Citation
The impact of male out-migration on women in farming

Material Information

Title:
The impact of male out-migration on women in farming
Series Title:
Kumarian Press case studies series
Creator:
Palmer, Ingrid
Population Council
Place of Publication:
West Hartford Conn
Publisher:
Kumarian Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xviii, 78 p. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Women in agriculture -- Developing countries ( lcsh )
Migrant labor -- Developing countries ( lcsh )
Rural women -- Developing countries ( lcsh )
Migrant agricultural laborers' spouses -- Developing countries ( lcsh )
Femmes en agriculture -- Pays en voie de développement ( rvm )
Travailleurs migrants -- Pays en voie de développement ( rvm )
Femmes en milieu rural -- Pays en voie de développement ( rvm )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Lesotho
Botswana
Swaziland
Pakistan
Egypt
Turkey
Yemen

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 76-78.
Statement of Responsibility:
Ingrid Palmer ; prepared under the auspices of the Population Council.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
11812039 ( OCLC )
85005240 ( LCCN )
093181622X (pbk.) ( ISBN )

Full Text
omen les & Cen fferences in Development





The I
OL-T- TY
0
OMEN'
















The Impact
of
MALE OUT-MIGRATION
on
WOMEN
AMIN
FARMING










Women's Roles & Gender
Differences In Development.

The Impact
of
1VALE OUTT-MIGRATION
on
WOMEN
in
FARMING
Ingd mer












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Earnings in south IfriFn are large sonpred uith f~ir msoioe. ~ut snell bu international Digrant standings. ~'ilmncea are eluenely s~nii, nigranrs preferring to resatrinte savings men they retum betueen c~nlrmELa.

The best iniaiolfion an utiiilaiian of relnittanres is Iron ieiotn~. The r.ll regular renllmncea mWenr La be at the disposal of nren for living and tanning expenses. There is general agreeDenf betv~~n nigranla and xives that Yie first dal. in the large ( re~arriated l sM is eduoafion. foilalpd 4 liuarfoElerquinifion. i~piw~d housing househald efiests. and eiothing. The area of mnflisi of Interests Is the n~4ranrls ailoclllm of nla savings ~etxeen renitted and repatriate8 sIMs In nilariland internal nlsmnts in~rmlv ~sin~ nus~m~sl tended nois to rsmii r~ner for pla.lnl costs rhne rrternai Dlgrants In~Lnly emg sons in eifended houspnoidsi tmded ~orr to save for cattle purcheses.


~~qp~mlBMll~n~

Rlrlng ia~or is costiy and. eilept In solos eases in smliinnd, reniiinnoes appear to be in~deguaie to these costs. Tho.lonenl euldence is i* t.rle Lin offer negilgl~le aai irnce. liirnging for the hire of Dale labor and supervising ii present ~onen~r tot ra~en. Dlfilrulties faseb by ro~en I~nning on their an rEir reflested in the beeline in farn assets in ienrle headed households.

mere is general ~gieeloenf in the literature that decisions aflastlng I~nri-ferm inueiaenr are inade by nigi~nfr. and the BoisraM iniornaiian ruggelir that this investnent. if nldr nr all. is li~de upon irnal retuin of the "igrnnill. 8111 there is little donht tDat bay-today i~nagenent of the lm is underta*en ~y voDen. Ua~en lntervleved in ilrama cDiiord that fhes derided rhat crops to plant and uhen and m~re to plani theD. L study B~tsrmM sMred that f~n~nl~-ne~deb households slant wlier percentage of their *aldlngs. anb plOY the land less frequently than Dale-headed households.

nilnnf rrues d~~onatrlte Ulelr n~illfl to decide on me delll~i nenf of their orn la~i ranaurcee. Tneir narglnai oPPirtunlry cost of ~xnlaralng is clearly not rero. In high-118* ngrloulture. rlth dliileultles in n~rr*sfing grain ;rrslusesl and ultn great neeb of cash Inco~e. there strong inientlues ia ror* on other fnr~n, to brex beer. efs. That mc~ shift soDe at their flrp fraD om-farnlng ta ether econo~lc astivltles 16 Illustrateb by the fact rhat In Xlibwana vonen in remaie-headed households spend a nMllei















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jor di lferen l, . t -r-tin .*n f an a
hh lue eennf ifril m1 una n







if LlprM a auW'aflan fhaT lan~n gain tnrough their neadiniS or Musonalds mer a Long fm~s Enirlsl sooB truth. in unat ray does fnls sune ~~ouf? and is ii a real gain oi iYar greater I-sapanalbliifl to ma*e ends meet and fnings uoi*l

in ilgilonr ~~cial change mrt could i~ue lasting and xideseiead oifests is a ner barir ia tne narilal L~onb. ianl aeparntlan daes MT neoesnaiily mean a uel*ei aillmse ilelreen Duilmnd and rife. ~ useful ap8roacn Is ta oxsiare tnc dependence of the oigmni an nis rife foi maintaining ar Lnproumg a rural Ilu~ilnDod to unlen he Inrends to return. If Lnls dependence Isilreat, tnecaupir are Il*riy to connult enm oTnei in e.meit. Ti~e rigrsnl murl rely an the acnieuen~eof~ of hili (lifel and Vhat she dcph aCnlPUe should gain his rerpesT.

Onr particular airuari~n could bring tno~ ~ucn closer. If inc migrant depailr iirr a aui~isle generation or jaini householl he o~y Dmre If In rvnd to xor* toraid a nucieniDousenald escncmis base ia that surplus accun~ulnllon is naf dirripilted bib remains under nl con(lal. In tnlssass he in relying on his rife not only io develop n~anagerlai s*lils bit ta unde~~ n~~~ninii rt a social tiansl~malion during the years of his ~~sense. Ii Is dlffiiuli fe see hox inis
le rrallre~ ulfhauf s sTranger failing ai the marital band iieclu IE ii required a rre frmm extended srci~l relations ta ~ocualn~ on the uoriing rlli~nsr bei-m ihs ira partners. ror a r~aan m carry cut this change ulin~our the auPBr~ of her husbandls pretense inroiueli a high degree of real personal emmrlpnllon.

