The Baldwin Library
___ __ __ ~
PEOPLE AND PLACES
A TRIP AROUND THE WORLD
WITH NOTE-BOOK AND CAMERA
Something New for Young People
It is in line with the great
"Learn something when you play."
LIDA BROOKS MILLER
AUTHOR OF "THE KINDERGARTEN," "YOUNG FOLKS' SPEAKER," AND A SCORE OF OTHERS.
PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN ON THE JOURNEY
JUVENILE PUBLISHING CO.
Copyrighted, 1897, by
K. T. BORLAND.
N placing before the public our new book, "Round the World With
Note Book and Camera," we are confident it will meet with a hearty
reception. There has been a long-felt want for a book of this nature.
Young people always delight in stories of travel-they can listen by the hour
to stories of strange people, new places, brilliant battles, famous parks, delight-
ful drives and noted men.
The first requisite of good story telling is a pleasing manner; second, a
knowledge of the subject; thirdly, the ability to describe what one has seen.
Such a one is our gifted authoress, Lida Brooks Miller, who, having spent years
as an instructor in the school room and having traversed nearly the entire globe,
taking snap shots of every famous scene along the route and learning its history
from peasant as well as prince, is well fitted to become a guide and teacher to
our "Round the World Culture Club."
Throughout the work the stories are told with the idea of impressing.
facts upon the memory in such a way that they will not soon be forgotten.
There are novel features and new themes embraced, containing all that is
brightest and best in a trip around the world. To read it is the next best thing
to taking the trip itself.
That it may give even greater pleasure than was hoped for by the
author in planning the work, is the sincere wish of
STREET SCENE, LONDON.
Index to Contents.
Alaska ........................... 280
A Visit to Lapland................. 289
An East Indian Home............. 292
An Eskimo Village................. 296
Andrew Jackson's Bravery.......... 265
Around the World Culture Club..... 13
A Half Hour With Dickens......... 19
A Knight in Armor ................... 38
A Year in South America........... 41
A Noble Philosoper ................ 77
A Little About Vienna.............. 85
An Old Road...................... 168
A Letter From Rome............... 181
Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois ........ 266
A Home in Central Asia............. 267
Battle of Marathon................. 170
Business Maxims for Boys.......... 314
China..... ....................... 285
Composition Exercises ............. 308
Dining Hall, Christ Church College,
O xford ........................ 96
Down the Rhine.................... 262
England's Ruler.................... 173
Granada and a Visit to the Alhambra 115
G ibralter .......................... 205
Greece and its Rulers ............... 213
Independence Hall................. 128
Joan of Are ........................ 49
Largest Bridge in the World......... 164
Memory Gems..................... 312
Museums and Art Galleries.......... 145
Music in Battle ..................... 264
3 INDEX TO CONTENTS.
Old World Watering Places......... 47
Queen City of the World........... 103
Street Scenes of Rome.............. 98
Story of North America........... 125
St. Bernard Dogs on the Alps........ 143
St. Sebaldus Church .............. 166
Some of the Cities of Switzerland.... 209
Some Masters of Music............. 274
Sports of Sandwich Islanders........ 294
Switzerland .................... .. 301
San Carlo Theater, Naples.......... 299
The Art of Letter Writing .......... 311
To the Boys....................... 316
Things Worth Remembering....... 317
The Lion of Lucerne ................. 15
The World's Finest Burial Grounds.. 21
The Great Cathedrals of the World... 25
The Battle of Waterloo .............. 29
The Catacombs of Rome............. 34
The Story of Africa ............... 51
The Cities of Africa ............... 59
The City of Cairo ................. 60
The Story of Asia................... 68
Tokio, A Japanese City.............. 72
The City of Ceylon .................. 75
The Story of Europe .............. 79
The Cities of Europe.............. 83
The City of Venice ............... 89
The City of Genoa ................ 91
The City of Paris .................. 92
The Industries of Switzerland....... 95
The "Bridge of Sighs "............ 100
The Story of Spain ............... 114
The City of Washington........... 129
The Falls of Niagara .............. 132
The Indians-How They Live........ 135
The Eskimo ........................ 139
The Black Forest................ 153
The Land of the Vikings............ 160
The Story of the Glacier............ 189
The Story of the Pilgrims-in England 191
The Story of the Pilgrims-in Holland 192
The Story of the Pilgrims-on ocean. 193
The Story of the Pilgrims-at Plym-
outh, America ............... 195
The Story of Printing ............ 199
The Magna Charta ............... 201
The Finest Park in the World ....... 203
The Island of Corfu .............. 206
The Emperor of Germany at Home .. 271
The People of Holland ........... 219
The Life of George Washington ..... 226
John Adams............ 228
Thomas Jefferson ....... 230
James Madison ......... 233
James Monroe........ 234
John Quincy Adams .... 236
INDEX TO CONTENTS. 9
The Life of Andrew Jackson ........ 237
Martin VanBuren....... 239
William Henry Harrison. 240
John Tyler............. 242
James Knox Polk....... 244
Zachary Tylor .......... 245
Millard Fillmore ........ 246
Franklin Pierce......... 247
James Buchanan........ 249
Abraham Lincoln ....... 250
The Life of Andrew Johnson........ 253
Ulysses S. Grant........ 254
Rutherford B. Hayes.... 256
James Abram Garfield... 257
Chester Alan Arthur .... 258
Grover Cleveland ....... 259
Benjamin Harrison..... 260
William McKinley ...... 270
Virtues that Bring Success.......... 314
Zoological Gardens of the World..... 144
t t --u --
--- : .rC&-
HARRY BROWN'S LEGEND OF THE BLACK FOREST. (See page 154.)
(Described on page 24.)
T Rose Lawn farm, one evening in
S the early autumn of 189-, the at-
mosphere was one of joyous expect-
ancy, for papa and mamma Gray had just
returned from a trip abroad and all the chil-
dren were eagerly awaiting the promised
treat of the incidents of the trip, the cities
visited, the historic spots seen, the charm-
ing scenery about which so much had been
heard and the people interviewed. The
memory of other trips but added to the
zest with which the children awaited the
tales in store for them. As they sat around
the hearth that evening papa Gray said,
"Before we take up the story of this trip,
why not lay out a regular program of work?
Let us study the geography of the coun-
try we talk about, the cities we describe,
and study the people of whom we shall talk.
I want you to get something besides amuse-
ment from my talks and to help you I have
brought back beautiful pictures of many
interesting sights. How shall we proceed
to get the most out of what I shall tell
"Let us form ourselves into a club," said
Tom, who was ever ready to add to his
store of knowledge. "Yes," said Florence,
whose loving heart always thought of oth-
ers, "we can form a club and invite the
children of the neighborhood and let them
share our good things with us." "An ex-
cellent plan," said papa, "but what shall
we call our club?" Tom's ruddy face grew
sober but Flora's brown eyes sparkled as
she cried, "Let us call it the 'Round the
World Culture Club,' for we shall go with
papa around the world and shall surely
learn much of other countries and other
people." "Just the thing," said mama, and
as all agreed the name was selected.
While all were discussing the work, a
rap at the door announced visitors. Tom
and Flora hastened to meet them and who
should they be but the very children they
needed in order to make their club com-
plete. It required but a moment for Tom
to explain their plan. "Splendid," "excel-
lent," "how nice," "jolly" were the cries
that greeted Tom's explanation. We must
ROUND THE WORLD CULTURE CLUB.
have officers," said Mary Lee, who, as
president of the Junior Endeavor that met
every Sabbath at the school house, felt that
a club could not be run without its regu-
larly elected officials. "I think we shall
want but one officer, and that will be the
"Grand Chief Story-Teller," said Harry
Brown, one of the assembled group. "That
is papa," said Tom, and without prelimi-
naries Mr. Gray was elected.
"A story to-night, papa," said Florence.
' Yes, yes, a story" chorused the children.
Mr. Gray smiled and said, "We have not
time to enter into any long descriptions and
I can tell but little. I hardly know where
to begin, but the presence of so many hap-
py young faces recalls a visit to Hyde Park,
London, one afternoon last July. We had
spent the morning hours writing letters,
for the day opened dark and rainy. At
about noon the sun came out and we went
to the park, a picture of which I secured
for you. This is one of the most popular
public resorts of London. Here gather
every bright day countless thousands of
women, children and society people. The
park is beautifully laid out and has its
drives for carriages, its ground for tennis
and cricket and its playground for the chil-
FQTTt;N KQW-HYIUk k'AKK, LONDON.
THE LION OF LUCERNE. 15
"Our picture shows the main drive where
London society gathers for its daily airing.
Here you will see elegant carriages of all
descriptions, smartly dressed footmen and
drivers, handsome, spirited horses and gil-
ded harnesses. The carriages of the nobility
are emblazoned with their coat of arms, and
with the gay dresses of the occupants, make
the scene one of great splendor. Crowds
of people gather here to see the gay turn-
outs go dashing by, some drawn by one
horse, others by two horses, either tandem or
abreast, some by four horses, and occasion-
ally some fat old lord rolls by in a stately
coach drawn by eight horses. Beyond the
drive you can see 'Rotton Row,' the finest
of bridle paths and devoted exclusively to
horseback riders. The English people are
good riders and their horses well trained;
but the 'swells' cut an amusing figure
as they go by with short coats, leggings and
high top boots.
"At the entrance to the park is the famous
monument to Wellington, erected in his
honor by the English government. It is a
magnificent memorial and every true Eng-
lishman points to it with pride. Some
evening I will gladly relate to you the his-
tory of the Iron Duke, who knew not defeat
and who conquered Napoleon at Waterloo.
At Hyde Park the most interesting feature
to me was the children at play. How the
little ones enjoyed rolling about in the grass,
chasing one another about and pelting each
other with paper balls. Many there are
who get their only taste of fresh air and
sunshine from their afternoons here. But
this is enough for to-night. Come to-mor-
row night all of you, and we will have our
first real story."
THE LION OF LUCERNE.
* T Lucerne, Switzerland, there is an
J attraction more wonderful than
balmy climate; more beautiful than
the Rigi Mountains and more charming
than the Lake of Lucerne. This attraction
calls tourists from all parts of the civilized
world and is known as "The Lion of Lu-
cerne," said Mr. John Day, who had just
returned from the Alps and who had prom-
ised his niece that immediately on his re-
turn to America he would make them a
visit and contribute something interesting
to their Round the World Culture Club."
"Don't all say at once, 'Well, what is
the Lion of Lucerne?'" said Uncle John,
"for it takes a little time to explain it."
"Go with me first to France in the year
1792. There was as you doubtless know, a
16 THE LION OF LUCERNE.
voting on the part of the people against
the impositions of the King and his Court.
The people said, 'Down with the King!
We will rule ourselves.'"
"I see by your looks, though," said Un-
cle John, "that you are wondering why the
people were dissatisfied, so let us go back a
little and notice first the cause of all this
dissatisfaction. In the year 1771 Louis XV,
King of France, who preceded Louis XVI,
was carried away by disease in the midst of
a sinful career, and had left the State Treas-
ury exhausted, the land burdened with debt,
the public credit ruined and the people op-
pressed with taxes.
"Such were the circumstances when the
new King, Louis XVI ascended the throne.
The new Louis had a good heart but a weak
brain. He wanted to improve the condi-
tion of the people but had neither money
nor ability. His wife, Marie Antoinette,
although a highly cultivated woman and
daughter of Marie Theresa, one of the best
rulers Austria had ever seen, was extrava-
gant and proud and soon became unpopular
with the masses. The people throughout
France began to feel a longing for freedom
and for a Republican government. It was,
therefore, unfortunate at this time that the
King and courtiers, who lived in a gorgeous
palace at Versailles, about ten miles from
Paris, should indulge in brilliant fetes and
other extravagancies which showed more
plainly than words could tell that bank-
ruptcy was close at hand. All this caused
the people to think more and more of the
folly of permitting the king to govern the
people. A spirit was creeping over them
which was bound to triumph sooner or later.
"Things went on in this way until 1789,
when the excitable population of Paris be-
gan to hold meetings and deliver infla.nma-
tory speeches in the public parks, in the
coffee houses, in wine rooms and every
other public place possible. The newspa-
pers kept up a continual roar and pamph-
lets were published in favor of freedom.
"The Court, alarmed at the increased ex-
citement, felt that their place was not safe,
that greater protection was necessary. The
King said, 'But whom can we trust? The
French regiments are for the people. We
must send outside for soldiers.' Knowing
the bravery, loyalty and honor of the Swiss,
they concluded to send to Switzerland for
soldiers. Immediately they came, and when
the rumor ran through Paris, a general up-
rising followed. The people refused to pay
their tithes to the church and tolls to the
nobility, and began to burn their castles
and plunder their palaces. even this did
not quell the pleasure-loving King, for he
held another banquet the extravagance and
waste of which had never before been known.
Soon busy tongues carried the news to the
excited people of Paris, and those suffering
THE LION OF LUCERNE.
from famine quickly rebelled. Then great
crowds marched to Versailles and compelled
the King to change his residence to Paris.
Next day he with his family entered Paris
under an escort and took up his residence in
the 'Palace of the Tuileries.' Soon, how-
ever, he was suspected of disloyalty to the
people and the situation became dangerous.
He made an effort to escape from the coun-
try, but had not gone far when he was de-
tected and brought back to Paris.
"This dissatisfaction increased until one
night in the year 1791, then when the city
bells rung, an enormous crowd, not only of
the rough inhabitants of the suburbs, but
galley slaves from all over France, with one
grand rush made for the royal palace. It
was now defended by only nine hundred
Swiss guards, for the National Guards who
had up to this time helped defend the pal-
ace, became dissatisfied and rapidly dis-
persed. The crowd became more violent,
cannons were turned upon the castle, men
with spikes urged their way into every part
of the palace and the crowd demanded the
King. The King with his family sought
protection in the Hall of Legislature, but
had hardly left the palace when the human
"LION OF LUCERNE," AT LUCERNE-SWITZERLAND.
