Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 From New York to Rio
 From Rio to the Cape of Good...
 From Simon's town to the Comoro...
 From the Comoro Islands to...
 From Bombay to Singapore
 From Singapore to Foo-Chow
 At Shanghai
 From Shanghai to Hiogo
 In Japan
 Doings and customs in Japan
 In the land of the Incas
 Around the horn
 Homeward bound
 Back Cover

Group Title: Uncle Sam's blue jackets afloat : how we displayed the American flag in foreign waters
Title: Uncle Sam's blue jackets afloat
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086594/00001
 Material Information
Title: Uncle Sam's blue jackets afloat how we displayed the American flag in foreign waters
Physical Description: 244 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rhodes, Henry E
United States -- Navy
Lothrop Publishing Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: Lothrop Publishing Company
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: c1897
Subject: Voyages around the world -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Seafaring life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Discoveries in geography -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Ships -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sailors -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Flags -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Loyalty -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sea stories -- 1897   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1897
Genre: Juvenile literature 1897   ( rbgenr )
Juvenile literature 1897.   ( rbgenr )
Sea stories   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: Henry E. Rhodes ; Illustrated.
General Note: Illustrated title page.
General Note: Frontispiece printed in colors.
General Note: Pictorial cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086594
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002469914
notis - AMH5425
oclc - 10953621

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
    From New York to Rio
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    From Rio to the Cape of Good Hope
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    From Simon's town to the Comoro Islands
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    From the Comoro Islands to Bombay
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    From Bombay to Singapore
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    From Singapore to Foo-Chow
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    At Shanghai
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    From Shanghai to Hiogo
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    In Japan
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Doings and customs in Japan
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    In the land of the Incas
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    Around the horn
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
    Homeward bound
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
    Back Cover
        Page 245
        Page 246
Full Text




The Baldwin Library
B orida












All rights reserved.










IN JAPAN . . . .





. . 26

. . 42

S. . 50

S. .. 71

. . 85

. . 102

. . 124

. .. 138

. . 157
... 157"

. . 168

. . 185


LIMA . . . . . 201

AROUND THE HORN . . . ... .218

HOMEWARD BOUND ................... 232





T HE grand old sloop of war Iro-
quois swung at her dock in
the Brooklyn navy-yard awaiting the
signal that should start her upon
her trip around the world.
Our nominal destination
was the East Indies, but
our commander was at
liberty to use his own
Discretion as to the places
to be visited.
The mission of the Iroquois
Swas peculiar. The Great
Rebellion was over. The Repub-
lic of the United States of America had not gone down in
shipwreck. It w a s ready to take to itself new life and
strength. To carry the flag into the by-places of the
world, to emphasize the fact, alike to civilized and barbarous folk,
that the United States "still lived," and that the American Navy
was still afloat and alert this was, in a general way, the reason
for our cruise. Incidentally we were ourselves to observe and


study the habits and life of the different peoples to whom we
should go, and add our investigations to the records already
in the possession of the Government.
Such an expedition partook largely of the nature of an
excursion. Applications for service were numerous, and the
influence of the powers that be was sought by many officers
to enable them to be detailed to the Iroquois.
Our twenty-four officers, our one hundred and seventy-five
sailors and marines all looked forward to the trip with eagerness,
and there was less of the conventional grumbling that is the
accompaniment of every voyage unless it was at the delay in
Tiresome business, this of the navy ? you ask. Well -no!
and yes! The bitter experiences are the long three-years' separa-
tions from loved ones at home, the weary waiting for news from
them, and for the often delayed orders to return after the term of
the cruise has expired. Each officer is supposed to be entitled
to a certain amount of sea-service, and a corresponding amount
of shore-service. Too often, however, favoritism has interfered
and permitted certain officers seven and eight years of service at
home, while others less fortunate have been compelled to spend
more than their rightful share at sea.
Many people are not aware of the fact that when an
officer goes to sea his family is not permitted to accompany
him upon his ship. The Navy Department, indeed, long ago dis-
covered that a naval officer's wife has not the faculty of preserv-
ing discipline on board ship. It is for this and kindred reasons
that the Government has frequently found itself forced to forbid
the wives of naval officers from following their husbands.
But all is not bitter in this life at sea. There is a charm in


the frequent changes that are part of an extended cruise. At
every port the "best people have a ready welcome for a naval
officer of the United States; his uniform, so long as he respects
it, gives him entrance to any society. There is plenty of study
and routine work to occupy the time on long cruises, for before
each promotion the officer must pass a rigid examination upon
every subject pertaining to his profession. This may be the
designing and building of a vessel, the construction of her
machinery, the making of her guns, rigging or sails. In fact every
branch in the science and practice of the naval service, including
navigation and preparations for battle, must be familiar to
the naval officer. A man devoted to his profession loves the sea
and loves to be upon it.
Have you never been aboard a man-of-war ? Then come with
me aboard the Iroquois, as she lies here ready for sea. Here she
is: a long, graceful ship with fine model; her tall, raking masts
seeming almost to penetrate the clouds; the yards crossed in
symmetrical perfection; the halliards, sheets, braces, lifts, clew-
lines and every other bit of the rope-rigging hauled taut and the
spare ends neatly coiled on the deck; the sails tightly and deftly
rolled with the shapely bunt in the jaw at the mast; the guns
with their big muzzles closed by tompions poking their heads out
of the port-holes, and the guns themselves shining with the
burnishing given them by the use of a cork steeped in lamp-
black and bees-wax; the decks so white from holy-stoning as
to be clean enough to eat from, and an officer in blue and gilt
at the gangway to greet you.
Once upon deck you are interested, at once, in the attractive-
looking sailors, or "blue jackets as they are aptly termed. Their
large-legged trousers, their baggy-looking shirts trimmed with


white braid, and their peakless, flat-topped caps make them in
appearance the very pink of neatness. When the ship is under
way those not
// --on watch are sit-
/ 1 ting about the
/ 7,d deck mending
,. i their clothing,
-/ braiding knife
I lanyards, or do-
_-v.-_.-.m ing some fancy
v. embroidery-- for
_I'f'i which all well-
disciplined navy
... sailors are noted
1'- or are taking
A a nap. Those on
.- watch are per-
forming the reg-
ular duties,stand-
t.- .ing by the braces,
sheets or tacks,
or at the wheel.
They may be at
drill with small
arms, great guns
or broadswords,
ON TFHE SPAR-DECK. for a navy ship's
crew is a well-regulated family, and can handle a gun as well
as they can the capstan bars or marline-spikes. They are not
sailors alone, they are soldiers also, and do soldiers' duty when


called upon. On the berth-deck below you will find hooks
screwed into the beams at short intervals, and each numbered;
and from these are suspended the hammocks at night. Along
on either side of the ship are big sea chests, one for each sailor's
mess (there are about a dozen men in each mess). In these
sea-chests are brightly-polished tin plates and pans and kettles,
sugar, pepper, biscuit, flour and salt; above them hang the
"diddy" boxes or bags in which the sailors keep thread and
needles, pieces of cloth, comb and brushes, blacking, writing
materials and the pictures of sweethearts and wives, children
or favorite heroes.
Returning to the deck and going aft we descend a gangway
ladder into the "country "; the space just outside of the officers'
quarters or wardroom. Passing inside we observe a long table,
and beyond it a pantry filled with white dishes, glistening glass
and bright silver ware. On either side of this wardroom are
the officers' state-rooms; a single occupant to each.
It may be wondered how a man can live in so limited a space
with so much magnificence (for here he keeps his seven uniforms)
and have everything neat and orderly. The sea air is apt to ruin
the brave finery, but the officers have learned that if they must
clothe and support themselves from the meager pay the Govern-
ment allows them they must study a close economy. On the
walls of each room are little bits of art, in the way of etchings
or small paintings; attractive hangings decorate the latticed
doors, and indeed a spirited rivalry exists as to the respective
beauty of these little rooms.
It is sometimes far from pleasant after expending much time
and taste in fitting up one's room to be obliged to give it up after
a short occupancy only, and to take the next room aft, simply


because another officer happening to outrank you by a few num-
bers, is ordered on board. Yet this is one of the exigencies of
the Service. By regulation, rank is respected in the occupation of
rooms, in going aboard and in leaving the ship, and in matters
of ceremony. If perchance you should be the junior of all the
others, and there were not rooms enough, you must put up with
sleeping in a hammock. The officer must not only furnish his
own uniforms, gold lace, buttons and all, he must also provide
his own table. For this reason the officers club together, have
their own larder, and have their meals served in what is known
respectively as the wardroom mess, the steerage or midshipman's
mess, and the warrant officers' mess.
The captain dines in his solitary apartment the cabin, aft
on the spar-deck. Once in a while, at sea, he will invite two or
three of the officers to dine with him, and afterwards to enjoy a
sociable game at cards. When in port he will sometimes have
some friends on shore to dine with him. It often happens when
meeting a vessel belonging to the navy of another nation that
official courtesies are exchanged at dinner with the officers, and,
although these courtesies are requisite, unlike foreign navies, our
officers must bear the expense of both food and wines.
Each Sunday there is a muster of officers and crew on the
quarter-deck, and religious services are held. On ships where
there is no chaplain, an officer is selected to read the Episcopal
service. On the first of every month there is a general muster,
when the officers and crew listen to the reading of the articles of
war. There is little loafing on board ship, even during peace.

At last the signal was given. The anchor was weighed and
catted, engines were started and the Iroquois sailed down the


beautiful harbor of New York, and was off for her cruise round
the world.
Passing outside of Sandy -Hook we soon lost sight of those
two beacon lights on the Highlands of Navesink, always so wel-


come to inward bound vessels. Fires were now hauled and the
Iroquois was put under full sail.
This was in accordance with the orders of the Navy Depart-
ment. Soon after the close of the Civil War it was ordered
that all steam vessels of the navy when off on a voyage should,
except in cases of emergency, proceed under sail.
The engines had not been stopped many hours when we en-
countered tempestuous weather, which continued, almost without
interruption, for twenty days. The wind blew a hurricane. It


howled and shrieked through our rigging; hatches were battened
down; coils of ropes were flung down; clew-lines, reef-tackles
and buntlines were manned; halyards were let go with a run;
orders were bawled out by strong lungs, and carried out by the
piping of the boatswain's whistle. The confusion was increased
by the taking in of all upper sails, sending the royal and top.
gallant-yards to the deck, and housing the topgallant-masts.
Life-lines were strung fore and aft. The winds came with a
rush, filling the lower sails and keeling the ship-channels under.
It needed genuine nautical toes to keep a grip of the deck. The
continual hissing of the seething waters, and at brief intervals
the smash of some great volume of green sea as it broke aboard
added alike grandeur and danger to the scene, while there was
also the continual jar of the ship and the creaking and groaning
of timber and panels strained in their strong fastenings by the
enormous leverage aloft, and the heaving of the ship.
Our good old ship, however, belied the stories of the weak-
ness of the American Navy. She bowled along under close-
reefed topsails and storm staysails; the sea followed after us in
bold, jagged cliffs of surge and foam, and towering walls of green-
ridged waves lashed themselves into seething froth as if snarling
and struggling to overtake us. Now our bows would swoop down
to the base of a glittering green arch rolling along ahead of the
vessel, then down would fall the stern as the surging sea ran
under and past her, while the bows would go soaring upward
with a noble and majestic motion. The plunging ship, the daz-
zling masses of foam, and the whistling, screaming wind were
the continual features of our trip until we reached the island
of Guadeloupe. Life below decks was far from agreeable, and not
a few of our mess wished they had resigned before starting on


such a cruise. But aside from the general discomforts and irreg-
ularity of meals, and the loss of one man who was washed over-
board, we had nothing of daily interest to record in our diaries
other than same as yesterday."
At last we sighted land, and on February 21 we anchored in
the harbor of Pointe-a-Pitre. Pointe-a-Pitre is the principal
town of that island of the Antilles in the West Indies, known
as Guadeloupe. It belongs to France. It is an island of some
two hundred and fifty thousand acres, and with its neighboring
small islands forms a separate colonial government. Guadeloupe
was one of the personal discoveries of Columbus in 1493, but
has been a French possession since 1635, with the exception of
four or five years in the early part of the present century, when
it was under British control. The colony to-day has a population
of one hundred and forty-five thousand.
During the ten days of our stay at Pointe-h-Pitre we were
feted at caf6s and entertained at cock-fights by the French officials.
On the morning after our arrival a few of us, by invitation of
the Prefect, breakfasted with him at the Cafe Frangais. There
were twenty-eight at the table, and the first course was served at
ten o'clock. One course followed another, and it was not until
ten minutes after midnight fourteen hours after sitting down -
that we arose to bid each other Good night! Thus our first
holiday Washington's Birthday was passed much more
pleasantly than one could have expected upon an island where
the day is seldom thought of. Other breakfasts and dinners
were arranged for our entertainment during our stay at this port.
It is scarcely necessary to dwell upon the sport of cock-fight-
ing. It is a cruel amusement, but it is the holiday and Sunday
pastime at Pointe-A-PMtre. At the urgent request of a prominent


citizen I was prevailed upon to witness a peleas de gallos.
This is what we know in English as that brutal encounter a cock-
fight. Bills, with illustrations suggestive of such an event, were
liberally posted about the streets, and as there
must always be a "first experience," I went
to see the great battle. It was a panorama
of tropical life. Crowds were moving toward
the suburb along an avenue shaded by the
stately cottonwood-trees. From this grove-
like avenue a sudden turn brought us to an
unattractive collection of buildings, and here
from various directions came the galleros or
cock-fighters, each carrying a game-cock
/ ] which had attached to one of its legs a
string and a small bit of wood.
Entering an adobe building, the interior
Sof which formed an amphitheater, I found
hundreds already gathered there--a motley
crowd all interested in the approaching
event. Earnest discussions in both French
'.i.J '"and Spanish were in progress, and a bedlam
V fr. indeed it was, shrouded in clouds of tobacco
smoke, dense enough to smother any one but
rjilij, a West Indian.
"' Passing through a narrow passage we
Entered the amphitheater, where the contests
were to occur. Ranged around close to the
sides of the amphitheater were scores of
coops, each with its game-cock crowing
AT GUADELOUPE. lustily; as if it had just won a battle, with


no expenditure of physical force. The galleros flocked in with
their birds, waiting for some one of the sporting fraternity to
offer to purchase after he had made his expert examination. In
the center of the amphitheater was a circular space, perhaps
twenty feet in diameter, and surrounded by a fence three feet
high. This was the cock-pit, and its dirt bottom was as smooth
as a pavement.
In the pit stood the manager, a dignified, handsomely dressed
Guadeloupian. The audience occupied the seats that rose around
the pit as in a circus. Every man was a study. The audience
was of all classes. Here you might see dandified-looking fellows,
in tight-fitting.trousers and handsomely embroidered jackets, and
by their sides, perhaps, a veritable tramp a fellow with a dirty
complexion, unkempt hair standing on end, and with a not over-
supply of clothing on his body. In close proximity to the tramp
might be two jaunty and handsomely-dressed young women,
wearing a fair amount of rich jewelry, and between their thumb
and first two fingers, or clasped in silver holders, sweet-scented
cigarettes. As they conversed, now languidly or now with
spirit, the smoke from their cigarettes curled lazily about their
heads. At their sides sat the humble daughter of a servant or a
laborer, in rags, perhaps, but just as earnest a spectator as her
neighbors, as were also her father and mother who accompanied
her. Here truly were all sorts and conditions of men.
While I looked about me, studying the faces and dress of
these people, the birds were being made ready for the fight, and
I dropped into a "reserved seat. A gallero, looking more like
the respectable father of a family than a cruel sportsman, had a
sharpening stone, and was hard at work sharpening the spur for
his pet.