Sane relevant quertlan~ to nix lie;

nov rational is the dlatrlbufion of purchases berxeen pr~dusei and canjwei items In terms of roaen ~ F~pnbilif~ea and neednl

LrF early rtolfilnccl most generous xhile later taper afi as migrant and family get used to separate laild~~ If so. do farm assess and s~nlurpiian ream a pea* in early years and then dasiins?

if early remittances are uerlamall. Mr severe are me pr~~leinr that llcmen face in tn~ early ycln?

if renlftanses increase. do Ilues hire are labor. including Lenaip ia~ol, and gradually ultndinu from aqiicuituialxoit. perhaps ~a*inli up some other Ecma~ile activity an their ~m nccauntl

Ho rational ir Tne diliiibuiian of purcnaiei latxeen pnducei and Fansumer items in ferns of Eaga~Liltles and neebs~ Xou far can u~en mrluense pur sMlere Ih~t *ind of sansumer durables lie purchased.










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believed ta have rsevetoIb lqldte
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euldeced b dli . . . . . .Drmg I
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sent o fahersrath . .lve . ". . .ve id-if, I. --.ld bidd 1,1-dl., -Is nd 8 ~ecen





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?M . 1h. .hrl. th y a 01nad Ii~d. Ii


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Z' '*'T








la thI S -of e 19 to iss hr i o-ed a ii

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. . . . c tati PIFII f iBBi~ B~~
h~use~lbsoune no attl . . . . I prcntof.ae



I. aunid. .riii ure ideae ta Like Leso- f e~~ae-eae hsho., ied , atle and hrr hos tha didIveagebfexl mlnia han th.
th--h I.-I ia nnn l~o 11-11 Ierire i
fai Lacmcude tht po~aly t .1s h. o


fsnre-nsded houshols hae nod:1,. d;in
In te cae ofinai ilestoil ad L~~ eul~ti.f

-.i - I~-n iar san eininienaed Duenls






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. . . . . . . . . .veras





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nne ~n EnissTd asun foyIi ._ .iouaX f
.111,.h-,,= ,.,,I.,Iat tnr nnoun i iitre. .










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~e.l in a(.r. ad fn op . . t"'aas o I--nln d 1. esi ii~~ ed a esena yrn




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stil e olarl? sraegyorI~almd sal -Ittn

I.~s o dugl ~ i ,- --t.TDLbCIOTE y fis -d. .t Y.siil~ tl L eaie ad nor~i
lut. ted

b'tII
h. X aln trnV1 hr lire i id. anili th, 1,11 Y r he na t rofo an yiml. a







,al,.M.t.
.,.,,, ,,,r::::~~ ,.~:~::~~~~~ ,.,,,,,, ,,,,,,,
~ ~a,,:~~ ~~ ~
~ ~
~~ ~ ~ ~ -~-~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~i ~ ~ ~~~ ~
~ ~ ~

in~eiM1 Ir~ is orin rst.,n tar plovins or ia hire """""' """~'
holidays. They Ire oble to refaln slo~er soniast
~E~'~ e' i "~'~~ "' "'~*'""" """ 'irh their inlilier nmie ot fnm~ing aperlii~nr than external mlgrant$. mney Lens aiso. of course. to ae hulbnndn mihar ihnn rant. Tho iioluonslat Lheii n~n~e ulliie Iliols fhen ta ~~rilFipafe in orm agnsulruie at certain LUlea or Lne year. Xmeror*lra in Eauih Lfiicn genpmlly fallal 1 iam~ oi oaallletory Rlgraiion, refurnili~ n~ne ror several ~~nl"r every rev yerrs. ~mr*lnr inc reri~a aetleen anrracts. nauaver, uiener ilsi~; II. ill ~onilona mrr xlrriy or nanmlY visits ~y nl4rmir Ln Eonth Lfricr are mn~nm, and some longer visits can ire tl.ed to coincide ultn a plaring period.
Isylion tron ioigi~nl~(-iu~r indicsls Lna~ aliouy Is

""",' =, ""'""""" "" ""'""""~'" 'i" """ '~'" MCIII Lhnjotlpi!."b'""f hueb~nds nbout ii percent
lanfhll return visits
5*:,."K:":i ,.::;9a';,,,,, " .~.,. .~.,,.~ s*llls oi aural uoen!l( i~i~-l~l.

Externdl .igi.f~ re.if rme~ erratically and acculuirte Sulnsa tnar mry ~rm~ ~nr* xlih tnm. inismnl migrants. on me olner nmd, rrolli nart to rhrir ha~pn on a rsgular ~a~lr.



rien aitiarces in ~ilratorylelmlngs and closeness " contact vltn nones or me tra ivrea ct ~lrraiian, ii not aurpri in. tn.i eriernal nigrants rceunulnte their savings Icr mu~~lnrnl in Fntiia, In contrast. me remlfl~nc~s of inlcmll ~lgnnt lend io go n~ore to sulsLstence re~n~lienenf at falli-ewl~nanf pvronases (Yletter 1Pi8; iB. 11- 161.




