Front Cover
 Back Cover

Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: September 1928
Copyright Date: 1928
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
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Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Table of Contents
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    Back Cover
        Page 49
        Page 50
Full Text

,.ar,~ ing ]IOU



Volume 1. Number 1
Selptemnber,- 1928


W. M. IGOU, President

J. EARL MYERS, Secretary-Treasurer
D. R. IGOU, Vice-President and General Manager

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Official Publication of the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association
Winter Haven, Florida

Vol. I, No. 1 SEPTEMBER, 1928 Price 20 Cents; Yearly, $2.00



Page Page
Your Clearing House............. 2 Citrus Featured at Farmers' Week. ... 17
By Alen E. Walker Grapefruit Canning in Florida...... 18
Standard Grade and Pack Needed.... 4 By Claude E. Street
How Advertising Will Pay......... 5 Inspection Chief Organizes Staff..... 19
"Feed" the Market Regularly....... 6 Storm Knifes Off Million Boxes ..... 20
$1,000,000 Saved in Freight ....... 7 Building Cold Storage Plants....... 21
By J. Curtis Robinson Enforcement of Citrus Fruit Law.... 21
Past Year's Crop Profitable One..... 9 By Nathan Mayo
State Receives $51,000,000 for Past
Future of the Florida Clearing House.. 10 Season's Crop.. ........... 22
By Merton L. Corey
The Famous Committee of Fifty..... 12 County Agents' Field Notes ........ 23
Directorate Now Numbers Eleven. .... 15 Here and There With the Growers... 25
Florida's Citrus Grove Acreage...... 16 What Our Shippers Are Doing.....-. 30
By Wilmon Newell All Interests Unite in Aiding Growers. 44

__________________________________________ _ _
kj--- -(L


First Directors

Your Clearing House

By Allen E. Walker

THEY said it couldn't be done
but you did it. You now
have the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House Association with
headquarters in Winter Haven oc-
cupying the entire third floor of the
DeWitt E. Taylor Building. More
than eighty per cent. of the citrus
fruit of Florida will pass through
the central control of the Clearing
House. Prior to this time not much
more than thirty per cent of the fruit
has ever been in one central control.
Brighter days ahead for citrus surely!
Everyone knows of the general un-
organized and chaotic marketing situ-
ation that has existed for years.
Production has rapidly increased with
but little improvement in organized
marketing methods. The best minds
in the state have realized for years
that if our biggest industry, citrus,
was to be stabilized and made safe
for normal profits to the grower from
year to year that organization of the
various shipping factors in some sort
of central control was essential.
For three or four years there has
been much public agitation for a
Clearing House. Up to the begin-
ning of this year all efforts toward
organization seemed to have resulted
in failure. It so happens that Win-
ter Haven is in the geographical center
of the citrus belt of Florida. An
Orange Festival is held here each year.
Growers, newspapers and others were
insisting upon a growers' organiza-
tion. The time, the place, the cour-
age and determination all at hand, a
group of growers held a meeting in
Winter Haven on January 27th,
1928, during the Orange Festival and
there highly resolved that they would
make a determined effort to organize
the growers of Florida.
Plans were carefully formulated
and a state-wide meeting was held at
the same place February 14th. At
this meeting about five hundred
growers assembled and created the
nucleus of the now well-known
"Committee of Fifty." Organiza-
tion then proceeded rapidly. As-
sistance was sought and obtained
from the United States Department
of Agriculture. Secretary Jardine
gave us full co-operation and sent
two of his best men, Chris L. Christ-

ensen and Judge L. S. Hulbert, to as-
sist in the set-up of the organization.
They paid the growers of Florida
the compliment of saying that it was
the best conceived plan for organ-
ized agriculture in the entire nation
at that time.
The plan was completed and at
Eustis April 3rd was fully approved
by the whole Committee of Fifty.
The plan then was submitted to a
mass meeting of growers at Or-
lando April 18th and approximately
twenty-five hundred growers from
all parts of the state there assembled,
unanimously approved the plan.
Hon. M. L. Corey, who had been
employed by the Committee of
Fifty, addressed this meeting and im-
mediately thereafter, under the direc-
tion of the Committee of Fifty,
launched the membership campaign.
Under the masterful leadership of
Mr. Corey the great army of growers
swung into action. The newspapers,
citrus and farm magazines, bankers
and business men, gallantly rallied
to the support of this all important
movement. Fertilizer companies,
business men, towns and nearly
everybody contributed money liber-
ally for organization expenses. The
eyes of the nation were on Florida.
Many of the keenest minds of the
state said we would fail, but we kept
our faith and our determination in
the face of many obstacles.
The army marched on, and on
July 10th the Board of Directors
were able to announce officially that
victory had crowned our efforts and
more than sixty per cent of the fruit
of the state was in the Clearing
House Association. Some mistakes
may have been made, but if so, none
of a serious nature. More than
thirty shippers, including the Florida
Citrus Exchange, had signed con-
tracts up to this time. Negotiations
were then begun with other shippers
which resulted in some minor changes
in the set-up being made to conform
to the pledges made during the cam-
paign that we wanted to utilize the
experience of shippers in the practical
operations of the marketing end of
the Clearing House and to conform

September, 1928

Page 2

.. ?




to the ruling of State Attorney Gen-
eral Davis that growers-shippers were
eligible on the Board of Directors.
These amendments were approved by
the membership and we now have
nearly all the important shippers of
the state in the Clearing House and
the membership represents more than
eighty per cent. of the fruit of the
Mr. Grower, this is your Clearing
House Association and it rests with
you largely just how far it will suc-
ceed, and what it will accomplish.
As an organization of growers
we have the full protection of the
Capper-Volstead Act. To comply
with the law we must retain grower
control. Under our Charter and By-
Laws the growers can and should
maintain the control of the organiza-
tion. All of the eleven Directors
are to be elected annually, beginning
with April, 1929. No one but a
grower member may vote for Di-
rectors. In this way the growers
can retain absolute control of the or-
ganization by electing the right type
of men as Directors. The growers
of Florida, as a whole, being far
above the average in intelligence, of
course will never permit themselves
to be influenced against their own in-
terest in voting for a Director any-
one who might not have the full suc-
cess of the Clearing House at heart.
In connection with grower con-
trol, the individual grower should
not forget that there will be shippers
outside the Clearing House and others
who will cleverly try to convince the
grower that there are a lot of things
wrong with the Clearing House and
try to influence him in the choice of
Directors and other things. There
the grower must remember that some
folks have made money at their ex-
pense because they were not organ-
ized and did not think for them-
selves. The growers, to retain grower
control, should remain their own
The set-up provides for an Operat-
ing Committee of shippers to deter-
mine marketing plans and policies.
This is as it should be. Without set-
ting up new marketing agencies of
our own, which we never intended to
do, it is necessary that we use existing
marketing agencies. Representatives
of these marketing agencies that are
on the Operating Committee have had
years of experience in marketing fruit.
Naturally it is to the growers' advan-
tage to utilize that experience.

The past troubles of lack of co-
operation in marketing are eliminated
by the Clearing House. Nearly all
the important shipping agencies in
the state are in the Clearing House
with over eighty per cent. of the fruit
represented by grower members.
For the first time in the history of
the state the marketing of this pre-
mier of state products is co-ordinated
and the right hand of the industry
will know at all times what its left
hand is doing.
Now the growers of Florida have
their Clearing House under a Charter
and By-Law set-up that officials of
the United States Department of Ag-
riculture say is the best conceived
plan for organized agriculture in the
country today. It is for us to justify
that faith and make the Clearing
House the success it ought to be. Let
us be patient and helpful. Let us not
rock the boat. Your officials will, at
all times, welcome constructive criti-
cism and helpful suggestions. This
is your organization and you should
desire to make it succeed. Destructive
or tearing down methods will be
harmful. But you can help your of-
ficials by good suggestions for im-
provements. You will also encour-
age your officials by seeking, either in
person or by letter, at any time, any
information on any phase of the
Clearing House.
Let us remember that Rome was
not built in a day. By the same
token, the Clearing House cannot ac-
complish all its purposes in a month
or a year, nor can it accomplish any
of them completely without the co-
operation and loyalty of its grower
members. The three fundamentals
of the Clearing House-standardiza-
tion of grade and pack, control of
distribution and commodity adver-
tising to increase consumer demand-
are problems of major importance
and of sufficient proportions that per-
fection cannot be attained over night.
We all know that in time past a great
deal of unripe and sub-standard fruit
has been shipped from the state.
This has not made the consuming
public happy, neither has it increased
their desire to purchase more fruit.
As time goes on, through the Clear-
ing House and with your loyalty and
co-operation, we will be able to es-
tablish and maintain such standards
for our fruit, that our friends in the
North will have their faith in our
products so well established that we
need never again apologize for the
quality of our fruit.
(Continued on Page Forty-five)

First Directors

September, 1928

Page 3


Standard Grade and Pack Needed

Too Much Latitude Exists in Trade
Terms of "Good" or "Fair" Fruit

HIGH spot in the individual's
life often is characterized as
a "red letter" day, but with
the citrus grower the seasons that
bring losses instead of profits are un-
popularly known as "red ink" years.
And citrus growers are not color
blind. Without any hint of defec-
tive vision, they have seen "red" for
many seasons, some of them so many
in rapid succession that they have
long since given up in dispair and
yielded to the mood of turning their
grove lands back to the Indians.
Some years growers as a whole
profited little by the production of
citrus. Yet each season hundreds of
thousands of additional young trees
are reaching the prolific bearing stage
-which fact alone constitutes a
pledge and a prophesy of ever-in-
creasing crops, and likewise a threat
of even greater disaster in the years
just ahead. Something desperate had
to be done, for the state's greatest
industry was confronted by inevit-
able ruin. The only light of hope
that appeared on the horizon was a
close knit, clearly conceived nation-
wide distribution plan which had put
the balance on the right side of the
ledger for the growers of other crops
and which could be substituted for
the haphazard methods employed in
other years in disposing of 'Florida
citrus. Thus the growers banded
themselves together in the Clearing
House to fight for their existence.
To perish or not to perish was their
dilemma. It was no time to trifle.
And to save themselves they are
figuratively attempting to lift them-
selves up by hitching their thumbs
into their own bootstraps.
One of the main objectives of this
Growers Clearing House Association
-stressed from the beginning of the
movement and held up without dis-
sent as an objective that would elimi-
nate from the trade a large part of
the hazard of discount and help to
gain and hold satisfied customers-is
standardization of grade and pack.
Standardization of grade does not
imply that all oranges in a pack shall
be "as alike as peas in a pod." There
is a tolerance of 10 per cent. But at-
taining this standard uniformity in
grading and packing, it is universally

agreed, will result in the big northern
fruit dealer accepting Florida citrus
with greater confidence in the quality
of the purchase and that he will buy
more freely and seek more zealously
to build up his body of citrus
Trade terminology that brands a
product as "Average," "Above Aver-
age," "Below Average," "Good" or
"Fair" has become too flexible in
these days of keen competition in in-
dustry, whether the product be citrus
fruit or automobiles. The purchaser
feels that he is, in a measure, buying
'a pig in a poke" when he invests
his money in products labelled with
such latitude.
Any one who has had experience
with fruit shipments can point out
the weaknesses under the old prac-
tices of haphazard grading and pack-
ing and the use of a trade terminology
so susceptible to broad interpretation.
The chaotic result is readily apparent.
In illustration:
Let two shippers send cars of
grapefruit into Pittsburgh. Each
represents his fruit as "Good." The
broker for one shipper wants $3 a
box. The other, egged on by dealers
who are anxious to play the game for
a cut in price, agrees to accept $2.75
for his. But he will contend through

the argument that his fruit is "Good."
The agreement to a discount of 25
cents on the box will in all proba-
bility lead to a similar drop for the
other car as well.
Now it may be that there was a
difference in value of 25 cents a box
for the two shipments, for the grade
"Good" can cover a wide distinction
in varying shades of fruit quality.
The difference in value is much more
likely than if the fruit had been
graded under the United States stan-
dard. The grading "Good" is theo-
retical, or largely a matter of opinion
and not attained by any fixed rules
or generally accepted formula.
The trouble under the old system
is there is too much latitude without
anything like a definite standard.
And a poor shipment of fruit under
the grade of "Good" may become the
price barometer in any trade center,
thereby causing hundreds of dollars
in loss to growers of better quality
fruit shipped into this center simul-
taneously. One can get for his qual-
ity fruit no higher price than the
poorer product, similarly graded, will
One compelling reason why a uni-
versally accepted standard is insist-
(Continued on Page Thirty-two)

7ew Directors


Page 4

September, 1928

J, A.UnielIN


How Advertising Will Pay

Nation-Wide Campaign Will Create
New Markets for Our Citrus Fruit

A GREAT writer once said:
"Build a better mousetrap
than your neighbor and
though you build your house in the
woods, the world will make a beaten
path to your door."
The advertising man, with nerves
taut under the stress of business com-
petition, leaps to his feet, speaks right
out at the meeting, and with com-
bative and convincing argument chal-
lenges this statement. Says he:
"Some way must be found to let
the world know about these 'best'
mousetraps, or the world will keep
its mice and you will have to build
other warehouses to store the mouse-
traps for which there is no market.
Most of the world is from Missouri.
It insists on being shown. The
mousetraps must be submitted and
must catch more mice than those sold
by your neighbor. After they have
been accepted as better mousetraps
than those built by your neighbor,
you must keep on making a product
of better quality. Nor can you stop
telling the world about it. In adver-
tising, repetition is reputation."
Florida may now grow and con-
tinue to grow the best citrus fruit
produced, but the crop will not be
sold if Florida keeps that fact a
family secret. The trouble with the

public is it soon forgets. It must be
told and then told again of the su-
perior quality of Florida fruit. Repe-
tition is reputation whether it be the
best mousetraps or the best oranges
or the best grapefruit.
If no more citrus were grown next
season or in 1935 than was produced
last year, Florida would still have to
fight and keep on fighting for her
place in the marketing sun. Ten
years ago-the season of 1917-1918
-the combined crops of Florida and
California were slightly less than
16,000,000 boxes. That was a
small crop year for California, but
the highest volume raised by the two
states prior to that season was be-
tween 30,000,000 and 31,000,000
boxes. In the last ten years, both
states have steadily increased their
production, and in the 1926-1927
season California alone marketed
more than 31,000,000 boxes. The
combined crops of the two states that
season (1926-1927) was approxi-
mately 48,000,000 boxes, or three
times the volume ten years earlier.
With new citrus areas coming rapidly
into the markets and the gradual up-
ward production curve in the two
chief citrus growing states, a crop of
60,000,000 to 70,000,000 boxes
may reasonably be expected within

the next few years. The public may
be counted on to keep buying mouse-
traps and citrus fruit, but it will buy
from producers who refuse to let the
world forget about some particular
mousetrap or certain qualities of or-
anges and grapefruit.
Florida next season probably will
produce 18,000,000 boxes. Some
are inclined to the belief that the
crop, conditions for which have been
exceedingly favorable this summer,
will reach an even higher figure. Un-
less visited by some crop disaster,
California will maintain its high
production level. Texas, New Mex-
ico and Arizona annually are bring-
ing greatly increased acreage of citrus
trees to the bearing stage, and these
three states will each year become
sterner factors in the citrus market.
The growers thus are confronted
with the immediate necessity of find-
ing new markets and of bringing into
the ranks of consumers some of the
many millions who have not yet
learned to appreciate citrus as a food
product. The citrus reputation must
be built by advertising repetition.
The Clearing House Association
will promote a strenuous advertising
campaign as one of the three major
fundamentals of the organization.
It realizes that supply and demand
will be even greater factors than ever
before unless these uncultivated trade
fields are developed. By opening
new markets and increasing the num-
ber of consumers in those already es-
tablished, it is possible to lift the
curve of consumption proportion-
ately with that of increased supply.
If the two can be held to a parallel
slant, the price level of profitable
years can be maintained, but if there
is a constant increase in volume with-
out commensurate gain of additional
markets and consumers, lean profit
years will be the natural sequence.
So long as growers were operating
as individuals an advertising program
could not be undertaken. It is only
by pooling their resources that either
a particular brand or fruit as a com-
modity may be advertised in a com-
prehensive way. But with the Clear-
ing House growers, who are produc-
ing 80 per cent. of the state's crop,
banded together, a small assessment
on each box will provide a sum that
(Continued on Page Forty-one)

New Directors


September, 1928

Page 5



"Feed" the Market Regularly

Even Distribution of Fruit By Clearing
House is the Most Important Problem

HE Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association, in
its function of regulating the
marketing for the growers, will act
much like a dispatcher for a railroad
system. It is the function of the
dispatcher to direct the trains, both
passenger and freight, on carefully
arranged schedules and in such way
that traffic may not become congested
at any point. The Clearing House
will seek to regulate the flow of citrus
into the markets in such a manner
that the daily consumption demand
may be met without breaking down
price levels in any market with a
sudden flood-tide of fruit. "Feed
the market regularly" might be ac-
cepted as an appropriate slogan.
To attain this, measured flow of
shipments and even distribution
should not be a super-human task.
Each variety of orange or grapefruit
has a fairly well-defined period in
which it ripens. Weather conditions
may hasten or retard the develop-
ment of the fruit and this in turn be
reflected in the earlier or later open-
ing of the marketing season.
Before the season opens for a par-
ticular variety, growers will be asked
to supply the Clearing House with
information as to the prospective
volume each will produce of the
variety coming in and the approxi-
mate time the picking will begin.
From these growers' figures, the
Clearing House will compute the
likely total volume of fruit of this
variety. Knowing the customary
length of the season the variety is
usually fed into the market, the
Clearing House will make a some-
what even spread of prospective car-
lots through the period, allocating
to the markets, as nearly as possible,
a proportion that will not cause sharp
fluctuations in price levels. If there
is an excessive crop, increased pres-
sure, through more intensive adver-
tising, will be exercised to uncover
new markets and to increase consumer
demand in those already established.
The benefits to be derived from an
even flow of fruit to the different mar-
kets are readily apparent. In years
past, more than 150 different ship-
pers were simultaneously seeking cus-
tomers for their citrus. Wherever a

market was discovered with a scarcity
of the Florida product with high
prices in consequence prevailing, each
shipper, acting on his own initiative,
rushed carloads of fruit to that par-
ticular trade center. Within a few
days a glut would develop and fruit
that had been bringing top prices
three days previously would be dis-

Membership Fees

Should Be Sent In
With an enormous amount of work
to be done in getting the Clearing
House "machinery" in operation for
the coming season, the growers may
be of considerable help by co-operat-
ing with the headquarters office.
There still are many growers who
have signed with the Association
who as yet have not sent in their $2
membership fees. The item is a
small one but is proving rather ex-
pensive to collect. Several letters
have been sent out to date request-
ing payment of the fee and each of
these letters costs far more than the
two-cent stamp needed to mail it.
The less overhead cost the Clearing
House has, the more money it means
to the growers.
Checks or money orders, made pay-
able to The Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association, will be
satisfactory and are preferable to
actual cash, although the latter of
course is acceptable. Please do your
part, Mr. Grower, and help the Clear-
ing House help you by sending in
your membership fee immediately.

posed of invariably at a tremendous
Searching the records of past sea-
sons, one finds that on January 6,
1926, eight carloads arrived in New
York, with the market scaled as
"strong." The following day 55
carloads rolled in and prices naturally
Similar and numerous heavy con-
centration periods can be pointed out
at will. February 10, 1926, 20 cars
were delivered in New York. Two
days later 42 came in, and four days
later 70 more were added to the sup-
ply. The market was unable to hold
up under such deliveries, and each
shipper disposed of his surplus fruit

for practically any offer that was
made. On November 19, the receipts
in New York were 19 cars. Three
days later 75 were added to the stores.
In another instance six cars were re-
ceived one day, followed by 58 three
days later. At another 15 were de-
livered .one day and 67 three days
afterward. In each case prices fell
with a resounding crash.
With the Clearing House direct-
ing shipments, such gluts will be les-
sened. A more uniform price aver-
age will be maintained by an even
flow of fruit to centers where the de-
mand is most urgent. Constant vigil-
ance will be maintained so that the
fruit may be distributed as evenly as
the demand warrants; that the trade
centers may not be subjected to either
feast or famine fare; and that the
wants of every market, large or small,
can be met instantly.
Railroad officials say that possibly
90 per cent. of the fruit cars are rolled
first to diversion points and then re-
consigned. During this initial stage
of transfer, the shippers are flashing
messages to the different markets, at-
tempting to make a sale or to ascer-
tain where the fruit supply is at low-
est ebb. The destination being deter-
mined, these "tramp cars," "rolling
unsold" or "rollers," as they are call-
ed, are consigned to the most promis-
ing trade center. And the chances are
-under past practices-that a good-
ly number of the 150 other shippers
in the state likewise have decided to
concentrate in this same direction,
with the result that the market is
practically under-stocked every few
weeks with succeeding intervals of
Glut can be prevented only by al-
locating to a particular market enough
cars to meet the demand. This al-
location cannot be effected with 150
groups hunting over the field. Better
results can be obtained, however, when
the Clearing House directs movement
of cars. This movement will be the
result of a careful analysis daily of
the market conditions by a staff of
experts supplied by the marketing
service of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, together with
the market information provided by
(Continued on Page Forty-three)

