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ROUND THE WORLD
NOTE BOOK AND CAMERA.
something New for Young People.
It is in line with the great
â€œLearn something when you play.â€
- Lida Brooks Miller,
[ie Kinderoarten, Â« Yound Folks Speaker,
A Score of Others.
Photographs Taken on the Journey.
THOMPSON & HOOD
Copyrighted, 1897, by
K. T. BORLAND.
PAR ome a
al) N placing before the public our new book, â€œRound the World With
& | Note Book and Camera,â€ we are confident it will meet with a hearty
WW Z| reception. There hasbeen a long-felt want for a book of this nature.
Young people always delight in stories of travelâ€”they can listen by the hour
to stories of strange people, new places, brilliant battles, famous parks, delight-
ful drives and noted men.
The first requisite of good story telling is a pleasing manner; second, a
knowledge of the subject; thirdly, the ability to describe what one has seen.
Such a one is our gifted authoress, Lida Brooks Miller, who, having spent years
as an instructor in the school room and having traversed nearly the entire globe,
taking snap shots of every famous scene along the route and learning its history
from peasant as well as prince, is well fitted to become a guide and teacher to
ur â€œRound the World Culture Club.â€
Throughout the work the stories are told with the idea of impressing
facts upon the memory in such a way that they will not soon be forgotten.
There are novel features and new themes embraced, containing all that is
brightest and best in a trip around the world. To read it isthe next best thing
to taking the trip itself.
That it may give even greater pleasure than was hoped for ee the
author in planning the work, is the sincere wish of
STREET SCENE, LONDON.
Alaskcay cee ey euros tua tenia sonst crs 280
AS Vasitito: la plang tec cnn 6 289
An East Indian Home.............. 292
Amelisicimo sValllagera tr: crates. 200
Andrew Jacksonâ€™s Bravery.......... 265
Around the World Culture Club..... 18
A Half Hour With Dickens......... 19
AciknightingArmor.sy sane. cost cclerece 38
A Year in South America........... 41
A Noble Philosopher................ 77
A Little About Vienna.............. 85
PANTING Tiss see sere eeseeerte iaret acer te eee pess 107
Am @ldeRoad se tace oeecs o pec e 168
A Letter From Rome............... 181
Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois ........ 266
A Home in Central Asia...........-- 267
Battle of Marathon................. 170
Business Maxims for Boys.......... 314
Ginastera eet eee cei aes ee, 285
Composition Exercises.............. 808
Cordovaraeteene et aie ee eae 121
Dining Hall, Christ Church College,
(Opell wet veneer MA SAO EAE 96
DowacthevRhine oes easier 262
Enelandâ€™s'Ruler-2 neve este ss 173
Granada and a Visit to the Alhambra 115
Gibralteriege cs ace saae cen uncre. 205
Greece and its Rulers............... 213
Grim eskeee nse a nacre eee Piso: 111
Independence Hall................. 128
UlOan OF TAT CH Weagi as apart cites etee ote 49
Largest Bridge in the World......... 164
Memorya Gems Ste we eee Oe
MOT OCCOR tier tne. c mr etiam eee 62
Museums and Art Galleries.......... 145
MUsICH ne Battle seaec tes ent sees
8 s INDEX TO
Old World Watering Places......... AT
Queen City of the World............ 103
Street Scenes of Rome............-. 98
Story of North America............. 125
St. Bernard Dogs on the Alps........ 143
St. Sebaldus Church............... 166
Some of the Cities of Switzerland.... 209
Some Masters of Music.............. 274
Sports of Sandwich Islanders........ 294
Swatzerlandie eres. serrrsanesis(ai sc 301
San Carlo Theater, Naples.........: 299
The Art of Letter Writing .......... 311
Most how DOV reieiey sei ee ore eis 316
Things Worth Remembering........ 317
The Lion of Lucerne.............. 15
The Worldâ€™s Finest Burial Grounds.. 21
The Great Cathedrals of the World... 25
The Battle of Waterloo.........0.. 29
The Catacombs of Rome............- 34
The Story of Africa.............00.. 51
The Cities of Africa. :............... 59
The: Citysot Cairorterrs ccc as srs: 60
Ether StomysOkeAsia. cers acer ee OS
Tokio, A Japanese City...........65. 72
ithe: Â©itvorC ovlomn renin cn tleccirr eae 15
The Story of Hurope................ 79
The Cities of Europe............... 83
Mies Citysols Venicchrnyses ree et 89
Whe: City, of Genoa eens ee etree 91
hei City, ob Parish secs ee eee 92
The Industries of Switzerland....... 95
The â€œ Bridge of Sighsâ€............. 100
ithe Stony of Spanier terete 114
The: Citycot Wiashine tone esse asc: 129
TherWallsotiNiaganraeeriar errr 132
The Indiansâ€”How They Live........ 135
he: His itn ee haearcssscace pte Se ener ceceee 139
herSlackehorestteni one rer anee 153
The Land of the Vikings............ 160
The Story of the Glacier............ 189
The Story of the Pilgrimsâ€”in England 191
The Story of the Pilgrimsâ€”in Holland 192
The Story of the Pilgrimsâ€”on ocean. 193
The Story of the Pilgrimsâ€”at Plym-
outh) America cesses oc cece 195
(he; Storyob wearin tin owe ees 199
The Magna Charta................. 201
The Finest Park in the World ....... 203
Mhesslandwol Cortussess see eee 206
The Emperor of Germany at Home .. 271
The People of Holland ............. 219
The Life of George Washington ..... 226
ee Jorn Adams seen ve ee 228
Thomas Jefferson ....... 230
i James Madison ......... 233
i James Monroe.......... 234
John Quincy Adams .... 236
INDEX TO CONTENTS. | 9
The Life of Andrew Jackson ........ 287 The Life of Andrew Johnson........ 2538
ob Martin VanBuren....... 239 | ss Wivyasesmon Granta sas 254
â€˜ William Henry Harrison. 240 | sf Rutherford B. Hayes.... 256
ss John Ryle rernrgerrracrenc 242 | if James Abram Garfield... 257
cs James Knox Polk....... 244 | a Chester Alan Arthur .... 258
Zachary Tylor .......... 245 | 3 Grover Cleveland ....... 259
a Millard Fillmore ........ 246 os Benjamin Harrison ..... 260
se Franklin Pierce......... 247 | a William Mclxinley ...... 270
i James Buchanan........ 249 | Virtues that Bring Success.......... 314
i Abraham Lincoln ....... 250 | Zoological Gardens of the World..... 144
HARRY BROWNâ€™S LEGEND _OF THE BLACK FOREST. (See page 154.)
(Described on page 24.)
T Rose Lawn farm, one evening in
the early autumn of 189-, the at-
mosphere was one of joyous expect-
ancy, for papa and mamma Gray had just
returned from a trip abroad and all the chil-
dren were eagerly awaiting the promised
treat of the incidents of the trip, the cities
visited, the historic spots seen, the charm-
ing scenery about which so much had been
heard and the people interviewed. The
memory of other trips but added to the
zest with which the children awaited the
tales in store for them. As they sat around
the hearth that evening papa Gray said,
â€œBefore we take up the story of this trip,
why not lay outa regular program of work?
Let us study the geography of the coun-
try we talk about, the cities we describe,
and study the people of whom we shall talk.
I want you to get something besides amuse-
ment from my talks and to help you I have
brought back beautiful pictures of many
interesting sights. How shall we proceed
to get the most out of what I shall tell
â€œLet us form ourselves into a club,â€ said
Tom, who was ever ready to add to his
store of knowledge. â€œYes,â€ said Florence,
whose loving heart always thought of oth-
ers, â€œwe can form a club and invite the
children of the neighborhood and let them
share our good things with us.â€ â€œAn ex-
cellent plan,â€ said papa, â€œbut what shall
we call our club?â€ Tomâ€™s ruddy face grew
sober but Floraâ€™s brown eyes sparkled as
she cried, â€˜â€œ Let us call it the â€˜Round the
World Culture Club,â€™ for we shall go with
papa around the world and shall surely
learn much of other countries and other
people.â€ â€œJust the thing,â€ said mama, and
as all agreed the name was selected.
While all were discussing the work, a
and Flora hastened to meet them and who
rap at the door announced visitors.
should they be but the very children they
needed in order to make their club com-
plete. It required but a moment for Tom
to explain their plan. â€œSplendid,â€ â€œexcel-
lent,â€ â€œhow nice,â€ â€œjollyâ€ were the cries
that greeted Tomâ€™s explanation. â€œ We must
id ROUND THE WORLD CULTURE CLUB.
have officers,â€ said Mary Lee, who, as
president of the Junior Endeavor that met
every Sabbath at the school house, felt that
a club could not be run without its regu-
â€œJT think we shall
want but one officer, and that will be the
â€œGrand Chief Story-Teller,â€ said Harry
Brown, one of the assembled group. â€œThat
larly elected officials.
is papa,â€ said Tom, and without prelimi-
naries Mr. Gray was elected.
â€œA story to-night, papa,â€ said Florence.
â€œYes, yes, a storyâ€ chorused the children.
Mr. Gray smiled and said, â€œWe have not
time to enter into any long descriptions and
T can tell but little.
T hardly know where
to begin, but the presence of so many hap-
py young faces recalls a visit to Hyde Park,
spent the morning hours writing letters,
London, one afternoon last July.
for the day opened dark and rainy. At
about noon the sun came out and we went
to the park, a picture of which I secured
for ygu. This is one of the most popular
public resorts of London. Here gather
every bright day countless thousands of
park is beautifully laid out and has its
women, children and society people.
drives for carriages, its ground for tennis
and cricket and its playground for the chil-
ROTTEN ROWâ€”HYDE PARK, LONDON.
THE LION OF LUCERNE. 15
â€œOur picture shows the main drive where
London society gathers for its daily airing.
Here you will see elegant carriages of all
descriptions, smartly dressed footmen and
drivers, handsome, spirited horses and gil-
ded harnesses. The carriages of the nobility
are emblazoned with their coat of arms, and
with the gay dresses of the occupants, make
of people gather here to see the gay turn-
the scene one of great splendor.
outs go dashing by, some drawn by one
horse, others by two horses, either tandem or
abreast, some by four horses, and occasion-
ally some fat old lord rolls by in a stately
drive you can see â€˜Rotton Row,â€™ the finest
coach drawn by eight horses.
of bridle paths and devoted exclusively to
horseback riders. The English people are
good riders and their horses well trained;
but the â€˜swellsâ€™ cut an amusing figure
as they go by with short coats, leggings and
high top boots.
â€œAt the entrance to the park is the famous
monument to Wellington, erected in his
honor by the English government. It is a
magnificent memorial and every true Eng-
lishman points to it with pride. Some
evening I will gladly relate to you the his-
tory of the Iron Duke, who knew not defeat
and who conquered Napoleon at Waterloo.
At Hyde Park the most interesting feature
little ones enjoyed rolling about in the grass,
to me was the children at play.
chasing one another about and pelting each
other with paper balls. Many there are
who get their only taste of fresh air and
sunshine from their afternoons here.
this-is enough for to-night.
row night all of you, and we will have our
first real story.â€
THE LION OF LUCERNE.
; T Lucerne, Switzerland, there is an
attraction more wonderful than
balmy climate; more beautiful than
_the Rigi Mountains and more charming
than the Lake of Lucerne. This attraction
calls tourists from all parts of the civilized
world andis known as â€œThe Lion of Lu-
cerne,â€ said Mr. John Day, who had just
returned from the Alps and who had prom-
ised his niece that immediately on his re-
turn to America he would make them a
visit and contribute something interesting
to their â€œ Round the World Culture Club.â€
â€œDonâ€™t all say at once, â€˜Well, what is
the Lion of Lucerne?â€™â€ said Uncle John,
â€œfor it takes a little time to explain it.â€
â€œGo with me first to France in the year
1792. There was.as you doubtless know, a
16 THE LION OF LUCERNE.
volting on the part of the people against
the impositions of the King and his Court.
The people said, â€˜Down with the King!
We will rule ourselves.â€™â€
â€œT see by your looks, though,â€ said Un-
cle John, â€œthat you are wondering why the
people were dissatisfied, so let us go back a
little and notice first the cause of all this
dissatisfaction. In the year 1771 Louis XV,
King of France, who preceded Louis XVI,
was carried away by disease in the midst of
a sinful career, and had left the State Treas-
ury exhausted, the land burdened with debt,
the public credit ruined and the people op-
pressed with taxes.
â€œSuch were the circumstances when the
new King, Louis XVI ascended the throne.
The new Louis had a good heart but a weak
brain. He wanted to improve the condi-
tion of the people but had neither money
nor ability. His wife, Marie Antoinette,
although a highly cultivated woman and
daughter of Marie Theresa, one of the best
rulers Austria had ever seen, was extrava-
gant and proud and soon became unpopular
with the masses. The people throughout
France began to feel a longing for freedom
and for a Republican government. It was,
therefore, unfortunate at this time that the
King and courtiers, who lived in a gorgeous
palace at Versailles, about ten miles from
Paris, should indulge in brilliant fetes and
other extravagancies which showed more
| and plunder their palaces.
plainly than words could tell that bank-
ruptcy was close at hand. All this caused
the people to think more and more of the
folly of permitting the king to govern the
people. A spirit was creeping over them
which was bound to triumph sooner or later
â€œThings went on in this way until 1789
when the excitable population of Paris be-
gan to hold meetings and deliver infle nma-
tory speeches in the public parks, in the
coffee houses, In wine rooms and every
other public place possible. The newspa-
pers kept up a continual roar and pamph-
lets were published in favor of freedom.
â€œThe Court, alarmed at the increased ex-
citement, felt that their place was not safe,
that greater protection was necessary. The
King said, â€˜But whom can we trust? The
French regiments are for the people. We
must send outside for soldiers.â€ Knowing
the bravery, loyalty and honor of the Swiss,
they concluded to send to Switzerland for
soldiers. Immediately they came, and when
the rumor ran through Paris, a general up-
rising followed. The people refused to pay
their tithes to the church and tolls to the
| nobility, and began to burn their castles
Even this did
not quell the pleasure-loving King, for he
held another banquet the extravagance and
waste of which had never before been known.
Soon busy tongues carried the news to the
excited people of Paris, and those suffering
THE LION OF LUCERNE. 17
from famine quickly rebelled. Then great
_crowds marched to Versailles and compelled
sthe King to change his residence to Paris.
-Next day he with his family entered Paris
under an escort and took up his residence in
the â€˜Palace of the Tuileries.â€™ Soon, how-
ever, he was suspected of disloyalty to the
-people and the situation became dangerous.
He made an effort to escape from the coun-
try, but had not gone far when he was de-
â€˜tected and brought back to Paris.
â€œThis dissatisfaction increased until one
night in the year 1791, then when the city
bells rung, an enormous crowd, not only of
the rough inhabitants of the suburbs, but
galley slaves from all over France, with one
grand rush made for the royal palace. It
was now defended by only nine hundred
Swiss guards, for the National Guards who
had up to this time helped defend the pal-
ace, became dissatisfied and rapidly dis-
persed. The crowd became more violent,
cannons were turned upon the castle, men
with spikes urged their way into every part
of the palace and the crowd demanded the
King. The King with his family sought
protection in the Hall of Legislature, but
had hardly left the palace when the human
ae ee = =
â€œLION OF LUCERNE,â€ AT LUCERNEâ€”SWITZERLAND.
18 THE LION OF LUCERNE.
Swiss guard bravely resisted and tried to
billows broke over its defenders.
defend the passages, but without regard for
human life the raging mob stormed the pal-
ace, murdered all within reach, destroyed
the furniture and set fire to the castle.
You ask here what became of the Swiss
guards? I must answer that they were sac-
rificed to the rage of the mob.
â€œNow let us leave the French Revolution
and return to Lucerne, that beautiful city
among the Alps, which contains the won-
derful monument to these brave Swiss
guards, called the Lion of Lucerne. â€”
â€œThis monument is carved in the living
rock on the side of a perpendicular cliff of
limestone. It is in shape of a great lion,
a broken spear protruding from a mortal
wound in his side. His head has fallen on
his right paw, which lies on the Bourbon
shield, and forces a spear against the up-
right arms of Switzerland. Every muscle
of the splendid beast is relaxed, yet in his
suffering he shows what he endured and
monument of bravery was designed by the
that he remained loyal to the last.
Danish sculptor, Thorwaldson, in commem-
oration of the defense of the French King
by the Swiss guards.
â€œAt the base of the rock is a little artific-
ial lake, and in its center is a fountain
throwing water to the height of 20 feet re-
flecting the sunâ€™s rays in prismatic colors.
Indeed it is beautiful and no one can pass
without pausing to worship at the shrine
far more glorious than many throughout
Europe designed for the unsophisticated
â€œTell us about them,â€ said Amy Daish,
who, although a new member of the Club,
was greatly pleased with the idea of story-
telling. â€œ Not to-night, my friends. I pre-
fer to stop while my reputation is good, but
when JI come again I will be prepared to
meet you on your own ground. I had no
idea you were such good listeners. I ama
little like the old Clairvoyant who said,
â€˜Donâ€™t watch me so closely, it is a trifle
embarrassing, and besides, it breaks the
spell.â€™ Your attention made me wonder if
You have im-
Club is a good thing and the efforts of its
I was sufficiently prepared.
proved wonderfully since a year ago.
members should produce much good.â€
A HALF HOUR WITH DICKENS. 19
A HALF HOUR WITH DICKENS.
i LL went well with the â€œCulture
Clubâ€ until one evening Mr. Gray
â€œThe Chief Story-Teller,â€ was ab-
sent. Business had detained him. After
waiting a time, Flora said, â€œ Mama, as papa
is not here to-night can you not take his
place and tell us of some of the sights you
saw?â€ â€œYes,â€ chimed in the others, â€œ We
have not heard from you yet, now is just
Mrs. Gray hesitated at first, but the anx-
ious faces showed how eager they were for
information, and she
â€œ Papa talked of places and of living people,
soldiers and statesmen, kings and emporors,
so I will tell you of what those who write
talk of but one writer tonight, who shall it
be?â€ â€œCharles Dickens,â€ said Mary Lee,
who had just been reading â€œOld Curiosity
our literature do for the world.
Shop,â€ â€œtell of him and his books.â€
â€œMr, Dickens,â€ said Mrs. Gray, â€œ was the
OLD CURIOSITY SHOP.
20 A HALF HOUR
second of eight children; he was born in
1812 at Landport, England, but his parents
soon after moved to Chatam, where he lived
A delicate child, he
could not take part in boyish sports, and
Copperfield he says, â€˜my father had a few
until his tenth year.
sought consolation in books.
books in a little room up stairs to which I
had access and which nobody else ever
â€˜Tom Jones,â€™ â€˜Robinson Crusoe,â€™ â€˜ Vicar of
Wakefield,â€™ â€˜Don Quixoteâ€™ and â€˜Gil Blasâ€™
came out, a glorious host to keep me com-
pany. They kept alive my fancy and my
father was imprisoned for debt, and the fur-
hope of something better.â€™
the parents went to London.
piece to keep starvation away. Weakly as
he was, young Charles was put to work in
less one to the sensitive lad, and his descrip-
tion of it is painful ; but ere long the con-
dition of the family improved. Then he
was sent to school, but unfortunately it was
where the boys trained mice much better
teen he was office boy to an attorney, then
than the master trained the boys.
it was he studied shorthand. Of school he
saw little. Indeed he pictures his own boy-
hood in â€˜ Pickwick Papersâ€™ where he makes
Weller, Sr., say to his son Sam, â€˜I took a
3 nae | lation and his jolly Mark Tapley.
a blacking house at seven shillings per pao So aobtgaataae ge:
; resided in Italy and France, and at-
week. This experience was a bitter, hope- | Resi CO ae oucr Tan ce sua aE
deal â€™o pains with his education, sir,â€”let
him run the streets when he was very young
and shift for himself.â€™
â€œAt nineteen he was the best of the nine-
twenty-two he ventured to drop a story in
the letter-box of the Old Monthly Magazine,
ty reporters in the House of Commons.
and to his surprise it was printed.
| of it, â€˜I turned into Westminster Hall for
troubled. From that blessed little room, |
a time because my eyes were so dimmed
These were after-
with joy I could not see.â€™
sketches signed â€˜ Box.â€™
ward collected in two volumes and sold,
plates and all, for $750. Shortly after he
took up literature as a profession and trav-
eled extensively. He visited the United
: : States and wrote â€˜ Martin Chuzzlewitâ€™
niture and library was pawned piece by | Se eo ee eee ee eee
his return. In this he gives us his inimit-
able picture of American real estate specu-
_ ter place gained the material for that life-
like portrayal of the French Revolution de-
picted in his â€˜Tale of Two Cities,â€™ mean-
| time giving public readings from his own
works. In this way he earned $200,000,
but his health declined. His love of money
and of fame led him on until 1870, when
apoplexy carried him away.
â€œTt was his mission to set before us with
a wonderfully realistic pen the good and
Oliver Twist, born
in a work-house, brought up amidst scenes
evil of every-day life.
THE WORLDS FINEST BURIAL GROUNDS.
of vice and misery, was preserved from pol-
lution only by the strength of character.
The ruffian Sykes could not escape his evil
blooded villainy that repels.
Fagin, the Jew, is a picture of cold-
eller is a rare combination of conceit and
ity Shopâ€™ is full of contrasts.
assurance. He purchases without means to
with the body of a dwarf and the instinct
pay and avoids the street thereafter.
of a wolf, is a strange fancy. But where so
fair so frail, so lovable a child as little Nell?
Patient, hopeful, a ministering angel that
wins all hearts. â€˜The roughest among them
was sorry if he missed her in the usual
place upon his way to school.â€™ â€œAt church
young children would cluster at her skirts
and aged men and women forsake their gos-
sip to give her kindly greeting. How sad
that such a child should die, and yet with
what a tender, sacred beauty he clothed her
| final sleep.
â€œHe wrote for the multitude, and the
multitude was pleased. No man of his day
is better known, more widely read, more
; warmly loved than Dickens, for the burden
of all his stories is â€˜be good and love; have
compassion on misery and wretchedness;
believe that humanity, pity, forgiveness, are
the finest things in man.â€™ â€
THE WORLDâ€™S FINEST BURIAL GROUNDS.
: we have a little old-fashioned talk
about some of the famous burial places
of the World.
naturally thinks of the time when they will
Every one, as age comes on,
lay down their work here and enter a life
beyond. As the life beyond is not intended
for the body, but simply the soul, naturally
there must be a place on Earth where this
body is consigned when life is extinct.
â€œFrom time immemorial different meth-
ods have been resorted to for burying the
dead. The ceremonies performed depend-
lien said papa, â€œI propose that
ed entirely upon the customs of the country,
but the place selected for the grave depen-
ded upon the position one occupied in the
world, not only as to office but in financial
worth. No matter where the dead is buried
a wealth and even a waste of money can be
used in placing a memorial, which sooner
or later must perish with time.
â€œTn America some of our greatest Gen-
erals have been buried in vaults and tombs
erected by the people, but a private citizen
when dying is usually buried in a country
church yard or in a cemetery surrounded
22 THE WORLD'S FINEST BURIAL GROUNDS.
by green trees, running brooks and fragrant
flowers. The old world custom is some-
what different and especially those of an-
In Athens, Pompeii and Rome it was the
custom to bury the dead by the side of the
main roads immediately outside the town-
gates. In Greece these Streets of Tombs
have mostly disappeared. The only one re-
maining is now within the present city of
monuments of the finest pentelic marble,
Many of these had sumptuous
but only those that could bear exposure
have been left in their original places, the
smaller ones having been removed to the
TOMB OF MARIA CHRISTINAâ€”VIENNA,
THE WORLD'S FINEST BURIAL GROUNDS. 23
The first place of interment on the left, | ones, so that the ground here must have
immediately beyond the ancient gate, con- | been very uneven in ancient days. Farther
sists of the foundation wall of a semicircu- | on comes the Monument of Dexileos, a
lar building, within which are upright tomb- | young Athenian who distinguished himself
stones. These are the monuments of Cor- | by his valor in the Corinthian War in B.C.
cyrean ambassadors. "The monuments lie | 394-395 ; the relief represents him on horse-
sixteen feet lower than the surrounding | back in the act of striking down his foe ;
24 THE WORLD'S FINEST BURIAL GROUNDS.
the weapons and bridles were added in
bronze. The two monuments in front be-
long to other members of the same family,
the whole forming a family tomb.
Farther along the road is the Grave of
Korallion, the relief representing a family
group. Korallion grasps the hand of her
husband Agathon with her right hand and
his arm with her left, while in the back-
ground are another bearded man and a
youth. The next monument is in the form
of a small temple, the interior of which was
adorned with paintings, now completely
cupies the top of a tombstone. Then a
large Molossian hound and a Seamanâ€™s
Grave, embellished with a relief represent-
ing a family group on the sea-shore.
Opposite the Molossian hound is the
Tomb of Hegeso, perhaps the most beauti-
ful of them all, representing a lady at her
toilette, attended by a female slave.
On the Appian Way leading out of Rome
are to be found some of the finest ancient
tombs in existence.
of Ceecilia Matella.
ture 65 feet in diameter with a square ped-
which runs around the building is adorned
Among these is that
It is a circular struc-
estal covered with travertine.
with wreaths of flowers and skulls of oxen.
On a marble tablet facing the road is in-
scribed the name. This tomb was built by
the younger Crassus in honor of his wife.
The interior contained the tomb chamber.
In the Thirteenth Century this tomb was
converted into a stronghold and furnished
with battlements. Not far from this tomb,
but on the opposite side of the road, is the
famous Catacombs of St. Calistus where
was found the remains of St. Cecilia and
other martyrs of the early Christian Church.
The burial place of the royal family of
Austria is in the Imperial Vault of the
Capuchin Church. In Spain, King Ferdi-
nandâ€™s and Isabellaâ€™s remains lie in lead
coffins in a crypt just underneath the
Cathedral at Grenada.
One of the most beautiful burial places
in the world to-day, if not the finest ever
known, is the cemetery at Genoa, Italy,
known as Campo Santo. Here the monu-
ments and general arrangement is exceed-
ingly interesting, to say nothing of unique-
We visited the city one afternoon when
the sky was blue and the air fragrant with
spring flowers. We had been told by many
friends that Genoa has more rainy days in
the year than any other city in the world,
and I believe this is true, for we had been
there scarcely half an hour when the sky
became darkened and rain fell upon us.
The next morning we arose intending to
make the most of our time, but soon an-
other rain storm came on. The sky again
cleared, giving us sufficient time to see the
city in general, but not Campo Santo. As
the train was to bear us away early the next:
THE GREAT CATHEDRALS OF THE WORLD. 25
morning we had about given up visiting
Campo Santo, but a call from our American
Consul made us think that this place above
all others must not be neglected, so we
arose early, engaged a carriage, taking our
baggage with us, thinking to make just a
halt at Campo Santo and then away for the
train. But when I tell you that a whole
day there could scarcely have satisfied one,
then you will understand that it is a beau-
tiful, yes, a most wonderful place. It would
be impossible to describe it, but should any
of this â€œCulture Clubâ€ ever visit Italy, by
all means visit this grand and artistic place.
Here one can have their choice of being
buried in a marble vault or out in the open
court or back upon the mountains where
the air is always balmy, the skies blue or
the rains refreshing, making their last rest-
ing place as pleasant as possible.
THE GREAT CATHEDRALS OF THE WORLD.
PROPOSE that at our next Club we
learn something about the great
Churches of the world,â€ said Julia
Brown, who had recently become interested
in Religion and all topics pertaining thereto.
â€œT second the motion,â€ said Tom, â€œand in
the meantime I propose we all study up the
subject and then we can ask questions.â€
â€œAll right,â€ said papa, â€œI think the idea a
good one, for then you will be able to cor-
rect me in case I make an error.â€
The week rolled around, and with it came
were on hand as usual, and Mr. Gray began
the regular night for story-telling.
by asking, first, how many were prepared to
assist him. Every voice said, â€œI.â€
â€œWell, let us begin with the largest
can tell me which one it is and where it is
located?â€ â€œSt. Peters,â€ said Tom. â€œRome,â€
Church in the world,â€ said papa.
said Alice, determined not to be outdone.
â€œYes,â€ said papa, â€œthe largest Cathedral of
the world is St. Peters at Rome. Who
founded it?â€ said papa. â€œEmperor Con-
stantine,â€ said Florence. â€œYes, the origi-
nal church was founded by the Emporer
Constantine at the request of Pope Sylves-
ter I. Who can tell why it bears the name
of St. Peter?â€ said papa. â€œBecause,â€ said
Tom, â€œit was erected on the ground where
the circus of Nero was located, and where
St. Peter is said to have been martyred.â€
â€œGood,â€ said papa, â€œand in a crypt in the
center of the Church is a sarcophagus of
several centuries, was considered too small,
The original Church, after
and a new church was planned. Accord-
ingly the old one was torn down, and the
new one was consecrated in the year 1626.
It cost upward of two million dollars and is
LHE GREAT CATHEDRALS OF THE WORLD.
to-day not only the largest, but the most
imposing and beautiful church in the world.
Its area is 18,000 square yards. The inter-
ior is strikingly impressive, but the effect
produced is not so much its vastness as the
harmony and symmetry of its proportion.
â€œThe next largest Church in the world,
who can tell me where it is located?â€ said -
Florence, who, from the pictures she had
â€œThe Duoma, at Milan,â€ said
seen, considered it the most artistic in the
â€œYes,â€ said Mr. Gray, â€œthe Milan
Cathedral, with perhaps the exception of
the one at Seville, Spain, comes next. Its
area is 14,000 square yards
yards smaller than St. Peters.
â€œThe Cathedral at Milan is regarded by
the Milanese as the eighth wonder of the
world. It holds 40,000 people and the
roof, marble like the rest of the building,
tower is 300 feet above the pavement.
is adorned with 98 turrets and the exterior
upwards of 2,000 statues in marble.
architecture of the Milan
purely Gothic,â€ said Florence, â€œand the
statues make it in my mind far handsomer
than any other Church I can concieve of.â€
â€œYes,â€ said Amy Daish, who had been
studying the architecture of the various
churches for some days, â€œI must confess
it is beautiful, but what can possibly be
handsomer than St. Markâ€™s Cathedral at
Venice? This must have been very beau-
tiful at one time, decorated as it was with |
lavish and almost oriental magnificence.â€
â€œYes,â€ said Mr. Gray, â€œ Amy is right, St.
Markâ€™s possesses even to-day a grandeur
seldom seen on the outside of a building.
Mr. Ruskin says that â€˜the effects of St.
Markâ€™s depend not only upon the most deli-
cate sculpture in every part, but on its
color, also, and that it is the most subtle,
variable, inexpressible color in the worldâ€”
the color of glass, of transparent alabaster,
of polished marble and lustrous gold.â€™
â€œOver the principal portals are four
horses in gilded bronze five feet in height,
which are the finest of ancient bronzes.
They probably once adorned the triumphal
arch of Nero, and afterwards that of Tro-
jan. Constantine sent them to Constanti-
nople, and the Doge brought them to
Venice in 1204. . In 1797 they were carried
by Napoleon to Paris where they graced
the triumphal arch Palace du Carrousel,
and in 1815 they were restored to their
former position on St. Markâ€™s by Emperor
â€œThis Cathedral is named from St. Mark
whose bones were brought from Alexan-
dria in 829 and placed in a reliquary un-
der the high altar.
all this time to
hear about the pigeons,â€ said little May,
â€œT have been waiting
â€œfor mamma says that there are lots of them
around St. Markâ€™s.â€ â€œYes,â€ said papa
Gray, â€œa large flock of pigeons enlivens
the piazza. In accordance with an old
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
custom pigeons were sent out from the
churches on Palm Sunday, and nestled in
the nooks and crannies of the surrounding
public they were fed at the public expense,
Down to the close of the Re-
but they are now dependent upon private
charity. Towards evening they perch in
great numbers under the arches of St.
for the pigeons from various loungers in
Grain and peas may be bought
the Piazza; and those whose ambition
leans in that direction may have them-
selves photographed with pigeons cluster-
ing round them.â€
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
S one stands upon the Plain of
Waterloo, the sight of one of the
greatest battles of history, a battle
which checked the personal ambition of one
man and drove him in exile to the rocky
shores of St. Helena and brought a long
period of peace to the war-surfeited na-
tions of Europe, he must be insensible in-
deed if he is not affected by the surround-
ings and the associations of this historic
spot. The plain is but a valley about three
miles long, of varying width, but generally
not over half a mile.
On each side of the valley is a winding
NAPOLEONâ€™S HEADQUARTERS, WATERLOO,
30 THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
chain of low hills running nearly parallel
to each other. The slope from these hills
to the valley below is easy but not uniform.
Just back of the center of the ridge upon
the southern side of the valley lies the lit-
tle village of LaBelle Alliance.
behind the northern ridge, lies the hamlet
NAPOLEON AT AGE OF 46 WHEN HE FOUGHT
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO,
of Mont St. Jean.
Charleroi to Brussels passes through these
The highroad from
little towns and is the road along which the
French army must pass to reach Brussels,
which Napoleon desired to reach.
It was on these two ranges, the French
under Napoleon numbering 130,000, on the
south, the English and allies under
Wellington 106,000 strong on the
north, with Blucher and the Prussian
army of 110,000 men, twelve miles
away that the opposing armies were
drawn up in line of battle on that
memorable morning of June 18, 1815.