When finished, this spur is like a delicate razor-blade sharpened
on the outer edge and curving the reverse of a sickle; so that
when the bird jumps up and strikes it will cut rather than pene-
trate, as does an ordinary spur. Only one spur is used, and when
the sharpening is done the spur is bound to the right leg. The
comb and wattle are trimmed close, to prevent the adversary
from catching hold; and the tail and other long feathers are cut
The two birds selected for the fight are now carried into the
pit, where the birds are weighed. Each of the galleros then
takes his bird to opposite sides of the pit. Filling their mouths
with cold water they spray it over the birds as a Chinese laundry-
man sprinkles a shirt. At a signal from the manager the birds
are held beak to beak until they snap and bite at each other
with considerable ferocity. Then comes a second signal, and
now the birds are dropped to the ground. They look about, pass
by each other, and then turn with a rush and close in fight.
One springs up, bringing its spur over the other's head, but too
high; and as it reaches the ground its adversary dashes at it,
sending a spur into its eye. A deafening shout ascends from
the backers of the successful bird, while a dismal silence hangs
over the friends of the other. The fight grows more exciting.
The dandified-looking spectator jumps to his feet, waves his
sombrero over his head and offers odds on the first bird; and one
of the brilliantly-dressed young women shakes her bracelet in
response to the wager.
The battle is continued. The cocks leap and lunge at each
other with their spurs; the spectators become wild with excite-
ment; strange words of pleasure or disappointment are shouted;
the galleros leap around the ring, each following his bird and


yelling to encourage it, not, however, being permitted to touch it.
In five minutes streams of blood are coursing down the necks of
the birds and almost blinding them. Still they fight, until a lunge
from one lays its antagonist on the ground. There, as it lies on
its side, it continues to plunge and fight, until at a signal the
galleros seize the birds and take them to their respective corners.
Each man takes his bird, cleans out its mouth, breathes into its
nostrils and again sprays it with cold water, when the birds are
once more set to the battle.
They cut and slash at each other ten minutes longer, when
the bird that but a few moments before lay on its side makes a
desperate dash, sending the spur clear into its opponent's head.
The multitude is in an uproar, and the bird last wounded rolls
over on the ground dead. The victor, weak and shaky, tries
to crow, and then amid the most intense excitement and a con-
fused jabbering of voices, it, too, sinks to the ground, dead, like
its vanquished antagonist. This brutal sport is not a spectacle cal-
culated either to refine or improve humanity; even as a sport in
its lightest and least objectionable form, it is simple and absolute
cruelty. But it is the favorite diversion of these excitable and
light-minded islanders.
On the following day we left Pointe-A-Pitre, and after being
sixteen days at sea, with nothing to relieve the monotony other
than one of the heavy storms that so often sweep the Caribbean
Sea, we anchored at Ceara, Brazil.
We were glad to get to Ceara. The place is neither command-
ing nor attractive, but "any port in a storm! We appre-
ciated lying at anchor in the harbor rather than rolling and
tossing at sea; we appreciated our new-found ability of sitting
at meals with some chance of getting food into our mouths,


rather than the certainty of spilling it down our necks or into
our laps.
From our anchorage, a mile off shore -for there are no
wharves to moor to Ceara does not present an imposing appear-
ance. The town is the capital of the province of the same name
one of the northernmost divisions of the present Republic of
Brazil, and has a population of from twenty to twenty-five thou-
sand. The greater part of the town is not visible from the
point of anchorage, but still, to one not thoroughly accustomed

to tropical scenery, it has a romantic and novel air. Low, square-
looking houses, with red-tiled roofs, all joined together and
forming a sort of unbroken wall; two square towers with black
corners at the top ; two unfinished spires, the tips only to be
seen; a low yellow building with a heavy brick wall of the
same interesting color this was Cerea as seen by us from the
harbor. And mingled with, and surrounding all, are trees not
very tall, but with that luxuriance of foliage only produced by a


tropical sun these were mostly the cocoanut palms. On one
side rises a large bare sand hill, its base flanked with low bushes
and trees. It looked for all the world like a bald head with a
ring of hair around it.
There are no piers, nor even a mole on the water-front of the
bay, hence the first care upon going ashore is to avoid being
capsized in the surf. The craft used by the native watermen is
called ajunghada, and is safer than a ship's boat; it is superior
to it for landing, and should be employed in preference. The
junghada is simply a raft formed of the cabbage palm-tree, the
logs being lashed together and fitted with a mast and a large tri-
angular sail. These rude rafts sail well and swiftly, and are just
the thing for landing on a beach in the surf. Riding in on the
crest of a toppling wave we were driven high and dry on the
beach, and sprang quickly to earth before the following wave
could overtake us.
The center of the town was reached by a walk of a mile
through the hot sand. It took us past miserable huts made of
wattles, and plastered with clay the "palatial" residences of
the colored population and brought us in front of the square-
towered cathedral that formed the most prominent object in the
town. I attempted to enter, but finding the entrance closed, I
continued on to the Hotel de France.
The hotel at Ceara is an elegant mansion at least it was
so advertised. On one side of the narrow main entrance was a
billiard room, with a single French carom table ; on the other side
was a small and dirty salle a manger, while dead ahead I blundered
into a large room kitchen, bedroom, and everything else besides!
I did not prolong my stay, but sallied forth in quest of a som-
brero, as my navy cap gave me nm protection from the hot sun.


Being hatted, I started sight-seeing. As a matter of course,
the Cathedral came first. It was the biggest thing to see, and
wherever we might be, we always made it a rule to commence
at the top, working down gradually to huts and hovels. The en-
trance was now open, and I found myself in a small hall with
galleries similar to those in a theater. The grand altar faced the
doorway, and on either side of the entrance there were shrines,
the patron saints of which were represented by two doll-like
figures not more than three feet high. One was dressed in
womanly garments of red and blue, such as the Virgin Mary is
pictured as wearing; the other was adorned in the Eastern style,
with the air of some unfortunate princess in the Arabian Nights.
She was altogether a rather mysterious-looking person.
Our next visit was to the fortress. Here we saw nothing
worthy of note aside from superanuated guns, dirty stone walls,
and still more dirty soldiers. We had learned to mouth and
mumble enough Portuguese to make the muchachos understand
what we wanted to eat upon arrival at the Hotel de Nacoes.
After an comida (dinner) we sauntered out to the jail, and
were accosted at the great gateway by the formidable-looking
sentries. Podamos entrar ? we demanded. Si, seor "
we were answered, and in we went. One corridor crossed
another, and on either side were cells containing from eight to a
dozen men each; one contained four women. The male pris-
oners were employed in making shoes, straw hats, and them-
selves comfortable; the women and children on the outside of
the gratings, were relatives of the prisoners on a social visit.
Upstairs were several lofts with a few individuals therein.
A very polite corporal, sergeant, or Lord High Chamberlain for
aught we knew, was inclined to be friendly, and insisted that we


should examine every nook and cranny, while all the time he
poured into our ears his babbling jargon of bad Portuguese,
very few words of which we understood.
We remained at this port five days, and after visiting the
cemetery, a sandy, solitary place quite filled with graves among
which were those of two of the sailors of the U. S. S. Mohican"
-we spent most of the time in social enjoyment. I formed many
pleasant acquaintances, two of them being especially agreeable.
These were the lovely seioritas, Juanita and Emilia; charming
young ladies with Castilian features and sparkling black eyes,
raven hair and olive complexion. One must meet these statu-
esque figures in society, and at their homes in evening dress, to
judge justly of their far-famed beauty, and yet I thought them
beautiful even in ordinary house or street dress. I found that
with my letters of introduction I was received with cordial hos-
pitality in the few homes I was privileged to visit; but American
naval officers are especially welcome, and the belles of Ceara are
as strongly attracted by the glitter of brass buttons and gold
lace as are their sisters in the United States. They chat with
you in their rich musical Spanish or Portuguese, perform bril-
liantly upon the piano, dance well, and are delighted with a
At last- all too soon, it seemed to me we had to take our
departure from Ceara. We took away pleasant memories and
photographs of some of the belles; and we left behind little bits
of our hearts. Sailors always do. Our next port of destination
was Rio de Janeiro, the seat of government of what was then
the Empire of Brazil. Fourteen days after leaving Ceara the
Iroquois was making her way into that grand and spacious old
harbor known to all who cruise the Southern Seas.



E XCEPT to the uninitiated, "cros-
sing the line" is a racy if rude ex-
perience. On a hot March forenoon
during our voyage from Ceara to Rio
we crossed the equator. And here we
met King Neptune. Only those who
have actually experienced the line
baptism," as the sailor's first intro-
Sduction to King Neptune and his
bouncing wife Amphitrite is called,
can appreciate just what this first
crossing of the equator means. The
reception is a rude farce practiced
upon all persons who for the first
time cross the equatorial line, and
thus come within the sacred dominions
of King Neptune. One may only escape the rough initiation by
a money tribute.
At about ten o'clock on the March morning aforesaid a harsh
voice, which seemed to come from the depths of the sea, bawled
through a speaking trumpet, Ship ahoy The officer of the
deck (who had, like myself, twice crossed the equator) responded
-' Aye, aye, sir! and those below rushed on deck in the expect-


nation that a ship had been spoken. Then came the second hail:
" What ship is that? Where do you hail from? Our name,
nationality and destination being given, King Neptune and his
queenly consort Amphitrite were observed coming over the star-
board gangway. They were followed by a motley crowd of
courtiers armed with stuffed clubs, immense razors made of sheet-
iron, a bucket of lather into which were thrust a large white-wash
brush, and a piece of board sharpened and toothed like a comb.
The kingly mantle of the god of the sea" was an old tar-
paulin; his legs were encased in great water boots ; on his head
gleamed a yellow-painted crown, and his long hair and "massy
beard" had the suspicious appearance of manilla hemp. His
marine Majesty was as hideous looking a creature as one would
care to see. In one hand he carried a huge telescope, and in
the other a sextant. Neptune and his retinue at once took
charge of the ship, and summoned all of the officers before him
for muster. Those who could not furnish satisfactory evidence
that they had crossed the line before, were taken into custody by
the king's body-guards. Neptune then elevated his sextant for
an observation, and after chalking out his problem on the deck
declared the latitude to be nought, and the ship on the line.
Many dodges to escape tribute were resorted to by the un-
initiated, but the secretaries of the water-god, with huge pen-
cils, would scrawl something on the open books and drawl out,
" The lie is recorded." Those who unhesitatingly paid the trib-
ute in money or in grog," escaped the rough initiation. There
were, however, three on board who were determined to resist this
enforced tribute. They were therefore taken in hand. The first
victim, tightly blindfolded, was conducted before Neptune
Rex," who seated in state upon his throne, directed that the


usual questions be put. A spy-glass was then handed to the
initiate, and as he elevated it he saw a sharp line made by a
piece of thread stretched across the lens. When asked if he
saw the line, he attempted to answer, but as his mouth opened
to reply it was stopped with a douse of lather. The next
question was followed by the
Thrust of a tooth brush, dipped
-i / n a black mixture, which the
sufferer was informed was a
new kind of dentifrice. Then
the sheet-iron razor was drawn
roughly across his face, and
the initiate was informed that
She was at liberty to enter the
4 realms of Neptune. As he
rose to his feet he received
a push and at once fell into
a great tub of water. This
was the line baptism." So,
one after the other, the three
recalcitrant ones passed
through the ordeal, when Nep-
tune and his courtiers fell into
line and disappeared over the
side. It is needless to say that the actors in this sea-masque"
were members of the crew of the Iroquois.
We were now in what the sailors call the doldrums," drifting
along under a frying sun, upon an ocean of molten brass. The
occasional draught of air that touched us now and then expired
in its efforts to reach us. A week of this is horribly monotonous.