Ihe sreatei rrewencv or Dus*anda ratum in ~x~rilan~
"" """ '" "' ""'"" '"'"'""'" """~"""
.t.l.,.llrs in me a4rlculrur~i Ll~s~abls. Tnrii ~irrense heips to elplain an adoption rate icr niibrid n~alie In dpnnri~ied Ruml L~vel~~Ent Irml ia~*al mit eiaipded all expectations. statistics sDox that .tl,.l.i~. yields bar sore Mre tnan a~uolea. sur tire .ai~iiu oi nlqranl nYlbmd does nit Blpllin my. in the piocaaa. acresqe pl.g~d to n~aile uap naiued. ~or thni re













nee t sl~ne ouss o poer~eit.- -Y a~nl


hiq- t.38 -1


Ih.l fUefrre c insmdl vst h thiso oll tr 1. 15 . i ar tl . -I. bl. fy thi '~"~~ i" '""~~"i"'"~~lpUN ";';, b





























































I- -y



1

iI.t. did








bec le s: 6f. lod il tb nlatgon_ tt tion, Ruto
_y . d,~~ I~"*' """^"








.oloaratveiylarat t t ti t '.y "'t thy I








lalrth d th. It-lu~~. erasngvn a o
huriba" ' bsen - . . . . td, t="irin

suggnrsd thatuo t-- that . n . -.t .acors







on Erealt a~pllceflbn prpers.

seasonal returns at rismnts, ms nlri~i~ of trlsfarl.
fDs ridelpiead ad~Lin of ny"iid ~allr indlsafe raoprraflon beflesn ni9iunra end rireii over laire if iii nat Fiear Lran the IllerrlurP E'ifi~'Li~n. noueue,,IYrP1YP of Mii~ for ~lle the fhnl *md Mere been
rauld Dave been ailoued Lo dls~ose of Lne crsn incore rr~es l it is by no nerna cerialn that the u~an and her shiidren ulii receive r antre in anr Inciea~e in inrone uhish iP Nnnsnnuilfs ritn fha fins end Pnai~i nDs h~r 'euoLed La (narenaln4 y'.'~' liard.; 1g). if n-el sannrt Eantral Me ~alre Faan mcorno. hit are rble to dp~ids har rucn or merr am Ir~a~ la apenf on I~in suifinfi~n. then
lee bath insd.tirr end porei.i -ulen i. linll Me LSTelgs undernylridnaire Tne~ov~mnenLluruey aharsd that ua~en seer other aauroea of Ensh mran~s over rhich tney h.re undi.puled c~nl~L. Xany gre* alner cioga far mis. Lhe onfennible ienron being Mat n*lr*eiing these Erasa rra oupnmisn~ for ~ling inat
;h~.~:I~.:,:.,,~~::;: nll6Pa9P~;:::Tn~lllI IlaPe.LY BeeT~TeYln~ far sale urs ~lsa papuler far rhe sPne ielaon. Ihase Istiuiiier do not involve ~onls I ~alor declsions.l Beclua~
needed dn ~adures aurply of s.ah under their oxn mufrall c~ntinuing uitn tnese i~ctlulrlea--md eipmbmg inpn--lr Iliell to Ire n a.f~i net fnan Increnain~ inalre ourWI. Vsre bih nan nnd xansn in the haulehald fa enin and consume rna n~orr fulll sarprrlite runner. fDen vonenlli desire to folloxaunaocounl econanle rotluitlsa anauld not be ro sfranil nd n~lira Isrerge right not nrue fallen bD ~YE"I~ ylelda rose. T68 pra*len af Me tine aonsiralnt far isn~nle-ivpsa re~lolal tal*r in Dynrid-ruiru Nllivation muld tnenibe IJolrted.

This Enag sfudy offers ~nafhsr dirsnrian La the analysis of iauin~m lincm sauntrle8. liqi~nf~ *eel in sioier touon rim tneli Iluea; in~y freWsutll upply their
iubai rt rearonili tires or rei~lr n~aney tar plorln~ soat~. TDe ner tesDnology of nalie sro"uctlan nea ~psn usld to mmtnin auipui ieroi~, hit no loie. YiLn tne enaourugerent er a g~vein~ent agrlcullural grogran sore of Me tenets of a nea-~l~aslorl upprdrsh fo niCratian vere ~nsiiad de far ai naintaininq Ir~duclian. But further L.praum~enl. in ugrisuliuie fro.igranfl earnings "xeq ra be obafruirsd ~y rsananls rsllfian rllnin tne nousenold.



















I - ith t. 11. h. 11- ainr s o Le ll


I Mid onrle o neTef E-1 gaveevrylagei
d . d- t lsrill re ci~. Tnr i itl
.b . . d in95 vliis an IIIne anls a







'n-lalld . . mal=! gralt as Zr-tB~lae ter by f-ml. -11. y



YEIt is fitable

liualarasin hi cunrr av in gd-I .gl o







1 1, -It -1- - goneiPIhad9an abroad ; in Vi "age B
_dd t .fea. . . . . .andonl th
heatandirrgatd lildsrelm~i ~au. . .an p~
aututliiis b md ra1I. . br- .1 aul ni
. . . bI . T .uniel~ rli nl i

The 1. .- 1.1-iao rigtinfrn eisan rl
t- eo" wa= ,L ld l ~ien f dutn~ll a
Lc1.d


1: 77 1.o ~sib~lY ~ i D~ lle





b th. (Morthatli 1-: 16).en .6an







re h. - -ly I o . bans upat t" h~ahai ta





"t . Y' t.- h (10a ~ntn








1,1, p- t I . -1s











tass climes d''Yl. Lltes o ernane t. it. ihi





g"~"i'i" for by ti- tt -ll t. utpu


f hi. -dy Th.uh-rrif nirigun ile, n




th h nr nras nnqalni tec nolo y~
alsodrsv ~~ie I -171 tio I that~ed *


proitbi rsnF~li. .risno eerrrlee uiih-e









. . . . . . .~uirly Intha nnus
. . . . . . . . .ndly dilgprrin
(Dorry ls"t th
ti 15631 .d I-. btluld orth Iae-eo


--te ItMVtv tt 1-1 lfte xtet I italrain n
-1., tht-1 1 ie alrbrlad-almln.ItI

fornsl aricitinl~~t t N ' ~d 171. nt


. . . . .ue IIL lghi nla sv











-ernly .ted, h_ it, '_.d rainlen Bu I
- ten-- t- .- ---t ii ~n~eln irifnnr

I-lan-, h lin.-i tnhr oss.Iilaorna









Xi~d j~n i f Y ren fi_~mdF. . . redt~ .d q . t- I~. -f Iour msti. f i alel f I. . n