Page 6

September, 1928


$1,000,000 Saved In Freight

New Shipping Costs Lower To All
Destinations Except Points In New England

O N July 31 the Interstate Com-
merce Commission made public
its decision of July 10th in the
Florida Line Haul Rate Case, which
will afford a saving to the growers
and shippers of approximately $1,-
000,000 annually, in the freight bill
for distributing the Florida citrus
This substantial annual saving is
the result of a four-year effort by the
Growers and Shippers League aided
by the State Railroad Commission of
Florida. The complaint was made
by the State Railroad Commission
upon evidence prepared by the league.
The statistics submitted to the com-
mission were prepared by the league.
Besides employing an Interstate Com-
merce counsel, C. R. Marshall, of
Washington, D. C., the league em-
ployed a traffic expert, T. D. Geoghe-
gan, of Washington, D. C., and a
railroad cost analyst, Geo. W. Oliver,
of Chicago, who presented valuable
exhibits and testimony in addition to
and supplementing exhibits and tes-
timony prepared and presented by the
secretary of the league and testimony
and exhibits offered by the Railroad
Commission and Traffic Managers of
several of our leading shippers. Tes-
timony was also offered by many in-
dividual growers and shippers.
The complaint was filed March 30,
1925. After three hearings lasting
27 days, the first of which was held
at Orlando, ovember 3 to 13, 1925,
the case was finally submitted to the
commission June 21, 1927. Over
500 exhibits were filed and about
3200 pages of testimony taken. After
conference with State Railroad Com-
mission a brief was prepared by the
counsel for the league, C. R. Mar-
shall, of Washington, D. C. Oral
argument before the entire commis-
sion was made by counsel for the
league and R. Hudson Burr, former
chairman of the State Railroad Com-
The examiner who heard the case
recommended reductions in rates
which the carriers admitted would
approximate $1,250,000 annually.
Exceptions were filed by the carriers
and the league to the examiner's re-
I will refrain from quoting the de-

By J. Curtis Robinson
Secretary-Manager, Growers and Shippers
League of Florida

cision of the commission. It is quite
technical and different interpretations
of it have been made by various traf-
fic experts in the state. It is, there-
fore, very doubtful if it would be at
all interesting to growers unfamiliar
with rates or the previous decisions
of the commission in it to which
reference is made.
The commission did not prescribe
through rates to any destinations ex-
cept those located in so-called trans-
continental territory which includes
far western points to which it pre-
scribed through rates of $1.80 per
100 lbs. equivalent to $1.62 per box.
To the other territories and destina-
tions in the United States it only pro-
vided a method for the construction
of future rates. This method pro-
vides for the application of the sixth
class rates when destined to southern
territory, that is south of the Ohio
and east of the Mississippi and to
Central Freight Association and Illi-
nois territory. Central Freight Asso-
ciation territory may be generally de-
scribed as Indiana, Ohio, Michigan,
western Pennsylvania, southwestern
corner of New York and part of Illi-
nois. Illinois territory includes the
State of Illinois and as far north as
Milwaukee, Wis. The class rates to
be used are those authorized by the
commission in its decision in the
southern class rate investigation, third
supplemental report, Docket 13494,
128 I. C. C.
To eastern trunk line and New Eng-
land territory, future rates are to be
40 per cent. of the first class rates,
based, however, after revising the
present first class rates to that terri-
tory to a basis which will reflect the
same first class rates north of Virginia
gateways as for an equal distance
north of Ohio river gateways, when
destined to central freight Associa-
tion territory.
To western trunk line destinations,
Wisconsin points north of Illinois
freight association territory, Sioux
Falls, S. D., Minnesota on, east and
south of C. S. P. M. & 0. Ry., points
in Iowa and Missouri on, north and

east of Missouri River, and in Ne-
braska and Kansas on the Missouri
River, rates are to be made 40 per
cent. of the first class rates prescribed
by the commission in the third sup-
plemental report in the southern class
rate investigation, Docket 13494,
128 I. C. C.
Rates to Kansas-Missouri territory
and in the southwest, including Ar-
kansas, Louisiana west of the Missis-
sippi River, Oklahoma and Texas
differential territories are to be made
up of 40 per cent. of the first class
rate from Jacksonville, plus the dif-
ference between the sixth class rates
from points of origin to Vicksburg,
Msisissippi, and from Jacksonville to
To destinations between western
trunk line territory and transconti-
nental territory the commission says
the rates should be equitably graded
as between the rates prescribed to the
most western points in western trunk
line territory, (like Minneapolis,
Sioux Falls, S. D., and Omaha,
Neb.), and the rate of $1.80 per
100 pounds prescribed to transconti-
nental territory.
The rates thus authorized are sub-
ject to a minimum of 32,400 pounds
and an estimated weight of 90 pounds
per standard package.
After determining first what were
the class rates authorized by the com-
mission's decision in the southern
class rate investigation, we must next
take the proper percentages of the
class rates to the different territories
as authorized in the commission's de-
cision in the third supplemental re-
port in the southern class rate de-
cision. After obtaining the rate in
cents per 100 lbs. in order that a
comparison may be made with the
present rates per box, we must apply
the rate per 100 pounds to the esti-
mated weight of 90 pounds per box
as authorized to be applied for the fu-
ture. The new minimum of 32,400
pounds requires 360 standard boxes
of an estimated weight of 90 pounds
each to be loaded per car.
After making these calculations and
determining the future rates from rep-
resentative points in each county from
which oranges and grapefruit are
(Continued on Page Forty-six)

Page 7

September, 1928



Published Monthly by the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association

Application for Entry as Second Class Mail Matter, Pending

C. 0. ANDREWS. ........................................... Orlando
E. C. AURIN. ............................................. Ft. Ogden
TOM S. CARPENTER JR ................................Crescent City
J. C. CHASE ............................................... Orlando
J. A. GRIFFIN.............................................. Tampa
W. M. IGOU ................... .................. .......Eustis
R. E. MUTDGE ............................................Fellsmere
JOHN A. SNIVELY .....................................Winter Haven
J. T. SWANN ............................................... Tampa
ALLEN E. WALKER .................................... Winter Haven
R. B. WOOLFOLK. .......................................... Orlando
A. W. HANLEY, Secretary ............................... Winter Haven

Subscription Rates:
Per Year: $2.00: Canada, $2.25: all other Countries, $2.60.
Single Copies. 20 Cents: Foreign 25 Cents.

The Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Associa-
tion, with this number, begins the publication of a month-
ly magazine. It undertakes this as a part of the growers'
plan of co-ordinated effort and ener-
The Voice of gies, and will seek to give harmonious
The Grower utterance to the views and aspirations
of those who have consistently given
most to and proportionately received least from the citrus
For the grower is the lasting foundation stone on
which Florida citrus production must always rest. He
accepted all the hazards. There was no premium on pro-
duction. Other costs were paid in full, although the
grower might receive nothing for his toil of a year. Pos-
sibly, even, production costs had been paid out of his
pocket before the fruit had been picked.
It was the determination to participate more gener-
ously in crop returns that at last brought the growers
into concerted action. If there is no other immediate
gain, the growers at least are in battle array. Along with
their demand for a larger share in the receipts, the growers
also are assuming the obligation of creating new markets,
maintaining a higher price level by an even distribution
of the crop, and giving their fruit a more popular appeal
by standardization of grade and pack.
The clearing house magazine is committed to the pro-
gram of lifting the voice and strengthening the hope of
the growers, consolidating their leadership, and helping
to attain the basic objectives for which they have united.
These aims will consume all the energy and enterprise the
magazine is able to command.
The program before it will not induce conflict with
other magazines already in the field. These will continue
to serve the industry capably and conscientiously as they
have in the past. And the task is so big that there is
abundant work for all.

Nearly eighty per cent. of the citrus growers of Flor-
ida and practically all of the large shippers have joined
hands in order to place the citrus industry upon a business-
like foundation. What, then,
"They Can't All of the twenty per cent. of the
Be in the W wrong" growers and the few shippers
who have not yet joined?
The philosophers declare that Opportunity knocks
but once at any man's door. This theory is not an
universal one for many have declared that they have heard
the knock frequently. At any rate Opportunity is knock-
ing at the door of the citrus growers and shippers of
Florida today. Her knock has been reverberating for
several months. A large majority of those interested
have heard the knock and have opened wide the door.
They will benefit immeasureably thereby. But, how
about those who either have not heard the knock or who
have as yet declined to open the door? The reason prob-
ably is that they do not appreciate the significance of the
sound or perhaps, more reasonably, argue that they can
open the door whenever they desire.
This is true of course. The non-member grower or
shipper may join the Clearing House at any time. He
always will be welcomed into the fold. But should he
wait until he sees that his brother-growers or brother-
shippers have benefitted by their ready acknowledgment
of an opportunity at hand? Most of the growers think
not. Most of them, by joining the Association, have
signified their sincere belief that every grower should give
his support to this movement. For every box of fruit
added to the tonnage to be handled through the Clearing
House, there will be that much more strength to the
organization. The Clearing House today controls more
than enough fruit to insure the successful operation of
the organization. With 100 per cent. of the fruit the
accomplishments which may be achieved by the Associa-
tion will be limited only by factors beyond their control,
such as perhaps storms or freezes, bumper crops of com-
petitive fruit in the north or other drawbacks which may
have provided obstacles in the past.
There still is a far more important phase to the ques-
tion of the non-member joining the Association. That
is his duty as a citizen of Florida. He owes that much
to the state and its million residents. In short, to para-
phrase a famous slogan: "Eventually, why not now?"
The members of the Clearing House want you, Mr.
Grower, who have not yet joined. They need you and
you need the Clearing House. Sign the grower's con-
tract which you probably have in your home or write
the headquarters office and ask that one be sent you.
Growers who are members can help the Clearing House,
the growers who have not yet joined the Association and
themselves by urging their neighbor, if he has not signed,
to sign immediately a grower's contract.
Let's make this Clearing House the best, if not the
biggest, agricultural organization in the United States!
"They can't allbe wrong!"

Page 8

September, 1928


Past Year's Crop Profitable One

Smaller Yield of California Citrus
Re-acted Favorably for This State

THE crop just marketed was one
of the most profitable the state
has ever grown. The total yield
was only 13,635,360 boxes, for
which the growers received an aver-
age of $3.77 per box f. o. b. packing
house from which must be deducted
the selling, packing, picking and haul-
ing. Not only was Florida's crop the
smallest it has been in six years, but
the California crop likewise fell far
short of the two preceding seasons.
Shipments from thePacificCoast state
have been running from 8,000 to 10,-
000 cars behind the movement of one
year ago. This would indicate that
the West Coast crop would fall pos-
sibly 3,000,000 or more boxes below
the 31,240,000 box crop of 1926-
1927. Two years ago the California
crop was 29,401,000 boxes.
Only once has Florida's crop ex-
ceeded 20,000,000 boxes. That was
the season of 1923,1924, when the
total shipments were 20,399,614.
The average price growers received

that year was $1.82 a box, f. o. b.
packing house, which was the lowest
average in nine successive years. The
same year California grew 24,292,-
800 boxes. The combined crops that
year were something like 4,000,000
boxes above the previous high crop
Figures on Florida's crop for the
last thirteen years follow:



Av. f.o.b.

Until the freeze of 1895, the Flor-

ida citrus crop was usually about
twice the size of that of California.
The season following that disaster
the western state forged ahead, and
only once since has Florida's crop ex-
ceeded that of California. Florida,
after the big freeze, steadily fought
her way back as a citrus producing
state, and in 1912-1913 her crop
amounted to 8,125,000 boxes. That
was the largest crop by 2,000,000
boxes the state had grown up to that
time. he same season California was
cut down to 7,212,000 boxes, which
was less than half of what she had
been producing for several years pre-
viously. The following year Cali-
fornia staged an impressive come-back
with 19,160,724 boxes. The last
three seasons California's crop has
doubled approximately the volume of
that grown by this state.
With the outlook for a reasonably
(Continued on Page Forty-eight)


R. W. BURCH, Incorporated

Packers Shippers



"Sales That Satisfy"

September, 1928

Page 9



Future of the Florida Clearing House

I GLADLY respond to the invita-
tion to contribute an article for
the initial issue of the Florida
Clearing House News, because it af-
fords an opportunity to express my
appreciation to all those whose cour-
age, unselfishness, untiring efforts and
steadfast devotion to a great cause
made this organization possible.
Only yesterday I spent an hour
pouring over the map of Florida,
tracing my travel routes, checking the
cities where meetings or conferences
were held, recalling names and faces
of a legion of splendid men who so
recently were my comrades in an
economic battle of surpassing impor-
tance. Toward all of you I have a
feeling akin to that of a soldier for
his battlefield comrades. We went
through some soul-testing times to-
gether. You have left me with a
great admiration for your unfalter-
ing courage, and greatly indebted to
you for the uniform courtesy and
friendliness with which I was every-
where treated.
To you goes the credit for the
success of the campaign. Now that
you have the Clearing House, have
your troubles ceased? Are the glow-
ing possibilities painted in the or-
ganization fight assured? Will in-
dependence and prosperity follow
The Clearing House victory has
given you nothing more than oppor-
tunity. You have the legal ma-
chinery. The fulfilling of promises,
accomplishment of high purposes,
achievement of a great program are
now possible. The Clearing House
is a high powered auto with an
empty gasoline tank. It is a blue-
print for a great steel trestle to bridge
the stream. It is a plan for busi-
ness organization, for social progress,
for economic improvement. Whether
the hopes of its organizers shall be
realized, depends upon the skill, in-
telligence, fairness and loyalty of
those who operate its complex ma-
What then are the essentials for
First of all, let's recognize the dis-
tinctive character of this organization
of the shippers who own the pack-
ing and shipping facilities, and of the
growers who own and control the
fruit. This organization acknowl-
edges their mutuality of interests,
their common desire tb improve mar-
keting conditions for the good of all.

By Merton L. Corey
Former member of the Federal Farm Loan
Board who directed the membership
campaign for the Clearing House

Good team work on the part of
growers and shippers is essential.
Some have said these elements will
not mix, that these interests are so


naturally conflicting that they will
not merge.
I believe they will. Each class can
serve its own interests by dealing gen-
erously and fairly with the other
class. Enlightened self-interest will
serve the Clearing House well.
It was to be expected that the fight
for the Clearing House would stir
up some ill feeling. It was quite
impossible to uproot deep seated and
time honored, but time worn and
archaic, machinery with a penknife.
The organization committee had to
use some dynamite.
With the Clearing House assured
the time has come to let bygones be
bygones. There are no old scores
to settle. The changes asked by the
shippers at the conclusion of the cam-
paign were proper and the manage-
ment and the growers were wise, in-
deed, to assure a high percentage of
the control of the crop by making
concessions which leave Clearing
House fundamentals unimpaired. I
am sure that for the most part the
shippers will join with the growers
in the effort to make the Clearing
House successful.

It is well to bear in mind at all
times the three general purposes of
the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association, as expressed by
the Articles of Incorporation. You
were organized as a voluntary asso-
ciation of growers that you might
better promote your general interests:
First-By improving the quality,
grade and pack.
Second-By promoting a wider
distribution of the volume of Florida
citrus fruit through advertising,
through more equitable freight rates,
and through economic refrigeration.
Third-By securing and stabiliz-
ing a systematic flow of Florida citrus
fruit from producers to consumers as
efficiently and directly as possible.
These three purposes are the foun-
dations of the Clearing House. Dis-
regard of, disloyalty to, or inefficient
operations under these foundation
principles will so weaken the Clear-
ing House structure as to render it
impotent, and destroy the confidence
of the grower members. The achieve-
ment of these purposes is dependent
First-Competent Management.
Second-Membership Loyalty.
Some tragic failures have been
written in the producers' new busi-
ness field of co-operative marketing.
These may be traced to the associa-
tion's weakness in one or both of the
particulars just stated.
Co-operative marketing generally,
and the Clearing House particularly,
with its intricate problems of stan-
dard grade and pack, of control of
'volume and distribution, of mem-
bership relations, of finance, and of
*the multitude of incidental problems,
calls for the highest order of executive
Co-operative marketing is not self-
operative. Thousands of business
concerns are organized under the same
business corporation laws. Some
succeed; others fail. Those laws, like
the act under which the Clearing
House was organized, grant broad
powers and define express limitations.
The genius and capacity of the men
constituting the body corporate, their
loyalty and devotion to its principles,
measure the success of their business
It is important, therefore, that as
you engage in this undertaking you
should utilize your best business
(Continued on Page Twenty-seven)

Page 10

September, 1928


We're Old-Fashioned--

but mighty proud of it

The quality of Glen Trees-that which makes Glen-planted
groves so successful-is not altogether a matter of seed, buds and fer-
tilizer. There is something else-perhaps the most important factor.
It is just plain, old-fashioned carefulness. And it's practiced in
the Glen Nurseries all of the time by every employee. It's practically
a religion with us.
This old-time thoroughness is bred of a sincere desire on the
part of Glen Nursery craftsmen to build good trees for you.
Costly mistakes of propagation are eliminated. Quality can be
and is guaranteed.


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Complete line of Sprayers and Dusters

Page 11

September, 1928


Above are most of the members of the famous Committee of Fifty snapped by the photographer. T. P. Robinson of Orlando, on the morning of
April 18th last at Orlando, a few hours prior to the state-wide mass meeting of growers at which the Clearing House plan was approved.
Reading from left to right, the members above are as follows:
Bottom row, seated: 1 F.W. Ames. Lockhart: 2 J.G. Arbuthnot. Lake Alfred: 3 R.E. Mudge, Fellsmere: 4 C.O.Andrews, Orlando 5 Allen E.
Walker. Winter Haven, chairman: 6 Merton L. Corey, (directed membership campaign): 7 T. S. Carpenter. Jr., Crescent City: 8 Dr. E. C. Aurin. Fort
Ogden: 9 James T. Swann. Tampa: 10 F. M. O'Byrne, Lake Wales, secretary: 11 A. W. Hanley, (permanent secretary). Winter Haven.
Second row: 12 C. E. Albright. Leesburg; 13 James Thompson. Winter Haven: 14 A. G. Smith. Wauchula: 15 R. P. Burton, Emerelda- 16 W. M.
Reck, Avon Park: 17 E. C. Mason, Lake Wales: 18 Dr. James Harris, Lakeland: 19 Samuel Schutzman, Eagle Lake: 20 A. C. Brown. Vero Beach:
21 C. A. Garrett, Kissimmee: 22 Norman A. Street. Winter Haven: 23 L. A. Morgan, Ft. Meade.
Third row: 24 A. R. Sandlin, Leesburg: 25 F. A. Rundle. Lockhart: 26 J. G. Grossenbacher, Apopka; 27 C. L. Bundy, Winter Haven: 28 Theron
Thompson. Lake Hamilton: 29 W. R. Hill, Florence Villa: 30 E. H. Kellerman, Vero Beach: 31 James C. Morton. Auburndale: 32 John Clark. Waverly:
33 R. J. Trimble, Lake Jem; 34 T. G. Hallinan. Winter Haven.
Top row: 35 George C. Shepard, DeLand; 36 F. C. Moorehead. DeLand: 37 Charles F. Lathers. Winter Haven: 38 R. M. Clewis, Tampa: 39 B. D.
Barber, Clearwater: 40 C. D. Gunn, Haines City: 41 Frank Crisp. Davenport; 42 J. T. Daniel, Brooksville.

The Famous Committee of Fifty

"Somebody said that it couldn't be done.
But he with a chuckle replied
That 'maybe it couldn't,' but he toould be one
Who wouldn't say so till he'd tried.
So he buckled right in with the trace of a grin
On his face. If he worried he hid it.
He started to sing as he tackled the thing
That couldn't be done, and he did it."
-Edgar A. Guest.

