season, and the influence of the
Clearing House in changing it, was
thoroughly discussed by the Com-
mittee of Fifty at its meeting in
Clearwater December 20th.
Despite the short crop (estimated
at 16,000,000 boxes by the Govern-
ment) the fact that all markets were
closed to fruit from the eradication
areas, except the Northeastern
States, together with the fact that
the shipping season would be over
April first, made it appear certain
that the open markets in the North-
east would be flooded with fruit at
the same rate that it was last year.
To make matters worse, every one
was in the need of ready money. As
a result, in the early days of the
present shipping season, fruit went
forward to market in unprecedent-
ed amounts, resulting in a serious
break in the market early in Novem-
The Clearing House, seeing the
danger and the need, set vigorously
to work along two lines. In the first
place by persuasion and reasoning
they got the shippers affiliated with
the Clearing House and to reduce
greatly their grapefruit shipments.
The shippers not affiliated with the
Clearing House increased shipments
and the Clearing House reduced
theirs further, until the market ral-
lied. This left the Clearing House
members with the large majority of
the fruit left to be sold on a higher
and stabilized market.
In the second place, the Clearing
House set to work to secure the
opening up of the Southern and mid-
Western market, to fruit from the
eradication area. Experts went be-
fore the Federal authorities in Wash-
ington to present the arguments for
the Florida growers, and practical
fruit men circulated among the fruit
trade in the South and Middle West
getting them to demand the admis-
sion of this fruit. This effort result-
ed in the admission into the Middle
West and Southern markets, of ster-
ilized fruit from the eradication
area of Florida.

Some people feel that with the
short crop this year, good prices
were assured. Such certainly was
not the case. Practically every
grower in the State needed money
badly. Had it not been for the
Clearing House, which controls 80%
f0 4h h1 U.

Committee of "50"

have been opened to fruit from the
eradication areas this year.
It was the unanimous opinion of
all practical growers present, that
the efforts of the Clearing House
had resulted in grapefruit bringing
between 50 cents and $1.00 per box
more than it would have otherwise
brought this season.

Grapefruit Crop Is

Well Past Halfway

Mark, Survey Reveals

It will be no fault of Florida cit-
rus growers if our season's grape-
fruit crop does not return a satis-
factory profit this season. Barring
a possible extension of the season
from the proposed date of April 1st
to a later date, Florida has 14 weeks
left in which to move the remainder
of her crop. Figures compiled by
the Clearing House reveal the pleas-
ing fact that more than half of our
grapefruit has been moved and that
only 5,700 cars in round figures re-
main to be shipped, as compared to
19,000 cars at this same time last
Clearing House Makes Survey
The small size of this season's
grapefruit crop was discovered re-
cently in a State-wide survey made
by the Clearing House. A thorough
canvass of packing houses was made
by a force of 35 men who inter-
viewed 142 packing house managers,
every precaution being taken to ob-
tain an accurate estimate of the
fruit in the State.
General Manager A. M. Pratt
commenting on the season's pros-
pects and the effect the short crop
is likely to have, said: "Growers and
shippers of Florida should not over-
look the strikingly favorable pros-
pects for high priced grapefruit for
the remainder of the season. The
Clearing House estimate indicates a
total crop of grapefruit in commer-
cial carlot shipments of only 12,508
cars for this season. Up to Decem-
ber 21st we have moved about 6,800
cars of grapefruit, leaving only
5,700 cars in round numbers to be
handled during the 14 weeks left us
under the quarantine regulations.
In other words, more than half of
the short crop already has been

or moreIIUJL U leavy llp-
ments would have continued because Only 400 Cars Weekly
of the growers' need for money. "Unless quarantine restrictions
Unorganized, each grower would are extended to cover the late bloom
have found his efforts to hold back and Marsh Seedless Grapefruit, the
the crop would have been unavailing remainder of the crop must be
because other growers pressed for moved in 14 weeks. This means
money, continued to ship. Further, that we must average something
without the pressure the Clearing more than 400 cars of grapefruit a
House exerted, the markets in the week as against 775 cars a week
South and Middle West would never last year.