11 1 n n r1ao t .I 11- -1 th. -eul i v~iln
labor haV6 dy-Is lt anr aon re~sn












. . . n . T nley o of pplr a ru




li I., --i- .I -th-e~u~e alou I uqe Itn


. I. . . __I, alsIraraui i~-ea
perid i ~n mid191~ ~glefB tat ha 101 nr a~ePed
Mll h 'l h r . tinedinir l oar 0 IBu
thi rgeiaarIsofensvsiee"a' 'd" - - lriln














b . te. -t th- -1l, Id Ien~y ~u gin8.~~~
nighthllrId di


in 71 trl ihbfa hr Ii~nur a ~
iurhe ~alo~an~i gaup ae eerllI._ 11. i1183 "~"'"~'' "" '~""" ' "f 1. -d :
"""1"" '""' '"'" '"V -" " ,1"a d " t 1_1"
"'""'"" b """" "'"'""""




.~ ~ ibl . . . . . . . . . 11 " , ~



1i bbb-.,, .~~, ~,,,.,., i,,



-1- h. . 11 in-1- .1L










Mi dle t- 0 1 110,120000 igal evn h sri lth-h -tealy h- 1111 111, 11 -Yle ra*, he

'Ile a blty -I.e is~e~ern r aseso




Iget ta they - nt irnthe poethueod ic

.-t.odan sst. It I. -t. ilatan ben
1111,11,11 ly I --l- I.- -h-br anbesore rthu



inetgto. . y -,,,t ft-e vllge i
B11-1 . istrt .In Iouth I-~ n. . .h hee a








mlih igralon as nstllinth . tl lrgettl, l




fnmlg husehldstendd t be he ii -t.'s tn I~'






th. ge ttehld.ths wthltte r n-.ad ur







rhs great Mlciity ct rural ran~~n In P~Li~tan are Mt ~ENsiaoed fo nmdli"s ~an~y or entering nar*er sltunflons. ~p~:,,,, ,:~~.,":~~~~~ '" d"""' anllliU1 tneir
liar to Lhen in tnelr rillr~~l. ief nurlioiently large slu~s are ~ein~ renliied on a .anihiil b.nle b/ external migmnia to provide apparfunillra tar inuzilrent and Fanrunprirn orpsnBl~uie on an unlrereeenied Isaie.

Shaheed rrm~en fhdf since uanen have never recn ~llaed ,, .,., ~: ,,.,,,, ,, ,, ~.~.I~,~~ ~. .~
~,. .~~.~i~,
,,,,,,,,,, ~.~.~~u.~.~.~~~,~ .~,~. .~,.~. .~
oroxmliu to developed narxot elcnanse linciuains financial inliitutionir eiereo ndiltln~ miluensp at least in reina ot aroaii nms of noney. ~,, ,;:, ""' .,.,, ""' "' '""' �'""'""' """'"""'"'
the t1o isolated ~nl~lli riiiages tad I~n* aEEounla In their am nlma. What in notable is that ail five , f'"" 1 n,?,,nla,. It Na to he barne In alnb tnar opening a ban* a.ccunt sninilr loumeyi outside Lhe viilage--md feY nen in thene riilagal Mre Mn* accounts. It II n~,ucn easier Lbr a nnle relative to ~~Xs the 1"'"1 fO the neareif torn.

In Eantrasi, in vatni in a~algindi DlsLrlst, rith ban* in the village. rl(leennlgranra liu~n Nd ~an* acsountr pour ot iheae xm~en rert tron nuclear nauaonalds. Llmougn Intcuisdd iie.~ie lire *as txenty-four Sh.hp~d rL.ier Lnebe figiirrsare tor liYm lith lan* accounts ave at m~leui~ijg. pspuinrlon. Bui are T~ld fnat m. taur repiesenteda nigher praporflon oi all nuclenr "Ysshaidr fn.n Lne relrlnlng nine represented of ail nannurlear hcileehclds liiilb.; 121. Inrheed points out LDat it ii not only travel .nd.d.inieiiriiue a~slaclo~ that mnlsit .msn tron opening accounts of tnelr orn. line. atherrire even ~~re oi the n~iqmnl ~iuss in Yafni r~uld do