18 THE LION OF LUCERNE.
billows broke over its defenders. The
Swiss guard bravely resisted and tried to
defend the passages, but without regard for
human life the raging mob stormed the pal-
ace, murdered all within reach, destroyed
the furniture and set fire to the castle.
You ask here what became of the Swiss
guards? I must answer that they were sac-
rificed to the rage of the mob.
Now let us leave the French Revolution
and return to Lucerne, that beautiful city
among the Alps, which contains the won-
derful monument to these brave Swiss
guards, called the Lion of Lucerne.
"This monument is carved in the living
rock on the side of a perpendicular cliff of
limestone. It is in shape of a great lion,
a broken spear protruding from a mortal
wound in his side. His head has fallen on
his right paw, which lies on the Bourbon
shield, and forces a spear against the up-
right arms of Switzerland. Every muscle
of the splendid beast is relaxed, yet in his
suffering he shows what he endured and
that he remained loyal to the last. This
monument of bravery was designed by the
Danish sculptor, Thorwaldson, in commem-
oration of the defense of the French King
by the Swiss guards.
"At the base of the rock is a little artific-
ial lake, and in its center is a fountain
throwing water to the height of'20 feet re-
flecting the sun's rays in prismatic colors.
Indeed it is beautiful and no one can pass
without pausing to worship at the shrine
far more glorious than many throughout
Europe designed for the unsophisticated
Tell us about them," said Amy Daish,
who, although a new member of the Club,
was greatly pleased with the idea of story-
telling. "Not to-night, my friends. I pre-
fer to stop while my reputation is good, but
when I come again I will be prepared to
meet you on your own ground. I had no
idea you were such good listeners. I am a
little like the old Clairvoyant who said,
'Don't watch me so closely, it is a trifle
embarrassing, and besides, it breaks the-.
spell.' Your attention made me wonder if
I was sufficiently prepared. You have im-
proved wonderfully since a year ago. The
Club is a good thing and the efforts of its
members should produce much good."
A HALF HOUR WITH DICKENS.
A HALF HOUR WITH DICKENS.
S LL went well with the "Culture
SClub" until one evening Mr. Gray
"The Chief Story-Teller," was ab-
sent. Business had detained him. After
waiting a time, Flora said, Mama, as papa
is not here to-night can you not take his
place and tell us- of some of the sights you
saw?" Yes," chimed in the others, We
have not heard from you yet, now is just
Mrs. Gray hesitated at first, but the anx-
i a -.* '-.- ., --- ,- .;-. ** --.- __>
ious faces showed how eager they were for
information, and she consented, saying:
" Papa talked of places and of living people,
soldiers and statesmen, kings and emporors,
so I will tell you of what those who write
our literature do for the world. We can
talk of but one writer tonight, who shall it
be?" "Charles Dickens," said Mary Lee,
who had just been reading Old Curiosity
Shop," "tell of him and his books."
"Mr. Dickens," said Mrs. Gray, "was the
OLD CURIOSITY SHOP.
A HALF HOUR WITH DICKENS.
second of eight children; he was born in
1812 at LandpotEngland, but his parents
goon-_fter moved to Chatam, where he lived
until his tenth year. A delicate child, he
could not take part in boyish sports, and
sought consolation in books. In David
Copperfield he says, 'my father had a few
books in a little room up stairs to which I
had access and which nobody else ever
troubled. From that blessed little room,
'Tom Jones,' 'Robinson Crusoe,' 'Vicar of
Wakefield,' Don Quixote' and 'Gil Bias'
came out, a glorious host to keep me com-
pany. They kept alive my fancy and my
hope of something better.' From Chatam
the parents went to London. There the
father was imprisoned for debt, and the fur-
niture and library was pawned piece by
piece to keep starvation away. Weakly as
he was, young Charles was put to work in
a blacking house at seven shillings per
week. This experience was a bitter, hope-
less one to the sensitive lad, and his descrip-
tion of it is painful; but ere long the con-
dition of the family improved. Then he
was sent to school, but unfortunately it was
where the boys trained mice much better
than the master trained the boys. At fif-
teen he was office boy to an attorney, then
it was he studied shorthand. Of school he
saw little. Indeed he pictures his own boy-
hood in 'Pickwick Papers' where he makes
Weller, Sr., say to his son Sam, 'I took a
deal 'o pains with his education, sir,-let
him run the streets when he was very young
and shift for himself.'
"At nineteen he was the best of the nine-
ty reporters in the House of Commons. At
twenty-two he ventured to drop a story in
the letter-box of the Old Montily Magazine,
and to his surprise it was printed. He said
of it, 'I turned into Westminster Hall for
a time because my eyes were so dimmed
with joy I could not see.' Then followed
sketches signed 'Box.' These were after-
ward collected in two volumes and sold,
plates and all, for $750. Shortly after he
took up literature as a profession and trav-
eled extensively. He visited the United
States and wrote 'Martin Chuzzlewit' upon
his return. In this he gives us his inimit-
able picture of American real estate specu-
lation and his jolly Mark Tapley. He later
resided in Italy and France, and at the lat-
ter place gained the material for that life-
like portrayal of the French Revolution de-
picted in his 'Tale of Two Cities,' mean-
time giving public readings from his own
works. In this way he earned $200,000,
but his health declined. His love of money
and of fame led him on until 1870, when
apoplexy carried him away.
It was his mission to set before us with
a wonderfully realistic pen the good and
evil of every-day life. Oliver Twist, born
in a work-house, brought up amidst scenes
THE WORLD'S FINEST BURIAL GROUNDS.
of vice and misery, was preserved from pol-
lution only by the strength of character.
The ruffian Sykes could not escape his evil
deeds. Fagin, the Jew, is a picture of cold-
blooded villainy that repels. 'Old Curios-
ity Shop' is full of contrasts. Dick Swiv-
eller is a rare combination of conceit and
assurance. He purchases without means to
pay and avoids the street thereafter. Quilp,
with the body of a dwarf and the instinct
of a wolf, is a strange fancy. But where so
fair so frail, so lovable a child as little Nell?
Patient, hopeful, a ministering angel that
wins all hearts. 'The roughest among them
was sorry if he missed her in the usual
place upon his way to school.' At church
young children would cluster at her skirts
and aged men and women forsake their gos-
sip to give her kindly greeting. How sad
that such a child should die, and yet with
what a tender, sacred beauty he clothed her
"He wrote for the multitude, and the
multitude was pleased. No man of his day
is better known, more widely read, more
warmly loved than Dickens, for the burden
of all his stories is 'be good and love; have
compassion on misery and wretchedness;
believe that humanity, pity, forgiveness, are
the finest things in man.' "
THE WORLD'S FINEST BURIAL GROUNDS.
6jOO-NIGHT, said papa, I propose that
Swe have a little old-fashioned talk
about some of the famous burial places
of the World. Every one, as age comes on,
naturally thinks of the time when they will
lay down their work here and enter a life
beyond. As the life beyond is not intended
for the body, but simply the soul, naturally
there must be a place on Earth where this
body is consigned when life is extinct.
"From time immemorial different meth-
ods have been resorted to for burying the
dead. The ceremonies performed depend-
ed entirely upon the customs of the country,
but the place selected for the grave depen-
ded upon the position one occupied in the
world, not only as to office but in financial
worth. No matter where the dead is buried
a wealth and even a waste of money can be
used in placing a memorial, which sooner
or later must perish with time.
"In America some of our greatest Gen-
erals have been buried in vaults and tombs
erected by the people, but a private citizen
when dying is usually buried in a country
church yard or in a cemetery surrounded
22 THE WORLD'S FINEST BURIAL GROUNDS.
by green trees, running brooks and fragrant
flowers. The old world custom is some-
what different and especially those of an-
In Athens, Pompeii and Rome it was the
custom to bury the dead by the side of the
main roads immediately outside the town-
gates. In Greece these Streets of Tombs
have mostly disappeared. The only one re-
maining is now within the present city of
Athens. Many of these had sumptuous
monuments of the finest pentelic marble,
but only those that could bear exposure
have been left in their original places, the
smaller ones having been removed to the
TOMB OF MARIA CHRISTINA-VIENNA.
THE WORLD'S FINEST BURIAL GROUNDS. 23
The first place of interment on the left, ones, so that the ground here must have
immediately beyond the ancient gate, con- been very uneven in ancient days. Farther
sists: of the foundation wall of a semicircu- on comes the Monument of Dexileos, a
lar building, within which are upright tomb- young Athenian who distinguished himself
stones. These are the monuments of Cor- by his valor in the Corinthian War in B. C.
cyrean ambassadors. The monuments lie 394-395 ; the relief represents him on horse-
sixteen feet lower than the surrounding back in the act of striking down his foe;
THE WORLD'S FINEST BURIAL GROUNDS.
the weapons and bridles were added in
bronze. The two monuments in front be-
long to other members of the same family,
the whole forming a family tomb.
Farther along the road is the Grave of
Korallion, the relief representing a family
group. Korallion grasps the hand of her
husband Agathon with her right hand and
his arm with her left, while in the back-
ground are another bearded man and a
youth. The next monument is in the form
of a small temple, the interior of which was
adorned with paintings, now completely
erased. A little farther on a large bull oc-
cupies the top of a tombstone. Then a
large Molossian hound and a Seaman's
Grave, embellished with a relief represent-
ing a family group on the sea-shore.
Opposite the Molossian hound is the
Tomb of Hegeso, perhaps the most beauti-
ful of them all, representing a lady at her
toilette, attended by a female slave.
On the Appian Way leading out of Rome
are to be found some of the finest ancient
tombs in existence. Among these is that
of COecilia Matella. It is a circular struc-
ture 65 feet in diameter with a square ped-
estal covered with travertine. The frieze
which runs around the building is adorned
with wreaths of flowers and skulls of oxen.
On a marble tablet facing the road is in-
scribed the name. This tomb was built by
the younger Crassus in honor of his wife.
The interior contained the tomb chamber.
In the Thirteenth Century this tomb was
converted into a stronghold and furnished
with battlements. Not far from this tomb,
but on the opposite side of the road, is the
famous Catacombs of St. Calistus where
was found the remains of St. Cecilia and
other martyrs of the early Christian Church.
The burial place of the royal family of
Austria is in the Imperial Vault of the
Capuchin Church. In Spain, King Ferdi-
nand's and Isabella's remains lie in lead
coffins in a crypt just underneath the
Cathedral at Grenada.
One of the most beautiful burial places
in the world to-day, if not the finest ever
known, is the cemetery at Genoa, Italy,
known as Campo Santo. Here the monu-
ments and general arrangement is exceed-
ingly interesting, to say nothing of unique-
We visited the city one afternoon when
the sky was blue and the air fragrant with
spring flowers. We had been told by many
friends that Genoa has more rainy days in
the year than any other city in the world,
and I believe this is true, for we had been
there scarcely half an hour when the sky
became darkened and rain fell upon us.
The next morning we arose intending to
make the most of our time, but soon an-
other rain storm came on. The sky again
cleared, giving us sufficient time to see the
city in general, but not Campo Santo. As
the train was to bear us away early the next
THE GREAT CATHEDRALS OF THE WORLD.
morning we had about given up visiting
Campo Santo, but a call from our American
Consul made us think that this place above
all others must not be neglected, so we
arose early, engaged a carriage, taking our
baggage with us, thinking to make just a
halt at Campo Santo and then away for the
train. But when I tell you that a whole
day there could scarcely have satisfied one,
then you will understand that it is a beau-
tiful, yes, a most wonderful place. It would
be impossible to describe it, but should any
of this "Culture Club" ever visit Italy, by
all means visit this grand and artistic place.
Here one can have their choice of being
buried in a marble vault or out in the open
court or back upon the mountains where
the air is always balmy, the skies blue or
the rains refreshing, making their last rest-
ing place as pleasant as possible.
THE GREAT CATHEDRALS OF THE WORLD.
PROPOSE that at our next Club we
learn something about the great
Churches of the world," said Julia
Brown, who had recently become interested
in Religion and all topics pertaining thereto.
" I second the motion," said Tom, "and in
the meantime I propose we all study up the
subject and then we can ask questions."
"All right," said papa, "I think the idea a
good one, for then you will be able to cor-
rect me in case I make an error."
The week rolled around, and with it came
the regular night for story-telling. All
were on hand as usual, and Mr. Gray began
by asking, first, how many were prepared to
assist him. Every voice said, "I."
"Well, let us begin with the largest
Church in the world," said papa. "Who
can tell me which one it is and where it is
located?" St. Peters," said Tom. "Rome,"
said Alice, determined not to be outdone.
" Yes," said papa, the largest Cathedral of
the world is St. Peters at Rome. Who
founded it?" said papa. "Emperor Con-
stantine," said Florence. "Yes, the origi-
nal church was founded by the Emporer
Constantine at the request of Pope Sylves-
ter I. Who can tell why it bears the name
of St. Peter?" said papa. "Because," said
Tom, "it was erected on the ground where
the circus of Nero was located, and where
St. Peter is said to have been martyred."
" Good," said papa, "and in a crypt in the
center of the Church is a sarcophagus of
the Apostle. The original Church, after
several centuries, was considered too small,
and a new church was planned. Accord-
ingly the old one was torn down, and the
new one was consecrated in the year 1626.
It cost upward of two million dollars and is
THE GREAT CATHEDRALS OF THE WORLD.
to-day not only the largest, but the most
imposing and beautiful church in the world.