The British position was well fitted
for a defensive battle. Behind them
lay the great forest of Svignies, on
their right was the village and ravine
of Mesh Braine and on the left two
little towns gave slight protection,
though this was needless, as the Prus-
sian army was to advance on that side.
The battle then must be fought by
straight attack; flank movements were
The night of June 17th was marked
by heavy rains and when morning
dawned the troops arose unrefreshed
yet eager for the battle. Wellington
drew up his infantry in two lines, his
most reliable troops in the van and
those which had suffered most in the
battle of Ligny on the preceding day
sheltered from the French cannon-
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. dl
ade by the hills in the rear. The cavalry
was stationed at intervals along the rear
line, the largest force being gathered at the
left of the center.
Opposite, the French were drawn up in
two lines with the entire cavalry and Im-
perial Guards in the rear as a reserve force
ready to aid any part of the line.
When all was ready Napoleon rode
along the line encouraging and receiv-
ing from them the most enthusiastic
cheering. Both sides were confident.
Wellington had proved himself in-
vinecible on many a battle-field and
â€˜yealized that all Europe looked to him
to win a battle in which if he was de-
feated would make the French the
masters of the world. Napoleon, too,
realized that this day would, if won,
wipe out the memory of recent dis-
grace and make him Emperor of
France and the idol of the nation.
At half-past eleven Napoleon began
the attack by sending a strong force
against the enemyâ€™s right. Column
after column was hurled upon the
English line only to be met by the
shot and shell, furious charges and
most determined bravery.
fierce resistance the battle raged.
Meantime the contest had begun all
along the line and at one o'clock
Napoleon directed an attack under
purpose four columns of infantry number-
on the center and the left wing.
ing 18,000 men and a strong body of cav-
alry with seventy-four guns of artillery
were selected. These guns wrought ter-
rible havoc among the English troops and
Not so the second.
the first gave way.
WELLINGTON, SAME AGE AS NAPOLEON, 46,
Ney, â€œthe bravest of the brave,â€ up- WHEN
BATTLE WAS FOUGHT AT WATERLOO,
32 THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
As the French approached, the English met
them with a deadly volley at close range
and then dashed upon them with their
bayonets. The French were driven back
and then the English cavalry charged down
upon them, sabred the artillerymen of the
seventy-four guns, cut the traces and killed
the horses, rendering them useless for the
day and causing a loss which did much to
decide the day in their favor.
Although the French had fought fiercely
they had gained no decided advantage, and
at half past three as Napoleon saw the
Prussian allies coming up from the east he
ordered his splendid cavalry to charge the
English center. This body of horsemen
was the finest the world had ever seen.
They numbered 35,000, every man selected
for bravery and daring. It had never
known defeat and when the order to charge
came they dashed: forward with ringing
cheers. Wellington quickly formed his in-
fantry in squares, and while the outer ranks
received the French upon their bayonets
the inner lines poured volley after volley
into their advancing columns. Charge
after charge was made but the English
sians under Blucher having arrived, the
squares remained unbroken.
English and their allies assumed the offen-
sive and began to attack the French in dif-
ferent portions of the line. Throughout
the day the Old Guard, Napoleonâ€™s bravest
veterans had remained inactive, These
were picked troops, the heroes of a score of
battles, renowned for their skill and bray-
ery. These under the command of Ney
were ordered forward. In the face of a
deadly fire they moved imposingly on.
Neyâ€™s horse was shot under him but he led
the way on foot, swordin hand. Suddenly
there came the command, â€œ Up Guards, and
at them!â€ and from the ground where they
had been lying up sprang the British
Guards four deep in compact order and in
perfect form. â€œFire!â€ and three hundred
of the Old Guard went down never to rise.
â€œCharge! â€™ and with the fury of demons
the English troop rushed upon the French.
In vain did the French officers strive to
Guards were irresistible and for the first
check the English advance.
time in their career the Old Guard turned
At the foot of the hill they ral-
lied and again advanced.
English had ordered a brigade to flank the
French and as they assended the hill a de-
structive fire met them in front and poured
in from the side. Against such odds the
bravery of the French could not prevail,
was that Wellington, seeing the disorder
and again they turned and fled.
of the French, gave the order to his entire
army to charge. Before Napoleon and
Ney could ralley their disheartened men
were thrown into confusion and except the
weakened ranks of the Old Guard, retreat-
the English were upon them.
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. 33
ed in disorder. The Old Guard was swept
away. Waterloo was lost, Napoleon was
beaten and Europe was delivered from his
ambition. But at what a fearful cost ! 27,-
000 killed and wounded on the English
side and a heavier loss upon the French
was the price paid for deliverance.
Napoleon fled to Paris, but the French
safety of Europe lay only in depriving him
of his liberty. Imprisonment seemed in-
tolerable, and by Act of Parliament he was
banished to the dreary Isle of St. Helena.
Here he lived for nearly six years, dying
In his will he requested that his
might lie on the banks of the
Seine, which he loved so well.â€ He was
NAPOLEONâ€™S TOMB, PARIS, IN CHURCH OF INVALIDES.,
people turned against him and demanded
his head. He became an exile, threw him-
self upon English clemency, saying, â€œI
have terminated my public career. I place
myself under the protection of your laws,
which I claim from your royal highness as
the most powerful, the most constant, the
most generous of my enemies.â€ England re-
ceived hiin courteously but decided that the
buried at Longwood, St. Helena, but in the
reign of Louis Philippe he was, by the per-
mission of the English Government, con-
veyed to the Invalides at Paris, where a
stately dome was erected over the sarcoph-
agus containing his ashes. History has
pronounced its verdict upon Napoleon as
cold, relentless, ambitious and vindictive.
But Jet us not be uncharitable. Trained
34 THE CATACOMBS OF ROME.
to war he knew nothing but war and
sought by conquest of war to place all
Europe under his direction. Flattered and
petted by his people when his star.was in
the ascendancy, he felt the full measure of
their resentment when success no longer
attended his efforts in war. Years have
passed since the fateful Battle of Waterloo
and to-day the French people see in Napo-
leon a military hero striving bravely against
forces too powerful to overcome, and the
words of their own Victor Hugo say, â€œIt
was not Wellington that defeated Napoleon
at Waterloo, it was -God.â€
THE CATACOMBS OF ROME.
. (f CEMETERY of to-day is made a
place of beauty. Shrubs and flow-
ers and stately trees, graveled walks
and well-kept lawn, simple slab and sculp-
tured monument combine to adorn our
loved onesâ€™ last resting place and surround
it with associations as pleasant as possible.
dead were placed in burial vaults, excavat-
Not so with the ancient Romans.
ed in the rocks which are plentiful near
the city of Rome.
These burial places are called the Cata-
combs, which originally meant simply a
dead, the name began to mean excavations
Later, as this place filled up with
in which the dead were placed. The bodies
of saints and early churchmen were entomb-
ed therein, thus making sacred places to
which pilgrimages were made.
No better description of them has been
given than that of St. Jerome, who says,
â€œWhen I was at school in Rome, my com-
panions and I used, on Sundays, to make
the circuit of the sepulchres of the apos-
tles and martyrs. Many a time did we go
down into the Catacombs. These are ex-
cavated deep in the earth and contain, on
either hand, as you enter, the bodies of the
It is all so dark
there that the language of the Prophet
seems to be fulfilled.
quick into hell.â€™
dead, buried in the wall.
â€˜Let them go down
Only occasionally is light
let in to mitigate the horror of the gloom,
and then not so much through a window
as through a hole. You take each sfep with
caution surrounded as by deep night.â€
In agreement with this vivid picture, we
find ourselves, upon entering, in a vast
labarynth of narrow galleries, three or four
feet wide, interspersed with small cham-
bers, dug at successive levels in the vol-
canic rock. These recesses rise tier above
tier like the berths in a ship, from two to
twelve in number,
CATACOMBS, WHERE ST. CECILIA WAS BURIED.
36 THE CATACOMBS OF ROME.
In these the bodies were placed and the
entrances closed with a tight-fitting slab of
marble, or other stone, and tightly sealed.
Sometimes the bodies were embalmed,
sometimes quicklime was thrown in to
On the slab which
served as a door to these vaults, an epitaph
was usually written, sometimss simply and
PICTURE OF ST. CECILIA, AS DRAWN
ON WALLS OF CATACOMBS, ROME.
sometimes elaborately carved. Many fami-
ly vaults, about twelve feet square, were
dug out. In these were placed receptacles
for the dead. The walls of these vaults
were highly decorated according to the
wealth of the owner. Here occurred the
funeral feast celebrated on each anniver-
sary. These feasts were often drunken
orgies, for St. Augustine speaks of those
who by â€œgluttony and insobriety bury
themselves over the buried, make them-
selves drunk in the chapels of the martyrs
and place their excesses to the score of re-
ligious reverence for the dead.â€
The galleries are not arranged on any
definite plan, but cut into each other at
different angles, producing a network with-
out system, and in which the visitor easily
loses himself. There are different stories
of galleries lying one below another to the
number of four or five and in one case,
seven. These different galleries are con-
and air are let in by vertical shafts running
nected by stairs cut in the rock.
up to the outer air, but serve their purpose
In the fourth century, these Catacombs
were at the height of their popularity.
The custom of burying the dead here
ceased with the capture of Rome by Alaric
in 410 A. D. Before this the Catacombs
had come to be regarded as sacred and
were visited by large numbers of pilgrims.
With the fall of Rome, these pilgrimages
ceased, and by degrees the very existence
of these tombs was forgotten. For six cen-
turies they lay hidden until in 1578, some
laborers discovered them and â€˜revealed the
existence of other cities concealed beneath
their own suburbs.â€ Then began a careful
THE CATACOMBS OF ROME 37
series of explorations until their mysteries
were laid bare. Successive rulers have
sought to restore them to their original
state, but despite the researches of eminent
men, much must be imagined.
The decorations on the walls of the
tombs are mostly taken from the Bible,
though mythology furnishes some subjects.
Among them are the Good Shepherd, The
Fisherman, suggestions of the miracles;
Lazarus, the Crucifixion from the New
Testament and Jonah, David, Daniel and
other characters from the old. Here have
rested the bodies of many noted for good
works. Tradition says that the bodies of
the Apostles Peter and Paul, were en-
tombed here for a year and seven months.
Numerous saints were entombed here, but
among them all perhaps greater interest
centers around none more than around the
Tomb of St. Cecelia.
and history are somewhat confused as to
the events of her life, but enough is known
to merit the respect and reverence of all
who honor a truly noble woman. Legend
says that she sang praises to God with
musical accompaniment and
musical societies are named after her.
Artists have placed upon canvas scenes
from her life, Poets have written of her
gentle, useful life, History has engraved
her name in enduring character upon its
pages and the Church of Rome cherishes
her memory as one of its richest heritages.
Born of a noble Roman family, she was
in the early part of the third century, con-
verted to Christianity. Her parents com-
pelled her to marry a pagan, named Valer-
ian, whom she converted to Christianity.
Later she and all her converts were mart-
yred, later a church was built upon the
place was forgotten, for a time, but in the
spot occupied by her home.
ninth century, Pope Paschal I, we are told,
was visited by her in a vision and her rest-
ing place in the Catacombs made known.
Following her directions, he found not only
her remains, but those of her husband and
All these he
placed with great ceremony in the church
nine hundred other martyrs.
named for her and which he had rebuilt.
This church was again rebuilt in the
fifteenth century, and her remains placed
in a silver receptacle and deposited under
To the lovers of the old the habits and
customs which prevailed in the treatment
of the dead, and to the lovers of old ceme-
teries no spot in Rome is more interesting
than the Catacombs. Yet our own burial
places, with shrubs and flowers and shaded
walks, are far more pleasant than those of
foreign lands, which many people travel
thousands of miles to visit.
38 A KNIGHT IN ARMOR.
A KNIGHT IN ARMOR.
T was Tomâ€™s birthday. In his honor
a party was given. â€œIn almost every
museum we visit, â€™said papa, who be-
gan in his usual story-telling way of enter-
tainment, â€˜are to be found what look like
suits of metal, and boys of every age seem
never to tire of looking at them. Some are
tarnished with age, or perchance, bear dints
inflicted by the heavy blows of some foe;
others are bright and splendid with never
a suggestion of aught but court parade.
As he gazes upon these relics of bygone
days, what boy has failed to people them
with knights of old, has longed to see the
tournaments of history where brave men
and fiery steeds met in fierce but friendly
contest to win the wreath of honor and
victory bestowed by some high born lady,
or wondered from whence came these un-
gainly coats of mail, or how their wearers
fought with such a heavy load.
The origin of armor is lost in history.
When men began to fight, they began to
At first, a wicker shield
carried upon the arm; this was replaced by
one of ox-hide and this in turn gave way to
one of metal. Then came the helmet to
protect the head from heavy blows. From
this it was but a step to the coat and soon
the whole suit followed. It was not enough
that man alone should be protected, and
complete armor consisted of the helmet,
next came the armor for the horse.
coat and greaves, or armor for the legs.
Steel was mostly used, its weight being de-
termined by the strength of the wearer and
its cost by his wealth.
The greaves were great plates made to
conform .to the leg, jointed at the knee
with a cap extending above. The lower
part extended to the foot or not, as the
owner wished. The back part of the leg
coat was made in several pieces, the body
was not covered except in rere cases.
jointed at the back and fastening in front.
The arms were jointed at the elbow and
fastened at the shoulder, a plate projecting
on the latter for protection. The gloves,
or gauntlets, covered only the back of the
hand. The helmet set down over the head
and rested upon the shoulders. In front,
the visor, which was perforated to allow
the wearer to see, could be lowered if nec-
essary. The armor of the horse covered
head, neck, breast and back. Oftentimes
the knight wore next to his body a suit of
A KNIGHT IN ARMOR. 39
underwear made from minute links of steel
The weight of such a load was heavy and
greatly impeded the action of the wearer,
but without it, a blow from battle-ax, a
single thrust from spear or a stroke from
a sword in the hands of a foe was fatal.
Could we witness a knightly tournament of
the dark ages, we should see a horrible yet
splendid sight. Here gathered knights and
nobles, princes and kings with squires and
servants, while their wives and daughters
PHOTOGRAPHED FROM THE MUSEUM, DRESDEN,
40 A KNIGHT IN ARMOR.
graced the scene with their presence.
first day was given up to encounters be-
tween single Knights. The victor in each
case was given the horse, saddle and bridle
of his foe, the one winning the greatest
number of contests being declared the
leader of one side in the general encounter
and being allowed to name the Queen of
Love and Beauty who bestowed the Chap-
let of Honor on the final victor, and the
next in rank leading the other. Before the
tournament began, the herald proclaimed
the rules; sword, lance, battle-ax or mace
could be used, but the dagger could not.
If one knight unhorsed another, he could
continue the fight with that one only by
dismounting. One unhorsed knight could
only attack another similarly situated. A
knight driven to the end of the lists or
knight violating any of the rules of the
retire as vanquished. Any
tournament was disgraced. As in the first
day, each victorious knight was entitled to
the horse of his defeated foe.
When all was ready, the two forces, num-
bering sometimes an hundred men, drew
At a blast from the
trumpet they dashed forward at full speed,
up in opposite line.
the object being to make the horses collide
at full speed. Then the conflict raged.
The fierce cries of the men, mingled with
the blows of battle-ax, the clanging of
swords and the crash of crossing spears,
was dreadful to behold, while men and
horses went down and rolled in the dust.
Knights on foot engaged in hand to hand
contests. As the numbers dwindled away,
opportunities for feats of superb horseman-
ship, and skillful trials of lance and sword
presented themselves, and were improved
to the utmost. Finally the contest nar-
rowed down to the two leaders and then
began a scene which beggars description.
They fought as only brave men can fight,
until by lucky stroke or superior skill but
Then the shouts of the multitude broke
loose. The victor rode slowly before the
assembled throng and stopped before the
Queen of Beauty to receive the victorâ€™s
crown. Fierce as were these tournaments,
they were less bloody than would be im-
agined. As many fell from the great
weight of their armors as by the skill of
their opposers. Then came trials of
strength and skill by the yeomanry, after
which a great banquet by the nobles con-
cluded the tournament.
With the invention of gunpowder and
the use of guns, armor began to disappear.
Its weight impeded the wearers and pre-
vented rapid movements, while it was not
proof against bullets. It serves to-day only
as a reminder of the past, when men
through mistaken notions of courage, faced
death rather than be thought lacking in
bravery and chivalry.â€
â€œSplendid,â€ said every boy as papa fin-
ished his story. Three cheers with a prom-
ise of another equally as good when we
A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.
OW our young hearts jumped for
joy, when papa suddenly announced
one day at dinner, that his
business called him to South America, and
that we must all be ready to start in two
weeksâ€™ time. Poor mamma dreaded the
trip, and the long absence from home and
friends, but Tom and I could see nothing
but one long holiday ahead. Anxious to
know something of the country which we
were to visit, we got our geographies and
when all were seated for the evening, we
made known our wants to papa.
â€œTurn to the map of South America,â€
said he, â€˜â€œâ€˜and we will see what we can find
there.â€ Then with our map before us we
stretching its enormous length of 4700
great triangular continent
miles from Pt. Gallinas on the north to
Cape Horn on the south. Its greatest
MOUTH OF THE AMAZON RIVER.
42 A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.
Ea ee a Toa RA AE eT ES Seo a OG [FRO eh
breadth is 3200 miles, and we found were | snows which envelope them throughout
we to sail along its coast, we should travel | the year. Highest of all Mt. Aconcagua
a distance of two-thirds of the circum-
ference of the world. Reaching from the
extreme north to the southern most limits,
the Andes mountains raise their huge
crests, rough, rocky and precipitous until
the tropic suns are all too feeble to melt the
stands a solitary sentinel almost 24,000
feet above the sea, while from its summit
to its base one can experience all the cli-
mates found from polar frosts to tropic
suns. Three great rivers drain its vast
territory of which the mighty Amazon ig
HUTS IN THE FORESTâ€”PATAGONIA.
chief, the largest river in the world, though
not the longest. For nearly 3,000 miles
this river flows from the base of the Andes,
whose eternal snows furnish never failing
source of supply, gathering in volumes by
the addition of streams so vast that most
rivers are but rivulets in comparison, until
it pours its floods into the vast Atlantic
through a mouth 180 miles wide.
Vast forests line its banks with a lux-
uriant growth of shrub and trees unknown
In their depths
are found strange beasts, chattering apes
to temperate climes.
and monkeys, vast reptiles which lie in
A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA. 43
wait for prey from some overhanging
bough, and birds whose rich plumage puts
to shame the colors of the rainbow.
East of the Andes you will find one vast
glain sloping to. the sea. The treeless
plains abounding in the richest pasturage
are the homes of countless herds of wild
was, we remembered the principal exports
horses and still wilder cattle.
of some countries, here are hides, horns
To our surprise we learned the people
there in all except Brazil and Guiana elect
their rulers and are as devoted to the idea
of self government as are our own.
â€œBut what of our relations with this
â€œWhat do we buy
Brazil we exchange manufactured articles
continent,â€ ssid papa.
and sell there and how much?â€
such as cloth, farming tools, iron, etc., for
coffee, leather, hides, tallow and fruits,â€
said Tom, who had learned this in school.
â€œWe buy from Brazil, fifty-eight million
dollars worth, and sell her a little over
seven millions. From the Argentine Re-
public we buy seven million dollars worth
of manufactured articles and sell her six
millions. Our trade with Columbia is a
little over five million and that with Chili,
three.â€ â€˜You will find many strange
things there,â€ said papa as he closed the
book, â€œbut nothing more so than the
people and their customs.â€
Do nothing to-day that can be put off
until to-morrow, seems to be their motto.
Ignorant, lazy and inveterate gamblers.
they care but little for progress, as we
know the word, and allow the magnificent
opportunities of that country to be im-
proved by foreigners.â€
â€œIn the extreme south of this continent,
the people are almost savage like in man-
ner and as the country is warm, they wear
little or no clothing. Still, steam and
electricity are proving great civilizers
among them. When the first railroad was
built the people could not understand that
trains were to run on schedule time, so at
first they came from a few minutes to a
few hours late to see it off. They soon
learned, however, that trains wait for no
man, and learned thereby the necessity of
punctuality. Buenos Ayres is perhaps
more like an American city than any other
found there. Street cars, electric lights
and modern paved streets are found, but
there is not the bustle and hurry which
mark our northern cities. Business is
done in the early hours of the day, for
when the sun is at its height but few care
to venture out. As evening approaches
the people crowd upon the streets to walk,
visit, gamble or amuse themselves as fancy
suggests. ~ One occupation the natives
enjoy possibly more than all else and that
is to catch and break the wild horses that
roam over the prairies. These horses at
first are unmanageable, but with Â» lasso
A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.
they catch them by the neck, and taking
another lasso they throw it around their
legs and in a short space of time they
manage to ride them without fear.
â€œBut this is enough for to-night,â€ said
papa, learn what you can of this country
board the ship we will pursue our studies
and be ready to sail in a short time.
Of our voyage to Rio de Janeiro, the
city near which we were to live for the
next twelve monihs little need be said.
We arrived in due time anxious and ex-
pectant, yet unprepared for the surprises
The people looked so dif-
ferently, acted so differently and, worked so
in store for us.
differently from those we were accustomed
THE CORRALâ€”ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.
Ar AR LING SOULH AMERICA 45
to see. The means of transportation were
â€œsuch as we were unused to, the games and
sports and pets of the children so queer
Shortly after our arrival we rose early
one morning to see the men load the mules
We went to the
fruit markets soon and there found the
and start for market.
mules with great baskets strapped on each
these baskets the men piled immense
side patiently awaiting their loads.
bunches of bananas, bushels of golden
oranges, huge pineapples bursting with
When loaded the mules started
off Indian fashion, one behind the other,
the leader wearing a tinkling bell to which
we listened until its soft tones were lost in
Coffee picking afforded us much amuse-
ment. It seemed so easy for the natives
to pick coffee that we wanted to help,
though we should have thought it hard
went into the hills, where the coffee trees
work, had we been obliged to do it.
grow, with bags tied in front of us in which
to place the berries. The trees were
covered with long sprays of berries and
green leaves almost as pretty as when
'wreathed with white star like blossoms
branches hung almost to the ground and
which made all the air fragrant.
when our loads got heavy we poured them
into broad shallow baskets which were taken
to the coffee house and poured into a little
mill which cut the pulp and out dropped
two grains, white and juicy, that had lain
there, the two flat sides together. These
were spread into the terrane (a square
yard covered with slate or brick) to dry.
After lying here several days it must go
through another mill or be pounded in
a mortar to free the thick dry chaff
from the grain and make it ready for
Farina making always gave us a good
Farina is the bread of Brazil and is
root is ground in a mill turned by mules
made from a root called mandioca.
and dried in a shallow pan. It makes
niceâ€™ mush or bread. We enjoyed sugaz
boiling as well and especially the testing
of syrup and sugar and candy pulling. It
was a jubilee we shall not soon forget.
Our pets were legion Guinea pigs which
we fed with our own hands, dear little,
soft, bright eyed creatures; bright, queer
colored parrots whose attempts at talking
were highly amusing; funny little monkeys
found, nowhere else, timid yet lovabie that
often went to sleep in our pockets; and
lizards nearly two feet long, covered with
bright scales of black and white, though
not admired by every one, are gentle,
Of the many strange birds the Toncan
was the most noticeable with his yellow
plumage, sharp bill and eyes that make him
look as though he wore goggles.
46 A YEAR IN SOUTH AMERICA.
called the â€œbarber birdâ€? because he cuts
the web from the stem of his tail feathers
using his beak like a pair of scissors.
Wishing to visit some friends, one day
we rode in sedan chairs as there were
chairs were carried by four black men
neither street cars nor carriages.
Such fun as it
we reached the home of our friend we
who sing as they travel.
was, to peep out as we rode,
did not rap or ring, but clapped our
hands as hard as we could. Our friends
came to the door and said, â€˜enter and
welcome, the house and its contents are
yours.â€ We went into the parlor where
coffee was served in tiny cups as we chatted.
On our ride home we saw priests in their
black gowns, water carriers with large red
jars on their heads, black men carrying
great bags of sugar or coffee and other
sights equally strange. Another ride we
had, was in a musical cart. Thisis a cart
with solid wheels and axles so that they
both turn together as the cart moves.
It is intended that the cart should squeak,
and it does. You can not hear yourself
The bottom of the
cart was spread with bright colored mats
talk when it moves.
on which we sat. The cart is drawn by
oxen that hurry not at all because of the
uncanny sounds behind them. Yet we
thought it great fun.
OLD WORLD WATERING
: MONG the famous watering places
of the world none is perhaps more
famous than Carlsbad, located near
the eastern and northern boundary of Aus-
tria. Here come all classes of people, not
so much to enjoy the beauties of the
scenery as to partake of the waters, which
months, while others stay only a day.
Baden-Baden, in the Black Forests, just
a few miles from the Rhine, is equally
are with minerals. Some stay
famous, and alike noted for its mineral
waters. Here come the rich and the poor,
the well and the sick; some to bathe in its
waters, others to drink and be healed, while
a third come for pleasure. Here is much
to see, for there are not only the beautiful
drives, but delightful walks, winding rivers
and charming parks. Here one can sit and
read the legends of the Black Forest and
glance now and then over the mountains,
feeling all the while that they are drinking
in health as well as pleasure.
Then, too, there is Schaveningen, the
famous Holland resort, located near the
Hague on the sea coast. This calls tourists
people go during the warm months not for -
from both Europe and America.
health, but rest and pleasure. Here one
| can sit for hours and watch the different
nationalities as they pass to and fro, or
they can wade in the sand along the sea;
or, if they prefer, can have a good, refresh-
ing bath in the salty waters of old ocean.
But more delightful than all these is
that charming little spot on the western
coast of France known as Mont St. Michel.
This wonderful little place is on a rock in
the sea, and so charming is it that one de-
sires not only to visit it once, but many
times. Here are the fishermen with their
nets, and the peasants hunting for shells;
here when the tide goes down each day the
rock stands in the midst of sand like a
sentinel, and when it rises again it often
goes so high as to wash the rock to a height
of many yards along its sides. Here once
was located a famous monastery, but the
48 OLD WORLD WATERING PLACES.
monks have long since disappeared; all
that is left now is the building, which has
been converted into a show place for tour-
ists. Will I ever forget it, our visit there!
Then, too, here one gets those famous ome-
lets known all the world over, made by
Madame Poullard. My, how good they are!
But more popular than all the above re-
sorts is the one on the southern coast of
France, along the Riviera. Here from one
end to the other is a climate unsurpassed
in all the world. No wonder that wealth
flocks here! No wonder that the invalids
recover here! and no wonder that Parisians
make Nice their winter resort for several
monthsâ€™ duration. The sea, the drives, the
flowers and the atmosphere, all combine to
make it the most charming spot of the
earth. Neither is this confined to one spot
only. All along the Mediterranean coast,
from Genoa, Italy, to Nice in Southern
France, is an uninterrupted series of winter
resorts and are still rapidly increasing in
number and popularity. The cause of the
mild and pleasant climate is not hard to
find. The Alps, on the North, form an
admirable screen from cold winds which
pass their tops but do not touch their feet,
besides the hills are exposed to the full
force of the sunâ€™s rays,
JOAN OF ARC.
N the walls of the Pantheon, in Paris,
") are many beautiful paintings, among
them a striking one of Joan of Arc
painting represents her clothed in male
leading the French troops to battle.
attire, mounted on a charger, her sword by
her side, and her banner, which, by the
way, was designed by herself, is in her
hand. Trumpeters precede her, priests
bow at her feet and soldiers encourage her.
A word about this strange character may
not be out of place. Joan of Arc was born
about 1411 in Domremyy, a small village in
France. She never learned to read or write,
but was always interested in religious
teachings. As a child she was noted for
physical energy and lovliness. She was
obedient to parents, kind to all, and became
a favorite in the village. She was well
trained in housework, and excelled in the
use of the needle. As she grew older, a
meditative spirit crept over her and she
spent much time in prayer. All advances
from young men were repelled.
At that time the English had conquered
Northern France and bid fair to subdue
the nation. Isabella, the mother of the
ruling Dauphin, Charles, disinherited him
in favor of her son-in-law, Henry V, of
England, thus fulfilling an old prophecy
that the nation would be destroyed by a
woman. The same tradition stated that
France would be saved by a virgin who
should come out of the forest of Domremy,
where Joan as a child had tended sheep.
It was doubtless this tradition, coupled
with her love of country and hours of
prayer, that led her to believe she was the
one chosen toâ€™ deliver France. ;
In 1428 Orleans was invested by the
English, and Joan, declaring she was
guided by saints, succeeded in securing an
interview with the Dauphin, and persuaded
him that her mission was Divine, and that
entered Orleans at the head of the French
army in 1429, and inspired her troops by
such vigorious attacks, that the English
were driven out.
led by her, his armies must conquer.
Other victories followed,
and the enemy was driven beyond the
Loire. She was wounded in an attack on
Paris, and the army disbanded. Later she
50 JOAN OF ARC.
led an unsuccessful assault against the
English, and refusing to retreat, was capt-
ured. Charles made no attempt to ransom
her, as he evidently began to doubt her
divine mission, as he found her unwilling
to obey orders. She was tried and con-
victed of heresy and sorcery, but was par-
doned at the scaffold on May 24th, 1431.
Presisting in wearing male garments, she
was judged to have relapsed and was sent-
enced to death and burned at the stake
May 81st, 1431.
Her greatness was due not to her mili-
tary achievements, but to the purity, truth
and ardor of her character, which made her
a piteous victim to the superstitions of the
age in which she lived. Recently she has
been canonized and is now looked upon as
one of the most honored saints of France.
A monument erected to her memory stands
in one of the most prominent squares of
Paris and is daily decked with wreaths
and flowers by her many enthusiastic ad-
JOAN OF ARC, PANTHEON, PARIS.
THE STORY OF AFRICA.
Â° FTER our return home from South
America Tom and I were so
pleased with the many new things we had
learned, that we decided to give some time
to the study of each of the Continents and
with a map before us, we asked Papa one
evening to tell us something of this
Papa â€œas we looked at the may, we sce
ancient yet unknown land.
Africa resembles South America in its
general form, being somewhat triangular
in shape. Like South America, Africa is
ISLAND OF RODAâ€”IN THE NILE.
52 THE STORY OF AFRICA.
avast isthmus, joined to the main conti-
nent by a narrow neck which seems all too
weak to hold this vast country to Asia.
Vast as this continent is, its mountain
vanges are insignificant when compared
Mountains in the East rise only to the
height of 7000 feet, while in the West the
Kong Mountains reach the same altitude.
with those of otber countries.
In the North the Atlas Mountains manage
to climb 11,000 feet before they culminate
in the highest peak. But in the great
interior the highest point of the continent
is found in Mount Kilima Njaro which
reaches a height of 20,000 feet.
Here, too, three great rivers drain the
continent. The Nile is the longest river
in the world, yet the Congo pours a greater
volume of water into the Ocean, being
second only to the Amazon. The Nile is
THE STORY OF ARICA. 53
the most interesting river in the world in
many ways. Along its banks are found
ruins so old that modern civilization pales
before them. The Pyramids raise their
bare heads high in the air, a silent testi-
mony to despotic power, for sublime as
they are, they were built by slaves under
the masterâ€™s lash, an unwilling offering to
the sway of Kings. Here too, the Sphinx
is found half buried by the sands of time,
as silent as the grave, Could it but speak,
what a tale of sorrow, of suffering, of the
miseries of the old civilization it would
For 1200 miles in its lower course the
Nile receives not a single attluent and here
A FELLAH PLOUGHINGâ€”EGYPT.
THE STORY OF AFRIOA.
the natives wait in anxious expectation for
its yearly â€œgift,â€ for in this region no
rain falls and the overflow of this mighty
stream is depended upon to fit the rich
soil for cultivation, not only watering it,
but fertilizing it as well.
In the picture you will see one of the
He cares little what
team he uses for work so long as it in
some fashion meets his purpose.
These people are peculiar in their habits
and while they care very little for forms
of agriculture or methods of work, yet
they are strict in their religious customs.
The women wear acovering over the lower
part of their faces, and are seldom seen
without it. Hvenin eating they wear these
The section which we have been telling
you of belongs mainly to the plains of the
| Aw }
FELLAHEEN AT MEALS.
OF AFRICA. 55
Nile, or the section of Africa which is
pretty well known. Now we come to the
new and unknown part to which the Congo
river is closely linked. On its banks has
been formed the Congo Free State, for the
purpose of developing trade, carrying
civilization to Africa and suppressing the
slave trade. This river is navigable for
many hundred miles and around its falls,
railroads have been built thus establishing
trade with the remote interior. To these
points we send clothes, beads, cutlery,
trinkets, some agricultural implements,
and to our shame be it said, rum in ex-
change for ivory, gold dust, gums and
On the South Eastern part are the
largest diamond fields in the world. You
VILLAGE OF CONDEâ€”CENTRAL AFRICA,
THE STORY OF AFRICA. 57
will remember the exhibit of this kind we | nor does any other continent possess as
saw at the Worldâ€™s Fair a year ago. good possibilities in the way of furnishing
No other continent can compare with | sustenance for a great population as does
Africa in the size of its animals, the wealth | this.
of its forests and the vastness of its deserts, In many sections of Africa the country
WOMAN PRAYING TO SACRED TREE.