Hour after hour, day after day, one beholds always the same
placid sea, the same unruffled swell, the same cloudless sun
flashing at mid-day. The heat fell straight upon our heads; our
eyes were made sore with its fiercely-burning reflection from the
water; the tar oozed from the deck seams. Added to this never-
varying monotony of the equator came the constant hauling
of braces and of tacks, and the almost continuous shifting
about of the sails in order to catch every breath of air, the
officer of the deck testing its direction by the wetting of the ends
of his fingers.
Tiring of the doldrums after seventy-two hours' acquaintance
with them, fires were made under the boilers, the propellor was
lowered in its place, and we steamed along till we ran into the
"trades." Then we again hauled our fires, and on the tenth of
April arrived at the entrance of the harbor of Rio de Janeiro.
No town was to be seen at the entrance of this most beautiful,
most secure and most spacious bay in the world. A range of
granite mountains encircles the harbor. At the left of the
entrance rises the peak so often described by travelers. It is
higher than its neighbors, and of that peculiar conical form
which gives it the name of Sugar Loaf." I must confess to a
slight feeling of disappointment with regard to the height of this
famous hill; but, as with Niagara Falls, time changed this feel-
ing to one of wonder and admiration. It was truly a strange
freak of Dame Nature to place such an immense block of granite,
so like a grim sentinel, just at the harbor's mouth. All round
the bay the blue waters are girdled with mountains and lofty
hills in every variety of picturesque and fantastic outline. The
most attractive of these is "Lord Hood's Nose." Curious as to
the cause of this title, I found, by looking at the peak horizon-


ally, that the outline of the top was a capital representation of
the profile of some such aristocratic old English noble as one
sees in portraits of the British peerage.
Steaming along we came at last to the entrance of the harbor.
It is only seventeen hundred yards wide, and to me it seemed
to bear about the same proportion to the circular harbor within
as the entrance to the ring of a circus bears to the entire tent.
The harbor contains fifty square miles of anchorage, is
flanked by beautiful hills and dotted with many islands. Its
entrance is protected by a number of formidable-looking fort-
resses. The city stands on the west shore of the bay, about
four miles from its mouth. As we came to anchor the main
part of the city lay on our left, at the foot of the hills. The
most notable peak, old Corcovada, towered above the clouds;
while many, fully as high, are clustered around it.
The old town, nearest the bay, is laid out in squares; the
streets, crossing at right angles, are narrow, but paved and
flagged; and the white-walled houses with roofed vermilion tiles
are commonly two stories high. The new town is built to the
west, and the two districts are separated by the Campo de Santa
Anna. This is an immense park or square, on different parts of
which stand an extensive garrison, the town hall, the National
Museum, the palace of the Senate, the foreign office, and other
prominent buildings.
The square gray towers of the mosque-like cathedrals, an old
convent on a hill, the custom house near the water's edge and a
cluster of the world's shipping, make up the main town. On the
side toward "Sugar Loaf" stands the town of Bota Fogo, to
which old-fashioned stages make frequent trips. On the opposite
side of the bay is the village called Porto Grande, to which a


couple of old-fashioned ferry-boats run on irregular trips. Great
municipal improvements have been made in recent years; the
streets though narrow are as well-paved as are those in many of
our own towns, and the city is abundantly lighted with gas.


From our anchorage, the great circle of regular gas-lights
around the water-front reminds one of a vast torch-light proces-
sion, with the deputations from the several wards filing in to
join the main body. The water-front has also commodious
wharves and quays built along its edge, and this capital city of
what is now the Brazilian Republic, has about fifty chapels and
churches, costly and imposing structures with rich internal
decorations. There are also numerous hotels and caf6s.


Fronting the landing is the Royal Palace, from which, in
1889, the Imperial family was expelled. At the time of our visit
the Empire was undisturbed and royalty was almost democratic.
The old Emperor, Dom Pedro II., seemed to care nothing for
splendor. He usually rode in an ordinary black coach, drawn
by six mules. Twelve negro cavalrymen followed after, their
discipline not too strict to prevent them from smoking cigarettes
as they escorted his Brazilian Majesty. The coachmen and foot-
men seemed almost shabby in worn suits and silver lace. The
Emperor wore the plainest of black clothes, and was very cour-
teous to all who approached him. He had aged rapidly since his
visit to the United States, at the time of the Centennial Exposi-
tion in 1876. To me he appeared to show a great increase of
age since the day when I first saw him in 1863. On a voyage
during that year to San Francisco by the way of the "Horn "
and the Straits of Magellan, on the new Pacific Mail Steamship
Golden City, we stopped at Rio Janeiro, and both the Emperor
and the Empress visited the steamer. Apparently not afraid of
soiling either their persons or their clothes, they visited every
part of the vessel from the keelson to the hurricane deck.
After making a vast collection of the brilliant Brazilian
beetles and gorgeous feather flowers, for which Rio is noted, the
Iroquois, on April 25, bade farewell to the Western world and
sailed to the southwest, bound for Simon's Town, at the Cape of
Good Hope.
The details of an ocean voyage are generally monotonous.
There would have been with us little to vary this monotony on
the stretch from Rio de Janeiro to the Cape of Good Hope, had
it not been for one or two experiences of bad weather. With
the wind fair and steady, an ocean voyage on a steamer or a


sailing vessel presents an almost daily succession of the same
scenes. The broad ocean stretches away on either hand like a
level waste; the sky is clothed in the apparently endless sun-
shine of the tropics. The lazy, even motion of the goodly ship;
the mechanical movements of the sailors; the regular reliefs of
the officers; the daily quarters; the morning drills at the great
guns or with broadswords, and the evening parades; the appear-
ance of a sea-bird or two, mostly Mother Carey's chickens; a
group of tumbling porpoises, or a cluster of flying fishes these
are the features of a tranquil voyage, so far as they attract the
attention of an ordinary observer.
To one of speculative mind or with a lively imagination an
ocean voyage always affords ample food for thought. For such
an one the wonders of the deep and of the sky may well attract,
interest and absorb. To such, the shifting colors of the sea, and
its varying expanse now ribbed with waves like the dimples of
a pool, now heaving into long rolling ridges of dark green, cres-
ted with snowy foam; the phosphorescent wake of the ship on
a moonlight night; the white silvery sails bellied out smoothly
with the wind; the soft sigh of the gentle breeze; the dull roar
of the distant gale all these are matters of intense pleasure.
But one day the wind rose quite suddenly. It came in such.
violent and uncertain gusts, that it was not many hours before
it settled into a steady gale and we were running under a close-
reefed foresail and a storm staysail. Tarpaulins were brought
out to batten down the hatches, life-lines were stretched; the
seas rose in their might, sweeping with such great force along the
deck that even the guns had to be secured with extra tacklings.
The orders of the officers could hardly be heard above the shriek-
ing and howling winds; the heavy black, low-hanging clouds


seemed to vie with one another in their swift transit above us;
the ship rolled and pitched, now seemingly going upward with
her bows as if she would pierce the heavens, the next instant
plunging down into the deep abyss, with an immense seething
sea rolling up ahead of her as if challenging our power to battle
with it. Then she would roll- oh how she would roll. The
third-rate navy vessels have a well-earned reputation in that line,
and the Iroquois was no exception. The wardroom furniture,
or whatever else might not be secured to the deck, went rolling
and tumbling about. To sleep, or even to lie in one's berth at
such a time, was almost out of the question, and the only safety
from being unceremoniously thrown from the berths and landed
in a heap on the floor of the room, was to strap one's self
in. During such times our regular daily bill of fare was sadly
interrupted. A dinner was what the insurance companies would
call an extra-hazardous risk. Soup was dispensed with. So, in
fact, were the other courses, and our meals were mainly of bread
and coffee, sardines or canned meats.
The wind weirdly whistling through the rigging; the creak-
ing and groaning of the strained ship's timbers; the roaring of
the commands of the officers; the running about on deck of
heavy-booted men; the ringing of the bell at each half-hour,
the number of strokes noting the time; the rattling-of chains
and ropes as the sails were shortened or reefed; the sudden
loud report as again and again a sail was rent in ribbons; the
rush of a heavy sea sweeping a boat from the davits, were the
chief elements in the savage and exciting experience of a storm
on the ocean. It made us almost wish that Diaz, the Portuguese
navigator, who attempted to precede Columbus in his discovery
of America, had never discovered the Cape of Good Hope.





At last, after thirty-two days at sea, the cheering hail "Land,
ho! came from aloft. "Where away ?" shouted the officer
of the deck. One point on the port bow came the reply
from the masthead lookout. An hour later the outlines of old
Stormberg, one of the peaks near the Cape, with its top nine
thousand feet above the sea, were plainly traced. Intending to
neglect Cape Town and go on the east side, to Simon's Bay, for
harbor, repairs and fresh provisions, our course was changed to



the southward. At sundown we sighted Lion's Head, one of
the mountains that flank Cape Town, the capital of Cape Colony,
and, behind, one could make out the great precipices of Table
On the morning of the twenty-seventh of May we anchored
in Simon'sBay, opposite the settlement known as Simon's Town.
We remained here about a week. During our stay dinners and
receptions were given to the officers; horseback rides to the
vineyards were taken; we played billiards, called at the clubs,
at which every hospitality was extended us, and carried on the
usual innocent flirtations. The town is inhabited by an assem-


blage of varied races, the English and Kaffirs predominating.
There are also a few Mozambiquers and Hottentots, besides a
number of half-castes. Wool appears to be the staple product
of the colony, although ostrich farming and grape culture are
extensively carried on. The place, except when an English,
French or American war-vessel visits it, is dull and lifeless.
Then, however, everyone awakens from the usual lethargy, and
entertainments are at once improvised, so that Cape Town may
not be the only attraction. A more sociable people can hardly
be found than the good folk at Simon's Town and naval officers
find welcome in every home. We had been here only forty-eight
hours when the flagship of the Asiatic British Squadron stopped
on her way to England. The old English admiral was a jolly
fellow, and we met him at dinner on his vessel, on our vessel, and
on shore. He always had a good surfeit of fresh stories at com-
mand, and would entertain his company for hours, keeping them
roaring with laughter.
I remember well how the old officer gave us our first impres-
sions of Jnpan and the life and habits of its people. As we were
to spend a year among the islands, we were much interested in
learning something beforehand. He treated of the islanders
generally, but dwelt seriously upon their mode of dress and their
festival customs. He warned us not to be over-fastidious; that
we would no doubt have our ideas of morals encroached upon and
perhaps be disgusted, but we would become so accustomed to
these native peculiarities in a week's time that we would not even
notice them. His predictions proved true.
One most agreeable diversion at Simon's Town was our daily
ride to the numerous vineyards situated about fifteen miles in the
interior. Here we would sample the various native wines and


invariably pronounce them good." I have not yet seen
any of our testimonials in print; but as we were novices rather
than connoisseurs, our opinions would scarcely prove of mercan-
tile value.
Before leaving the Cape Colony I had, through the courtesy
of the English proprietor, the privilege of visiting an ostrich
ranch. I was furnished with a guide, or rather "we were, for
there were a half-dozen of us in the party. Our guide was par-
ticularly watchful to see that no inquisitive American helped
himself to plumes from the seventy birds of the ranch. Stop-
ping in front of a pen I made bold to ask the guide where the
birds roosted? I also inquired how it was that
the birds did not run their heads into the sand
when they appeared so afraid of us? My guide
enlightened me by cynically inquiring whether
I had studied the characteristics of the ostrich
beyond the common school primer. I was
forced to admit that I had not. He then in-
formed me that a tame adult ostrich is not
only afraid of nothing, but that it would be
dangerous to go into its pen.
His assurance would have been sufficient,
but to still further convince me he sprang into a
pen in which there
was a large male
bird. It was at
least eight feet
high, and as it ap-
proached the guide
OSTRICHES. it looked at his


head as if to find the most presentable spot to peck; then, brac-
ing back, it pitched forward, then back again and forward on
its knees. Then the big bird lifted its wings, threw its neck back
and gave several severe thrusts of its head upon either side of its
back. The guide had with him a pole, crotched at the end.
This was used not to anger the ostrich, but to place against the
bird's neck if it should show fight. As the bird kicks forward
this crotched pole pins and overpowers it. The legs of the ostrich
are enormously powerful, and the two toes armed with formidable
claws look treacherous indeed. Each bird eats about forty pounds
of grass a day, in addition to corn, vegetables and pulverized
The male birds are distinguishable by their black plumage
and white tail and wing feathers, the females by their brownish
gray color, and smaller stature. The nest of the hen-bird is
made in the ground, where she lays from twelve to fifteen eggs
weighing four or five pounds each. If the eggs are taken away
from the hen she will sometimes lay thirty (a suggestion that
may be of value to those interested in incubators). The birds
while sitting take turns on the nest, the female bird sitting from
sunrise till sunset, and the male bird from sunset to sunrise. It
takes forty-two days to hatch out the eggs, and the chicks are
brooded from four to six weeks by the old hen. An ordinary
hen ostrich will produce three broods a year. They begin to
lay eggs when about four years old, but, like wine, they improve
with age.
The ostrich is plucked of its plumage about once every seven
months. Each bird, irrespective of sex, produces two dozen
living white plumes. The incentive for ostrich farming in South
Africa is that, as an article of export, ostrich plumes rank next


to the diamond, and the business has assumed immense propor-
tions. It is estimated that in the Cape Colony alone ten million
pounds are invested in the ostrich business. So jealous are the
South Africans of such other sections as have endeavored to de-
velop the business that an immense export duty has been placed
both on the birds and their eggs.