"Last season we were shipping
grapefruit until June 15th. The 19,-
000 cars left last year at this time
distributed over the 25 weeks re-
maining last season made the aver-
age weekly shipment 775 cars. Fig-
uring on our officially reduced ship-
ping period last season, shipments
for the 25 weeks averaged 50%
heavier than this year's shipments
will be for our 14 remaining weeks
so any way we figure it statistically
our grapefruit situation is an excep-
tionally strong one.
"If Florida growers are fortunate
enough to have the shipment time
extended so that our Marsh Seedless
and late bloom grapefruit may be
moved in April and possibly part of
May, our returns unquestionably
will be even.higher."

Four New Shippers

Throw Their Volume

Into Clearing House

Actual progress in improving cit-
rus market conditions, demonstrated
by the Clearing House this season,
is attracting the attention of the
entire industry. Four new shipper
members who joined the Clearing
House Association early this month
did so they declared because the
Clearing House obviously is proving
itself to be the practical solution of
the problems confronting both
grower and shipper. The four new
shipper members who have added
their citrus volume to the 80 percent
now controlled by the Clearing
House are as follows: Campbell &
Mixon of St. Petersburg; Merrion &
Dodson of Winter Haven; Nelson &
Co., Inc. of Oviedo, and Vaughn-
Griffin Packing Co. of Howey.
Clearing House Indispensable
All of these new shippers frankly
admitted that the Clearing House
has reached the point where it is
indispensable and as far as they are
concerned is doing a work so valu-
able in its market improvement
work that they feel they cannot af-
ford to remain outside of the Asso-
ciation. The results of prorating
shipments at this end and prorating
supplies in the auction markets is
in itself justification for the exist-
ence of the Clearing House, even
though the Association were doing
nothing in creating a consumer de-
mand by means of a national ad-
vertising campaign or standardizing
the grade and pack of members'
While the volume of fruit which
will be handled this season by these
four new, shipper members of the
Clearing House probably will be
only a few hundred cars, their mem-
bership, it has been pointed out, will
enable, many growers in their re-
spective territories to move their
fruit through the Clearing House,
thus enabling the growers to add
their support to the Association and
increase considerably the represen-
tation of the growers generally.

December 25, 1929

Vg .v1

PD e 10

December 25, 1929 FLORIDA CLEARING-

President Hoover Has an Eye

On Growth in Cooperation

And Efficiency in Government

President Hoover's annual mes-
sage to the Congress, delivered
earl this month, included one or two
references to the country's agricul-
tural situation that are of particu-
lar interest at this time to Florida
citrus growers. The President, in
speaking of the farm problems con-
fronting the nation, told of the for-
mation of the farm board and of
the work this body is doing toward
aiding cooperative- agricultural
a methods.
The Farm Board
The President said in part, rela-
tive to the farm board:
"The most extensive action for
strengthening the agricultural in-
Sdustry ever taken by any govern-
ment was inaugurated through the
Sfarm marketing act of June 15 last.
Under its provisions the federal
Sfarm board has been established,
comprised of men long and widely
experienced in agriculture and
sponso>Jf' by the farm organiza-
o tions of the country.
"During its short period of exist-
ence the board has taken definite
steps toward a more efficient or-
ganization of agriculture, toward
the elimination of waste in market-
ing, and toward the upbuilding of
farmers' marketing organizations on
Ssounder and more efficient lines.
SSubstantial headway has been made
in the organization of four of the
basic commodities-grain, cotton,
livestock and wool.
"Support by the board to cooper-
ative marketing organizations and
other board activities undoubtedly
have served to steady the farmers'
0. market during the recent crisis and
have operated also as a great
Stimulus to the cooperative organ-
ization of agriculture. The prob-
Slems of the industry are most com-
plex, and the need for sound or-
Sganization is imperative. Yet the
board is moving rapidly along the
-.lines laid out for it in the act,
facilitating the creation by farmers
'~of farmer-owned and farmer-con-
trolled organizations and federat-
Sing them into central institutions,
with a view to increasing the bar-
gaining power of agriculture, pre-
venting and controlling surpluses,
it-and mobilizing the economic power
of agriculture."
Bureau Reorganization
The question of federal depart-
mental reorganization also was
touched upon by the Chief Execu-
tive, his statement being:
"This subject has been under
consideration for over 20 years. It
Swas promised by both political
parties in the recent campaign. It
has been repeatedly examined by
committees and commissions-con-
Sgressional, executive, and voluntary.
The conclusions of these investiga-
y tions have been unanimous that re-

organization is a necessity of sound
administration; of economy; of
more effective governmental poli-
cies and of relief to the citizen from
unnecessary harassment in his re-
lations with a multitude of scat-
tered governmental agencies. But
the presentation of any specific plan
at once enlivens opposition from
every official whose authority may
be curtailed or who fears his posi-
tion is imperiled by such a result;
of bureaus and departments which
wish to maintain their authority and
activities; of citizens and their or-
ganizations who are selfishly inter-
ested, or who are inspired by fear
that their favorite bureau may, in
a new setting, be less subject to
their influence or more subject to
some other influence."