aec~iincluaes ~n~t.iusa ,sioi
tnnn ~tnei xrvea aan* ~FEaunf~ and Yierehrs ro he airounfable exsluriusly a veri Ilrgolg to tnelr n~lgrlnl hu~bmd~ and not ia n~nie relarlvea.


~~~n~o~

ylven the iradillon oL vonen Mt handling nanrg, if """' "' '*""," ""' "'I":,~.~".,"""* """""' "'"'""''' "i'"""""'"'" """" '"'"""" rc xitndror and uae ~aii ci the ieaillanceli, and in the praer, need to reveal her purpose and gain Ipproull for her Cn~Ellexpendifure. Snaneedccnfirned ililr. The Innie







- .Z t, Yhitera ateil th O ahe-._ina u

t""' 'hit iIly I . .n h givs i t, ei ti

th"I t. bu aei~ahesy h ~srfrt yt

'y y th. n. xo oI nx ht ewrte l~


-it . -nyll~~l.; 11 1 . 1-1 sleaii



slnpy c~~in own i-t I~ I~ hd _11c~ n anul



.g--ntR' w17B d th ir M Ier Preent
.ithth h 1. 1 . Iirow n~lth fveune
Id 5 inino:;d the k ioil'l lve ge
:1 h. " t. Z: t .iir sl-t. he wrena

rtr e nn I . Thi . -f o r. d._av i n. - " i in
.tt . hehe I tT l- ll.-ie il ibi~
h11 bb _."i i,. .-,ed hyur tht nrarc
-dd ' i. nthe .'ear households - _aloe an
tii aeie. 1. -- I~~ - .dc cae i









lairn nm uns l � drf annie

or l;�Z~uer~lll ii n .th. . . .at, .o



















o o oh -od l -o t o,
=aret th. P1.- .1 1~ 1.- T :bli sedig aoenle




-1- 1-lt I I rud efetbt tl=srnrl uue Uhr
tIeriy t I. tl_ -.1 1-n cisie hened 1.r













Thee i noalernti I t- otg ght ha- t.enl fo itt . I. . . dUey artpiep . _,- ._ In. o









. h-alb. . .oter eiars it Ittiir

t th. . , -er~ ater reabet. Iri

-I.I.,. .1bi, .t. .1 th.,
idittid 'd,., . Tn= .ll. . , h, n,,hae


"'n a't" .

--l- n -Ie huehld a~ hh adiioa

_,.Ld fhvngt ueriete n.ms nal .I Ihb _ _ b , la"ree s nd eit 1 drr ed t . thltepodc. ~ raal td de xltnteies

I_ tbnsenontre n b . . . ut f 1







slight . . . .,At the -i i-r the .



dee reula c � th ar f t to ni f d




. . . . . . . . . .i n b . . = Ie t p r f e re i t r vt un t i n









have uee o trec rs nd out omic_ e f. a I. .e I d e_ l tood %her or mho e inhf~tso Y- - gra- -1- 11,i i riigtian lrge oan )ohs n hlans u to






rncluine aowr� s o lvnish Merringe are a ord (n *f






.n . g . . . . . .e. . tm l st t h Ie fr I-lt -'vd a.1



-i I_ -d . .ed inias ou

I . . -,,.,h.,









tha i Q dnt npovdan b-f- the wnaffuniur


"d . . n e al. hth ia. . n . .






it I no noe clar he . . .



.dg-ti- Id I. 1 2- leit in thenuces iuinigant
. . . d bt . bedoed Buttl. hd. Ie
. . . n~l~iarilr nuehid. ifi






"'h' I. -itti.9 t b- 1. 4 Int frn te pl.
1~ 1- 1. tht r.,slllr o uimael stin u

business in a ~m . . .1 . . "nui e~n n
.1 1-~ -11 - -I. I.- -th.me ndgrouc of~i
h_ I-- I- 1.- 1. -d-tendmlbin ift inth









. . rn g '" "'.:,"z ,~;






. .~. . . . . .~, . . .


r~l,,, o t.~i ltLa~1- .1 h t obnu dii hrerf e r i.Th% tassar ld D tue
onlh
--igh ---ti . . . Ti , mae ab~ hredfa


'"' ~i"' '""'""'"' "';~~" """ t2
























- -a lly i.- b, it. b.et prlias I etede

fri- ho 1i .1-tkb


t d in o r Ilb.rn n h eirain flao

tians -tlo- - by I __b . k ,uMenof ns~lle
i , "'l 47' b , h llua~pduin ~ufrs



bb-b., thtier




lk- I.b.d. 1 - 1 1. Ie r t., .t f lb. initi nli
- beo ds o nlr _ _ b tb = , nlit" f nul M br Y



slb . ibly -n- ilnde. 1. 1.- - .1 b.- b,~rnr


inti .1- . .vin.













t I


ll-.tlb - . XP-l, lb. -h-.It
. .a . j . . ,,~ . _. Th . y bii. e y_.ly f u f th edL~t r .1 lnr




h~pi -n it th. tilinaibl- Jad It. .in



b b' labor 'in he, aintnl rlea th t ol
_'l' _'y hnr~ nedtbe t h_ 1.1"ag. li
sl-a-io l, nl 1111"I han a :, hi, 'h.'r' r~r
anol nos, nda eth. b-t. t. -l- l2'ty an


.-i. tflo. bb, I-, t. b hy f ji ~oi~t . -h l, .1t














-h land Is purchased Is -t .d


recevestherei~tan th. -I~l. diighrFide
~eiir iad.ir in firtstae at I . h-hton z
~i~nlrl rragemets Lter nhe avI-. th.- lie chidre ild~*elplnr epaateresdea- I.- I

t" t"' 'h . . . . Tr
. . jan huehls rth aml ur
al ,,eue Il ld-Iesa aas. hyhd led . . -t- ens.Th a~ua mveou
. . . I. mlfo ngtiton ve elig h









R-tti aenan n. th b gurlad a~itin
i"' "i"' 'i . . . ityxoen n nulea




this reate prabenis t d emalell n o d sti -ik I
-ld t :y 1- 111 yp- . 1~.l,,,, l~


t, ncre~rther lbori d-d - t iiutlformr datr


1 - - ind-t '"""" " 't "P'"" t 'it '
i. . d-l - - thea ~ot - i- - .1 -d-ti d onge








Exfra fanily effort or hired lalor filled any gaps left bi departing nigrantr. Solnrate or joint inming ms Fontinued un~er altered uor* argrll tion or a share In a E~Dlned property rat sold to other i~in~ill nenberr