58 THE STORY OF AFRICA.
is beautiful. The trees are laden with
fruit. The Cactus and Oleander run riot
with blossom and the delicious perfumes
from unexpected gardens is always a
pleasant balm. Just above the central
part, though, is the Great Desert of Sahara,
dull by contrast to the fertile banks of the
Mediterranean. It takes days to cross it
and isa long, weary, tedious and almost
dangerous place to travel, not only because
one sometimes comes in contact with
wandering people, but because of the sand
storms which frequently occur and last a
During the last half century, time,
money and even human life have been
freely given to learn more of this unknown
When the history of Africa
shall be written, standing first in the gal-
axy of heroes who have made civilization
possible, here will be the names of Stanley
One achievement we must notice and
that is the Suez canal, connecting the
waters of the Mediterranean with those of
the Red Sea.
direction of a French Engineer, Dr.
This was built under the
Luseps, but is now owned principally by
The importance of this
It is an
is the first
LIGHTHOUSE AT ALEXANDRIA.
OF AFRICA. 59
across the Isthmus. Six hundred years
before Christ a water way was opened but
after about 1400 years it was allowed to
Two facts should be
remembered about this canal. One is, that
fall into disuse.
the company building it should have all
the land the canal might irrigate; the
other that the Viceroy of Egypt was to
â€œTmagine if you can,â€ said papa, â€œthat
you are approaching the city of Alexan-
dria from the sea. Not asingle hill breaks
the monotony of the low, flat coast, yet as
one approaches, he will be stirred at the
thought that this is the land of the Pha-
raohs, that out of this land Moses led the
Israelites, guided by a cloud by day and
a pillar of fire by night, that here Jacob
came and Joseph welcomed his brethren.
But our reveries are broken as we approach
the shore, for crowds of Arabs, Turks and
natives surrounds us in their boats each
one anxious to carry off a passenger or
two, and they besiege us in a way that
makes the methods of our own hackmen
Old Alexandria was founded by Alex-
The Great, about 322 B. C., and
contained the Jewish, the Egyptian and
the Greek quarters. Here was gathered
the learned men of an early day and the |
furnish 25,000 Coolies to labor upon it.
One of the sights of Algiers, is the
cemetery where the women go to pray and
wail in true Eastern style over departed
relatives. They often pray to trees and in
many places these trees are so well-known
But let us to
the cities of Africa for our next lesson.â€
as to be called sacred trees,
city became the seat of learning as well as
of commerce. Here were gathered the
manuscripts that made the Alexandrian
Library the largest of its day and what
was lost by its burning the world will
Magnificent public buildings, temples
and houses marked its two principal streets,
when the city was in its glory, but now
have fallen sadly in decay.
Modern Alexandria stands partly on
what was the isle of Pharos, but mostly on
the isthmus which joins it to the mainland.
This isthmus, by the way, was once but a
narrow dyke built for easy access to the
island, but by constant accumulations it
has become a site for the greater part of
the new city.
In the Turkish quarter the streets are
narrow, filthy and irregular and the houses
mean and poorly built. The European
quarter; however appears quite like a
modern city with its paved streets, well
business portion is built around the Grand
built shops, its water and its gas.
Square, provided with trees, seats, walks
and a fine fountain at each end. In the
suburbs are handsome villas surrounded
by beautiful gardens.
But few relics of old Alexandria remain.
â€œ4 ride, of one hundred and fifty miles
by rail, takes us from Alexandria to Cairo,
the capital of Egypt. Built partly upon
the plain and partly on the lower slopes of
the adjacent mountains, we stop at the
latter and from the ramparts of the citadel
obtain our first view of this ancient city.
Standing on the walls of the fortress two
hundred feet above the city, the sight is
one of magnificence and beauty. Below
us stand out the strongly built walls and
towers, the gardens and squares, the
palaces and mosques, the domes and min-
arets with their delicate carvings and fan-
tastic tracery. The broad river studded
with islands and the valley of the Nile
dotted with groves form an artistic back-
ground, while in the north the pyramids
raise their heads in silent majesty and on
the east there are barren, cliffs backed by
an ocean of sand.
THE STORY OF AFRICA.
Catacombs, the old lighthouse, and one of
The Necropolis, Pompeys
Cleopatras Needles still attest the great-
ness of the ancients. The city has a fine
harbor and is conected with Cairo and the
cotton districts by short railways.
On its streets we hear strange tongue,
and see every race known to the world.â€
Formerly, Cairo was little better than a
labyrinth of winding lanes, low, ill built
houses and narrow unpaved streets swept
by constant clouds of dust blown from
huge mounds of rubbish outside the walls,
but modern ideas have made themselves
felt, and new streets have been cut through,
along which are shops and houses quite in
keeping with our own cities. In the cen-
ter, what was once a wild waste has been
transformed into the principal square of
the city with trees and walks and a lovely
lake in the center. The houses of the city
form a striking contrast. The poorer
classes live in miserable mire hovels with
filthy courts, dilapidated windows and
tattered awnings, while those of the wealthy
are built tastefully with windows shaded
by projecting cornices and ornamented
with stained glass. A winding passage
leads through an ornamented passage to
THE STORY OF AFRICA. 61
an open court with a fountain in its midst
Above the center
of the fountain hangs a decorated lantern
shaded by palm trees.
which sheds a soft light on the surround-
ings. The sides are inlaid with rare
cabinets and richly stained windows, while
in a recess near by isa low cushioned
seat running around the sides on which to
sit. The upper story contains the harem
into which we can not penetrate. Cairo
is a city of mosques, these being nearly
four hundred old and new, though many
are now but ruins of former splendor.
Some of the mosques in use date back to
the ninth century, and you may imagine
their architecture is ancient.
It has a varied commerce but mainly of
goods in transit such as ivory, hides, gum,
ostrich feathers for the interior, cotton and
sugar from upper Egypt, indigo and
shawls from Persia, sheep and _ tobacco
from Asiatic Turkey, and manufactured
articles from Europe. Cairo has a number
of factories of its own including a paper
mill, cotton factories, sugar refineries, gun
powder, leather and silk factories.
The climate is hot, the mortality high,
and strange, to relate the greatest number
both remember our day on Midway Plais-
of deaths is from consumption.
ance at the Worldâ€™s Fair and cur visit to
â€œThe Streets in Cairoâ€? where we saw the
people as they are at home. Put your
experience there with what I have told
you and you will have the foundation for
a fair knowledge of this old city.â€
Nee for the story of Tangier which
QO I promised some time agoâ€ said
Mr. Gray. â€œAs one approaches the
city of Tangier from the sea, he is im-
pressed with its venerableness and its im-
posing appearance, rising gradually as it
does from the waterâ€™s edge to the summit
of the hills on which it is built. It sug-
gests a vast amphitheater, with its sur-
second oldest town in the world, we ap-
rounding walls and ancient castle.
proach it wondering what it has to offer.
As our ship drops anchor, we enter the
small boats and are met by a group of stal-
wart Moors who carry us ashore on their
our party laugh and joke at the grotesque
Each one astride his human horse,
appearance but are landed safely.
We have wanted to see samething for-
eign, something that would not remind us
of any other land. We have found it. We
recall the pictures we have seen of it, but
they have not told half the story. We
must go back to the weird fancies of the
is a city swarming with a motley humanity
Arabian Nights to realize it as it is.
packed and jammed within a massive stone
wall, built more than a thousand years ago.
The houses look like square white monu-
ments; they are all whitewashed, no cor-
nice, flat on top, built with thick stone
walls, and one or-two stories high. The
doors are arched, the floors of some are
laid of many colored flagstones, porcelain
squares, red tiles and broad bricks that
Within the Moorish
houses no Christian can enter, so we wisely
time can not wear.
The streets swarm with Bedouins of the
desert, Moors, whose history goes back of
recorded fact, swarthy mountaineers, neg-
roes as black as night, howling dervishes,
Arabs from many tribes, but no men from
The dress is as
stands a Moor, stately erect, in a monstrous
our own race are seen.
strange and varied as the people.
white turban, a fancy embroidered jacket,
asash of crimson and gold wound round
and round his waist, trousers that come
only to the knees, yet have yards and yards
of cloth in them, bare shins, feet without
stockings, encased in yellow slippers, an
ornamental scimitar at his side, and a gun
of ridiculous length upon his shoulder.
With the pomp of an emperor, he is only a
soldier. Near by are aged Moors with long
white beards, flowing robes of white and
vast cowls. There are Bedouins with long
striped cloaks, mountaineers with heads
clean shaven except a scalp lock something
like our own Indians of yore. Here are
Jews in coarse blue frocks, reaching to the
feet, sashes about their waists, slippers on
their feet, little scull caps upon their heads,
hair combed down upon their foreheads,
and cut square across from side to side,
and all looking alike. Moorish women en-
veloped in coarse white robes from heacl to
foot, and whose sex can be determined only
by the fact that one eye is visible; nor can
they look at men of their own race in pub-
lic, or be looked at by them. Peasant
women with the all prevailing white robe |
and white head-dress ill fitting, dresses |
some white, and some colored, bare feet,
bare arms, and oh, so wretched looking.
It is a funny old town, yet we do not
laugh and jest for we feel its antiquity and
reverence old age. We come upon a crum-
bling wall, old when our Saviour walked
the earth, wpon a ragged dirty negro filling
his goatskin with water from a time stained
fountain built by the Romans, twelve hun-
dred years ago, upon the ruins of the docks
where he loaded his ships with grain, when
he invaded Britain fifty years before the
Christian era. Evidences of antiquity,
relics hoary with age, are on every hand.
The streets are crooked, narrow; some
are three feet wide, some are six, only a
few over twelve feet. Curious little stores
line the street. The keeper be he mer-
chant, shoemaker, or seller of curiosities, sits
cross-legged on the floor and reaches any
article you may want. On market day, the
market is alive with Caravans from the in-
terior arriving with fruit and nuts and grain
and bread and huge bouquets. The ven-
ders crowd the place with great baskets of
ripe figs, luscious dates, juicy melons,
tempting apricots, while among them file
trains of heavy laden donkeys, no larger
than a calf. The money lenders are there,
counting bronze coins, and transferring
them from one basket to another. Every
thing seems cheap, the money in small de-
nominations, silver and gold rarely used.
No peasant or small dealer can aspire to
the ownership of a dollar at one time.
The Moors despise the Christians, yet
they tolerate them. No Christian is al-
lowed to enter a Moorish Mosque; were this
to happen it would never be fit for a Moor
to worsnip in again. Curious customs pre-
vail. Marriages are entered into by the
parents of the parties to it. The young
man takes the wife his father selects for
him, marries her and her veil is lifted and
he sees her for the first time.
Mothers carry their children in sacks at
CARAVAN OF CAMELSâ€”MOROCCO
their backs like other savages. Negroes
_are held as slaves, but when a male slave
learns to read the first chapter of the Koran
(the Mohammedan Bible) he is free.
The Moorâ€™s Sabbath comes on Friday.
About noon he goes to his mosque, removes
his shoes at the door, performs his ablu-
tions, makes his bow, presses his forehead
to the pavement many times, says his pray-
Crime is treated
aman steals cattle his right hand and left
ers and goes back to work.
severely. Murderers are put to death.
leg are cut off and nailed up in the market
place as a warning. Though the victim of
this operation generally dies, no torture can
wring a cry from him.
On market day, the town swarms with
beggars, cripples, dwarfs, human monstros-
ities. They lie upon the ground and cry
out for alms ; they crawl about under foot,
stretch out their skinny hands, even lay
hold of you and demand assistance.
horrible, disgusting, pitiful.
draw crowds about them and perform won-
derful ferts of magic. Snake charmers
with their shiny pets, beguile the groups
of men and women with their revolting
ways. Poisonous serpents are handled with
apparent fearlessness, the people applaud,
the snake charmer asks for his reward and
seeks other fields.
The pride and joy of the Moorâ€™s life is to
make a pilgrimage to Mecca. He who does
this is entitled to high honor. The passage
costs from ten to twelve dollars, yet this
sum is beyond the reach of all but few.
They take their food with them. The trip
takes six months. From the time they leave
to the time they return to their own homes
they neither-wash nor change their clothes.
A Moor returning from his pilgrimage is
Consul is about the only American there
not a particularly presentable object.
and his lot isa lonely one. No newspapers
to keep him in touch with the rest of the
world, no amusement outside his own home,
no business to occupy his time. The ar-
rival of an American tourist is hailed with
joy. Time is measured by the arrival of
mail steamers. When one departs, the
next is anxiously awaited. An American
here is in exile.
The old town has much to interest us for
aday. Weare glad that we have seen it,
to have witnessed life as it was centuries
ago, for Tangier to-day is the same as Tan-
gier a thousand years ago, but we bid thÂ»
old town good-bye without a regret, in our
anxiety to reach civilization once more.â€
Here there are no carriages, no carts or
no conveyances of any kind. When one
rides it must be on the back of a donkey.
SNAKE CHARMER, TANGIER.
THE STORY OF ASIA.
Â« ET your geography again, child-
ren,â€ said papa one evening after
dinner, â€œâ€˜and let see what
there is of interest in the largest of the
continents.â€ Tom ran for the geography
and bringing it we turned to the map of
Asia. â€œHere,â€ said papa, â€˜â€œwe have the
largest of the grand divisions of the earth,
of the 51 millions of square miles of land
on the earthâ€™s surface, Asia alone occupies
In Asia nature seems to have done
VALLEY OF TISTANâ€”HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS.
THE STORY OF ASTA. 69
everything on a large scale. The largest
table-lands and the highest mountains are
here, while the rivers vie in size with the
Amazon and the Nile.
The Himalaya Mountains raise in rug-
ged grandeur until snow capped peaks
2,000 feet in height are but common place
affairs, while the culminating peak is
reached in Mount Everest, 29,000 feet
above the level of the sea.
This great table-land of Thibet, which
you see here has an elevation of 15,000
feet, and as a result the climate is too cold
for the best development. Here the peo-
From this table-
land the country slopes in each direction
to the sea, North, East and South. Mighty
rivers drain these vast tracts, finding a
ple live mostly in huts.
never failing source in the snow capped
mountains of the interior, then flowing
TENTS OF CHIEFS OF LASSAâ€”THIBET.
70 THE STORY OF ASIA.
into the Arctic, three into the Indian, and
two into the Pacific Ocean.
In Asia is every climate known to man,
while all the plants of temperate zones
grow in profusion. Its animals embrace
a greater variety than any other continent,
while the birds of India include almost
every known species. Were we able to
take in all Asia at a glance, what reflect-
jons would arise. Here in China we find
a people whose history is lost in the dim
past. For 4,000 years their history is
written. Here, 500 years before Christ,
Confucius lived and taught a religion
whose devotees to-day outnumber those of
any other faith.
Here was the great wall that shut out
marauding hordes and here the people live
to-day as they did 2,000 years ago. A
penny a day will support a man and the
happy possessor of $200 can retire from
work and live a life of ease and luxury.
The architecture is different from that
of any other country. Is usually very
gaudy and quite imposing. In the picture
you will notice the merchantâ€™s club. Here
the business men hold their councils, dis-
cuss topics of the day and enjoy their
banquets in great pomp, even as we do in
our own country.
Here, in the South, is India, where
mothers cast their infant babes into the
jaws of crocodiles to appease the wrath of
every son must be what his father before
Here the power of caste is felt and
him has been.
Here the shepherds wel-
comed the manger-born baby at Bethlehem.
Here lived the gentle, thoughtful Christ
child who grew to manhood and gave a
new commandment, â€˜love one another,â€™ to
mankind. Galilee and Gethsemane,â€”pre-
cious names. Then we see the trial before
THE STORY OF ASIA. 71
Pilate and hear the Jews cry â€˜crucify him,
crucify him,â€™ and the life of a Christ goes
out that men may live. From this spot
have gone forth influences that yet shall
bring the world to God.
Babylon and Ninevah, Tyre and Sidon
tell us of empires rent asunder, of dynas-
ties crumbled into dust. And here in the
far north is Siberia, the living tomb of
these who incur the ill will of the Czar of
Russia. He who enters here an exile,
endures horrors incredible, privations,
and trials that imagination cannot paint.
And here in Arabia the fierce untamed
Bedouin roams in search of pastures for
his flock or lies in wait for some passing
caravan that will give him gold and plun-
der for his insatiate thirst for spoil.
The inhabitants of Corea are very much
like the Japanese, and their children in
like manner are taught to labor and act
< ene eal
as beasts of burden in carrying loads.
The picture on the following page is taken
from life and you will notice how young
these children are taught to labor.
A passing glance is all that we can
obtain of this vast continent, so let us on
to one of its cities ere the evening closes,â€™
THE STORY OF ASIA.
TOKIO, A JAPANESE CITY.
â€œFancy yourself in a Japanese city if
Out in the harbor lazily float
merchantmen and men of war from France,
England and America, looking strangely
out of place with the queer junks of the
natives and the Japanese gunboats. The
streets are well paved and inviting, yet we
see no drays | 2
drawn by horses
as we passalong.
carried by cool-
ies; they are the
beasts of burden
loads, their sad
air awaken pity;
cles, their easy
As we pass up the street we see little
Jap girls at play. Their baby brothers and
sisters strapped on their backs laugh-
ing or cooing in high glee or sleeping
quietly in spite of the boisterous play of
their little nurses. Little tots of two years
have dolls slung upon their shoulders in
imitation of their elders. Yonder comes
a man carrying a queer looking outfit. He
is the griddle cake man and the children
run to meet him. He carries astove anda
The children dip the butter
jar of butter.
on the griddle
cake and eat it,
give him a
penny and he
passes on. Then
we see the boil-
ed sugar man,
He carries a jar
of boiling syrup
and endless lit-
tle molds of
dolls, cats, kites
molds as the
x them and drives
a busy trade
wear wooden shoes and make a great clat-
as long as the pennies last.
ter as they play upon the streets. On enter
ing a house they remove the shoes and we
see their stocking have a compartment for
THE STORY OF ASIA. 73
the great toe like the thumb to a mitten.
This gives them the use of that toe, and
the use which the Japs make of their feet
in handling tools is surprising.
Passing along the street a shop-keeper
invites us to enter his rooms. Here are
work boxes of unique design, costly rugs,
delicate pottery and ivory. In the rear,
cut off by movable screens, are the living
rooms of the family. The good wife
greets us kindly, motions us to seats, then
crouches at our feet and shows pictures
and other works of art. Next we enter a
restaurant, seat ourselves at.a small table
on which are dainty cups of finest porce-
lain. The proprietor bustles about to
serve us, filling our cups again and again
We pay him
till we can drink no more.
five cents for thirty cups and depart.
When tired of walking we can not take
a street car or a hack but call a Jinrikisha,
a queer, two-wheeled cart drawn by a
Jap. We get in and the Jap trots off with
What if our steed
But no fear of that.
The Japs urge the men along with shouts
us like a real horse.
should run away!
and cries if he does not move fast enough
to suit them, for the Jinrikisha man is
ireated like a horse. These little carts are
quite thick upon the streets and are patro-
Here also in Japan is located the vol-
cano of Fujyama called the sacred moun-
tain of Japan.
We leave the city at last more grate-
ful than ever that our lot is cast among
VOLCANO OF FUJYAMAâ€”JAPAN.
â€˜14 THE STORY OF ASIA.
THE STORY OF ASIA.
THE CITY OF CEYLON.
Notice on your map what a small
island Ceylon looks to beâ€”it is not as
small as it looks.
Notice in the picture where the natives
are gathering dates from the date palm
tree. The women do much of the work.
They wear but little clothing and need but
little, as the country is very warm. These
people have considerable intelligence and
while they have a crude religion they are
slowly making a little headway in the way
â€œAt the Worldâ€™s Fair,â€ said Tom,
â€œthese people showed great originality
and their buildiug was one of the nicest
there, although not the most expensive. It
was simply made, but very neat.â€ â€œYes,â€
said papa, â€œand at the Worldâ€™s Congress
of Religions, these people took an active
part. In fact, their representative was a
bright, intelligent thinker and although
blacker than our negroes of the South,
was considered by all one of the finest
Pesaae ed po.
A NOBLE PHILOSOPHER.
Â® MONG the ruins of Athens, which
bring back to us the noble men
who once lived there, is the tomb
where Socrates drank the hemlock. This
great man was born about 470 B.C. He
received the customary training of . the
early Athenian youth, and later studied
geometry and astronomy. These studies
combined with his natural talent gave him
the power of clear reasoning which after-
gan life as a sculptor, and so wonderfully
ward made him so widely known.
successful was he in this that 600 years
after his death the Acropolis contained a
group supposed to be his work, called â€œThe
Graces.â€ He was a powerful but a new
thinker. He believed that he was called
by the gods to teach mankind that â€œignor-
ance must not be mistaken for knowledge,â€
so he abandoned art and devoted himself
to his chosen work. Educators and teach-
ers to-day use the â€œSocrates Method,â€
which leads the pupil by a series of judi-
cious: questions to discover facts for
He, like all citizens, served the state as
a soldier, and was noted for his endurance,
bravery andâ€˜obedience. Later in life he
became a member of the Senate, though
here he did not aspire to political honor,
asserting that the divine voice which
guided him had other work for him to do.
It is said of him that on one occasion he
refused to obey the orders of the ruling
council, known as â€œThe Thirty,â€ when re-
quested to bring before them a nobleman
whom, without just reason, they wished to
put to death.
He was one of the most moral men of
his age, and is to-day considered the nearest
like Christ of any man who preceded him,
and yet, when 71 years old he was arrested
on the charge of being an offender against
morality; his accusation read: â€œSocrates
is guilty, first, of denying the gods recog-
nized by the state and of introducing a
new God; second, of corrupting the young.â€
At his trial he amazed his friends by defy-
ing his accusers and claiming that his
labors entitled him not to punishment, but
to a reward as a public benefactor and to
maintenance at the cost of the state.
78 A.NOBLE PHILOSOPHER.
offered to pay a fine of one mina, or four-
teen dollars, which, at the entreaties of his
friends, he raised to thirty minas, but ap-
peared so indifferent that his death was
decreed by the judges. He was imprisoned
in a tomb made for the purpose in the side
of the hill opposite the Parthenon; here he
All this time
great crowds flocked in front of the cell
was held for thirty days.
and listened to his teachings. He argued
that a wise man will meet death unflinch-
ingly. At the expiration of the time, he
was handed a cup bearing a decoction of
deadly hemlock, which he drank without a
tremor and then died. Later ages have
given him the honor he deserves, and now
he ranks as one of the ablest and noblest
of the old Greek Philosophers.
&YQETâ€™S have a night in Europe, Papa,â€
said Tom after we had studied
Asia and had learned so many
â€œT am glad to have my
interesting things about it.
ure,â€ said Papa.
children so anxious to know what they can
of other countries. Here is the map, and
by observing it very carefully we can see
that it differs from the others in many
It is the smallest of the Conti-
nents, being but little larger than the
United States and only one-fifth the size
continents it is the second in importance.
Though the smallest of the
THE MATTERHORNâ€”ALPS MOUNTAINS.
80 THE STORY OF EUROVE.
On its soil have occurred changes fraught | the Persian hosts and saved Europe from
with momentous results to the human race. | civilization of the Orient. Later the
Fierce wars for supremacy have been | Roman Legions invaded Gaul and all the
waged here. Here the Greeks beat back | countries bordering on the Mediterranean
THE STORY OF EVROPE. 81
and forced them to acknowledge Rome .as
the â€œMistress of the World.â€ And they in
turn dizzy with success fell an easy prey
to their own excesses and the savage Huns
and Goths who swept down from the
North with relentless fury. Here too was
waged the battle between the Moor and
Christian, the Crescent and the Cross,
which ended only when the battle of Tours
had left the Moslem hordes crushed and
almost annihilated. Here too Charle-
magne was crowned on the eventful Christ-
mas, 898, and gave the first strong impulse
to modern Europe; here William the Con-
queror won the battle of Hastings and
changed the destiny of nations; Here the
barons forced wicked King John to sign
Magna Charta and laid the foundations of
liberty and law in America. Here Luther
defied the honor of Popes, and here
Napoleon sought to found one universal
Empire with headquarters in France.
82 THE STORY
The land of Chaucer and of Spencer,
of Pope and of Shakespeare, of Milton and
of Burns, of Scott and of Byron, of
Tennyson and of Dickens, its history is
the history of Eastern civilization. No
land will better repay careful study.
In the South we see the Alps towering
high in air and trending east until they
join the Asiatic ranges of which they are
The highest peak is Mt. Blanc,
some 15,700 feet in height. while its com-
panion Mt. Rosa reaches nearly the same
altitude. Here we find the noted Matter-
hornâ€”the place of resort. ,
To ascend the peaks is the aspiration
South of the
Alps the warm winds from the tropics
of every Alpine traveler.
give us a climate mild and healthful while
the blue skies of Italy. are the finest in the
world. In the far North conditions change
for here King Winter reigns supreme and
the greater part of the year covers the
land with snow and ice. In Russia, too,
the winters are severe, but elsewhere the
climate in the lowland is milder than our
own in Illinois.
Closely connected with European His-
tory is the once noted City of Athens.
More than any other people that ever lived
the Athenians loved music, poetry, elo-
quence and all the arts of expression.
The Acropolis, built in her greatness is an
imposing structure and shows an Athenian
Citadel of glory.
In commerce, Europe leads the world.
The iron, steel, cottons and woolens of
England, the wines and silks of France,
the furs and wheat of Russia and the
fruits of the South, easily place it first in
this respect. Its dense population with
its enexhaustible supplies of coal and iron
fit it for manufacturing, but sad to say,
the working people are poorly paid in
comparison with our own.
From Spain comes the greater part of
as you may know is the bark of a species
the cork used so freely everywhere.
of evergreen oak found in Spain and north-
ern Africa. The tree grows only thirty
feet high. The first cutting occurs when
the tree is about twenty years old. Two
cuts are made around the tree, one at the
ground, the other just below the main
branches. Between these. three or four
incisions are made and the cork carefully
removed. The first stripping is of no
value except for tanning, the second is
used for floats, but after that the cork can
be used for various purposes, growing bet-
are stripped once in eight or ten years and
ter with succeeding cuttings.
live and thrive for about 150 years under
this process. After scraping and cleaning
it is heated and flattened and is then ready
But let us to the cities of
Europe, and see what items of interest we
can find there. First, we will go to Lon-
YHE STORY OF EUROPE. 83
THE CITIES OF EUROPE.
â€œ ONDON,â€ said papa, â€œis a great
city of unusual interest to all loy-
~ers of travel. It is not only
the metropolis of England and the chief
town of thÃ© British Empire, but it is the
metropolis of the world, Situated as it is,
on both banks of the river Thames, and at
the head of the greatest Empire of the
world, it is not only a large commercial,
but a great jmancial centre.
The City occupies a County, in itself,
and is governed by a Lord Mayor, twenty-
six Aldermen and two hundred and six
London is the home of Queen Victoria,
and here, too, are located the great Houses
of Parliament. There are twelve bridges
besides the railroad bridges that cross the
Thames from one part of the City to the
84 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
The City is said to have the finest Parks
in the worldâ€”St. James, which is the
result of accident, rather than intention,
occupies eighty acres and has been trans-
formed from a swamp into a romantic and
beautiful deer park. It has a bowling
green, tennis courts and all kinds of pleas-
It is upon this Park that
â€œBuckingham Palace,â€ the town home of
Queen Victoria fronts.
The most beautiful park in the world is
Hyde Park. It has nine principal gate-
ways, fine expensive grass, bright flower
beds, noble old trees, and a beautiful lake,
called the serpentine. It has broad drives,
filled with equipages, walks lined with
thousands of loungers, and it has what is
called the Rotten Row, a street alive with
equestrians. In the height of season,
Hyde Park presents a scene which has a
brilliancy without a parallel. For drama,
London has thirty theatres; for music, a
greater number of eminent professors than
any other city on the globe; for painting,
sculpture and artâ€”the Royal Academy of
Fine Arts is most influential. In churches
London stands at the head. St. Paulâ€™s
Cathedral, known all over the world, was
forty years in building, and is said to be
large enough to contain the â€˜ utmost con-
ceivable multitude of worshippers.â€™
Westminister Abbey, on account of its
having the coronation court of the Soy-
ereigns, from the time of Harold down to
the present day, and because of its prox-
imity to the English Government, has ac-
quired a fame and importance that will
The Royal Pal-
ace, and the Government Building, are
outlive even St. Paulâ€™s.
among the wonders of London. Bucking-
ham Palace, the town residence of Queen
Victoria, was erected 1825. It contains
many beautiful rooms, among them the
ball room, and a picture gallery said to be
the finest in the world. The Houses of
Parliament cover an area of eight acres.
Here in London Shakespeare lived, at
the close of Queen Elizabethâ€™s reign, and
introduced her streets and people into his
One could remain in this great city
an unlimited time and still not feel that
it is almost bed time and I will simply add
justice had been done to its places.
that in the evening this city presents a
At the close of
each day the Londoners make a grand
most striking appearance.
rush from the business center to the out-
skirts of the city, there to enjoy the re-
freshment, rest and retirement the country
affords, and partake of the beauties of na-
ture. These suburbs of the city are among
the most beautiful in the world. There
has just been completed a new underground
electric railway which is the only one of
its kind in the world and it is a great help
to the working people in getting out to
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 85
A LITTLE ABOUT VIENNA.
F all the strictly modern cities of the
old world, chief among them is
Vienna,â€ said Papa one day on his
â€œWhy so?â€ said
Alice, â€œI thought Vienna was a very large
return from Europe.
German city with lots of poor working
women and very little beauty, architecture,
or grace about it.â€ â€œWell you are very
much mistaken,â€ said Papa, â€œFor in all
my travels, I never saw a city that has such
EMPEROR FRANZ JOSEPH, OF AUSTRIA.
86 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
beautiful public buildings, such handsome
women, and so much style as this queen of
Austrian cities. Located as it is on an arm
of the Danube, with mountains all around,
and containing as it does the residence of
the Emperor, you can imagine that not
from the time we left Church of St. Step-
hen until we returned to our hotel, every
thing was a bewildering show. First we
passed an Imperial palace which has been
a residence of the Austrian Princes since
the 183th Century. Around the outside are
: ee <
only the nobility live in elegant palaces,
but a long line of wealthy ancestry whose
mansions are little less than castles, and
whose gorgeous turnouts make of this an
Our first day there, we took a drive, and
niches in the wall, and in these niches are
life size pieces of statuary, some allegor-
ical figures and others from real life.
Further on comes the Imperial Library
with over 400,000 volumes, 20,000 MSS, ~
and 12,000 volumes of music. What here
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 87
interested me most was a case in which Further on comes the Historical Mus-
was contained a purple parchment with | eum, Rathhaus, or City Hall, The Royal
silver and gold letters of the 6th Century, | Theatre, Houses of Parliament, which were
being fragments of the Gospels. designed in the Greek style by Hansen,
Next we visited the Capuchin Church | and the Maria Theresa Platz, or square, as
which contains the Imperial
vaults. Here are buried the
noted dead. Among the cask-
ets we saw those of Maria The-
resa, probably the best belov-
ed of all Austrian Sovereigns,
who ruled 41 years; Marie
Louise, second wife of Napo-
leon and her son, Emperor fF
Maximilian of Mexico; and f
many others, all of which
were covered with fresh flow- |
Then we reached the Ring-
Strasse, the main Boulevard
of the city, sixty-two yards
wide, and so named because
it circles the city like a ring.
Apart from the buildings
erected by speculators, it is [E
architecturally one of the fin-
est streets in Europe.
Among the most beautiful .
churches is the Votive church
of pure Gothic style, which Fe
was erected in memory of the
THE HANDSOMEST WOMAN IN VIENNA.
Emperorâ€™s escape from assas-
sination in 1853. It is adorned with 78 | we would say in America, and in the center
stained glass windows. rises the Maria Theresa Monument, forty-
88 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
three feet in height, of bronze and marble,
erected in 1888, representing her as she
there are the Museums, etc., which makes
appeared at the age of thirty-five.
the city interesting indeed. It was our
good fortune to be able to sit near the
MARIA THERESA MONUMENT, VIENNA.
Royal tent, and thus had a good oppor-
tunity of viewing the court, and chief
among them was the Emperor Franz Jos-
eph, at a horse tournament one pleasant
day in June.
The Emperor is straight and active, but
â€˜| feeble looking, and it
was almost with a feel-
ing of pity that we
looked up at him when
the crowds cheered.
We saw though when
the blooded horses
were brought out, that
our pity was wasted,
for he enjoyed it most
Here, too, was
and many other ladies
of the Royal Family.
This was a day never
to be forgotten and I
thought of you Tom,â€
said Papa, â€œFor you
are fond of horses and
*| would have enjoyed
| the display even more
e| than myself.â€ I never
| saw finer horses, and
as all of them belong-
ed to the Royal Fami-
ly, you can imagine
| that the equipments
~ are as fine as possible
to make them.
â€˜THE STORY OF EUROPE. 89
THE CITY OF VENICE.