A was observed quite some time
ago, considerable has been said
about the weather but very
little done about it. Likewise consid-
erable has been said about the history-
making Committee of Fifty, but
scarcely enough has been said.
When Florida's next history is
written and the growth of the citrus
industry pictured, it will be an un-
observing and unappreciative chroni-
cler who fails to tell his readers of
the Committee of Fifty-who they
were and what they did.
There cannot be many individuals
in the State of Florida today who
do not know what the Committee of
Fifty is nor what it did. The press
of the state, throughout the hectic
membership campaign which the
Committee of Fifty staged for the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association, daily carried arti-
cles telling of the accomplishments

and purposes of the Committee of
Credit for the organization of the
growers' clearing house obviously
cannot be placed upon any one indi-
vidual nor group nor: organization.
The Committee of Fifty, which form-
ed the nucleus of the sriall army that
battled so bravely and successfully for
the independence and prosperity of
the grower, was aided and capably so
by untold individuals and organiza-
tions. For instance there were some
five hundred men with vision and
loyalty (and half of them were not
growers either) who gave the Com-
mittee of Fifty commendable help
and backing. These men were known
as members of Local Membership
Campaign Committees. They, too,
deserve a niche in Florida's hall of
The Committee of Fifty perform-
ed its task in two distinct moves, after
a manner of speaking. The first move
was that of setting up the Clearing
House plan, the details of which are
touched upon elsewhere in this issue.
Their other move was the signing up
of members into the Clearing House
Association. Immediately following
the state-wide mass meeting of grow-

ers in Orlando on April 18th, the
Committee of Fifty, headed by Mer-
ton L. Corey as director, launched
the membership campaign which re-
sulted in the establishing of the Clear-
ing House. During that campaign,
the Committee of Fifty wrote an im-
ipressive chapter in Florida's agricul-
tural history.
Night and day the members of that
committee labored. Automobile fuel
was consumed with a reckless aban-
don as to its cost. Hotel bills piled
up on some fifty household budgets
as the members of that committee
raced about the state in their efforts
to arouse the growers to the import-
ance and significance of the move-
ent. All paid their own expenses,
none of them complaining and some
of them even contributing financially
in addition to their expenditures for
the cause.
They were a determined lot, these
committeemen. They were deter-
mined their cause would win. They
felt it to be right and they lost no
opportunity to convert others to the
same manner of thinking. At times
some of them obviously were discour-
aged. Untold obstacles beset the
(Continued on Page Forty-six)

September, 1928

Page 12



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the Citrus Growers
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September, 1928

Page 13


R. W. Burch--V. B. Newton
Two widely known and able lead-
HE AMERICAN FARMER is fast waking up to ers in the Florida citrus industry died
A in July. These were R. W. Burch,
the fact that Florida's incomparably long growing of Plant City, and Victor B. Newton,
of Orlando.
season offers profit possibilities not to be found else- Mr. Burch as president of R. W.
where in all America. The time is not far distant Burch, Inc., was one of the largest in-
dependent shippers in the state. He
when Florida will be literally dotted with income- had applied himself closely to the
producing groves and farms, cultivated by a happy, fundamentals of the industry until
his business ranked fifth among the
contented, prosperous people. largest operators. He also handled
vegetables in large volume.
The Bentley-Gray Dry Goods Company is constantly E. W. Wiggins succeeded Mr.
Burch as head of the business. John
keeping step with Florida's progress and will be just S. Barnes, head of the Florida Mixed-
as ready to make quick shipment of the dry goods Car Company, a subsidiary of the
Burch enterprises, was elected vice-
needs of the 25,000,000 Florida population, in years president, but will continue to direct
to come, as it is today. the activities of the Mixed-Car Com-
Mr. Newton was vice-president and
general manager of the Standard
Fruit Growers. He served as a vice-
The Bentley-Gray Dry Goods Company president of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change in 1923-1924 and also presi-
Wholesalers dent of the former Fruitmen's Club.
He took an active part in operators'
TAMPA efforts to effect an organization that
would stabilize the citrus industry,

Success to

Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association


805 Citrus Exchange Bldg. 4th Avenue and 35th Street


September, 1928

Page 14


Directorate Now Numbers Eleven

Introducing Men Who Will Direct
Destinies of Clearing House Association

WITH plans already made as
to the tasks the Clearing
House will undertake, inter-
est among the growers has turned to
the men who will direct the Associa-
tion's activities.
The incorporating Board of Direc-
tors has been increased from seven
members to eleven, an Operating
Committee of Shippers has been ap-
pointed and consideration by both
groups was being given-at the time
this' magazine went to press-to the
selection of a Clearing House Man-
Many of the growers in Florida
know some or all of the Directors
and members of the Operating Com-
mittee. The majority, however, do
not know them all and the FLORIDA
occasion to introduce these men to
the growers.
ALLEN E. WALKER, President of
the Association, and the man who
practically founded the Clearing House
Association, is both a fruit grower
and an attorney-at-law. A resident
of Winter Haven for several years,
Mr. Walker has been keenly interest-
ed in Florida's most important indus-
try-the raising of citrus fruit. His
grove is located at Lake Hamilton
and is numbered among these groves
that reflect careful and business-like
JUDGE C. O. ANDREWS, of Orlan-
do, like the President, is both an at-
torney and a fruit grower. One of
the most prominent citizens of Or-
lando, and well known throughout
the entire state, Judge Andrews' in-
terest in the citrus industry is of long
standing. His grove holdings are
large and he also represents several
other large grove owners all of which
has given him an excellent opportuni-
ty to study the industry from both
the angles of ownership and market-
DR. E. C. AURIN also is a profes-
sional man. A resident of Fort Og-
den for several years, Dr. Aurin, a
practicing physician, became interest-
ed in the citrus fruit business several
years ago and has been a close stu-
dent of its problems since. Through-
out the period during which the
Committee of Fifty was setting up
the Clearing House plan, Dr. Aurin
capably aided the committee and

proved to be of considerable help in
working out many of the innumer-
able details which confronted the
committee at every step.

Secretary and Acting

A. W. Hanley, secretary and
acting treasurer of the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Asso-
ciation, has been an important fac-
tor in the establishing of the Clear-
ing House since its inception. An
experienced fruit man, he has been
of tremendous help to the Com-
mittee of Fifty since the day this
body was organized. He has been
actively engaged in the carlot sales
and distribution of fruits and veg-
etables for twenty years, having
operated as a grower, shipper, sales
agent, buyer and receiver in prac-
tically every large market in the
United States and in practically
every producing section in this
country and Canada as well. He
knows the fruit business in all its
angles and literally speaks the lan-
guage of the operator as well as of
the grower. He was the personal
representative of S. E. Thomason,
owner of The Tampa Morning
Tribune, when this newspaper
conducted a survey of the citrus
industry last fall.

cent City, is the youngest member on
the Board in point of years but one of
the most active, if it is possible to
make such a comparison. Mr. Car-
penter, through his grasp of the grow-
er's problems, his ready sympathy
and intense interest, long ago won
the confidence and respect of the
growers in his district. His work on
the Board has been invaluable and he
promises to be an able Director of
the destinies of the growers.
HON. W. M. IGOU, state senator of
Eustis, is another member of the
Board who is well known through-
out the state. Senator Igou owns
considerable acreage in Lake County
and also has had the care of other
growers' groves. His business inter-
ests in Eustis are extensive and he
brings to the Board the unusual qual-
ifications of both business man and
COLONEL R. E. MUDGE, of Fells-
mere, one of the most popular mem-
bers of the Committee of Fifty, rep-
resents the Indian River section on
the Board. Col. Mudge has enjoyed
the privilege of close association with
other agricultural problems of the
country and has been a staunch sup-
porter of the clearing house move-
ment since its inception. He has seen,
in the aid being given the growers by
the federal department, a certain suc-
cess for the plan and often asserted
that without such aid the growers
would be well-nigh helpless.
JAMES T. SWANN, of Tampa, is
one of the largest individual grove
owners in the state. He has 250
acres of bearing grove and recently
planted 560 more acres in the Ridge
section. Mr. Swann is one of the
most prominent business men in
Tampa as well as Florida. His abili-
ty as a business man and his knowl-
edge of the citrus fruit industry un-
questionably will be of untold value
to the growers in his position on the
Board of Directors.
J. C. CHASE, one of the four new
members of the Board, is probably
one of the best known citrus fruit
men in Florida. Chairman of the
Board of Chase 8 Company of Or-
lando, and with forty-two years ex-
perience in the fruit and vegetable
business in Florida and California,
(Continued on Page Forty)

September, 1928

Page 15


Florida's Citrus Grove Acreage

"t TOW long does a citrus tree
Live, if properly or well
cared for?" is a. question
frequently asked. It is quickly an-
swered: "Nobody knows."
In Italy there are orange trees that
are stated, on good authority, to be
more than 150 years old. They are
still adding to their size each year,
are still bearing good crops of fruit
and give no indication of approach-
ing senility. In our own State of
Florida there are citrus trees known
to be more than 70 years old, and
these are annually increasing in size.
The available records as to lon-
gevity of grapefruit trees are even
more meagre than in the case of or-
ange trees. This is necessarily true
for the reason that as grapefruit prob-
ably originated in Florida, as a
"sport" or mutant from the shad-
dock, its history covers an even
shorter period than that of the Flor-
ida citrus industry as a whole. It is
a rather safe statement to make, there-
fore, that a citrus tree, if on proper
stock and soil, if properly cared for
and if not encountering any con-
tingency, may reasonably be expected
to live for at least a hundred years
and to continue increasing in size
and, on the average, in bearing capac-
ity for that length of time.
However, much is covered by that
word "contingency." It is doubtful
if any citrus tree, in Florida or else-
where, ever lives to a natural, "ripe
old age," or maturity, for the reason
that some calamity is almost sure to
overtake it before maturity can be
reached. Freezes and storms take
heavy toll, and diseases and insect
pests bring down many a productive
tree long before its time. Each year
many acres of grove are destroyed by
grass fires. These fires may originate
through carelessness, or they may be
fires passing from forests into unpro-
tected groves. In fact, the number of
grove trees destroyed by grass fires in
Florida in the past few years has been
far in excess of the number of trees
destroyed by growers and the Plant
Board in the fight against citrus canker.
We have also seen, quite recently,
the numerous fatalities among grove
trees due to a real estate boom, this
mortality being due, first, to the de-
struction of grove trees to make way
for residences, streets or (lots and,
secondly, neglect of groves on lands
which were purchased merely for
speculative purposes or which became
so involved as to ownership that no
one felt warranted in carrying the ex-

By Wilmon Newell
Plant Commissioner, State Plant
Board of Florida

pense of grove maintenance on such
There is still another form of neg-
lect which brings about practical de-
struction of grove acreage and that
is through non-resident owners or
others failing to provide for the care
of groves already planted.
With the exception of losses due

Testimonial To
C. O. Andrews
A testimonal to Judge C. O. An-
drews, member of the Committee of
Fifty as well as of the Board of Direc-
tors of the Clearing House, in appre-
ciation of his services, was passed by
the Board of Directors at their meet-
ing held in Winter Haven, August
10th. The resolution reads as follows:
Moved by J. A. Snively, seconded by
R. E. Mudge, that a testimonial of ap-
preciation of the services rendered by
C. O. Andrews to the Citrus industry
and the State at large for his willing
and untiring labors and legal aid in
the development of the clearing house
plan and his willingness to spend and
be spent that the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House Association might
be successfully established, and that a
copy of this testimonial be published
in the first issue of the House Organ,
bearing the seal of the Association.
Voted upon and passed unanimously.

to freeze, flood and storm, the grove
acreage affected by these factors is, to
a considerable extent, inversely pro-
portionate to the returns received for
the crop. When prices are good the
grove owner is much more careful
about spraying, fertilizing, cultivat-
ing and protecting against fire than
he is when the crop returns are low
or unsatisfactory.
In short, the foregoing factors op-
erate to a very appreciable extent in
retarding increased production due to
the planting of new acreage.
Despite the various factors men-

tioned, the citrus grove acreage of
Florida has shown a tremendous in-
crease during the past few years.
Fortunately, rather definite and
thoroughly reliable figures on this
point are available. It happens that
the State Plant Board, in making its
inspections for citrus canker since
1914, has made careful record of the
number of trees inspected and its in-
spections have, as far as is humanly
possible, included every living citrus
tree in the state. The first of these
inspections and counts of all the
grove trees in the state was completed
in 1919 and showed 11,356,414
trees in grove formation.
The second inspection and count
was made during the four-year pe-
riod from 1919 to 1923 and showed
16,677,227 trees. The third inspec-
tion of the state, made during the
period from 1923 to 1928, shows
22,026,714 grove trees. These fig-
ures include both bearing and non-
bearing trees.
It will be noted that the grove
acreage of the second period showed
an increase of 32 per cent over that
for the years 1915-1919, and that
the grove acreage today is 94 per cent
greater than it was prior to 1919.
The grower may well give these fig-
ures serious thought. The citrus
grove acreage of the state has prac-
tically doubled in ten years and an-
nually each well-cared-for grove is in-
creasing its output. No stronger ar-
gument could be presented to show
the imperative need for orderly mar-
keting and intelligent distribution of
the crop henceforth. It is also evi-
dent that if consumption is to be kept
equal to or ahead of production, the
percentage of high quality fruit must
be greatly increased.
It will be of passing interest to the
citrus growers to know that figures
such as the above, for each and every
county of the state, are now being
put in final shape for publication and
will appear in the August issue of the
State Plant Board's Monthly Bul-
letin, which will be ready for distri-
bution before September 1st. In
fact, the coming issue of the Monthly
Bulletin will carry the most complete
and the most accurate figures on citrus
grove acreage in Florida that have
ever been assembled. Growers not
already receiving the Monthly Bul-
letin may be placed on the mailing
list and henceforth receive this pub-
lication, free of charge, by writing
to the State Plant Board, Gainesville,

September, 1928

Page 16

Supplement to the

Florida Clearing House News

Issue of September, 1928

Winter Haven, Florida

FOLLOWING out the provisions of the Growers
Contract, relative to publication of the names of all
shipping agencies who are members of the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association, the following list is
hereby announced as the shipper-membership of the Asso-
ciation as of August 29, 1928.

The names of the members and their address follow:

Acme Fruit Co., Ft. Pierce, Fla.
Adams Packing Co., Auburndale, Fla.
Alexander 8 Baird, Beresford, Fla.
American Fruit Distributors, Inc., Jacksonville, Fla.
American Fruit Growers, Orlando, Fla.
F. C. Armstrong, Palmetto, Fla.
Ellis G. Blake, Lake Helen, Fla.
A. H. Bourlay, Leesburg, Fla.
F. W. Bredow, DeLand, Fla.
R. W. Burch, Inc., Plant City, Fla.
G. A. Carey, Inc., Plant City, Fla.
W. C. Cartlege, Leesburg, Fla.
Chase 8 Co., Orlando, Fla.
Chester O. Fosgate Co., Orlando, Fla.
David Bilgore Co., Clearwater, Fla.
DeLand Packing Co., DeLand, Fla.
Edwards 8 Weller Fruit Co., Thonotosassa, Fla.
Ellis Chase & Co., Lakeland, Fla.
Emca Fruit Co., Crescent City, Fla.
Estate of John B. Stetson, DeLand, Fla.
Fellsmere Growers, Inc., Fellsmere, Fla.
Florida Citrus Exchange, Tampa, Fla.
Florida Mixed Car Co., Plant City, Fla.
Florida United Growers, Inc., Jacksonville, Fla.
Ft. Meade Packing Co., Ft. Meade, Fla.
F. E. Godfrey, Orlando, Fla.
Gregg Maxcy Co., Sebring, Fla.


A. C. Haynes, DeLand, Fla.
A. S. Herlong F- Co., Leesburg, Fla.
W. A. Johnson, Arcadia, Fla.
J. W. Keen, Frostproof, Fla.
R. D. Keene 8 Co., Eustis, Fla.
Thos. E. Ladd, San Mateo, Fla.
Lake Charm Fruit Co., Oviedo, Fla.
The Lakeland Company, Inc., Lakeland, Fla.
Lee County Packing Co., Ft. Myers, Fla.
J. C. Lee, Leesburg, Fla.
Lovelace Packing Co., Winter Haven, Fla.
J. P. Lyle, San Mateo, Fla.
Mammoth Groves, Inc., Lake Wales, Fla.
L. Maxcy, Inc., Frostproof, Fla.
Milner O'Berry Packing Co., St. Petersburg, Fla.
Montgomery-Snider Co., Inc., Tampa, Fla.
W. H. Mouser & Co., Orlando, Fla.
Nelson 1 Co., Oviedo, Fla.
Noggle 8 Kirkpatrick, Winter Haven, Fla.
Okahumpka Packing Co., Okahumpka, Fla.
K. S. Parrish, Parrish, Fla.
Peace River Fruit Co., Ft. Meade, Fla.
Richardson-Marsh Corp., Orlando, Fla.
Roberts Bros. Co., Inc., Avon Park, Fla.
B. H. Roper, Winter Garden, Fla.
S. J. Sligh 8 Co., Orlando, Fla.
St. Johns Fruit Co., Seville, Fla.
Forrest B. Stone, Maitland, Fla.
Sunny South Packing Co., Arcadia, Fla.
C. H. Taylor, Wauchula, Fla.
Valrico Growers, Inc., Valrico, Fla.
P. H. Varn Co., Plant City, Fla.
Welles Fruit Co., Arcadia, Fla.
West Frostproof Packing 8 Canning Co.,
W. Frostproof, Fla.
G. H. White, St. Cloud, Fla.
White City Fruit Co., White City, Fla.


Citrus Featured at Farmers' Week

Problems Treating of Grove Culture and Marketing
of Fruit are Discussed at Gainesville Gathering

LL phases of the citrus indus-
try-selection of proper soil
for the grove, putting out the
most adaptable root stock, cultivation
and fertilization, combating pests and
the benefits of standardization and
grading-were discussed at the citrus
clinic, one of the outstanding features
of Farmers' Week at the University
of Florida, Gainesville, August 13-
18, inclusive.
Heavy rains and swollen streams
reduced the attendance the first few
days, but more than 1,300 farmers
and grove owners were registered by
the middle of the week.
Starting the young grove and the
control of pests and insects were the
general theme at the first day's ses-
sion. H. E. Stevens; pathologist of
the United States Department of Ag-
riculture, reviewed department efforts.
to direct melanose and scab control.
Another talk by Mr. Stevens dealt
with the control of diseases of citrus

in transit. Dr. E. W. Berger, ento-
mologist of the State Plant Board, re-
ported on research into the question
of natural control of the whitefly and
scale by parasitic fungi. J. R. Wat-
son, entomologist of the Florida Ex-
periment Station, outlined and gave
results of oil sprays and also the con-
trol of aphids and rust mites.
The new citrus aphid is the most
damaging of all in the aphid family
because of the failure of wasp-like in-
sects, which feed on other aphids, to
thrive on this variety, Mr. Watson
told the growers. This aphid was
first observed in three or four coun-
ties around Tampa and Bradenton.
From these centers it spread rapidly
throughout the citrus belt except in
satsuma producing areas.
"It doesn't pay to take any half
way measures with aphids," Mr.
Watson said. "When spraying for

whitefly or scale, we usually regard
an 85 per cent. kill as a good com-
mercial job. If you hire a man to
spray and he kills 85 per cent. of the
scale insects and whiteflies, you have
no particular kick coming. Let us
see what happens if you do no better
than that with the aphids. Say we
have 100 aphids on a twig today and
you go out and kill 85 of them. Of
the 15 left, let us say, for ease of cal-
culations, that five are adult females
producing young at the normal rate
of six per day. In 24 hours they
will produce 30 aphids and, with the
original 15, you will have 45. The
next day they will produce 30 more.
By that time the 10 young have com-
menced to reproduce, let us say, about
20 young, and, with the original 15,
you have at the end of 48 hours 110
aphids more than you had when you
started. In other words, if you do
this every day, you will be just keep-
(Continued oh Page Thirty-six)


4,000 Acres Citrus Groves 18-Hole Golf Course


September, 1928

Page 17


F. H. THING. Presi

J. P. HOLBROOK, Secretary-Treasurer


Grapefruit Canning in Florida

GRAPEFRUIT juice has been
bottled commercially in Flor-
ida since the year 1915.
Grapefruit was first canned in Florida
in 1916. These are the years that,
in the future, the great industry of
conserving grapefruit will look back
to as the dates of its origin.
Much water has gone over the dam
since then. Many heartaches have
been experienced by the pioneer op-
erators. Large financial losses have
been taken by many who were hop-
ing for dividends. But none of the
drawbacks were sufficient to curb the
progress of those who dreamed dreams
and saw visions.
Today the industry is in such
shape that here and there a banker
can be found to finance a cannery's
operation-providing, etc., etc.-
which is material evidence that grape-
fruit canning is a real, though infant,
Last season, the season of 1927-
28, there were fourteen canning
plants that were actually operated in
this state. They turned out about
330,000 cases of canned grapefruit
and perhaps 50,000 cases of grape-
fruit juice. The normal capacity of
these same plants is at least 600,000
cases of canned grapefruit and 100,-
000 cases of juice. Notwithstanding
these plants operated only at about
half capacity, there were three other
fairly large sized plants built during
the year and are ready to run. In
addition, there is at least one large
plant under actual construction and
will be ready to operate at the begin-
ning of the approaching season.
Then there are at least four other
plants on paper-the promoters of
which are at the same time soliciting
orders for canned grapefruit and
seeking capital with which to build
and operate.
This bare statement of facts dem-
onstrates that there are some folks
in Florida to whom the grapefruit
conserving industry "looks good."
Perhaps there are some who are
"rushing in" that will later lament
that their foresight was not as good
as their hindsight. But such is al-
ways the case where a new and
worth-while industry is being built.
This new industry is destined to
become the "sinew and bone" of the
grapefruit growing business. It will
make the grapefruit growers prosper-
ous just as the grape juice business

By Claude E. Street
President, Florida Grapefruit
Canners Association
made the Concord grape grower of
New York wealthy.
Canned grapefruit is a world prod-
uct. It is being shipped to India,
the Straits Settlements, China and
most of the European countries.
England is the largest foreign con-
sumer, and California eats more
canned grapefruit, per capital, than
any other section in the world. Cali-
fornia, with her four and a half mil-
lion people, consumes more than one-
fourth of all the canned grapefruit
that is eaten by our entire population
of perhaps one hundred and twenty
million people. Every grapefruit
that goes to California in a tin can is
that much velvet for the Florida
grapefruit grower-so to speak.
The grapefruit canners estimate
that the canned fruit and the juice
plants will require at least one mil-
lion field crates of grapefruit to sat-
isfy the consumer during the coming
So you see that the infant is be-
coming something of a factor to the
grapefruit grower.