Bespief of ieiniffmsrr does not nean piuers of innaagmg then. Neither does nonrecei~it signify no Crer . Ileven Yiven slnined ihzl received renlrtanEeb directly. of the fifteen vlve~ in the nrple. tm ndrlrted to nailing desisions on their m~nr~msnf inenselues. piesu~lny thia refers to regular rrrlttances for nalnrenance and running SoPfn. Tra stated mrr they irnde joint deoisiann rlfh inelr Durb~nde. fuo left tne decisions to their nusbnnds lone of rhon~ r~a In a nuclear nousen~ld bui hnd a bo.)MLlng nunlandll and in MB case the iBlh.T~ln-i.x.de desisianr ilbid.: IBI gearing In nlnd that these rsllffnncaa nusr n~ue teen au~i~taniial EF~ip~redultn local inson~a. this figure constitutes an L.~rerriue rssord of confidence in vlves unu~ed to handling nurn lanly.

)tiglranis uives in nuclear hau~enald~ fnce ~uiie conditions and el~erienceT of vor*. They appear to ta*e an active part m the bnlldlnr of the house as veil as supervising construction mel alrun~e iondsirhl~ of household and inanaqe any Land and livestoc*. ihis does not neoesssrily nean any lessening of their loi*lard; rather the contrary, to uhleh Liie~urden~r iere~nri~iiiti rust he added. The uMen in this Egyptian study have ~ie iei~uriel under molt conrroi, their household esmanlea are evolving and erpnnding, and the future holds the praoise of surplus assuolul~tl~n Life is still hard. hut the signs ~Miisin9 and encourage rer~anlr.

Irles and status ohangsd for nlgnnfa rluea In other households even Irelore raXrng me aren* trcn extended or lalnt haus holds. uolluer, tlieieclinbe serious strain during the process of diseiilii~enenf. if dues Mt ta*r nucn I~gmsrlan ro appreciate the jealousy and ronmfnmf of
benefiir fron the relariveiy huge """" "" "' "~'VaY Oi a1unior ilmiB Ip~BT_ It 16 ren~llmnce~ Fo.mg
difficult one ror ner~ and a trst of her determiMttaM and Nrly felt paver. Lier DunraM n farn labor contribution ulll ire nlrrlnr, and there 1111 he Irastly successful) atteinpts io reduce her share ct the tarnls pracisds far this reason and 4ecaule of her nsr mran~e. me nast difficult relaticnship 15 usually rifh ner oafnei-Ln-lar causee financial blalngnge~enf carries ntn It mt potential far alaens~~e~ent tran II *ci* role subordlnaie tc me Mmei-lnill Praa, aepenCPncenmsm-llxr for au~alifence. n~lgmnt 5 vile raves to an egalitarian position, arn~srinsn
ending viih pn)nent of an rllovanre to her nolner-inmr. or me ~a~nerin-lau mishi appear ubn~la iue, pleading






sV~fym Ol_ LO ~tel Li . . . .m ne
aausisria u on hhe si ".y . .a na






,,,,,., '"""',.," ""' . . ,.






.- ., ._ h. ~. . . . h, t i
.d i-tit.t- -- - '.h
'ivan th- a soc"' persona" ty. -h =-.-m*,. su ghiai ~re alllevae Iroitne. h~








. I. . . - I o Lnlr uier reuies ah hl:. I I~erlr adr cocui io h

pen~nccy of h16afer he usaM~ fia.t hrn.Br
vaetioin4nu~an exlansdnitne*n~b h ta o th ie hE ~imy ir drr a an lae. t



lh-d o e loi, btseLe hri ~ng h





Ireg t 11 -li- 1. 1-1I~b; sl Li pprap









t", ' n'"' - " Ih - "'


-h-1 . . I. ply '"'nl "" "' . 11 1.

"'i""" "' ""4'"t '"""' '4'I~ T1 1"""
hy ''.=t L' ' gt" " "'i ''L~"
























.,I y . t I spon~n, ., -d ---tn al dielad~ udfin rf the aifn o re I.








d.-y - - tisEant- . . . 'th grrin
th. '. -h. h.tes f l~~L~ uur i ncla









- . nsd .-th--it Y -f - 'h- -f lr o imia
. . . . .= -d- .~ro~efoar snll












hianll 4un, .,erly h- n1aferenep tt_.~ndn uN
t. h. - 11r L-71 1 la.o I-t't- 'nov- trem tn V .1













-1.n t. --1 . . I th-xn Iid;19.Iii
~o~a~ie o becui~e urthr. i i , n ho I I I t contiue eringfor eep erl~nli)- m I t y ,gllahlt







sollnborlrlon ~ptreen husband and rile. Smcl LD.as ulsila rip not lengmy vluee Mit frrquanrly be le~i to I.i~le.enf eipen~ltuie decl~i~ne. Tn~ar mnuclear nDu~enridr nov enjoy luthailfy orer n~atteis mnserning Enilbren. and atranqer desire Loi dauih~rrrl educnnon is in ouldense.

~llF n~lsmrlan (i nauinr the eifert of Inrreaslng tne 8i"OTLian or nuclni n~urena~rr. irtni, xlvoa iin arlsmm~ "YF'e~l hmleholari insist ~ndt thpy do not join ulih athsr irn~iiy n~nb-rm~n Lhelinu.~nn~+l.rus, Seiand. nlgnnl DusiiaMa rri ealm~llmln~ re~nirie hauleholda far fnelr
*iuea. I *liela notlvation ta be flee of hrr in-i.ra obvious. one could 9~pEulnte that n~lsianlr are Miiv~ted by renoual fin, exfended la~lly DLrinisny .nd the parrlblll~~ oi iiiglb ilrcunulriion of ~rlnlr raa~L~.


~un~~oaan~n~u~

(.* I~fl~~' iae
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ra rcbuce Ulelr oun la~oi ineut. Infirtlon of foad prices is probable even if larr food is supplied fron neu sources beoavle ~are food II baughf by inlgrOntEl fiimiliel. m~ nex inc~lie difieienfilla anould be d~n~inrfrd by the division ~e~ue~n ~iqr~nis end MMLlmni.l fl.iiier ~Fcnuri innny landless (a~ilipn hBYB~Bni~n~ inlqiniorir sn~lay~mf. ia~aanunai sintn au8 rhnr In vlliiiser and r.~ll toma rne
social diui~lan Fnn re seen i-) mo lar~ar Douner of fa~ilisl xiin I~an~b~r srployed abroad.