â€œLondon is the largest, but Venice the | to place, are obliged to depend upon the
most beautiful city in the world,â€ said | boats. This makes the place picturesque
papa. â€œHere the streets are not of gravel, | and beautiful beyond description. There
as you might imagine, but shining water, | are all styles of boats, all sizes and all
and the people, in going about from place | prices. Processions, parades, and in fact,
90 THE STORY OF EHUROPE.
all life is carried on by this means of
transportation. â€œGondolaâ€ is the name
applied to the favorite passenger boat. It
is long, narrow, and fancy; is paddled over
the water by men dressed in true foreign
sailor fashion. The freight vessels are
brought direct to the warehouse, at which
place the people unload their merchandise
as easily as though they were wagons
drawn by horses. The mirth, noise and
music of the city is re-echoed time and
again, back and forth, on the beautiful
waters. The sunlight, moonlight, life, act-
ivity and shadows are reflected as in a
The hotels are constantly filled
with tourists who come and come again to
view this enchanted spot. Some day we
must all visit this wonderful city and then
my children will be glad of the study we
have given this place,â€ said papa, for it is
one of the charmed spots of the earth and
will live in ones memory forever
VIEW OF THE ITALIAN COAST,
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 91
THE CITY OF GENOA.
~Lell us about Genoa, papa,â€ said Tom,
who had been to the Worldâ€™s Fair and had
taken a deep interest in the old convent of
La Rebida, â€œbecause it was the home of
Columbus.â€ â€œTI shall never forget,â€ said
papa, â€œmy first sight of Genoa. As we
approached the city, late one bright after-
noon, superb Genoa lifted her hundred
sun-crowned domes and spires high above
As we neared the coast the
the blue sea.
whole seemed one blaze of glory.
sun went down the splendor slowly faded.
Genoa is a city of churches, and massive
buildings; relics of the days when her ships
filled the Mediterranean and _ enriched
with all the treasures of the East.
The streets are narrow, poorly kept, full
of bad smells and thronged with idlers
On the whole, Genoa is disappointing to
the visitor, suggesting only a past great-
ness with no hope for the future.â€
92 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
CITY OF PARIS.
â€œFrom Genoa to Paris is something of
a jump,â€ said papa, â€œbut there are so
many beautiful things to be seen there
that we will take a hurried run through
this, the most beautiful city of the world.
Paris covers an area of thirty square miles
and has a population of two millions, so
you will see that it ranks among the first
cities of the globe. Through it flows the
Seine like a silver thread. Twenty-eight
bridges span this river, making passage
from side to side easy. Its parks, boule-
CITY OF PARIS.
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 98
vards and squares are the finest in the | the obelisk of Luxor, a single block of
world and in the turbulent history of | reddish granite, 76 feet high, presented
France have played important parts. The | to Louis Philippe by Mohammed Ali.
Place De La Concorde is regarded as the | Here the guillotine did its bloody work
most beautiful of all. In the center rises | during the French Revolution and here
foreign troops have encamped when Paris | eline to the Bastile. The Madeline is a
was in their power. The great boulevards | famous church planned by Louis XV. in
are a splendid line of streets on the north | 1764. The revolution found it unfinished
side of the Seine, reaching from the Mad- | and Napoleon ordered it to be completed
94 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
as Temple of Glory. Napoleon fell and
Louis XVIII returned to the old plan of
making itachurch. It was finally finished
in 1824 at an expense of $2,500,000. It
stands on a basement, surrounded by mass-
ive Corinthian columns. It is built wholly
of stone, is destitute of windows and lighted
by skylights in the roof.
Among its finest buildings are the Opera
House, covering nearly three acres, costing
$10,000,000, and to which all Europe con-
tributed from its quarries. The Royal
Palace, built by Richelieu in 1634; the
Cathedral of Notre Dame, completed in
the 13th century; the Palace of Justice,
given by Charles the VIII, in 1431, to the
Parliament, and the Louvre Buildings, con-
taining the finest collection of paintings,
sculpture, bronzes and antiquities known.
But do not think that these old buildings
lack in beauty or finish, for such is not the
The Holte Des Invalides was built for
aged veterans in 1670, by Louis XTV, and
Attached to this
is a church surmounted by the famous
gilded dome, Des Invalides, 240 feet high,
which can be seen at a great distance.
covers thirty-one acres.
The July Column, erected in honor of
the heroes who fell in the Revolution of
1830, rises to the height of 154 feet and
is much noted. The Vendome Column,
142 feet high and surmounted by a statue
of Napoleon Ist, was built by him to com-
It is decorated
with figures to represent memorable scenes
metal from which it was made was obtain-
ed by melting 12,000 Russian and Aus-
memorate his victories.
in his wars with Russia and Austria.
But rising high above
everything else in Paris is the famous Hif-
fel Tower. This has three platforms; the
first with its cafes and restaurants; the
second 376 feet from the ground, and the
third, 863 feet. The total height is 985
feet, making it the highest tower in the
world. We might spend weeks in the
beautiful city and then see but a part of
its wonderful sights. Paris of to-day is
one of the most modern cities in every re-
spect.â€™ The government of the city is very
different from most of ours, for there
everything is done for the improvement of
the city. All the municipal works are
built and run on the most improved plans,
and we might well copy some of their
methods with a great advantage to our-
selves. The police and fire systems are
examples, and you know that the under-
ground sewer system of Paris is noted the
world over as standing at the head of any-
thing of the kind for its completeness and
magnificence. Paris is also noted for its
famous cafes that line the principal boule-
vards. But let us defer until another time
our study of Paris.
THE STORY OF EUROPE, 95
THE INDUSTRIES OF SWITZERLAND.
OTHE peasants of Switzerland are a
study to the tourist. Simple, honest,
industrious and frugal they seem
The Swiss milk
wagon is an entirely different affair from
content with their lot.
the one we see in our American cities. It
is a two wheeled vehicle usually carrying
is not the rich, wholesome product we find
in the Swiss cities and among the people
at home. I shall never forget the cool,
rich cup of milk given me one morning by
a young man on his daily rounds with
milk. I wanted to pay him, but he shook
his head, and smiled, seeming as pleased
SWISS MILK WAGON.
two cans. Large, well trained dogs are
harnessed to it and are aided in drawing it
by the milk man himself. The mountain
sides and valleys afford rich pasturage, and
dairying is an important part of the com-
merce. We get Swiss cheese here, but it
You have all
to bestow the gift as I to receive it.
Swiss excel in handwork.
heard of Swiss Watches. These are hand
made, each part delicately adjusted, and
until recent years, ranked as the best.
Their skill in making embroidery is also
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
great. Years of work is often put on a
single handkerchief, each thread being ad-
justed with the utmost care and the deli-
cate design worked out with the greatest
sist the temptation of purchasing a bit of
Your mother even could not re-
this lace, if only for a souvenir.
Besides lace, their skill in carving is
proverbial. On every hand one sees little
boxes, and great chests with mountain
scenes, national emblems, birds, beasts,
and delicate flowers carved upon the panels
with wonderful accuracy. Among these,
perhaps, the most ingenious is the little
clock known as the Cuckoo clock; when it
strikes a little dove appears and says
â€œcuckooâ€ as many times as the hour hand
would indicate. Carving is a pastime, as
well as a means of profit to the peasants
shut up in their homes during the long
winter hours. In the cabinet shops, beds,
tables, chairs and book cases are often seen
entirely hand carved, some articles repre-
senting months of arduous labor.
That the Swiss peasants are contented
and intensely loyal is proved by the fact
that we find so few of them in America.
While every other European country has
contributed largely to our population, too
largely perhaps for our good, you seldom
find a Swiss here, and when you do, you
find an honest, law-abiding, worthy citizen.
Would that we had more of them, but a
contented man stays at home.
DINING HALL, CHRIST CHURCH COLLEGE,
T will not do to leave Europe, with-
out a glance at its many institutions |
the Universities at Cambridge, and Oxford. |
The latter has been brought to the boys |
and girls of our own land by that masterly |
book for boys, â€œTom Brown at Oxfordâ€ |
and is better known perhaps, than any of
independent in a measure, but working in
harmony. They are among the oldest as
Chief among these are |
At Oxford are many colleges, |
well as among the best of English schools.
Student life here has much to commend it
and a graduate of Oxford is noted every-
where for his intense loyalty to his Alma
Among the athletic sports, rowing, foot-
ball, and cricket are the most popular pas-
times and in these events rival Universities
take great pride. The annual boat race
between Oxford and Cambridge is not only
a national but almost
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 97
affair. The day of the race is a holiday
for London, as thousands gather to witness
the race at Henley. Crowds gather to urge
on the crews of their choice by shouts and
the waving of flags and handkerchiefs. In
the evening the victorious crew banquets
the losers and a merry time is had. These
dinners are far different from the daily
college dinners at Oxford.
I secured a photograph of the old dining
hall at Christ Church College, Oxford.
This, a long hall with furniture of the
simplest kind. Plain tables with long,
backless benches fill the floor. These have
been there since the hall was built in the
17th century, and at these tables and upon
these benches the students gather, rich and
poor alike. The son of a lord must sit by
the side of the penniless student working
At these tables
sat Tom Brown whom so many American
his way through college.
boys love. Here sat Gladstone when a
student at Oxford, and here have sat those
who have won fame in science, on the bat-
tle field, in the church and in Parliament.
Though the tables are plain, the walls
are adorned with handsome and valuable
paintings, among which the deans of the
college, from its beginning, and the pat-
rons of the school occupy a prominent
A visit to this hall brings back much of
the glorious past of English history, and
suggests the thought that so long as this
institution in which equality of rich and
poor, noble and low born exists, England
will hold her own among the nations of
DINING HALL, OXFORD,
98 THE STORY OF EUROPE.
STREET SCENES OF ROME.
OT HE streets of Rome afford much of
interest to the traveler. The venders
of milk and butter, of cheese, of cakes
and bread and pies, of fruits, and nuts, and
candies, of crisp shiny vegetables, of flow-
ers arranged in charming bouquets and of
FLOWER GIRL, ROME.
every conceivable thing form a motley
crowd. Whatever their virtues, you may
be sure that timidity is not one of them.
They urge their varied wares upon one in |
a manner that awakens admiration for their
persistence, but contempt for their judg-
ment. The tourist who can have no pos-
sible use for fresh vegetables is drummed
as vigorously as the housewife who pur-
chases them for the mid-day meal.
We must, however, give them credit for
arranging their wares to good advantage.
The dainty pots of butter seem just the
thing for the loaves of fresh bread. Each
little round cheese seems made to go with
one of the tempting cakes; the vegetables
so artistically placed make one hungry, and
the flowersâ€”who shall describe their beauty
and their fragrance, when held out to us by
a dark-skinned, black-haired, bright, Italian
girl, with her quaint, becoming dress, eager
look and musical voice. Some of them are
not averse to turning an honest penny by
the sale of their photographs. Here is one
which we bought to bring home for you.
The city though, swarms with beggars,
who detract from the pleasure of a prom-
enade through the streets. There is, too, a
painful lack of morality among these un-
fortunates, and yet their ignorance is such
that they must be pitied rather than judged
THE STORY OF EUROPE. 99
The Pantheon is the best preserved tem-
ple of ancient Rome now in existence.
Eighteen centuries ago it was the admira-
tion of the world. Its portico still stands,
and is considered a marvel of beauty and
an exceedingly fine specimen of Roman
when Christians triumphed over the bloody
It was built as a Pagan Temple, but
persecutions of paganism, and overturned
all the old altars of the Roman world, it
was converted into a Christian Church and
used as such for many years, but is to-day
the burial place of many noted dead. Here
we saw the tomb of the great artist, Raph-
ael. Here, too, lie the remains of Victor
Emanuel, the adored of the majority of
Italians to-day. The tomb is fairly smoth-
ered by floral wreaths not only from the
city of Rome but from many powerful
nations as well.
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
THE â€œ BRIDGE OF SIGHS.â€
OT HERE stands in the most conspicuous
| place in Venice the home of the
Doges, who were for many centuries
rulers of not only Venice, but the civilized
world. This elegant palace was founded in
the year 800, but has been destroyed five
different times and as often rebuilt, each
time in grander style. The exterior is lined
with small slabs of colored marble, and with
two pointed arcades of 107 columns, 36 be-
low, 71 above. The upper arcade is very
rich and handsome. From between two of
these columns at the principal entrance,
were proclaimed the death sentence of the
Republic. At the top of the flight of steps
leading to the palace the Doges were crown-
ed. The interior of this palace is perhaps
more beautiful than any other of the old
world. The great masters of the 15th and
16th centuries were chiefly engaged in its
decoration. Most of the marble works have
perished, but a few of the paintings still re-
main on the ceilings. The palace now
forms a museum, and in it are placed relics,
curios and such paintings of the old masters
as have been preserved. The ceiling paint-
ings are entirely by Paul Veronese, and, as
Ruskin, says â€œthe traveler who really loves
paintings ought to come to this room when-
ever he chooses, and should pass summer
sunny mornings there again and again.
While all of these ceiling paintings are
beautiful, there is perhaps one that impress-
ed me more than all others, and that is the
one known as â€˜Industry.â€™ This is not only
perfect in design, but the coloring surpasses
anything I have ever seen.â€
It was customary in olden times to have
the residence of the Kings contain not only
the living, reception and sleeping-rooms of
the family, but a chapel and a throne-room
as well. One of the most interesting rooms
in this palace is the ante-chamber of the
three Inquisitors of the Republic. On one
side of this room is an opening which was
formerly adorned with a Lionâ€™s Head in
marble. Ourguide informed us that through
the mouth of this lion secret notices were
thrown into the room of the three Inquisi-
The assembly hall of the Great Council
of this palace is 55 yards long and 26 yards
frieze of this room are the portraits of 76
broad. It is exceedingly fine.
Doges. On the walls are 21 large scenes
from the history of the republic.
From this magnificent palace a narrow
passage leads to the lofty â€œBrip@E oF
Sieus,â€ which connects the palace to per-
haps the most noted prison in the world,
INDUSTRYâ€”DOGES PALACE. VENICE.
noted because of the unparalleled horrors
of Sighs is still in perfect condition, while
which haye taken place there.
a portion of the prison also remains and is
portion of the prison which had the leaden
now used for ordinary criminals.
root was destroyed in 1797. Connected
with the prison is a series of gloomy dun-
THE BRIDGE OF SIGHS, VENICE
THE STORY OF BUROPE.
geons, also the torture chamber. Here too
stands the once famous place of execution
for political criminals. The Bridge of
Sighs is really a means of communication
between the palace and the criminal prison.
It was made famous by Thomas Hoodâ€™s
poem called â€œThe Bridge of Sighs,â€ which
is familiar to all.
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
QUEEN CITY OF THE WORLD.
ROM the wealth of wonderful beauty
* which Paris unfolds to the gaze of
the admiring tourist, what shall I
tell you to-night,â€ said papa in the brief
time allotted us? If we turn to its history,
we are appalled at the vast array of events
which confront us. Cesar found it peopled
by a brave, warlike tribe, but it went down
before the onslaught of the Romans. It
commanded but little notice till 987, when
Hugh Capet made it the capital of the
Kingdom. Then began the building of
famous structures which has continued to
this day. A profligate court taxed the peo-
ple until Revolution set in and its streets
were red with blood. Devastation, chaos,
madness reigned supreme. Monarchy gave
way to a Republican form of Government
only to be succeeded by Monarchy and
that again by a Government by the people.
Were we to glance at its schools and univer-
sities, their excellence and their influence
would stagger us. If we view its art and
architecture, time is too short to more than
glance at the infinite display from the
works of the masters of past and present.
Its streets entrance us with their beauty
and their finish. Its buildings bewilder us
by their splendor. Its shops tempt us with
their artistic arrangement of the product of
human skill. Its people surprise us whether
we look upon the wasteful luxury which
marks the lives of the wealthy, the pinch-
ing poverty which ever abides with the
lowest classes, or the happy carelessness
which sits so lightly upon the great body
Among its handsomest avenues is the
Champs Elysees, stretching from Place de
la Concorde to the Arch of Triumph, a dis-
tance of three miles. This is one of the
favorite streets for promenades and drives.
Stately trees border it the entire length,
their bright, fresh foliage furnishing a
pleasant relief to the gray of the streets.
The work of planting trees receives great
attention at the hands of the city. Every
tree planted along a street costs the city
forty dollars and yet the money is wisely
spent. The streets are kept clean by an
army of workmen with their shovels and
brooms, their carts and baskets. One sees
gay carriages, highbred horses with splen-
did trappings, liveried servants and _aris-
tocracy in force upon this street on a pleas-
ant day, and as evening approaches, the
working classes gather in great numbers to
rest beneath the trees or walk slowly up
The parks of Paris are no less noted than
CHAMPS ELYSEES, PARIS.
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
the streets. In the heart of the city are the
Tuilleres Gardens, comprising seventy-four
acres, handsomely laid and planted with
trees, shrubs and flowers. There are also
the Luxembourg Gardens, somewhat larger,
less regular in form, but presenting a
more varied appearance. The conserva-
tories in connection are noted for their rare
plants. These are the best known of those
in the city proper, but every part of the
connection with this are great city nur-
series where trees are grown for the streets
and gardens which furnish flowers for dec-
orating public buildings on _ holidays.
Beautiful as are these parks, their useful-
ness is even greater. Here is fresh air,
green grass, blooming flowers and shady
trees for all to enjoy and to the poor, pen-
ned up in this great city, their value can-
not be estimated.
AVENUE BOIS de BOULOGNE,
city has its own particular park or play
â€˜The real parks are the Bois de Boulogne
and the Bois de Vincennes, situated outside
of the city proper. The former covers an
area of two thousand one hundred and fifty-
eight acres, one-eight of which is roads, the
rest turf, gardens, ponds and running
streams. The Bois de Vincinnes is the
larger of the two, but not so popular. In
Among the churches of Paris, the Cathe-
dral of Notre Dame is the largest and the
finest. The first stone was laid in 1163
and the building completed sixty years
later. It was rebuilt in the fourteenth
century, modified from time to time, and
restored to its original form as far as pos-
sible during the present century. It is 424.
feet long, 164 feet wide.
is 312 feet high.
The central spire
Two great square towers
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
crown the principal front which, by the
way, is one of the most beautiful that has
come down to us from the Middle Ages.
The Cathedral is richly decorated and as
one gazes upon the chiseled marble, the
exquisite tracing, the beautiful statuary,
the elaborate frescoing and the massive
walls, the thought comes to him that were
this all of Paris, yet would the city be
worthy of a visit by the tourist.
The Grand Opera of Paris is the largest
and finest theater in the world. It covers
two and one-half acres of ground and cost
Seven Million Dollars.
The number of poor make it necessary
for the city to establish a Director of Pub-
lic Charity. The money for this comes
from the revenue of certain estates, sub-
sidies, sale of lots in cemeteries and a tax
of one-tenth the price of all seats sold in
It is said that
the pauper population of Paris numbers
the theaters and concerts.
one-sixteenth of the whole number, there
being localities where they form one-eighth
THE BOURSE, OR
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
of the whole. To care for these requires
an enormous sum of money annually as
you can see. There are also endless private
charities, among which are fifty day nur-
series, where mothers, obliged to work away
from home during the day, may leave their
children. Another evidence of the poverty
of the people is found in the fact:that over
one-half the deaths are in families too poor
to bear the expense of burial and must be
aided by the city. Let us be thankful that
no such condition exists in any of our
American cities, whether North, South,
East or West.
ee how about telling us
one of your stories about Athens,â€
said Grandma Locke, as the chil-
dren, grandchildren, and neighbors were
gathered around the great fire log, at her
house on Thanksgiving evening.
â€œYes,â€ chimed in all voices, â€œTom tells
stories as naturally as though he had done
nothing else all his life.â€ â€œ And now begin
right away Tom,â€ said Esther Clark who
had never heard a story on Athens, and
who was alittle in doubt whether or not,
she would like it, so thought the quicker it
was over the better.
â€œWell, once upon a time,â€ said Tom,
Â« Athens was the greatest city of the world.
By great, I mean she possessed more learn-
ing, had finer masters in art and architec-
ture, and built some of the most wonderful
temples to false gods that the world has
ever seen. Chief among these temples is
the Parthenon, built four hundred years
before the time of Christ, around which
were carved the most beautiful figures and
statues ever known. It is supposed that
Phidias, the greatest sculptor of all times
did this work. The Parthenon was built
on a high plateau and is the most conspic-
uous place in Athens, even to-day, not-
withstanding the fact that it is in ruins.
The different nations which warred upon
Greece, have carried off these masterpieces
and sold or placed them in their museums,
until all there is left in Athens are the
columns, and foundations, and a few broken
pieces of sculpture. How my heart beat
with indignation as I thought of this van-
dalism which has been going on for. years.
To me it seemed like desecration to pick
up even a little piece of marble which lay
at my feet, having fallen off from the great,
elegant ruins as a result of the hot sun,
beating rains, and chilling winds. When
the Parthenon was originally built on the
Acropolis, there was placed in the center,
their chief goddess, â€œAthena,â€ who was
STATUE OF ATHENA, (
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
considered the guardian of the city. I
brought home with me a photograph which
is supposed to be acopy of this colossal
figure. The original statue was thirty-nine
feet in height, made of wood and covered
with some plastic material. Plates of ivory
represented the flesh, while the draperies
were of solid gold. The value of the metal
on this goddess alone was $375,000. This
gold was removed and used during times of
war and again restored in times of pros-
Athens to-day is like New York, so mod-
ern is it in appearance. They have the
electric street railway system, pleasant
parks, modern cafes and any number of ele-
gant public buildings and private resi-
dences. All architecture is Grecian in de-
sign and far surpasses anything we have in
America, for beauty, grace anid utility.
RESIDENCE OF DR. SCHLIEMAN, ATHENS.
ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ATHENS.
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
Ve telling you about temples
which were erected to unknown
gods, I am going to tell you about
the one at Olympia, which as you know, is
quite a distance from Athens, but which is
no less famous than Athena.
There is nothing at Olympia to-day to
tell of the cityâ€™s ancient grandeur except
its foundation which has been excavated, and
a museum, containing the fragments of the
once glorious temple built here centuries
Yes, I might add there are two modern,
but cheap and poorly kept hotels, where
tourists find lodging, also a few scattered
cottages, where live the shepherds and til-
lers of the soil around the mountains. |
Whether or no it was the plan of the
Almighty to destroy this city and forever
thrust out of sight these pagan deities, is
hard to tell, yet true it is that as a result of
a mighty earthquake, its temples were ley-
eled, then the river rushing in soon covered
its works of beauty with sand and soil to a
depth of many feet. In this condition, it
remained until 1874 when a party of Ger-
mans, after six winters of hard work, suc-
ceeded in bringing to light Hermes, the
finest statue ever discovered, as well as
hundreds of others of lesser value. This
HERMES, OF PRAXITELES.
THE STORY OF EUROPE.
doubtless broke as it fell, for you can see
from the photograph that the arm is gone,
and the gathered mold of a thousand years
has stained the perfect oval of the check
and throat. To me, though, it is even now,
the sweetest face I ever saw.
This, to-day, stands in a room by itself in
the Museum at Olympia, and all who look
upon it, must confess that even though
modeled by a pagan hand, it possesses a
beauty hard to define in a soulless man.â€
â€œWell,â€ said Tom when he had finished
telling his story, â€œhave I tired you out?
There is so much to tell, I hardly knew
where to stop.â€
â€œNo,â€ said all in a chorus, while Esther
Clark said, â€œIt is the best story I have ever
heard. After this when I see the picture of
Hermes I shall always like it instead of
THE STORY OF SPAIN.
OU have asked me to tell you
+ about Spain,â€ said Papa, one
beautiful evening in August,
will begin and tell you first about things in
as the family sat upon the porch.
general, then I will tell you about Grenada, -
then the city of Cordova and the wonderful
Mosque there, then about Cadiz.
Spain is not a beautiful country. If a
traveler expects to find the soft charm and
luxuriant loveliness of Italy, life in Spain
will be a constant disappointment; no hope
can possibly be more misplaced. Spain is
not the least like Italy, it has not even the
yond the Asturias and the valleys near the
beauty of the greater part of France.
Pyrenees, there is not a tree worth speak-
ing of in the peninsula. There is scarcely
any grass, the shrubs may even be counted;
except when the corn is out, which here
lasts such a short time, there is hardly any
vegetation at all. Those who wish to find
beauty, must look for beauty of an especial
kindâ€”without verdure or refinement of
color. But the artist will be satisfied with-
out these, and will exult in the long lines,
in the unbroken expanse of the stony, tree-
less, desolate sierras in the transparent
atmosphere, and the shadows of the clouds
as they fall upon the pale yellow of the
tawny desert. In the central provinces,
hundreds of miles may be traversed, and
no single feature of striking natural beauty
may be met with; nothing more than the
picturesque effects which may always be
obtained by the groups of cattle, gathered
round fountains by the dusty wayside or
standing out as if embossed against the
pale distances, or by the long trains of
mules with their drivers in brigand, bear-
ing the merchandise from one town to
another. On these plains, too, there is a
silence which is almost ghastly, for there
are no singing birds, scarcely even any in-
sects. Such is the character of almost all
the country now traversed by the principal
railways. But even here, just when the
spirits begin to flag, and the wearied longs
to refresh himself, the traveler reaches one
of the grand old cities which seem to have
THE STORY OF SPAIN.
gone asleep for five hundred years and to
have scarcely waked up again, when
you step at once out of the reign of Isa-
bella II, into that of Philip II, and find
the buildings, the costumes, the proverbs,
the habits, the daily life, those of his time.
You wonder what Spain has been doing
since, and the answer is quite easyâ€”noth-
ing. It has not the slightest wish to any-
thing more; it is quite satisfied. The
Catholic sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella
made a great nation of it, and filled it with
glorious works. Since then it has had, well
â€”reverses, but it has changed as little as
ever it could. But a visit to these old cities
is wonderfully interestingâ€”especially is
this true of Granada which contains the
once beautiful palace of the Moors.
GRANADA AND A VISIT TO THE ALHAMBRA.
Oe the structures built by man, the
: Alhambra, or ancient palace of the
Moors in Granada, Spain, takes rank
among the foremost: in magnificence and
splendor. The name, Alhambra, signifies
â€œthe red,â€ so called from the color of the
sun-dried brick used in its construction.
The palace was built between 1248 and
1354, something over a century being occu-
pied in its erection. Its splendid decora-
tion and the exquisite painting of the in-
terior are attributed to Yusuf I, who died
in 1354. From this date to 1492 when the
Moors were finally conquered by the Span-
iards, the Alhambra was the residence and
fortress of the Moors.
With the success of the Spaniards came
the manifestation of their hatred of every-
thing associated with Moorish grandeur;
they began to despoil the beauty of the
castle. The open work was filled with
whitewash, the paintiugs effaced and the
and Philip V, rebuilt parts but destroyed
much of the original beauty. For many
years thereafter Spain allowed the Alham-
In 1812 some
of its towers were dismantled and blown up
by the French, and in 1821 an earthquake
nearly destroyed it. In 1862 Isabella gave
orders to restore the work to its original
furniture torn and removed.
bra to be further defaced.
condition. This has been skilfully done
so far as the money appropriated would
allow, but the poverty-stricken condition of
the Spanish Treasury has not permitted
its complete restoration.
The palace is built upon a hill or terrace
north of the city embracing thirty-five acres
and is enclosed by a strong wall with thir-
teen large square towers used as fortresses
by the Moors. The Alhambra is built
within. One approaches the massive pile
THE STORY OF SPAIN.
DRIVEWAY TO THE ALHAMBRA.
by a fine drive flanked with rows of mag-
nificent shade trees planted by Welling-
ton in 1812. For this act alone he de-
serves not only the gratitude of Spain, but
of the countless tourists who annually visit
this romantic spot. ;
Entering the gate of the Pomegranates
one is struck with the quiet beauty of the
grounds. Woods and wild flowers, ravines
and waterfalls, sparkling fountains and
shady walks attest the taste and refinement
of the Moorish Monarchs,
rises to the main entrance to the palace.
The Gate of Judgment is surmounted by a
large tower, so called because this tower
was used as an open air court of justice by
the Moors according to their eastern cus-
tom. The pillars of the Gate are of sculp-
tured marble, and the arched gateway
twenty-eight feet high. On the keystone
IHE STORY OF SPAIN.
of the arch upon the outer side a gigantic
hand is engraved. The opposite side within
bears an equally gigantic key. Tradition
says that the hand and the key are magical
devices upon which the fate of the Alham-
bra depends; that the Moorish King who
built it was a great magician, and by sell-
ing himself to Satan laid the fortress under
a magic spell. For this reason the Alham-
bra has stood all these centuries despite the
hand of the despoiler and war and storm
and earthquake, while many other Moorish
structures have disappeared, and that the
structure will last until the hand reaches
down and grasps the key, when the build-
ing will fall and the Moorish treasures
buried beneath be revealed.
Entering through this gate the transition
is indescribably grand. Surely such splen-
dor, such magnificence is possible only to
the heroes of Arabian Nights, and one un-
consciously expects the advent of those
magicians of boyhood to explain the won-
derful beauty which surrounds him. We
stand within the Court of the Alberca
paved with white marble and decorated at
the ends with light Moorish peristyles. In
the center is an immense basin one hun-
dred and thirty feet long and thirty feet
wide stocked with goldfish, its banks bor-
dered by hedges of roses which encircle it
like a wreath. At the upper end rises the
great tower of Comares.
Ere we penetrate farther into the palace,
let us ascend to the summit of this tower
and take a birds-eye view of the palace
and its surroundings. The stairs are steep
and winding and the light isdim. Yet up
these same stairs the proud monarchs of
Granada have climbed to watch the ap-
proach of Christian armies and gaze upon
their many futile onslaughts upon its im-
pregnable walls. As we stand upon the
terraced roof to catch our breath, our eyes
drink in the wonderful scene of beauty.
The city lies below us; the country reaches
to the horizon dotted with mountain, val-
ley and plain, castle and cathedral, Moorish
tower and Gothic dome, crumbling ruin
Below us lies the Al-
hambra; at our feet is the Court of Alberca
and shady grove.
with its rose encircled pool; yonder is the
Court of Lions with its famous fountains;
in the center rests the garden of Lindaraxa
with its wonderful roses and shrubbery of
emerald green, that airy palace with tall
white towers; high up on mountain is the
Generaliffe, or summer palace of the Moors,
where they escape during the sultry months
of summer, while those shapeless ruins far
above upon the summit is the Seat of the
Moors where the unfortunate King Boab-
dil fled during an insurrection and looked
sadly down upon his rebel subjects. In
the distance, at the foot of yonder hill, is an
old Moorish mill; the stately avenue be-
yond is the Alameda where lovers resort at
eventide and where the guitar makes sweet
music far into the night. The old tower is
lifeless now save for the birds and bats
that have made it their resting place; yet
it speaks to us of the grandeur of a mighty
race who yielded only to the onward march
We descend into the Court of Alberca and
through a gateway into the Court of Lions.
This has suffered least from the ravages of
time and despoiler, and gives us the best
idea of the original beauty of this wonder-
ful structure. In the center stands the
fountain famous in song and story. This is
one hundred and sixteen feet long, sixty-six
feet wide and surrounded by a low gallery
supported by one hundred and twenty-four
white marble columns. The square is
paved with colored tiles and the colonnade
with white marble; the walls are covered
out through the mouths of the lions.
THE STORY OF SPAIN.
with blue and yellow tiles for several fee!
from the ground, while above and below is
a handsome border enamelled in blue and
gold. Columns, piers, arches and pillars
adorned with foliage and filagree work of
wonderful beauty carved with infinite care
and accuracy lend enchantment to the
scene. In the center is a superb alabaster
basin supported by twelve lions carved
from white marble. Into this basin a great
fountain formerly played, the water passing
seems impossible that the fairy tracery and
fragile fretwork should have withstood the
ages since it was placed upon those walls.
The quiet elegance and graceful taste well
indicate the fondness of the Moors for in-
Opposite the Court is the Hall of the
MAIN ENTRANCE TO ALHAMBRA GARDEN,
THE STORY OF SPAIN.
a a ee ee
Abencerrages, named from the gallant cav-
aliers so basely murdered within its walls.
In the center stands the white marble foun-
tain where they were beheaded, and our
guide points to ruddy stains on the pave-
ment as traces of their blood which can
never be effaced. Here we find less of that
wonderful decoration which marks the
Court of Lions, yet there are abundant
traces of former magnificence. Retracing
our steps we pass through the Court of
Lions across the Court of the Alberca and
enter the Hall of the Ambassadors through
a high archway. This hall occupies the
interior of the tower of Comares and was
the audience chamber of the Moorish mon-
archs. Its walls are richly decorated with
arabesques while the vaulted ceilings of
cedar from the height above still gleam
three sides are deep windows cut through
the thick walls which look out upon the
On one side is the Toeador, or toilet of
with rich gilding and brilliant tints.
COURT OF LIONSâ€”ALHAMBRA.
the Queen, richly decorated where the sul-
tans enjoyed the pure breezes and the sur-
We enter the Garden
ofthe Lindaraxa with its fountain, its flow-
ers, its cool halls, its grottoes and its baths
where the glare and heat of day are soft-
ened into a gentle light and a balmy fresh-
ness. Old Moorish aqueducts still bring
an abundant supply of water from the
mountains, supplying the baths and pools
THE STORY OF SPAIN.
and fountains, and after paying tribute to
this royal ruin flows down the long avenue
leading to the city.
We speak of the Dark Ages and mourn
the mental and industrial gloom of those
days; yet to that period we turn for mas-
sive tower, graceful arch, delicate tracery,
harmony of color, elegance of design and
painstaking carving by man under more
favored conditions. We leave the Alham-
THE STORY OF SPAIN.
bra bearing with us a vision of beauty that
time cannot efface, and bow in reverent
humility to the mighty genius that de-
signed and carried to completion this most
splendid of manâ€™s handiwork, thankful that
we have even this.