IT was on the third of June that the boats-
wain's whistle shrilled on deck, and his sten-
torian tones commanded: "All hands up anchor
ahoy! When the fluke of the anchor
showed above the water, the ship's nose was
pointed seaward. Then, with a parting salute
from the guns of the fort, amid the dipping
; of colors, and the waving of handkerchiefs, we
steamed out of the harbor and headed up the
i, I' Mozambique Channel.
Five days later we anchored in the quiet
and roomy harbor of St. Augustine, Madagas-
car. Here we spent three days of varied
Our pilot was a character in himself. He
met us about a mile outside the harbor, and
we engaged his services for twelve silver half-dollars. Before
long we discovered that our pilot was a prince in disguise. He
was none other than Prince George, a son of King William, the
executive of this part of Madagascar. The prince's only insignia
of rank was a round, flat piece of ivory, about two inches in
diameter, fastened upon his forehead. His body was entirely
naked, with the exception of a loin-cloth made of cheap calico,


and a short skirt of white muslin. He wore several rings on his
fingers; home-made affairs hammered out from pieces of silver
coin obtained from the whalers who sometimes stop here for
chickens and yams. His hair was gathered up in about twenty
small knobs, each besmeared with a white grease.
The settlement is one of the largest native habitations on
the island. It has a population of perhaps two hundred, housed
in small mud-huts, not more than three feet in height, and
rounded up from the sides, having as entrance-way an opening
only large enough to crawl through. In each of these huts
live a man, his wife, and perhaps two or three children.
Hardly had we cast anchor before a number of the officers,
myself included, obtained permission to go on shore to see the
sights." We saw them, but, at one time, had grave appre-
hensions. Our Colt's revolvers, which we were thoughtful
enough to strap around our waists, overcame the prejudice of
the natives, and spared the Government's pension fund from
encroachment by our heirs, executors and assigns.
We wandered back from the coast, but had not gone more
than a half a mile when about thirty naked natives, armed with
long spears, suddenly emerged from the bush and surrounded
us. They began to mumble an unintelligible jargon, and we re-
verted to our youthful days and tried to recall the prayers we had
been taught before we received our first lesson at hazing at the
Naval Academy. We concluded that they were expressing their
thanks to their god -whoever he might be -that they were so
soon to have a delicious feast, although none of us were fat enough
to kill. We tried to make. them understand this at first, but as
their manner and movements grew more menacing, we concluded
that valor was the better part of discretion, and drew out our


big navy revolvers. The result was a great reassurance to us,
and I became convinced that there was at least one people on
the earth who could be made to quail before the American Navy.
We fired a few shots from our revolvers into the air, where-
upon our black, unclothed, grease-besmeared and cannibalistic
friends fell back and permitted us to pass on unmolested. But
curiosity, with us, was now at an end. We had no craving
desire for a further survey of the interior of the island, and we
speedily returned to the settlement to observe and be observed.
The nati-es, men, women and children alike, were inclined to
be familiar, but as, in Madagascar, familiarity would breed -
vermin -we kept them at a favorable distance.
The village consists of about forty huts, of a half-globe shape
six feet in diameter, and made of thatch. The entrance is
through a small hole, rendering it necessary to crawl inside in
a horizontal position. In this hut the entire family eat, drink
and sleep. The only furniture of the mansion seemed to be the
bare ground, and a rude shelter between the inmates and the
hot tropical sun and the rains. The food of the villagers is prin-
cipally buffalo meat, chickens, Indian corn and sweet potatoes.
With a few pieces of silver we could buy the entire settle-
ment, including the women and children; but gold is looked
upon as base metal of no more value than brass would be, and
as they have no use for money, excepting to hammer it into
trinkets and ornaments, the silver is used for this purpose. We
laid in a good stock of provisions at the following prices: a
buffalo carcass for eight half-dollar pieces; a sheep for two yards
of calico; four dozen chickens for eight silver half-dollars;
twenty-five ears of green corn and two bushels of sweet potatoes
for a plug of tobacco, worth eighty-three cents.


On the following day we were visited by the royal family,
King William, Prince George and several chiefs. Each native
carried a spear, each wore upon his forehead a circular piece of
ivory, and the royal robes of office were similar to the costume
of Prince George already described. They sat about on the
deck, on the captain's table or berth, and upon other places con-
venient for them excepting on the big guns and rested per-
fectly content, all the time carrying on, between themselves, a
conversation in an unintelligible gibberish. The royal visitors
would have remained longer than was agreeable had we not
impressed upon them the impropriety of stopping away from
their wives and families after starlight.
But daylight, the next morning, witnessed the advanced guard
of the village coming to pay the ship a visit. They clambered on
board and wandeed about the ship below and above, without so
much as asking "by your leave." After exchanging quarters
and half-dollars, and old files for some of their spears, and not
desiring to barter for any of their vermin, we cordially invited
them to leave. But they hesitated. Observing that the entire
village had embarked in their outriggers, and were intending to
visit us, we concluded it a good time to have a little target prac-
tice with the great guns, utilizing a huge bowlder on the beach
as a target. The second shot had not been fired before the
natives scrambled into their boats and pulled toward the shore,
evidently believing that we intended to destroy their village.
Ceasing our firing we observed the village again afloat and com-
ing toward us. Then we resumed our target practice, and the
natives, seeing with what facility we shattered our natural target,
went ashore again. This time they ran back into the country
and we were troubled no more.


Early on the morning of July 13 we weighed anchor and set
sail, laying our course up the Mozambique Channel. Eleven
days later we anchored in the harbor of Moosamoodoo, Island of
Johanna. This is one of the Comoro Islands, of which there
are four, of volcanic origin, and at the upper end of the Mozam-
bique Channel between the northern end of Madagascar and the
African coast. The four islands are, the Angaziya or Great.
Comoro, Arijonan or Johanna, Mayotta and Mohilla. They are
mountainous, the highest peak rising above six thousand feet.
The inhabitants, about eighty thousand, are principally Moham-
medans, but fetichism or the worship of supposed magical
powers prevails to some extent.
Mayotta was ceded to France in 1842. The other islands
belong to Arabia. The people of Johanna find their principal
employment in connection with ships calling for provisions.
The trade of Comoro and Mohilla is of the same character, but
the islands are not now so much frequented for the purpose of
victualing as was the case in former years.
When within two miles of the entrance of the harbor of
Moosamoodoo, a boat came alongside with some of the principal
men of the island one of them a pilot. This boat, we learned,
was formerly the fourth cutter of the Rebel privateer Alabama,
a notable destroyer of the seas which had touched at these
islands in February, 1864. The costume of the men of Moosa-
moodoo was decidedly attractive. It consisted of white robes
with loose jackets, and a silken girdle about the waist, each
supporting a cimeter, the scabbards and handles elaborately
finished with gold and silver in the etruscan work peculiar to the
Arabs. These cimeters are purchased at Muscat, and cost from
one hundred tc. five hundred rupees each (fifty dollars to two


hundred and fifty dollars each). Our visitors' feet were incased
in sandals, and large white turbans adorned their heads. Many
of them spoke English with fluency, and French as well. Within
half an hour after dropping our anchor our decks swarmed with


the natives, but there was not that objection to their presence
that we found with the Madagascans.
Upon going on deck the next morning I was struck with the
soft picturesque beauty of the hills as they lay in the morning
sun which lighted up their tops and sides, and threw the ravines
and valleys into shades of night. I was lulled by the roar of
the surf upon the rough beach. It was delightful to sniff the
fragrance of the land as it came to us upon the dew-laden wings


of the softest breezes. After lunch I visited the town, which,
from our anchorage, made so picturesque a picture, with its tall
minaret, its two forts -one perched on a hill commanding the
town, and the other upon the beach among the stone-houses.
But the illusion was rudely dispelled upon reaching the shore.
We landed upon a beach of rocks and shells, and through a con-
siderable surf even in the calmest of weather. Along the shore
was strewn the washed clothes of the officers and crew; and a
set of vagabond-looking natives of all colors, save that of the
Caucasian, were lounging about, looking curiously on.
The town we found dilapidated and squalid to the last de-
gree; the houses of rough stone, cemented and thatched; the
streets not more than five feet wide, and horribly crooked. The
town is also inclosed by a stone wall, of perhaps twenty feet in
height. At each corner of the inclosure a gateway scarcely
wide enough for two persons to pass at the same time, furnishes
an entrance to the town. This wall was built as a sort of de-
fense against the pirates, who, some years ago, were in the habit
of visiting the island and plundering the people of everything,
even to their slaves. Slavery is carried on to a large extent on
the islands; and the Sultan of Johanna owns seven hundred,
whom he keeps principally to till his lands on the east side of
the island. The other Arabs own plantations and slaves, but
not to the same extent as the sultan. The people here com-
plained greatly of the oppressions practiced upon them by the
English who, they assert, are strong enough to interfere in
everybody's business, and to threaten us with the exercise of
their power if we bring over any more slaves from the main."
The slaves would gladly go to the island, as their native chiefs
are continually making war and enslaving one another.


The inhabitants of the island, in great part a mixture of
Arabs and negroes, are intelligent and sprightly. They purchase
many cotton goods from the American whalers, but their oppor-
tunities were disastrously interrupted during our Civil War,
as Captain Semmes and his murderous crew of the Alabama,
captured and burned all American vessels coming in their way.
The highest parts of Johanna are densely wooded, and the
mountainous sides are so steep in some places that the tops of
some of the trees touch the trunks and roots of others. The
language, a peculiar Arabic dialect of the island, is very soft
and pleasing to the ear.
One of our few places of visit was the home of Prince Abdal-
lah, and I was struck with its novelty, as well as with the ex-
treme beauty of face and physical build of this pure and full-
blooded Arab. He was a tall, soldierly-looking fellow, with
square shoulders, broad hips, well-proportioned limbs, olive com-
plexion, finely-cut features, black eyes, black hair and a shining
black heavy moustache. I was also surprised with the beauty
of one of his three wives, who I chanced accidentally to see with
her mask raised. The walls of his princely home were filled with
a number of small niches, receptacles for coffee cups, ornaments,
and everything imaginable. A number of couches were ranged
around the room, and the floors were covered with rich and
heavy Turkish carpets and rugs.
I afterwards visited the homes of two other minor princes, in
which I found everything half-way clean, with an attempt at
tawdry finery. A black houri was set to fan me, and a crowd
of half-dirty children gathered around us, but no representative
of the full-grown fairer sex. The women of this country are
kept perfectly secluded from all men, except their fathers,


brothers or husbands, until they become old and homely; and
if a girl or women has occasion to go on the street, it must be
with her face behind a tricornered mask, with her eyes peeping
over the top of it.
We were always served with refreshments upon each visit -
confections and rose syrup, the strongest drink used on the island.
No wine, malt or distilled liquors are allowed to be used under
a severe penalty; fifty lashes on the bare soles of the feet must
pay for each offense, or the culprit must sit in the stocks under
the broiling hot sun for four or five weeks. After refreshments
we walked into the prince'. garden, a beautiful wilderness of
betel and cocoanuts, mandarin orange and mango-trees, with
heterogeneous patches of rice, sweet potatoes and beans, and here
and there a cotton-plant. Slave huts dotted the garden, and
walls of loose stones ran along crooked lanes and by-ways. As
we walked along, after leaving the garden, some of the people
were seen at prayer, and others were preparing their evening
meal. People met us with kindly greetings, and the Cadi, a
venerable-looking old man, stopped to wish me a safe return to
my home. From the parapet of the fort I enjoyed an excellent
view of the town. A short distance away was the mosque, to
which I paid a visit, being careful before entering to remove my
shoes, as did the natives.
After extending our stroll a little further we made our way
to the beach and returned to the vessel to lunch. On the beach
we encountered the Johanna army a company of about forty
soldiers being drilled in the manual of arms by their command-
ant. Their movements were as awkward as the soldiers whom
I have seen in Hayti, and on the Isthmus of Panama. But their
dress was a feature : white trousers, red coats and red caps -


condemned uniforms purchased from the English soldiers.
Scarcely any of them had a button on their coats, and, having
no means of sewing, they were fastened together with strings.
The soldiers were the blackest of slaves, and the most miserable-
looking set of beings one could expect to see. After lunch our


P~~h / ; 1-


__--- ---_ __='- -
; -.'- ~-r-v: ^s -t; r,_':


commander, with a few of the officers, went ashore. They were
received in regal style by the "army," detailed on this day as
the body-guard of the sultan. We were escorted to the resi-
dence of Prince Abdallah, a band of music preceding us. It con-
sisted of two drums and a clarionet, each musician playing inde-
pendently of the other, and much resembled the music of two tin


pans and a fish-horn. On Friday, which, by the way, is the
Mohammedan Sabbath, though not kept so rigidly as our Puri-
tan Sabbath, we were visited by several princes cousins-ger-
man of the sultan one of them being the commander-in-chief
of the army.
The next day the princes and other chief noblemen visited
us in force. The high priest was also with them. He was a fine-
looking personage, an Arab by descent, with a well-developed
forehead, and an easy, gentlemanly bearing. He wore a hand-
some gold and silver mounted cimeter at his side, and was evi-
dently held in high esteem by his people. After the usual ex-
change of courtesies our visitors returned to their palaces. In
the afternoon the captain and a few other officers paid an official
visit to the sultan. Our reception on shore was similar to that
of the day previous, with the exception that the captain was
given the position of state in a palanquin a silk upholstered
chair, fastened on two bars and carried on the shoulders of a
dozen slaves. Arrived at the palace the sultan and his staff
received us in official robes, and conducted us to the reception
parlor, which was gorgeously furnished. We drank one another's
health over a glass of sherbet, as well as that of the President
of the United States, and after an hour's informal chat took
our leave.
On Sunday the Prime Minister paid an official visit to the
ship to announce that the sultan would pay his respects to the
officers on Monday. Promptly at noon on the day following
Sultan Abdallah, with his princes and staff, came off to the ship.
He was preceded by a boat in which was that irrepressible band
still hard at its alleged music, and reminding me very forcibly of
what a home for foundlings might be on a Christmas morning


after drums and trumpets had been liberally distributed among
its small inmates.
In the full-dress uniform of the Navy, we received our royal
visitors and greeted them with the firing of a salute of twenty-
one guns. The sultan expressed a very favorable opinion of
the vessel, and seemed to be specially interested with the en-
gineer's department. His Highness was a fine-looking, well-
formed person, apparently about forty years of age. He had a
moderate harem of four wives. This is not an over-supply, ex-
cept when provisions are expensive. But then food is nearly as
cheap here as in Madagascar. Perhaps the sultan would not
object to a dozen wives, if the Arabic law did not limit him to
four. The sultan is well-educated, and writes and speaks English
and French fluently. One of the laws of the island, which might
operate well in our own country, provides that a person found
guilty of petty larceny shall, for the first offense, have one of his
hands cut off; for the second offense he loses the other hand.
It may be well to note that few persons have lost a hand, and
there are none who have had both hands cut off.