Citrus By-Product Is
Becoming Factor
Leaders in citrus culture foresee
immense possibilities in manufactur-
ing many varieties of food products
from off-size and ill-shaped grape-
fruit and oranges, "windfalls' and
culls in general, which fruit has not
until recent years held forth promise
of commercial value. With a steady
increase in the number of plants ex-
tracting orange and grapefruit juices,
and the growing popularity of
canned grapefruit, a number of other
by-products are being developed, all
of which assure eventually the utiliza-
tion of "off quality" fruit in a profit-
able way.
In Jacksonville a company was re-
cently organized with the purpose of
extracting pectin from the peel.
Plants in California have been' pro-
ducing this for years from culls and
fruit which, either because of size or
general appearance, did not measure
up to standardization requirements.
Other by-products from oranges are
oil and vinegar. From the lemon and
lime are made citric acid, citrate of
lime and lemon extract.
These by-products not only utilize

fruit for which there would not
otherwise be a market, but enough
good quality fruit is thus disposed of
in heavy crop years to help stabilize
the market and thus keep prices for
quality fruit at a higher level.
The Continental Fruit Products
Company, of Frostproof, will ex-
periment with the idea of utilizing
the hull or peel of the orange or
grapefruit-after the "meat" has
been removed-as a contained for
marmalade or other by-products.
The peel is subjected to a harden-
ing process, after which it is filled
with marmalade and then sealed for
the market. Another experiment
deals with treatment of the peel of
the orange with some special prepara-
tion that will protect the inside of
the fruit from damage and thus pre-
serve it indefinitely. H. A. McIlvane,
of Columbus, Ohio, is head of the
concern. He was formerly with the
General Electric Company.
A new grapefruit canning plant
was organized this summer at Or-
lando by B. F. Shaver, formerly with
Shaver Bros., of Jacksonville. The
one-story building is to be 110 by
125 feet. It is proposed to can vege-
tables during the off-season for citrus.

The capacity of washing and pol-
ishing facilities has been increased to
eight cars a day by the Kissimmee
Citrus Growers Association. Six
coloring rooms have been added,
bringing the total to 13. Prepara-
tions are being made to handle 200,-
000 boxes. Discussing the damage
caused by the recent storm, H. C.
Piano, manager, says: "Some of
our seedling groves lost quite heavily,
some groves at least 50 to 60 per
cent of their grapefruit. The budded
trees are not damaged very much."







Page 18

September, 1928


Inspection Chief
Organizes Staff

Harold Crews, chief of the inspec-
tion staff of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change the last four and one-half
years, has been made supervisor of the
inspection forces of the Clearing
House and has already established his
headquarters in Winter Haven. He
is now organizing his staff for the
opening of the shipping season with-
in the next few weeks.
Mr. Crews has had extensive ex-
perience in the citrus industry. Be-
fore organizing the Exchange inspec-
tion department which he directed
until the last few weeks, he was man-
ager of the sub-exchange at Arcadia.
He set up the inspection department
of the Exchange January 1, 1924,
and developed that to a high state of
It will be the duty of Mr. Crews
and his staff to maintain standard
grade and pack requirements as ac-
cepted by the Association. No great
obstacles are expected to be encoun-
tered in this, as these same regulations
were in force last season. The cost
of this inspection will be borne by
the Clearing House, a part of the four

cents a box retain being utilized for
this work.
J. Hinton Pledger, supervising in-
spector under the state department of
agriculture, also has moved his head-
quarters to Winter Haven from
Haines City. Mr. Pledger's work is
to see that all fruit packed has reach-
ed the proper stage of maturity.
Tests are made for all packing houses
to see that oranges and grapefruit
come up to requirements of Florida's
fruit maturity law as to solids and
acids, and proper ratio between the
two, as shown by laboratory tests.
Expenses of state inspection to pre-
vent shipment of unripe fruit are met
by a stamp tax from shippers, which
is equivalent to two and one-half
cents a box. Books of stamps are
sold in denominations of one cent,
two and one-half cents, 25 cents,
$3.60, $7.50 and $9. When fruit is
shipped in bulk, the inspection charge
is fixed at two and one-half cents for
each two cubic feet.
Inspection under the immature
fruit law is made from August 31st
to December 1st, each year. Fruit
condemned under this statute is de-

The Kind of News You Want

--When You Want It

THE suburban resident makes
his own particular requirements
of a newspaper-and The Tampa
Tribune has set itself to the task
of meeting them.
Aside from news of the world, of
Florida and Tampa, The Tribune's
correspondents in practically every
community in the state send in
news of purely regional events.
The Tribune is a mirror of news
interesting to Citrus Growers. No
newspaper covered with such dili-

first on the
Our fast truck delivery service
brings The Tribune to your home
,before breakfast every morning.

gence or accuracy the organization
of the Clearing House as did The
And from the time the first fruit
is picked until the last car rolls
northward, The Tribune completely
covers the marketing situation-
tellingyoueach morning how much
fruit has been shipped and the
prices it brings.
The Tribune is the kind of news-
paper you want. Subscribe for it

^eFest oast "
A three months sub-
scription costs only
$2.25. TryTheTribune

September, 1928

Page 19


Storm Knifes Off Million Boxes

Three Counties Bear Brunt of August
Wind While Some Are Untouched

U NTIL the hurricane, which
swept across the state August
8, weather conditions general-
ly had been favorable for the produc-
tion of citrus, and- there was every
prospect that the groves this season
would bring forth one of the state's
largest crops. Many of those with
varied contacts throughout the state
held the opinion, prior to the storm,
that a crop of something like 18,-
000,000 boxes was in sight.
Using that figure as a basis-which
may or may not have been correct-
how much did the storm cut it down?
Indian River and Osceola counties
caught the full force of the blast and
were the most severely hit. Growers
in that area give widely varying esti-

mates of damage to their individual
groves. While some will still get a
fair yield of fruit, others report their
losses as high as 85 per cent. The
average loss, though, even in the hard
hit regions is far below that figure.
While there is some loss through-
out all the citrus growing area, no
counties other than the three traversed
by the direct line of the storm, report
heavy damage. Authoritative data
from many sources would indicate
that the state's grapefruit crop has
been reduced above 10 per cent., pos-
sibly as high as 15. The loss in
volume, it is believed by many, will
run as high as one million boxes.
Damage to the orange crop was
practically negligible because of the
small size of the fruit. In those sec-
tions where the oranges suffered heav-

ily increased "sizing" generally will
make up for the loss. Limb scars and
thorn pricks will increase the loss for
both grapefruit and oranges.
Should grapefruit blown from the
trees approximate one million boxes
and if an 18,000,000 box citrus crop
were in sight before the storm hit the
state, the total yield this year should
be around 17,000,000 boxes. This
is approximately the figure of the
1922-1923 crop when 16,886,701
boxes were marketed.

The Adams Packing Company, of
Lake Alfred, has doubled its floor
space for the coming season, L. P.
Kirkland, officer in the company has
announced. The size of the house
now is 104 feet by 144 feet. Another
washing, grading and sizing unit has
been added to the equipment also.



40/-% W-/' -* e? 99.

Organized co-operative effort is acknowledged
to be the life of the Florida Citrus Industry.
Accepting this fact we feel that the growers
of the State are now making real progress.
We commend them for the formation of the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Asso-
ciation for we feel that better distribution and
increased demand will be a great financial ad-
vantage to the growers.



Help yourself and this important Florida
Industry by producing High Quality fruit.
Armour's BIG CROP Fertilizers are especially
formulated for-bountiful production of qual-
ity citrus crops in the many varying soils of
Florida-they have thoroughly proved their
value-and remember, our field men are in
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ARMOUR FERTILIZER WORKS, Jacksonville, Florida.
Warehouses at

Page 20

September, 1928




CONSTRUCTION of cold stor-
age plants at strategic points in
Florida augur well for the future of
the state's fruit industry.
Fruitmen see in these plants the
possibility of extending the market-
ing season one or two months beyond
the customary margin and thus en-
able the growers to receive a higher
return for the fruit that would other-
wise have to be sold regardless of the
volume of citrus already in the trade
Another prospect from which the
industry derives considerable com-
fort is the well established belief that
cold storage plants at Florida's chief
ports, equipped with adequate ter-
minal facilities, will be mighty factors
in developing water transportation in
citrus shipping.
Shipments by water in constantly
increasing volume is foreseen, not
only up the Atlantic seaboard and to
Europe, but through the Gulf of
Mexico and up the Mississippi River
into the central western trade sectors
and also through the Panama Canal
to the Pacific Coast, where oranges-
but not grapefruit-are grown in
larger volume than in Florida.
Foreseeing the possibilities in this
direction, business men of construc-
tive vision in Tampa organized the
Tampa Union Terminal Company
last summer and are now going for-
ward rapidly in the construction of
a $3,000,000 plant. This will have
a pre-cooling capacity of twenty cars
of citrus fruit and other perishables
daily and storage facilities for carload
accumulations of 30,000 boxes of
fruit every twenty-four hours.
The plant stands on a ten-acre
waterfront site with ample space for
future expansion. The plant has
storage space of 1,300,000 square
A similar plant of large propor-
tions is being built on Commodores
Point at Jacksonville. Water trans-
portation for Florida citrus and vege-
tables is being rapidly built up along
the Atlantic seaboard and to Europe,
and this plant is in a strategic loca-
tion to participate in this. It will
have a capacity of 1,000 carloads,
and is said to be one of the largest
plants of its kind in the entire South.
Discussing the Jacksonville plant
and such projects in general, one au-
thority says:
"Florida some time ago began the
shipment of grapefruit to Europe.
The experiment was so successful as

to indicate that this business will
reach such proportions that even-
tually it will be one of the most im-
portant factors in the citrus industry.
To be satisfactory and profitable,
citrus fruit handled in this manner
must be cleared through assembling
depots so equipped that loading can
be effected in a minimum of time.
Upon the arrival of a ship for cargo,
the fruit must be immediately avail-
able with every box cooled to the
temperature of the refrigerator vessel.
The cold storage warehouse will
not only be a factor in the distribu-
tion of Florida's fruit and vegetables;
it will also be a factor in the hand-
ling of by-products, such as canned
grapefruit and juices. It is pointed
out that canned grapefruit deterior-
ates when stored in warehouses at
ordinary temperatures. Placed in

By Nathan A. Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture
SINCE the enactment of the citrus
fruit maturity law in 1925, it
has been my constant aim to require
a reasonably strict enforcement of its
essential provisions with equal justice
to all and special privileges to none.
Whatever may have been accomplish-
ed has no doubt been for the best in-
terest of the growers and shippers,
and such accomplishments have been
made possible only through co-opera-
tion received from both the growers
and shippers, to all of whom I am
and shall ever be profoundly grateful.
At times, conditions to all of us
seem trying, when perplexing prob-
lems arise pertaining to a lot of fruit
which may fail to pass the maturity
test as result of heavy rains or for
other causes, or on account of certain
shippers operating their packing
houses at full time while other pack-
ers in the same locality may be un-
able to find any fruit that will pass
the maturity test.
The problem last mentioned has
been one that has reflected discredit on
the department, and in many in-
stances unjustly so, when it is con-
sidered that various kinds. f chemical
spray residues have been applied to
bearing trees for the sole purpose of
defeating the intent and purpose of

Building Cold Storage Plants

the maturity law. In other instances
early fruit has been mixed with late
varieties in order to secure the passing
of a lot of fruit as mature, of which
a large part may be immature, and it
has been for that reason due and dili-
gent care has been exercised in the se-
lection of inspectors, when possible,
who are familiar with the different
Just and friendly criticism of the
inspection service is at all times in-
vited, and expressions from interest-
ed parties regarding irregularities,
where, and when they appear to ex-
ist, on the part of inspectors, or any
discourtesy or neglect of duty on their
part will be welcomed and appre-
There will be no change in the pol-
icy of enforcing the law during the
coming season, except to improve, if
possible, the efficiency of operation by
giving employment, for the most
part, to those who, in the citrus belt,
are familiar with growing and mar-
keting citrus fruit, and by requiring
strict discipline among the personnel
of those employed.
Suggestions as to how the service
may be improved, and the interest of
the growers and shippers more closely
protected and conserved to the end
that the present citrus crop may be
profitably and successfully marketed,
is respectfully invited.

cold storage it can be kept for years
without lowering the quality of the
commodity, it is said.
In addition to the two large plants
on waterfronts, several others have
been reported to be under construc-
tion at interior points.
The Mt. Dora Citrus Growers As-
sociation is building a plant to cost
$40,000. This will have a capacity
of sixty-six carloads of fruit. It is
being built according to cold storage
warehouse specifications promulgated
by the United States Department of
Agriculture and proven by experi-
ments to keep the stored fruit in a
fresh stage.
The Avon-Florida Citrus Cor-
poration, which recently purchased
the large holdings of the Pittsburgh-
Florida Fruit Growers Association at
Avon Park, also has announced plans
for the construction of a $150,000
cold storage and pre-cooling plant at
Avon Park, to be operated in con-
nection with their large packing

Enforcing of Citrus Fruit Law

September, 1928

Page 21


State Receives $51,000,000

For Past Season's Citrus Crop

Complete figures on the Florida citrus crop for the past
season have just been compiled by L. M. Rhodes, State
Marketing Bureau Commissioner. The smaller crop
last year paid growers $25,000,000 against $10,000,-
000 from a much larger crop the preceding season.
Figures for the two seasons are given below.

Season 19277I928
Average Price to Marketing Agencies

Oranges ......
Grapefruit ...
Tangerines ...

F.O.B. Ship-
Boxes ping Point



Totals .... 37,876 13,635,360

Oranges . .
(General average per box, $3.774) Grapefruit
Cost of production per box on tree: Tangerines
Total cost of production on tree ....................
Picking, hauling, all packing house charges, selling, advertis-
ing, etc., about $1.30 per box...................

Total cost of production. .......................
Balance to growers after production, preparation for market
and all selling expenses are paid ..................
(Note: Approximately $1.84 per box)
Transportation charges inside Florida ................
Value of fruit moved by truck and consumed in Florida,
approxim ately ..............................
Value of fruit canned in Florida ....................

Total Value

.... 72c
$ 8,547,033.60






Total revenue from the citrus crop of Florida....... $56,241,008.00


O ranges ..............
Grapefruit ............
T angerines ............




Average F.O.B.
Sale Price
Per Box

(General average value per box, $2.585)
Cost of production (per box on tree: Oranges, 72 cents;
grapefruit, 52 cents; tangerines, 81 cents) ..........
Picking, hauling, all packing house charges, selling, advertis-
ing, etc., @ $1.30 per box .....................

Total Value




Total cost of production ...................... $32,166,216.00

Balance to growers after production, packing and selling
expenses are paid (about 64/2 cents per box) .....
Transportation charges inside state ..................
Value of fruit moved by truck and consumed in state,
approximately ..............................



Total revenue to state from citrus crop.. ........... $47,876,152.00

Commander Visits
European Markets

C. C. Commander, general mana-
ger of the Florida Citrus Exchange,
has gone to Europe for a survey of
the markets with the view of increas-
ing consumption of Florida citrus.
He sailed from New York on the
Homeric August 18. From London
he will be accompanied on a tour of
France, Germany and other European
countries by S. B. Moomaw, general
manager of the Exchange's London"
office. He expects to return about the
middle of September.
The Exchange has been most ac-
tive in building up a demand in Eu-
rope for citrus, particularly grape-
fruit. Dealer sales work has been
pushed in about 15 of the larger Eu-
ropean markets in ten different coun-
tries. The Exchange proposes to
gradually intensify efforts in the mar-
kets already entered, and to gradually
extend its scope of operations. It is
to lay the basic groundwork of this
trade extension that Mr. Commander
was sent to Europe by the Exchange
board of directors.

Established 1847
Fruit Auction Terminal: Rutherford
Avenue, Charlestown District
Cutler B. Downer Fredk. L. Springford
Harold F. Miles

With Facilities for
Real Service
Ambulance on Call-Day or Night
Phones: Office 72. Res. 55

Fruit Company, Inc.
Winter Haven, Florida
Member of
The Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association



September, 1928

Page 22


County Agents' Field Notes

Frank L. Holland, county agent
for Polk County, says growers are
giving more care to their groves this
year than ever before. Many who
have never sprayed and dusted have re-
sorted to these methods generally this
season. Cover crop acreage has been
extended tremendously, Mr. Holland
says. He estimates that between
15,000 and 20,000 acres were in
cover crops this summer. Irrigation
projects also were put in by many
growers to protect their groves against

W. E. Evans, Indian River County
agent, reports that many of the groves
of that area, abandoned for real es-
tate subdivisions in the boom period,
are being rehabilitated. These are
coming back rapidly into the produc-
tion stage. Irrigation is not being
neglected, an artesian well being pro-
vided for groves of any size. A
four-inch well will supply water for
a 40-acre grove.

Good returns for the last crop are
being reflected in more intensive care
of the groves in Orange County, says
K. C. Moore, of Orlando. Rust mite
control was effected after a few busy
weeks, and scale insects and white
flies were held in check without se-
rious economic loss. Two successive
dry years have brought growers to
the realization that irrigation is a
worth-while investment. Mr. Moore
says about 150 such projects have
been installed in the last year in that
county. The cost of installing the
plants averages around $2,000. On
large groves the cost is from $50 to
$75 an acre. The smallest grove Mr.
Moore knows of that has been
equipped with an irrigation system
is five acres. The largest he has heard
of embraces 115 acres.

Osceola, one of the first to try cro-
talaria, has a larger proportion of
groves in this cover crop this year
than ever before, according to J. R.
Gunn, county agent. A higher per-
centage of grove owners dusted to
control rust mite, he says, and are
generally using every precaution to
produce quality fruit. Fruit is show-
ing good size and quality. Recently
ten new irrigation projects were in-
stalled. There has been such a de-
mand for wells that a driller was kept
busy beyond the usual period in
which the wells are sunk. With the
wells and irrigation plants the growers
hope to meet any menace of drought.

From Fort Myers comes news that
Lee County is in the best condition
this year it has been in for a period
of three years, and that there is every
promise of a very good citrus crop.
The storm of 1926 caused so much
damage to the trees that it has taken
many of them two years to recover,
according to W. P. Hayman, county
agent. Recovery was also greatly re-
tarded by cold weather last season.
Both deep and shallow wells are be-
ing utilized in the irrigation system
installations. The flow from the
shallow wells is strengthened by the
use of pump and engine. Many of
the wells are of the flowing artesian

W. R. Briggs, county agent of
Brevard County, says growers are
making concerted efforts to produce
quality fruit. This is indicated by
a constant growth of interest in
spraying and dusting to control in-
sect pests and stamp out citrus dis-
eases or blights; study of fertiliza-
tion, intensive cultivation and use of
irrigation. There is good prospect
for a heavy crop.

From Manatee County comes
word, through Leo H. Wilson,
county agent, that growers are look-
ing forward this season to one of the
best crops in the county's history.
Prospects are for a crop of 750,000
to one million boxes. Both oranges
and grapefruit are of a good size.
Groves that were "turned out" for
real estate developments have been
brought back into cultivation, and
some are carrying a satisfactory crop.
More attention is being directed to
cover crops and tile drainage and ir-
rigation are being generally resorted

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Much of the prize-winning
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September, 1928

Page 23


Congratulations, Growers!