(Continued from Page Five)
winter of 1928 another freeze; in
September, 1928, a hurricane and
enough false publicity scattered
throughout the United States con-
cerning the solvency of Florida, its
banks, and its institutions to bank-
rupt ten States; and then the Medi-
terranean fruit fly situation, and the
people of the opinion that because
of it we would not be able to pro-
duce or ship agricultural products
for several years.
"So you can imagine the state of
mind we have had in this State.
Florida has stood up nobly. No
other State in the Union could have
stood up as we have and as we are
still standing; but we cannot stand
pounding and hammering indefinite-
ly. We have been standing as much
as human beings can stand; and I
am afraid that official Washington
does not just quite realize this.
"If the fly is here-and the Fed-
eral Quarantine Board says it is-
then the United States government
should quickly and speedily -appro-
priate every cent that is necessary
to completely eradicate it so that
this State can again function as a
sovereign State. If the Mediterran-
ean fruit fly is not here, then the
embargo should be lifted and the
people of the United States so told.
"Florida cannot be hung up in
the air indefinitely as we are now
being hung up.
"So the reason I wrote you as I
did and that neither myself as coun-
sel for the Clearing House Associa-
tion nor any one representing it
would appear before your commit-
tee was because we are squarely be-
hind the President of the United
States, the Agricultural Department
of the United States, and the Quar-
antine Board of the United States
in whatever they think is necessary


Shipper-Members of Association
The shippers named herewith are members of the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association and they are the ONLY members of this organization.
In fairness to these shippers who are supporting the Clearing House, as well as
helping to build the organization, grower-members should urge their neighbors
to join and ship through one of these operators.

Adams Packing Co...--- Auburndale
Alexander & Baird, Inc._Beresford
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
___ ----Orlando
Armstrong, F. C.___P....Palmetto
Bilgore, David & Co.__Clearwater
Blake, Ellis G._ _Lake Helen
Browder, D. H. and Son__Arcadia
Burch, R. W., Inc..____ Plant City
Campbell & Mixon_St. Petersburg
Cartlege, W. C.___..__. Crescent City
Chase & Co._.._ -__. Sanford
DeLand Packing Co.____DeLand
Dixie Fruit and Produce Co.-Tampa
Emca Fruit Co. __..Crescent City
Eustis Packing Co., The_. Eustis
Fellsmere Growers, Inc.-...Fellsmere
Fields, S. A. & Co._ ------_ Leesburg
Flesch Bros .._-...______Auburndale
Florida Citrus Exchange _Tampa
Florida Mixed Car Co. _Plant City
Florida United Growers, Inc.
_____.--..______Winter Haven
Fosgate, Chester C., Co. Orlando
Ft. Meade Packing Co ..- Ft. Meade
Gentile Brothers Co ......_- Orlando
Herlong, A. S. & Co.L__. Leesburg
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.
_-._----_ ___ Davenport
Holly Hill Grove & Fruit Co.
-- _________- .._- _ Davenport
Indian River Fruit Co ..-_. Wabasso
International Fruit Corp.....Orlando
Johnson, W. A..--------- _Ft. Ogden
Keen, J. W...... --_---- Frostproof
Keene, R. D. & Co. _------Eustis
Lakeland Co., Inc., The___Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.
-------- _Lake Wales
Lamons, D. H..... --- ..-----Ft. Myers

to be done for the protection of this
State and of the Nation.
"While this letter is rather in the
nature of a personal one from my-
self personally to you personally,
still at the same time you may read
it to the committee when it meets,
if you care to do so.
"With best wishes and assurances
of the highest regard and knowing
you will all do what is right in this
matter, I remain
"Sincerely yours,
"Advisory Counsel, Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Assn."