rhr aagarlirm aiudy iev;iled thnt the ~lr~n.lO has ''~~~ " ~'b""e ieparted tnat oi4irnrs rluea rare nor in~ei~~fed in bll-Ulcan~ioi. Lhe.bin being Lnrt inere ms enough nonev to lar* Iftei Fnlldren .ra~erl. nl~rantsl visits fia Eura~ in july lead t~ a pen* of births nine mnthr irLer (Ibld.; 181. But Lhere Ire ri.n n~ong yaunger uon~en, noro recently nlrrled. Lnrt an interest in blrtn mn~roi ir r~~rging II Is Il*ely that young 19'dnt~ in Eura~B nia plc*m9 un ideas on birth ionfrol
older n~igilnia. In LDe longer term Lie n~r

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dli h. fa r r Im~n. t th ald rasnst . . .qp oueoln n~ntnasi~g~t~ en~r sin M ulafa i l~l-hueb in th, 11, iis h vr ~a irgu~ niine

areelne M aalial a ae naeduretocg Ifh
th. llssBfmhlf fani s f~~l n~r

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'y hy IE nC lylpT~i~B
Ieoeerper hh fa giutul Ioerta
,iv.t ~ h _ y T t - '

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Th aie w~ur f me ku- -Itt . -ut g Iou-tho



.th_ It y 1-h th- h -hylal hired I-, - I--vic







ieduiing an agriculiure and dsuelaping 1 lidr incm~s
I.L~ollo EBrrlei the saalel caif bf reduced ioinl i.in outPut BeEnuse n~l~mnla anumsa nrp not upalrtrly utlllied. tnDi II. nor Ill~e ~uall~~le to ~eet tne frmlnl needs Ilf lealf) at their sluea. ~lgnnril river dre left u~eirclourrr~ for cfiaitlue fninlng. Tne Private gain ta ~rsrmra nea aoFIBI caara via tne aco~n~odntiani lnade bi their ulves.

Xornen In the ag~ptisn ease sludy.i~~elred ia opt pertly or unolly for nanrqrlcuiturill rssup~fiana far different reasons. moro rneY did lair msy ~untEr~d the luiharlf~ to rurnouni ~ry diifisuiiies in hiring and nopcruralng la*ar. nut il*ing us eoling dr bulmg a fnli(or ia ientaut cauib he aesn as saalslapriona. If pianneih see hoclai easts in era prlunis atmter) the ealuilan lies in offering the c~ui~le greater Incentrres to iain. and adequate seruirinq auppoit to ~p rift.

Where vr~en do ta*e io all-~xn-lnm oacuplilana ihll Eorla m oroduction ternr li~r ha Ilal tnan uhere their status and nuton~ll in the haunehald end ca~~unlty are ~au that they pinr out their ralr hy bn rinS in un~r~duc~iue cenaDlonona annlunetin re~ renirtmce,. Ihls .~. ~. . .i ~~$:;;:~&' .~,,., ~. .,,,,~,, "," ""'"i ""'''"i'i~ ""' """" I" ~; :":I'",:J: '" """"""'"""""" '"' """""'' ""i"""' """"""i'�"'''"""'" i" '"'" '""'"i'""' ,.,,,,, """'""'"" """ . ,,,i,, ,.,,,,,,,,, '"'" "' """"'" '" '"' """"

,,, ,,,,,,,., ~d ~ ~~ -~ -~ - ~
lead to corresponding eeonornic and s-arl fiansfpr~llons of "s'iralar. TMe~rh.hnrsshnn.ed Lnelrx~nrand inc.ne pirtfaiiaa ihiie fheli nus*ands are arel Ire atferinq slelr nisnllr to slanners as ia ogeningr for xan~en in Me Nr*et .od soai.l strusturhn.


Imnrl~M

""'""c' "' "'""' """"' ""' '""

,~~ $~ ;.,~a":h:,.,. ,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,i,,,,,
''""' '" '"' ~""" ""' '"' ~G7:, leeding ne ~.niidi~n in I,,,. n,.h.ld. Ilth liXely mfmhausshald Irinins that llould eli~ue, is a sleet iiiu4irailon of Mis. Invo4ment in gr~tein-piaduiing slnli liueltoi* in ihe nunjnh is ~nafhFr iarr of elpi~aalon. In IDYf"Bm irrisn rar*ins ior lees riery Flsn Ins~e In tne a~arnce ai ndr~ulia Rgulni isiol~~r"Fss Ean ~e seen a,.,,.r.il, at tnli'i~pOl~ nEl of food security.
m. i,~,riae.lacea.n invpni~e in Fhi~ai.n B eauFliion suggslis that iinlniina ~eirer eauorlon is one of Me ~m puipaea af.le.lgiailon. in Les.iho if








~V"V"'Ln~lnr'y ms pnonty slnlm at ~~n ~igiani an~ rite on fDe i~orl lubr*lntill r~rinqr De arouqnt ~~E*. liilferate ssvprlm rn did xher thev could to euolrulss their cnriarsn a nar,*.
daughters) Ichaolina. YnO significant e;~::i be tno.aln in
There this. bur stated ,ereenres and onnts.,,ari a shitting uleu to ualuin, the eauc.,ron or ,Ila an tell ~r bays.

other nepsa, at tli~y leltare san aepena an the .ueroll n.alth and sontenini oi .arhei,. stressed, i.ii,,.t,, .,*l,,ason ren can mFiero in the
t., ~. i, L.,,im, .~ a. ,,, r,, I, m,.i, ,,,,, Pa*lltan and EgyPti- There are i~p~ili ct can)ugal insflbllif~l fT~ Ioutnern africa.

veri iar9e ren~llfnace~ in the Near emit allor far better nausln41 ncuren~ia electrical applian5es. and fuimei sonawlllan rush as ~Dien~id n~arrlagsa. miFn are all pmitlr~l or ~loaslng gelna ta uon~en. iucn gains ronefl~ea rcio~l'n~ stricter farna of isnnls asslurlan.




Nannlgrant nou lnold~ are S'""'iiliaund m~ng the piareil. Tnsre is riaa r~me evidence tnat riele there is Irafh inrernal andexternai .iqi.ti~o. i~ne nua~~nd in nuclear n~usenaldh in the paarsr airnll-nirls fern category xlii sh~~se internal nigrntlon ra *aep in siorer contnct
""" "' '"""", '"' '""'~' ""'""" ~" '""""' .,,,,,,,,.,,,,,, ,,,,,,,.,,,,. ,,.~.~. internal Y,,,inOYl~il.id.l li*e Mn.igllni iDY9eh.ldSI face local inflarion Iririn4 Lrcm the len~and~ for riaads generated h the large re~ltfenres at eiiternal lolgrantr.