Its area is 18,000 square yards. The inter-
ior is strikingly impressive, but the effect
produced is not so much its vastness as the
harmony and symmetry of its proportion.
"The next largest Church in the world,
who can tell me where it is located?" said
Mr. Gray. "The Duoma, at Milan," said
Florence, who, from the pictures she had
seen, considered it the most artistic in the
world. "Yes," said Mr. Gray, "the Milan
Cathedral, with perhaps the exception of
the one at Seville, Spain, comes next. Its
area is 14,000 square yards-4,000 square
yards smaller than St. Peters.
"The Cathedral at Milan is regarded by
the Milanese as the eighth wonder of the
world. It holds 40,000 people and the
tower is 300 feet above the pavement. The
roof, marble like the rest of the building,
is adorned with 98 turrets and the exterior
upwards of 2,000 statues in marble. The
architecture of the Milan Cathedral is
purely Gothic," said Florence, "and the
statues make it in my mind far handsomer
than any other Church I can concieve of."
"Yes," said Amy Daish, who had been
studying the architecture of the various
churches for some days, "I must confess
it is beautiful, but what can possibly be
handsomer than St. Mark's Cathedral at
Venice? This must have been very beau-
tiful at one time, decorated as it was with
lavish and almost oriental magnificence."
"Yes," said Mr. Gray, "Amy is right, St.
Mark's possesses even to-day a grandeur
seldom seen on the outside of a building.
Mr. Ruskin says that 'the effects of St.
Mark's depend not only upon the most deli-
cate sculpture in every part, but on its
color, also, and that it is the most subtle,
variable, inexpressible color in the world-
the color of glass, of transparent alabaster,
of polished marble and lustrous gold.'
"Over the principal portals are four
horses in gilded bronze five feet in height,
which are the finest of ancient bronzes.
They probably once adorned the triumphal
arch of Nero, and afterwards that of Tro-
jan. Constantine sent them to Constanti-
nople, and the Doge brought them to
Venice in 1204. In 1797 they were carried
by Napoleon to Paris where they graced
the triumphal arch Palace du Carrousel,
and in 1815 they were restored to their
former position on St. Mark's by Emperor
This Cathedral is named from St. Mark
whose bones were brought from Alexan-
dria in 829 and placed in a reliquary un-
der the high altar.
"I have been waiting all this time to
hear about the pigeons," said little May,
" for mamma says that there are lots of them
around St. Mark's." "Yes," said papa
Gray, "a large flock of pigeons enlivens
the piazza. In accordance wihli an old
DUOMA, AT MILAN.
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. 2?
custom pigeons were sent out from the
churches on Palm Sunday, and nestled in
the nooks and crannies of the surrounding
buildings. Down to the close of the Re-
public they were fed at the public expense,
but they are now dependent upon private
charity. Towards evening they perch in
great numbers under the arches of St.
Mark's. Grain and peas may be bought
for the pigeons from various loungers in
the Piazza; and those whose ambition
leans in that direction may have them-
selves photographed with pigeons cluster-
ing round them."
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
S one stands upon the Plain of
SWaterloo, the sight of one of the
greatest battles of history, a battle
which checked the personal ambition of one
man and drove him in exile to the rocky
shores of St. Helena and brought a long
period of peace to the war-surfeited na-
tions of Europe, he must be insensible in-
deed if he is not affected by the surround-
ings and the associations of this historic
spot. The plain is but a valley about three
miles long, of varying width, but generally
not over half a mile.
On each side of the valley is a winding
NAPOLEON'S HEADQUARTERS, WATERLOO.
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
chain of low hills running nearly parallel
to each other. The slope from these hills
to the valley below is easy but not uniform.
Just back of the center of the ridge upon
the southern side of the valley lies the lit-
tle village of LaBelle Alliance. Opposite,
behind the northern ridge, lies the hamlet
NAPOLEON AT AGE OF 46 WHEN HE FOL
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
of Mont St. Jean, The highroad frbm
Charleroi to Brussels passes through these
little towns and is the road along which the
French army must pass to reach Brussels,
which Napoleon desired to reach.
It was on these two ranges, the French
under Napoleon numbering 130,000, on the
south, the English and allies under
Wellington 106,000 strong on the
north, with Blucher and the Prussian
army of 110,000 men, twelve miles
away that the opposing armies were
d-rawn up in line of battle on that
Memorable morning of June 18, 1815.
The British position was well fitted
for a defensive battle. Behind them
lay the great forest of Svignies, on
their right was the village and ravine
of Mesh Braine and on the left two
little towns gave slight protection,
though this was needless, as the Prus-
sian army was to advance on that side.
The battle then must be fought by
straight attack; flank movements were
The night of June 17th was marked
by heavy rains and when morning
dawned the troops arose unrefreshed
yet eager for the battle. Wellington
drew up his infantry in two lines, his
most reliable troops in the van and
those which had suffered most in the
rGHT battle of Ligny on the preceding day
sheltered from the French cannon-
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. 31
ade by the hills in the rear. The cavalry on the center and the left wing. For this
was stationed at intervals along the rear purpose four columns of infantry number-
line, the largest force being gathered at the ing 18,000 men and a strong body of cav-
left of the center, airy with seventy-four guns of artillery
Opposite, the French were drawn up in were selected. These guns wrought ter-
two lines with the entire cavalry and Im- rible havoc among the English troops and
perial Guards in the rear as a reserve force the first gave way. Not so the second.
ready to aid any part of the line.
When all was ready. Napoleon rode
along the line encouraging and receiv-
ing from them the most enthusiastic
cheering. Both sides were confident.
Wellington had proved himself in-
vincible on many a battle-field and
realized that all Europe looked to him
to win a battle in which if he was de-
feated would make the French the
masters of the world. Napoleon, too,
realized that this day would, if won,
wipe out the memory of recent dis-
grace and make him Emperor of
France and the idol of the nation.
At half-past eleven Napoleon began
the attack by sending a strong force
against the enemy's right. Column
after column was hurled upon the
English line only to be met by the
most determined bravery. Amidst
shot and shell, furious charges and
fierce resistance the battle raged.
Meantime the contest had begun all
along the line and at one o'clock
Napoleon directed an attack under WELLINGTON, SAME AGE AS NAPOLEON, 46,
Ney, "the bravest of the brave," up-WHEN BATTLE WAS FOUGHT AT WATERLOO.
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
As the French approached, the English met
them with a deadly volley at close range
and then dashed upon them with their
bayonets. The French were driven back
and then the English cavalry charged down
upon them, sabred the artillerymen of the
seventy-four guns, cut the traces and killed
the horses, rendering them useless for the
day and causing a loss which did -nuch to
decide the day in their favor.
Although the French had fought fiercely
they had gained no decided advantage, and
at half past three as Napoleon saw the
Prussian allies coming up from the east he
ordered his splendid cavalry to charge the
English center. This body of horsemen
was the finest the world had ever seen.
They numbered 35,000, every man selected
for bravery and daring. It had never
known defeat and when the order to charge
came they dashed forward with ringing
cheers. Wellington quickly formed his in-
fantry in squares, and while the outer ranks
received the French upon their bayonets
the inner lines poured volley after volley
into their advancing columns. Charge
after charge was made but the English
squares remained unbroken. The Prus-
sians under Blucher having arrived, the
English and their allies assumed the offen-
sive and began to attack the French in dif-
ferent portions of the line. Throughout
the day the Old Guard, Napoleon's bravest
veterans had remained inactive. These
were picked troops, the heroes of a score of
battles, renowned for their skill and brav-
ery. These under the command of Ney
were ordered forward. In the face of a
deadly fire they moved imposingly on.
Ney's horse was shot under him but he led
the way on foot, sword in hand. Suddenly
there came the command, "Up Guards, and
at them!" and from the ground where they
had been lying up sprang the British
Guards four deep in compact order and in
perfect form. Fire !" and three hundred
of the Old Guard went down never to rise.
"Charge and with the fury of demons
the English troop rushed upon the French.
In vain did the French officers strive to
check the English advance. The British
Guards were irresistible and for the first
time in their career the Old Guard turned
and fled. At the foot of the hill they ral-
lied and again advanced. Meantime the
English had ordered a brigade to flank the
French and as they assended the hill a de-
structive fire met them in front and poured
in from the side. Against such odds the
bravery of the French could not prevail,
and again they turned and fled. Then it
was that Wellington, seeing the disorder
of the French, gave the order to his entire
army to charge. Before Napoleon and
Ney could ralley their disheartened men
the English were upon them. The French
were thrown into confusion and except the
weakened ranks of the Old Guard, retreat-
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. 33
ed in disorder. The Old Guard was swept
away. Waterloo was lost, Napoleon was
beaten and Europe was delivered from his
ambition. But at what a fearful cost 27,-
000 killed and wounded on the English
side and a heavier loss upon the French
was the price paid for deliverance.
Napoleon fled to Paris, but the French
safety of Europe lay only in depriving him
of his liberty. Imprisonment seemed in-
tolerable, and by Act of Parliament he was
banished to the dreary Isle of St. Helena.
Here he lived for nearly six years, dying
in 1821. In his will he requested that his
remains "might lie on the banks of the
Seine, which he loved so well." He was
NAPOLEON'S TOMB, PARIS, IN CHURCH OF INVALIDES.
people turned against him and demanded
his head. He became an exile, threw him-
self upon English clemency, saying, "I
have terminated my public career. I place
myself under the protection of your laws,
which I claim from your royal highness as
the most powerful, the most constant, the
most generous of my enemies." England re-
ceived him courteously but decided that the
buried at Longwood, St. Helena, but in the
reign of Louis Philippe he was, by the per-
mission of the English Government, con-
veyed to the Invalides at Paris, where a
stately dome was erected over the sarcoph-
agus containing his ashes. History has
pronounced its verdict upon Napoleon as
cold, relentless, ambitious and vindictive.
But let us not be uncharitable. Trained
34 THE CATACOMBS OF ROME.
to war he knew nothing but war and
sought by conquest of war to place all
Europe under his direction. Flattered and
petted by his people when his star was in
the ascendancy, he felt the full measure of
their resentment when success no longer
attended his efforts in war. Years have
passed since the fateful Battle of Waterloo
and to-day the French people see in Napo-
leon a military hero striving bravely against
forces too powerful to overcome, and the
words of their own Victor Hugo say, "It
was not Wellington that defeated Napoleon
at Waterloo, it was God."
THE CATACOMBS OF ROME.
CEMETERY of to-day is made a
__ place of beauty. Shrubs and flow-
ers and stately trees, graveled walks
and well-kept lawn, simple slab and sculp-
tured monument combine to adorn our
loved ones' last resting place and surround
it with associations as pleasant as possible.
Not so with the ancient Romans. Their
dead were placed in burial vaults, excavat-
ed in the rocks which are plentiful near
the city of Rome.
These burial places are called the Cata-
combs, which originally meant simply a
hollow. Later, as this place filled up with
dead, the name began to mean excavations
in which the dead were placed. The bodies
of saints and early churchmen were entomb-
ed therein, thus making sacred places to
which pilgrimages were made.
No better description of them has been
given than that of St. Jerome, who says,
"When I was at school in Rome, my com-
panions and I used, on Sundays, to make
the circuit of the sepulchres of the apos-
tles and martyrs. Many a time did we go
down into the Catacombs. These are ex-
cavated deep in the earth and contain, on
either hand, as you enter, the bodies of the
dead, buried in the wall. It is all so dark
there that the language of the Prophet
seems to be fulfilled. 'Let them go down
quick into hell.' Only occasionally is light
let in to mitigate the horror of the gloom,
and then not so much through a window
as through a hole. You take each step with
caution surrounded as by deep night."
In agreement with this vivid picture, we
find ourselves, upon entering, in a vast
labarynth of narrow galleries, three or four
feet wide, interspersed with small cham-
bers, dug at successive levels in the vol-
canic rock. These recesses rise tier above
tier like the berths in a ship, from two to
twelve in number.
CATACOMBS, WHERE ST. CECILIA WAS BURIED.
36 THE CATACOMBS OF ROME.
In these the bodies were placed and the
entrances closed with a tight-fitting slab of
marble, or other stone, and tightly sealed.
Sometimes the bodies were embalmed,
sometimes quicklime was thrown in to
hasten decomposition. On the slab which
served as a door to these vaults, an epitaph
was usually written, sometimes simply and
... ..v . .... ..--
PICTURE OF ST. CECILIA, AS DRAWN
ON WALLS OF CATACOMBS, ROME.
sometimes elaborately carved. Many fami-
ly vaults, about twelve feet square, were
dug out. In these were placed receptacles
for the dead. The walls of these vaults
were highly decorated according to the
wealth of the owner. Here occurred the
funeral feast celebrated on each anniver-
sary. These feasts were often drunken
orgies, for St. Augustine speaks of those
who by "gluttony and insobriety bury
themselves over the buried, make them-
selves drunk in the chapels of the martyrs
and place their excesses to the score of re-
ligious reverence for the dead."
The galleries are not arranged on any
definite plan, but cut into each other at
different angles, producing a network with-
out system, and in which the visitor easily
loses himself. There are different stories
of galleries lying one below another to the
number of four or five and in one case,
seven. These different galleries are con-
nected by stairs cut in the rock. Light
and air are let in by vertical shafts running
up to the outer air, but serve their purpose
In the fourth century, these Catacombs
were at the height of their popularity.
The custom of burying the dead here
ceased with the capture of Rome by Alaric
in 410 A. D. Before this the Catacombs
had come to be regarded as sacred and
were visited by large numbers of pilgrims.