EFORE telling you about the
ei sacred temple at Cordova, I
must first tell you a little about
the town in which it is located. Cordova
was once in possession of the Moors. Until
the time of Queen Isabella they had full
possession of Southern Spain, and Cordova
then being a thriving town, they here
erected their Mosque, or place of worship.
The narrow streets, or rather alleys, so
well adapted to give a shade in summer,
when the heat is almost insupportable, are
At this time
Cordova was the unsuccessful rival of
a relic of the Moorish times.
Damascus. Utterly devoid of picturesque-
ness, it has a more thoroughly African ap-
pearance than probably any other town in
Spain. Here one threads oneâ€™s way be-
tween whitewashed walls, scanty windows
guarded by heavy iron bars, over a pebbly
pavement so rough that it is like the bed
of a torrent, littered with straw from the bur-
dens of innumerable donkeys. There are
no shops apparent, no animation whatever,
nor any sign of life in the houses, and the
few silent figures you pass are only miser-
able beggers, generally lying on the steps
in the sun, almost too inert to extend their
hands for charity. An ovcasional veiled
lady glides by to mass, or a majo goes
swiftly along, erect upon his tall mule.
Cordova is like a city of the dead; yet it
looks modern and fresh, for every mark of
antiquity is effected by the coating of
whitewash which clothes everything, and .
which makes the building of a thousand
-years ago, undistinguishable from that of
The little life which remains all seems
to converge to the Mosque, the one center
of interest in the town, the magnet which
still attracts travelers to this whited sepul-
cher from all parts of the world. Here in
the magnificent court of oranges, troops of
children play, a spectacle for a perfect reg-
iment of beggars, who sun themselves all
day long on the low stone seats around the
walls, while crowds of strong, able-bodied
men stand here for hours gossiping and
playing at cardsâ€”for at Cordova Spanish
idleness reaches its climax. If aman wants
a few pesatas he earns them; but when he
has earned them he does not work again
until they are spent, and as a Cordovan
THE MOSQUE, CORDOVA.
LHE STORY OF SPAIN. 123
can live luxuriously on an orange, a piece
of dried fish, and an air on the guitar,
plenty of time is left to amuse themselves.
From the court of the Mosque, you step
with bewildement into a roofed-in forest of
pillars, where you may truly lose your way
amid the thousand still remaining columns
(there were twelve hundred once) of varied
color, thickness, and material, which divide
the building into twenty-nine naves one
way and nineteen the other. Into the midst
of all a cathedral was engrafted in 1547 for
which many of the columns were destroyed,
permission having been extorted from
Charles V., who was unaware of the mis-
chief they were doing, but who bitterly re-
proved them when he saw they injured
what was unique in the world. There is
one tiny chapel with a roof like a shell,
formed from a single block of marble.
The only other object of especial interest
shown in the Mosque is the scratch of the
Crucifixion on a wall, attributed to the
nails of a Christian captive; but the
Mosque as a whole may be visited at all
hours and all times with increasing wonder
On February 22, we left Cordova for
reaching it, the town rises over the flats,
For more than an hour before
but the railway has to make a long circuit,
following all the windings of the bay. Here
PANORAMA OF CADIZ, SPAIN.
are productive saltpans from which a large
supply of salt is shipped.
The distant effect of the white town ris-
ing above the deep, blue waters is most
brilliant and dazzling, and within its nar-
row streets it is impossible to get away
from the glare of the whitewash of which
every building receives a fresh coat an-
nually. The high sea wall is the only
pleasant walk, with its little gardens full of
bright scarlet geraniums and hedged with
THE STORY OF SPAIN.
heliotrope. Here we may spend a hot after-
noon very agreeably, and study Spanish
life and manners, or listen to the numerous
nursery maids who are singing to their
In one of the convents of Cadiz is the
picture of the marriage of St. Catharine,
in painting which, Murillo, the greatest of
Spanish painters, fell from his scaffold, and
received injuries of which he died, shortly
STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
OW that we have learned some-
thing of each of the other con-
cinents, let us spend a little time with our
own,â€ said papa one half holiday. â€˜â€˜ We
canâ€™t do much but perhaps we can get a
few glimpses that will help us in our stu-
dies. Where shall we begin?â€ â€˜Tell us
of the Puritans and Independence Hall,â€
said Tom, who was just beginning to
â€œThe Puritans,â€ said papa, â€œ must not
be confounded with the Pilgrims. The
Puritans were members of the Church of
England; they had not separated them-
selves from it as had the Pilgrims, but.
rather had separated themselves from the
LANDING OF PURITANS.
persecutions of the bishops were such that
corruption which had crept into it.
they desired to emigrate, and in 1628 King
Charles gave them a grant extending from
three miles north of the Merrimac River
to three miles south of the Charles, and
westward to the â€˜South Sea,â€™ wherever
that might be.
John Endicott with one hundred colonists,
In June, of that year,
set sail in the ship â€˜ Abagail,â€™ and landed
at Salem, so called because it was so safe
They brought with them
cattle, garden seed and fruit trees, and
only a few years ago one of the pear trees
set out by John Endicot was still living.
In 1630, eleven vessels were fitted out to
carry seven hundred colonists, men,women
and children, across the Atlantic.
John Winthrop, a well-to-do man, was
elected by the London company Governor
tosucceed Endicott. They landed at Glou-
cester, and you may be sure the women
and children were glad to get on land once
more, pick wild strawberries and sit be-
neath the shade of the trees. Many of
these Puritans had plenty in England and
the change was hard to bear. So many
new arrivals made sad inroads upon the
scanty store of food provided by the colo-
ny at Salem, and the first winter was one
of great suffering. Governor Winthrop
saw that food would be scarce and prompt-
ly sent a ship to England for a supply but
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
. try at that time.
she did not return until February 5th,
1631, at a time when there was scarcely
any food left. A day of thanksgiving was
appointed to mark their deliverance from
famine. During the first winter more
than two hundred of the colonists perished
from the rigors of the winter and the
scarcity of food. But those who survived
were brave men and to their industry, fru-
gality, integrity, and faith in God, we owe
the New England of to-day. We have
little idea what it was and meant to start
a new home in a place as wild as our coun-
Besides the natural dif-
ficulty of clearing the land for planting,
and forming pastures for the cattle, there
was one other difficulty, and that was
the hardest one of all.
We might, perhaps, call this
But it was by
overcoming these hardships that America
produced the men and women that have
made the country what it is to-day, and
has given it its standing in the world.
While the Puritans were struggling with
the new country in the north there were
others striving to effect the same results in
the south. Virginia and South Carolina
were settled soon after, but by an entirely
different class of people. The King gave
the land here to some of the soldiery and
court followers. From these people sprang
the courtly and dignified southern gentle.
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
HOUSE AT PHILADELPHIA IN WHICH THE FIRST CONGRESSES WERE HELD,
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
NX OW, tell usof Independence Hall,â€
saidTom, as papa finished about
â€œOld Independence Hall,â€
said papa, â€œis one of the many old, historic
buildings which carry us back to the days
when the struggle for liberty was at its
The building itself is not at all
striking in appearance, and indeed, to-day,
seems sadly out of place, surrounded as it
is by more modern and more pretentious
structures. Yet it is guarded with jealous
care, for within its walls have occurred
some of the most stirring debates in which
human minds have engaged. It isa plain
two-story, brick building, fronting on
surmounted by a square tower or belfry,
Chestnut street, in Philadelphia.
from which the old Liberty Bell rang out
the death-knell to monarchy, and rang in
equality of men in the new world. The
main building is devoted to relics of the
Continental Congress and colonial times.
Quaint old portraits look down from the
walls, and as we gaze upon their strong,
earnest, closely shaven faces, we cannot
wonder at the devotion and patriotism
these men showed. Franklin, Jefferson,
the Adamses, Rutledge, Hancock and a
score of others well-known in our early
history, are there with LaFayette and |
other eminent patriots who came from for-
eign shores to aid in the struggle for lib-
erty. Here, too, are many of the old
leather covered chairs which these men
occupied, some owned by, and some loaned
to the society.
On the opposite side of the hall is a
room, fitted up with glass cabinets, in
which are placed relics of colonial times;
slippers with peaked toe and dainty wood-
en heel, dresses of silk and gowns of cot-
ton, made in the garb of two hundred
years ago, dress stays which but faintly
suggest the modern corset; ware that
could scarcely find a place on a table of
to-day, and hundreds of other things to
interest the women. One huge waistcoat
is shown that looks as though none but a
giant could have worn it, while hats, shoe-
buckles, knee pants and other articles of
wearing apparel will attract the men.
Old manuscripts, books and papers form
an interesting group. Autograph letters,
military orders, public documents, deeds
and Indian treaties are seen, as are some
prints that show how little known was the
art of illustration in that day. Guns and
swords that did service in the Revolution;
cannon balls picked up from fields of bat-
tle; drums that sounded to armsa century
ago, and camp furniture used by Wash-
ington, himself, are thereâ€”mementoes of
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
But time forbids further
mention of these relics.
the heroic past.
The one feature, which draws more at-
tention than any other, is the old Liberty
Bell, now suspended from the ceiling.
The cld frame, which held it for so many
years, is sacredly preserved, and is kept
out of reach to prevent visitors from car-
rying it away piecemeal. â€”
One almost fancies, as he gazes that he
can see the old man in the belfry, his hand
on the rope, awaiting with anxious heart the
tidings from the Continental Congress, and
when, at last, the joyful cry rang out from
those young lips, â€˜Ring, grandpa, ring, Oh,
ring for Liberty!â€™ how well did the old bell
fulfill the inscription upon it, and did pro-
claim liberty throughout the land.â€
THE CITY OF WASHINGTON.
THE HOME OF OUR GOVERNIIENT.
s Nee tell us about; Washington,â€
said Alice, after papa had fin-
ished his story of Independence Hall.
â€œWashington,â€ said papa, â€œhas been
called the city of magnificent distances,
because, when it was first built the public
buildings were far apart and the inter-
vening space not built up. Now, however,
the city is as compactly built as one could
wish and no longer deserves its old title.
* The city was laid out in the latter part of
The Capitol and the
White House are one mile apart connected
the last century.
by Pennsylvania Avenue, which is now
one of the most busy thoroughfares of the
city. The Capitol serves as a center from
which all the streets radiate. The princi-
pal streets, or avenues, as they are called,
have been spent in improving these ave-
are named after several States.
nues until to-day, Washington is pro-
nounced the handsomest city in the Union
and possibly in the world. Were we to
go there on a visit, we would find much to
The White House, famous as
the home of the presidents, with its quaint
architecture, high ceilings, rich furniture
and well-kept lawns would afford us a
pleasant hour. This house is furnished
by the Nation, and large sums are given
to keep it in repair. The Capitul, too,
would come in for a visit. Here is where
The Senate Chamber is in one wing and
the House of Representatives in the other.
In these the chairs and desks are arranged
in semi-circles, all facing the speakersâ€™
desk. Sometimes these chambers are the
scenes of exciting debates. The manner of
conducting their daily business would be
interesting, but cannot be told now. We
must not forget to go up into the dome of
â€˜ â€˜g Ne
te a et
( ui ie \
ia ee i ( ni
NATIONAL CEMETERY, â€œ ARLINGTON HEIGHTS,â€
N iN Wid nN Hh t / | Ne ue a ni
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
the Capitol while here. It is a long,
weary climb, but the sight will more than
repay us. The city lies at our feet, the
great public buildings standing out only
a little more prominently than the lesser
ones. In the distance is Washingtonâ€™s
monument, standing like a great white
sentinel to warn the city of approaching
danger, The Potomac looks like a band
of silver as the sun shines upon it, while
the craft upon its waters seem but little
specks. Beyond we see Arlington Heights
once the home of Gen. Robert E. Lee, but
now the last resting place of many of our
We must also visit the Patent Office and
see the thousands of curious and useful
things there. Here are models of every-
thing known to usâ€”machines for making
pins and machines for making steel rails,
machines fer making thread and machines
for making carpets. Here one can trace
the development of any industry through
its various patents. The Treasury De-
partment, the Postoffice Department, the
Smithsonian Institute and the Corcoran
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
Art Gallery, all deserve a visit. Nor must
we forget the statue of Lincoln in the
park facing the Capitol This is in bronze
and represents Lincoln breaking the fetters
from the black man. The money was given
entirely by negroes, and the way some of
them saved and toiled to get money for this
purpose forms a story full of pathos.
In the winter, when Congress is in ses-
sion, Washington life and society is at its
height. It is becoming a city of homes for
the wealthy, and so fascinating is it that
those who have once resided there seem
discontented elsewhere. It is a slow city,
compared with New York and Chicago, for
there is little business except what is tran-_
sacted by the Government, and a visitor
often gets the idea that the people do the
least amount of work in the greatest length
of time of any city on the globe.â€
THE FALLS OF NIAGARA.
os . MONG the many beautiful and
wonderful sights of nature to be
found in our country, I recall two,â€ said
papa one night when Tom and Alice had
asked for their accustomed story, â€œ which
will always remain with me. The one
is Niagara, with its swift, turbulent
waters, its high banks, tumultuous roar,
and magnificent falls. The other isa river
in the Rocky Mountains, beside which a
friend and I stopped one day to eat our
lunch when out prospecting for gold.
This stream, where we struck it, is quiet,
with slow current and high peaks on either
side, and fills one with a sense of rest.
But to give you a better idea of each, I
will have to take them one at a time.
Niagara, as you know is one of the
largest waterfalls on the globe. There are
higher falls, those with as great a volume
of water, but none which equal these in
both respects. Here the waters of the
great lakes find their way through a com-
paratively narrow channel, and after lash-
ing themselves into fury by their swift
descent through the rapids as they are
called, fall precipitately one hundred and
sixty feet into the abyss below. The roar
of the waters is almost deafening as you
can well imagine.
No boat can live in the waters above
swift, but rocks abound and any craft
The current is not only too
afloat is sure to be dashed in pieces by
striking against them. Many a poor soul
has dared the rapids only to meet with a
terrible death. Repeated attempts have
been made to send boats over the falls, but
in every case only the shattered fragments
have been found.
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
The falls are visited by large numbers
of tourists, and an array of guides and
hackmen make their living off of them.
The prices charged for the simplest ser-
vices are very high, and the only safe way
is to make your bargain for services in ad-
vance. The guides show you the most
noted points and if you desire take you
underneath the falls. The sight is a beau-
tiful one, but the trip is an exceedingly
damp one at best.
Below the falls floats a small steamer on
which visitors can take trips if desired.
The falls are in the shape of a bend and
in the middle, dividing the American from
the Canadian side, is Goat Island, which
seems in imminent danger of being wash-
ed over the falls.
falls were considered one of the most not-
For a long time these
able sights in the scenery of America, but
now they can only share the honors with
many points in the west, asin the Yellow-
and Yosemite valleys. The impression
they leave on oneâ€™s mind is one of sub-
limity, grandeur and power. The river of
which I spoke earlier in my story is alto-
gether different. When we first saw this
stream we had traveled many miles through
a rough, wild country and were wearied
with our long journey. As we traced our
way through a narrow defile and came sud-
denly upon this river as we rounded a high
peak the sight was a fine one. The river
flowed silently on as if afraid to disturb
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
the unbroken solitude which surrounded
us, reflecting the rays of the noon-day sun
from its glassy surface like some huge
mirror. On either side great peaks lifted
their summits until they reached a region
of perpetual snow.
waters passed us by without a murmur,
Yet to us it was a welcome sight.
yet we know how soon rocks and shallows,
gorge and cataract would rouse them into
madness, and in their descent to become
quiet, at least, in some peaceful meadow
refreshing were its cool waters, and what
before losing themselves in the sea.
a relief to quench our thirst. We ate our
lunch, filled our pipes, and for three hours
we sat on its banks trying to gaze our fill
upon its restful beauty. As we sat there we
contrasted its tranquil surface and peace-
ful repose with the turmoil and rush of
Niagara, and both concluded that the river
in the Rocky Mountains was more worthy
of a high place in the works of Nature
than the great falls themselves.â€
RIVER IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
THE INDIANSâ€”HOW THEY: LIVE.
â€œOT ELL :
- us something about the strange
people you have seen, papa,â€ said
Tom, after he had listended to the story
of Niagara. â€˜What people,â€ said papa.
â€œShall it be of the Zndians on the plains,
the Esquimaue in the north, or the hard-
working fisherman of whom we read _ this
morning?â€ â€œAll of them,â€ said Alice,
never wearied of her papaâ€™s stories.
Papa smiled at his little girlâ€™s earnest-
â€œTt has been
my good fortune,â€ said he, â€œto see all
ness, but began his story.
these people in their simple homes, and
there is much to learn from them in the
way of knowing how little man really
needs to maintain life. The Indian, when
in his savage state, thinks little of shelter
until the frosts of autumn warn him of
the coming winter.
Then his squaw bends a few small sap-
lings, if she can find them conveniently
arranged, or, if not, drives them into the
ground, ties their tops together and covers
them with bark or skins, leaving only an
opening at the top for smoke to escape,
and another at the bottom to serve asa
door, an open space is left at the center
for a fire-place, and around this are
thrown skins, implements of war and the
chase, and such scanty food as has been
gathered. Vermin abound and a short
stay answers for one who has enjoyed the
comforts of a well furnished house.
The smoke almost blinds one and it is
said that weak eyes are common among
these people. No lamps, no chairs, no
beds, no tables are found here.
The women spend the day in gathering
wood and preparing food. The men sit
around the fire apparently unconscious of
their cheerless abode. And yet I fancy
they would be as uncomfortable in our
homes as we would be in theirs.
Little or nothing is known of the his-
tory of American Indians previous to the
discovery of America. Their vague tra-
ditions are of little value, consequently
our story must begin at the date of the |
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
arrival of the European to our shores. It
is unfortunate that the early voyagers
were hard hearted and cruel men, and
that they were ignorant of the proper
almost every instance violence was com-
mitted by the invaders, and if they did
not kill the Indians, they enticed them
aboard their ships and took them back to
Europe, to prove to the old world, with
method of managing a savage nature.
living specimens, what they had found.
Captain John Smith had a sorry time
with these Indians.
nearly lost his life; was saved from death
He was captured and
only by Pocahontas, a beautiful daughter
of Powhatan, an Indian. At this time,
she was only about ten years of age and
is said to have been a most fascinating
girl. Pocahontas afterward married a
young Englishman, John Rolfe, and they
sailed for Europe. This excited great
attention everywhere, even at court, and
Captain John Smith made a speech about
her before the Queen.
little woman died in 1617 as she was
about to re-visit America. She left one
child, Thomas Rolfe, who afterwards lived
in Virginia, and to him many old Virginia
families still trace their origin. From
this time on there were many wars be-
tween the Colonists cnd the Indians.
Gradually the Red Man was driven farther
and farther west. Many cruel massacres
were the result and many hot pursuits.
LANDING OF COLUMBUSâ€”FROM STORY OF CCLUMBUS.
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
ir new home beyond the
ided | gust. of the year 183
action, make it their cus
what they call the
rture to the
indulge in | pa
dulged in a
In Au- | M
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
dance at Chicago, then an infant city, and
were dressed in very much the same style
you see them in the picture.
The census to-day shows that the In-
dian population is less than one-quarter of
a million; of these, nearly one-half are
There are about 32,000
on reservations which have rations given
them by the government. It is this class,
which being idle, are no doubt the hostile
ones. They make more noise than those
who support themselves; they insist that
the government shall feed them, and when
their rations are slightly reduced, they
daub on the paint and start out on the war
path. They are usually strong, able-bod-
ied men, and should be taught to work.
The children can be taught and trained,
aud this is the task the government and
the religious classes have for several years
HOW THEY LIVE.
ae Esquimaucx are considerable
higher in the scale of civilization
than the /ndians. Living in a clime where
existence is a constant struggle, they have
developed higher qualities than their red
brothers. Their huts are simple, yet, they
contain many comforts. The hut is built
of cakes of ice, which, when frozen solidly
together and covered with snow, are quite
been doing. It is thought a work full of
difficulties, because the instruction must
be simple and in a language different from
our own. In Carlyle, Pa., the experi-
ment has been made a success. In Santa
Fe, New Mexico, great progress has been
made, and in many other places, both in
Arizona and New Mexico, great strides
are being made that must eventually bring
In these schools the Indian lads learn
blacksmithing, broom-making, farming,
fruit planting, harness making, printing,
tailoring and shoe making. The girls are
instructed in the various duties of house-
keeping. Let us hope that this good
work will go on and that eventually we
shall see the Red Man with higher aspira-
tions and nobler purposes than we in out
wildest dreams dare picture to-day.â€
warm. These contain rude chairs, tables,
stoves are used, but in their place great
beds and other articles of furniture.
lamps in which is burned the oil and
blubber from whales and walruses. These
lamps give both light and heat, but send
forth an intolerable smell and soon cover
everything in the hut with a coat of
Women and men dress much alike and,
owing to the severe cold, are obliged to
wear garments of fur; the seal, the silver
fox, the polar bear, and other animals with
valuable fur contributing to their ward-
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
Their food is mostly meat; the fat of the
animal being deemed a great luxury. In
fact, a tallow candle is as great a treat to
the Esquimaux class as is a bon bon to an
American girl, while a brimming cup of
oil is sweeter to the Esquimaux boy than
ESQUIMAUX ARRIVAL AT FT. FOULKE.
is champagne to his American brother.
Their home life is pleasant and affec-
tionate. The women are treated with con-
siderable respect, though they cheerfully
bear their part of the household burden.
Their time is spent in hunting such game
as the polar bear, the walrus, with now and
then a chase after a whale which wanders
into their waters. They are a quiet in-
offensive people, with many good traits.
You will remember their village at the
Worldâ€™s Fair where, perhaps, no other
strange people attracted more attention
than did they.
THE STORY OF NORTH AMERICA.
Among all the fishermen, perhaps, none
have a drearier, harder life than the Job-
ster fishers of Labrador. While lobster
fishing cannot rank as an industry with
cod, herring or mackerel fishing, it fur-
But it is of
their homes, rather than their work, that
we would deal.
nishes employment to many.
Our illustration shows the character of
their home. A fairly comfortable wooden
structure, usually built of hewed logs, with
the living room, kitchen, dining room and
parlor all in one on the first floor, and
sleeping rooms above, is the customary
type. The furniture is rude and scanty
but suffices for the wants of these simple
men. A shed is built near by to store
ther fishing tackle and the results of their
hardy men endure fatigue, bear privation,
Exposed to storms and cold these
and even risk their lives, that we more
favored ones may enjoy the luxuries fo
Their lives are cheerless, dreary; al-
Their fare is scanty, even
yet they toil on in their humble sphere
though they supply us with dainties.
patiently and contentedly, teaching us how
little men really need, and that â€˜he who
does his best, no matter where hi lot is,
HOME OF LOBSTER FISHERS.
GOOD CHARLEY BROWN THE BALL DOES CATCH,
HE KNOWS JUST HOW, NO DOUBT OF THAT,
ST. BERNARD DOGS OF THE ALPS.
ST. BERNARD DOGS OF THE ALPS.
; OW,â€ said Grace, â€œit is my turn to
\ tell a story and I am going to tell
you about a wonderful dog named
Away up in the highest part of the Alps
in Switzerland is a famous pass or very
narrow roadway, leading over the
mountains. This pass is a dangerous
place indeed, almost too much so to
be used at all in Winter, and in the
Spring those great masses of ice and
snow, called Avalanches, become loos-
ened from their resting places, and
come sliding down the mountain side,
sometimes destroying whole villages.
Very near the top of this pass and
that of saving human lives, day and night.
With a flask of spirits strapped around
his neck, he would bound out into the
snow, followed by the monks and perhaps
would find a poor traveler under the snow
almost dead. Then the monks would open
on the edge of a small lake, is the cele-
brated hospice or place of refuge for travel-
ers, founded bya Catholic priest, and living
there are the good monks who relieve and
rescue travelers crossing the mountains.
These monks own the famous St. Bern- |
ard dogs, the largest and most beautiful
breed in the world. So strong and keen-
scented are they that when travelers lose
their way or even become buried in the
snow, they can always find them.
Barry was one of the noblest of these
dogs, and up there in the snowy mountains |
he was doing the best work in the world
' the flask and use the contents to put new
life into the traveler, and sometimes Barry
bore them to the hospice on his broad,
His bravery so endeared him to the peo-
ple of Switzerland, that after his death he
| was stuffed and placed in the museum in
the City of Bern and occupies a place of
honor among the large number of noted,
| curious and wonderful animals of all the
All honor to the brave monks who have
i so faithfully discharged their duties.
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS OF THE WORLD.
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS OF THE WORLD.
F I ever go abroad,â€ said Alice to Tom,
one day, â€œthe first place I shall visit
is the Zoological Gardens. You can
pry around the shops and look for quaint
old armour and everything else you please,
but for meâ€”lI shall see the birds, beasts,
and reptiles of the world which are col-
lected and placed in these gardens. I was
told that the London Zoological garden is
the largest in the world. Here are ele-
phants, camels, rhinoceros, panthers, lions,
as well as all kinds of smaller animals.
gaudy saddles of gold and crimson.
Here, too, are a great variety of monkeys,
and among them is a living gorilla, the
only one of the kind ever caught and pre-
served in living form.â€
Elsie Brown, said, â€œthat in the London
gardens, children and even grown people
are permitted and even invited to ride the
elephants and camels. These animals are
decked out in true Oriental style, with
each one is led by an Arab, dressed in
ENTRANCE TO ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN, AMSTERDAM,
MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES.
Next to the London Zoological gardens
are the wonderful gardens of Paris. These
are located on the banks of the beautiful
Seine. Here the French devote a part to
a floral garden which makes it look more
like a cultivated park than a forest for
The one I shall like best though, is that
one over in Holland located in the city of
Amsterdam. Oh, this is beautifulâ€”it must
beâ€”for here they make a specialty of birds.
I have read that on either side, down the
center avenue, there are rows of parrots,
directly opposite each other of all colors.
Here are the white cockatoos, the great
scarlet macaw, the queen macaw, the blue
Om evening as the family were seated
*J around the library table, all eyes
looked up to Papa as much as to
say, a story please.
â€œWell,â€ said Papa, â€œwhat shall it be?â€
â€˜e]h know,â€ said Alice, â€œwhat I would like
â€”a story about the different Museums and
Papa, â€œI am very glad you have asked me
Art Galleries of Europe.â€
about these, for in my mind they forin as
great a basis for an education as anything
of which I know.
Well suppose we begin with the Louvre.
This is the largest, and I believe, the best
and yellow, and oh, scores of others of all
colors and sizes.
Here they sit or dance the live long day
on perches about as high as a manâ€™s head.
Here they chatter and talk as though they
were made for no other purpose but to
amuse the boys and girls who stand around
by the dozen, and feed them for no other
purpose than to hear them jabber. And
then on a rainy day, how they must
scratch and cry and beg to be taken in the
house. Yes I am surely going there some
day, so I am, and with this final declara-
tion, Alice ran into the school room and
soon forgot all about the beasts, birds, and
reptiles of the world.
one in the world. This is located at Paris.
As the building is in the heart of the city,
you can imagine how very many people
must pass it daily. It is two blocks long,
and two wide. In its center is a court,
opening out to the sky above. There is a
stone sidewalk passing through it one way,
and a public driveway the other. It is im-
mensely large, containing hundreds of
rooms. In some of these rooms, there is
wtatuary, in others paintings, and in others,
rare jewels, stones, and curios.
Some of the rooms in the statuary de-
partment are devoted to ancient works and
CHILDREN Â© CHARLES T., DRESDEN GALLERY.
MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES.
some modern, while some contain only
works from Egypt, others Greece, others
Rome, Pompeii, etc. All are works of mas-
ters. To tell you about each individual
piece would take a life time, so I will only
mention one. This is by far the most ad-
mired, and made such an impression upon
me that often times I fancy I see it in my
sleep. It is called â€˜Venus de Miloâ€
whole room is given to this statue, which
stands in the center. The room opens into
adjoining rooms by red velvet portieres, all
of which are dropped except at one end.
These are looped back and such is the
effect as you walk toward it, down the long
hall, statuary on either side, that it looks
and seems like a beautiful wingless angel.
Can it be that you are disappointed to
find it only a woman, and that in marble?
It is indeed beautiful to look upon and one
lingers and gazes almost riveted to the
spot, especially when one stops to realize
that this wonderful piece of statuary was
made hundreds of years ago, but discover-
ed only in 1820 on the Island of Melos,
and bought by the French government.
Of the paintings here in the Louvre,
there are many, and all wrought by a mas-
ter hand. Perhaps no gallery in the world
can boast of as many. Here are some by
Murillo, that great Spanish painter who
fell from a scaffolding in Cadiz, while
BRITISH MUSEUM, LONDON,
THE LOUVRE, PARIS.
â€˜MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES.
painting the picture of St. Catharine, and
received injuries which cost him his life.
Here are some by Raphael, probably the
greatest painter the world has ever seen,
and who now lies buried in the Pantheon
Here are also some by Van Dyck, Reub-
ens, Paola Veronese, Guido Reni, and
The next gallery in importance is the
one at Florenve, Italy, called the Uffizi
Gallery. This is located in the palace of
an old time ruler and is not only interest-
ing on this account, but because it, like
the Louvre, contains scores of masterpieces
both in painting and statuary.
The strange part of this gallery is, that
one in going its rounds, crosses a river, and
when he comes out, finds himself in anoth-
gallery called the Pitti Palace.
sticks, umbrellas, etc., left at one entrance
are carried across and are in waiting asone
The third most important gallery in the
world, is the one at Dresden.
it wrapt in thought.
to do it justice, should take a whole week.
There are so many beautiful things to
see that one feels like sitting down and
drinking in their beauties. It is in this
gallery where we find the most celebrated
of all Raphaelâ€™s paintings, known as â€œThe
ness and love is unsurpassed. I have known
The expression and tender-
people to come in to view this painting
and sit for hours, spell-bound; I have seen
others weep, and I am sorry to say I have
seen others pass by, possessing so little ap-
preciation of the beautiful as to simply
wonder why so many people stand before
much admired picture by Van Dyck, the
Children of Charles I.
Then there is the British Museum in
is also. that
London and the Museum at Amsterdam,
both of which are fine and have a wonder-
ful place in educating the masses.
I am sure my family must by this time
be very tired, so some other time we will
have a talk about some of the famous paint-
ings in these galleries.
UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE,
ART GALLERY, DRESDEN.
ART GALLERY, AMSTERDAM.
THE BLACK FORESTS. 15
THE BLACK FORESTS.
HAVE been told,â€ said Harry Brown
one day to Tom, â€œthat the Black For-
ests in Germany are the finest forests
in the world; that the trees are trained just
like those in our city parks, and that when
one becomes diseased it is cut down, and
said Tom, Papa who has been nearly the
cast away or cut up into fire wood.â€
whole world over, says, â€œthat the Michigan
and Wisconsin pine forests, of which we
read so much, are not, and never can bo,
anything like those beautiful forests in
South-western Germany along the Rhine.â€
Oh! he says â€œthat there thousands upon
thousands of acres, stretching over hills
and mountains, through glen and vale, and
along the beautiful rivers and streams, and
splendidly paved roads, winding up the
that it is all like a cultivated park.
mountain, coming now and then in sight
THE RIVER OOS, BLACK FOREST.
THE BLACK FORESTS.
of a foresterâ€™s cabin, nearing here and there
a castle on a fort, makes it the finest pleas-
Oh! it must be
Some day I mean to see these
ure drive in the world.â€
things myself. There are the silver firs,
spruce, birch, beech, and now and then an
oak where in summer the squirrel jumps
about, and birds flit on every tree.
He says, â€œthe reason Germany has such
fine forests is because the winters are long
and severe, and as there is but little coal to
be found there an abundant supply of wood
is as essential as a sufficient supply of food.
This, along with the passion in early
times for hunting, has led to almost as
careful a cultivation of the forests in the
old world as is generally given to farm and
garden in our country.â€
Papa says too, â€œthat large, tall trees are
trained and cut with care, then used for
the building of ships. The floating opera-
tions down the various tributaries of the
Rhine, are both pleasing and instructive,
and nowhere can the timber trade be stud-
ied with greater profit. In each state in
Germany, there was once a training school
where boys were taught the economical
management of the forests, and so great
was the demand for these young fellows
that they had no trouble in securing good
positions. To-day the main training school
is located at Berlin.â€
He says too, â€œthat forests are of great
importance in the general economy of the
Globe, influencing the humidity of the air
and the soil, moderating the extreme heat
and cold, affording shelter to man and
beasts, and enriching the soil on which
they grow.â€ I know this must be true, too,
for on a sultry day, how we long to get into
the country among the woods.
No wonder is it that the Princes in
olden times used to build their castles up
among these beautiful forests. I once read
of a Count Eberstein, who built a castle in
the heart of the Black Forest, and that it is
now aruin, but one of the most picturesque
spots to be seen in Germany.. Only a drive
of eight miles from this castle, is Baden
Baden, that beautiful health resort so fam-
ous all over the world. I know, said Harry,
Uncle Ben went there a year ago for his
health and he says, â€œthe baths are great,
and that thousands go there every year to
drink the mineral waters.â€ But my, he
| . . . . .
says â€œit is aswell place in which to live,
everybody dresses in their best, and each
afternoon promenade up and down the
streets, eat ices in the open air in front of
the Cafes, inspect the shops, and when
they go home always take some trinket to
remember the place. The poor are quite
as happy there as the rich and though they
make less display, the water is free to all
He says too, â€œthat there is no place in
all America where such large strawberries
grow as around the Black Forests.â€ I say,
LAE BEACK RORESES.