Inle rages cer~lmllrlns, and prebably in real frio~r. ant r~nic mga, are redv.ed II~ cert~ln iaa~ of n~eon~rumrlan, nush as inecnanirai nrlla. and 4 .Igr ota rivet il*ins ~iiovn~ara rage sn~lo)nsni either La nurir~le their Insa~s or reduce rls* (soutnern lifrisa) e1 iiecaure Lney n~ue rented aut their land lia*lsiaol. Changer rn den~md and suSDil of fe~nir rrg~ labr will detern~lnP nov hi the f oale I~le rate is s~le to X;ps up rifh inflation. b*i it is daullful rhethei real te.ale ungl rili rise.

meretarel the iiopast ot nale au~-~isililon an me incoi~c at mt poorest Dauren~lds end rural inro~e ~larricufion Flnnaf be uiered onll in Lrm~r at Ule grsafer Bennnd f~i MLe rage labor.









.99.t. th.1 -thfer lli y which their ri. (rillt

-61 .1 1.'. 1. r, iin'.w -tit"'.







-inied hre rmlreS eh ~ snda Ls is d th. s n
n~~~en ~ ~~to . .ltinrbt~en me Fni
""'" '""';9.8'~'"' ', :lifra., th d f.















mIZ sup 'a ad liri 1 1 -1- -i a d If-frr


arnfr~ porfoltf

. . I. Vie~~lnen ipio fenaLilit lr
EL.I nad on tnei l a e na ad svli. t ov r e irh flr
72rrnn m nr srt- ii~nne~n n e oa




inca--ar u~e ~rltei~oranc~ isiunl~ taL piIt




~L- ar rt n na*uiI-It tlrdm ~grnt f


rei nr tter I-l oteruie, te r~'x



,,,,,,i ,,,"Z."~"" '"" '"""' -t her"







*weuei u~n the cnlculntloneof nasinl sorfa nnd sninr of prrrible inle~Yentlan on 4"1" p'DdYsiion hnre been nude if nughr Ire found to be reallrtii La sonssnbi~le

"t"" """"'B ~~:~a~a~o-.nagea t.r.ms. vnlt lie Me other '~"d~:i"P" favor for B.Le or axmg into soo*ed Can infeiert in r~aii iivest~cl ~ crpiinnied on- nri natruxulthrhelrsha Pn livesiosr n~ix and M*e it ~are grollralile. dumfi~n of meir hurbdndsl nbsense?

ill there Irapjeln nnsunP fhli plisy riil ree* Te insraue tne uthorlti oilonenini~ers In the eyes of s~iulcml end oli*efln4 oisani nilons. Tnere naue been R1V caiir to a.ard un~r" eW.l.scpre rifh nen ta ciedV. erlenllon Issistsncsl and laar*efing advice. We underesoie Uie need here. r~i~lsninrian ai this liaera Loi ni4ranir river lee~mrr an mpereilue if ioelalEosts are not to ~aunr.

in Me rreai past ieritian;el, rttei a lan~ delay. are quite ruiiisient ta iauei eriia L~ir FaeLI. ine cnaiiengea ""'i" i" "i"~:'": "" "i""""' '~ ""' '" ,,.,,,,.,,, .I,,,,, ,,,,.,.,,.,,,. n~rlsiii~ce in needed In Me flrhr fer years of .rgme 'b~anse ia avoid a revere ra*lmd for ranen and to dissuade inen ira~ renfing auf Innd. me F~ilp seni~ of debt rePY'enls and s ~ll ner rsn~lfimora rouid Cg m~all~iltrd bY a c~llect~ue credit fund. rainlml over suosesalu s"Y~' of .iqi.nt fanilies. me Imlciulry large r~lllunse~ of ruccerrful nigiants c~uld ~e r~oilcredl~ and mlereat
C.YId include the Yrltin~ off of bad de~t~
Ls rll. EBEdndl .BOIII.nEQI rventuaily be so large ah to nale iannlng unnesessar~. Uo.enls bad erperienses in ihe iirnt.nm nifer hurbnndrl Il~ilflan sould ansauago the abmdon~mi of frmlns. Dn the otner hand the expsrienFe of iscelumg tne atlentlona of Eredlf fund and of nnnn~lng ~arrard uorXLng E~plfnl Fould have the efiesl oi maflllmg in uonen a nor and praieriia~
snauil,. ,.in~a m, nniniennne. ii cauld .l.a
at ben* Isiounm in Lhe of

""'"":,,";:;~ Yhin could lead to ulres gradually being less to nrlr*inlhiiB iili lee*inl Uleir dulFe.

third. nany .on~.n in Lh. Near Mnt nis nai accurianed La the ralnlnu~ a~unl of raFiri Infersa*rle required nanaqe a Ihr. and fn.ml Foo.eintiuer or exienslan rrruisell are not yet dieeted to offdr fhslnr~inancr. In Ulil oaEe it in Mt anly.mi~sr af BlfFndulC 41FFifiS seruiser to rompn, but of encaurrqlng uolen fo Irr in sp~ia ~~yind the Milt: II oannot he ariued mat rural and Iln~Lesed :ro~pn rlll nat ieapond ta ner a~iD~iTunilles. lonen in Me densely ~apilnled villages in BgYsr) srerented nih a develoeed iniraitruFrui~, iax green llgmts leE*ODln4 Yneli large iBli~fnnSes flared fa fhe~ even Xhiie iniY







i-iii i ~~e~lef roein hnsinad Dueolh T 1.


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th~,~ cninly vulh- -4 --td.lalir, ,, .h.h t ,tt . . .1 t hi.r~a.e, i



. . .~ i i~r . . t -h. -n rlh -h - t hsh 1-y -t.-~n usrlig t iel~r. i~ ~~e~ of aEaaeralue aifci~l or xfe~lu prhrondit h tor
--t-t . . .uauana. Yier thl. re n











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t. th. _j I"'"tl ' ' ' f"" -" n~t::; . t-












I-,, = t -- -ltt horar snf~l nn. t. r hill









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rensnral I-trn nat ihe d e,,a i- i 5ofnul t. ni. . . .~ur I eh- . . 1. 1ar















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. nisuir. th. 9 pr-ln her~iulun o helpto lnlln by -g-ti ni t- -4-5nlerag thai t ol~ptvn inn in plln lf~rdrl
raie m urue f trm ui~~, endLnciit -i. ber t























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