With the fall of Rome, these pilgrimages
ceased, and by degrees the very existence
of these tombs was forgotten. For six cen-
turies they lay hidden until in 1578, some
laborers discovered them and "revealed the
existence of other cities concealed beneath
their own suburbs." Then began a careful
THE CATACOMBS OF ROME 37
series of explorations until their mysteries
were laid bare. Successive rulers have
sought to restore them to their original
state, but despite the researches of eminent
men, much must be imagined.
The decorations on the walls of the
tombs are mostly taken from the Bible,
though mythology furnishes some subjects.
Among them are the Good Shepherd, The
Fisherman, suggestions of the miracles;
Lazarus, the Crucifixion from the New
Testament and Jonah, David, Daniel and
other characters from the old. Here have
rested the bodies of many noted for good
works. Tradition says that the bodies of
the Apostles Peter and Paul, were en-
tombed here for a year and seven months.
Numerous saints were entombed here, but
among them all perhaps greater interest
centers around none more than around the
Tomb of St. Cecelia. Tradition, legend
and history are somewhat confused as to
the events of her life, but enough is known
to merit the respect and reverence of all
who honor a truly noble woman. Legend
says that she sang praises to God with
musical accompaniment and countless
musical societies are named after her.
Artists have placed upon canvas scenes
from her life, Poets have written of her
gentle, useful life, History has engraved
her name in enduring character upon its
pages and the Church of Rome cherishes
her memory as one of its richest heritages.
Born of a noble Roman family, she was
in the early part of the third century, con-
verted to Christianity. Her parents com-
pelled her to marry a pagan, named Valer-
ian, whom she converted to Christianity.
Later she and all her converts were mart-
yred, later a church was built upon the
spot occupied by her home. Her burial
place was forgotten, for a time, but in the
ninth century, Pope Paschal I, we are told,
was visited by her in a vision and her rest-
ing place in the Catacombs made known.
Following her directions, he found not only
her remains, but those of her husband and
nine hundred other martyrs. All these he
placed with great ceremony in the church
named for her and which he had rebuilt.
This church was again rebuilt in the
fifteenth century, and her remains placed
in a silver receptacle and deposited under
To the lovers of the old the habits and
customs which prevailed in the treatment
of the dead, and to the lovers of old ceme-
teries no spot in Rome is more interesting
than the Catacombs. Yet our own burial
places, with shrubs and flowers and shaded
walks, are far more pleasant than those of
foreign lands, which many people travel
thousands of miles to visit.
38 A KNIGHT IN AkMOR.
A KNIGHT IN ARMOR.
JT was Tom's birthday. In his honor
a party was given. "In almost every
museum we visit, "said papa, who be-
gan in his usual story-telling way of enter-
tainment, "are to be found what look like
suits of metal, and boys of every age seem
never to tire of looking at them. Some are
tarnished with age, or perchance, bear dints
inflicted by the heavy blows of some foe;
others are bright and splendid with never
a su'L'.stiiFln of aught but court parade.
As he gazes upon these relics of bygone
days, what boy has failed to people them
with ktiiulJl- of old, has longed to see the
tournaments of history where brave men
and fiery steeds met in fierce but friendly
contest to win the wreath of honor and
vict,-ry bestowed by some high born lady,
or wondered from whence came these un-
gainIly coats of mail, or how their wearers
fought with such a heavy load.
The origin of armor is lost in history.
\Wlen men began to fight, they began to
seek lpr,'teti. int. At first, a wicker shield
carried upon the arm; this was replaced by
one of ox-hide and this in turn gave way to
one of metal. Then came lit, helmet to
protect the head from heavy blows. From
this it was but a step to the coat and soon
the whole suit followed. It was not enough
that man alone should be protected, and
next came the armor for the horse. The
complete armor consisted of the helmet,
coat and greaves, or armor for the legs.
Steel was mostly used, its weight being de-
termined by the strength of the wearer and
its cost by his wealth.
The greaves were great plates made to
conform to the leg, jointed at the knee
with a cap extending above. The lower
part extended to the foot or not, as the
owner wished. The back part of the leg
was not covered except in rare cases. The
coat was made in several pieces, the body
jointed at the back and fastening in front.
The arms were jointed at the elbow and
fastened at the shoulder, a plate projecting
on the latter for protection. The gloves,
or gauntlets, covered only the back of the
hand. The helmet set down over the head
and rested upon the shoulders. In front,
the visor, which was perfoatled to allow
the wearer to see, could be lowered if nec-
essary. The armor of the horse covered
head, neck, breast and back. Oftentimes
the knight wore nest to his body a suit of
underwear made from minute links of steel
The weight of such a load was heavy and
greatly impeded the action of the wearer,
but without it, a blow from battle-ax, a
single thrust from spear or a stroke from
IN ARMOR. 39
a sword in the hands of a foe was fatal.
Could we witness a knightly tournament of
the dark ages, we should see a horrible yet
splendid sight. Here gathered knights and
nobles, princes and kings with squires and
servants, while their wives and daughters
PHOTOGRAPHED FROM THE MUSEUM, DRESDEN.
10 A KNIGHT IN ARMOR.
graced the scene with their presence. The
first day was given up to encounters be-
tween single Knights. The victor in each
case was given the horse, saddle and bridle
of his foe, the one winning the greatest
number of contests being declared the
leader of one side in the general encounter
and being allowed to name the Queen of
Love and Beauty who bestowed -the Chap-
let of Honor on the final victor, and the
next in rank leading the other. Before the
tournament began, the herald proclaimed
the rules; sword, lance, battle-ax or mace
could be used, but the dagger could not.
If one knight unhorsed another, he could
continue the fight with that one only by
dismounting. One unhorsed knight could
only attack another similarly situated. A
knight driven to the end of the lists or
field must retire as vanquished. Any
knight violating any of the rules of the
tournament was disgraced. As in the first
day, each victorious knight was entitled to
the horse of his defeated foe.
When all was ready, the two forces, num-
bering sometimes an hundred men, drew
up in opposite line. At a blast from the
trumpet they dashed forward at full speed,
the object being to make the horses collide
at full speed. Then the conflict raged.
The fierce cries of the men, mingled with
the blows of battle-ax, the clanging of
swords and the crash of crossing spears,
was dreadful to behold, while men and
horses went down and rolled in the dust.
Knights on foot engaged in hand to hand
contests. As the numbers dwindled away,
opportunities for feats of superb horseman-
ship, and skillful trials of lance and sword
presented themselves, and were improved
to the utmost. Finally the contest nar-
rowed down to the two leaders and then
began a scene which beggars description.
They fought as only brave men can fight,
until by lucky stroke or superior skill but
Then the shouts of the multitude broke
loose. The victor rode slowly before the
assembled throng and stopped before the
Queen of Beauty to receive the victor's
crown. Fierce as were these .tournaments,
they were less bloody than would be im-
agined. As many fell from the great
weight of their armors as by the skill of
their opposers. Then came trials of
strength and skill by the yeomanry, after
which a great banquet by the nobles con-
cluded the tournament.
With the invention of gunpowder and
the use of guns, armor began to disappear.
Its weight impeded the wearers and pre-
vented rapid movements, while it was not
proof against bullets. It serves to-day only
as a reminder of the past, when men
through mistaken notions of courage, faced
death rather than be thought lacking in
bravery and chivalry."
"Splendid," said every boy as papa fin-
ished his story. Three cheers with a prom-
ise of another equally as good when we
A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.
OW our young hearts jumped for
joy, when papa suddenly announced
one day at dinner, that his
business called him to South America, and
that we must all be ready to start in two
weeks' time. Poor mamma dreaded the
trip, and the long absence from home and
friends, but Tom and I could see nothing
but one long holiday ahead. Anxious to
know something of the country which we
were to visit, we got our geographies and
when all were seated for the evening, we
made known our wants to papa.
"Turn to the map of South America,"
said he, "and we will see what we can find
there." Then with our map before us we
noted the great triangular continent
stretching its enormous length of 4700
miles from Pt. Gallinas on the north to
Cape Horn on the south. Its greatest
-C-.-----. -- --I .----~~.:.~-, -i~ -
-~- '~=~.-aC *
------ --~-~-~- 1~~ -~,--;i~~~~
li-~~-;I-~~~-~i~==; -- '-;--~-~~1 ~__-- -
MOUTH OF THE AMAZON RIVER.
42 A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.
breadth is 3200 miles, and we found were
we to sail along its coast, we should travel
a distance of two-thirds of the circum-
ference of the world. Reaching from the
extreme north to the southern most limits,
the Andes mountains raise their huge
crests, rough, rocky and precipitous until
the tropic suns are all too feeble to melt the
chief, the largest river in the world, though
not the longest. For nearly 3,000 miles
this river flows from the base of the Andes,
whose eternal snows furnish never failing
source of supply, gathering in volumes by
the addition of streams so vast that most
rivers are but rivulets in comparison, until
snows which envelope them throughout
the year. Highest of all Mt. Aconcagua
stands a solitary sentinel almost 24,000
feet above the sea, while from its summit
to its base one can experience all the cli-
mates found from polar frosts to tropic
suns. Three great rivers drain its vast
territory of which the mighty Amazon is
it pours its floods into the vast Atlantic
through a mouth 180 miles wide.
Vast forests line its banks with a lux-
uriant growth of shrub and trees unknown
to temperate climes. In their depths
are found strange beasts, chattering apes
and monkeys, vast reptiles which lie in
HUTS IN THE FOR
A YTAR IN SO TH AMERICA. 4
wait for prey from some overhanging
bough, and birds whose rich plumage puts
to shame the colors of the rainbow.
East of the Andes you will find one vast
,lain sloping to the sea. The treeless
plains abounding in the richest pasturage
are the homes of countless herds of wild
horses and still wilder cattle. There it
was, we remembered the principal exports
of some countries, here are hides, horns
To our surprise we learned the people
there in all except Brazil and Guiana elect
their rulers and are as devoted to the idea
of self government as are our own.
"But what of our relations with this
continent," sdid papa. "What do we buy
and sell there and how much?" "With
Brazil we exchange manufactured articles
such as cloth, farming tools, iron, etc., for
coffee, leather, hides, tallow and fruits,"
said Tom, who had learned this in school.
"We buy from Brazil, fifty-eight million
dollars worth, and sell her a little over
seven millions. From the Argentine Re-
public we buy seven million dollars worth
of manufactured articles and sell her six
millions. Our trade with Columbia is a
little over five million and that with Chili,
three." "You will find many strange
things there," said papa as he closed the
book, "but nothing more so than the
people and their customs."
"Do nothing to-day that can be put off
until to-morrow, seems to be their motto.
Ignorant, lazy and inveterate gamblers.
they care but little for progress, as we
know the word, and allow the magnificent
opportunities of that country to be im-
proved by foreigners."
"In the extreme south of this continent,
the people are almost savage like in man-
ner and as the country is warm, they wear
little or no clothing. Still, steam and
electricity are proving great civilizers
among them. When the first railroad was
built the people could not understand that
trains were to run on schedule time, so at
first they came from a few minutes to a
few hours late to see it off. They soon
learned, however, that trains wait for no
man, and learned thereby the necessity of
punctuality. Buenos Ayres is perhaps
more like an American city than any other
found there. Street cars, electric lights
and modern paved streets are found, but
there is not the bustle and hurry which
mark our northern cities. Business is
done in the early hours of the day, for
when the sun is at its height but few care
to venture out. As evening approaches
the people crowd upon the streets to walk,
visit, gamble or amuse themselves as fancy
suggests. One occupation the natives
enjoy possibly more than all else and that
is to catch and break the wild horses that
roam over the prairies. These horses at
first are unmanageable, but with a laseo
44 A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.
they catch them by the neck, and taking
another lasso they throw it around their
legs and in a short space of time they
manage to ride them without fear.
"But this is enough for to-night," said
papa, learn what you can of this country
and be ready to sail in a short time. On
board the ship we will pursue our studies
Of our voyage to Rio de Janeiro, the
city near which we were to live for the
next twelve months little need be said.
We arrived in due time anxious and ex-
pectant, yet unprepared for the surprises
in store for us. The people looked so dif-
ferently, acted so differently and, worked so
differently from those we were accustomed
Z... =:. --* I. = g-- "Y '
....SS .,- '-. -----: -. ^ .,,. ..
THE CORRAL-ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.
A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA. 45
to see. The means of transportation were
such as we were unused to, the games and
sports and pets of the children so queer
Shortly after our arrival we rose early
one morning to see the men load the mules
and start for market. We went to the
fruit markets soon and there found the
mules with great baskets strapped on each
side patiently awaiting their loads. Into
these baskets the men piled immense
bunches of bananas, bushels of golden
oranges, huge pineapples bursting with
ripeness. When loaded the mules started
off Indian fashion, one behind the other,
the leader wearing a tinkling bell to which
we listened until its soft tones were lost in
Coffee picking afforded us much amuse-
ment. It seemed so easy for the natives
to pick coffee that we wanted to help,
th:)ugh we should have thought it hard
work, had we been obliged to do it. We
went into the hills, where the coffee trees
grow, with bags tied in front of us in which
to place the berries. The trees were
covered with long sprays of berries and
green leaves almost as pretty as when
wreathed with white star like blossoms
which made all the air fragrant. The
branches hung almost to the ground and
when our loads got heavy we poured them
into broad shallow baskets which were taken
to the coffee house and poured into a little
mill which cut the pulp and out dropped
two grains, white and juicy, that had lain
there, the two flat sides together. These
were spread into the terrane (a square
yard covered with slate or brick) to dry.
After lying here several days it must go
through another mill or be pounded in
a mortar to free the thick dry chaff
from the grain and make it ready for
Farina making always gave us a good
time. Farina is the bread of Brazil and is
made from a root called mandioca. This
root is ground in a mill turned by mules
and dried in a shallow pan. It makes
nice mush or bread. We enjoyed sugar
boiling as well and especially the testing
of syrup and sugar and candy pulling. It
was a jubilee we shall not soon forget.