December 13, 1929.
"Mr. Peter O. Knight,
"Tampa, Florida.
"My Dear Mr. Knight:
"I am in receipt of your letter of
the 9th instant informing me that
no one representing the Florida Cit-
rus growers or Clearing House As-
sociation of your State will appear
before our committee with refer-
ence to a further appropriation to
eradicate the so-called Mediterran-
ean fly in Florida.
"I am glad that you have furnish-
ed me with this information, and I
am also glad to know that the re-
quest for this further appropriation

Lee, J. C., Sr. .. .. Leesburg
Lovelace Packing Co.-Winter Haven
Lyle, J. P. San Mateo
Mammoth Groves, Inc.__Lake Wales
Maxcy, Gregg.__ - Sebring
Maxcy, L., Inc.___ t _Frostproof
Merrion & DodsonWinter Haven
Middleton, W. D.__Isle of Pines
Milne-O'Berry Pkg. Co., Inc.
_- -___ St. Petersburg
Mitchell, J. M._____ Elfers
Mouser, W. H. & Co.... Orlando
Nelson & Co., Inc..-.___-Oviedo
Okahumpka Packing Co.
Orange Belt Packing Co......-- Eustis
Pinellas Fruit Co., Inc.
-- ---St. Petersburg
Richardson-Marsh Corp._Orlando
Roberts Bros. & Co., Inc-Avon Park
Roe, Wm. G....------.. Winter Haven
Roper, B. H.________Winter Garden
Stetson, John B., Est. of_.._DeLand
St. Johns Fruit Co..---__.... Seville
Stone, Forrest B...........-- ._ Maitland
Sullivan, H. C .---...----.. Frostproof
Sunny South Packing Co.-Arcadia
Symonds, A. D. & Son- Orlando
Tampa Union Terminal Co._Tampa
Taylor, C. H.......... ---_ Wauchula
Ufco Packing Co.-._....__ Ft. Pierce
Ulmer, H. D........-.___--- Clearwater
Valrico Growers, Inc.____ Valrico
Vaughn-Griffin Pkg. Co. __Howey
Welles Fruit & Livestock Co.
W. Frostproof Packing &
Canning Co.__ W. Frostproof
White City Fruit Co.--White City

comes not from you or any of your
associates or people, but is squarely
on the initiative of the Federal Ag-
ricultural Department. This is the
first information of this character
that has ever reached me.
"With very great respect, I am
"Yours very truly,

With the possibility that the 1930
grapefruit crop may be 30 per cent
greater than it was this year, the-,
California Fruit Growers Exchange'
is raising its grapefruit advertising*'
appropriation to provide for this in-
crease. An extra five cents a box
is to be levied for this purpose.-
Western Advertising and Western

The canning of oranges is taking
on the aspect of a new industry. In
test deliveries, canned oranges have
met with success among bakery sup-
ply houses and confectioners in the
Chicago territory. Ice cream manu-
facturers have taken to them with
unusual enthusiasm as the article
represents the nearest approach to
fresh oranges that has ever been
offered to them.-N. Y. Journal of

Pae 11






DECEMBER 25, 1929

Published Semi-monthly by the FLORIDA CITRUS
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Florida.

Entered as second-class matter August 31, 1928, at
the postoffice at Winter Haven, Fla., under the Act of
March 3, 1879.



Ft. Ogden
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
Mt. Dora
Winter Haven


Vice President
General Manager

Per Year: $2.00 Single Copies: 10c

Due Credit, Not Merely a Boost

The following letter, written by the vice-
president of the Waverly Citrus Growers As-
sociation to that organization's membership,
is reprinted herewith not because it is a
"boost" for the Clearing House, but because it
reveals an "unsentimental" approval of what
the Clearing House is accomplishing for the
industry. The letter is reproduced, with per-
mission from the writer, as follows:
"December 13, 1929. "
"Members of the Waverly Association.
"Dear Growers:
"Mr. Pedersen has again passed to me the
writing of this letter which has to do with the
work the Clearing House is doing this year.
"I think last year there was quite a general
feeling among the growers that the Claring
House had failed to accomplish the things
they had expected of it.
"The Clearing House was created to rem-
edy our marketing evils. It was born of
necessity, believing it would accomplish the
organization of the industry so greatly
'"It was more or less of an experiment, a
shqrt cut to accomplish the benefits of co-
operative marketing yet preserving certain
factors in the industry which the progress of