For the Clearing House







And through it all---as we have done in the past---

we are giving you our loyal support

Associated 5, 10 and 25 Cent
Stores, Inc.
Winter Haven
Babson Park Grove Service
Babson Park
Central Florida Gas Corp.
Winter Haven
Corral, Wodiska & Co.
Clear Havana Cigars
R. E. Dahlgren
Winter Haven
L. L. Davis Co., Inc.
Winter Haven
Democrat Printing Co.
J. R. Gallemore, Prop.
Winter Haven
Edwards Men's Shop
Winter Haven
R. E. Gilbert
Winter Haven
The Griffin-Reese Co., Inc.
Men's Wear and Shoes
Winter Haven
Del Griffin's Barber Shop
Will Treat You Right
Winter Haven
Haven Chevrolet Co.
Winter Haven
Haven Service Station
Winter Haven
Holshaw Electric Company
Electrical Contractor
If It's Electrical, Phone 257
Winter Haven

J. L. Ince Company
Winter Haven
J. J. Kaufman
Painting and Decorating
Winter Haven
A. Gilbert Lester & Co.
Public Accountants
Winter Haven
T. S. McLauchlin & Co.
Everything in Jewelry
Winter Haven
Metropolitan Baking Co.
Supreme Bread
Winter Haven
Morrison Tire Service
Winter Haven
Nott Paint & Varnish Co.
Quality Paint Products
The Office Equipment Co.
Tampa, Orlando, Lakeland
Bradenton, Sarasota
Park Service Station
Winter Haven
Peacock Cafe
Established Six Years
Winter Haven
Don Register
Winter Haven
Runkle Grocery, Inc.
Fancy and Imported Groceries
Free Delivery. Phone 440
Winter Haven
Philip Shore Shipping Co.

Sinclair Hardware Co.
Winter Haven
Story's, Inc.
Good Shoes
Winter Haven
R. R. Van Fleet
Grove Irrigation
Winter Haven
Vanity Fair Shoppe
Ladies' Ready-to-Wear
Winter Haven
Wilkinson Pharmacy
All That a Good Store Carries
Winter Haven
Ernest C. Wimberly
Winter Haven
Winter Haven Jersey Dairy
Winter Haven
Winter Haven Laundry Co.
Winter Haven
Winter Haven Pharmacy
Quality and Low Price
Winter Haven
Winter Haven Top &
Upholstering Co.
Winter Haven
Winter Haven Water, Ice and
Light Co.
Heat, Power, Refrigeration
Winter Haven
Wis-Flo Hotel
Winter Haven
Women's Civic League
Winter Haven

Page 24

September, 1928


Here and There With the Grower

Florida ranks second among th
states in the production of fruits an
vegetables, California alone standing
above her in the list. According t<
figures compiled by the Bureau o
Railway Economics in Washington
D. C., Florida last year market(
more than 10 per cent of the supply'
of eighteen leading fruits and vege
tables sent to the sixty-six great re
ceiving centers.

Andrew D. Taylor, of Lon
Beach, Calif., recently visited hi
mother, Mrs. I. N. Taylor, of Se
bring. It had been seven years since
he had seen his mother and two sis
ters. Mr. Taylor was enthusiastic
Over the qualities of the Florid
grapefruit. "It seems to me o:
studying the superiority of the Flor
ida grapefruit over that of Califor
nia," he said, "that the cause may b
attributed to the fact that Florid
groves get their moisture through
rains whereas in California irrigatio
is necessary."

Thirty-five inspectors, working
under the State Plant Board, repoi
canker infestation in citrus groves i
twenty-six counties, according to tf
board's recent bulletins. In July ir
section was made of 1,258,24
trees. Much of the infection is c
long standing, going back to 191'
That canker is being rapidly elim:
nated is indicated by the report th,
only eighty-seven trees were found t
have become infected in the last fiv

Disparity in prices for orange jui,
in the East and in Florida has bee
called to the attention of the Floric
State Chamber of Commerce. Wi
liam B. Small, of New Smyrna, ri
cently reported that he bought o:
ange juice in New York and Ne'
England for 10 cents a glass, bi
when he got back to Florida citi
he was charged as much as 25 cen
a glass at some fountains.

Joseph H. Baumker, of Fo
/ Pierce, will put in this winter wh;
is said to be the largest grove
SMarsh Seedless grapefruit in S
Lucie County. The grove will 1
of eighty acres, and something lil
6,000 trees will be put out.

Many groves, particularly in heavy
grass growing regions, are swept ai
Snually by prairie fires. Charles
Brooks, of Coconut Grove, aft

e much experimental work, has proven
d trees which have been burned can
g be brought back to profitable pro-
o duction.
S Prolonged drought, broken in
d May, has advanced the season for
y marketing Porto Rican grapefruit
- from summer until the fall and win-
- ter. First bloom was killed, but the
late bloom was reported to be the
heaviest the island has known. Im-
g portation of this fruit by the United
s States has more than doubled in the
- last six years.
S Miami consumes more than four
c times as much citrus fruit as is grown
a in Dade County, according to the
n Dade County Times, of Coconut
- Grove. This argument is being
Stressed to encourage the planting of
e more groves.
h The Brooksville Citrus Growers
SAssociation has introduced the idea
of spraying on the co-operative plan.
The association owns the spraying
r and dusting machines and moves
these from grove to grove on request
n of the grove owners. The work is
- done under the supervision of J. W.
3 Smith, manager.
4. Earl G. Haskins, of Winter Haven,
i- has been given the post of field man-
It ager for the Polk County Sub-
o Exchange of the Florida Citrus Ex-
re change and has already entered upon
his duties. Mr. Haskins came to this
3 state from West Virginia in 1903
and has been closely identified with
n the citrus industry. In real estate
a business he specialized in the sales of
- citrus groves. He succeeds George R.
Williams, who recently resigned after
Ssix years in that position to become
w manager of the Winter Haven Citrus
Growers Association.
ts Citrus inspection board headquar-
ters will be opened in Winter Haven
September 1. This city is selected
rt because this is the geographical cen-
at ter of the citrus industry. The as-
of distance which the board will give
t. the Clearing House likewise will
be necessitate their being in close prox-
ke imity. The staff of inspectors this
year will number about 140 men.

ry "The only thing needed to insure
n- the 100 per cent functioning of the
I. Clearing House," says Nathan Mayo,
er commissioner of agriculture, "is the

whole-hearted co-operation of grow-
ers and shippers. I believe that will
be forthcoming."

Charles W. Harrington, of Winter
Haven, for many years a leader in all
movements to rehabilitate the citrus
industry, died recently. Mr. Har-
rington was one of the men who
eighteen years ago banded themselves
together to find a solution of the
fruit problems. For eight years he
was a director of the Florence Citrus
Growers Association.

Extension of the marketing of
citrus beyond the customary season
was observed more generally this year
than in recent past seasons. About
twenty carloads of fruit were sent to
the market by Indian River growers
early in August, for which fancy
prices were received, according to the
Vero Beach Press-Journal. Much
fruit was also hauled to Palm Beach
and Miami for local consumption.
Rapid development of cold storage
plants should have the tendency of
gradually extending the marketing
season for each crop.

George R. Williams, for six years
field manager of the Polk County
Sub-Exchange of the Florida Citrus
Exchange, is now manager of the
Winter Haven Citrus Growers Asso-
ciation. Mr. Williams succeeds C.
W. Barnes, who had been manager
of the Winter Haven organization
since 1912, but who is now employed
in the sales department of the Florida
Citrus Exchange in Tampa.

Arrangements have been made in
Orlando for the distribution of In-
dian River fruit from that city.
Franklin M. Sawyer, secretary of the
Cocoa Chamber of Commerce, estab-
lished the connection with the idea
of popularizing the Indian River
product among tourists and visitors
to the state in general. The fruit will
be put up in attractive packs and
sold to individuals.

The high prices received generally
for oranges and grapefruit last sea-
son and organization of the Clear-
ing House, give promise of "rehabili-
tation" of trees being neglected
around the home or the small groves
"turned out." The main objective
of the Clearing House is to so direct
distribution of the fruit that prices
may not reach the level where the
(Continued on Page Forty-eight)

Page 25

September, 1928


100% Super-Pennsylvania
Once Tried-Always Used
Winter Haven Phone 325

Dealers In
Fertilizers, Insecticides, Spraying
Materials, Etc.


Specialist in
Estimates Gladly Furnished


Compliments of




With Best Wishes
for the


Cypress Co.
P. O. Box 76 Jacksonville, Fla.

Complete and Dependable Service now Available to Lake
County Citrus Growers.
Mr. Citrus Grower: It will pay you to place your Citrus Crop in the
hands of a dependable and reliable organization that has superior facilities
for producing best results.
Ample finances now available for growers. Let us explain.
OKAHUMPKA PACKING CO., Okahumpka, Florida

GROWERS- Do you realize

is the only organization, with an International distribution, operating EXCLUSIVELY
in the Indian River District and advertising Indian River Fruit?
The Growers' every need anticipated-Ask to have our Representative call on you

Four up-to-date Packing Houses, conveniently located on the Indian River

September, 1928

Page 26

Page 27


Future of The Florida
Clearing House
(Continued from Page Ten)
brains, and place in positions of
leadership and command men of un-
questioned devotion and loylaty to
the fundamental principles of the
Clearing House program.
Your position is unique. Pub-
licists speak of Florida as the last
frontier; of the oldest state, as a
pioneer state. You can pioneer with-
out experimenting. You have the ex-
perience of other millions to guide
you. The successes and failures of
other producers during the past gen-
eration have furnished you with guide
posts which should enable you to
avoid the disasters which have over-
taken some groups. You have the
sum total of the experiences of others
to aid you to build soundly and
Competent management is a com-
prehensive term. No one can fore-
tell the specific problems with which
it must deal tomorrow, or next week,
or next year. The management,
however does have certain general re-
sponsibilities which should be basic
in every program adopted, and which
should serve as a check upon and a
gudie for a decision upon each spe-
cific problem.
First and foremost, no plan or
practice should be tolerated which
will weaken the accomplishment of
the charter purposes. You are
charged with the responsibility for
the working out of a well conceived
plan, consistent with the charter.
We promised in the campaign that
when the marketing season opened
we would reasonably approximate
the production in each section of the
citrus belt; that we would analyze
the known markets; that upon a com-
paris6n of production with market
absorption power at a fair price, we
would prepare to take care of the
probable surplus in a given year
through the building of new markets.
If present estimates hold good, and
you have a 1928 crop of eighteen
million boxes, you unquestionably
will find that in competition with a
California crop exceeding all records,
you must develop new markets. You
cannot close your eyes to this situa-
tion. The markets must be found
before the fruit is shipped, if you are
to avoid the price decline incident to
glutted markets, and chaotic dis-

It is, therefore, incumbent upon
you at once to develop through adver-
tising, through a field sales force, and
through other characteristics of mod-
ern salesmanship, a marketing pro-
gram which will adequately care for
your 1928 production. In this con-
nection, statistics show that the satu-
ration point has not been reached in
America. You can increase home
consumption. Also, for the first
time, you are in position adequately
to develop the foreign markets.
You are assured the unlimited sup-
port of the government of the United
States, which has heretofore shown
its sympathy with the growers' am-
bitions in Florida, and its high pur-
pose to aid in putting your industry
upon a sound business basis. The
management, with the experience of
other associations to aid, will be im-
pressed with the necessity of operat-
ing efficiently first of all, and with
conducting the Clearing House with
such business economy as shall not
prove wasteful.
This organization is built upon
the growers. As Mr. James Morton,
in his splendid address at Orlando,
on April 18, aptly said: "It is an
organization of the growers, by the
growers, and for the growers."
Their loyalty is essential to efficient
and permanent association operations.
All too late many associations which
have failed in this country have come
to realize that the contact with the
growers was not sufficiently intimate.
Through the medium of the Clearing
House publication and a well organ-
ized field service, the growers should
be kept fully informed. An in-
formed, intelligent grower will al-
ways support a Clearing House man-
agement which is honestly and ef-
ficiently furthering the growers' in-
There is a definite responsibility on
the part of the growers. The mil-
lennium has not come in your indus-
try in Florida. There will be days
of doubt; there will be mistakes, de-
spite the utmost of good purpose and
conscientious effort to serve you.
You should be loyal and helpful.
You should appreciate that the Clear-
ing House has not repealed the eco-
nomic law of supply and demand;
that certainly in the first year of op-
eration, particularly if called upon to
handle a big crop, price returns of
short crop years cannot be duplicated.
You can be assured, however, that
a comparison of grove returns under
Clearing House operations with for-
mer years of like production will re-
flect credit upon the new system.



The Citrus Center of

Extends congratulations
to the Citrus Growers of
the State upon their suc-
cessful organization of

The Florida

Citrus Growers

Clearing House


The banks of Winter
Haven are proud of the
assistance they have been
able to render our Citrus
Growers thru many years
of Safe Service and wish
success for the
Citrus Clearing House

Winter Haven



First State Bank
American National Bank
The Snell National Bank

September, 1928


we build

that we may give
our customers
even fuller, wider
and better service

since our first fac-
tory commenced
making "Quality
Fertilizers" has increasing demand neces-
sitated further building operations.

For the same reason, today sees again the complete rebuilding and remodeling
of our plant-a fitting commemoration of a quarter of a century devoted to
manufacturing Gulf Brand Fertilizers-to which hundreds of users during the
past twenty-five years attribute the success of their groves and truck farms.

Avail yourself of our splendid Field
Service. There is a Gulf Representative
near you, who will gladly and willingly
give you expert advice and valuable prac-
tical suggestions.

Write today for our interesting book-
let, "Twenty-Five Years of Proof," sent
free of all charge. Address: Department
CM., The Gulf Fertilizer Company, Tampa,



The sum total of the loyalty, the
thrift, the individual initiative, and
the fairness of the growers who have
the legal control of the Clearing
House must be depended upon to
build a satisfactory business or-
As individual growers, you can
simplify the Clearing House prob-
lems by improving the quality of
your production, and by applying to
your individual groves the same high-
class business practices you may right-
fully expect and demand from your
Let us hope that the New Clear-
ing House will start its operations
with strong management, and with
a devoted membership. Given these,
what will the Clearing House do for
you? For the first time, the Florida
citrus growers will speak with a
united voice. You will have occa-
sion, from time to time, to approach
your state and national governments,
legislative bodies, as well as adminis-
trative boards, who will hearken to
The recent decision of the Inter-
state Commerce Commission, on July
30, 1928, upon the question of the
readjustment in rates on Florida citrus
fruit to destinations throughout the
United States, reminds us that Flor-
ida's rate problem is extremely im-
portant. Similar questions will arise,
or must be initiated. The Clearing
House management should be able to
procure for the growers every legis-
lative and administrative aid to which
they are entitled.
I know that the Clearing House
will greatly improve your situation.
It will give you a better price level,
the avoidance of gluts, broader mar-
kets, and collective bargaining power.
One of the most important of the
Clearing House results will be the in-
creased confidence of capital in grove
values. If you were to take a busi-
ness proposition to a New York in-
vestment banking house for a bond
or preferred stock issue, you might
show large appraised values in lands,
buildings, and operating equipment,
an indebtedness small by comparison
with your statement of assets, but
you would find the banker critically
analyzing the statement for the most
important item-your average net
earnings over a period of years.
When you examine an advertise-
ment in which a banker offers a se-
curity for sale to the individual in-
vestor, it is significant that almost in-
variably the ad. states that the net

September, 1928

Page 28


earnings are so many times the in-
terest requirements, etc.
In the last analysis, property is
worth what it will earn. Intrinsic
grove value is determined by the same
measuring stick. Efficient individual
grove management and organized
marketing will insure a fair price re-
turn. Capital is timid. It requires
the assurance of something more than
great profits now and then; it pre-
fers a uniform, fair profit which will
assure ability to carry all the burdens
incident to property ownership, in-
cluding the payment of the interest
With the organization of the
Clearing House, various financial in-
stitutions will unquestionably mani-
fest a new interest in Florida affairs.
I confidently expect that the govern-
ment agencies, the intermediate credits
system, and private banking houses
may now be approached with a
greater degree of confidence. I be-
lieve that for the long term capital
loans, as well as for the production
marketing loans, the Florida farmers,
individual and organized, will find
themselves in a position to command
a better supply of credits.
I look for your organization to
definitely and helpfully affect other
groups of producers. The vegetable
growers will watch your operations

with interest. You should furnish
them an example in successful or-
ganization which will make possible
the further development not only of
the citrus industry, but of other agri-
cultural and horticultural production.
Florida's tremendous undeveloped
acreage offers the greatest future pro-
duction possibilities of any state in
America today. Increased produc-
tion, however, without the highest
type of marketing systems to care for
that production would be futile and
disastrous. It is idle to talk of re-
claiming tracts, of expanding cities
out of the prosperity of Florida's
back country, unless production is
profitable-not occasionally, but
There is no hope for such pros-
perity unless every group of pro-
ducers sets up sound merchandising
machinery for its protection, unless
they, too, have collective bargaining
Florida will always be a play-
ground for the rich, but its perma-
nent prosperity must be built upon
the middle class folks of America;
those to whom your climate is at-
tractive-and surely it should be at-
tractive to all; those who earn a live-
lihood there; those who will be in-
duced to become permanent residents
when citrus growing and gardening

become so organized as to assure a
satisfactory return permanently for
the labor and capital expended.
Florida proved to the world that it
is progressive when it organized the
Clearing House. It was the best
advertisement ever written for your
state. It was the best answer to your
detractors whose only text is the col-
lapse of the boom. That the whole
state could unite upon the most prom-
ising agricultural program in this
generation, that you could submerge
the differences of conflicting interests,
that you could superimpose upon
your matchless soil resources the most
modern machinery for successful mar-
keting, is Florida's answer to those
who doubt Florida's future.
The genius and business capacity
of you men who built the Clearing
House is Florida's most promising as-
set. Nature has been lavish in her
gifts to your commonwealth. With
great soil power and man power,
Florida is destined to write a mar-
velous story of business achievement.
The organization of the Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing House As-
sociation will in future years be
looked upon as the turning point in
Florida's economic destiny.

Congratulations t



The Zachary Veneer Company

is doing its part in the move to better conditions. Our two plants,
at Sanford and at Palatka, are equipped to turn out first-class
fruit and vegetable packages at reasonable prices.

Manufacturers of

Page 29

September, 1928

Main Office---Sanford

Branch Office-Palatka


What Our Shippers Are Doing

Possibly at no other time in the
citrus industry has there been such a
volume of improvements made at
packing houses as took place this sum-
mer. New machinery and equip-
ment was installed in nearly all
plants. Two reasons are given for
this. One was the profitable return
from last year's crop which gave or-
ganizations ample funds with which
to make improvements. The other
was the prospect of a heavy fruit crop
next season.

The Highlands Packing Company,
of Frostproof, is putting in a new
sizer making 1,000 new field crates,
and adding considerable new equip-
ment in the way of box making ma-
chinery, etc. All units of the plant
are electrically driven, 12 motors be-
ing used to furnish the power. The
company packs four cars of oranges
or six cars of grapefruit daily. Plans
are being made to handle 300 cars
this fall.

A new packing and pre-cooling
plant is being erected in Leesburg by
A. S. Herlong 8 Company. The es-
timated cost is $50,000. This will
give Leesburg four packing houses.

The Estate of John B. Stetson,
which restricts its operations to hand-
ling only the estate's fruit, is enlarg-
ing its coloring room on account of
the prospects for a much larger crop.

The capacity of the packing plant
of W. H. Mouser 8 Co. at Crescent
is being enlarged so that three cars of
fruit may be packed daily instead of
one and one-half as heretofore. The
company operates other plants at Or-
lando, Lakeland, Ozona and Yalaha.
Better facilities for coloring and new
coloring rooms are being provided at
the Lakeland and Orlando plants.

Growers around Okahumpka are
considering with the Okahumpka
Packing Company the proposition of
installing a grapefruit canning fac-
tory. If this is undertaken, it will
be erected within the next year.

The DeLand Packing Company,
of DeLand, has added two new color-
ing rooms, which gives a coloring
capacity of eight cars. The packing
house iriterior and all machinery has
been given a fresh coat of paint this

summer. The company grades its
fruit U. S. No. 1 and No. 2 and uses
an inch and three-quarters strip in the
center of each box to prevent bruise
damage to the fruit on account of a
high pack.

A pre-cooling plant, with a capac-
ity of nine cars daily, has been added
to the packing house equipment of
the Winter Haven Citrus Growers
Association. This may be enlarged
later so that 18 cars may be pre-
cooled every 24 hours. The packing
house is the largest in the state, hav-
ing a capacity of 20 cars daily.

The Waverly Citrus Growers As-
sociation is making extensive im-
provements which will double its pre-
vious capacity. The packing house
is now 158 by 120 feet. The or-
ganization is free of debt and at the
close of last season had a reserve fund
of 36,000. It owns several houses
and a 12-room boarding house for
the convenience of its employes. The
plant now has a capacity of 250,000

All machinery has been overhauled
in the plant of the Palmetto Citrus
Growers Association. Repairing of
field boxes has also been completed.
One improvement is the installation
of a new electric marking machine.
The house is practically new, having
been rebuilt after the hurricane of
1926 razed it.

A pre-cooling plant of six-car
capacity is being built by the Auburn-
dale Citrus Growers Association. W.
A. Stanford, manager, says: "We
are thoroughly convinced this is one
of the best investments that any as-
sociation or shipper can make, and
we expect to pay back to our growers
several times the cost of this plant in
increased profits." Electric marking
machines also are being set up. The
management expects to handle 200,-
000 boxes next season against 80,-
000 boxes last.