Tom, let us go there together some time.
â€œThen, too, there are the Legends,â€ said
Tom. â€œEverything around and about the
Black Forest has some legend connected
with it. Papa has told us, oh, I donâ€™t know
how many. Did your Uncle tell you any
of these?â€ â€œNo, said Harry, tell me oneâ€”
no, tell me two, and when I get home I
will tell them to the girls.â€
â€œWell, here goes, as near as I can re-
member,â€ said Tom.
â€œFive hundred years ago a hard war
raged throughout the beautiful valley of
the Murg. Many knights of the country
had formed a league against the growing
superiority of the Count of Wurtemberg.
The restless Count of Eberstein became
Wolf, of Wunnen-
stein, was his most faithful brother in arms
Captain of the league.
and at the same time the most zealous of
the Wolf did much harm and damage to
It happened that the Count and
the Rauschebart. They attacked him sud-
denly, nearly making him their prisoner;
but he escaped and arrived soon after with
many soldiers in the Murg valley and be-
fore the castle of Eberstein, the captainâ€™s
The troops had come over the mountains
of the Black Forest and descended unper-
ceived. Apart from this village there lived
aman with his only child. He was much
skilled in arms, and rendered to his liege
lord many an important service during his
continual feuds. People called him the
Aerzinger. He was not of the country but
had gone once with Wolf to his castle, re-
ceiving from him as a reward for faithful
services the magnificent Court House
where he lived, as a fief into which he
afterwards brought his only child, a charm-
Some people spoke of his having been
formerly a noble Lord, who had lost all his
property in warfare. It is known, that an
ancient family of the same name, far off,
had been reduced to poverty at that period.
The same day on which Count Eberhard
led his army down the valley, the Aerzinger
happened to be away from home and up in
the castle of the Count Eberstein, his Lord.
His only daughter, being alone, became
afraid at the sudden appearance of the hos-
tile riders and archers. She ran out of the
house in great haste, and reached in a short
time the castle, where many Counts and
noble Lords had assembled upon a court-
martial. She cried out, â€˜Beware ! the Wur-
temberger is rapidly marching up the
hill!â€ They were not anticipating the
cunning approach. Like a swarm of bees,
they all ran about in great confusion when
the faithful Hildegarde entered their care-
less circle, calling: â€˜Beware, the Wurtem-
bergers come up the hill in a rapid march,â€™
It was her father who first jumped up from
his seat, crying:
Is that true?â€™
â€œWhat do you say child?
â€˜By thousands they come,â€™
THE BLACK FORESTS.
â€˜Draw up the bridge !
Thus Count Wolfâ€™s
commanding voice sounded through the
was the girls reply.
All men to arms!â€™
halls, and in a few minutes the fortress
stood well guarded; the boldly advancing
enemy only obtained bloody heads instead
of the easy victory he had expected. â€˜I will
leave the fox to starve in his hole,â€™ the
Rauschebart thought to himself, and so
prepared to besiege the castle.
Hildegarde remained with her father in
the Castle, nursing and consoling the sick
All the inmates of the Castle
looked upon the girl as their good angel;
and her father, was more proud of her than
ever. â€˜Your daughter must become my
wife,â€™ said the Captain to his old vassal,
and Hildegarde blushed under her fair
locks. Meanwhile the assaults of the be-
siegers became more desperate, and one al-
ready foresaw, in great fear, the day on
which the last of the provisions would be
exhausted. There only remained the ex-
cellent wine in the large tuns in the caves
of the Castle.
in their utmost extremity. Palsgrave Rup-
However, there came help
recht arose as interceder and Wolfâ€™s uncle,
became his faithful ally. Finally the allies
of the Count of Wurtemberg left his camp
one after another, and he himself, at last,
EBERSTEIN CASTLE, BLACK FORESTS,
THE BLACK FOREST.
could but break up his army, furious at not
having obtained his object.
So Count Wolf was unexpectedly deliv-
ered from his oppressors, and in this time
of peace began to think of celebrating his
daughter is of noble blood and of equal
wedding with the brave Hildegarde.
birth to your own.â€™
So everything was prepared for the
merry festival, when suddenly Wolf made
his appearance in glittering golden armour,
addressing the Count Eberstein with these
words. â€˜At Loffenau lie about a hundred
oxen and cows, and as many stocks of corn,
which have been stolen by the enemy in
our country. It is true they are well
guarded, but I think we may easily retake
them. Get your soldiers to saddle, and we
will rescue this booty from the Wurtem-
â€˜T have no time,â€™ the Count replied, â€˜ to-
morrow is my wedding-day; here is my
dear bride. Go alone this time, I give up
the command to you.â€™ Still the specious
Wolf would not content himself, and in-
sisted saying: â€˜It is a dangerous risk what
T have planned, and you must join in it!â€™
But when the Count again shook his
head, and looked inquiringly towards his
sweet bride, the young girl came near and
said: â€˜We go together, and will conquer
back what the enemy has snatched away
from the poor country, and can afterwards
celebrate our wedding with more joy. Then
Wolf agreed, being a daring soldier. In
less than an hour a well armed body of
troops stood in the court of the Castle, and
Wurtembergs had prepared to receive them
rode in full trot along the Murg.
bravely. A wild, furious combat broke
out as if they fought for the world. The
two Wolfâ€™s were at the head, and fought
Amidst the densest
crowd one could discern Hildegarde on
horseback, always at the side of her bold
lover. And even when a whole band threat-
ened to surround the Count, she never re-
tired, and parried many a stroke destined
for her beloved Lord. At last a soldier
thrust his long spear against the Captain,
and would certainly have pierced him, had
she not caught the blow upon her own
The Count saw her fall, and cried out to
save her. With superhuman strength he
turned once more against the enemy, strik-
ing so wildly and furiously, that the enemy
soon retired in awe and terror, leaving them
victors. However, the heroic girl lay dying
on the field of battle. The Aerzinger wept
by the side of his beloved child. Count
Eberstein tried to close the gaping wound
with both his hands, in order to stop the
blood which flowed so freely, but in vain.
The dying girl gave him a last smile. â€˜If
you must thus breathe out your young life
for me, my faithful one, never will I call
another woman, wife,â€™ cried the Count.
THE BLACK FOREST.
Pale and motionless lay upon the blood-
stained grass the dying Hildegarde, and
around her in a circle the strong men were
encamped. Many a hard heart that beat
under iron armour gave way; and many an
old warriorâ€™s eye in which the source of
tears seemed dried up, moistened at the
sight. Three days afterwards she was bur-
ied in the church of Gernsbach, and all the
knights accompanied the Captainâ€™s bride
to the grave.
Count Wolf of Eberstein kept his word
given to his dying love, and never mar-
ried. He led a restless, turbulent, and un-
Bravely he fought against mighty neigh-
bors to restore the old lustre of his house,
but not with the success his bravery de-
â€œAt the end of the long beautiful avenue
which connects Baden with Lichtenthal, is
situated a large Convent founded many
years ago by the Margraves of Baden.
Every visitor to the Convent church, is |
shown a picture of the Madonna, which
legend says once saved the cloister from
robbery and fire. Ata time of war between
France and Germany the French army
approached the valley of the Oos which
greatly alarmed the nuns in the Convent of
warned in time, hid in secret vaults all the
The Abbess having been
relics and treasures, and was resolved to
take flight with her nuns; but before they
could do so, some troops had arrived at the
door. In great anxiety and fear the nuns
surrounded the Abbess, and their wailing
and lamenting, sounded throughout the
Abbess alone remained calm, and ordering
halls and corridors of the Convent.
silence, she went to the statue of the Ma-
donna, hung the keys of the door round
her arm, and prayed with folded hands and
loud voice: â€˜Blessed mother of our Sav-
iour! Do not abandon thy poor servants
in their utmost extremity. Protect us and
thy sacred house !â€™
She had scarcely finished her prayer,
when the French soldiers penetrated into
the church. But what a spectacle caught
their eyes! The Holy Virgin surrounded
_with a glorious radiance stepped slowly
down from the altar and advancing towards
| the soldiers stretched out her hand menac-
Startled and terrified, the
| soldiers took to their heels, and did not
ingly at them.
| stop till the Convent was left far behind.
| So the Madonna had answered the pray-
| ers of the Abbess, and the Convent was
| saved from the French soldiers who never
_returned again to Lichtenthal and soon
| left the country.
The miraculous statue henceforth was
duely venerated by the grateful nuns as
the protectress of the Convent.â€
This Convent, with its halo of antiquity,
superstition and grandure never to be for-
gotten, still stands to-day.
Se QR ==}
EVERY DAY JIFE.
FIVE YEARS OF TRAVEL.
THE LAND OF THE VIKINGS.
OME, Ton, tell us of your visit to
+ Norway lastsummer,â€™ said Sarah,
as the children sat around the
table at Grandfather Lockeâ€™s, one cold,
rainy evening. â€œYes,â€ said grandpa, â€œthe
night is cold and dreary enough, and a de-
scription of the land of the Vikings, the
home of Hans Anderson, and of Ole Bull,.
would certainly give pleasure to us all.â€
â€œWell,â€ said Tom, with some hesitation,
â€œif my recollections of a pleasant summer
in Norway can help you to spend an even-
trip I liked best was from Christiana to
ing, I will tell you as best I can.
North Cape and return, though the time
spent in Christiana was full of pleasant
surprises.â€ â€˜Tell us something of that
sity, Paul,â€ said grandpa; â€˜â€œâ€˜ we would like
to know whether it is like the cities in our
own land.â€ â€˜Yes,â€™ chimed in Sarah, â€œI
have read much about it and would like to
know from some one who has-seen it if
â€œT cannot tell
what you have read,â€ replied Tom, â€œ but
city is not unlike an American city; the
what I have read is true.â€
there is much to interest one there.
streets are broad and well kept, the houses
not so tall, perhaps, as we see them here,
and the people seem to enjoy life.
I was there it was always light.
eleven until twelve at night was the dark-
est hour, and even then one could distin-
guish objects as easily as in our own twi-
light. After twelve it began to grow
lighter, and almost all hours of the night
the streets were full of people.
One point of interest is the saeter, where
the cows are kept, and where the peasant
girls go to take care of them and to make
cheese. A friend and I drove up there
one afternoon and passed through a dozen
or more gates, at each of which was a lit-
tle boy or girl ready to open it, and ready
also to pocket the ore which we gave him.
The ore is the smallest coin used, and is
one-fourth of a cent in our money. The
saeter is a collection of houses such as the
peasants build, only much more comfort-
house and, of course cannot be moved.
A bed is built in one corner of the
Near by is the storehouse or granary.
The whole is set on posts and isa quaint
affair to look upon.
â€œBut I must hurry if I get te North
Cape to-night,â€ said Tom. â€˜In going to
North Cape our party went by rail from
THE LAND OF THE VIKINGS.
Christiana to Throndhjem, a distance of
the only one of any length in Norway, the
This railroad, by the way, is
country being too mountainous to permit
of them. The stops are long and frequent
and twenty-four hours were spent in going
this distance. The cars are much like
those of England, and our party filled one
compartment very nicely. We stopped at
a little town for supper and hardly knew
what to do at first. The table was set with
plates, knives, forks and napkins, while on
smaller tables, at the sides, were bountiful
supplies of fish, meats, vegetables, bread
and coffee. There being no waiters, each
one had to help himself, so, filling our
plates with what we wanted, we ate our
suppers, stepped to the counter and paid
for what we had eaten, the attendant taking
our word for what we had had without a
The night on the train was not alto-
gether comfortable, but we made the bes;
of it. At no time during the night was
it so dark but that we could see the
time by our watches. The country through
which we passed the last day was much
like our own. The soil was poor and the
farms bore an air of poverty. I could
easily understand why the Norwegians are
80 prosperous in America when I saw the
soil they tilled in their native land. From
time to time we passed a substantial-look-
ing farm-house, but most of them had
turf roofs, and the house could not be
told from a stable, and several times we
saw bushes growing from the turf on the
roofs of houses.
While waiting for the steamer I wan-
dered around the town to see the people.
An elderly fisherwoman became quite
talkative when she found that IT was from
America, and seemed quite disappointed
because I had not met her son, who was
somewhere in Minnesota,
The boats which run from Christiana to
North Cape and back carry freight as well
as passengers, and it was not a rare occur-
rence for the captain to find a telegram at
some little town telling him to hold his
boat for a cargo from some hamlet in the
interior. The telegraph runs everywhere
and is used freely by the people. The
boat we were on was loaded with salt, flour
and provisions on her up trip, and with
fish and lumber back. Our captain could
speak English quite well and, as he was a
good-natured soul, freely answered our
many questions. He told us that on many
trips the mist was so dense that nothing
could be seen, but fortunately, we had clear
weather and made the most of it.
â€œAt one place we stopped on Sunday
morning,â€ continued Tom, â€œa Lapp came
down to the boat, He was a short, thick-
man, wearing an odd-shaped woolen frock,
leather leggins, reindeer-skin shoes, and a
peaked woolen cap. He spoke to the cap-
tain, who asked us if we wanted to go to
church. Of course we wanted to go, and
we followed the Lapp some distance to the
church. This was a large, eight-sided
building, and as we came near we notic-
ed men, women and boys on the outside,
some talking, some whittling, and some
asleep. The women wore handkerchiefs
on their heads and the men _ heavy
woolen mufflers around their throats,
though the day was hot. These articles
seemed to constitute the main part of their
Sunday clothes. Upon trying to enter the
church we found it crowded, the men and
women in the seats, the boys standing on
THE LAND OF THE VIKINGS.
one side of the aisle and the girls on the
other. An old clergyman, dressed in a
black robe with white ruffles at the neck and
wrists and wearing a skull cap, was slowly
coming down the aisle catechizing the chil-
We did not wait for him to finish,
but got out of doors and back to the ship.
After we had got on board the ship the
captain said he thought we could see the
twelve we all gathered on the deck and
sun at midnight if we cared to.
there was the sun on the edge of a bank
of cloud, shining brightly, and I saw what
has always seemed strange to meâ€”the
KING WILLIAMâ€™S LAND.
THE LAND OF THE VIKINGS.
The next forenoon found us at Ham-
merfest, the most northern town in the
world. It is a quaint little town, lying at
the foot of a steep, high hill, close to the
waterâ€™s edge. It hasa fine harbor, though,
and this was filled with ships.
rambled through the town we noticed the
door key hanging upon a nail outside the
door at almost every house. The people
are honest and seem to have no thought of
danger from this source. :
Leaving there we went on and reached
North Cape in the early evening and after
supper made the ascent, and from the rough
rocky point once more saw the strange
spectacle of the sun shining at midnight.
â€œOur trip back was uneventful,â€ said
Tom. â€œIt was interesting to see the sailors
barrels and barrels of herring waiting to be
At every stopping place were
taken on. These were loaded with a large
derrick, and it seemed to me no market
could be found for the quantity we had.
You know that the fisheries are the main
support of these people.
At one town at which we stopped I
noticed asheaf of grain mounted on a high
pole and asked the captain what it meant.
He said the Norwegians have a pretty cus-
tom of fastening a sheaf of grain near
their barns for the birds to feed upon
at Christmas time. The sheaf we saw
was stripped of grain but had not been
taken down, At Christmas time the farm-
ers sell these sheaves in the towns for this
purpose, just as Christmas wreaths are sold
with us. It is a pretty notion and speaks
volumes for the kind hearts of these sim-
In addition to the trait of prudence, I
think that everyone here in America, that
has had any dealings with these people,
will find them living in the same honest
way that is indicated by their hanging
their door-keys on the outside. They are
all of the better class of settlers that we
have, and, strange as it may seem, the
larger part of them have gone to the
have more of them than any other single
Minnesota, perhaps, will
State. Also, I wonder if you have noticed
that all of the people that we meet in the
far north countries are almost always
strong and robust in regard to the body,
and at the same time are honest-minded
and of noble characters. It is the living
in the same way here that makes the
people so much honored by us.
But it is bed time now, and I fear if I
get back to Christiana to-night grandma
will have no one to help eat those waffles
which she promised us for breakfast in the
morning, so I think I had better say as the
stories do, â€˜to be continued.â€™â€â€™
â€œ Well, Tom, you have given us a pleas-
ant evening,â€ said grandpa, â€˜and have
proved, too, that a boy can get a good deal
out of a trip to the land of the Vikings.â€
LARGEST BRIDGE IN THE WORLD.
ee us of some big bridge to-night,
papa,â€ said Tom, as they sat upon
the porch one evening. â€œWell,â€ said papa,
â€œthe largest bridge in America, if not in
the world, is Brooklyn suspension bridge,
connecting New York with Brooklyn.
This bridge stands to-day, not only as the
reatest triumph of engineering skill in
its line, but is an undying monument to |
the memory of John A. Roebling, the
Chief Engineer, who superintended its
early construction, and who lost his life
there, as well as to his son, who proved a
worthy successor to his noble father, and
carried the great work to completion. As
one views it by day from the gates of the
sea, many miles away, it looks like a shin-
ing silver thread sparkling in the sunlight;
viewed, by night, from afar, one almost
fancies it some splendid constellation in
the heavens, as it flashes with brilliant,
many colored lights which stretch from
shore to shore, like some great wall of
flame. As one approaches it, its gigantic
size becomes apparent, and its majesty and
magnitude are overwhelming. In every
detail, the length of the approaches, the
height of the towers, the length of the
span, the diameter of the cables, the
weight of the anchorages, all impress one
with theirimmensity. Figures failto convey
an adequate idea of it. The approach on
the New York side is 2,492 feet, or near-
ly one-half mile; that on the Brooklyn
side is 1,901 feet, and the span between
the towers 1,595 feet, making a total
leng th of 5,989 feet or over one and one-
eighth miles. The towers from which the
bridge is suspended rise 277 feet above
high water mark and sink below to bed
rock, the New York tower being 78 feet
below and the Brooklyn a little less.
The great cables which support the
bridge are nearly sixteen inches in diame-
ter and are formed of steel wires, almost
6,000 twisted together, and capable of
holding a load of nearly 50,000 tons, or
80 trains of 20 cars each, each car weigh-
ing 80 tons, could pays over the bridge
safely at one time.
The center of the bridge is so high
that the largest ships can pass under it
without difficulty. The bridge is 85 feet
wide and five tracks cross it, the two outer
ones for wagons, the two inner ones for
cars, and one above these for foot passen-
gers. From this last, a beautiful view of
the river can be had. At each end the
BROOKLYN BRIDGE. : 165
cables are made fast in great masses of It is, indeed, an inspiring sight to watch
Five | the throngs of people on this bridge as
the shops and factories close for the day.
At such an hour we all pay an unconscious
masonry weighing 60,000 tons.
years were spent in preparing for it, and
over thirteen years were required to build
it. Its cost was about $15,000,000. tribute to the man who constructed it.
in the world now, I think. If you walk
over it they will charge you one cent and
in riding it is three cents. It seems
strange that they should do this now, but
There is one more thing about the
bridge that is worth calling attention to.
You all remember about the old-style
bridges that you used to have to pay to
cross. Well, you do on this bridge also. | they claim that this small charge keeps
Brooklyn bridge is the largest toll bridge | it in repair.â€
ST. SEBALDUS CHURCH.
ST. SEBALDUS CHURCH.
PEAKING of Churches, one of
- the oddest ones I ever saw,â€
a said papa, â€œis the Church of
St. Sebaldus, located in the center part of
the old city of Nuremburg. This city as
well as the Church is the quaintest of all
European cities and my visit there is one I
shall never forget. It is thoroughly Ger-
man and everything connected with it is
as old fashioned as though it had never
seen the 19th century, but with all its
quaintness it is after alla most beautiful
city. The houses are all roofs and in the
roofs are little dormer windows which
make you think that they were constructed
for dolls rather than for human beings.
The city is noted all over the world as
containing the greatest toy factories in ex-
istence. Here toys of every conceivable
shape, style, price and quality can be
found. Toys I had never heard of, games,
musical instruments, and hundreds and
hundreds of curious, pleasing things which
make one think they are in Santa Claus
But I forget, I started to tell you about
St. Sebaldus Churchâ€”named so because it
contains the monument of St. Sebald. The
eastern choir of the church has been built
in the genuine Gothic style, decorated with
beautiful columns and completed in 1377.
In the center of this choir, there stands the
celebrated monument, the most extensive
bronze sepulchre of. St. Sebaldus.
work German art has produced, was cast
by Peter Vischer and his five sons, begun
1508 and finished 1519. It rests on 12
snails, having 4 dolphins at its corners, the
whole forming a Pagan temple, adorned
with the 12 apostles. It is surmounted by
12 smaller figures, being as many fathers
of the church, and finally by an infant
Christ, holding a globus in his hand; the
latter being the key of the whole monu-
ment, when it is to be laid open. In a
niche towards the high altar, is the portrait
of Peter Vischer. The apostles to the east
are Peter and Andrew, tothe west Thaddeus
and Matthew, to the south John, James,
Philip and Paul, and to the north Simon,
Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew.
All who visit Nuremburg visit also this
| church, which although not elegant is
much admired. Near this church is located
a famous old restaurant which was in the
days of Peter Vischer the favorite dining
hall of artists and sculptors of the times.
Here came Albert Durer who lived in the
day this restaurant is even more popular
15th century, and other noted artists.
ST. SEBALDUS CHURCH, NUREMBURG, GERMANY,
AN OLD ROAD.
than then, for now all tourists, whether
Germans or otherwise, flock here by the
score to partake of the Bratwurst, a delic-
ious sausage which is served up with sauer-
kraut. My, I can taste it yet, it was so
I fear we dined at this restaurant more
than we did at our hotel, and the last thing
we did as we left the town was to go for a
farewell lunch to this tiny restaurant called
â€œThe Bratwurst Glock,â€ famous for sauer-
kraut and sausage.
AN OLD ROAD.
OULD the cyclist of to-day be favored
+ with such roads as the old Romans
built,â€ said papa on his return
from Italy, â€œhis joy would know no bound..
Our boulevards with their macadamized
roadways do not approach even in hardness
and are far less durable than these roads
built many centuries ago.
One of the most noted of these is the
Appian Way, commenced by Appius Clad-
PORTA ST, SEBASTIAN, ENTRANCE TO APPIAN WAY.
AN OLD ROAD.
ius Cacus, 312 B.C. At first it extended
only to Capua, but later was built to Brin-
disi, a distance of three hundred and
fifty miles. It was about fourteen feet
wide, exclusive of the footpaths on either
It was not completed until 30 B. C.
These roads were made of many-sided
blocks of lava, carefully dressed and laid in
The joints were fitted
with the greatest care, and the surface
a bed of mortar.
made perfectly smooth. They were built
principally for the rapid movement of
troops, though many emperors built them
as a monument to the beneficence of their
reign. The Appian Way was in a state of
perfect repair as late as 565 A. D., if we
are to believe Roman Historians, but with
the fall of the Roman Empire, these roads
were suffered to fill up with dirt and debris
until only their memory remained. Pius
VI in the early part of the present century
restored a part of it, but its surface is a
sad mockery of its former excellence.
No other drive from Rome affords the
tourist so much satisfaction as this, and so
one balmy morning when Italyâ€™s blue skies
were at their best, we drove out upon it,
road is flanked by a great wall, back of
viewing its beauties from all sides.
which are vineyards giving abundant proof
of a large crop of grapes a little later in
the season. As we leave these walls, a
Campagna spreads before and invites us to
magnificent view breaks upon us.
explore its many wonders, but time forbids.
This dreary waste to which the name of
Campagna is given, was once covered by
the sea and is due to volcanic action. Lava
OLD ROMAN TOMB, APPIAN WAY,
in grotesque forms appears frequently,
while the red, volcanic tufa adds color in
profusion to the scene. Here and there
one sees the craters of extinct volcanoes,
the principal of which are in the Alban
Lake Alban itself is but the
crater of an old voleano into which the
water has found its way.
Not alone for its natural features is this
plain noted. On that narrow strip of land
between the Alban Mountains and the sea,
were enacted great events in the history of
Rome. Here were fought fierce battles be-
tween the Latins and the Etruscans on the
north, the Sabins on the east and the Vol-
cians on the south. Once a densely pop-
ulated land with many prosperous towns,
it is now a desolate waste. Hardly a tenth
of its surface is now under cultivation.
; TRANGE that you never tire |
: of battle stories,â€ said Mr. |
Gray to the club one evening.
â€œWell, I too, liked them at your age, but
now I think more of peace making and I
hope the time will come when battles are a
thing of the past; but to-night I will tell
you about Marathon.
The classic land of Greece, the land of
poets, sculptors, statesmen, philosophers
and patriots, has throughout the ages been
With the coming of May, malaria sets in
and the herdsmen and cattle flee to the
mountains. The few people who are obliged
to remain, lead a miserable, fever-stricken
life. Here, too, are seen the ruins of aque-
ducts for which the old Romans were so
The road winds in and out, up and down,
and passes many points of interest, such as
the Catacombs, the Circus of Maxentius,
the tombs of wealthy old nobles and ruins
almost without number.
After a ride of six hours, broken into by
many walks into the byroads and paths
â€˜that are constantly leaving the Appian
Way, we returned to our hotel, wearied but
amply, repaid, having filled full our note-
book in which we keep the record of our
noted for its valor and bravery. No brighter
example adorns the pages of the worldâ€™s
history than the Plain of Marathon, where
was fought a battle that saved to mankind
the growth of free institutions and freed
Europe from the possibility of that semi-
civilization which has hung like a dark
cloud over Asiatic nations through all the
The plain lies twenty-two miles from
Athens, along the bay of the same name.
BATTLE OF MARATHON.
It is nearly bow-shaped, six miles long and
girded by rugged mountains except for a
about two miles broad in the center.
valley trending- inward from the center.
These mountains come close to the watersâ€™
edge at either end. On this plain there
lay encamped, almost 2400 years ago (490
B. C.) a Persian army, numbering over
100,000 men. Fresh from conquests in the
east, every man trained to war, directed by
skilled commanders who had led them to
repeated victories and never having suf-
fered defeat, this army thought itself in-
vincible. So confident were they that upon
landing, they drew their boats upon the
beach and thus cut off their only means of
escape. Their arms seem strange to us.
There were bowmen with heavy bows,
slingers with their missiles to hurl upon
the enemy, spearmen with their long spears
and a well trained cavalry. The army was
led by Datis, nephew of Darius, King of
Persia, which at that time included all the
ereat Kingdoms of Asia, except China.
As this proud army landed, they saw
upon the mountain above a little band of
10,000 men to oppose their march into
Greece and the west. So small an army
seemed unable to offer any resistance and
the Persians smiled at the easy task before
them. In command of this little band were
â€™ ten Generals, but after a solemn council in
which it was decided to attack the Persians,
the command was given to Mil-ti-a-des,
whose valor and leadership had been often
proved. Realizing the fearful odds against
him, he gave the word to prepare for bat-
tle. The commanders exhorted their men.
The place itself excited the men, for Mara-
thon was sacred to their God, Hercules.
On this plain, too, their ancestors had
driven back their enemies. According to
custom, the warriors of each tribe were to-
gether, neighbor fighting by neighbor,
friend by friend, exciting the warlike spirit
to the utmost. Their arms were a long
spear, a shield and helmet, breast plate,
armor for the legs and a short sword.
Although the Greeks usually advanced
slowly in battle, Mil-ti-a-des, on this occas-
ion, ordered the line to advance upon a
run. The trumpet sounded and the little
army bore down upon the foe, chanting the
battle hymn, â€˜On, sons of the Greek. Strike
â€˜for the freedom of your country, of your
children and of your wives, for the shrines
of your fatherâ€™s gods and for the graves of
your sires.â€™ All, allwas now staked upon
When the Persians saw the Athenians
coming to the attack, they thought them
came the Greeks with one unwavering line
mad and prepared to receive them.
of leveled spears, against which the light
targets, the short lances and cimeters of
the Persians offered but weak defense. The
center of the Grecian line which was weak-
ened to strengthen the ends, was driven
BATTLE OF MARATHON.
back into the valley where they were en-
abled to rally and renew the fight.
Meantime the Greek wings, or ends, had
routed their opponents, and then uniting
attacked the victorious Persian center. The
Persian troops under the command of Datis
himself strove hard to hold their ground,
The even front of the
Greek phalanx met them at every turn,
but to no purpose.
while their light shields and short weapons
served neither for protection or defense.
While the Persian rear poured showers of
arrows over the heads of the Greeks, the
foremost rushed boldly forward only to
throw themselves upon the projecting
spears of the Greeks.
At last the hitherto unconquered lords of
Asia turned and fled. The Greeks followed,
striking them down. The invaders sought
to launch their boats while the Greeks tried
to fire the fleet. Here the Greeks met their
principal loss. Seven galleys escaped and
Datis, desperate at his defeat, sailed for
Athens, hoping to find the city unprotected.
Mil-ti-a-des detected his purpose and leay-
ing a part of his force to hold the field,
hastened by a night march with the bal-
ance to the defense of the city. When
PLAINS OF MARATHON,
ENGLAND S RULER.
Datis reached Athens early the following
morning, he found his victors of the day
before ready to receive him and without
attempting to land, returned to Asia.
The Persian dead numbered 6400, the
Greeks 192. The Greeks slain were buried
on the field of battle and above them was
raised a lofty mound to mark the spot. Ten
columns were erected, one for each tribe,
and on the column of each were engraved
the names of those who had fallen. These
columns have long since crumbled away,
but the mound still marks the resting place
of the noblest heroes of antiquity.
It was at the close of this battle that a
Greek ran all the way from Marathon to
Athens, a distance of twenty-two miles to
tell the news of victory. The brave Greek
no sooner reached the city and said, â€˜we
have wonâ€™ than he fell dead. It is to com-
memorate this race that a running race
from the Plains of Marathon to the station
at Athens took place during the recent
Olympian games. All nations took part,
but toa Greek fell the honor of carrying
off the glory.â€
No one regretted to see a Greek win; in
fact all felt it was only right.
ae what is our subject to-
night?â€ said Mr. Gray, as the
lamp was lighted and the little
flock gathered around to hear another of
the â€œRound the Worldâ€ stories. â€˜Tell of
Florence, who had been reading of the
Kings and rulers,â€ said Tom.
coming Queenâ€™s Jubilee, â€œof good Queen
Victoria and her life.â€ â€œ Well children,â€
said papa, â€˜â€œâ€˜ Merry Englandâ€™s ruler deserves
an evening, and perhaps we can learn
something by talking of her noble life.
But first let me say that England is nearer
and dearer to the American people than
any other European nation. England made
the first permanent settlements here. We
speak the same language, get the best of
our laws and customs from and join with
her in leading the civilization of the world.
Of the present queen, Victoria, volumes
might be written, but in our talk to-night
we shall touch more upon her home and
court life. As you all know, Victoria has
reigned longer than any other English Soy-
She ascended the throne on the
night of June 19th, 1837, or rather on the
morning of June 20th, as King William
died a little after two oâ€™clock in the morn-
ing. Immediately upon his death the Arch-
bishop of Canterbury, the Lord Chamber-
lain and Sir Henry, the Royal Physician,
hastened from Windsor Castle to the Pal-
ace at Kensington to salute the young
Princess Victoria as Queen of England.
While expecting the death of the King,
she met them with tears of real grief, and
the people regarded it as a happy omen
hat Victoria â€˜wept to learn she was a
Queen.â€™ After receiving their salutations
she requested the Archbishop to ask Divine
guidance in her behalf, and so the first act
in her reign as Queen was a prayer for her
people and herself.
Trained carefully for her position, her
modesty and womanly ways delighted her
subjects and her reign began most hap-
ENGLAND S RULER.
pily. One of her first acts was to put an
end to Court extravagence and Court pro-
fligacy. During her first yearâ€™s rule she
paid her fatherâ€™s debts and during the
second year her motherâ€™s, and this without
incurring any debts herself or asking Par-
liament for any addition to her income.
Her business tact, honesty and frugality
won her friends everywhere and gave her
the confidence of all England.
Her coronation occurred June 28th, 1838,
and was an event of great splendor and re-
joicing throughout the kingdom. The cor-
onation took place in Westminster Abbey.
The Queen was escorted up the nave by
two Bishops, eight daughters of English
Dukes bearing her train and fifty ladies of
rank in her household following. As the
Archbishop of Canterbury presented her
as the â€˜Queen of the realm,â€™ the old build-
ing shook with cries of â€˜God save Queen
Victoria.â€ At the close of the ceremony
Crown upon her head, and at the same in-
reverently placed the
stant the lords and ladies present donned
their coronets, the flashing jewels adding
ENTRANCE TO WINDSOR CASTLE,
was placed in the Chair of Homage, the
to the brilliancy of the scene.
peers came forward, knelt, kissed her hand,
pronounced allegiance and the ceremony
Her courtship and marriage was to her,
as it should be to every woman, an import-
ant event in her life. As Queen, no man
could formally woo her. Before she was
made Queen her heart had been won by
her cousin Prince Albert, who was three
months her junior. In October following
her coronation the Prince was visiting at
her love for him and said her future hap-
She sent for him, told him of |
piness would be assured by their marriage.