co-operative marketing is bound to eliminate.'
In the light of recent developments all this is
proving most interesting.
"A man, familiar with Florida's greatest
problem, has said, 'There can be no compro-
mise with co-operation.' I think he meant
there can be no substitute for co-operative
marketing, and I have been strongly inclined
to the same opinion.
"It is a great temptation to say more as
well as difficult to say less on this subject if
we are to appreciate what is actually taking
place today.
"These shippers both Co-operative and In-
dependent, representing more than 80 per-
cent of our entire citrus crop, are meeting
every Friday night as the Operating Commit-
tee of the Clearing House, and there agree-
ing how much fruit should go to the markets
the following week,,and-the price it should
sell for. And after they have determined
what all this should be, they leave it to the
Manager to prorate the movement among
them, and they are living up to it.
"It was this kind of co-operation that
brought back our grapefruit market, and is
holding it at such favorable levels. It is this
kind of joint action and effort that has lifted
unfair quarantines, and which has opened
Southern markets that promised to be closed
throughout the season.
"In spite of many things which would tend
to unstabilize markets this season, yet, due to
the unselfish, unanimous, and co-operative
work on the part of this Committee of Ship-
pers, our markets are feeling a stability this
year never before known to Florida citrus.
To Mr. Pratt as Manager should go much
credit that these things have happened.
"It of course remains to be seen whether
they are going to keep pace with the demands
of the industry another year when we prob-
ably will have another large crop to market.
"When the--pressure becomes great with a
heavy crop to move. When opportunities as
well as desires make it possible for selfish-
ness to pay a premium. What then? The
problem of enlarging our markets at home
and abroad-building and increasing con-
sumer demand by a real advertising cam-
paign that may and will require a much
greater levy than our present 4 cents a box.
"This year these things may not have been
needed, but another year it must be done if
the Clearing House is to fill the gap that a
real co-operative organization must fill if it is
to live.
"Is there a substitute for co-operative mar-
keting? Another season may prove that
there is. We, as growers, are glad to wish
them well.
"After all, it is getting the job done. It is
not so important who does it.
"Yours very truly,
"Waverly Citrus Growers Association
"By John D. Clark, Vice-President."

Page 12

,Diecemb~er 25, 1929

(Continued from Page One)
are many more that you know the
Clearing House has done construc-
tive work in. Our organization was
compelled to assume responsibility
for the industry in quarantine mat-
ters. We still are exhausting every
resource possible to bring about the
most practical solution to the com-
bined problem of marketing a crop
that is under quarantine.
It is in every way taking a public
spirited attitude on the entire in-
dustry of Florida and helping, where
it can, allied industries. With this
all, I expect the self-respect that
our shippers hold because of know-
ing they are playing the game and
doing their full part at this critical
time in Florida means, after all, as`
much to them as some of the more
so-called "material benefits" and
our shippers have the right to that
self-respect because there is a 'snxs,
of team work and enthusiastic co-
ordination of effort such as Florida -
has never seen before. You would
enjoy it as much as they are if you
were a part of the organization.
They want you to be. I want you
to be..
Our directors in the same spirit
requested that we ask every carlot
citrus shipper in good standing to
join with us and to send a notice
out promptly as the books will be
closed for any new shipper-members
on January 1st, 1930.
We, therefore bid you a royal
welcome. Come and enjoy with us'-
the increased satisfaction that will
come to all of us in knowing that*
our citrus industry is even better
organized than at present -because
you, and others to whom this is
going, have cast your-lot with those
who are so efficiently working out
our citrus problem today.
A contract is enclosed for .your
signature. Application for mem-
bership will be accepted during the
balance of this month. Four cents"
per box assessment will commence
on any shipments you make after
signing the contract and in fairness
to-our original shipper-members you
will agree that it will be necessary
to close our membership fot'- the
balance of the season on 'New Year's
A merry Christmas to you and,
may we have a happy New Year to-
Florida Citrus Growers'
Clearing House Association.
General Manager.

"A Box of Apples Under Every-
Christmas Tree" is the slogan as
well as the goal set by The Wash-
ington Boxed Apple Bureau for its
Christmas campaign this year. This
has been launched with a series of
newspaper advertisements and a
complete program of jobber and
dealer cooperation. The idea was
first tried out last year and proved
so successful that the Bureau de-
cided to increase the intensiveness
of the campaign this year.-Pro-N
duce News.

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