O N the morning of the thirtieth of
S July we sailed out of the harbor of
S 4' Moosamoodoo; and if our personal com-
fort had been a consideration above the
interests of the Government, our ship's
nose would have been pointed to the south-
ward rather than toward the equator.
Our next stopping place was to be Aden,
the Arabian seaport at the mouth of the Red
S Sea, and the westward key to the East Indies.
S From the Comoro Islands to the Seychelles,
the change in temperature was very agreeable, and
the nights were cooled by a delightful breeze. The
third day out we had a terrific gale. The seas rose in their
might, sweeping over the decks with great force and carrying
before them everything that could be loosened. With hatches
battened down, ship-life became frightfully uncomfortable. But
then the experience was no worse than it had been a score
of times.
On August 9 we rounded the island of Socotra and entered
the Arabian Gulf. The next day our ship's carpenter Gerry died,
a victim to patent medicines. We tried to keep his body till we


should reach Aden, and give him a Christian burial on shore; but
decomposition set in a few hours after his death, and it became
necessary to bury him at sea. The body was sewed in canvas,
and weighted with a couple of hundred pounds of iron. It
was borne by the sailors to the port gangway; the officers and
crew were piped to the gangway; the engines were stopped, and
after reading the service for the burial of the dead," the body
was slid from a plank into the sea, and the ship proceeded upon
her journey. It was the first death that had occurred on board
since we left New York, and was our only loss of life on the
voyage, with the exception of the sailor who had been washed
overboard during the storm in the Caribbean Sea.
Twelve days after leaving the island of Johanna we dropped
anchor off Steamer Point, Aden being about four miles distant.
There are few white people in this city, which is called by the
native Arabs Aden, or Eden (Paradise), because of its fine climate
and its once celebrated commerce. The city has a population of
about ten thousand. One tenth of this number are of that branch
of the Persians known as Parsees, differing from the Persians only
in their religion. The rest of the people are English, Arabs and
Jews. No sooner had our anchor touched the bottom than the
latter swarmed about us. They were burdened with ostrich feath-
ers, lion and leopard skins, attar of roses, and other articles of
barter, any of which could be purchased at one tenth of the original
price asked. The current money is the rupee and the anna ";
the former a silver coin of the value of forty-five cents United
States money, the latter worth about three cents, and minted by
the East Indies Company.
Several of us took an early opportunity to visit the city
of Aden. Hiring camels we were soon speeding our way along


the road. This camel-riding was, to us, a novel mode of transporta-
tion. The gaunt angularity and uncouth appearance of the beast
added to the novelty; and its noiseless movement over the
sand has appropriately given it the name of the Ship of the
Desert." The amble of the camel, which is a curious amalgama-
tion of a simultaneous rolling and pitching, has its advantages.
The rider may sit sideways, backwards, or in the orthodox fashion,
with his feet in or out of the stirrups; he may let his legs dan-
gle carelessly, or sit cross-legged after the manner of Turks and
tailors, without fear of his equanimity being disturbed by the
stumbling, kicking, shying, or bolting, for the camel is a sure-
footed animal.
The riding-gear consists of a large double pad of goat's hair
cloth, stuffed with grass or straw, and thrown over the back
of the beast. A wooden frame-work of sticks, with a pair of
conical pommels four feet high, is placed on the pad, and this
is covered with carpets and cushions. Upon this superstruc-
ture the traveler is perched. The harness is completed by a
twisted bridle of goat's and camel's hair fastened over the animal's
nose. The camel has some of the obstinate traits of a mule, and
will oppose you until you prove yourself the master; it will lie
down if it thinks it has too much upon its back, and until some of
the load is removed, will refuse to rise, even though you should
beat it to death. When its burden is lightened the camel will
trudge along merrily if a beast with so sullen a heart can ever
be called merry. Treat the camel kindly, pat it on the shoulder,
speak to it gently, or sing to it a song, and it will turn its head
toward you with a pleasant twinkle of the eye, as if to express
The pace in camel-riding is steady and uniform, but slow;

- :/-4

--l -~





yet the long strides take one over the ground almost as fast as
would a trotting pony. To mount, to ride and to dismount
are all awkward proceedings. That you may mount, the camel
kneels and you straddle its back, or rather jump into the saddle;
then, as the beast rises, you have a feeling of light-headedness,
occasioned by the rapidity of the action and the distance covered.
To dismount, the beast again prostrates himself. Persons who
have never used this method of transportation can know little
about the sensation of those who take passage by camel. You
soon realize that it is possible to become seasick on dry land, and
you get down from the hump with as much gratitude as comes
to a seasick man when at last he lands in New York from a
pitching ocean steamer.
The changes of scenery on the journey to Aden were magnifi-
cent. The fortifications commanding the harbor are some of the
best and most formidable I have ever seen. Midway between
Steamer Point and the city there has been hewn from the solid
rock a magnificent system of cisterns for collecting the rain-
water from the surrounding circle of hills. These cisterns range
from the bottom to the top of the mountain, and are each about
thirty feet square and fifty feet deep. Their total capacity is about
thirty millions of gallons. The builders of these massive cisterns
are unknown, but it is presumed that they were constructed several
hundred years ago.
This is the most remarkable country that I ever saw for rain
-or rather the scarcity of rain. Most of the water used for
drinking and cooking is condensed from the sea water. I am told
that it has not really rained more than once in the past five or
six years; although once in four or five months there is a light


Aden is a dilapidated-looking town, but it has become more
important since the completion of the Suez Canal. The houses
are built of stone and cement ; they are about twenty feet high,
and are perfectly smooth on the out-
side. It is a thriving place, and most
of the business is monopolized by the
Parsees. A single visit is sufficient
for pleasure, for at every step you meet
a dozen or more curb-stone peddlers
who thrust their wares into your face
and almost force you to buy. We re-
mained here five days, to coal and
make a few repairs, then took our de-
parture for Muscat.
We were ten days at sea between
Aden and Muscat. The long passage
was due to the light breezes which
barely gave our vessel steerage-way
under sail. But our three days' visit
Sto this important capital of 'Oman in
sArabia and its center of trade, were
I- I profitably spent. Muscat, or more pro-
perly Maskat, is a large town, situated
on the Gulf of 'Oman, and in the gorge
of an extensive pass which cleaves the
-- -- dark mountain walls behind the city
A.... and widens as it advances into the
interior. From our anchorage the city
presents a fine view. But, after landing, the illusion is dispelled.
It consists of narrow, crowded and filthy streets; wretched huts,


intermingled with mean and squalid houses; and filthy bazaars, the
proprietors of which are money brokers, vegetable, cotton and
silk goods dealers, and an indolent, filthy and corrupt class of
Persians and Arabs. The palace of the Sultan, Synnd Silem,
the Governor's house and some other buildings, are good and sub-
stantial, and stand on the beach. The population of Muscat, and
of the adjoining town of Matrah, which is simply a large collec-
tion of huts, about two miles distant, is estimated at about seventy
thousand ; it consists of a mixed race of Turks, Persians, Arabs,
Syrians, Kurds, Afghans, Belochees, Indians and others. They
are chiefly engaged in commercial and maritime pursuits. The
principal body of merchants are the Banians, who almost exclu-
sively monopolize the pearl trade of the Persian Gulf. They also
deal very heavily in attar of roses, which can be purchased for
six rupees (three dollars) a bottle. Each bottle contains about
a hundred drops, or a little more than a teaspoonful of the pre-
cious liquid. One needs to be shrewd, however, or he will be
imposed upon with an adulterated article.
The most common language you hear is the Hindoostanee.
Our official visit to the sultan was made on the day after our
arrival, and we were handsomely entertained with sherbet, coffee,
dates and confections. The residence of the sultan, like all Turk-
ish houses, was divided into two distinct parts; the selamlik for
the men, and the haremlik for the women. The latter had as many
separate suites of apartments as there are women. A Turk who
has but one wife--there are few who do not have more-
may require a large haremlik, if his mother and sisters live with
him; for each must have her private suite of rooms and servants
for her separate use. No crowding nor mixing of domestics is
permitted in a well-ordered establishment in Muscat; so that,


should there be four wives, they need never see one another
unless they please. The first wife, who takes precedence over
all others while she lives, is called the hanum." She has a
right to the best rooms, and to a fixed portion of her husband's
income, which he must not reduce to minister to the caprice of
the younger spouses. These points are, as a rule, settled through
the ulemass," or priests, before the marriage; therefore a
hanum's jointure is as safe as is that of a French woman who has
her marriage contract drawn up by a notary.
Monogamy has become more and more the rule among the
Turks of the higher class, in recent years; and even among those
who have two or three wives, the hanum has gradually come to be
regarded as having the same rank as the mistress of the Christian
home. She visits and entertains the hanums of other gentlemen,
but keeps aloof from wives of the second and other degrees.
These are not equals in her sight, being generally women of a
lower social status, who have not brought any dower to their hus-
bands. Time was when a pacha would take four wives of equal
degree; that is, daughters of other pachas, or of the sultan, and
all richly portioned; but manners and custom have changed in
this respect, at least in the European part of Turkey. It must
not be supposed, however, that a hanum cherishes any jealous
hatred of her fellow-wives. She is content with the largest
share of her husband's respect, without demanding his exclusive
devotion. Her philosophy sometimes goes to the length of choos-
ing from among her "odaliks," or companions, one whom she
deems meet to be his morganatic spouse, and she will do this the
more readily if she has taken a fancy to the girl, and is un-
willing to see her leave the house. In some houses, not of the
highest class, the four wives are as friendly as it is possible for


women to be under the same roof, though each may have a differ-
ent set of out-door friends whom she will not introduce to the
others. In any case, the supremacy of the hanum is always ac-
knowledged, and the others will not intrude into her presence un-
less invited.
So long as strange women are in the house, the husband is
excluded from the harem. The guests, at a reception, begin to
arrive toward six o'clock, accompanied by their maid-servants,
and negroes carrying lanterns. The reception rooms are bril-
liantly lighted with tinted wax candles, and scented with fragrant
pastilles. There is no handshaking or kissing between the hos-
tess and her guests; but each lady, as she enters, lifts her hand
gracefully to her heart, her lips, and her brow, as much as to say:
" I am devoted to you with heart, mouth and mind." Refresh-
ments are soon brought in, and the women compliment one an-
other on their respective dresses. After coffee, sweetmeats and
cigarettes are discussed, and dancing girls are introduced; at
this stage of the proceedings, the elderly women generally sit down
to cards or some other game. In some houses, where Christian
manners have penetrated, a lady pianist rattles off waltzes and
operatic airs to the company. But this does not exclude the per-
formances of the dancing girls, whose gyrations and fantastic
music with tambourines and castanets are much appreciated.
After several hours of uninterrupted pleasure, the lady of the house
gives the signal for guests to retire by clapping her hands and
ordering cake. At once the maids hurry to fetch the delicacy,
and soon a very aromatic and spongy pudding is produced; after
disposing of this the guests wash their fingers and mouths
with rose-water contained in silver basins, and the party is at
an end.