The Prince responded with gratitude and
joy for he had loved her since their first
meeting. The Prince was not called upon
to ask the consent of the Queenâ€™s mother to
the allegiance, but the Queen must herself
| announce to the members of her Privy
| She called
them together, tremblingly read her dec-
| Council or cabinet ministers.
| laration and received their congratulations.
The wedding, which was one of unusual
splendor even for Royalty, took place Feb.
| 10th, 1840, All England rejoiced at the
spectacle of their Queen marrying the man
she truly loved, and marrying him because
WINDSOR CASTLE, FRONTING TOWARD THE GARDEN.
ENGLAND S RULER.
she loved him, for you must know that
weddings among Royalty are not always
love matches. The Prince was voted $150,-
000 per year by Parliament for his expendi-
tures. Hight children were born to them,
Prince Albert Edward, the present Prince
of Wales, being their second child. He
was born Nov. 9th, 1841. As heir to the
Crown his birth was a most important event
to the nation and gave great happiness to
the Queen. The death of her husband
came very unexpectedly in 1861. The blow
was a severe one to Victoria. It severed
her almost wholly from politics. She re-
tired to a semi-private life, attending to the
cares of State, but not appearing in public
Prince Albert was laid
to rest at Frogmore, where a_ splendid
for several years.
Mausoleum attests the love the Queen bore
Since the marriage of the Prince of
Wales the Queen has taken but little part
in social life, leaving those duties to the
Prince and Princess.
HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT, ENGLAND.
In her private life the Queen is imperi- |
ous, unbending and yet constantly per-â€”
Royal household humor her every whim.
forming many little acts of kindness.
She has dismissed faithful retainers with-
out just cause, and it is said that Lord
Playfair, who held the post of gentleman-
in-waiting for many years, was d?smissed
because his legs were short and bent and |
did not show to advantage in knee breeches
and silk stockings.
In the make-up of the Royal household
many people are required, as there are many
positions to fill and large sums of money ex-
pended. The gardener of the Queen is an
important personage. He has charge of the
gardens at Frogmore, and as the Queen re-
fuses to eat any fruit except that grown in
the Royal gardens, his position is not an easy
one. Ifthe Queen visits any of her children
or grandchildren among the Royaly, or
other nations, great baskets of fruit and
vegetables must be sent her daily from these
gardens. When absent, wine is sent her
wherever she may be from her own stock
sent more for her guests than herself, as
in the cellars of St. James Palace.
she only drinks wine at banquets and then
She is also very careful in her dict, never
eating underdone beef or mutton and never
eating pork except in the form of sausages
which must be prepared by the Royal cook
himself and in just such a manner and
always cooked with a little unsmoked
bacon. Crabs and lobsters are never eaten,
oysters but seldom. Black currant jelly is
always on the table. The tea which is put
on the Royal table all comes from a quaint
little shop in Pall Mall where Victoria and
costs five shillings and four pence, nearly
her five predecessors have obtained it.
one dollar and thirty cents per pound.
Every day a sirloin of beef is roasted and
served cold for luncheon. After dinner the
Queen eats one water-biscuit and a piece
of Cheddar cheese. Whenever the Queen
goes abroad, the tea, the cheese and the
Royal bed must go along. That you may
know something of the expense of the
Queenâ€™s kitchen let me say that ata State
dinner 250 pounds of fish are required and
this but a single item in the course dinner.
The chief cook receives $3,500.00 per year
for his services; the clerk who carves re-
ceives a like amount, the confectioners
$1,500.00 and $1,250.00 respectively,
At Buckingham Palace are given the
state balls and stats concerts, $50,000 per
year being set aside by the Queen for this
purpose. A ball must not cost over $10,000
and a concert must not exceed $15,000.00.
These seem like princely sums, yet they
are regarded as quite small. The Queen
seldom resides here for more than a few
days ata time. The Palace is not inviting
on the outside, and were it not for the red
coated sentries in front one would not take
it for the home of Royalty. Within the
Palace is richly furnished. Among the
(Jueenâ€™s possessions is her country seat at
Balmoral, Scotland. This is the great hunt-
ing and fishing resort of members of the
A. forest of 10,000 acres
with 7,500 acres adjoining which the Queen
leases, affords abundant sport, from eight
to one hundred deer being killed annually.
Through this estate runs the river Dee,
affording the best salmon-fishing in Scot-
The Queenâ€™s stables are under the con-
trol of the â€˜Master of the Horse,â€™ one of
the grand officers of the household. On
state occasions the Queen is drawn by
eight cream-colored horses. These are never
used on other occasions and hold the high-
est place in the stables. For her personal
use at Windsor Castle the Queen uses four
gray horses, ridden by two postillions. A
single sentry, or out rider, canters on ahead
while on each side are two mounted officers
of the army belonging to the department
of the Master of the Horse.
less than seventy carriages belonging to
1761, seventeen feet long and weighing
There are no
Among these is one built in
This is the carriage in which
carriages are heavy and cumbersome, but
the Queen rode to her coronation.
serviceable and handsomely decorated.
The Queen also has her kennels of fox
and deer hounds, kept for the annual hunt
MONUMENT IN HYDE PARK, IN MEMORY OF PRINCE ALBERT,
A LETTER FROM ROME.
at Balmoral, as well as her kennel of pet
dogs. All of this expense is borne by the
English people without a murmur.
The Queen has her body guards of pen-
sioned officers known as Gentlemen-at-arms,
and a body selected from non-commissioned
officers called the Yeomen of the Guard.
Their principal duty is to keep the passage
clear for the Nobility on Levee and Draw-
ing-Room days. One of the most peculiar
officers is called the Champion of England.
He appears but once during a reign, and
that at the coronation. While the corona-
tion banquet is in progress he rides on
horseback into the dining-room, clad in
steel armor from head to foot. Raising his
visor he challenges any. one to deny the
title of the sovereign, throwing his gauntlet
upon the floor like a knight of old. As you
may guess no one accepts his challenge.
A golden goblet of wine is handed him
which he drinks to the health of the mon-
arch and then slowly backs his horse from
the room, carrying with him the golden
goblet as his own. This ceremony, by the
way, comes down 4rom William the Con-
queror. The Queen has also fifteen foot-
men, eight trumpeters, heralds and other
attendants or hangers-on almost without
number, whose duties are trivial and who
seem to be maintained as a relic of the
form and pomp of Middle Ages.
Much could be said of the numerous
families about the Court, of the allowances
voted each member of the Royal family
and of the children of the Queen, but it is
getting late. I want you one and all to
remember that â€˜Queen Victoria is honored
no less for her womanly qualities, her love
of home, the admirable training of her
family, than for her position as sovereign
of Great Britain.â€™â€
A LETTER FROM ROME.
April 25th, 1896.
Dear Frienps at Home:â€”As our good
ship approached the city all on board was
boxes, satchels and trunks were everywhere;
confusion, in fact, almost chaos.
their owners in one anotherâ€™s way in their
But to me the
scene aboard was unheeded. I thought,
anxiety to be first ashore.
yonder lies the proud city, shorn of much
of her former splendor, but still the Mecca
of countless thousands of eager tourists.
Standing before her the present is forgotten
and the past rises clear and distinct. There
lie the seven hills of the old city as wild as
on the morning of creation. .
Then Romulus and Remus, who, tradi-
tion says, grew strong on the milk of the
she wolf which nursed, appear and the great
182 AE ERLE
city is begun. Midst war and strife the
city grows. We see Aeneas escaping from
the devastation of Troy and bringing his
household gods across the sea. He marries
into the family of Lati#ms and there arises
a long line of Latin Kings, Nunne, Tullus,
Ancus, Martius, Tarquinius, Priscus, Tul-
lius, Tarquinius Superbus, who, among
them, drove the people to revolution. The
Roman Republic arises with its govern-
ment of two consuls chosen annually. En-
emies appear, Cincinnatus leaves his
plough, saves the Republic and returns to
his farm on the Tiber. The two consuls
are increased to ten. Virginia chooses
death to dishonor. The fierce Gauls swarm
down from the north, enter the city, murder
the venerable senators in their seats and
Camillus is dictator.
Time rolls on and the Romans are con-
quered by the Samnites. The relentless
Punic wars are raging. Carthage is sub-
dued and the world takes note of the rising
power and splendor of the Imperial City.
Corinth, Macedonia, Syracuse, are hers.
Rome is queen of the worldâ€™s cities and
right royally she wears her crown. There
are Roman Triumphs, splendor beyond de-
scription, and the Roman eagles go forth to
sars appear, the nations of the world bow
secure dominion over the earth.
before them. The Republic falls and a
Cesar wears the purple of the Emperor.
Then comes a period of royal pomp and
| upon the Rome of to-day.
time was limited we lost no time.
extravagance, lightened now and then by a
resplendent reign until Augustus, Caligula,
Nero, and a long line of emperors bring us
to Constantine, and Rome once more really
rules the world. Christianity conquers Pag-
anism, and from the old Rome of ruin the
new Rome of Art and the Rome of the
Popes arise. Three thousand years of
tragic history pass before us and we look
The dream of
childhood and of early maturity is about to
We landed, selected our hotel, and as
cab was engaged, and for an extra fee the
driver became talkative. We drove down
the Corso, the main street of the city, and
â€˜the driver pointed out the interesting
sights. We passed countless churches,
the Forum, the Colosseum, the great hotels
and drove through narrow, crooked streets
where the little black-haired, dark-eyed,
_swarthy-faced Italians are so numerous we
were in constant fear lest we run them down;
where women prematurely old sat on the
| steps and gazed listlessly at us, dispirited,
discouraged and each with a baby in her
arms. Old-men paced slowly up and down,
stared vacantly at us and (we say it rever-
ently) look as though death would be wel-
come. On into the marts of trade, where
shop-windows were decked with rich jew-
els, fine silks, curios, cheap goods; where
hucksters cried their wares; where laborers
A LETTER FROM ROME.
toiled with such a hopeless air; onto the
wharves where men half clad unloaded
great ships, carried boxes, barrels, bundles
so heavy that they stagger under their
loads. The shoulders of some are raw and
bleeding from the rough burdens they
bore. They hurried and are driven like
beasts, yet they are men. We grew sick at
the sight and were driven back to the hotel.
Sleep brought rest and forgetfulness, and
with the morning we were off to the Colos-
seum. This is the largest theater the world
ever saw; it is the most imposing ruin in
existence. Built by the cruel Titus, its as-
Within its walls
were enacted some of the darkest chapters
sociations are bloody.
in Roman history. In its construction sixty
thousand captive Jews were employed ten
SWISS GUARDS, VATICAN,
years. Tradition says that five thousand
beasts and ten thousand captives were slain
at its dedication, this festival lasting one
It covered six acres of ground and seated
It created and
developed brutal passion, yet the people
nearly 100,000 spectators.
who gathered there to witness wild beasts
devour Christians felt themselves secure.
Could we restore a Roman holiday what
would we see? The thousands of seats, ris-
ing tier above tier, are filled with the popu-
Yonder sits the Em-
peror surrounded by senators and nobles
lace in gala dress.
A EETTER FROM ROME.
and beautiful ladies. In the open space
below two gladiators appear armed with
battle-ax or spear. Their iron muscles
standing out in great knots quiver with
the expectation of the coming contest.
Their eyes gleam, their faces pale with the
agony of expected death, for death must
follows stroke only to be avoided with
come to one. The contest begins.
lightning-like rapidity and skill. They are
covered with blood, worn with fatigue, but
the fight goes on till one is down, the foot
of the victor upon the fallen body, his
spear upraised. Excitement is intense.
ST, ANGELO, ROME,
A LETTER FROM ROME.
Will the victor spare his foe? The pros-
trate gladiator looks up to the Emperor
who alone can spare his life. But the Em-
peror dare not disappoint the people who
have come to see a man murdered, and he
ladies cry with joy, the people applaud,
inverts his thumb, the signal death.
the spear descends, a human life goes out
and the lifeless body is dragged out leaving
a path of blood behind. Thank God, such
days have passed and men are no longer
â€œbutcheredâ€ to make a Roman holiday.
The picture appalled us and we hastened
to the Circus Maximus whose ruins can
still be seen. Vast as was the Colosseum,
it was a pigmy beside this. 250000 people
POPE LEO XIII.
A LETTER FROM ROME.
could be seated here and half a million are
said to have witnessed the races there in
the days of Romeâ€™s splendor. The associa-
tions here are less horrible than at the
Colosseum as only trials of speed and skill
were engaged in.
Next we went to St. Peters, the most
wonderful as it is the largest church in the
world. It is built on the spot occupied by
the Temple of Jupiter Vaticanus, from
which the palace of the Pope, the Vatican,
is named. The first church was built here
in the year 90 and was a memorial chapel
to St. Peter who is said to have been buried
beneath. St. Peterâ€™s church of to-day, the
crowning glory of the mighty genius of
Michael Angelo, was begun about 1503.
Tts erection overtaxed the Christian world
and led to the sale of indulgences to obtain
money with which to proceed. This brought
forth a protest from Martin, the first of the
Protestants, and effected the Reformation
by which Germany and northern Europe
were lost to the Church of Rome. The
church looks immense from a distance, but
is disappointing as you approach. The
piazza with its massive columns and play-
ing fountains prepare one for the grandeur
As we enter
Over the altar
is a canopy one hundred feet high and
and splendor of the interior.
its beauty bursts upon us.
weighing nearly one hundred tons, yet it
appears not half so high. In the distance
is astatue of St. Peter. We guess its size
half that of an average man. We approach
and find it twice as tall and twice as large.
In the distance are the noted cherubs look-
ing like dolls. One of our party investi-
gates and as he stands before them he, too,
looks to be an infant. We climb the dome,
and though it seems small, the people in
The little ball
upon the dome which we had noted from
the street are but pigmies.
the street is hollow and in it sixteen people
It is then that the
stained windows let in a flood of light mel-
could meet at once.
vastness of the church overwhelms us.
lowed and softened until it seems like a
halo around the heads of the numerous
statues which adorn the church. Would
that we might describe the glory and the
splendor of St. Peters from an artistâ€™s view,
We recall its
grandeur, its sublimity as a holy memory,
but description fails us.
but its beauty must be seenâ€”it cannot be
pictured in words.
The, Vatican near by, is the winter resi-
In it are 13,000 apart-
ments and more than two hundred stair-
dence of the Pope.
ways. On its walls are some of the grandest
frescoes of Michael Angelo, the Last Judg-
ment being the most noted. (The Vatican
is guarded by troops known as the Swiss
highly trained, proud of their honorable
They are hardy mountaineers,
position and selected for this purpose be-
cause they are absolutely honest and in-
corruptible.) So it seems that even in
A LETTER FROM ROME.
Rome, at his own home the Pope must go
to other nations to find body guards upon
whom he can rely.
In the Papal Palace, next to the Vatican,
is the most famous picture gallery in the
world. Here are gathered the works of all
the masters, which fill the soul of a lover of
art with ecstacy. We might spend days
here and then not be satisfied. It is need-
less to say that this is one of the favorite
resorts of tourists.
Among the old castles the most interest-
ing, perhaps, is the Castle of St. Angelo.
Originally this was a tomb erected by Had-
rian, A. D. 136, for himself and his succes-
sors. On a base 342 feet square rises a
covering has fallen away, but the structure
cylinder 240 feet in diameter.
still remains. Around the top were numer-
On the top of this
cylinder was another, surmounted by a large
ous marble statues.
statue of Hadrian, which has disappeared.
Tn later times this tomb was converted into
a fortress and the statutes on the top hurl-
ed down on the besiegers.
Legend says that in 590, during the reign
of Gregory the Great, while he was conduct-
ing a procession to pray for the cessation
of the plague then raging, he beheld the
Archangel Michael sheathing his sword
above the castle. In commemoration of
this, a chapel was erected upon the summit.
Tn time of war it has been used as a citadel,
but is now regarded as an interesting ruin,
though occupied. Visitors are admitted
A LETTER FROM ROMR.
only at 11 oâ€™clock, A. M. daily, under the
guidance of a soldier, and only six persons
are admitted at atime. As a consequence,
many tourists of a short stay are not able
This, too, must be left
ere we have seen the half we want to see,
to see its interior.
but time is short and we must away. With
love to all the dear ones at home, I am, sin-
cerely, Your loving
P. S.â€”I enclose a picture of Queen Mar-
gherita, wife of King Humbert I, and
Ttalyâ€™s inuch-loved Queen of to-day. tt
would have done your heart good to see and
hear the little peasant boys and girls circle
around our coach yesterday as we drove out
on the Appian Way, and sing in their usual
sweet way â€œQueen Margherita! Queen
Margherita We could not resist pouring
out to them all our small change as we went
STORY OF THE GLACIER.
EW of us, perhaps, have seen the | the Northâ€™and the frigid zones, how many
mighty glacier and as we have read | of us have given a thought to their growth
of them in the Alps, in the mountains of | and structure? As â€œlittle drops of water
TYNDALLâ€™S GLACIER IN WHALES SOUND.
make the mighty ocean,â€ so little flakes of | vated regions form, layer upon layer, until
snow, falling silently one upon another, | they become a frozen mass, sometimes
partly melted by the rays of the sun and | covering miles in area, and the result is a
then frozen by the cold nights of North- | glacier.
ern zones, or the low temperature of ele- In the Alps of Switzerland these great
FIVE YEARS OF TRAVEL.
bodies have been studied and measured
carefully, and we find that the glacier,
instead of being a solid, immovable mass,
is, in reality, a river of ice, with a motion
and current of itsown. By driving stakes,
one on each side and others in line with
them, it has been found that a short time
suffices to throw these stakes into an
irregular, broken line, the ones in the
center moving faster than those near the
edges. In this way their rate of speed is
determined, sometimes one foot per day,
sometimes more, sometimes less.
The glaciers always move down the slope
either toward the valley or toward the
ocean. In the Alps the giacier, as it moves
down into the valley, is melted by the
warmer temperature until the rate of melt-
ing equals the rate of speed of the glacier,
and from its base a stream of pure water
flows. In the frigid zones, as in Green-
land, these glaciers move toward the ocean
and, as they reach the shore, the great
weight of the body behind pushes it on
Here it finally floats until
a great mass, broken off by its own weight,
into the ocean.
floats off as an iceberg. These float into
warmer climes until melted and then, again,
after evaporation, they are carried by the
winds into the colder regions and fall
again as snow to form a never-ending
A great many travellers take trips over
these glaciers, accompanied by guides that
are used to doing such work. It is a very
dangerous undertaking anyway, for some-
times where the ice looks solid it is really
very weak. The experienced guide ean
party start out they each have a long,
tell a great deal by the looks.
stout stick with an iron point, and a rope
is tied from the guide around each person
in line. This is done so that if one of the
party should slip, he or she will be held
by the rest. For, if any one should fall
there, and start to slide, it would probably
be fatal. The ice often has large open
â€˜cracks, many feet deep, and to slide into
one of these would be almost instant
death. The countries where this climbing
is done most, are those in the region of
lers meet and the guides do nothing else
Here large numbers of travel-
but take parties out. These trips may
be of great good to us for it gives a
chance for us to see the wonders and
fozees of our world which are made and
controlled by a higher hand than ours.
Among the most noted of these immense
bodies is Tyndallâ€™s in Whale
Sound, Greenland, a cut of which we show.
Far as the eye can reach, it stretches a
field of ice, yet it moves and, day after
day, it pushes farther out into ocean until
broken into pieces, it floats off as we have
stated. What a lesson it teaches as it
moves silently on and what a witness to
the wisdom of Him who rules the World?
STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
J is 1590. In the old Manor House at
Scrooby, lives one of Queen Eliza-
bethâ€™s postmasters. He lives a quiet,
peaceful lfie, but isa thinking man and be-
lieves that neither Bishop, Pope, King nor
Queen should control men in religious mat-
wants a purer worship, objects to finery in
ters. His name is William Brewster.
the garments of the Bishops, hates mum-
mery, believes that men should not was te
time in drinking, dancing and idleness.
For this reason his followers are nicknamed
The Queen and the Bishops
say that everyone must attend the Hstab.
lished Church on Sunday, or suffer im-
It is these things that make William
Brewster and his followers sad. Brewster
invites his friends to the Old Manor House
on Sunday. They claimed that any body
of Christian believers may form a church
and choose their own minister without aid
from Pope or Bishop.
Soon these churches multiply and Par-
liament passes a law imprisoning for three
months all who do not conform to the
Queenâ€™s church. Many of the new church-
es are broken up by this law; some of the
numbers are banished and some seek safety
in Holland. But the postmaster at Scroo-
by is so far away that he is not molested
In 1608, Queen
Bess dies and King James comes to the
and the meetings go on.
throne. He says, â€œI will have one doc.
trine, one religion, and all must conform.
I will banish or hang all who do not.â€
This is sad news to Brewster and his
friends. They value life, they love their
country; but principle is worth more than
What shall they do? They
think of the New World, but they cannot
go without a license and this the King will
not grant. Then they decide to sell their
lands and go to Holland where men can
think for themselves, but the King will
not even permit this. Then they resolve
to go secretly. They sell their lands, pack
their goods, and make their way to the
coast. They board a ship for Amsterdam,
but the captain tells the constable and
they are marched off to the magistrate, who
puts them in prison. There they remain
for many weeks, but at last are set free.
After six months Brewster tries again. He
bargains with a Dutch captain to take him-
self and friends, One by one they make
their way to the appointed spot to board
the ship. They spend the night without
shelter, but in the morning the boat ap-
pears and the men begin to load their
While at work on board the ship
a troop of armed men rush upon them and
seize the women who are on land. The
Husbands and wives are sep-
captain is frightened and sails away.
a sad hour.
arated; families are broken up. Who knows
if they shall ever meet again?
The ship is caught in a storm and car-
THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
ried far out of her course, but after being
driven about for fourteen days reaches
Holland and the men disembark. But
what of the women? The officers dare not
imprison them for going with their hus-
bands and fathers, and after many days
they set them free and allow them to get
to Holland as best they can.
THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
Nas these poor people reached
Holland they were in a sad
plight. Their property was gone; they
could not speak a word of Dutch, yet they
do not despair. Brewster learns to set
type; Bradford becomes a weaver; one
learns to lay brick, another is a carpenter,
and so they keep the wolf from the door.
On Sundays they gather to hear John
Robinson preach, and after church all eat
dinner together. They call themselves
â€œ Pilgrims in Holland.â€
As the years go by they are troubled
about their children, There are no Eng-
lish schools and they are too poor to estab-
lish one of their own and so they resolve
to find a home beyond the sea, where they
can teach their children to love and rever-
ence the principles so dear to them. They
send two of their number back to London
to enlist some merchants in forming a col-
ony in the New World. The merchants
obtain permission from the King, but he
says the colonists must conform to the
Church of England. Will they do this?
Having left England for the sake of prin-
ciple, will they now surrender? Not they.
Two more years pass with the exiles in
Holland. They have, by hard work, suc-
ceeded somewhat in bettering their condi-
tion, but still desire a home in that far off
land. Oze day a London merchant comes
and tells them Earls and Lords have form-
nobles have persuaded King James to give
them all the land which Captain John
Smith called New England. They call
themselves the Plymouth Company. They
ed a new company for speculation.
desire to send out a colony and Brewster
and two others go to London to make
terms. Of course Brewster insists that his
people shall not be molested in their relig-
ion. The company is powerful enough to
secure this promise from King James,
THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS. 198
An agreement is made and a company
formed. The shares in the company are
$50 each. Every colonist over sixteen
years shall be equai to one share. Every
one who furnishes an outfit worth $50
shall have an additional share. These
Pilgrims agree to work for seven years
during which time all their labor shall go
to one common fund and their support shall
come from the same. â€˜These are the con-
ditions the Plymouth Company make; the,
put their dollars against life, labor, health.
The Pilgrims must endure hardships, en-
counter dangers, suffer privation, and for
seven long years cannot claim a penny of
their earnings. The terms are hard,but the
Pilgrims accept. Surely men who do as
these men have done will come out victor-
ious. Let us see! God generally helps
those who help themselves,
THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
ON THE OCEAN.
. T last all is ready. These brave
men who fled from old England
to Holland, who have endeared themselves
to the people by their honest, industrious
ways, are once more to embark for a new
world where religious liberty awaits them.
They know but little of this far-off land,
yet they are eager to make it their home,
for there they can worship God. The prin-
ciples for which they have so long con-
tended shall triumph. â€˜Tis ever so. Truth,
justice, liberty, must ever succeed. The
giver of all good has so decreed and others
shall find it so as did these lowly Pilgrims.
On July 21st two ships lay at anchorâ€”
the Mayflower and the Speedwell. Before
starting they meet once more. They spend
the morning in fasting and prayer, listen
to a solemn sermon, partake of a frugal
meal and sing once more. The night is
spent in conversation, and when morning
comes, they crowd on board. A last prayer,
from the pastor they love so well, and then,
with aching hearts and tear-stained cheeks,
they bid a last farewell. The anchor is
raised, the wind fills the sails and, with a
. parting salute, they set sail.
When under way; they chose a governor
for each ship. These governors were not
appointed by the king, but were elected
by the votes of the Pilgrims. This is a
new order of things. John Carver, the
governor of the Mayflower, is elected by
the people. Hardly are they under way
ere the Speedwell springs a leak and they
put into Dartmouth for repairs.
Two weeks pass and again they start.
Again the Speedwell is disabled, declared
unfit for the voyage and they sail into
Plymouth Harbor. Some have lost heart,
but those who will go are crowded into the
Mayflower, with such goods as they can
carry,and on September 16th, the vessel
starts on her long journey freighted with
102 soulsâ€”aye with more: with the des-
._ tiny of a nation, for from this ship shall
be sown the seed from which shall spring
justice, liberty, progress. They know not
what is before them, but they put their
trust in God, knowing â€œHe doeth all
things well,â€ and press on.
Raging storms dispute their passage,
fierce winds toss the frail ship about and the
angry waves threaten to engulf them. The
main beam is torn away and the ship is in
danger of going to pieces. But one of the
Pilgrims brings out a great iron screw,
forces the beam in place, and they are
saved. Why it was brought he does not
know, but suffice it to say that the hand
of Providence was at the helm.
One poor fellow falls overboard and is
lost, and for days his agonizing cries ring
in their ears. A child is born on the voy-
two months and three days they press on
age and they name him Oceanus.
when, on November 19th, the glad cry of
â€œLand,â€ â€œLand,â€ thrills all on board.
With eager eyes, they gaze upon the long
stretch of sandy beach with forests on the
hills beyond. They sail south along the
shore to find a landing place, and finallv,
on November 21st, they find themselves in
the calm waters of Cape Cod Bay.
THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
The Pilgrims are law abiding men and
in the cabin of the ship they sign a sol-
emn agreement as follows: â€˜In the name
of God, Amen.
derwritten, by these presents, solemnly
We whose names are un-
and mutually, in the presence of God and
one another, covenant and combine our-
selves together into a civil body politic,
for our better ordering and preservation,
and furthermore of the ends aforesaid, and
by virtue hereof to enact, constitute and
form such just and equal laws, ordinances,
acts, constitutions and offices, from time to
. time as shall be thought most meet and
convenient for the general good of the
colony, unto which we promise all due sub-
mission and obedience.â€™ This paper is not
a compact or agreement between two part-
ies, but is a constetutzon deriving its power
from only one party, the people.
Now that the Pilgrims have a govern-
ment with a written constitution, they pro-
ceed to organize an army. There are only
sixteen in this army, but brave Miles
Standish, who has fought against the Span-
iards, is chosen captain. The army goes
ashore and march into the forest, but at
night return to the ship. Early Monday
morning all are astir. The men carry
kettles ashore and the women great bun-
dles of dirty clothes, for it is washing day.
While the women wash, Captain Standish
and his army stand guard. On Wednes-
day, the army while marching, come upon
THE STORY OF THE PILGRiiy.
a party of Indians who flee swiftly. They
find a quantity of corn and carry away all
that they can, promising to pay the owners
if they can find them.
On Wednesday, December 18, men em-
bark in the large boat which the carpenter
has fitted up, and start out to find a better
landing place. They sail across the bay
and at night land. The next day half of
the men march through the woods. While
eating their breakfast arrows fall around
them and they hear strange yells. The
army grasp their guns and fire at the foe.
An Indian falls wounded but his comrades
carry him off. The army follow them a
little way, give a parting volley, and re-
turn. They pick up the arrows, thinking
their friends in England would like to see
these curious weapons. Then they em-
bark; a storm arises; the rudder breaks;
the mast is torn away and death threatens
them; the tide carries them into a cave
where they cannot land. They take the
oars and when night comes find themselves
in smooth water where they can land.
They are chilled, drenched, weak and weary
when morning comes, and they decide to
rest through the day and prepare for the
On Monday they pull to the main land
where they find fresh water and corn fields.
They climb a hill, look the ground over,
spend some time on their explorations and
decide to make this their home. They re-
turn to the ship, announce their decision,
and the Mayflower bears across the bay to
establish a new state. They take a vote to
decide where they shall build and the ma-
jority decide, and that which men have
fought and died for is now an accomplish-
ed fact, the right of the people to rule,
THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
AT PLYMOUTH, AMERICA.
ECEMBER 21, 1620, is a cheer-
1) less day on the coast where the
Pilgrims make their landing.
Cold winds blow; snow-capped hills, ice-
blocked shores, dense forests, savage foes
are before them. Homes, friends and
kindred are behind them. Yet there
is no thought of turning back. Their
trust is in that God who has protected
them in exile and directed them across the
deep; they picture a future where they
shall be free to worship that God, but lit-
tle know they what shall come of their
venture. Even we who read their story
almost three centuries later have not seen
the beginning of the end.
First of all they must have shelter, so
while Captain Standish and a few soldiers
explore the surrounding country, the rest
set about building a common house where
their goods will be safe. Then they fell
trees and build houses of logs, covering
them with thatch. The long boat carries
many loads of boxes, bundles and bales,
chests and chairs, pots and kettles from
the ship to theshore. Meanwhile Captain
Standish and his men find wigwams and
corn but no Indians, and they almost hope
to see none till spring comes.
On New Yearâ€™s Day, 1621, occurs the
first death. Degory Priest isthe man, and
the Pilgrims lay him to rest with great
sorrow. Death seems near when one is
taken from so small a number. On Jan-
uary 29, Rose Standish, wife of the the cap-
tain, worn with hardship and weakened
from exposure, is called to her last home.
With aching hearts and swimming eyes,
they lay her away on top of the hill.
Their journal records this solemn entry:
â€œJanuary 29th Dies Rose, wife of Capt.
When spring comes with its birds and
But death does not stop here.
flowers, and cheerful sun, forty-six of the
one hundred and one lie beneath the hill,
with leveled mounds, that the Indians may
their hearts are torn they toil bravely on.
not k now how few are left.
William Brewster preaches to them, ex-
horts them, prays with them. He is their
religious teacher, using the gifts God has
given him. No bishop has licensed him
THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
to preach. He has no authority over his
people save such as comes from their
The members decide
Old England has
respect and love.
all questions by vote.
never seen such a church before.
all men are equal.
At last comes the day when the May-
flower sails for England, rending the last
tie that bound them to the motherland.
They watch her as she fades in the dis-
tance, and now realize that they are
indeed in a strange land. - All winter the
Mayflower has ridden at anchor in the
- bay and every morning has seemed to say,
â€œdespair not, Iâ€™ll carry you back to the
old home.â€ But now that hope is gone.
The die is cast; they must remainâ€”they
cannot get away.
Then comes a sad blow; Governor Car-
ver, wise, prudent, courageous, righteous
dies. The loss is great. He is laid away
without pomp and mockery, as are the
rulers of the Old World, but with simple
ceremony and sincere grief.
Though the governor is dead, shall â€˜he
long as there is one man left, the state
The people are the state. So
shall live: The people elected John Car-
ver and now they elect William Bradford.
No throngs witness his advent to power;
he assumes his duties without ceremony.
Again the Old World wonders.
from the people, elected by the people.
This is a hard blow for kings and emper-
THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
ors, but from it shall come a revolution in
governmentâ€”an empire in which the king
is the subject and every subject a kingâ€”
are only fifty souls in this little state, yet
for here all men shall be equal.
they assemble and make their own laws.
Eyen John Billington finds this state has
power to enforce its laws, for he speaks
disrespectfully of the new governor and
the people say â€œtie him neck and heels
and feed him on bread and water until he
It is done, and John Bill-
ington learns that which we all should
heed, the law must be obeyed.
But what of the Indians?
back. On January 31st, two Indians are
seen, but they escape. On March 16th
an Indian marches boldly into camp and
We must go
astonishes them by saying â€˜Welcome
Englishmen.â€ His name is Samoset. He
has mingled with the English fishers on
the coast of Maine and has learned a little
English. The Pilgrims treat him kindly,
for they want to be at peace with their
dusky neighbors. He goes away, but
returns with an Indian named Squanto
who was one of twenty seized by a cruel
sailor named Hunt and carried to Spain
Squanto has been in
other Indians accompany them and offer
some years before.
London and can speak English.
furs for sale. Squanto tells them that
their big chief, Massasoit, is close at hand
and, while they are talking, the chief, with
sixty Indians, comes in sight on top of
returns saying Massasoit wants to treat
with them. Mr, Edward Winslow is sent
to meet them and say that the governor
Squanto goes to meet them and
will see them. Then the chief leaves
Mr. Winslow with his followers and with
twenty Indians enters the colony but, to
disarm suspicion, they leave their bows
and arrows behind them. Captain Stan-
dish with six soldiers go out to meet them,
conduct them to a house and seat them
on a green rug and several cushions.