R. D. Keene & Co., of Eustis, is
overhauling the plant throughout.
With the opening of the season it
will have a daily capacity of from
six to eight cars of oranges or eight
to ten cars of grapefruit. The com-
pany has recently purchased a small
packing house at MontVerde. This

also is being remodelled. It will have
a capacity of two or three cars daily.

Gregg Maxcy, of Sebring, is in-
stalling an additional unit in the
Lakemont house. This will increase
the output three cars daily, giving a
total capacity of 12 cars of grape-
fruit or nine cars of oranges. The
building is being enlarged to gain
more floor space. A separate build-
ing for the offices is contemplated.
This likely will be built before the
shipping season opens. The Sea-
board Air Line is building another
spur track to the plant.

The Alexander V Baird Co., of
Beresford, is making a number of
improvemnets at its four plants in
anticipation of a heavy season. New
machinery being added to the Wau-
chula unit will increase the capacity
of the house two cars daily. A new
arch steel building is being erected at
Pierson. This will have a capacity
of four to five cars daily. It will be
65 by 130 feet. A new office build-
ing is being constructed at Beresford.
This plant also is being overhauled
as is that of DeLand, where the
equipment is being re-arranged so as
to provide greater efficiency.

C. H. Taylor & Co., of Wau-
chula, is giving its building and ma-
chinery a general overhauling, which
will put the plant in good running
condition for another season.

H. W. Noggle, of the Noggle-
Kirkpatrick Fruit Co., Inc., of Winter
Haven, spent the last month in the
trade centers in the North. He re-
ports the establishment of many new
connections, which will provide addi-
tional outlets for Florida fruit ship-
ments. The capacity of the packing
plant has been increased to four cars
a day, and three new coloring rooms
have been provided.

H. N. Barnes, secretary and man-
ager of the Lakeland Citrus Growers
Association, recently took his family
to Daytona Beach for the first vaca-
tion Mr. Barnes has had since com-
ing to Florida. He has had a busy
summer, making plans to handle be-
tween 250,000 and 300,000 boxes
of fruit next season. The house has
been equipped with new stamping
machines and a large number of field
boxes made. The plant generally
was put in first-class condition.

September, 1928

Page 30


The Tampa Fruit Company is in-
creasing its packing facilities at
Thonotosassa to a capacity of 10
cars a day. This practically doubles
previous capacity. New machinery,
including box-making and coloring
room equipment, is being installed.
Extensions are being made also to the

The Oak Hill Citrus Growers As-
sociation has constructed a new pre-
cooling plant, which will handle four
cars of fruit a day. The company is
putting in a new 40-horse power en-
gine to supplement its 50-horse
power engine.

The Fort Meade Packing Com-
pany is making extensive improve-
ments this summer which practically
doubles the capacity of the plant.
Floor space has been increased 50 per
cent. This with the new equipment
will enable the company to handle
double the volume of fruit. Im-
provements include the doubling of
washing facilities by the installation
of two six-run washers; doubling
grading capacity by putting in new
grading belt; doubling coloring
equipment which will give the plant
ten coloring rooms in which 6,000
boxes of fruit may be handled simul-
taneously. Six corrugated wire glass
lights, each 22 feet long, have been
installed, making the plant a "day-
light" packing house.

The Nocatee Citrus Growers As-
sociation is installing electric mark-
ing machines. The association in-
stalled a 10-car pre-cooling plant two
years ago.

The Dade City Citrus Growers
Association is enlarging its house,
making the front part of the build-
ing two stories high, extending back
35 feet. Crate material, paper and
other supplies will be stored on the
upper floor. An addition of 20 feet
is being built to the rear of the house
in which to store unpacked fruit.
The plant expects to handle at least
100,000 boxes of fruit the coming

Installation of a new dump belt,
enlarging the dryer and re-arranging
the machinery will increase the ef-
ficiency of the plant of the Palm Har-
bor Citrus Growers Association at
Palm Harbor. Six cars of grapefruit
or four of oranges can be handled
daily. The association expects to
make a sharp reduction in overhead
expenses by the improvements. Both
grapefruit and oranges will be

stamped with the association brand.
Plans are being made to handle 150,-
000 boxes.

The South Lake Apopka Citrus
Growers Association has extended its
coloring and storage facilities from
a capacity of 14 cars a day to 22
cars. The association anticipates
handling more than 300,000 boxes
the approaching season. A new office
building was erected this summer.
The association also will operate the
packing plant at Brayton, which has
a two-car a day capacity.

The Groveland Citrus Growers
Association, in Lake County, is mak-
ing a number of improvements in its
plant. This includes new marking
machines, a double air current
method for drying the fruit, and the
powdered wax system for polishing.
The new polishing system will add
100 per cent more polish to the fruit,
it is said. The drying machine im-
provement called for the installation
of two high pressure fans.

The Frostproof Citrus Growers
Association is building an extension,
60 by 120 feet, and also installing
a pre-cooling plant of six cars a day

The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad
is re-arranging its siding to the plant
of the Sebring Citrus Growers Asso-
ciation. The association overhauled
all its machinery and field equipment
this summer.

An increase of 100 per cent over
last season is reported in the mem-
bership of the Elfers Citrus Growers
Association. This house expects to
pack 150,000 boxes the coming sea-
son. Additional floor space of 4,000
square feet, seven new coloring rooms
and larger storage and operating
capacity has been provided. The
plant can now handle seven cars a
day. The outlook is for 200,000
boxes to pack this year.

The Peace River Packing Com-
pany has been organized at Fort
Meade with a capital stock of $25,-
000, of which $15,000 is to be paid
in immediately. A packing house is
to be built. It is planned to have
this ready for operation by October.
John O. Singletary is president; O.
E. Loadholtes, vice-president; L. C.
Bowers, secretary and treasurer.

The Geneva Citrus Growers As-
sociation has made a number of im-

provements this summer to take care
of the increased membership. All
machinery was overhauled, the pack-
ing house painted and office space in-
creased. All fruit will be stamped.

An additional unit, 114 by 170
feet, has been added to the Winter
Garden Citrus Growers Association.
The pre-cooling plant, building and
machinery, with remodelling, re-
quired an outlay of something like
$60,000. There are 12 coloring
rooms and an equal number for pre-
cooling. The plant requires the serv-
ices of about 80 packers.

Two new packing plants have been
built at Lake Wales, and prepara-
tions are being made to handle at
least 500,000 boxes next season.
The Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.,
is converting the old crate mill prop-
erty of E. C. Stuart into a modern
packing house and will add a pre-
cooling system later. The Highland
Park Packing House, Inc., purchased
the property of Hunt Bros., on which
it is erecting a six-car capacity plant.
C. C. Thulberry will be manager.

R. W. Burch, Inc., of Plant City,
has leased the Leonard packing house
at Lake Jovita. J. F. Godward has
been selected as general manager.
Plans are being made to handle 300
cars during the season. Strawberries
and other products also will be

The old Indian River Fertilizer
Company's plant at Vero Beach has
been purchased by Chase V Com-
pany and will be converted into a
large packing house. The building
was erected in 1923 at a cost of $20,-
000. This will bring the number of
packing houses at Vero Beach to six
and the number in the county to 14.

The packing house at Mims, for-
merly owned by J. J. Parrish and
George G. Brockett, has been sold to
the Mims Citrus Growers Associa-
tion. Much new equipment is being
put in. Mr. Parrish plans to handle
his tonnage through the new house
he has built at Jay Jay siding.

The Lake Wales Citrus Growers
Association was one of the few
houses in the state that was not re-
quired to install new machinery this
summer nor extend its packing facil-
ities. It packed 100,000 boxes last
year and expects to handle 200,000
next season.

September, 1928

Page 31


Standard Grade and Pack
(Continued from Page Four)
ently called for by dealers in citrus
fruits is that many of these dealers
have a trade which consumes only
first-class fruit. These supply large
hotels or leading restaurants in the
large cities, the steamship lines or the
chain stores which advertise good
quality grapefruit or orange sales on
certain days. If either of these groups
of consumers receives a carload of

Realty Building


grapefruit or oranges that falls below
the standard required by his custom-
ers, there is a loss of confidence and
possible discontinuance of further or-
ders. The dealer is not satisfied with
a discount in the price of the fruit.
He wanted good quality fruit and
was willing to pay a good price for
that which he felt he was compelled
to have. If he can't get what he
wants from Florida, he can get it else-
where. A customer thus lost is more
difficult to approach for future orders
than the untried prospect. The un-
tried prospect is open to conviction.

Jacksonville, Florida

One such bad sale is calculated to
deprive the trade of other buyers as
well, for a disappointed customer of-
ten passes on to his friends the story
of his business experiences. These
friends profit not only by their own
experiences but by that of their friend
as well.
Authorities say that fruit is often
so carelessly selected in grading that
as much as 15 per cent of the box
will fall below the grade claimed.
Under the U. S. standard, the
"nosey,' poor texture fruit is barred
from No. 1 fruit boxes, but is con-
signed to No. 2 classification. The
dealer in high quality fruit regards
the cull as a total loss. When he
loses as much as 15 per cent to the
box, for which he paid the price of
high quality fruit, his trade is held
only until he finds opportunity to
place his orders elsewhere. And little
time will elapse before he will find
such opportunity.
Some shippers excuse this under-
grading on the grounds that the
smaller trade centers make no sharp
objection when the fruit does not
come up to the standard claimed.

P1 9 G6reater Forida

assured by such success

SETTING forth definitely to put over a great ideal and working aggressively
until it is accomplished is apparently the policy of the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association. The success of the undertaking has cer-
tainly earned sincere commendation and we feel that a greater Florida is assured
by such co-operative success. And now comes the question of questions. How
will your fruit grade? At this point pest control is a most important factor.
For unusual control of pests and for the greatest safety of your trees use Ideal
Insecticides and Bean Power Spraying or Dusting Equipment. Write for details
or consult any representative of Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Company.

IDEAL ( nsecicides

florida Aq7ricZtM7 uralupp 4 m/ya
0r ando ,florida. ,,t


Page 32

September, 1928


But others point out that the trade
generally is gradually acquiring that
exacting attitude one meets in the
large cities, and that in a year or two
Jackson, Miss., will be as stubborn in
her relations as Chicago or New
York, to say nothing of business
ethics which require that a buyer shall
receive the quality of goods he bought
whether that customer be in Kala-
mazoo, Mich., or Hongkong, China.
The flat pack is never popular. Rail-
road rules for shipping allow a bulge
of two and one-half inches in the
cover of the grapefruit box and one
and one-half inches in the cover of
the box of oranges.
In addition, standard pack rules
require there must be "no wadding."
The packer must draw the tissue
wrapping paper tightly about the
fruit nad then give the ends of the
wrapper a sharp twist. Fruit thus
encased in its tight-fitting paper
shield fills a smaller niche in the con-
tainer than the one with its garments
thrown loosely about it. Little
space is thus occupied by the wad-
ding, and the buyer is impressed by
the neat quality of the pack.
Below are given specifications for
United States standards for citrus
fruit. These were formulated after
conferences with a number of the

shippers of the state and were applied
by many of them in preparing the
fruit for market last year:
U. S. Fancy shall consist of citrus
fruits of similar varietal character-
istics which are mature, firm, well
formed, smooth, thing skinned, free
from decay, bruises, creasing, scale,
scab, black or unsightly discolora-
tion, ammoniation, from cuts which
are not healed, and from damage
caused by dirt or other foreign ma-
terials, sprouting, sprayburn, dryness,
limb rubs, thorn scratches, scars, dis-
ease, insects or mechanical or other
In this grade not more than 75
per cent of the surface of each fruit
may show light discoloration. In
addition to the statement of grade
any lot may be further classified as
Bright or Golden as hereinafter
U. S. No. 1
This grade shall consist of citrus
fruits of similar varietal character-
istics which are mature, firm, well
formed, fairly smooth, fairly thin
skinned, free from decay, bruises,
creasing, black or unsightly discolora-
tion, from cuts which are not healed
and from damage caused by dirt or
other foreign materials, sprouting,

sprayburn, dryness, limb rubs, thorn
scratches, scars, scale, scab, ammonia-
tion, disease, insects or mechanical or
other means.
In this grade (except when desig-
nated U. S. No. 1 Russet) not more
than 75 per cent of the surface of
each fruit may show light discolora-
tion. In addition to the statement of
grade any lot may be further classi-
fied as Bright, Golden or Russet, as
hereinafter defined.
U. S. No. 2 GRADE
U. S. No. 2 (Choice) shall con-
sist of citrus fruits of similar varietal
characteristics which are mature and
fairly firm, which may be slightly
rough and slightly misshapen but
which are free from decay, bruises,
black or unsightly discoloration, from
cuts which are not healed, and from
serious damage caused by dirt or
other foreign materials, sprouting,
sprayburn, dryness, limb rubs, thorn
scratches, scars, scale, scab, ammonia-

Fort Meade Packing Co.
Oranges, Grapefruit

Greetings and Best Wishes to the Florida

Citrus Growers Clearing House Association

The House of Skinner extends cordial greetings and best wishes to the
membership of the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association and
congratulates you upon the splendid success you have so far achieved.


The Emblem of the
House of Skinner
and Mark of a Good

You may be interested in knowing that 99.44/100% of your fruit will be
packed oni Skinner equipment, showing how well through the passing years
Skinner products have met the packing needs of the citrus industry.
From the hand pack of 25 years ago to the standard machine pack of today
is the story largely of the House of Skinner.
Skinner is always improving his products, making them better all the time.
They have never been good enough. They never will be.
Packers have long since come to depend upon Skinner for up-to-date,
dependable machinery and have bought no other make. Only two houses
in Florida are equipped with machinery of competitive make.
As growers you are interested in packing costs, and as manufacturers we
are trying all the time to get them down by increasing the durability,
efficiency and capacity of every unit we build.
Hence this year's all steel equipment is the finest we have ever built. It
is our contribution to the success of your association.

Florida Citrus Machinery Co.

September, 1928

Page 33


A ardent advocates of the Clear-
ing House idea since its incep-
tion, we are greatly gratified that
the different branches of the Citrus
Industry have reached such an amic-
able and practical solution of the
Clearing House problem.
We regard it as an outstanding
attainment for the good of the
industry and all our influence as
members will be directed toward
building up and strengthening the



Baird Co.

Packing Houses at

tion, creasing, disease, insects or me-
chanical or other means.
In addition to the statement of
grade any lot may be further classi-
fied as Bright, Golden or Russet, as
hereinafter defined.
Color Classification-Any lot of
fruit may be classified according to
the amount of discoloration as fol-
lows: Bright, when the surface of
the fruit shows not more than 20
per cent light discoloration. Golden,
when the surface of the fruit shows
not more than 75 per cent light dis-
coloration. Russet, when the surface
of the fruit shows no black or un-
sightly discoloration.
Tolerances-In order to allow for
variations incident to proper grading
and handling in each of the foregoing
grades the following tolerances will
be permitted in the grades as specified:
U. S. Fancy and U. S. No. 1
Grades-Not more than 10 per cent,
by count, of any lot may be below
the requirements of either of these
grades other than for discoloration,
but not more than one-twentieth of
this amount or one-half per cent shall
be allowed for decay. In- addition,
not more than 10 per cent, by count,
of any lot may not meet the require-
ments relating to discoloration but
not to exceed one-fourth of this


The Best Protected

Spot In Florida

Own A Home In This Protected Section
ROSTPROOF and its 10,000 acres of citrus groves went through the freezes, drought and
wind storms of last winter, and the recent wind storm, with a combined loss to its citrus
crop of less than 3 per cent., and last season shipped a total of 576,000 boxes of citrus fruits.
Its high elevation, lake water protection and favorable wind channels afford it a protection that
few sections of Florida have.
FROSTPROOF is one of the largest citrus shipping points in the state with seven modern pack-
ing plants, a grapefruit canning factory, and a charter has recently been applied for for a
citrus by-products plant that will utilize the hulls of citrus fruits as conveyors of marmalades
and fruits. The income from Frostproof's citrus crop for the season of 1927-28 was in excess
of $1,600,000.
FROSTPROOF is situated in the center of the Scenic Highlands on the Ridge, and affords
excellent schools, churches, lodges, clubs, business houses and homes and all modern conveni-
ences. An ideal home and grove section.
Communications will be gladly answered by

City of Frostproof or Chamber of Commerce
Frostproof, Florida

amount or 21/2 per cent, shall be al-
lowed for black or unsightly dis-
U. S. Fancy Bright or Golden,
and U. S. No. 1 Bright or Golden
grades-Not more than 10 per cent,
by count, of any lot may be below
the requirements of any of these
grades but not to exceed one-fourth
of this amount or 2 per 2/cent, shall
be allowed for black or unsightly dis-
coloration and not more than one-
twentieth of this tolerance or Y2 per
cent shall be allowed for decay.
U. S. No. 1 Russet, U. S. No. 2
Bright, Golden or Russet grades-
Not more than 10 per cent, by count,
of any lot may be below the require-
ments of any of these grades, but not
more than one-twentieth of this
amount, or 1/2 per cent, shall be al-
lowed for decay.
Definition of grade terms as used
in the above specifications is given as
"Similar varietal characteristics"
means that the fruits in any container
are similar in color and shape.
"Free from damage" means that
any injury from causes mentioned
shall not materially affect the appear-
ance of the fruit.

September, 1928

Page 34


"Russeting" means that the skin of
the fruit is roughened and shows a
reddish-brown, reddish-yellow or
gray color.
"Serious damage" means that any
damage from the causes mentioned
shall not seriously affect the appear-
ance or edible quality of the fruit.
"Slightly misshapen" means that
the fruit is not of characteristic shape
but is not decidedly pearshaped,
elongated, or sharply pointed.
"Slightly rough" means that the
skin is not of smooth texture but is
not creased or wrinkled.

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to the


In organizing the Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association, the
growers have taken one of
the most important steps
in the state's agricul-
tural history.

Knight & Wall

Hardware Co.


a Danger Sign

for Citrus!

"Soda" will restore these trees

to health
N September many groves are tinged with yellow.
This is a danger sign. It means that the trees have
an insufficient supply of nitrogen. They are hungry-
they must be fed!
Use Soda
Chilean Nitrate of Soda will quickly restore your groves
to health. Its nitrogen is quickly and completely avail-
able. Apply three to five pounds per tree. The leaves
will turn green again. Fruit will mature early, large
and full-flavored.
On trees where heavy crops are being carried, early
fall application of Chilean Nitrate of Soda is neces-
sary to increase the size of the fruit. Test after test on
Citrus has shown that Nitrate of Soda pays big profits
-for finer quality and larger yields mean more dollars
per acre.
Trees Need Conditioning for Winter
Trees which go into the winter season in perfect con-
dition are the ones that may be expected to produce a
good crop of blooms next February. Careful growers
safeguard their groves in the fall by the liberal use of
Chilean Nitrate of Soda.
FREE-a 44 page booklet "How to Use Chilean Nitrate of Soda"
giving full information on all crops, will be sent you free upon
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Page 35

September, 1928


We Congratulate
those who have worked
so willingly and diligently
for us, to make possible
one of the greatest needs
in our industry.


They Congratulate Us

because we have thous-
ands of those good tested
citrus nursery trees from
one to five years old which
were untouched by
any frost.


The Carlton Nurseries
Lewis E. Klatte, Mgr. Tel. 52-V

Citrus Featured at Farmers'
(Continued from Page Seventeen)
ing the aphids down to the original
number. But if you kill 996 out of
every 1,000, it will be a good while
before the four left could increase to
the original 1,000. And by that
time the young growth of the tree
should have hardened."
Mr. Watson also discussed rust
mites and their control. This pest
hits the grower's pocketbook in four
different ways, he pointed out. These
(1) Discoloration of fruit, which
usually means a discount of about 72
cents a box. This amount may well
cover the difference of growing or-
anges at a loss and making a reason-
able profit on the crop.
(2) Russetted oranges are smaller,
therefore, requiring a greater number
to fill the pack.
(3) Russetted oranges are more
likely to decay than bright ones. This
has been proven by a series of experi-
(4) Rust mites injure the trees as
well as the fruit.

The following means of control
were suggested by Mr. Watson:
"Sulphur is the sovereign remedy
for rust mites as of any member of
the spider tribe to which the rust
mite belongs. Sulphur may be ap-
plied to the tree either in the form of
a dust or as a spray. Which of these
two will be found most economical
will depend much on the size of the
grove and the equipment of the grow-
er. Most groves need to be sprayed
more or less frequently for scale in-
sects and whitefly, and the small
grower often will find it more eco-
nomical to use this same equipment
for controlling rust mites than going
to the expense of buying both a spray
machine and a duster. But the larger
grower can scarcely afford to do with-
out. a dusting machine. Dusting, in
most groves, is much cheaper than
spraying, but the great advantage is
that it can be done much more rapid-
ly. We have seen that rust mites are
very rapid breeders. If it takes a man
ten days to cover his grove with a
spray machine, even though he began
to spray promptly on the appearance
of the rust mites in numbers, much
damage would result to that fruit
sprayed the last few days. It is also
somewhat easier for a careless crew to
skip part of a tree with spray than

There's Work To Do
Which Means that Business is Good *


)OUNTY record books and loose leaf binders, special ruled
Phone 2420 accounting forms, booklets, price lists, catalogues, bright col-
or M 7777 ored labels for canneries and packers, house organs, pamphlets,
handbills, window cards, stationery to be engraved and stationery to
be printed, layouts and designs to be worked out for all sorts of
purposes-and still they come. We just can't help smiling when
people tell us business is bad.
Our Imprint is Incidentally it is with pride and pleasure that we place our imprint on
Your Guarantee this magazine of the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Associa-
of Excellence tion.