On the morning of the twenty-ninth of August, the day on
which we left Muscat, I had the good fortune to influence our
guide softening the palm of his hand with five rupees to
break the laws of his land by permitting us to look upon the
faces of some of his beautiful countrywomen. We followed him
to the suburbs of the town -outside of the wall; then taking
us to a vacant house, he bade us remain quiet. In a little
while he returned, with his wife, sister, or cousin, I do not know
which. She removed her mask, and there before us stood a
blushing and splendid beauty. She had large black eyes, a broad
low forehead, full red lips, delicately red-tinted cheeks, and
a statuesque form. She was a perfect type of a Circassian
woman. An artist would have gone into ecstasies over her
beautiful arms and rounded shoulders. She had small feet and
beautiful hands. Her feet were shod in loose sandals, with soft
covers and flexible soles. Her hair was black, and worn long,
and she had expressive blue eyes. And her costume was as
picturesque as her form was fair. It consisted of loose silk
pantaloons reaching only to the knee, and finely-wrought stock-
ings; with an upper garment which was a close-fitting sleeveless
vest, cut away in front and but slightly open at the neck.
Having encroached thus far upon the sacred customs of Mus-
cat, we again insulted our guide with more rupees, and he pro-
duced a company of dancing girls. In the poorest and shabbiest
huts on the outskirts of the town the dancing girls have their
homes. We found them different from the neighbors of their
sex, in this -their faces were not covered. But they were
beautiful in feature, in form, in complexion, and in the flashing
glances of their eyes. Their dresses were of a light rose color,
or a delicate yellow, while others were of a soft blue of the thin-


nest gauze. Their foreheads were covered with jewels of Turkish
gold and silver coin, and suspended in strings one below another.
fhey were stockingless, but wore red morocco shoes, stiff and
Their belts were strung with trinkets, such as small silver
triangles, or little bells, and they all had metallic cymbals on each

hand. The music began, the shoes were suddenly stripped off,

and the dancing commenced. Their hips rose in unison with the
music; their bodies swung either way; their toes were cramped
into the sand, and their countenances assumed a peculiar

earnestness of expression; their fervor increased; their features
became impassioned; the cymbals clicked with greater intent,
fi -

hand. The music began, the shoes were suddenly stripped off,
and the dancing commenced. Their hips rose in unison with the

became impassioned; the cymbals clicked with greater intent,


and thus they passed from one degree of excitement to another,
till they became exhausted with the intense action of every
muscle of their forms. And these senseless contortions of the
muscles of their bodies were called dancing. There was little
of the poetry of motion about it.
A few hours later we were leaving the quiet and sultry
harbor of Muscat on our eight hundred and fifty miles run
to Bombay. The nights at sea were beautiful in the bright
moonlight, and as balmy as September at home. The change in
temperature, from that at Muscat, was very agreeable, and the
nights were delightfully cooled by a splendid breeze, so that
our sleep was restful. Seven days at sea brought us to anchor
in the harbor of Bombay.
This is called the grandest city of the East Indies, but I
forbear It is usually the first or the last city of India visited
by the tourist. If he comes from Europe by way of the Suez
Canal he generally lands at Bombay and proceeds overland
across India; if he comes from America by way of Japan and
China, he may land at Calcutta and proceed to Bombay overland.
Bombay and Calcutta are the Alpha and Omega of India.
Bombay has a convenient and pretty harbor, with plenty of
anchoring ground; and it and Calcutta are rivals for superiority,
their claims being hotly contested by their respective partisans.
As to which is the finer I will not attempt to decide. On land-
ing, we were greeted by large numbers of Hindoos, Sepoy
soldiers, women, palanquin carriers, buggy drivers and cats.
Escaping from these, we went up through the long narrow
streets on a tour of inspection. The natives who greeted us on
the quay had been waiting our coming on shore, with their
minds prepared to fleece the cargo of new victims. They came


upon us like hungry wolves, and shouted at us in all sorts of
dialects. They pulled our clothes, crowded us in one direction
and pushed us in another; one urged us to ride in his carriage-
a vehicle much resembling a country doctor's gig and another
pulled us towards his palanquin. While, last but not least, there
was the ever-present ludicrous and alarmingly persistent guide yell-
ing over our shoulders that he would show us all the sights and
describe them to us, if we would only come his way, and all for
a rupee. But we were determined, on this first day, to see the
city on our own hook.
Bombay is divided into two halves, or rather quarters; one
the foreign quarter, and the other the native quarter. The for-
eign portion of Bombay is not attractive, for the public and
private buildings are inferior in architectural effect. The for-
eign quarter is designated as "The Fort," but the fort disap-
peared years ago to make room for building purposes. The
buildings are closely crowded and the streets are narrow and
The Esplanade, as the redeemed ground is called, contains
some fine buildings. European faces are few and far between;
the shops are native, and the crowd pushing through the streets
is as un-English as possible. Of the eight hundred thousand
inhabitants of Bombay only about ten thousand are Europeans.
But here are Asiatics of every class; Parsees with their flowing
frocks and miter-looking hats; Hindoos, with turbans of
various shapes and colors, some fitting close to the skulls, and
others spreading like mushrooms; Moslems, with close caps, or
with turbans differing from all others ; and coolies of the lower
caste, or no caste at all, quite uncovered as to the head, or sporting
only a thinly-wound dirty piece of cloth. The women pass you


with heads wholly or partially covered, and some expose their
faces completely to the gaze of the stranger without fear and
without reproach. All have "rings on their fingers and rings on
their toes, and
many of them have
their ankles and
wrists thickly
S, hooped with bands
S\ of silver or bone.
A profusion of jew-
.S i, elry is also suspen-
-:;I ded from noses and
ears. Some are not
S f content with pierc-
i ng the lobes of
their ears, after our
civilized fashion,
q' but perforate their
entire circumfer-
ence to obtain
points of support
for jewelry. But
this fashion is not
solely confined to
A PARSEE MERCHANT. the native women,
for many of the
men of Bombay are just as barbarous in their tastes.
The native town of Bombay has many large houses, with
successions of balconies and windows, suggestive of palaces. In
the narrow and open-fronted shops you see, as everywhere in the


East, the merchants squatted among their wares, and in a space
so confined that it is not necessary to rise to reach any article
on sale. Workmen of various branches are observed to be busy;
copper, silver and goldsmiths abound, as well as tailors, shoe-
makers, barbers, etc. Everywhere is seen the miter-like hat,
and the long, parson-like coat of the Parsee, and everywhere we
find the wearer thereof engaged in business. The Parsees really
control a monopoly of the shop-trade.
They are an attractive-looking people and possess a shrewd-
ness of no common order; they have all the Israelitish keenness
for mercantile pursuits, and are not inaptly called the Jews
of Western India." As their name," Parsis" or Parsee," would
indicate, their origin is Persian. They came into India several
centuries ago, being the remnant of the old-time Fire-worshipers
who with their priests, or magi, emigrated from Persia after its
conquest by the followers of Mohammed. Bombay seems to be
their chief abiding place, and it to-day gives a livelihood to about
eighty thousand of them. Some of them possess enormous
wealth, and several of the hospitals and other institutions here
owe their origin to Parsees.
Bombay will have occasion to long revere the name of Sir
Janssetjee Jedeebhoy, a Parsee, who before his death on April 15,
1859, contributed upwards of one million two hundred and fifty
thousand dollars towards the founding, endowment and support
of institutions of a purely benevolent character.
The Parsees are loyal to their ancient faith and are still wor-
shipers of fire as the symbol of Divinity. When they came from
Persia they brought the sacred embers with them. These fires
have ever since been kept burning perpetually on their altars.
They worship the sun as the great representative of the Divine


Power, and at sunrise, every morning, they may be observed at
the water's edge with heads and hands reverently uplifted towards
the rising sun. As they rigidly refrain from using fire for any
ignoble purpose, it is not deemed courteous nor polite to offer
them a cigar; yet they do not take offense if a stranger smokes
in their presence.
The disposition of the dead is neither by incineration or
burial; but the bodies are left exposed to the sun until the vult-
ures have cleared all the flesh from them, when the bones are
swept into a deep pit. The principal place for exposing the
bodies is upon the highest point of Malabar Hill just outside the
city. Here are the famous burial structures known as the dakh-
mas or Towers of Silence." Strangers are rarely admitted to the
inclosure, and no Parsee, except the few employed about the place,
may enter the tower. It is surrounded by a high wall; the
vard is perhaps two acres in extent, and near the entrance is a
building in which is an altar with the sacred fire. This is also the
sagoi or temple where people come to pray, and here the priests
change their apparel after their services are over. The towers
are nine in number, of plastered masonry, not over twenty-five
feet high and about thirty feet in diameter. In the side of each
tower is a double iron door, where the bearers enter with the
bodies; but through this door no Christian, no Hindoo, nor even a
Parsee, save the priests and attendants, is permitted to look.
Two of these towers are unconsecrated; one of them being set apart
for the bodies of murderers, and the other for suicides. Vult-
ures may be seen at any time hovering about the tops of the
towers, evidently waiting eagerly for the coming of a fresh
corpse; and an hour after the body has been placed within the
tower, nothing but bones remains.



STROM the deck of our ship we obtained
F L the finest possible view of Bombay.
The picturesque hills were bathed in a
Blue haze, and ships of every clime were
riding at anchor in the harbor. An
American man-of-war so seldom visits
Bombay that ours was an object of great
interest during the few days of our stay;
our decks and cabins swarmed continually
with the officials and natives, the mer-
chants and the laborers from the town.
To us the shore offered the greatest
attraction, and we never missed an op-
\ portunity of visiting it; often taking
long rides into the country in one of the
cheap and numerous buggies, and some-
times in one of those novel native conveyances, the palanquin.
If one wants to enjoy a slow tour through the streets, with-
out stopping at the shops, he would better take a palanquin, a
comfortable little box in which the rider may recline or sit erect.
The palanquin of Bombay is so constructed that it may be
opened or shut at pleasure; its interior being provided with a
cocoa mattress upholstered in leather, and so elevated at one


end that the occupant may recline in a half-sitting posture.
Poles extend out from either end and rest on the shoulders of
the palanquin-bearers. It is a comfortable though slow mode
of traveling.
I have given a considerable space to the Parsees, but there
are also to be seen in the heterogeneous crowds in the Bombay
streets, the tall and martial Rajpoots ; the swaggering Mussul-
man, in his green turban; the sleek Marwarees or Jodhpureans
with tight-fitting, parti-colored turbans of red and yellow; the
pig-tailed Chinaman, and beggars of every description. It
is said that among the Parsees such a thing as a beggar is un-
known but a visitor to the East Indies, coming in contact with
the filthy, vermin-covered mendicants that are to be encountered
at every footstep, would be apt to have his sentiment of charity
seriously encroached upon. I was much attracted by the Hindoo
women who, when young, are delicate and beautiful, so far as one
may reconcile beauty with the olive complexion. They are of
almost perfect proportion; their limbs are small, their features
soft and regular, and their eyes black and languishing; but the
bloom of beauty soon decays, and age makes rapid progress before
they have seen thirty years. This may be attributed to the
climate and the customs of the country.
No women can be more attentive to cleanliness than the
Hindoos. They employ every method to render their persons
delicate, soft, and attractive; their dress is peculiarly becoming.
It consists of a long piece of silk or cotton tied around the waist,
and hanging in a graceful manner to the feet. It is afterward
brought over the body in negligee folds, and under this, covering
the front of the body, is a short waistcoat of satin. Their long
black hair is adorned with jewels and wreaths of flowers; their


ears are bored and loaded with pearls; a variety of gold chains,
strings of pearls and precious stones fall in clusters from the
neck, and the arms are loaded with bracelets from the wrist

to the elbow. Many of them also wear gold and silver bands
-. ..

to the elbow. Many of them also wear ,old and silver bands
or chains round the ankles, and an abundance of rings on
their fingers and toes. Among the adornments of the fingers
may frequently be seen a small circular mirror. The richer the
may frequently be seen a, small circular mirr1or. The richer the


dress the less becoming is it. A Hindoo woman of distinction
always seems to be overloaded with finery; while the village
girls, with fewer ornaments, but in the same elegant drapery, are
more captivating. There are very few women, however, even of
the lowest families, who at their marriage have not some jewels.
The visitor should not leave Bombay without inspecting the
interesting Caves of Elephanta. These, tradition asserts, were
once the secret halls where assembled the ancient Freemasons.
The island is about a mile from the main land; it is formed of
two bold mountains covered with trees and brushwood, and a
small stretch of rice-fields cultivated by a few Hindoo farmers.
Near the landing-place is a portion of the figure of an elephant.
It was once of life size, shaped out of solid rock, and gave the
name to the island. It has nearly crumbled to pieces by the
action of the weather. Ascending the mountain by a narrow
path that winds among rocks and trees and underbrush, we
arrive at the excavation which has long excited the attention of
the curious and afforded ample scope for the discussion of anti-
quaries. The principal temple and adjoining apartments are
two hundred and twenty feet long and one hundred and fifty
feet broad.
Wherever the observer casts his eye he is attracted by the
numerous and rich decorations. He is also constantly reminded
that he is in a great cave. He beholds four rows of massive
columns cut out of the solid rock uniform in their order, and
placed at regular distances so as to form three magnificent
avenues leading from the principal entrance to the grand idol
which terminates the middle vista. The central image is com-
posed of three colossal heads reaching nearly from the floor to
the roof -a height of fifteen feet. It represents the triad deity


in the Hindoo mythology--Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, in the
character of Creator, Preserver and Destroyer.* The middle face
(that of Brahma) displays regular features, and a mild and serene
character. The towering head-dress is much ornamented, as are
those on either side which appear in profile, lofty and richly
adorned with jewels. The countenance of Vishnu has the same
mild aspect as Brahma; while the visage of Siva is altogether
different- severity and revenge, characteristics of his destroying
attributes, being strongly depicted. One of the hands of Siva
encircles a large cobra de capello; while the other contains fruits,
flowers and blessings of mankind. The lotus and pomegranate
are also easily distinguished.
On either side of the Elephanta triad is a gigantic figure lean-
ing on a dwarf, an object frequently introduced in these excava-
tions. The giants guard the triple deity and separate it from a
large recess filled with a variety of figures male and female,
in different attitudes. They are in tolerable proportion, but ex-
press no particular character of countenance. One conspicuous
figure, is like the Amazon, single-breasted; the rest, whether
intended for goddesses or mortals, are generally adorned like
the modern Hindoo women, with bracelets and rings for the
ankles; but the men have bracelets only. The intervening
space between the large figures is occupied by small aerial
figures hovering about them in infinite variety. The sides of
the temple are adorned with similar compositions placed at
regular distances; they terminate the avenues formed by the
colonnades so that, except at a near approach, only one group
is seen at a time. The regularity and proportions of the whole

*This remarkable bust is now supposed to be a triform representation of Siva alone, and not of his
associates in the Hindoo trinity.