The governor enters attended with drum,
trumpet and soldiers. They kissed each
otherâ€™s hands and then all sat and, after
some refreshments, concluded an agree-
ment of friendship. This agreement was
Afterward, Governor Bradford remem-
bered that the Indians had never been
paid for the corn the Pilgrims had taken.
So he sent two men, with Squanto for a
guide, to the home of Massasoit with a
red coat trimmed with lace and a copper
chain for his neck. This pleased Massasoit
greatly and he rewewed his agreement of
friendship by smoking the pipe of peace
and giving the men some corn to plant.
The men were glad to leave the home of
Massasoit for he lived in a wigwam or hut
of bark, alive with fleas, and had ver
little to eat.
Squanto showed the Pilgrims how to
THE STORY OF THE PILGRIMS.
plant corn and to fertilize it by putting a
herring in each hill. During the first
summer the Pilgrims had plenty to eat
for fish were abundant, ducks and geese
abounded and the woods were filled with
deer and wild turkeys. Their corn and
barley ripened nicely and game was dried
and preparations made for winter.
One morning Massasoit and ninety In-
dians arrived. They went into the woods
and killed five deer; the Pilgrims gave
bread and corn and for three days they
feasted and thanked God for his merciesâ€”
the first Thanksgiving in the New World,â€™
Soon after a sail was seen and the ship
Fortune anchored in the bay. She had
come from the London merchants with
some of the Pilgrims from Holland and
some men who had come as mere adven-
turers. The ship had come for furs, which
the Pilgrims had secured by trapping and
barter with the Indians. When Christmas
came the Pilgrims continued at work, for
they associated this day with the church
which had persecuted them. The adven-
turers who had come refused to work
that day saying, â€œIt is against our con-
science.â€ â€œVery well,â€ said the governor,
â€œif it is against your conscience I will
excuse you.â€ When the Pilgrims returned
from their labor at noon, they found these
engaged at play. The governor said, â€œIf
it is against your conscience to work to-
day it is against my conscience to allow
men learned that these simple peopleâ€˜
you to play while others work.â€
whom they despised, were a state and
the state must be obeyed. From the will
are not through learning that lesson yet
of the people there was no appeal.
though the beginning is so old.
In their houses these people hung these
rules: â€˜Profane no Divine ordinance.
Touch no state matters. Pick no quar-
rels. Encourage no vice. Maintain no ill
Make no long meals. Lay no
wagers.â€ Shall we wonder that such a
people laid well the foundations of a
nation wherein liberty, justice, equality
are the watchwords?
You will find some of the events of this
early settlement told in beautiful language
by Longfellow in â€œMiles Standish.â€ It,
of course, is mainly about Standish him-
self, but shows, in addition, a pretty pic-
ture of the home-life of people which we
because we always hear so much about
like to see. It is more acceptable
the hard, stern life of the early pilgrims
and it is pleasant to know that there was
some of the home-life there which appeals
The story tells of
the courtship of Standish and the sailing
to all of our natures.
back to England at just the same time
of the Mayflower.
this short poem.
Everyone should read
We owe more for the
solid, substantial institutions of our coun-
try to the early workers than to anyone else.
THE STORY OF PRINTING.
ee care of the pence and the
pounds will take care of them-
selves,â€ is an old saw dinned into the
ears of old and young ever since â€˜ Poor
Richardâ€ gave it to the world. Take care
of the minutes and the hours will take
care of themselves, is but a variation of the
same thought. How important this is can
be seen by tracing the development of
great industries of to-day from the crude
ideas which have come to men, who wasted
no time, but gave their leisure moments to
thinking and studying topics interesting
Our readers, perhaps, take up this book
with little thought from whence came the
idea that has made books and papers
multiply until from expensive luxuries,
afforded by the very wealthy, they have
become common necessities, found in the
Almost five hundred years ago, in the
Netherlands, a low, flat country, unbroken
by nill or dale, yet dotted with green pas-
tures, waving meadows, well-tilled fields,
prosperous cities, thriving hamlets, and
pleasant homes, with a people simple,
cleanly, honest, industrious, where patient
men toil all the day in the fields, where
tender-eyed women with snowy kerchiefs
around their heads, till the gardens and
scrub the floors to snowy whiteness, where
sturdy, rosy-cheeked maidens drive dogs
to market with loads of butter, cheese and
vegetables, where chubby babes are found
everywhereâ€”upon the floor, upon the
grass, upon the pavementâ€”there lived in
the sleepy old town of Harlem a simple
Dutchman, Lawrence Coster.
A patient, plodding, painstaking man
was he, respected by his neighbors, yet
none, for a moment, thought there was
budding in his brain an idea which would
revolutionize the world. One day he took
his children into the country to breathe
the fresh air, to sit beneath the tree and
While the children
are at play, he whiles away the time by
to hear the birds sing.
carving their names upon the bark of the
tree beneath which he sits. Suddenly an
idea comes to him. Why not carve the
letters of the alphabeth upon separate
blocks, tie them together to make words,
ink them and stamp any word in the lan-
calls his children, hastens home and sets
So anxious is he to try it that he
to work. With patient care he carves his
blocks, ties them together and printsâ€”not
a few words but a pamphlet. But what
of this? Hitherto books have been writ-
THE STORY OF PRINTING.
sen with a pen, letter by letter, word by
word; the pages have been traced until
the volume is complete. How slow! Men
have spent months, years, aye, have begun
when young, have toiled early and late,
and have died with the bookâ€”unfinished.
True, the Chinese and the Egyptians have
carved letters on blocks, have printed
from these blocks, but our simple Dutch-
man from Harlem is the first to te letters
into words and print from them.
sleepy old town awakens and clamors for
Carter is astounded at his success.
more pamphlets and so Carter employs
John Guttenberg to help him. Together
they toil and study to make printing
easier. How-shall it be done? The blocks
of wood wear out quickly, too much time
is needed to replace them. Something
else must be found. Lawrence Coster
dies, but his secret lives in the breast
of the sturdy man who has helped him.
Guttenberg toils on, and now that Coster
is gone, more the need of letters that will
endure. â€˜Make them of metal,â€ say Gut-
tenberg, but alas, to carve the metal is too
â€œWhat shall I
* Ah, now I have
it,â€ and he carves a letter in the block,
tedious, too expensive.
do?â€ says Guttenberg.
fills it with molten metal, lets it cool, takes
it out and has what he and Coster have so
To trace the whole growth of printing
from the early stages down to to-day is
beyond the limits of this story. But we
can note briefly what the main steps have
the world, all due directly to
The next step was the hand
been and what great
printing press, with the inking roller,
Then, as books were more and more. in
demand, the type wore out too fast. It
was found possible to make an exact copy
of the type by the aid of electricity and
this copy is called an electrotype. This pro-
cess is in common use now for nearly
all kinds of printing. Without doubt, the
â€œmost powerful and far-reaching influence
might almost say that the press has done
has been the printing of the Bible.
more to Christianize and civilize the world
than any other thing. With this increase
of books and knowledge, the fear and su-
perstition that prevailed in olden times dis-
appeared and the people read and thought
for themselves. To-day all can enjoy the
privilege of reading, and for those that
cannot buy books can have the free use of
And what shall come of this? With
printed books comes knowledge; men read
and think, and with thinking comes the end
of kings and emperors and in their place
stands Liberty, with its priceless heritage.
Centuries have passed since Lawrence Cos-
ter carved his childrensâ€™ names on the tree
near Harlem, but his idea is growing yet,
What shall come of it?
THE MAGNA CHARTA.
. LMOST seven centuries ago there
ruled in England a cruel king.
The Barons called him John Luckland,
because his father willed him no land
when he died. Johnâ€™s brother, Richard
Coeur-de-Lion, he of crusader fame, died
and John seized his plate and jewels and
claimed that Richard had willed him all.
Johnâ€™s nephew, Prince Arthur, was the
real heir to the throne, but John threw
him into prison and ordered his eyes to
be burned out with hot irons. Cruel man,
yet he and many others thought, in that
day, that the king could do no wrong.
When King John wanted money he took
it. He seized some rich Jew in London
and said, â€œâ€˜Give up your money or I will
have your teeth pulled.â€ One brave man
* Pull a tooth,â€ said the King.
It was done. â€œ Will you give up your
â€œNo.â€ â€œPull another,â€ said
the King. This was done. â€œNow will
you give up your money?â€ said John.
Still the man refused. â€˜Pull them. all
out,â€ said the King, in a rage, and out
they came. â€˜Now then, will you comply
with my demands?â€ said John, â€œNo.â€
â€œThen I will take it all,â€ said the King,
and so the brave fellow lost his teeth and
his money too,
â€˜King and state their demands.
King John wanted food for his soldiers
and ordered the countrymen to drive their
cattle into camp to be killed. The Welsh
refused to obey and John seized twenty-
eight sons of the chief families and put
The Welshmen flew to
John put the young men to death,
them in prison.
hoping to frighten the Barons into sub-
mission. The Barons answer by declar-
ing they will no longer submit to such
tyranny and form themselves into â€˜The
Army of God.â€ Then they send to the
furious and answers with terrible oaths;
â€œT will not grant you liberties which will
make me a slave.â€ The Barons prepare
to attack the King and, despite his bluster
and his oaths, coward that he is, he sends
word to the Barons that he will meet
them at Runnymede and treaty with them.
It is the 15th of June, 1215, and â€œThe
Army of Godâ€ is encamped at Runny-
All the Barons and Lords and
owners of castles are there, wearing coats
of mail and swords, bearing lances and
Tents dot the fresh
grass, banners wave in the summer air,
riding noble horses.
yet there will be no clashing of arms this
day. John rides down from his castle with
a troop of followers. He passes through
Windsor forest where the deer feed and
the pheasants build their nests, but sees
nothing of these beauties because of fright.
He meets the Barons on an island and,
without, question, signs their demands. A
great piece of beeswax, as large as a sau-
cer and an inch in thickness, is attached
to the parchment stamped with the Kingâ€™s
seal. The Barons shout for joy, but John
rides back silent and gloomy. Once inside
his castle walls, he raves like a madman;
he gnashes his teeth, curses savagely, bites
sticks, chews straws and swears revenge.
But what is this parchment that makes |
the Barons joyful and John so angry? It
says that hereafter there shall be a Great
Council of Barons, Earls and Archbishops,
whom the King must summon from time
to time and that lesser Barons are to
be summoned by the sheriffs of the coun-
ties. These will be the Parliament. Here-
after the King shall not levy taxes and trib-
ute as he pleases, Parliament will do this.
No man shall be punished at the whim
of the King, but shall have a fair trial
by his equals. No wonder the King raves
as he sees his power disappear. And what
Out of this charter
has come English liberty and the freedom
shall come of this?
and equality which form the corner-stone
of our own government to-day.
â€œThe Army of Godâ€ waged a bloodless
battle on that June afternoon so long ago,
but out of it have come liberty, justice,
THE STORY OF THE MAGNA CHARTA.
equality, to all English-speaking people.
The old parchment, with its great seal, has
crumpled, worn and yellow with age ina
glass case in the British Museum to-day,
of little account in itself, but out of it
have come blessings of infinite value,
the beginning of the liberty we enjoy to-
A good idea of lifeâ€”the life of the peo-
ple at the time of Johnâ€™s reignâ€”may be
gained from Sir Walter Scottâ€™s splendid
story Ivanhoe. Here is depicted the char-
acter of John in true life, the reckless, ex-
travagant mode of living. His overbear-
ing and haughty way with his subjects and
the thoughts and life of the people are
shown in a way that only Scott had. But
this charta was only the first step for the
freedom and bettering of the people. For
along while only the lords and nobility
were helped by parliament, but soon the
time came when the common people de-
manded of the lords what they had pre-
viously demanded from King John. Then
followed a series of laws on the land, the
corn laws and several others that were of
we see the final far-reaching effect of the
incalculable value to the poor class.
rebellion of the barons and lords against
John coming down through the years and
the never ending struggle of man against
oppression. We have this same rebellion
to-day, but we settle these questions dif-
feyently now than then,
THE FINEST PARK IN THE WORLD,
THE FINEST PARK IN THE WORLD.
; BOUT ten miles from Paris is
located Versailles, the handsomest
and most extended park of the
world. This was originally laid out by the
pleasure-loving monarch, Louis XIV, who
built a most magnificent palace. This was
enlarged during the reign of Louis XV,
and again during the reign of Louis XVI.
To-day this palace is but a show place and
a museum where are preserved many fine
paintings and pieces of statuary.
About a mile distant from the palace is
the garden of the Petit Trianon, a small
villa built by Louis XVI for Marie Antoi-
nette. Here she spent her happiest hours.
| It was here that she and her courtiers and
SIDE VIEW NOTRE DAME CHURCH.
ladies attired themselves as simple country
folk and made butter in a golden bowl and
skimmed the cream with a jeweled ladle.
The surrounding woods are beautiful,
and the rivulet running in all directions
makes you think that at one time a goddess
must have reigned there supreme.
Poor Marie Antoinette!
; MONG the many famous places in
Europe which are visited every
year by travelers, and the one I am
going to tell you about, is the Fortress of
Gibralter,â€ said Miss Grace Meley, who
was to take the place of Mr. Gray during
â€œGibralter is a
sort of mountain of rock lying off the
his absence from the Club.
southern coast of Spain and connected to
the mainland by only alow, sandy isthmus.
â€˜This rock is about two and one-half miles
long and is divided into three summits or
tops. The one on the north is called Wolfâ€™s
Craig, that on the south Sugar Loaf Hill,
and the one between, Middle Hill or Signal
The north side, which fronts the isthmus
connecting it with mainland, is so high
and steep that it needs no defense, while
the eastern and southern sides are also very
rugged and difficult to mount.
| western side, the rock
206 THE ISLAND
down to the sea, and it is here that the
town has been built.
Everywhere the place is strongly guarded
sages have been cut out of the solid rock in
by guns and cannon and soldiers.
many places that they might have all
points protected, and in times of war it is
almost proof against any attack.
The town, as well as the rest of the rock,
is well guarded by soldiers and their rules
are so strict that a traveler must obtain a
pass from some official even if he remain
there only aday. Should he wish to stay
longer, he must get some householder to
vouch for his good behaviour.
Gibralter is famous for its caverns in the
rocks and is sometimes called the Hill of
Caves. Some of them are very beautiful,
especially the Genista Cave and St. Mich-
aelâ€™s, which many travelers think excel our
own Mammoth Cave in Kentucky.
When you first come in sight of Gibral-
ter from aboard a ship, it looks very barren
and desolate, but as the boat slowly makes
its way to the landing place, you find that
it is a very pretty scene after all.
Around you are the different boats, the
water glistening in the bright sunshine and
the long pier where the boats unload their
cargoes, while off to your left, at the foot
of the rock, like a picture framed in its
dark setting, lies the town, all aglow with
its great quantities of beautiful wild flow-
ers which blossom at this season of the
year. Here, too, are the little Barbary Apes
which every school boy has heard about,
but which not every one living in Gibral-
ter has seen, since there are only a few,
perhaps twenty altogether. They do quite
a little damage to the fruit trees, but are
in as little danger of being harmed as the
storks over in Holland.
Although Gibralter is south of Spain, it
is owned by Great Britain and is a valu-
able protection to her ships passing from
the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterran-
ean sea. Everywhere to be seen English
THE ISLAND OF CORFU.
â€™ ELL,â€ said papa, one hot day in |
August as the family were seated
out in the woods waiting for his
usual after-lunch story, â€œI can think of
nothing that will so interest you on a day
like this as a little trip to the Adriatic sea,
and the Island of Corfu.
Let us imagine it is a clear day, and that
we are all seated on the upper deck of an
Austrian Lloyd steamer, bound for Patras,
THE ISLAND OF CORFU.
Greece. It is Springtime, the sky is cloud-
less, in fact, it is one of those clear skies in
which we can look off miles and see dis-
tant objects as though only a few feet away..
The very air is balmy, sweet, and full of
perfume. Other travelers like ourselves are
drinking in the beauty, and even the half
clad Turks who lie about the lower deck
wrapped in Turkish rugs seem content
with all surroundings.
Can you blame Homer and Virgil for
frequenting the adjacent islands, and weav-
ing into their poetry the charms and
beauties of this delightful sea?
As we steam away from Brindisi, we feel
like sailing on andon. Weare unmindful of
what lies before us, until we come in sight
of an Island. It looks so very strange, and
the natives so very picturesque that we
feel a longing to alight. But no, we are
not permitted. The steamer halts just far
enough out to permit the landing of the
mail and a few supplies, by means of a row
boat, then off we go.
Anon we come in sight of Corfu, quite a
large and important island, when we are
told we have two whole hours to see the
place. How we scramble and how anxi-
ously we await the row boat which is to
bear us away to this fairy land. -Several
ISLAND OF CORFU, SHOWING FORTIFICATIONS,
ISLE OF PONTIKONISI, ADRIATIC SEA.
SOME OF THE CITIES OF SWITZERLAND
have come and gone, surely we will get the
Well for us, that
one of the party understands a little Greek
and another a little of the Turkish lan-
guage, or we should be a pitiable set of
next boat, and so we do.
tourists, unable to understand even what
our eyes have taught us to see.
Here first are the fortifications, which to-
day are of little service, but which in times
of war are great protection. Then the town,
a queer place, and the country beyond it is
carriage drawn by two little ponies and let
Imagine ourselves seated in a
us away down the main drive of. the island
and across it where, standing by the great
tree, we can look over and see the little isle
of Pontikonisi of which Homer writes in
his Odyssey and of which you must read
when you get home. Off we must go again,
lest we miss our boat. But these flowers
on the way. Did you ever see anything
like them? Punch the driver, he must halt
long enough to let us pick at least a hand-
thing like them? And the wild straw-
Such fragrance. Was there ever any-
berries, how thick they grow, and oh, how
much they taste like flowers. These are
considered the finest in the world and seem
fit for only gods and goddesses.
â€˜We make our boat at last, but with a re-
gret that we cannot stay longer in this en-
chanted spot, the Island of Corfu.
SOME OF THE CITIES OF SWITZERLAND.
F you were to ask me,â€ said papa, â€œ who
â€˜| of all the people of Europe were the
most honest and exacting in their deal-
ings, I should have to answer the Swiss.
Indeed it surprises one not a little, and
especially after passing through Italy and
observing the way of Italians in asking one
price and accepting another, to note how
injured a Swiss feels if you infer that per-
haps he will take a trifle less for his goods
than he asks. He has one price and that
only, you can take them at his figure or
leave them alone just as you please.
I wonder if you ever saw a town that
had stores under the sidewalk. I never
did until I visited the quaint town of
under the sidewalks the entire length
Here the main street has stores
which makes it interesting and almost
picturesque. Indeed, I donâ€™t remember of
seeing but one team on the street at mid-
day, but the shoppers on the contrary,
seemed to fill it full, and I sometimes won-
dered if there was left even room for a
donkey to pass.
The Swiss have many queer customs,
among them is that of delivering milk from
door to door with a cart drawn by a pair of
SOME OF THE CITIES OF SWITZERLAND.
dogs. These dogs are faithful beasts and
while the milkman is serving the people,
usually one dog keeps guard while the
other lies down to rest.
Even the Capital city, Berne, has its
peculiar characteristics. That which is most
noticeable to a stranger is the strange
fountains. These appear on almost every.
corner, and so odd and ridiculous are they
as to cause one to not only stare, but smile
and wonder how this custom ever origin-
Then, too, here are some famous old
clocks. Among-them is the Calendar Clock
| wonderful places.â€
in the tower at the entrance to one of the
old city gates. This is an ingenious piece
of work with automatic figures striking the
hours. Just before it strikes a little wooden
man comes out and rings two little bells,
then a procession of little bears comes out
and describes a circle around an old man,
who, in sitting posture, holds in one hand
a sceptre and in another an hour-glass.
The man turns the hour-glass and counts
At each stroke the old
man opens his mouth.
with his sceptre.
Some day I hope you may all see these
â€œSo do I,â€ said Alice,
STREET SCENE, THUN.
SOME OF THE CITIES OF SWITZERLAND. 211
â€œand when I visit Berne, I shall spend | tower, where so many people go daily to
most of my time in front of this old clock | watch it strike.â€
CLOCK TOWER, BERNE,
BAGPIPE FOUNTAIN, BERNE.
GREECE AND ITS RULERS.
GREECE AND ITS RULERS.
S Greece in days of old when Mil-
tiades with his little band of 10,000
patriots bade defiance to King
Darius and his 100,000 cohorts, and not
only saved Europe from the clutches of an
Eastern despot and preserved the germs of
political liberty for generations yet unborn,
so in the present year this little nation has,
in a measure, bid defiance to the Great
Powers of Europe, and at the pitiful cry of
an outraged and persecuted Christian peo-
ple rushed to their aid and by her bold
stand for right and humanity against Mos-
lem, oppression, robbery and murder made
it possible for a people to worship Christ
in the land of Mahomet.
The ancient grandeur and glory of
Greece, her civilization and her progress,
her sculpture and her art, her legends. and
her history, her people and her rulers, take
new lustre from the courageous actions of
No wonder, then, that
we visit her shores with renewed interests
her present king.
and drink inspiration from her present as
well as from her past. Much can be said
of the Grecian people, of their courtesy
and their politeness, their hospitality and
their simplicity, their education and their
refinement, their poverty and their kind-
ness, their sobriety and their virtue.
In personal appearance King George, of
Greece, is tall and slight, with bright, pierc-
ing, blue eyes, active and energetic in move-
ment, kind and courteous in manner, a tire-
less worker, deeply interested in the wel-
fare of his subjects; every morning at seven
oâ€™clock finds him at his desk reading docu-
ments, signing state papers and receiving
In the after-
noon he visits schools, hospitals, barracks
the reports of his ministers.
and prisons, alert to every opportunity to
improve the condition of his subjects. The
King has an allowance of $200,000 per
annum, one-half of which comes from the
National revenue, and one-half*of which is
voted in sums of $20,000 each by the Five
Great Powers, England, France, Germany,
Austria and Russia. Vast as this income
seems it is small in comparison with that
of other Monarchs and only by the utmost
care can it be made to meet the expenses
of the Royal Household. Â©
Queen Olga is adored by her husband
and by the Greeks.
commanding, with a most winning smile.
She, too, is tall and
She isa woman of great intelligence and
loved throughout the Kingdom for her
charity. Twice each month she visits the
hospital founded by herself to see that the
sick have every comfort. During the Rus-
so-Turkish War she tended the sick and
wounded and by her devotion won the love
234 GREECE AND ITS RULERS.
of all. But above all she is a devoted wife | the Emperor of Germany, in 1889. Thus
and a good mother, personally superintend- | by marriage Greece is allied to two of the
ing the education of her children. She is | Great Powers.
a Russian Grand Duchess by birth and Court life at Athens is very pleasant, and
strongly Russian in her tastes and tenden- | no European Court is more popular or
cies. The Crown Prince of Greece married | more frequented by royal families than is
the Princess Sophie of Prussia, sister of | the Court at Athens. The King neither
KING GEORGE OF GREECE,
GREECE AND ITS RULERS.
â€˜visits nor invites any but foreigners, as
the selection of personal friends from
among his own subjects would only arouse
the jealousy of those not chosen. Despite
their many good qualities the Greeks are
not willing that the King should enjoy
social intercourse with his own people. So
anxious is the King to meet the wishes of
his people that he yields to them in mat-
ters not involving principle. It is said that
the Queen once gave a childrenâ€™s ball at
the palace, whereupon the public ques-
tioned the propriety of balls for infant
princes and criticized royal extravagance.
Childrenâ€™s balls were discontinued as a
Prince George the second, son of the
King of Greece, is the idol of the people.
He is a cheerful, open-hearted, good-temp-
ered man of gigantic stature, six feet six
inches in height and broad in proportion.
While traveling in Japan a few years since
he struck to the ground a Japanese who
attempted the Czarowitz of Russia, his
cousin, with whom he was traveling. At
another time during a terrific hurricane he
sprang into the water from his ship and
rescued a sailor who had fallen overboard.
The act was a brave one and possible only
toa man of great physical power and en-
durance. By such acts as these has Prince
George won his way into the hearts of his
CANAL IN GREECE,
GREECE AND ITS RULERS.
people. He has been trained for the navy
in the Danish fleet and will be made Lord
High Admiral of the Greek Navy consist-
ing of about a dozen ironclads and gun-
The Greeks have good schools and educa-
tion is well nigh universal. Education for
children between the ages of seven and
twelve is compulsory, yet this law needs no
enforcement as the desire for education is
general. More attention is paid to the
education of the boys than the girls. There
are separate primary schools for the two
sexes. The object of every boy is to grad-
uate from the University and many of them
succeed. The Greeks as poor, have been
trained to frugality and deprived of oppor-
tunity to lay up even a little money for a
rainy day. As a result the educated Greeks
live with the hope of getting some govern-
ment position or clerical work. The effect
is not of the best.
In material progress and scientific ad-
vancement the Greeks have not kept pace
GREECE AND ITS RULERS.
with more favored nations. Railroads are
few and not of the best. Factories, as we
know them are not to be found there. The
people are poor, the nation heavily in debt,
and but little inducement is held out to
capital. In the last few years Greece has
made some advancement in this direction,
principally under the direction of the pres-
ent Prime Minister, M. Fri-con-pis, a man
of pure motive, great talents and immense
is the only Minister who for generations
has not increased the Greek debt. Under
his wise direction the country has shown a
wealth, he has done much for Greece.
218 GREECE AND ITS RULERS.
surplus. To his energy also is due the cut-
ting of the canal across the isthmus of
Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth
with the Gulf of Saronis.
opened in 1893, and shortens the journey
from the Adriatic to Piratus 202 miles.
The ancients held off cutting this canal, and
This canal was
traces of the work done by Nero still exist.
This canal was begun in 1881 by a French
company which ceased operations in 1889.
The work was then finished by the Greeks.
The canal is only three and one-half miles
long with a width of one hundred feet and
a depth of twenty-seven feet.
at either end are about the same level and
no sluices or gates are necessary. For a
distance of one mile this canal (see illustra-
tion) is cut through solid rock. At its
highest point 255 feet above the sea a light-
The waters |
house has been built and is visible at a
ereat distance on either side. The canal is
crossed by an iron bridge of the Athens
and Corinth Railway one hundred and
seventy feet above. The canal represents
an imniense outlay of labor and money ow-
ing to the great amount of excavation nec-
essary to open a channel through the inter-
vening hills. Great breakwaters are built
at either end to prevent a current setting in
in either direction. The canal is certainly
a wonderful piece of engineering, and as
one sails through its placid waters he pays
homage to the pluck and hard work which
made it possible.
The Greek peasants live a simple life,
yet not unmixed with pleasure. Their gala
days are observed and are enjoyed far more
than the American holiday. While the
Bean ee ee
LIGHTHOUSE ON THE CANAL,
THE PEOPLE OF HOLLAND.
every-day garb of the peasant is exceed-
ingly plain, the holiday attire is in some
The dress and necklace
are not annoyed by changing of styles, and
cases, far from it.
may represent the savings of years.
the dress worn by the mother for many
years may be worn by the daughter, she
adding to it as time and savings will per-
mit. The peasants, too, are very devout,
belonging to the Greek Church almost
Did space permit how gladly would we
take our readers through the streets of
Athens, view the ruined splendor of the
Acropolis, people the Parthenon with the
heroes of bygone ages, walk the streets trod
by Homer, Plato, Socrates, Solon, Alcibi-
ades and hosts of others who contributed
to the ancient splendor of this classic land;
visit Corinth where Paul labored; climb
the mountain-pass where Leonidas held
the enemy at bay; gather strength from
Sparta where brave men flourished long
ago and kneel on the spot where Jupiter
was wont to foretell the destiny of him who
sought his counsel. We leave its shores
grateful for a glimpse of its King and its
people and filled with admiration for the
man who has put more powerful nations to
shame by his brave defense of Christians.
THE PEOPLE OF HOLLAND.
OLLAND, one of the smallest, yet
â€œHones the most prosperous of Euro-
pean countries, has done her
part in the history of the world.
Her liberty-loving people opened their
gates to the Puritans when driven out of
England. Early they rebelled against the
burdensome taxes, unjust persecutions, con-
fiscation of property, and cruel butchery-of
their King, Philip of Spain, and under the
leadership of William, the Silent, regained
â€˜their Kingdom. Still earlier, these brave,
industrious people built great dykes, or
walls, to shut out the sea from its low, flat
surface, and now, where once was a vast
swamp, are thriving hamlets, prosperous
cities, green pastures, waving meadows,
people are hard-working, frugal, honest
well-tilled fields and happy homes.
cleanly and contented, which qualities have
made its cities prosperous, its commerce
unrivaled and its merchants the bankers of
Great wind-mills are found which grind
the grain, but once pumped the water out
after the dykes were built. Canals wind in
and out with white-winged ships from every
part of the globe, floating lazily on their
quiet surface in summer, with joyous, light-
hearted, steel-shod boys and girls gliding
220 THE PEOPLE
gracefully over their frozen surface in the
winter. Patient men toil all day in the
fields, their heavy wooden shoes beating the
soil as they plod along from morn till night,
always puffing consolation from the ever-
present pipe. Plump, comely, tender-eyed
matrons with snowy kerchiefs wound round
their heads, till the gardens, prepare the
products of the farm for market, or scrub
the kitchen floors to pearly whiteness.
Sturdy, rosy-cheeked maidens drive great
dogs to market with loads of vegetables,
butter, cheese and eggs and take a hand
themselves at the cart when the loads are
heavy. Rugged boys help in the fields, in
the gardens, tend the herds, or push the
farm boat about on the canals, while happy,
chubby babies play upon the floor, the grass
or the pavement, for babies are everywhere.
In the quaint old cities are narrow streets,
houses whose walls have settled till the tops
bow to each other in closest friendship. In
the markets curious wares are offered for
sale; fruits: and vegetables, butter and
cheese, milk and beer, sails and anchors,
stoves and clothing, wooden shoes and
dainty slippers, eatables of all kinds, delic-
ious buns, fresh and crisp and light, delic-
ious cakes, toothsome pies, steaming sau-
sages, tempt the palate and purse of the
passerby. Venders sit quietly around, glad
to sell if it be your pleasure, content to wait
till some customer appears, if you are not
How different from the
street venders of other countries who urge
inclined to buy.
their wares upon you till you are tired.
These were the people who settled New
York and gave us those sturdy Dutch Govy-
CANALS OF HOLLAND.
OF HOLLAND. 221
ernors of whom every school boy likes to
To-day much of interest surrounds the
young Queen Wilhelmina. Her father died
a few years since, which time she has spent
at the old Castle of Loo, under careful
tuition for the duties of her position.
Although Queen in name, she cannot be
crowned till she is eighteen, which will be
in 1898, and she realizes the responsibility.
She is an accomplished linguist, but
owing to her fatherâ€™s hatred for the Ger-
mans was not allowed to learn that language.
The palace at Loo is rather small for a
royal abode, but is handsomely furnished,
there being some fine paintings from the
old mastcrs and some exquisite Flemish
tapistries. which have a world-wide repu-
THE PEOPLE OF HOLLAND.
tation. In the Queenâ€™s Audience Room is
an enormous silver ink stand about which
an interesting story is told. When the war
between France and Germany was raging
in 1870, old King William hated Germany
and was about to accept the invitation of
Napoleon III. to side with the French.
Popular feeling was opposed to such action,
but the old king possessed such an ungoy-
ernable temper that none of his ministers
dared to point out to him the dangers and'
opposition to such an alliance.
At last an ex-Counciler, named Thro-
beche, whom the King detested, decided to
perform the task. Onseeing him enter, the
King, without rising, said roughly, â€œ Good
morning! what do you want? What is the
news?â€ â€œ Nothing in particular, your Maj-
esty,â€ replied Thorbeche, â€œonly the Hag-
hope it is about those idiotic ministers of
uers are talking a deal of nonsense.â€
mine and not about me,â€ said the King.
â€œYes, sire, about your Majesty,â€ said the
visitor. The King grew angry and cried,
with growing wrath, â€œ About me! about
me! What do they say about me? Tell me,
â€œWell, sire,â€ said the old statesman slow-
FARM SCENE IN HOLLAND,
THE PROPER OF HOELAND:
ly, â€œthe Haguers declare that your Majesty
fore he could utter another word, the old
has become stark, staring mad as â€”â€
King sprang up, his face purple with rage,
and raised the heavy ink stand intending
to hurl it at Thorbeche.
stand caught in the table-cloth, and while
it dragged everything off the table, its flight
was arrested. â€œSire,â€ said the Minister,
â€œif your Majesty throws that ink stand at
my head, the Haguers will have been cor-
rect in their assertion.â€
For a moment the angry monarch gazed
at the impassive old Dutchman, then walk-
ed to the window and gazed out for several
minutes. Returning, he resumed his seat
and motioned Thorbeche saying, â€œ Now tell
me all about it.â€™ An hour later, when
Thorbeche left, he took with him the Kingâ€™s
promise to declare neutrality of Holland.
How fortunate was this, as the success of
Germany would have dismembered Holland
had she allied herself with France at that
The Dutch people adore the young Queen
and her coronation will be a National cele-
bration of nosmallimportance. She is also
pretty as a picture.