September, 1928

Page 3 6


with dust. As a general thing, trees
dusted with sulphur show fully as
good control of rust mites as those
sprayed with lime sulphur. The ex-
ception will be when the dusting is
followed inside of a day or two by a
heavy rain, as sulphur is much more
easily washed off than lime-sulphur."

Alfred Warren, St. Lucie county
agent, read a paper on starting the
young grove. "Selection of the soil
in which to plant a grove is the first
important essential," he said. "There
should be a clay or marl subsoil and
an abundance of humus in the top-
soil of fine sand or sandy loam. This
soil should then be well prepared,
good root stock selected and set well.
Proper drainage of the grove area
should not be overlooked. Attentive
care and regular fertilizer applications
during the early years would prove a
good investment."
Practically one day's session was
given over to discussion on cover
crops for the groves. Dr. R. M. Bar-
nette, assistant chemist at the Experi-
ment Station, outlined the soil build-
ing process. "Increasing the humus
and organic matter content requires
time and intelligent procedure," he
said. He would not plow under
cover and green manure crops, because
organic matter turned under five or
six inches oxidizes rapidly and the
benefits may be lost altogether. The
loss of the organic matter is much
less on or nearer the surface of the
N. E. Dale, of Vero Beach, prepar-
ed a paper on cover crops. Mr. Dale
could not attend the conference, but
his paper was read.
L. H. Alsmeyer, Highlands coun-
ty agent, discussed methods of han-
dling cover crops on the Ridge.

"The most serious disadvantage of
cover crops is the increased danger
from pumpkin bug damage," Mr.
Alsmeyer said. "But if the citrus
grower will watch his grove he will
be able to detect when most of the
pumpkin bugs are still in the nymph
stage and by mowing the cover crop
at this time can destroy most of these
insects by starvation. Fruit grown
on the ridge often has a much thicker
rind than hammock fruit and thus
the injury from pumpkin bugs is not
as bad as expected in some cases.
"Another disadvantage is that the
grower will have to lay his grove by
earlier in the summer. This may in

practice be an advantage as it reduces
the cost of cultivation. Where the
cover crop reaches some size when the
summer application of fertilizer is ap-
plied the former can be mowed off
after the fertilizer is distributed and
the rains used to make the plant food
in the latter available to the trees.
"An extra discing may be neces-
sary in the fall to incorporate the
cover crop in the soil and this may
make a slight increase in the cultiva-
tion cost. When a legume is used the
seed cost is often $2 to $4 per acre."
W. E. Stokes, agronomist of the
Experiment Station, reviewed the ex-
periences of growers with crotalaria,
a comparatively new cover crop for
citrus groves.

A subject of growing importance
with grove owners is that of irriga-
tion. This is evidenced by the in-
creased number of irrigation projects
put in during the year. E. F. De-
Busk, citrus pathologist- entomolo-
gist in the agricultural extension divi-
sion, discussed "Grove Irrigation."
"The most economical method of
applying irrigation water is known
as the flooding method," Mr. De-
Busk said. "This consists of a main
pipe line leading from the supply of
water to the highest part of the grove
from which the water is distributed
through portable conductor pipe or
canvas hose to all parts of the grove.
An effort should be made to cover
the entire surface in distributing the
water. In a few cases furrows or ir-
rigation ditches are used to advantage.
In the lowlands of the coastal region
the ditch is rather generally used, as
the water comes from artesian wells
and is often distributed without the
use of pumping plants. This type of
irrigation, however, is not very satis-
factory, as the water is not uniform-
ly distributed. The trees nearer the
well get too much water, while the
trees farthest away suffer for lack of
water, also the water is often allowed
to stand too long in the furrows or

Reduce Grove Cultivation Cost by
doing better work-Saves time and
Labor-Wears longer-Built for
the job-Write for Catalog.

ditches between the tree rows, in an
attempt to supply the needed mois-
ture up to the top of the ridges on
which the trees are planted. Too
much dependence is placed upon ca-
pillary movement of water under
such conditions, with the result that
the roots at the lower depths are kill-
ed off by too much water while the
masses of feeding roots nearer the
surface of the ridges are not supplied
with water because of poor capillary


"In the flooding system of irriga-
tion many mistakes have been made
by installing main pipe lines too
small to supply a quantity of water
that will assure economic irrigation
from the standpoint of labor cost. It
is the writer's opinion that the grow-
ers will eventually find that 95 per
cent. of the installations made thus
far have a capacity below that need-
ed in most economic irrigation.
Growers should forget the 3, 4 and
5-inch pipe for the main lines and
think more about sizes from 6 to 14
"As an example for comparing the
actual cost of pumping water, 450
gallons or one-acre-inch per hour can
be pumped through an 8-inch pipe
under given conditions at a cost of
18 cents per hour for the operation
of engine and pump. To pump the
same quantity of water through a 4-
inch pipe under the same conditions it
would cost $2.40 per hour."
Dr. A. F. Camp, associate horticul-
turist at the Experiment Station, en-
larged on this subject and advised the
growers not to be sparing in their

Cut Flowers-Ornamentals
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Winter Haven Bartow

Standard equipment on groves as
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Phillip-Carpenters Union and
hundreds of others.



September, 1928

Page 37


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We Congratulate the Citrus
Growers on Organizing
the Clearing House

Haines City Citrus
Growers Association
Growers and Packers of

Haines City (Polk County) Florida

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use of thermometers in the groves
during a cold spell. He advised the
use of good instruments and pointed
to the necessity of a careful watch in
all sections of the grove. Dr. Camp
also outlined different heating meth-
ods and how each could be worked
to particular advantage.

Dr. Barnette gave a talk on the loss
of plant food in the soil by constant-
ly recurring rains. The leaching is
rapid in an extended rainy season,
and he presented a chart to show the
rapidity with which the plant food
was carried down as the water con-
tent of the soil was increased. The
readily available nitrates, which are
leached, are not replaced by bacterial
action on organic matter for three or
four weeks, he said, and another three
or four weeks are required for the
trees to absorb these food elements.
A period of six or more weeks thus
passes in which little plant food is
Dr. R. W. Ruprecht, chemist at
the Experiment Station, told of re-
cent results in citrus fertilizer experi-
ments, and Dr. O. C. Bryan, agrono-
mist at the College of Agriculture,
outlined experiments now being made
and others contemplated in the uses
of fertilizer for citrus.
L. M. Rhodes, commissioner of the
State Bureau of Markets, gave a most
instructive talk on the benefits of
grading, standardization and ship-
ping point inspection bring in the
marketing of fruits and vegetables.
"Grading plays an important part in
the marketing of perishable products
by providing a definite basis for trade
and contract," Mr. Rhodes said. "It
has a tendency toward the elimina-
tion of fraud. It enables the product
to meet the particular requirements of
different markets and thus facilitates

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Young Grove
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$12,500 on Terms
2,500 Boxes Fruit on Grove
Winter Haven Florida

distribution. It furnishes the only
sure basis for accurate and compar-
able market quotations.

"Grading furnishes a basis for ad-
vertising and pooling. It encourages
better methods of production by giv-
ing proper recognition to variations
in quality. It stimulates consump-
tion and decreases the number of dis-
agreements between shipper and re-
ceiver by improving quality. It re-
duces losses in transit by requiring
uniformity of maturity and package.
It reduces the cost of distribution,
thereby increasing marketing effici-
ency. It is the very basis and foun-
dation of the financing of agricultural
marketing operations.
"Standardization establishes the
permanency of the grades and defines
the nature and character of the com-
modities in the grade, or the defects
which exclude them from the grade.
Standardized products always bring
better prices than irregularly graded
"Shipping point inspection is an
examination of products to determine
to what extent they conform to grade
or standard," said Mr. Rhodes, "and
to determine their qualifications for
certain markets, or their lack of quali-
fications for others, and to enable the
shipper or receiver to distinguish in-
telligently between the commercial
value of different lots or shipments.
"It enables co-operative marketing
organizations to deal equitably with
their members. It enables shippers to
distribute intelligently their products
in accordance with the demand or
markets for products of different
quality. It aids in securing adjust-
ments on disputed cars, and in pre-
senting railroad claims. It protects
the shipper in case of unwarranted

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September, 1928

Page 38


Citrus Growers of Florida

has been behind the Committee of Fifty one hun-
dred per cent, because we felt it was the salvation
of the Citrus Industry, because we were surrounded
by 23,000 acres of bearing groves, and because the
success of the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association would mean much to our grow-
ers and in time benefit all lines of industry in our
Just as soon as the movement was started the
citizens of LAKE WALES offered their time and
money to help put the organization over, realizing
that distribution must be controlled, advertising of
citrus fruit done as a state-wide movement, and
every grower paying his proportionate share ac-
cording to his box shipments. They realized also
that it would make possible a standard grade and
pack. A growers' organization, controlled and op-
erated by the growers would eventually mean sta-
bility for the citrus industry.
Let us all get behind the officers and directors
of the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House As-
sociation and help make it operate one hundred per
cent efficiently.

Lake Wales Chamber of Commerce

"The City of The Carillon"-Center of the Citrus Industry

September, 1928

Page 39


Directorate Now Numbers
(Continued from Page Fifteen)
Mr. Chase is unusually well fitted to
represent the growers. He knows
both the producing and marketing
ends of the business and his practical
experience is regarded by the other
Directors as a most fortunate acquisi-
tion by the Clearing House.
J. A. GRIFFIN, another prominent
citizen and business man of Tampa,
owns a large grove in Pinellas Coun-
ty. He has been keenly interested in
the clearing house plan since its in-
ception and as a member of the citrus
committee of the State Chamber of
Commerce was one of the first men in
the state to throw his support to the
movement. His practical knowledge
of the industry and his business abili-
ty will prove to be of untold value
to the Clearing House.
JOHN A. SNIVELY, of Winter Ha-
ven, has long been prominent in the
citrus fruit business. He has been a
member of the Board of Directors of
the Florida Citrus Exchange for seven
years, is a member of the executive
committee of that body, has been a
member of the Board of Directors of
the Florence Citrus Growers Associa-
tion for seventeen years and a mem-
ber of the board of the Polk County
Citrus Sub-Exchange for eleven years.
His grove holdings exceed 800 acres
and in addition he has charge of sev-
eral hundred acres of grove property.
He was one of the first men in the
state to foresee the importance of the
citrus canning industry and was one
illness of Frank Skelly, general mana-
ger for Florida, is well fitted to sit on

the Board of Directors of the Clear-
ing House. His wide experience in
the business end of the industry to-
gether with an unusual knowledge of
the producing end, makes him a valu-
able asset to the Association.
The business details of marketing
the Clearing House fruit are to be
worked out by the Operating Com-
mittee of Shippers. Most of these
men are well known to a large num-
ber of Florida growers, but for the
benefit of those who perhaps are new
comers to Florida, the following in-
troductions are made:
C. C. COMMANDER, Chairman of
the Operating Committee, is general
manager of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change. His long experience in the
industry is well known and as a prac-
ticable marketing man, Mr. Com-
mander will be of immense help to
the growers.
FRANK L. SKELLY, of the Ameri-
can Fruit Growers, who unfortunate-
ly has been ill for several months, is
one of the most prominent and well-
liked operators in the state. Prior to
joining the Blue Goose organization,
he was sales manager for the Florida
Citrus Exchange.
A. M. PRATT, of Chase 8 Com-
pany, has been in the industry many
years, both in Florida and in Califor-
of the first to launch one of the suc-
cessful canning businesses.
R. B. WOOLFOLK, chairman of the
board of the American Fruit Grow-
ers, Inc., and in charge of operations
for that concern in Florida during the
nia, where he was connected with a
large co-operative organization.
J. S. BARNES, of R. W. Burch,
Incorporated, has been connected
with the citrus industry for many

years and became interested in the
clearing house plan during its early
L. MAXCY, of Frostproof, is an-
other veteran of the industry. He is
well liked by a large number of grow-
ers and his unquestioned experience
and ability will mean much to the
W. H. MOUSER, of Orlando, for-
mer sales manager for Chase 8 Com-
pany, and at one time connected with
the industry in California, is regard-
ed as one of the most able men in the
state's industry.
R. D. KEENE, of Eustis, is one of
those men "the growers swear by."
He entered the citrus business as a boy
and has learned the game from the
"ground up." He enjoys the con-
fidence of a large number of Lake
County growers.
D. H. LAMONS, of the Lee Packing
Company at Fort Myers, is one of
the most able operators in the state.
He has had considerable experience
and with that has been a close stu-
dent of the industry.
JOE JENKINS, of the Florida
United Growers, Inc., of Jackson-
ville, probably has one of the widest
acquaintanceships in the state, gained
while executive secretary of the State
Chamber of Commerce. Mr. Jenkins
is a business man of unusual ability
and rounds out capably a well-bal-
anced Operating Committee.

Knock the knocker of the Clearing
House (if there is one)-he doesn't
want you to prosper.

In union there is strength; there is
little the growers can't accomplish
now that they are organized.

G7I AIL to the men with pride, who got the vision
And to the growers who thought and used their reason;
Proud of all who took part in this the creation
Of Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association.
They're welcome to us for the good we believe they will do-
Anxious to render help ourselves, and expect some from you;
Glad they took us in and with honor we feel
To be given the job in helping to turn the wheel.

Yours for Success,


With further welcome to the birth of this little magazine,
Which no doubt the Association had already foreseen-
Let us care for her in a way she will always be glad
To know the growers are her dear old dad.
Just a line or two more and we have had our say-
We hope to co-operate with you in every way,
And should you be interested in citrus trees
Remember us and write, wire or phone when you please.
We are just the humble, every-day common folk,
And can be located easily, and that is no joke!
Address the Lake Nursery Company most any day-
Found at Leesburg, Lake County, State of Florida.

Page 40

September, 1928


How Advertising Will Pay
(Continued from Page Five)
will enable them to tell many mil-
lions of people in a most convincing
way the story of Florida fruit.
In years past Florida has marketed
approximately two-thirds of its crop
in the states along or in close prox-
imity to the Atlantic seaboard. Only
fragmentary shipments were made
west of the Mississippi River. In
that tier of states comprising the area
between the Blue Ridge Mountains
and the Mississippi River, there was
somewhat general distribution, but
not anything like the ratio of the
population of the territory.
One reason, and possibly the main
one, for the slack sales in this middle
area is its easy access to California
fruit in its direct line from the Pa-
cific Coast to the eastern trade cen-
ters. This western fruit is dis-
tributed in heavy volume from Chi-
cago, St. Louis, Detroit, Indianapolis,
Cincinnati and other intermediate
points from which railroads radiate
to the smaller cities or less populous
The whole state of Iowa, in which
California conducted its first news-
paper advertising campaign in 1907,
consumed but 193 carloads from
Canada is a fertile field to be cul-
tivated by Florida citrus advertising.
The Exchange has also invaded the
European field and has built up en-
couraging trade in the larger cities of
ten countries. These countries are
England, Scotland, Germany, Bel-
gium, Sweden, Norway, Holland,
Denmark, France and Finland. The
use of grapefruit there as a food for
persons afflicted with influenza gave

the demand for this fruit tremendous
With the Clearing House Associa-
tion firmly established, the organiza-
tion proposes to make a supreme bid
in both home and foreign markets
for increased consumption of Florida
fruit. With a small retain from 15,-
000,000 or more boxes, a sum will
be provided that will enable Florida
growers to build a reputation for
Florida fruit among millions of po-

tential consumers by constant repeti-
tion, and they don't intend to convey
this message in a thin whisper.
The Bureau of Railway Eco-
nomics recently pointed out that fruit
and vegetable shipments have doubled
in the last ten years. It is a clear
realization of this situation by the
Clearing House officials that spurs
them on to impress the citrus growers
with the importance of the advertis-
ing program.

Heartiest Congratulations

to Officers and Members of

The Florida Citrus Clearing

House Association

County Commissioners of Osceola County

Kissimmee Citrus Growers Association

The Peninsular Telephone Company

SERVES through its local exchanges, equipped with the high-
est type of telephone facilities, many of the most important com-
mercial centers in the citrus belt and
PROVIDES direct and rapid connection through its network
of thousands of miles of toll lines and the lines of its connections to
all points in the citrus belt and in Florida as well as the nation.

THIS COMPANY takes pleasure in assuring the Florida Cit-
rus Clearing House of local service and toll connections of the
highest order.

,Page 41

September, 1928


Help Make the Clearing House a Success

Mr. Grower--Will You Do Your Part?

Rushing fruit to market to avoid danger of frost damage will interfere
with orderly distribution and result in unsatisfactory prices.

The Clearing House cannot countenance shipment of frozen or frost dam-
aged fruit should a freeze occur. Rest assured that the officials fully
realize this fact and rigid regulations as to the shipment and grading of
fruit the coming season will be in force.
In no way can you be of greater assistance to the Clearing House than
by protecting your fruit and trees
against frost damage.
Years of research and effort have
provided absolutely dependable pro-
tection for your fruit and grove in
the National Orchard Heater.
You need not fear as to the ability
of the National to meet your needs
for this Heater was perfected by 20
years of orchard heater manufactur-
ing and present improved models
have proven 100% efficient in the
most extreme cold experienced in re-
cent years. There are millions of
National Orchard H e a t e r s in use
Jumbo Heater Double Stack Heater today.
Famous Jumbo type specially This heater available in 3 sizes,
designed for citrus use-the 3-7 and 9 gallon. Has proven This is the only Orchard Heater en-
perfected result of 20 years of very successful with truck gar-
manufacture and experiment- dens. The 9-gallon size works a r p fru
burns like a furnace, distribut- well for citrus groves, but re- dorsed a y large gr of r i
ing the heat evenly. Gets it quires more heaters to the acre
close to the ground. Regular than the Jumbo. Regular price growers
price $3.75 each, f. o. b. Toledo. $1.30, $2.00 and $2.60, f.o. b.
Wise growers in several sections have already protected themselves by placing their
orders for fall delivery. You should do likewise.
By ordering now you will have the assurance that your Heaters will be delivered to you
on time, and that you will have ample time to place them in your groves and be
prepared to use them intelligently and efficiently.



September, 1928

Page 42


"Feed" the Market
(Continued from Page Siz)
shipper members of the Clearing
House Association.
A higher average price for citrus
will be maintained in auction centers
because shipments will be held as
nearly as possible to actual trade de-
mands. The buyer in the auction
market naturally will be compelled
to make a higher bid for fruit if only
12 or 15 cars are available than he
would be forced to make if there were
50 or more. The surplus cars which
would induce a glut will be moving
into some other trade center where
the demand has not been met and
where natural consumption will jus-
tify a reasonable return for the ship-
Discussing the effect of heavy con-
centration of shipments in New York,
W. D. Bennett, writing in one of the
California citrus magazines, says:
"Prices are often attractive enough
to draw heavy supplies to New York,
but a lighter offering played regularly
throughout the season would be more
consistent with good distribution and
result in better returns as a whole on

the New York auction as well as in
outside markets. Markets near and
far are often very materially influ-
enced by the prices that are being
realized at auction in New York, so
that a consistent supply, commen-
surate with the demands of the New
York trade, should be considered
from two standpoints-price realiza-
tions at New York and its influence
on outside markets.
"Too heavy a supply of one brand
from day to day causes, at times, the
buyers who support such brands a
severe hardship by forcing them to
buy too large a stock for their daily
requirements. This they have to do
in order to protect their purchases on
previous days or to keep the brand
at a reasonably good level of prices.
An illustration of my meaning is
this: One buyer may have a sales
outlet for 100 packages, another for
200 packages, etc., per day for cer-
tain brands of fruit. Two to six
cars per sale, according to the variety,
may be the proper quantity to offer
to supply this demand and maintain
a good price level. Then if the ship-
per starts rolling, because of good
sales on a proper offering, heavier
and heavier supplies till there are six


Our Best Wishes
for the


We hope the members
know of



Manufactured by

303 Krause Bldg.
Write for Booklet of Prices


Packers and Shippers
Citrus Fruit

Operate Packing Houses at Eustis and Montverde, Florida



Page 43

September, 1928




cars of one brand and ten cars of an-
other offered daily and sometimes
even as high as twelve cars of one
brand or one variety, what is the in-
evitable result? It is like asking a
man, who already has one bundle un-
der each arm, to carry another bun-
dle or two. The extra load drops off
every little ways and causes him grief
and trouble all the way down the
street. If the bundles are heavy, the
man is staggering and stumbling all
over the walk, to the discomfiture and
annoyance of all other pedestrians.
"When you have more than
enough to supply your trade for a
certain brand, the right move is to
find more customers, not in the same
market, where the regular buyer of
the brand should be protected, but in
developing customers in more mar-
kets. There is a saturation point in
New York as elsewhere . . It is
also necessary to protect the retailer
and avoid glutting the retail stores
which causes a 'flop' in prices with a
resulting 'back-fire' on the jobber and
on through him back to the auction

Placing credit on individuals for
establishment of the Clearing House
can't be done, so let it go at that.