are remarkably striking. The figures are generally in grace-
ful attitudes, but those of herculean stature indicate no muscu-
lar strength.
From the right and left avenues of the principal temple, are
passages to smaller excavations on each side; that on the right


is much decayed and not enough of the sculpture remains to
trace out the original figures. A pool of water penetrates from
it into a dark cavern far under the rock. A small temple on the
left contains two baths, one of them elegantly finished. The


front is open and supported by pillars of a different order from
those in the large temple; the sides are adorned with sculpture;
the roof and cornice are painted in mosaic pattern, some of the
colors being still bright. The opposite bath, of the same propor-
tions, is less ornamented. Between these two baths is a room
detached from the rock. It contains a colossal representation of
the lingula. Several small caves also branch out from the great
Elephanta Cave is a work which would be admired by the
curious, had it been raised from a foundation like other remark-
able structures. But when we consider that it was tunnelled
inch by inch into the solid rock, and with tools evidently not
used in similar works in modern times, we cannot but be aston-
ished at the conception and completion of so vast an undertak-
ing. I am, of course, no advocate of Hindooism, but I confess
that a visit to these excavations filled my mind with awe, even
though I was surrounded by idols. There are other great caves
aside from Elephanta, in the vicinity of Bombay, but want of
time alone prevented me from visiting them.
In direct contrast to this awe-filled experience was an amusing
spectacle which occurred on the seventh of September, during
our Indian visit, and which I had the privilege of observing.
This was the burial of the gods or idols of one of the many
castes of Hindoos. It is of yearly occurrence, and I went to a
quiet side of the harbor to witness this part of a strange relig-
ious ceremony. The idols are made of plaster, some of them
small, others of almost life-size; some of them plainly habited,
others richly and gayly adorned. Some were brought down in
palanquins and others in sedan-chairs, but always preceded by a
procession of from twenty to two hundred persons, most of whom


were opium drunk and danced along the streets keeping unsteady
time to the beating of drums. Arriving at the beach a peculiar
ceremony was performed. It was, I learned, a burial service,
and consisted of dancing and a monotonous singing. This over
one of the celebrants, with an idol perched upon his head, waded
out till the water reached his chin and then dived down to bury
the idol in the mud. This is done to dispose of the sin-inoculated
idols, which have become corrupted with the wicked things un-
burdened to them at the confessional. During the two hours I
stood witnessing this strange and yet laughably impressive cere-
mony, no less than a hundred idols were drowned and buried in
the mud. A stranger would have wondered if it was an insane
asylum delivery, and yet I should have been sorely displeased to
have missed the sight.
We bade good-by to Bombay on the seventeenth of Septem-
ber, and put to sea. Our next port was to be Singapore, in the
Straits of Malacca.
A remarkable and interesting incident occurred the night after
we entered the Straits. The island of Sumatra was in sight.
Our vessel lay in a dead calm, or, as it is sometimes called, an
" Irish hurricane the only wind being up and down with the
mast, and the sails hanging flat and flapping back and forth with
the motion of the vessel in the swell. It was about midnight
when the messenger was sent by the officer-of-the-deck to arouse
all of the officers and the crew's watch below. Hurrving on
deck we observed that the sea was peculiarly white, and we
seemed to be sailing in an ocean of milk. It aroused all of our
sailor-superstition; but after rubbing our eyes until they were
fully opened and freshening up our faculties we realized that the
phenomena, one of rare occurrence, was due to innumerable ani-


malculse. Our commander, who later became Rear-Admiral Earl
English, remarked that he had witnessed a similar occurrence in
the Indian Ocean about twenty-five years before.
On the third of October we anchored in the harbor of Singa-
pore. No sooner was the anchor down than a hundred jabbering
natives sprang on board, clambering up from the small boats in
which they had come out from the shore. We seemed to have
dropped into Bedlam. They all talked at once in their strange
dialects, gesticulated to each other and to us, and everything
was in confusion. Some were hotel proprietors, and some were
beggars; some were bird-sellers and some were Singapore gentle-
men and merchants; some were laundrymen and some were
thieves. The hotel proprietors, with cards in their hands, were
recommending to us their various inns; the beggars sung in our
ears backsheesh! backsheesh! The laundrymen tried to con-
vince us that our clothes would be nicely done up and without
the use of stones and clubs to pound the dirt out, but we well
knew from experience how much dependence we could give to
these people. The thieves were on the alert to steal anything
from a hundred-pound solid shot to a gold watch.
Singapore, like Hong Kong, is an English port; and, like
Hong Kong, it has a large population of Chinese. They are
found in all occupations, from the lowest to the highest. Some
of them are hewers of wood and drawers of water," while
others are merchants doing an extensive business, even to owning
and managing steam vessels. The hotels are provided with
Chinese and Malay servants, and are infested with Chinese ped-
dlers, who bring to you Chinese and Japanese goods and curios,
and above all handsomely mounted birds of paradise and tiger
claws. The Bengalee and other natives of India are engaged in


trades similar to those of the Chinese; and one must be careful
not to confine himself to the one-price system, for you may pur-
chase anything at one fifth of the original price demanded or less.
They have equally as weak consciences as the Jews I found at
Aden, or even those on Chatham and Division Streets in New
York. I obtained some handsome birds of paradise and some
tiger claws, both mounted and unmounted.
At Singapore will be found Indians (the Marhatti Hindoo)
with the turbans and bright-colored sarongs; Parsees with that
tall, tapering, queer-looking indescribable hat of theirs very
much like a stove-pipe; Chinese workmen stripped to the waist,
and wearing naught on their heads but the classic queue; Malay
workmen, bare as to body and lower limbs, their entire garment
consisting of a loin cloth and a huge turban, and their skins a
finely polished black.
Singapore has quite an extensive business. It is the pur-
chasing point for Siam and Borneo, and in a great measure for
Java and Sumatra. There are two large gardens here, both of
them well worth a visit. The luxuriance of tropical growth is
grand in itself, and one sees new and curious trees that would
require considerable space for a worthy description. In each
garden one may see the ourang-outang of the largest growth; the
ostrich, the elephant, the lion, the camel, and many other species
of the animal kingdom peculiar to the torrid zones; but the one
thing above all others of rare beauty is the male bird of paradise.
The males alone, like the peacock, are the birds of splendid
plumage; not only are they characterized by great brilliancy
of tints, but they have a glossy, velvety appearance, a metallic
luster and a singularly beautiful play of colors. Tufts of
feathers growing from the shoulders extend far beyond the body


and to the tip of the tail and are of great value as plumes for
ladies' hats.
There are pretty drives around and over the Malay Peninsula,
and to meet a tiger now and then in a portion of a jungle nearest
the main land is not an uncommon occurrence. The main land


is infested with tigers, and they occasionally swim across the chan-
nel in search of prey. As tigers only attack persons on foot I was
especially careful to ride on all of my excursions and to select
only the fleetest-footed horses. The statistics of the Chinese and
natives eaten annually by tigers are not carefully kept, but they
are unhappily large.
are unhappily rlarge.


So you never have smoked hashish ?" said a friend to me
one day at Singapore, and added, Well, you've missed one of
the greatest treats of your life. But just come with me and I'll
give you a taste of the drug which, for at least twenty centuries,
has caused happiness and misery to millions of our fellow-beings."
My friend had spent thirty years in the East, hence I readily
placed myself under his guidance. Hashish (pronounced has-
heesh) is the Oriental name for the plant we term Indian hemp,
and its use is said to cause real happiness, and by no means the
sensual enjoyment that might be supposed. The hashish-eater is
as happy as is one who hears pleasant news or is intoxicated
with success.
I followed my guide to a native house, and passing through a
dark hall we came to a door and gave a light tap. It was opened
at once by a black houri who bade us enter. It was difficult to
discern anything, as every avenue of light seemed to be barricaded.
The floor was carpeted with thick Chinese matting, and on the
walls were a number of cheap pictures. Against the walls were
four long bunks with matting bottoms. A half-dozen benches, a
table and two low ottomans made up the rest of the furniture.
The bunks were occupied by either men or women in a semi-stupid
or dozing state.
A new customer had just preceded our entrance, and as the
proprietor brought him in a "lay-out" I thought I would get my
experience from observation. The lay-out was a Turkish narghil,
a small brazier full of incandescent charcoal, and a porcelain jar.
The narghil was different in some respects from the one used for
smoking tobacco. It was, like the latter, a handsome glass globe
half-filled with perfumed water and provided with two glass tubes,
one going almost to the bottom of the globe and terminating in a


metal bowl; the other just penetrating the cork top of the
globe and connected to a long rubber tube the end of which was
an amber mouth-piece. The metal bowl was about the shape and
size of a hen's egg, inside of which, a little space apart, were two
pieces of grating.
The proprietor, with a pair of small tongs, placed some small
live coals on the upper grate, and then with a thin knife took
from the porcelain jar a piece of hashish and placed it on the
coals. The drug was a thick paste of a dark greenish-black hue;
its odor was penetrating, but thin. The moment the paste
touched the hot coals it began to smoke and burn. A perforated
cap was then put on the metal bowl, and the tube and mouth-
piece handed to the stranger, who very considerately gave me
the preference. A few deep inhalations filled my throat and
lungs with the vapor, the effect of which does not begin to com-
pare with that of opium. It seemed soothing and narcotic in
character; it produced a pleasant sensation in the wind pas-
sages, and, unlike tobacco-smoke, caused no desire to cough. In
ten minutes the first charge of hashish had burned out and was
My first symptoms were an increased action of the heart and
a sensation of pleasurable warmth. These were followed and
supplanted by a mental exaltation, and a feeling akin to pain. It
seemed as if some enemy were trying to compress my skull.
This was followed by an illumination of the brain or mind, and
a fading of everything without. Then came a profound sleep,
from which I soon awakened with sensations of nausea and
headache. It was my first and last experience.
There are several preparations of hashish, both as a medicine
and an indulgent, and there are four ways of using it. The


French eat the extract or paste, a single dose being a pill as large
as a five-cent silver piece. The Moors and Persians dissolve it
in a strong aromatic fluid and drink the concoction. You may
buy the leaves and smoke them in a pipe, or roll them into a
cigarette. Or you can smoke the paste in a narghil. The trou-
ble with eating or drinking the drug is, that it causes a disease
of the stomach, and eventually a painful dyspepsia. If you
smoke the leaves you irritate the lungs and throat with the
vapor of the wood-fiber. With the narghil the stomach and lungs
are not affected, and the narcotic effect comes on in a few min-
utes. It may be unhealthful, but it is not as injurious as is
opium or morphine.



A FTER a stay of eleven
days at Singapore, we
steamed out of the harbor,
and in a few hours left the
Straits of Malacca behind
us. Crossing the Gulf of
Siam, we had the island of
Borneo on our right; this
remained in sight for a con-
siderable distance, and then
S we entered the China Sea.
SOur experience of the
cyclones of the North Atlan-
tic, and the pamperos off the
River Plate, did not permit
us to look forward with
pleasurable anticipations at
the possibility of encounter-
ing, in these waters, one of those destroying tempests known
as the typhoon." Our fears and superstitions, however, were
unnecessary, for we had the finest of weather, and ten days at
sea brought us in sight of the island of Luzon, one of the largest


of the Philippines; before the night of the tenth day had closed
in we were swinging at anchor in the harbor of Manila.
It was Sunday when we arrived, but that did not keep us
from desiring to go on shore, and before long a half-dozen of us
were walking along the esplanade. About the first thing to at-
tract our attention was a riia de gallos (cock-fight), and we
stopped to see it, only to soon become disgusted. We had al-
ready been present at just such a brutal exhibition on the other
side of the globe, and had no desire for a repetition. Imagine
an amphitheater with four or five hundred Spaniards, and mes-
tizos or natives, each one crowding and pushing and yelling at
the top of his voice, and reaching over the heads of one another
handing their centavos (pennies) and reals (shillings) to the book-
makers to wager upon the fowl selected to win; a circular space
in which were two men, each with a sharply spurred game-cock
in his hands and each one holding his bird fast until the master
of ceremonies should give the signal for the fight to begin. The
confusion, the Babel of tongues, and the intense excitement, espe-
cially of those spectators who had wagered their few pennies on
the result, suggested the possibility of personal conflicts; but
hardly a moment passes before one of the birds is seen to stag-
ger, bleeding freely from a chance wound given it by the other
bird; then the fight is ended, only to be succeeded by another
equally blood-curdling contest between two fresh fowls.
On the following day we again visited the shore to "take in
the whole town." For this purpose we hired a barouche for the
whole day at an expense of dos pesos"- two dollars.
Passing over the bridge that separates the old settlement
from the new, we rode for a mile along one of the pleasantest
drives I have ever seen. This brought us to the walled town


which we entered through the "Puerto de Ysabel Segunda," or
Gate of Isabel the Second. Riding through the streets of the
old city we met on every side, ruins of old cathedrals, convents,
barracks, and other buildings, the result of the great earthquakes
of 1863. Convulsions of the earth have been frequent here, but
seldom so disastrous as in 1863. Only one of the old cathedrals
escaped the destructive upheaval.
We met on our drive many handsome private carriages, filled
with the fair sex looking as bright, fresh and cheerful as the
flowers of May; and with that beauty of feature and complexion
which is only to be found among the Castilian race.
The native population of the island live in houses walled with
bamboo rods, and roofed with palm leaves. These native dwell-
ings, usually encircled by banana plantations, are raised on poles
and stand some four feet above the ground, after the manner of
the prehistoric buildings of the lacustrine epoch. The entrance
is reached by a kind of ladder, and underneath the building is
the storehouse for the farming implements. Here, too, is the
refuge for the pigs and poultry. As a rule, these habitations
have a small ante-chamber two rooms and a kitchen sepa-
rated from the main house, but reached by a bamboo bridge. One
of these chambers is the eating-room, the other serves as a sitting-
room by day and a dormitory at night. In every home you find
plenty of cigars and cigarettes; curved, finely tempered knives,
called bolos; wicker-baskets and a few religious books, and betel
boxes. No house, no individual, indeed, seems to be complete
without this betel box.
The betel, or Penang nut, is really a native of the Malay Pe-
ninsula, but it may be found in any part of the East Indies. It
is about the size of an English walnut. It is an astringent; but