Our pets were legion Guinea pigs which
we fed with our own hands, dear little,
soft, bright eyed creatures; bright, queer
colored parrots whose attempts at talking
were highly amusing; funny little monkeys
found, nowhere else, timid yet lovable that
often went to sleep in our pockets; and
lizards nearly two feet long, covered with
bright scales of black and white, though
not admired by every one, are gentle,
Of the many strange birds the Toncan
was the most noticeable with his yellow
plumage, sharp bill and eyes that make him
look as though he wore goggles. He is
46 A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.
called the "barber bird" because he cuts
the web from the stem of his tail feathers
using his beak like a pair of scissors.
Wishing to visit some friends, one day
we rode in sedan chairs as there were
neither street cars nor carriages. The
chairs were carried by four black men
who sing as they travel. Such fun as it
was, to peep out as we rode. When
we reached the home of our friend we
did not rap or ring, but clapped our
hands as hard as we could. Our friends
came to the door and said, "enter and
welcome, the house and its contents are
yours." We went into the parlor where
coffee was served in tiny cups as we chatted.
On our ride home we saw priests in their
black gowns, water carriers with large red
jars on their heads, black men carrying
great bags of sugar or coffee and other
sights equally strange. Another ride we
had, was in a musical cart. This is a cart
with solid wheels and axles so that they
both turn together as the cart moves.
It is intended that the cart should squeak,
and it does. You can not hear yourself
talk when it moves. The bottom of the
cart was spread with bright colored mats
on which we sat. The cart is drawn by
oxen that hurry not at all because of the
uncanny sounds behind them. Yet we
thought it great fun.
OLD WORLD WATERING
+ MONG the famous watering places
Sof the world none is perhaps more
famous than Carlsbad, located near
the eastern and northern boundary of Aus-
tria. Here come all classes of people, not
so much to enjoy the beauties of the
scenery as to partake of the waters, which
are filled with minerals. Some stay
months, while others stay only a day.
Baden-Baden, in the Black Forests, just
a few miles from the Rhine, is equally
famous, and alike noted for its mineral
waters. Here come the rich and the poor,
the well and the sick; some to bathe in its
waters, others to drink and be healed, while
a third come for pleasure. Here is much
to see, for there are not only the beautiful
drives, but delightful walks, winding rivers
and charming parks. Here one can sit and
read the legends of the Black Forest and
glance now and then over the mountains,
feeling all the while that they are drinking
in health as well as pleasure.
Then, too, there is Schaveningen, the
famous Holland resort, located near the
Hague on the sea coast. This calls tourists
from both Europe and America. Here
people go during the warm months not for
health, but rest and pleasure. Here one
can sit for hours and watch the different
nationalities as they pass to and fro, or
they can wade in the sand along the sea;
or, if they prefer, can have a good, refresh-
ing bath in the salty waters of old ocean.
But more delightful than all these is
that charming little spot on the western
coast of France known as Mont St. Michel.
This wonderful little place is on a rock in
the sea, and so charming is it that one de-
sires not only to visit it once, but many
times. Here are the fishermen with their
nets, and the peasants hunting for shells;
here when the tide goes down each day the
rock stands in the midst of sand like a
sentinel, and when it rises again it often
goes so high as to wash the rock to a height
of many yards along its sides. Here once
was located a famous monastery, but the
OLD WORLD WATERING PLACES.
monks have long since disappeared; all
that is left now is the building, which has
been converted into a show place for tour-
ists. Will I ever forget it, our visit there!
Then, too, here one gets those famous ome-
lets known all the world over, made by
Madame Poullard. My, how good they are!
But more popular than all the above re-
sorts is the one on the southern coast of
France, along the Riviera. Here from one
end to the other is a climate unsurpassed
in all the world. No wonder that wealth
flocks here! No wonder that the invalids
recover here! and no wonder that Parisians
make Nice their winter resort for several
months' duration. The sea, the drives, the
flowers and the atmosphere, all combine ta
make it the most charming spot of the
earth. Neither is this confined to one spot
only. All along the Mediterranean coast,
from Genoa, Italy, to Nice in Southern
France, is an uninterrupted series of winter
resorts and are still rapidly increasing in
number and popularity. The cause of the
mild and pleasant climate is not hard to
find. The Alps, on the North, form an
admirable screen from cold winds which
pass their tops but do not touch their feet,
besides the hills are exposed to the full
force of the sun's rays,
JOAN OF ARC.
Nthe walls of the Pantheon, in Paris,
are many beautiful paintings, among
them a striking one of Joan of Arc
leading the French troops to battle. The
painting represents her clothed in male
attire, mounted on a charger, her sword by
her side, and her banner, which, by the
way, was designed by herself, is in her
hand. Trumpeters precede her, priests
bow at her feet and soldiers encourage her.
A word about this strange character may
not be out of place. Joan of Arc was born
about 1411 in Domremy, a small village in
France. She never learned to read or write,
but was always interested in religious
teachings. As a child she was noted for
physical energy and loveliness. She was
obedient to parents, kind to all, and became
a favorite in the village. She was well
trained in housework, and excelled in the
use of the needle. As she grew older, a
meditative spirit crept over her and she
spent much time in prayer. All advances
from young men were repelled.
At that time the English had conquered
Northern France and bid fair to subdue
the nation. Isabella, the mother of the
ruling Dauphin, Charles, disinherited him
in favor of her son-in-law, Henry V, of
England, thus fulfilling an old prophecy
that the nation would be destroyed by a
woman. The same tradition stated that
France would be saved by a virgin who
should come out of the forest of Domremy,
where Joan as a child had tended sheep.
It was doubtless this tradition, coupled
with her love of country and hours of
prayer, that led her to believe she was the
one chosen to deliver France.
In 1428 Orleans was invested by the
English, and Joan, declaring she was
guided by saints, succeeded in securing an
interview with the Dauphin, and persuaded
him that her mission was Divine, and that
led by her, his armies must conquer. She
entered Orleans at the head of the French
army in 1429, and inspired her troops by
such vigorous attacks, that the English
were driven out. Other victories followed,
and the enemy was driven beyond the
Loire. She was wounded in an attack on
Paris, and the army disbanded. Later she
50 JOAN OF ARC.
led an unsuccessful assault against the
English, and refusing to retreat, was capt-
ured. Charles made no attempt to ransom
her, as he evidently began to doubt her
divine mission, as he found her unwilling
to obey orders. She was tried and con-
victed of heresy and sorcery, but was par-
doned at the scaffold on May 24th, 1431.
Presisting in wearing male garments, she
was judged to have relapsed and was sent-
enced to death and burned at the stake
May 31st, 1431.
Her greatness was due not to her mili-
tary achievements, but to the purity, truth
and ardor of her character, which made her
a piteous victim to the superstitions of the
age in which she lived. Recently she has
been canonized and is now looked upon as
one of the most honored saints of France.
A monument erected to her memory stands
in one of the most prominent squares of
Paris and is daily decked with wreaths
and flowers by her many enthusiastic ad-
JOAN OF ARC, PANTHEON, PARIS.
THE STORY OF AFRICA.
FTER our return home from South
SAmerica Tom and I were so
pleased with the many new things we had
learned, that we decided to give some time
to the study of each of the Continents and
with a map before us, we asked Papa one
evening to tell us something of this
ancient yet unknown land. "Well," said
Papa as we looked at the mai we see
Africa resembles South America in its
general form, being somewhat triangular
in shape. Like South America, Africa is
ISLAND OF RODA-IN THE NILE.
THE STORY OF AFRICA.
a vast isthmus, joined to the main conti-
nent by a narrow neck which seems all too
weak to hold this vast country to Asia.
Vast as this continent is, its mountain
ranges are insignificant when compared
with those of other countries. The Snow
Mountains in the East rise only to the
height of 7000 feet, while in the West the
Kong Mountains reach the same altitude.
In the North the Atlas Mountains manage
to climb 11,000 feet before they culminate
in the highest peak. But in the great
interior the highest point of the continent
is found in Mount Kilima Njaro which
reaches a height of 20,000 feet.
Here, too, three great rivers drain the
continent. The Nile is the longest river
in the world, yet the Congo pours a greater
volume of water into the Ocean, being
second only to the Amazon. The Nile is
THE STORY OF AFRICA. 53
the most interesting river in the world in
many ways. Along its banks are found
ruins so old that modern civilization pales
before them. The Pyramids raise their
bare heads high in the air, a silent testi-
mony to despotic power, for sublime as
they are, they were built by slaves under
the master's lash, an unwilling offering to
the sway of Kings. Here too, the Sphinx
is found half buried by the sands of time,
as silent as the grave, Could it but speak,
what a tale of sorrow, of suffering, of the
miseries of the old civilization it would
For 1200 miles in its lower course the
Nile receives not a single affluent and here
A FELLAH PLOUGHING-EGYPT.
54 THE STORY OF AFRICA.
the natives wait in anxious expectation for
its yearly "gift," for in this region no
rain falls and the overflow of this mighty
stream is depended upon to fit the rich
soil for cultivation, not only watering it,
but fertilizing it as well.
In the picture you will see one of the
natives ploughing. He cares little what
team he uses for work so long as it in
some fashion meets his purpose.
These people are peculiar in their habits
and while they care very little for forms
of agriculture or methods of work, yet
they are strict in their religious customs.
The women wear a covering over the lower
part of their faces, and are seldom seen
without it. Even in eating they wear these
The section which we have been telling
you of belongs mainly to the plains of the
FELLAHEEN AT MEALS.
PTHA STORY OF AFRICA. 65
Nile, or the section of Africa which is
pretty well known. Now we come to the
new and unknown part to which the Congo
river is closely linked. On its banks has
been formed the Congo Free State, for the
purpose of developing trade, carrying
civilization to Africa and suppressing the
slave trade. This river is navigable for
many hundred miles and around its falls,
railroads have been built thus establishing
trade with the remote interior. To these
points we send clothes, beads, cutlery,
trinkets, some agricultural implements,
and to our shame be it said, rum in ex-
change for ivory, gold dust, gums and
On the South Eastern part are the
largest diamond fields in the world. You
VILLAGE OF CONDE-CENTRAL AFRICA.
SPRING IN DESERT.
THE STORY OF AFRICA. 57
will remember the exhibit of this kind we
saw at the World's Fair a year ago.
No other continent can compare with
Africa in the size of its animals, the wealth
of its forests and the vastness of its deserts,
nor does any other continent possess as
good possibilities in the way of furnishing
sustenance for a great population as does
In many sections of Africa the country
WOMAN-PRAYING TO SACRED TREE.
58 ITiE SfPO Yr Of AFRi10A.
is beautiful. The trees are laden with
fruit. The Cactus and Oleander run riot
with blossom and the delicious perfumes
from unexpected gardens is always a
pleasant balm. Just above the central
part, though, is the Great Desert of Sahara,
dull by contrast to the fertile banks of the
Mediterranean. It takes days to cross it
and is a long, weary, tedious and almost
dangerous place to travel, not only because
one sometimes comes in contact with
wandering people, but because of the sand
storms which frequently occur and last a
During the last half century, time,
r-oney and even human life have been
freely given to learn more of this unknown
continent. When the history of Africa
shall be written, standing first in the gal-
axy of heroes who have made civilization
possible, here will be the names of Stanley
One achievement we must notice and
that is the Suez canal, connecting the
waters of the Mediterranean with those of
the Red Sea. This was built under the
direction of a French Engineer, Dr.
Luseps, but is now owned principally by
the English. The importance of this
It is an
is the first
LIGHTHOUSE AT ALEXANDRIA.
THE STORY OF AFRICA. 59
across the Isthmus. Six hundred years
before Christ a water way was opened but
after about 1400 years it was allowed to
fall into disuse. Two facts should be
remembered about this canal. One is, that
the company building it should have all
the land the canal might irrigate; the
other that the Viceroy of Egypt was to
furnish 25,000 Coolies to labor upon it.
One of the sights of Algiers, is the
cemetery where the women go to pray and
wail in true Eastern style over departed
relatives. They often pray to trees and in
many places these trees are so well-known
as to be called sacred trees. But let us to
the cities of Africa for our next lesson."
THE CITIES OF AFRICA.
"Imagine if you can," said papa, "that
you are approaching the city of Alexan-
dria from the sea. Not a single hill breaks
the monotony of the low, flat coast, yet as
one approaches, he will be stirred at the
thought that this is the land of the Pha-
raohs, that out of this land Moses led the
Israelites, guided by a cloud by day and
a pillar of fire by night, that here Jacob
came and Joseph welcomed his brethren.
But our reveries are broken as we approach
the shore, for crowds of Arabs, Turks and
natives surrounds us in their boats each
one anxious to carry off a passenger or
two, and they besiege us in a way that
makes the methods of our own hackmen
Old Alexandria was founded by Alex-
ander The Great, about 322 B. C., and
contained the Jewish, the Egyptian and
the Greek quarters. Here was gathered
the learned men of an early day and the
city became the seat of learning as well as
of commerce. Here were gathered the
manuscripts that made the Alexandrian
Library the largest of its day and what
was lost by its burning the world will
Magnificent public buildings, temples
and houses marked its two principal streets,
when the city was in its glory, but now
have fallen sadly in decay.
Modern Alexandria stands partly on
what was the isle of Pharos, but mostly on
the isthmus which joins it to the mainland.
This isthmus, by the way, was once but a
narrow dyke built for easy access to the
island, but by constant accumulations it
has become a site for the greater part of
the new city.
In the Turkish quarter the streets are
narrow, filthy and irregular and the houses
mean and poorly built. The European
quarter; however appears quite like a
60 THE STORY OF AFRICA.
modern city with its paved streets, well
built shops, its water and its gas. The
business portion is built around the Grand
Square, provided with trees, seats, walks
and a fine fountain at each end. In the
suburbs are handsome villas surrounded
by beautiful gardens.
But few relics of old Alexandria remain.
The Necropolis, Pompeys Pillar, the
Catacombs, the old lighthouse, and one of
Cleopatras Needles still attest the great-
ness of the ancients. The city has a fine
harbor and is connected with Cairo and the
cotton districts by short railways.
On its streets we hear strange tongue,
and see every race known to the world."
THE CITY OF CAIRO.
"A ride, of one hundred and fifty miles
by rail, takes us from Alexandria to Cairo,
the capital of Egypt. Built partly upon
the plain and partly on the lower slopes of
the adjacent mountains, we stop at the
latter and from the ramparts of the citadel
obtain our first view of this ancient city.
Standing on the walls of the fortress two
hundred feet above the city, the sight is
one of magnificence and beauty. Below
us stand out the strongly built walls and
towers, the gardens and squares, the
palaces and mosques, the domes and min-
arets with their delicate carvings and fan-
tastic tracery. The broad river studded
with islands and the valley of the Nile
dotted with groves form an artistic back-
ground, while in the north the pyramids
raise their heads in silent majesty and on
the east there are bairren cliffs backed by
an ocean of sand.
Formerly, Cairo was little better than a
labyrinth of winding lanes, low, ill built
houses and narrow unpaved streets swept
by constant clouds of dust blown from
huge mounds of rubbish outside the walls,
but modern ideas have made themselves
felt, and new streets have been cut through,
along which are shops and houses quite in
keeping with our own cities. In the cen-
ter, what was once a wild waste has been
transformed into the principal square of
the city with trees and walks and a lovely
lake in the center. The houses of the city
form a striking contrast. The poorer
classes live in miserable mire hovels with
filthy courts, dilapidated windows and
tattered awnings, while those of the wealthy
are built tastefully with windows shaded
by projecting cornices and ornamented
with stained glass. A winding passage
leads through an ornamented passage to
THE STORY OF AFRICA. 61
an open court with a fountain in its midst
shaded by palm trees. Above the center
of the fountain hangs a decorated lantern
which sheds a soft light on the surround-
ings. The sides are inlaid with rare
cabinets and richly stained windows, while
in a recess near by is a low cushioned
seat running around the sides on which to
sit. The upper story contains the haremn
into which we can not penetrate. Cairo
is a city of mosques, these being nearly
four hundred old and new, though many
are now but ruins of former splendor.
Some of the mosques in use date back to
the ninth century, and you may imagine
their architecture is ancient.
It has a varied commerce but mainly of
goods in transit such as ivory, hides, gum,
ostrich feathers for the interior, cotton and
sugar from upper Egypt, indigo and
shawls from Persia, sheep and tobacco
from Asiatic Turkey, and manufactured
articles from Europe. Cairo has a number
of factories of its own including a paper
mill, cotton factories, sugar refineries, gun
powder, leather and silk factories.
The climate is hot, the mortality high,
and strange, to relate the greatest number
of deaths is from consumption. You will
both remember our day on Midway Plais-
ance at the World's Fair and cui visi; to
"The Streets in Cairo" where we saw the
people as they are at home. Put your
experience there with what I have told
you and you will have the foundation for
a fair knowledge of this old city."
,/W for the story of Tangier which
I promised some time ago" said
Mr. Gray. "As one approaches the
city of Tangier from the sea, he is im-
pressed with its venerableness and its im-
posing appearance, rising gradually as it
does from the water's edge to the summit
of the hills on which it is built. It sug-
gests a vast amphitheater, with its sur-
rounding walls and ancient castle. The
second oldest town in the world, we ap-
proach it wondering what it has to offer.
As our ship drops anchor, we enter the
small boats and are met by a group of stal-
wart Moors who carry us ashore on their
backs. Each one astride his human horse,
our party laugh and joke at the grotesque
appearance but are landed safely.
We have wanted to see something for-
eign, something that would not remind us
of any other land. We have found it. We
recall the pictures we have seen of it, but
they have not told half the story. We
must go back to the weird fancies of the
Arabian Nights to realize it as it is. Here
is a city swarming with a motley humanity
packed and jammed within a massive stone
wall, built more than a thousand years ago.
The houses look like square white monu-
ments; they are all whitewashed, no cor-
nice, flat on top, built with thick stone
walls, and one or two stories high. The
doors are arched, the floors of some are
laid of many colored flagstones, porcelain
squares, red tiles and broad bricks that
time can not wear. Within the Moorish
houses no Christian can enter, so we wisely
The streets swarm with Bedouins of the
desert, Moors, whose history goes back of
recorded fact, swarthy mountaineers, neg-
roes as black as night, howling dervishes,
Arabs from many tribes, but no men from
our own race are seen. The dress is as
strange and varied as the people. Yonder
stands a Moor, stately erect, in a monstrous
white turban, a fancy embroidered jacket,
a sash of crimson and gold wound round
and round his waist, trousers that come
only to the knees, yet have yards and yards
of cloth in them, bare shins, feet without
stockings, encased in yellow slippers, an
ornamental scimitar at his side, and a gun
of ridiculous length upon his shoulder.
With the pomp of an emperor, he is only a
soldier. Near by are aged Moors with long
white beards, flowing robes of white and
vast cowls. There are Bedouins with long
striped cloaks, mountaineers with heads
clean shaven except a scalp lock something
like our own Indians of yore. Here are
Jews in coarse blue frocks, reaching to the
feet, sashes about their waists, slippers on
their feet, little scull caps upon their heads,
hair combed down upon their foreheads,
and cut square across from side to side,
and all looking alike. Moorish women en-
veloped in coarse white robes from head to
foot, and whose sex can be determined only
by the fact that one eye is visible; nor can
they look at men of their own race in pub-
lic, or be looked at by them. Peasant
women with the all prevailing white robe
and white head-dress ill fitting, dresses
some white, and some colored, bare feet,
bare arms, and oh, so wretched looking.
It is a funny old town, yet we do not
laugh and jest for we feel its antiquity and
reverence old age. We come upon a crum-
bling wall, old when our Saviour walked
the earth, upon a ragged dirty negro filling
his goatskin with water from a time stained
fountain built by the Romans, twelve hun-
dred years ago, upon the ruins of the docks
where he loaded his ships with grain, when
he invaded Britain fifty years before the
Christian era. Evidences of antiquity,
relics hoary with age, are on every hand.
The streets are crooked, narrow; some
are three feet wide, some are six, only a
few over twelve feet. Curious little stores
line the street. The keeper be he mer-
chant, shoemaker, or seller of curiosities, sits
cross-legged on the floor and reaches any
article you may want. On market day, the
market is alive with Caravans from the in-
terior arriving with fruit and nuts and grain
and bread and huge bouquets. The ven-
ders crowd the place with great baskets of
ripe figs, luscious dates, juicy melons,
tempting apricots, while among them file
trains of heavy laden donkeys, no larger
than a calf. The money lenders are there,
counting bronze coins, and transferring
them from one basket to another. Every
thing seems cheap, the money in small de-
nominations, silver and gold rarely used.
No peasant or small dealer can aspire to
the ownership of a dollar at one time.
The Moors despise the Christians, yet
they tolerate them. No Christian is al-
lowed to enter a Moorish Mosque; were this
to happen it would never be fit for a Moor
to worship in again. Curious customs pre-
vail. Marriages are entered into by the
parents of the parties to it. The young
man takes the wife his father selects for
him, marries her and her veil is lifted and
he sees her for the first time.
Mothers carry their children in sacks at
CARAVAN OF CAMELS-MOROCCO
their backs like other savages. Negroes
are held as slaves, but when a male slave
learns to read the first chapter of the Koran
(the Mohammedan Bible) he is free.
The Moor's Sabbath comes on Friday.
About noon he goes to his mosque, removes
his shoes at the door, performs his ablu-
tions, makes his bow, presses his forehead
to the pavement many times, says his pray-
ers and goes back to work. Crime is treated
severely. Murderers are put to death. If
a man steals cattle his right hand and left
leg are cut off and nailed up in the market
place as a warning. Though the victim of
this operation generally dies, no torture can
wring a cry from him.
On market day, the town swarms with
beggars, cripples, dwarfs, human monstros-
ities. They lie upon the ground and cry
out for alms ; they crawl about under foot,
stretch out their skinny hands, even lay
hold of you and demand assistance. It is
horrible, disgusting, pitiful. Conjurers
draw crowds about them and perform won-
derful ferts of magic. Snake charmers
with their shiny pets, beguile the groups
of men and women with their revolting
ways. Poisonous serpents are handled with
apparent fearlessness, the people applaud,
the snake charmer asks for his reward and
seeks other fields.
The pride and joy of the Moor's life is to
make a pilgrimage to Mecca. He who does
this is entitled to high honor. The passage
costs from ten to twelve dollars, yet this
sum is beyond the reach of all but few.
They take their food with them. The trip
takes six months. From the time they leave
to the time they return to their own homes
they neither wash nor change their clothes.
A Moor returning from his pilgrimage is
not a particularly presentable object. Our
Consul is about the only American there
and his lot is a lonely one. No newspapers
to keep him in touch with the rest of the
world, no amusement outside his own home,
no business to occupy his time. The ar-
rival of an American tourist is hailed with
joy. Time is measured by the arrival of
mail steamers. When one departs, the
next is anxiously awaited. An American
here is in exile.
The old town has much to interest us for
a day. We are glad that we have seen it,
to have witnessed life as it was centuries
ago, for Tangier to-day is the same as Tan-
gier a thousand years ago, but we bid the
old town good-bye without a regret, in our
anxiety to reach civilization once more."
Here there are no carriages, no carts or
no conveyances of any kind. When one
rides it must be on the back of a donkey.
SNAKE CHARMER, TANGIER.
THE STORY OF ASIA.
C( ET your geography again, child-
ren," said papa one evening after
dinner, "and let see what
there is of interest in the largest of the
continents." Tom ran for the geography
and bringing it we turned to the map of
Asia. "Here," said papa, "we have the
largest of the grand divisions of the earth;
of the 51 millions of square miles of land
on the earth's surface, Asia alone occupies
In Asia nature seems to have done
VALLEY OF TISTAN-HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS.
TaHE SPO] 2Y OF ASUI.
everything on a large scale. The largest
table-lands and the highest mountains are
here, while the rivers vie in size with the
Amazon and the Nile.
The Himalaya Mountains raise in rug-
ged grandeur until snow capped peaks
2,000 feet in height are but common place
affairs, while the culminating peak is
reached in Mount Everest, 29,000 feet
above the level of the sea.
This great table-land of Thibet, which
you see here has an elevation of 15,000
feet, and as a result the climate is too cold
for the best development. Here the peo-
ple live mostly in huts. From this table-
land the country slopes in each direction
to the sea, North, East and South. Mighty
rivers drain these vast tracts, finding a
never failing source in the snow capped
mountains of the interior, then flowing
-_.~~5,-~~ ~~~~ ~---:-i~ i~-I~~ __ _
TENTS OF CHIEFS OF LASSA-THIBET.
70 THE S!ORY OF ASIA.
into the Arctic, three into the Indian, and
two into the Pacific Ocean.
In Asia is every climate known to man,
while all the plants of temperate zones
grow in profusion. Its animals embrace
a greater variety than any other continent,
while the birds of India include almost
every known species. Were we able to
take in all Asia at a glance, what reflect-
ions would arise. Here in China we find
a people whose history is lost in the dim
past. For 4,000 years their history is
written. Here, 500 years before Christ,
Confucius lived and taught a religion
whose devotees to-day outnumber those of
any other faith.
Here was the great wall that shut out
marauding hordes and here the people live
to-day as they did 2,000 years ago. A
penny a day-will support a man and the
happy possessor of $200 can retire from
work and live a life of ease and luxury.
The architecture is different from that
of any other country. Is usually very
gaudy and quite imposing. In the picture
you will notice the merchant's club. Here
the business men hold their councils, dis-
cuss topics of the day and enjoy their
banquets in great pomp, even as we do in
our own country,
Here, in the South, is India, where
mothers cast their infant babes into the
jaws of crocodiles to appease the wrath of
Gods. Here the power of caste is felt and
every son must be what his father before
him has been.
And here is Palestine. What holy
thoughts arise. Here the shepherds wel-
comed the manger-born baby at Bethlehem.
Here lived the gentle, thoughtful Christ
child who grew to manhood and gave a
new commandment, 'love one another,' to
mankind. Galilee and Gethsemane,-pre-
cious names. Then we see the trial before
THE STORY OF ASIA. 71
Pilate and hear the Jews cry 'crucify him,
crucify him,' and the life of a Christ goes
out that men may live. From this spot
have gone forth influences that yet shall
bring the world to God.
Babylon and Ninevah, Tyre and Sidon
tell us of empires rent asunder, of dynas-
Bedouin roams in search of pastures for
his flock or lies in wait for some passing
caravan that will give him gold and plun-
der for his insatiate thirst for spoil.
The inhabitants of Corea are very much
like the Japanese, and their children in
like manner are taught to labor and act
ties crumbled into dust. And here in the
far north is Siberia, the living tomb of
these who incur the ill will of the Czar of
Russia. He who enters here an exile,
endures horrors incredible, privations,
and trials that imagination cannot paint.
And here in Arabia the fierce untamed
as beasts of burden in carrying loads.
The picture on the following page is taken
from life and you will notice how young
these children are taught to labor.
A passing glance is all that we can
obtain of this vast continent, so let us on
to one of its cities ere the evening closes,
72 TIHE STORY OF ASIA.
TOKIO, A JAPANESE CITY.
"Fancy yourself in a Japanese city if their little nurses. Little tots of two years
you can. Out in the harbor lazily float have dolls slung upon their shoulders in
merchantmen and men of war from France, imitation of their elders. Yonder comes
England and America, looking strangely a man carrying a queer looking outfit. He
out of place with the queer junks of the is the griddle cake man and the children
natives and the Japanese gunboats. The run to meet him. He carries a stove and a
streets are well paved and inviting, yet we jar of butter. The children dip the butter
see no drays : on the griddle
or carriages cake and eat it,
drawn by horses give him a
as we pass along. penny and he
Everything is passes on. Then
carried by cool- we see the boil-
ies; they are the ed sugar man.
beasts of burden He carries a jar
Their heavy of boiling syrup
loads, their sad and endless lit-
stupid faces, tle molds of
their hopeless mice, birds,
air awaken pity; dolls, cats, kites
their splendid and horses.
physique, their These he
swelling m us- 4 molds as the
cles, their easy children want
carriage arouses _them and drives
admiration. JAPANESE CHILDREN. a busy trade
As we pass up the street we see little as long as the pennies last. The children
Jap girls at play. Their baby brothers and wear wooden shoes and make a great clat-
sisters strapped on their backs laugh- ter as they play upon the streets. On enter
ing or cooing in high glee or sleeping ing a house they remove the shoes and we
quietly in spite of the boisterous play of see their stocking have a compartment for
T1E STORY OF ASIA.
the great toe like the thumb to a mitten.
This gives them the use of that toe, and
the use which the Japs make of their feet
in handling tools is surprising.
Passing along the street a shop-keeper
invites us to enter his rooms. Here are
work boxes of unique design, costly rugs,
delicate pottery and ivory. In the rear,
cut off by movable screens, are the living
rooms of the family. The good wife
greets us kindly, motions us to seats, then
crouches at our feet and shows pictures
and other works of art. Next we enter a
restaurant, seat ourselves at a small table
on which are dainty cups of finest porce-
lain. The proprietor bustles about to
serve us, filling our cups again and again
till we can drink no more. We pay him
five cents for thirty cups and depart.
When tired of walking we can not take
a street car or a hack but call a Jinrikisha,
a queer, two-wheeled cart drawn by a
Jap. We get in and the Jap trots off with
us like a real horse. What if our steed
should run away! But no fear of that.
The Japs urge the men along with shouts
and cries if he does not move fast enough
to suit them, for the Jinrikisha man is
treated like a horse. These little carts are
quite thick upon the streets and are patro-
Here also in Japan is located the vol-
cano of Fujyama called the sacred moun-
tain of Japan.
We leave the city at last more grate-
ful than ever that our lot is cast among
VUWAJIANU Uf 'UFdJLA- iKj.la
THE STORY OF ASIA.
1Hix S'TO RY OF ASIA. 75
THE CITY OF CEYLON.
Notice on your map what a small
island Ceylon looks to be-it is not as
small as it looks.
Notice in the picture where the natives
are gathering dates from the date palm
tree. The women do much of the work.
They wear but little clothing and need but
little, as the country is very warm. These
people have considerable intelligence and
while they have a crude religion they are
slowly making a little headway in the way
"At the World's Fair," said Tom,
"these people showed great originality
and their building was one of the nicest
there, although not the most expensive. It
was simply made, but very neat." "Yes,"
said papa, and at the World's Congress
of Religions, these people took an active
part. In fact, their representative was a
bright, intelligent thinker and although
blacker than our negroes of the South,
was considered by all one of the finest
A NOBLE PHILOSOPHER.
SMONG the ruins of Athens, which
I bring back to us the noble men
who once lived there, is the tomb
where Socrates drank the hemlock. This
great man was born about 470 B. C. He
received the customary training of the
early Athenian youth, and later studied
geometry and astronomy. These studies
combined with his natural talent gave him
the power of clear reasoning which after-
ward made him so widely known. He be-
gan life as a sculptor, and so wonderfully
successful was he in this that 600 years
after his death the Acropolis contained a
group supposed to be his work, called "The
Graces." He was a powerful but a new
thinker. He believed that he was called
by the gods to teach mankind that ignor-
ance must not be mistaken for knowledge,"
so he abandoned art and devoted himself
to his chosen work. Educators and teach-
ers to-day use the Socrates Method,"
which leads the pupil by a series of judi-
cious questions to discover facts for
He, like all citizens, served the state as
a soldier, and was noted for his endurance,
bravery and obedience. Later in life he
became a member of the Senate, though
here he did not aspire to political honor,
asserting that the divine voice which
guided him had other work for him to do.
It is said of him that on one occasion he
refused to obey the orders of the, ruling
council, known as "The Thirty," when re-
quested to bring before them a nobleman
whom, without just reason, they wished to
put to death.
He was one of the most moral men of
his age, and is to-day considered the nearest
like Christ of any man who preceded him,
and yet, when 71 years old he was arrested
on the charge of being an offender against
morality; his accusation read: "Socrates
is guilty, first, of denying the gods recog-
nized by the state and of introducing a
new God; second, of corrupting the young."
At his trial he amazed his friends by defy-
ing his accusers and claiming that his
labors entitled him not to punishment, but
to a reward as a public benefactor and to
maintenance at the cost of the state. He
78 A NOBLE PHILOSOPHER.
offered to pay a fine of one mina, or four-
teen dollars, which, at the entreaties of his
friends, he raised to thirty minas, but ap-
peared so indifferent that his death was
decreed by the judges. He was imprisoned
in a tomb made for the purpose in the side
of the hill opposite the Parthenon; here he
was held for thirty days. All this time
great crowds flocked in front of the cell
and listened to his teachings. He argued
that a wise man will meet death unflinch-
ingly. At the expiration of the time, he
was handed a cup bearing a decoction of
deadly hemlock, which he drank without a
tremor and then died. Later ages have
given him the honor he deserves, and now
he ranks as one of the ablest and noblest
of the old Greek Philosophers.
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
SyQET'S have a night in Europe, Papa,"
said Tom after we had studied
Asia and had learned so many
interesting things about it. "With pleas-
ure," said Papa. I am glad to have my
children so anxious to know what they can
of other countries. Here is the map, and
by observing it very carefully we can see
that it differs from the others in many
respects. It is the smallest of the Conti-
nents, being but little larger than the
United States and only one-fifth the size
of Asia. Though the smallest of the
continents it is the second in importance.
THE MATTERHORN-ALPS MOUNTAINS.
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
On its soil have occurred changes fraught
with momentous results to the human race.
Fierce wars for supremacy have been
waged here. Here the Greeks beat back
the Persian hosts and saved Europe from
civilization of the Orient. Later the
Roman Legions invaded Gaul and all the
countries bordering on the Mediterranean
TIHE STORY OF EUROPE
and forced them to acknowledge Rome as
the "Mistress of the World." And they in
turn dizzy with success fell an easy prey
to their own excesses and the savage Huns
and Goths who swept down from the
North with relentless fury. Here too was
waged the battle between the Moor and
Christian, the Crescent and the Cross,
which ended only when the battle of Tours
had left the Moslem hordes crushed and
almost annihilated. Here too Charle-
magne was crowned on the eventful Christ-
mas, 898, and gave the first strong impulse
to modern Europe; here William the Con-
queror won the battle of Hastings and
changed the destiny of nations; Here the
barons forced wicked King John to sign
Magna Charta and laid the foundations of
liberty and law in America. Here Luther
defied the honor of Popes, and here
Napoleon sought to found one universal
Empire with headquarters in France.
82 THIE STORY OF EUROPE.
The land of Chaucer and of Spencer,
of Pope and of Shakespeare, of Milton and
of Burns, of Scott and of Byron, of
Tennyson and of Dickens, its history is
the history of Eastern civilization. No
land will better repay careful study.
In the South we see the Alps towering
high in air and trending east until they
join the Asiatic ranges of which they are
a part. The highest peak is Mt. Blanc,
some 15,700 feet in height. while its com-
panion Mt. Rosa reaches nearly the same
altitude. Here we find the noted Matter-
horn-the place of resort.
To ascend the peaks is the aspiration
of every Alpine traveler. South of the
Alps the warm winds from the tropics
give us a climate mild and healthful while
the blue skies of Italy are the finest in the
world. In the far North conditions change
for .here King Winter reigns supreme and
the greater part of the year covers the
land with snow and ice. In Russia, too,
the winters are severe, but elsewhere the
climate in the lowland is milder than our
own in Illinois.
Closely connected with European His-
tory is the once noted City of Athens.
More than any other people that ever lived
the Athenians loved music, poetry, elo-
quence and all the arts of expression.
The Acropolis, built in her greatness is an
imposing structure and shows an Athenian
Citadel of glory.
In commerce, Europe leads the world.
The iron, steel, cottons and woolens of
England, the wines and silks of France,
the furs and wheat of Russia and the
fruits of the South, easily place it first in
this respect. Its dense population with
its enexhaustible supplies of coal and iron
fit it for manufacturing, but sad to say,
the working people are poorly paid in
comparison with our own.
From Spain comes the greater part of
the cork used so freely everywhere. Cork
as you may know is the bark of a species
of evergreen oak found in Spain and north-
ern Africa. The tree grows only thirty
feet high. The first cutting occurs when
the tree is about twenty years old. Two
cuts are made around the tree, one at the
ground, the other just below the main
branches. Between these, three or four
incisions are made and the cork carefully
removed. The first stripping is of no
value except for tanning, the second is
used for floats, but after that the cork can
be used for various purposes, growing bet-
ter with succeeding cuttings. The trees
are stripped once in eight or ten years and
live and thrive for about 150 years under
this process. After scraping and cleaning
it is heated and flattened and is then ready
for use. But let us to the cities of
Europe, and see what items of interest we
can find there. First, we will go to Lon-
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 83
THE CITIES OF EUROPE.
((y yONDON," said papa, "is a great
S city of unusual interest to all lov-
] ers of travel. It is not only
the metropolis of England and the chief
town of the British Empire, bat it is the
metropolis of the world. Situated as it is,
on both banks of the river Thames, and at
the head of the greatest Empire of the
world, it is not only a large commercial,
but a great financial centre.
The City occupies a County, in itself,
and is governed by a Lord Mayor, twenty.
six Aldermen and two hundred and six
London is the home of Queen Victoria,
and here, too, are located the great Houses
of Parliament. There are twelve bridges
besides the railroad bridges that cross the
Thames from one part of the City to the
84 THE STORY OF EUROPE
The City is said to have the finest Parks
in the world-St. James, which is the
result of accident, rather than intention,
occupies eighty acres and has been trans-
formed from a swamp into a romantic and
beautiful deer park. It has a bowling
green, tennis courts and all kinds of pleas-
ure grounds. It is upon this Park that
" Buckingham Palace," the town home of
Queen Victoria fronts.
The most beautiful park in the world is
Hyde Park. It has nine principal gate-
ways, fine expensive grass, bright flower
beds, noble old trees, and a beautiful lake,
called the serpentine. It has broad drives,
filled with equipages, walks lined with
thousands of loungers, and it has what is
called the Rotten Row, a street alive with
equestrians. In the height of season,
Hyde Park presents a scene which has a
brilliancy without a parallel. For drama,
London has thirty theatres; for music, a
greater number of eminent professors than
any other city on the globe; for painting,
sculpture and art-the Royal Academy of
Fine Arts is most influential. In churches
London stands at the head. St. Paul's
Cathedral, known all over the world, was
forty years in building, and is said to be
large enough to contain the utmost con-
ceivable multitude of worshippers.'
Westminister Abbey, on account of its
having the coronation court of the Sov-
ereigns, from the time of Harold down to
the present day, and because of its prox-
imity to the English Government, has ac-
quired a fame and importance that will
outlive even St. Paul's. The Royal Pal-
ace, and the Government Building, are
among the wonders of London. Bucking-
ham Palace, the town residence of Queen
Victoria, was erected 1825. It contains
many beautiful rooms, among them the
ballroom, and a picture gallery said to be
the finest in the world. The Houses of
Parliament cover an area of eight acres.
Here in London Shakespeare lived, at
the close of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and
introduced her streets and people into his
One could remain in this great city
an unlimited time and still not feel that
justice had been done to its places. But
it is almost bed time and I will simply add
that in the evening this city presents a
most striking appearance. At the close of
each day the Londoners make a grand
rush from the business center to the out-
skirts of the city, there to enjoy the re-
freshment, rest and retirement the country
affords, and partake of the beauties of na-
ture. These suburbs of the city are among
the most beautiful in the world. There
has just been completed a new underground
electric railway which is the only one of
its kind in the world and it is a great help
to the working people in getting out to
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 85
A LITTLE ABOUT VIENNA.
,F all the strictly modern cities of the
j old world, chief among them is
Vienna," said Papa one day on his
return from Europe. "Why so?" said
Alice, "I thought Vienna was a very large
German city with lots of poor working
women and very little beauty, architecture,
or grace about it." "Well you are very
much mistaken," said Papa, "For in all
my travels, I never saw a city that has such
EMPEROR FRANZ JOSEPH, OF AUSTRIA.
- -*_& -
86 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
beautiful public buildings, such handsome
women, and so much style as this queen of
Austrian cities. Located as it is on an arm
of the Danube, with mountains all around,
and containing as it does the residence of
the Emperor, you can imagine that not
from the time we left Church of St. Step-
hen until we returned to our hotel, every
thing was a bewildering show. First we
passed an Imperial palace which has been
a residence of the Austrian Princes since
the 13th Century. Around the outside are
only the nobility live in elegant palaces,
but a long line of wealthy ancestry whose
mansions are little less than castles, and
whose gorgeous turnouts make of this an
Our first day there, we took a drive, and
niches in the wall, and in these niches are
life size pieces of statuary, some allegor-
ical figures and others from real life.
Further on comes the Imperial Library
with over 400,000 volumes, 20,000 MSS,
and 12,000 volumes of music. What here
~pi~-'t- ~g~l~E~kn'~L -r
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 87
interested me most was a case in which
was contained a purple parchment with
silver and gold letters of the 6th Century,
being fragments of the Gospels.
Next we visited the Capuchin Church
which contains the Imperial
vaults. Here are buried the
noted dead. Among the cask-
ets we saw those of Maria The-
resa, probably the best belov-
ed of all Austrian Sovereigns,
who ruled 41 years; Marie
Louise, second wife of Napo-
leon and her son, Emperor '
Maximilian of Mexico; and ..
many others, all of which
were covered with fresh flow-
Further on comes the Historical Mus-
eum, Rathhaus, or City Hall, The Royal
Theatre, Houses of Parliament, which were
designed in the Greek style by Hansen,
and the Maria Theresa Platz, or square, as
Then we reached the Ring-
Strasse, the main Boulevard .
of the city, sixty-two yards
wide, and so named because
it circles the city like a ring. I
Apart from the buildings F
erected by speculators, it is
architecturally one of the fin-
est streets in Europe.
Among the most beautiful
churches is the Votive church .
of pure Gothic style, which
was erected in memory of the
THE HANDSOMEST WOMAN IN VIENNA.
Emperor's escape from assas-
sination in 1853. It is adorned with 78 we would say in America, and in the center
stained glass windows. I rises the Maria Theresa Monument, forty-
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
three feet in height, of bronze and marble,
erected in 1888, representing her as she
appeared at the age of thirty-five. Then
there are the Museums, etc., which makes.
the city interesting indeed. It was our
good fortune to be able to sit near the
MARIA THERESA MONUMENT,
MARIA THERESA MONUMENT,
Royal tent, and thus had a good oppor-
tunity of viewing the court, and chief
among them was the Emperor Franz Jos-
eph, at a horse tournament one pleasant
day in June.
The Emperor is straight and active, but
.feeble looking, and it
was almost with a feel-
ing of pity that we
looked up at him when
the crowds cheered.
We saw though when
the blooded horses
were brought out, that
our pity was wasted,
for he enjoyed it most
of all. Here, too, was
and many other ladies
of the Royal Family.
This was a day never
Sto be forgotten and I
thought of you Tom,"
said Papa, "For you
are fond of horses and
'?t would have enjoyed
the display even more
than myself." I never
saw finer horses, and
as all of them belong-
ed to the Royal Fami-
ly, you can imagine
that the equipment
VIENNA. are as fine as possible
to make them.
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 89
THE CITY OF VENICE.
"London is the largest, but Venice the to place, are obliged to depend upon the
most beautiful city in the world," said boats. This makes the place picturesque
papa. Here the streets are not of gravel, and beautiful beyond description. There
as you might imagine, but shining water, are all styles of boats, all sizes and all
and the people, in going about from place prices. Processions, parades, and in fact,
90 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
all life is carried on by this means of
transportation. "Gondola" is the name
applied to the favorite passenger boat. It
is long, narrow, and fancy; is paddled over
the water by men dressed in true foreign
sailor fashion. The freight vessels are
brought direct to the warehouse, at which
place the people unload their merchandise
as easily as though they were wagons
drawn by horses. The mirth, noise and
music of the city is re-echoed time and
again, back and forth, on the beautiful
waters. The sunlight, moonlight, life, act-
ivity and shadows are reflected as in a
mirror. The hotels are constantly filled
with tourists who come and come again to
view this enchanted spot. Some day we
must all visit this wonderful city and then
my children will be glad of the study we
have given this place," said papa, for it is
one of the charmed spots of the earth and
will live in ones memory forever
VIEW OF THE ITALIAN COAST.
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 91
THE CITY OF GENOA.
--'ell us about Genoa, papa," said Tom,
who had been to the World's Fair and had
taken a deep interest in the old convent of
La Rebida, "because it was the home of
Columbus." "I shall never forget," said
papa, "my first sight of Genoa. As we
approached the city, late one bright after-
noon, superb Genoa lifted her hundred
sun-crowned domes and spires high above
the blue sea. As we neared the coast the
whole seemed one blaze of glory. As the
sun went down the splendor slowly faded.
Genoa is a city of churches, and massive
buildings; relics of the days when her ships
filled the Mediterranean and enriched
with all the treasures of the East.
The streets are narrow, poorly kept, full
of bad smells and thronged with idlers
On the whole, Genoa is disappointing to
the visitor, suggesting only a past great-
ness with no hope for the future."
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
CITY OF PARIS.
"From Genoa to Paris is something of and has a population of two millions, so
a jump," said papa, "but there are so you will see that it ranks among the first
many beautiful things to be seen there cities of the globe. Through it flows the
that we will take a hurried run through Seine like a silver thread. Twenty-eight
this, the most beautiful city of the world, bridges span this river, making passage
Paris covers an area of thirty square miles from side to side easy. Its parks, boule-
CITY OF PARIS.
THE STORY OF EUROPE. s9
vards and squares are the finest in the
world and in the turbulent history of
France have played important parts. The
Place De La Concorde is regarded as the
most beautiful of all. In the center rises
the obelisk of Luxor, a single block of
reddish granite, 76 feet high, presented
to Louis Philhppe by Mohammed All.
Here the guillotine did its bloody work
during the French Revolution and here
foreign troops have encamped when Paris eline to the Bastile. The Madeline is a
was in their power. The great boulevards famous church planned by Louis XV. in
are a splendid line of streets on the north 1764. The revolution found it unfinished
side of the Seine, reaching from the Mad- and Napoleon ordered it to be completed
94 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
as Temple of Glory. Napoleon fell and
Louis XVIII returned to the old plan of
making it a church. It was finally finished
in 1824 at an expense of $2,500,000. It
stands on a basement, surrounded by mass-
ive Corinthian columns. It is built wholly
of stone, is destitute of windows and lighted
by skylights in the roof.
Among its finest buildings are the Opera
House, covering nearly three acres, costing
$10,000,000, and to which all Europe con-
tributed from its quarries. The Royal
Palace, built by Richelieu in 1634; the
Cathedral of Notre Dame, completed in
the 13th century; the Palace of Justice,
given by Charles the VIII, in 1431, to the
Parliament, and the Louvre Buildings, con-
taining the finest collection of paintings,
sculpture, bronzes and antiquities known.
But do not think that these old buildings
lack in beauty or finish, for such is not the
The Holte Des Invalides was built for
aged veterans in 1670, by Louis XIV, and
covers thirty-one acres. Attached to this
is a church surmounted by the famous
gilded dome, Des Invalides, 240 feet high,
which can be seen at a great distance.
The July Column, erected in honor of
the heroes who fell in the Revolution of
1830, rises to the height of 154 feet and
is much noted. The Vendome Column,
142 feet high and surmounted by a statue
of Napoleon 1st, was built by him to com-
memorate his victories. It is decorated
with figures to represent memorable scenes
in his wars with Russia and Austria. The
metal from which it was made was obtain-
ed by melting 12,000 Russian and Aus-
trian cannons. But rising high above
everything else in Paris is the famous Eif-
fel Tower. This has three platforms; the
first with its cafes and restaurants; the
second 376 feet from the ground, and the
third, 863 feet. The total height is 985
feet, making it the highest tower in the
world. We might spend weeks in the
beautiful city and then see but a part of
its wonderful sights. Paris of to-day is
one of the most modern cities in every re-
spect. The government of the city is very
different from most of ours, for there
everything is done for the improvement of
the city. All the municipal works are
built and run on the most improved plans,
and we might well copy some of their
methods with a great advantage to our-
selves. The police and fire systems are
examples, and you know that the under-
ground sewer system of Paris is noted the
world over as standing at the head of any-
thing of the kind for its completeness and
magnificence. Paris is also noted for its
famous cafes that line the principal boule-
vards. But let us defer until another time
our study of Paris.
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 95
THE INDUSTRIES OF SWITZERLAND.
HsE peasants of Switzerland are a
Study to the tourist. Simple, honest,
industrious and frugal they seem
content with their lot. The Swiss milk
wagon is an entirely different affair from
the one we see in our American cities. It
is a two wheeled vehicle usually carrying
is not the rich, wholesome product we find
in the Swiss cities and among the people
at home. I shall never forget the cool,
rich cup of milk given me one morning by
a young man on his daily rounds with
milk. I wanted to pay him, but he shook
his head, and smiled, seeming as pleased
SWISS MILK WAGON.
two cans. Large, well trained dogs are
harnessed to it and are aided in drawing it
by the milk man himself. The mountain
sides and valleys afford rich pasturage, and
dairying is an important part of the com-
merce. We get Swiss cheese here, but it
to bestow the gift as I to receive it. The
Swiss excel in handwork. You have all
heard of Swiss Watches. These are hand
made, each part delicately adjusted, and
until recent years, ranked as the best.
Their skill in making embroidery is also
96 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
great. Years of work is often put on a
single handkerchief, each thread being ad-
justed with the utmost care and the deli-
cate design worked out with the greatest
of skill. Your mother even could not re-
sist the temptation of purchasing a bit of
this lace, if only for a souvenir.
Besides lace, their skill in carving is
proverbial. On every hand one sees little
boxes, and great chests with mountain
scenes, national emblems, birds, beasts,
and delicate flowers carved upon the panels
with wonderful accuracy. Among these,
perhaps, the most ingenious is the little
clock known as the Cuckoo clock; when it
strikes a little dove appears and says
"cuckoo as many times as the hour hand
would indicate. Carving is a pastime, as
well as a means of profit to the peasants
shut up in their homes during the long
winter hours. In the cabinet shops, beds,
tables, chairs and book cases are often seen
entirely hand carved, some articles repre-
senting months of arduous labor.
That the Swiss peasants are contented
and intensely loyal is proved by the fact
that we find so few of them in America.
While every other European country has
contributed largely to our population, too
largely perhaps for our good, you seldom
find a Swiss here, and when you do, you
find an honest, law-abiding, worthy citizen.
Would that we had more of them, but a
contented man stays at home.
DINING HALL, CHRIST CHURCH COLLEGE,
T will not do to leave Europe, with-
out a glance at its many institutions
of learning. Chief among these are
the Universities at Cambridge, and Oxford.
The latter has been brought to the boys
and girls of our own land by that masterly
book for boys, "Tom Brown at Oxford"
and is better known perhaps, than any of
the others. At Oxford are many colleges,
independent in a measure, but working in
harmony. They are among the oldest as
well as among the best of English schools.
Student life here has much to commend it
and a graduate of Oxford is noted every-
where for his intense loyalty to his Alma
Among the athletic sports, rowing, foot-
ball, and cricket are the most popular pas-
times and in these events rival Universities
take great pride. The annual boat race
between Oxford and Cambridge is not only
a national but almost an international
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 97
affair. The day of the race is a holiday
for London, as thousands gather to witness
the race at Henley. Crowds gather to urge
on the crews of their choice by shouts and
the waving of flags and handkerchiefs. In
the evening the victorious crew banquets
the losers and a merry time is had. These
dinners are far different from the daily
college dinners at Oxford.
I secured a photograph of the old dining
hall at Christ Church College, Oxford.
This, a long hall with furniture of the
simplest kind. Plain tables with long,
backless benches fill the floor. These have
been there since the hall was built in the
17th century, and at these tables and upon
these benches the students gather, rich and
poor alike. The son of a lord must sit by
the side of the penniless student working
his way through college. At these tables
sat Tom Brown whom so many American
boys love. Here sat Gladstone when a
student at Oxford, and here have sat those
who have won fame in science, on the bat-
tle field, in the church and in Parliament.
Though the tables are plain, the walls
are adorned with handsome and valuable
paintings, among which the deans of the
college, from its beginning, and the pat-
rons of the school occupy a prominent
A visit to this hall brings back much of
the glorious past of English history, and
suggests the thought that so long as this
institution in which equality of rich and
poor, noble and low born exists, England
will hold her own among the nations of
DINING HALL, OXFORD.
98 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
STREET SCENES OF ROME.
(CTHE streets of Rome afford much of
* interest to the traveler. The venders
of milk and butter, of cheese, of cakes
and bread and pies, of fruits, and nuts, and
candies, of crisp shiny vegetables, of flow-
ers arranged in charming bouquets and of
FLOWER GIRL, ROME.
every conceivable thing form a motley
crowd. Whatever their virtues, you may
be sure that timidity is not one of them.
They urge their varied wares upon one in
a manner that awakens admiration for their
persistence, but contempt for their judg-
ment. The tourist who can have no pos-
sible use for fresh vegetables is drummed
as vigorously as the housewife who pur-
chases them for the mid-day meal.
We must, however, give them credit for
arranging their wares to good advantage.
The dainty pots of butter seem just the
thing for the loaves of fresh bread. Each
little round cheese seems made to go with
one of the tempting cakes; the vegetables
so artistically placed make one hungry, and
the flowers-who shall describe their beauty
and their fragrance, when held out to us by
a dark-skinned, black-haired, bright, Italian
girl, with her quaint, becoming dress, eager
look and musical voice. Some of them are
not averse to turning an honest penny by
the sale of their photographs. Here is one
which we bought to bring home for you.
The city though, swarms with beggars,
who detract from the pleasure of a prom-
enade through the streets. There is, too, a
painful lack of morality among these un-
fortunates, and yet their ignorance is such
that they must be pitied rather than judged