All Interests Unite in

Aiding Clearing House

V ICTORY crowned efforts to or-
ganize the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House Association after
six months of exacting campaigning
which involved tremendous expense.
That it would be costly was recog-
nized from the outset when a small
band of earnest men, realizing the
chaos which confronted the industry
unless some orderly process of mar-
keting was found, determined to un-
dertake the state-wide campaign, agi-
tation for which had often met re-
Growers themselves, despite a suc-
cession of "red ink" years, responded
generously to the call for funds. They
were joined by bankers, business
houses, grove supply companies and
many individuals who saw in the
program the means of revitalizing the
economic life of the state. Many of
those outside the ranks of growers
gave generously of their time in as-
sisting the grower leaders in cam-
paigning for the contract sign-up. It
was a difficult task. Only those who
were on the firing line from beginning
of the movemnet and who still have

their coats off to do battle for the
Clearing House realize fully how
strenuous was the labor involved.
Directors of the Clearing House,
as spokesmen for the growers, are
genuinely grateful for this assistance,
both in time and finances, and in be-
half of the organization publicly ex-
tend thanks to all those who con-
tributed their labor and resources.
Space restrictions in the magazine
prevent the publication of the lengthy
list of donors. There were thousands
who made gifts ranging from $1 to
$5,000. Only one of the latter
amount was received, most of the
contributions coming in sums of from
$1 to $50, but the organization feels
that the heart of the small giver was
as big as that of the man whose re-
sources enabled him to subscribe a
larger amount, and the growers are as
grateful for the aid given in sums
of $1.
Help the Clearing House get better
prices by supporting the Clearing

The E. 0. Painter Fertilizer Co.

Offers Heartiest Congratulations
to the



Like Our Own Products they are "Time-Tried" and "Crop-Tested"
Standardized Grade and Pack requires Standardized Production

Painter's Fertilizers
are the acknowledged Standard by which Growers of Florida
have judged all Fertilizers for nearly forty years


September, 1928

Page 44


Your Clearing House
(Continued from Page Three)
We all agree that this will increase
consumer demand for Florida fruit
and as a result increase the price to
the grower. This cannot be accom-
plished in a month. Here the grower
must be patient and helpful. Con-
trol of distribution out of the state
is a vital principle of the Clearing
House. Here all of the growers must
co-operate to the fullest extent. Ob-
viously, if we are to control distri-
bution to the extent of avoiding
feasts and famine in the markets, the
individual grower must recognize
that he is but a part of the entire
If each individual grower should
insist that his particular fruit be
shipped on a specified day or a par-
ticular week, it is clear that there
would be no control of distribution
and the result would be that the
market would be broken for months
to come. On the other hand, if the
growers generally will be guided by
the Manager and Operating Commit-
tee of the Clearing House as to
volume of shipments, the result will
be a fairly even flow of fruit to the
markets over the marketing period
and a resultant higher range of
prices. We will not be trying to
force folks to take fruit in greater
quantities than they can consume at
times when they do not want it.
You all know the power of adver-
tising and with the Clearing House
about eighty per cent. of the fruit of
the state will be bearing its propor-
tionate costs of a carefully planned
advertising campaign. This never
has been done before and should
bring satisfactory results.
In addition to these three funda-
mentals, there are many other things
that may be accomplished that were
out of the question without organi-
zation. We can encourage and foster
the production of better quality fruit.
We can get more help from the
United States and State Departments
of Agriculture, have more influence
in securing helpful legislation and
more equitable freight rates, promote
new markets in this country and in
Europe, and in short do many things
that we never have been able to do
while unorganized. Organization
means strength.
But do not expect all these ends
to be obtained over night. Do
not expect the impossible. Be
helpful, co-operate, make sugges-
(Continued on Page Forty-eight)

Three years ago in poor condition with small leaves and
badly frenched . last season this 20-acre grove paid

3,25 .00 Profit

M AKE no mistake about it.
There most certainly is a
vast difference in the crop-pro-
ducing power of citrus ferti-
lizers of the same chemical
analysis. The experience of C.
W. Ballard, ofBartow, Polk Co.,
Fla., proves it. Here is his letter:
Dear Sirs: Three years ago my
grove was in bad condition, with
small sized leaves and badly
frenched. I was convinced that
it would be necessary to make
a change in the make of ferti-
lizer I was using, as I was giving
my trees excellent care and
I began to use Bradley's Fer-
tilizers, and after two applica-
tions I noted a wonderful im-
provement in my trees. Today
the grove is one of the best in
Polk County. It is in healthy
condition, loaded with fruit,
and the grove is one that I take
great pride in owning.
This year's crop is the best
that the grove has ever had, al-
though the crop sold last season
at a net profit of $3,250. No
wonder I am an enthusiastic
believerin Bradley's Fertilizers
and in your "AA" Service.
(Signed) C. W. BALLARD
June 12,1928, Bartow, Polk Co., Florida
This case is by no means excep-
tional. Many other growers say
the same thing. Note this letter
from Messrs. Hale & Morris of
Auburndale, Polk Co.:
Dear Sirs: Until 1923 we used
another make of fertilizer. Be-
causewe werenotmakingaprof-
it from our trees we were much
discouraged. The grove was in
bad shape, the yield was low
and the quality ofthe fruitpoor.
In 1923 we began to use Brad-
ley's Fertilizers. The grove has
made wonderful progress each
season since that time. Last
season, which was unfavorable
from a weather standpoint, our
gross receipts from the 16-acre
grove were over 89,000 and
our net profits, $7,112.13. To-
day, all our orange, grapefruit


S In three years Brad.
L ay. Fertilizers turn-
ed a losing grove in.
to a pofit maker for
SMr. C. W'. Ballard,
of Barrow, Polk Co.
and tangerine trees are loaded
with fruit. The yield will be the
heaviest in the history of the
HALE & MORRIS, per Frank B. Hale
(Signed) Auburndale, Polk Co.,
Florida June 13, 1928
Another case of failure changed
to success by the use ofBradley's
Fertilizers! This Fall put the
final touches on your fruit and
trees with Bradley's and see
your profits increase. Feed the
trees to help them develop fine,
heavy, smooth-textured fruit.
Feed the trees to help them store
up tissue within the foliage and
wood-so essentialforthe sprin
bloom and growth. But feed
them in a way that they will
be thoroughly dormant before
the winter cold. Bradley's Fer-
tilizers are prepared to meet
precisely these needs.
You owe it to yourself at least
to try Bradley's. Then let the
crops decide.
Send for free copy of new book,-
"Citrus Culture in Florida". Supply
limited-so write today.

Bradley's Fertilizers are made by the world's
largest fertilizer manufacturer. Over sixty
years of successful crop results right here in
Florida. Sold under a double guarantee of
qUality-the fine, old Bradley name on the
ront of the bag, the "AA QUALITY" seal
on the back.

Jacksonville, Fa.

Page 45

September, 1928


$1oo,ooo Saved in Freight
(Continued from Page Seven)
shipped, I have compared the pro-
posed future rates with the present
rates to representative destinations in
the several territories outlined by the
commission in its decision. In order
to arrive at an estimate of the annual
saving to the growers and shippers
based upon distributing a crop of ap-
proximately 17,000,000 boxes, I re-
ferred to the percentage of distribu-
tion of the orange and grapefruit crop
as arrived at by the United States
Department of Agriculture Bureau of
Economics and reported in the citrus

Miller Tires and Accessories
302 N. 6th St., Winter Haven

deal showing the distribution from
Florida for 1926-27. Applying these
percentages to the distribution of 17,-
000,000 boxes and taking into con-
sideration the probable increase in
distribution particularly of grapefruit
in western trunk line, Kansas-Mis-
souri territory and to far western
transcontinental destinations as well
as to points between Omaha and St.
Paul and transcontinental territory, I
arrived at my estimate of a saving of
$1,000,000 annually.
The commission's decision will re-
sult in decreases in varying amounts
in cents per box from practically
every county shipping grapefruit and
oranges in volume to all territories
prescribed by the commission except
to New England territory. To New
England territory there will be slight
increases from practically all counties
except from points located on the
East Coast, where the reduction will
range from about 3c per box from
Cocoa to 7c per box from Ft. Pierce
and Homestead. There will be in-
creases to New England territory
ranging from Ic per box from Lake
Wales, Tampa and Clearwater, 4c
per box from Winter Haven, Orlan-
do, Haines City and DeLand, to 6c
per box to Crescent City. There will
be increases averaging about Ic to
New York. The rate from Lake
Wales is decreased Ic, from Ft. Pierce
and Okeechobee 8c, Ft. Myers 4c,
Tampa Ic, Homestead 9c, Punta
Gorda 2c, Ft. Lauderdale 7 c, Co-
coa 5c. The increases are 2c from
Waldo, Orlando, Kissimmee, Dade
City and Sanford, 3c from Winter
Garden and Crescent City, Ic from
Haines City, 1 c from DeLand.
It is impossible to list in detail all
of the changes which will be made by
the commission's decision. As a large
percentage of the citrus crop origi-
nates in Polk County, and as Lake
Wales was used throughout the hear-
ing as representative shipping point,

the present and future rates from
Lake Wales to representative destina-
tions are shown hereunder. The pro-
posed rates are in cents per box of 90
pounds. The new minimum is 360
boxes. By multiplying the differ-
ence between the present and propos-
ed rates per box by 360 the decrease
or increase per car is obtained:
Lake Wales to Atlanta, present
rates 67Y2, proposed rate 62c; Birm-
ingham, 7412, 68; Louisville,90,
85; Nashville, 84/2, 78; New Or-
leans, 84/2, 76; Chattanooga, 742,
70; Richmond, 812, 79; Baltimore,
92, 88; Washington, 92, 86; Phila-
delphia, 93, 92; Buffalo, 1062,
105; Boston, 104, 105; New York,
96, 95; Cincinnati, 90, 86; St. Louis,
102, 93; Chicago, 1062, 99; De-
troit, 1062, 100; Cleveland, 1062,
99; Omaha, 126, 111; Sioux Falls,
S. D., 132, 117; Eau Claire, Wis.,
126, 113; St. Paul, 126, 116; Kan-
sas City, 120, 104; St. Joseph, 120,
106; Albert Lea, Minn., 126, 113;
Des Moines, 126, 106; Sioux City,
126, 115; Waterloo, Iowa, 126,
110; Atchison, Kan., 120, 106;
Leavenworth, Kan., 120, 106;Wich-
ita, 1372, 117; Welington, 141,
117; Ardmore, Okla., 133, 111;
Enid, Okla., 141, 117; McAlester,
Okla., 133, 107; Dallas, Texas,
133, 107.
To Seattle, Wash. and other far
western points on grapefruit, present
rate per box $1.84, proposed $1.62.

The Famous Committee
of Fifty
(Continued from Page Twelve)
paths of these committeemen but
they carried on. To those close to
them it was apparent, even when
"things didn't go right" that the
Committee would gain its goal-
nothing short of a cataclysm could
have halted them or defeated their
purpose. They established the Clear-
ing House and they had done what
they had been told could not be done.
May their shadows never grow

Keep this copy of the
a pretty important era in
citrus industry, you know.

It marks

California did it-and Florida is
doing it! Pretty soon the earthquake
will be the only thing those West-
erners can brag about.

.Office Equipment Co.
For Every Purpose


Outdoor Adv. Co.

Outdoor Advertising
Throughout the United
States, Canada and

Commercial Dept.


Heartiest Congratulations
to the citrus growers of Florida on the establishment of the Clearing-
house. We also invite attention to our line of dusters, sprayers, in-
secticides, dusting sulphurs, oil emulsions, dry lime sulfur and general
machine shop practices covering all kinds of machine and mechanical
building and repairs. Come in and talk over your problems with us.

Successors to THE VAN FLEET CO.
Florence Villa (Winter Haven) Florida

September, 1928

Page 46


Imperial Polk County



POLK COUNTY sees in the CLEARING HOUSE a most defi-
nite step towards further stabilization of Florida's largest agri-
cultural industry.
Her heartiest congratulations are extended to the growers and
shippers on the completion of this organization, and she recognizes
the untiring and unselfish work done-often at personal expense
and sacrifice.
Being the largest producer of citrus in the state, she naturally
is earnestly concerned for the success of any move that will increase
the prosperity of all grove owners and citizens in general.
She is grateful to the officers and directors of the CLEARING
HOUSE in selecting a POLK COUNTY City as the Headquar-
ters for the organization; and she invites the citrus public to utilize
her good roads system, and other facilities to the utmost.
POLK COUNTY moved, during the 1927-28 season 13,905
cars of agricultural products, or a CAR E V E R Y T H I R T Y-
EIGHT MINUTES throughout the entire year, of which citrus was
the largest item; and we expect to increase this one-third during
the coming year.




Page 47

September, 1928


Past Year's Crop
Profitable One
(Continued from Page Nine)
large Florida crop, and California
normally producing from 50 to 100
per cent. more fruit than this state,
the necessity for new markets and
more even distribution to maintain
price levels becomes imperative.
The Clearing House has been es-
tablished in order to find a greater
body of consumers by advertising, to
control price by regulating the move-
ment of fruit to the markets, and to

A larger crop in Florida or Cali-
fornia will preclude the possibility of
as high prices as prevailed last season.
If the Florida growers, through their
clearing house, can gain 2 cents a box
advantage above what would have
been received under the old system of
haphazard marketing, they will be
well repaid for pooling their energies
in order to save the industry. On a
16,500,000 box crop, this gain of 25
cents a box would amount to more
than $4,000,000.
That figure should not be an un-
reasonable goal to shoot at. No over-
production menace threatens if new
markets are opened. The problem is
establishing merchandising contact
with the great mass of potential con-
sumers of citrus.

Specialist Aids
Clearing House
Kensey B. Gardner, specialist in the
United States Department of Agri-
culture, has been sent to Winter
Haven to assist the Clearing House
management in adjusting details inci-
dent to setting up the operation sys-
tem. It is likely that he will remain
with the organization until a gen-
eral manager has been selected and
undertaken the direction of the Clear-
ing House.
The United States Department of
Agriculture has been eager from the
outset of the campaign to give all
possible assistance, two men-Chris
L. Christensen and L. S. Hulbert-
having spent some time in Florida
helping the Committee of Fifty to
draft the charter and by-laws under
which the Clearing House was estab-
lished. Mr. Gardner spent several
years in California in connection with
the citrus industry.

Here and There With
the Grower
(Continued from Page Twenty-foEe)
grower gets no profit. Brought
back to the production stage, a
grower will find himself in position
to haul an extra score or two of boxes
of fruit to the packing house.

Production of citrus fruit in Texas,
Arizona, New Mexico and Porto
Rico on a rapidly increasing scale is
the most convincing reason why Flor-
ida will have to advertise to dispose
of her oranges and grapefruit to best
advantage. Much new bearing acre-
age is coming in annually in these
states. Latest figures give: Texas,
83,500 acres, of which 8,500 have
reached the production stage; Ari-
zona, 5,900 acres, with 2,200 of
bearing trees; Alabama, 11,150
acres, 4,030 bearing; Porto Rico,
3,760 acres, of which 3,145 are

Increasing popularity of commer-
cial fruit juices gives promise that the
time may come when a large part of
the orange crop may be required for
this purpose. The cull formerly had
no commercial value, but prospects
are that it may yet prove a source of
considerable revenue. Fifty years
ago cottonseed was heaped up in the
ginhouse yard and then hauled off
to fill gullies in the fields or wash-
outs in the highways. Chemistry
had not then revealed the values of
cottonseed oil. Today cottonseed
approximates in value one-fifth of
the cotton crop, and chemistry has
discovered scores of valuable products
in the lowly cottonseed, ranging from
cottonseed oil and "butter" fat all the
way down to the hull which is used
as cattle feed. The orange cull with
the oil content of its peel and the
juice may yet become a valuable part
of the citrus crop.

The services of many experts may
be had for the asking by citrus grow-
ers. The personnel of the horticul-
tural department, and the experiment
station at the Unitersity of Florida
and county agents seek at all times
to serve the citrus growers. The uni-
versity forces have rendered particular
aid in soil analysis and the study of
citrus diseases and pests and their
control and in experimental work
with fertilizers. A letter of a few
lines to one of these might lead to a
solution of some of the growers'
most difficult problems.

G. S. Hall, manager of the South

Lake Apopka Citrus Growers Asso-
cisation, accompanied by his son,
George, attended the annual conven-
tion of apple shippers in Pittsburgh
in August. En route they stopped
at Mount Olive, N. C., to visit Mr.
Hall's mother. They also visited
Washington and Baltimore before
proceeding to Pittsburgh. Mr. Hall
recently completed his seventeenth
years with the South Leake Apopka
Association, and has been tendered a
new five-year contract.

A. Friedman, representing the
Zionist movement for the rebuilding
of Palestine, has been in Florida
studying the citrus industry for the
benefit of growers in the Holy Land.
The Palestine production is being in-
creased rapidly, the bulk of this be-
ing exported to Great Britain. Mr.
Friedman had already made a survey
of citrus production in California.

When they are 73 years old (even
though they don't look it) and drive
sixty odd miles to "vote and look
around a little" then you know they
are interested in the Clearing House.
And this is exactly what E. V. Heald,
of Riverview, did Friday, August 3,
when the amendments to the by-laws
were voted on. Mr. Heald is 73
years old but that didn't stand in the
way of his paying a visit to the Clear-
ing House headquarters. Mr. Heald
says he's seen em come and go in
boom times in Kansas and Oklaho-
ma, "but they always come back if
they can get their hands on a prairie
schooner." You are right, Mr. Heald
isn't worrying about Florida's de-

Your Clearing House
(Continued from Page Forty-five)
tions, strengthen our organization
with new members, realize that it will
take two or three years to work out
to any degree of perfection the funda-
mental principles of the 'Clearing
House. Do not expect the Clearing
House to double the price of your fruit
this first year or bring a per box
price equal to last season's unusual
prices. You have a right to expect
the Clearing House to bring a price
range this year larger than you would
receive without it. What that in-
crease will be will depend largely
upon how far the grower goes in co-
operating with the Clearing House
and their shipper, particularly as ap-
plied to standardization of grade and
pack and control of distribution.
Above all, let the growers retain con-
trol of the organization.
Printed by The Tribune Press, Tampa, Florida

September, 1928

Page 48

Shipping annually one-eighth of the entire citrus crop of the
State of Florida


fRUir IS oRhA y
There are 41 Manufacturing and o _
Industrial Enterprises in Winter Haven.
I9 80% o Pr FLORIDA CIrrus FeaUITr
Eighty per cent. of Florida's Citrus IS /O's w/rhI, A 65es e O \
Crop is grown within a 65-mile radius 'ADIS OF ',E 4 VE,
of Winter Haven.
Ninety-four per cent. of Florida's cit- OL co
rus Crop is grown within an 85-mile r PE RSBURG
radius of Winter Haven.
Winter Haven is in the center of
Polk County, which ships one-fourth of AE
the Citrus Fruit of the State.
Pre 6 -yPA LM
Winter Haven is within 30 hours of New York;
36 hours of Chicago; 37 hours of Boston; 35 hours
of St. Louis; 25 hours of Washington; 44 hours of
New Orleans, and 24 hours of Havana.
Winter Haven's Bank Clearings in 1927 totaled
$26,765,391.12. Winter Haven's Bank Clearing-
house is one of seven in the State of Florida.



Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association

9 CKLAWAHA NURSERIES congratulates Florida citrus growers
and shippers on their wisdom and for-thought in getting
together in the organization of the Florid;a Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association.
With growers and shippers co-operating in the marketing
of the state fruit crops, Florida's citrus industry is destined to
enjoy a new era of growth and prosperity. At no time has there
been greater opportunity for profit in the development of groves
and the production of good quality fruit.
Growers with the best quality fruit will profit most under
the new stabilized citrus marketing conditions. For those who
would grow this kind of fruit, Ocklawaha Nurseries offers its
famous quality pedigreed citrus trees, scientifically propagated
for large quantity production of quality fruit. Write for free
copy of "Book of Truth for Planters of New Groves" and
remember that -
"No tree is a first-class tree unless budded from a bearing
tree of known quality and quantity of production."

Ocklawaha Nurseries, Inc.
Quality Pedigreed Citrus Trees
Lake Jem, Florida

Telephone, Mt. Dora 21


Telegraph, Mt. Dora

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