with the leaf of the betel pepper it becomes a narcotic stimulant.
It causes a giddiness to those not accustomed to its use.
The betel nut seems as essential to the Malays, whether in
their own peninsula or in the Philippines, as is tobacco to a New
York bootblack, or as is opium to the confirmed Chinese opium-
smoker. It is a revolting habit to a fastidious person, for
if a man or woman speaks to you while chewing his or her
" quid" of betel, the mouth looks as if it was full of blood.
The betel nut is the fruit of the Areca or betel palm. The nuts
grow in clusters, but the tree does not begin to bear till it is six
years old. Each nut is about the size and shape of a nutmeg and
is covered with a fibrous yellow husk. The fruit is gathered, be-
fore it is quite ripe, in the early fall and deprived of its husks.
The nut is then boiled in water, cut into slices and dried in the
sun, assuming a black or dark brown color. The betel-chewer
takes a leaf of the betel-pepper, spreads upon it a paste of lime
or spices, and rolls it about a piece of the nut. When thrust
into the mouth the chewer begins to work his jaws and to spit.
The custom of chewing it has become so general with the
natives, not only in the Philippines but also in Java, Sumatra and
other places in the East Indies, as to be considered a part of eti-
quette men, women and children indulging in it from morning
till night. So widespread indeed is the betel habit in the East
that it is estimated that one tenth of the human family indulge
in betel chewing. It gives a reddish color to the saliva, so that
the lips and teeth seem to be covered with blood. By its habitual
use the lips and teeth become blackened as with a dye and the
teeth are loosened.
The Tagalas and Biscayers are the most numerous among
Manila's population, while the Mestizos form the influential part


and by their activity engross the greatest share of the trade. The
Mestizos are mostly of Chinese fathers and native mothers, but
possess more the characteristics of the Spanish than the Chinese.
The principal industries depended upon here are coffee-grow-
ing, cigar-making and the manufacture of pefia cloth from the
fibres of the leaves of the pine-apple plant. This cloth is of
different textures, some of it being as fine as silk while some is
as coarse as horse-hair cloth. It is all of it very strong and the
better grades far excel the finest lawns in texture. Thousands of
women are employed in the factories and it is interesting to
watch them in their embroidery work on the better grades of the
peHa cloth, especially in the working of fine handkerchiefs, some
of which are here worth as much as one hundred dollars each.
The cigar-making industry is also quite extensive, and the
Manila cigars and cheroots are famous. Indeed the majority of
smokers prefer them to the Havana product. Their manufacture
is under the charge of an administration whose headquarters are
at Manila, and it is estimated that twenty thousand persons are
employed in this branch of manufacture. The annual output is
fully one hundred millions. The best brand, the Imperials, may
be purchased here at less than forty dollars a thousand. Nearly
92,000,000 pounds of Manila hemp and more than 280,000,000
pounds of sugar are annually shipped from the port of Manila.
From Manila we sailed for our first port in China, the land of
the almond-eyed, pig-tailed, opium smoker and fan-tan player.
On the third day after leaving our Spanish friends we sighted
the lofty peak of Victoria Hill that rises 1825 feet above the
magnificent harbor of Hong Kong. Its summit was nearly
hidden by the clouds; but, with our strong marine-glasses we
could see Sedan-chairs ascending or descending with visitors on


the main road. No sooner was the anchor down in Hong Kong
harbor than the ship was surrounded by sampans. This is the
Chinese errand boat. It is from twelve to fifteen feet in length,
and is so constructed as to provide habitation for an entire family.
As the sampans pulled alongside us there sprang from them on


board the Iroquois, washerwomen, compradors (runners for ship-
chandlers), tradesmen and boatmen all clamoring for our pat-
From our deck we obtained a grand panoramic view of Hong
Kong, a city which is under the government of the British
authorities. Its name properly rendered is Hiang-Kiang "the
place of sweet streams." The harbor and island bears a strong
resemblance to Gibraltar. The city itself has little about it to sug-
gest a port in China; in fact but for its inhabitants it would an-
swer as well for any city in Europe of similar size. Its resem-


balance to Gibraltar disappeared upon going ashore, for we found
the streets much wider and the houses more uniformly built. The
principal thoroughfare is called Queen's Road. It is lined on
both sides with fine warehouses, banking institutions, a hotel, and
other public buildings. A little back of the Queen's Road, is the
native quarter where are huddled together the Chinese residents.
The first thing to attract our attention was the Chinese women,
dressed in their baggy trousers and sacks, their feet encased in
diminutive sandals, and their black glossy hair combed up in a
novel manner and stiffened with pomade into a semblance of
a cock's comb.
The Chinese coolies are seen trotting along the street with a
wooden yoke over their shoulders. From each end of this yoke
is suspended a sling, one holding a case or basket of merchandise,
and the other a big stone, perhaps as a balance to the other
burden. Chinese tradespeople passed us, their silken skull-caps
handsomely embroidered or their silk pajamas fastened together
with gold buttons, in strong contrast to their more cheaply
costumed pig-tail brethren. From these would come a courteous
recognition or the salute: Chin-chin ?" which has a similar
meaning to our greeting of "How are you?" After a brief
stop at the hotel thoroughly American in every respect we
continued our sight-seeing. Sedan-chairs were everywhere
ranged along the curb, the carriers ready to take us from one
end of the town to the other for a few cash." But this was
our first day on shore and we preferred to walk. A few steps
from the hotel we heard the jingling of silver; turning our
heads, we observed a Chinaman sitting beside a large basket
filled with "trade," or Mexican dollars, and he is testing them to
learn whether any of them are chop that is light weight -


or have not the true ring to them. This is the bank and
"John" (as all Chinamen are called) taking up a handful of
dollars passes them one at a time from one hand into the other
and readily detects the false ring. In fact none are so expert
as the Chinese in testing coins. The Chinese are famous for
" chopping silver dollars, a system of fraud largely practiced by
inserting alloy in the place of silver extracted; this, while it
does not alter the appearance or weight of the coin perceptibly,
.annot be detected except by an ear most susceptible to sound.
The Chinese shops next attracted our attention; here were
found articles of vertu of every class of Oriental design carved
work in ivory and sandal-wood; jewelry, silks, satins, crepe,
China ware of native pattern, and many other things too
numerous to mention; they were cheap, too, if one was but
shrewd enough to avoid being swindled. The principal mode
of conveyance, the Sedan-chair, is made of bamboo. It is borne
on the shoulders of the Chinamen and is a comfortable and
sleepy vehicle to ride in. The rapidity with which these coolie
carriers get over the ground is something surprising, and they
seem to be able to travel the entire day without becoming
From the curio shops we went to a gambling-house to see
the National game, fan-tan, or yet, yee, sam, see (one, two,
three, four), played. To the novice, fan-tan is to all appearances
a game in which there can be no cheating; but a better acquaint-
ance with the Chinese and their delicacy of touch convinced me
that the dealers can tell to a cash" (the small brass money
used) the exact number they pick up in their double-hand, thus
making cheating not only possible, but actual. The gambling
room was on the main floor; in the center was a table about six

ELL-, ---



feet square, surrounded by a crowd of chattering Chinamen, each
with his string of cash, and some with silver coin. I have never
seen greater excitement around the gambling tables in San
Francisco even. Above the table is a gallery where the
"foreigners," Americans, English, Germans and others, congre-
gate, their wagers being lowered in a small basket to the table
below. On the table is traced a small square with the first four
numerals on the sides, as in this diagram:



The dealer sits at one end of the table; he holds in one hand
a long pointer and has at his left a pile of cash, with holes in the
center. Before the bets are made he takes a double handful of
the cash which he places immediately in front of him, covering
the pile with a large bowl. The bets having been made the
bowl is taken off, and with the pointer the dealer counts off the
cash, four at a time, until all are counted off except the last lot,
when, if one, two, three, or four, remains, that number wins.
Bets may be made on either of the four sides as the gamblers
select, or upon two numbers by placing the bet on either of the
four corners. Winning on a single number gives the winner
four times the amount bet, minus seven per cent. for the dealer;
and winning on either of the corners (two numbers, or two


chances of winning) gives to the winner twice the amount of the
bet, minus seven per cent.
One peculiarity of the Chinese is that they can make them-
selves understood in almost any European tongue in less than
one third the time re-
__ quired by the average
S I American or European
S i' to make himself under-
..... 'stood in Chinese. They
SACI th readily acquire a smat-
__ tering of our language,
or "pigeon English,"
J e but it is with the
i greatest difficulty that
we learn anything of
n theirs. Trade is gen-
erally conducted by
middle-men or com-
pradores." If a foreign
Merchant wishes to
i make purchases of any
of the native products
/ e must do so through
SEDAN-CHAIR. the compradore. If
he wishes to sell any-
thing of foreign manufacture it must be done through the same
channel. The compradore employs all the servants about the
house ; he fixes their salaries and is responsible for their honesty;
he even keeps the bank account and superintends the shipping of
goods. Though a servant only, he is practically the head or the


manager of the house; and he is invariably a shrewd, clear-
headed fellow, who watches his master's interests and his own
- with a careful eye. John Compradore is an indispensable
The Chinese guilds and trade combinations surpass any of
European or American origin. The Chinese, as a people, are self-
sufficient, bigoted, supercilious, jealous, and seem likely to remain
so for all time. No people, it has been said, has ever been
found who did not profess some kind of religion. The Chinese
have their deities, but it would be more difficult than most peo-
ple imagine to say in just what their religion consists. The
teachings of Confucius form the basis of their national juris-
prudence ; but it can hardly be called a religion since it does not
inculcate the worship of any god. Buddhism is evidently the
religion of the masses in the interior provinces ; but the generally
low character of its priesthood, and the dilapidated condition of
its temples -as I later observed in my visits to Amoy and
Foo-chow -tell an impressive story of the growing indifference
of the educated and influential masses. The Mahometans are
much less numerous in some sections of the Empire, but, pos-
sibly, are a more intelligent and better class of people. The
Mandarins, or the government officials, are Confucians. In a
qualified sense, most Chinamen may properly be classed as
All over China, more even than in Hong Kong, one sees pago-
das or temples of worship, octagonal in shape and of enormous
height; and, upon inquiry as to their origin and title, one is told
that the first is unknown, and that the second has reference to
" Fang-Shin," the god of wind and water.
Leaving the English city of China," as Hong Kong is called,


our next stop enabled us to view the very extreme of Chinese
life. This was Foo-Chow or Fuh-Chow-Foo (Happy City), the
capital of the province of Fuh-Keen. It is finely situated on
the River Min, about thirty-five miles from the sea, and is in-
closed by a great wall six miles in circumference, it is about thirty
feet high and twelve feet thick. The Iroquois went within seven
miles of the city, and from there we took our steam launch to
the capital. The river was crowded with junks, some of them
used as lighters for transporting merchandise down the river to
the ocean vessels; and some of them having a mysterious appear-
ance suggestive of pirates. There are very few foreigners in
Foo-Chow, but our one day's visit was intensely interesting. The
residence of the consul was an old Buddhist monastery in the
foreign reservation on the right bank of the river. To get into
the native city we cross a bridge of forty arches spanning the
river, and then pass through one of the seven gateways of the
great wall.
At all hours of the day and night the narrow streets swarm
with Chinese. Each house seems packed with them; each store
and cellar are alive. There are bazaars where are exhibited and
sold lacquer and ivory work the finest that can be found in
China. Here, too, are groceries, opium joints, gambling houses,
restaurants, barber-shops, and silk and crepe shops. Beggars
and peddlers meet one at almost every step ; they were about
the first we had met in China. Observing a crowd thronging
into one particular building we joined it. We entered through
a long hall whose walls were covered with shelves and cases
filled with fish, fruit and tobacco. Doors half-open disclosed
bunks filled with drowsy men, and a gambling den upon whose
central table a score of Orientals were tempting fortune. On


the next floor a restaurant and kitchen were in full blast, the
tables filled with patrons, while cooks and waiters were hurrying
to and fro. The next floor was an orchestra hall, decorated
with scarlet banners, joss-sticks, lanterns, gongs, cymbals and


screens. Lovers of Chinese harmony (?) crowded the room.
The musicians sat in a circle. One had an instrument that
seemed a compromise between a piccolo and a bag-pipe; another
held a small banjo-like instrument, and still another had a larger
one ; three of the musicians played upon nameless instruments,


which seemed a mysterious compound of dry wood and sheep-
skin, out of which unearthly music was evolved by drumsticks;
another was beating on a metal gong suspended from the ceiling,
and the last man of the band was clanging two brass cymbals
fully three feet in diameter.
These musicians manage to extract more noise out of their
wood and metal than could a good-sized Calathumpian band." At
first all is crash, clash, bang cluck-a-luck, cluck-a-luck and you
want to go home. After a time you become accustomed to the
din and conclude to sit it out. The programme is long and
diversified a national air, a love song, a symphony, etc., etc.
Wagner and Strauss are outdone. The National air represented
the Chinese army in full retreat and the enemy after them a
sort of Turkish, or rather Chinese patrol, and we were happy
enough when the music died away in the distance. The enemy
evidently got the best of it.
Returning to the ship we could not help giving a shudder as
we passed those mysterious-looking war-junks. Of all the dan-
gers that beset the mariner on the Chinese coast, be it from
storm or fire, or the hidden reef, none have such terrors for
vessels trading on the Pacific as do these pirate ships that infest
the Eastern seas. An attack by these pirates is conducted with
such cunning, treachery and skill, that, if successful, it leaves
the affair to those who watch and wait for a ship that never
returns to the port a mystery far harder to bear than would be a
known misfortune.
The quaint junks that leave the Chinese ports at nightfall
are, to all appearances, the peaceful traders they profess to be;
but let an unprotected vessel come in view and at once the scene
changes as if by magic. Deck-loads of merchandise are thrown

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs