Citation
A young people's history of Kentucky for schools and general reading

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Title:
A young people's history of Kentucky for schools and general reading
Creator:
Thompson, Edwin Porter, 1834-
A. R. Fleming Publishing Co ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
St. Louis Mo
Publisher:
A.R. Fleming Publishing Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 344 p., [1] leaf of plates : ill., ports., col. folded map ; 20 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Explorers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Characters and characteristics -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Kentucky ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1897 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1897
Genre:
Textbooks ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Missouri -- St. Louis
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Includes index.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ed Porter Thompson.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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tonor?d aon

2 SIMON KENTON.



YOUNG PEOPLE’S

History oF KENTUCKY

siets @) Reals

SCHOOLS AND GENERAL READING

.. - BY...

ED PORTER THOMPSON

Ex-Superintendent of Public Instruction; Author of ‘The Academic
Arithmetic,” “History of the Orphan Brigade,” etc.



ST. LOUIS, MO.:
A. R. FLEMING PUBLISHING CO.
1897



COPYRIGHT 1897 BY ED PORTER THOMPSON.



AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

Among our commonwealths no other has so remarkable a
history as Kentucky. None other is so well worthy of being
carefully studied by all who find pleasure, instruction, and
inspiration in the annals of the past, and particularly by her
own people. In ‘‘the winning of the west’’ she stands first
and unapproachable; in the up-building of thirty states her
influence has been strongly exerted through her statesmen in
the national councils and in most of their local governments ;
through her soldiers on the ever-receding frontiers; and
through those citizens who ‘‘westward took their way,’’ to
people the new lands.

While England was provoking the colonists to revolt, the
early pioneers, as though led by an inscrutable hand, were
finding their way over the mountains and preparing to estab-
lish themselves as the outguard of civilization and hold the
vast and almost unknown west, that it might become the pos-.
session of the sons of freedom; when British injustice culmi-
nated in war,and that war was being waged, Kentuckians,
few in number, and almost unaided, not only stood like a
wall of fire to forbid foreign occupation of the great domain,
but obtained by their arms a title to territory far greater than
all then occupied by the struggling colonists, and made good
their footing in that portion which soon afterward became
their own state.

The strong characteristics of the men and women who, with
unexampled courage, endurance, and patriotic devotion,
achieved so much, with so little means and in the face of
obstacles so great, could but impress themselves upon the
commonwealth of their making; and to every call of the coun-
try since that age of heroes and heroines Kentucky has
responded with ardor and made herself felt with unmistak-
able force.

Her people have been charged with lack of enterprising
spirit, with failing of that progressiveness so characteristic of
the age; but, if they area little too firmly moored to the past,
they have some comfort and no small compensation in the



iv AUTHOR’S PREFACE,

fact that none of the fanatical zsms and pernicious ologies that
are sapping the foundations of public morality elsewhere have
had their origin and abiding place among them. For more
than a century they have escaped that sign of Athenian deca-
dence, the restless desire to be ever hearing and telling some
new thing; so that they still manifest a disposition not to cut
loose from time-honored and restful traditions.

What has been said of an individual may be said of them,
that ‘even their faults, (of which they have their share), all
lean to virtue’s side ;’’ that beneath all there is that manly and
and womanly moral fibre which gives strength, permanence,
and unlimited possibilities of growth to a people.

This book claims to be but an epitome of the History of
Kentucky; but it will be found to contain a connected
and logical general account, to which the interest of variety
is added by an unusual number of well-executed illus-
trations, brief personal sketches, special and peculiar in-
‘ cidents, etc. The adult mind will read far more between
the lines than is found in the text; to the young, enough
is presented, it is earnestly hoped, to kindle a desire for
a thorough exploration of this great historical field; and
above all, the author trusts that he has imparted to the short
story something of that spirit which should be impressed upon
the young people of Kentucky whose minds and characters
are still in the formative state—an admiration of their own
country and a pride in its past, thé surest guarantees that in
the future her fair fame will be enhanced, her honor main-

tained, and her progress in all right lines be steadily and
nobly promoted.

With much labor and pains and at no little cost the por-
traits of many of our statesmen, jurists, and military leaders,
hitherto not published, have been obtained, and these add.
greatly to the wealth of object-lessons which the work will be
found to possess. And to those who have so generously aided
us in this department, (owners of old family paintings and
other portraits), it is fitting here to acknowledge obligation
and to record the sincere thanks of author and publishers.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

[FOR INDEX IN DETAIL, ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED, SEE LAST PAGES OF THE BOOK. |



FIRST PERIOD.

FRoM THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN TO THE BEGINNING OF

THE REVOLUTION.

CHAPTER I. ae.

Introduetcry: To the Young Reader,

NOTES AND COMMENTS.
I. The Kentucky Character.—II. Kentuckians a Peculiar Type of
People, ‘ ‘ ; ; : j ;

CHAPTER ITI.

Geography, j ‘ 3

CHAPTER III.

From the Earliest Visit by White Men till the ee Com-

pany was Organized, : : : 3 : F
PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

I. Thomas Bullitt—II. First White Women in Kentucky.—III. The
Hunter’s Rifle—IV. The Hunting Shirt.—V. The Tomahawk.
—VI. The Long Hunters.—VII. Long Knife, or Big Knife,

CHAPTER IV.

The Transylvania Company. —Boone’ s Trace or the Wilderness
Road, ete., .

PERSONAL SKETCHES.

I. Daniel Boone.—II. Col. James Harrod.—III. Gen. Benjamin
Logan.—IV. Richard Henderson, : : 3 ;

SECOND PERIOD.
Kentucky DuRING THE REVOLUTIONARY War.

CHAPTER V.
ieniticky During the Revolutionary War: The First Four Years,
PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

I. Gen. James Ray.—Il. Significance of Indian Trails, and How a
Lost One Was Found. —III. Betsy Calloway’s Bravery and
Thoughtfulness.—IV. The First Marriage in Kentucky,

CHAPTER VI.

Kentucky in the Revolutionary War: Last Four Years,
v

ll

17

19

31

43

47

63

78



vi. TABLE OF CONTENTS,

PaGe.

5 PERSONAL SKETCHES AND INCIDENTS.

I. The Todd Brothers.—II. The Heroines of Bryan’s Station.—
Ill. Simon Girty.—IV. Capt. James Estill.—V. Joseph Proe-
tor.—VI. Monk Estill—VII. The Children Knew the Story
by Heart.—VIII. The Terrible Experience of Benham and Wat-
son.—_IX. Mrs. Samuel Daveiss and the Indians.—X. Mrs.
Samuel Daveiss and the Robber.—XI. Saved by His Dogs, 97

THIRD PERIOD.

FROM THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTIONARY War TILL KEN-
TuCKY BECAME A STATE: SEPARATION FRoM VIRGINIA.
PERSONAL SKETCHES AND INCIDENTS.

I. Hon. John Brown.—II. John Filson.—III. The McAfee Broth-
ers.—IV. The First Newspaper in Kentucky, 3 118
CHAPTER VIII.

From the Close of the Revolution till Kentucky Became a State:—
Indian Invasions and Atrocities.—Expeditions of Harmar and
St. Clair, 5 : : - : ‘ 5 : : 3 5 123

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.
I. Col. John Floyd.—II. Men Engaged in the Salt River Fight.—
III. Col. Wm. Hardin.—IV. Wild-Cat McKinney.—V. The
Heroines of South Elkhorn.—VI. Mrs. John Merrill.—VII.
Burning at the Stake.—VIII. Scalping an Enemy.—IX. Ben
_Stockton.—X. A Singular Adventure.—XI. Rescued by an
Indian Chief.—XII. A Noble Boy, . - 3 : ; ; 134

FOURTH PERIOD.
SEVEN YEARS UNDER THE FIRST CONSTITUTION.

CHAPTER IX.
Kentucky a State.—Seven Years Under First Constitution.—Citizen
Genet.—Wayne Conquers a Peace.—Resolutions of °98, ete., 145

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

I. Col. John Hardin.—II. First Preachers and First Churehes.—
III, A Fleet-Footed Woman.—IV. Story of a Lincoln County
Family.—V. Gen. Peter Le Pioneer Women.—
we Elector of Senate, . is : j ; : : 156

FIFTH PERIOD.
Firrty YEARS UNDER SECOND CONSTITUTION.
CHAPTER X.

Bank of Kentucky.—The Burr Conspiracy.—Kentucky in the Battle
of Tippecanoe, etc., . : : ; i : : ; 184



TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii
Pace.
PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, ETO. _
I. Gen. Charles Scott.—II. Squire Boone.—III. Edmund Rogers.—
IV. Aaron Burr.—V. Gen. Thomas Fletcher.—VI. The Treat-
ment of the Boones and Simon Kenton.—VII. Cut Money, 170

CHAPTER XI.
Kentucky in the War of 1812. 5 5 : : § : . 179

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, ETC.

I. Gov. Isaac Shelby.—II. Logan, the Indian Chief.—III. The
Militia Pig.—IV. Scene at the Raisin Eight Months After the
Massacre.—V. Kentucky Mothers.—VI. General Harrison’s
Confidence in Kentucky Troops.—VII. The Indians Dreaded
Kentuckians. — VIII. Some Kentuckians Who oe With
Perry, : é 190

" CHAPTER XII,

The Jackson Purchase.—Financial Conditions i in Kentucky.—Old

Court and New Court. : ; af 5 3 3 ; 199

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, ETC.

I. Gen. Simon Kenton.—II. Gen. George Rogers Clark.— III.
Capt. Bland Ballard.—IV. The Todds, Father and Son.—V.

Gen. John Adair.—VI. The Ancient Governor, . A : 205
CHAPTER XIII.

Kentucky in the Mexican War, 2 5 : , a : : 216

PERSONAL SKETCHES, ETC.
I. Kentucky’s Great Orators. — II. Kentugkians Among the
Troops of Other States During the Mexican War, ; ; 223

SIXTH PERIOD.

Forty YEARS UNDER THE THIRD CONSTITUTION AND SIx UNDER
_ THE FouRTH.
CHAPTER XIV.

From 1850 to 1860.—Kentucky in the Civil War.—Some of the
Events of 1860-61, .. 5 3 s j ; : : : 227

CHAPTER XV.
Kentucky in the Civil War.—From ee 1861, till After the
Battle of Perryville, . ; : 5 237
CHAPTER XVI.
Kentucky in the Civil War.—From Bragg’s Retreat to the Close, 251

PERSONAL SKETCHES, ETC.

J. The American Citizen-Soldier.—II. General Officers Furnished
by Kentucky to the Two Armies, . : ‘ ; . : 264



Vili TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PaGE.
CHAPTER XVII.
After the Civil War, ; s ; ; 266
: CHAPTER XVIII.
Education in Kentucky, . 3 : - : : 4 : j 278
PERSONAL SKETCHES, ETC.
I. Corispicuous Service to the Common School System, : 3 285
; CHAPTER XIX.
Art, Science and Litcrature. . : 3 : : : 4 : 288
NOTES AND COMMENTS.
I. Durrett and the Filson Club, : é 3 3 : ; 291
; CHAPTER XX.
African Slavery in Kentucky, : ; ; : : : 3 293

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES, COMMENTS, ETC.
I. Kentucky’s Governors, Lieutenant-Governors, and Secretaries
of State.—II. Increase of Population in Kentucky by Periods
During 115 Years.—III. Works Consulted in Preparation of
this Book.—_IV. United States Senators from Kentucky. . 302





LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE. Page.
Adair, Gen. and Gov. John, . 189 Crittenden, Maj.-Gen. T. L., 235

Anderson, Brig. and Brevet | 94, geenten Bie: and Brevet
Maj. -Gen. Robert, } 234 Maj. -Gen. John T \ 260

Ashland—Henry Clay’ s Ree \ 294 Cosby, Brig.-Gen. Geers B., 247

idence, Custom House andOld Bridge
Barnyard in Gann Connie: 22 Over the Kentucky River aa 68

Barry, Senator Wm. T., . 202 aoe < 3

Beck tor Ja Bs: . 272 aniel Boone Alone in “¢ e
Boe poe EAE * 996 Wilderness of Kentucky, } oo

9 . . “9 «al . .

Bibb, Senator George M., . 170 Daveiss, Col. Joseph Hamil-\ 16,
Bisekburn, Gov. Luke P., . 270 DAG ehe aes es 930
Blackburn, Senator J.C. S., . 273 BOS eee ae ee ee ae
B . D 1 53 Desha, Gov. Joseph, ; . 203
Anes b oe St k a : 49 Durelle, Judge George, . . 10
Boyle, Brig.-Gen. a T.. e, ; 958 Durrett, Col. Reuben T., . 292

Field, Maj.-Gen. Chas. W., . 265

Bradley, Gov. ee 0. Ag a Filson, John, . . . ~—. :120
Bramlette, Gov Os sae Finley, the Discoverer of
Breckinridge, Rev. Dogon 985 Kentucky, . \ 33
Robt. J. . -. Fry, Brig.-Gen. Speed S., . 262
Breckinridge, Senator John, . 155 G. dGer et. 154
Breckinridge, Maj.-Gen. J. C., 232 eta Ne Br cas pee
8 Garrard. Brig.-Gen. T. T., . 238
Brown, Senator John, . . 119 i z
5., Georgetown College, : . 284
Brown, Gov. John Young, . 273 ade: :
; i ; Governor’s Mansion, 3 . 161
Buckner, Lieut.-Gen. S. B., . 241 z
Buell. Maj.-Gen. D ‘avlos, 245 Guffy, Judge B.L. D., . . 10
me ? BOOP sear oe 25) Fr Guthrie, Senator James, . 267
Buford, Brigs-Gen- Abraham, i Hanson, Brig.-Gen. Roger W., 252
pecs anes aus ot C Sere ae Harlan, Gen. John M., . . 251
arlisle, Senator John G., — . 277 Havfeld Near Russellville, . 2
Cartwright, Peter, . : . 160 eee. aoe Moseel alls a

Hazlerigg, Judge James H., . 10
Helm, Gov. John L., .. . 268
Helm, Brig.-Gen. Ben Hardin 262

Centre College, Danville, Ky., 282
Clark, Gen. George Rogers, . 209

ce eae oe. Hobsons Baie)-Gen Ha Hel ons
y, Senator Henry, . - 205 Hoa 3 “eu 249
Clay, Gen. Green, . . 184 pdeer ere Gen: George Be

Indian Wigwam, . 31

Clay, Maj.-Gen. Cassius M., . 294 Jackson, Brig.-Gen. Tamesce 248

Crittenden, Gov. and d Senator} 931

John J., Tohaston: Gen. Albert Sidnee 237
Graitten q en, Maj.- Gen. \ 5a Johnson, Senator Richard M., 187
George B., 7 Kenton and Fletcher, . . 176

ix



xX LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE,
Kenton, Gen. Simon, . 2

Kentucky and Indiana Budee
at Tigteevillee 5 } 87

Knott, Gov. J. Proctor, . . 271
Landes, Judge J. J., ‘ . 10
Leslie, Gov. Preston H., . 269
Letcher, Gov. Robt. P., . . 204

Lewis, Gen. and Judge
Joseph H., ; } 10

Lincoln, caine : . 229

Lincoln and the Ohio River ;
Keel-boat, } ud

Lindsay, Sernten Wm. te . 271

Loading Coal Barge on aGineen
River, } 19

McCreary, Gov. 7 ames B., . 270
McCreery, Senator Tho. C., . 267
McDowell, Col. Samuel, . 116
Machen, Senator Willis B., . 269
Mecetin. Gov. Beriah, . . 231
Marshall, Senator Fiainphirey: 57
Marshall, Brig. on Hum- 939

phrey,
Marshall, Thomas F., : . 225
Menefee, Richard re ; . 225
Merriwether, Senator David. . 227

Metcalfe, Gov. and Senator
Thomas, } 203

Morgan, Brig. (Cam ona H., 242
Murray, Brig.-Gen. EliH., . 264
Nelson, Maj.-Gen. Wm., . 244
Office of the ‘‘Kentucke mt}

Ht
bo
bo

zette’’ 1787—the First Print-
ing House in Kentucky,

Paynter, Judge ThomasH., . 10

Powell, Gov. and Senator
Lazarus W ; y } 222

Prentice, Geo. D., . . . 290
Preston, Maj.-Gen. Wm., . 218

Page.
Price, Brien -Gen. Samuel W., 246
Dryer Judge Wm. 8., . 10
Robinson, Gov. cranes F., . 289
Rousseau, Maj.-Gen. Lovell H., 233°
Rowan, Senator John, . . 109
Scott, Gen. and Gov. Charles 171
Sheep Pasture in M m-
Beacon —— } 29
Shelby, Gen. and Gor Tans 191
Smith, Brig.-Gen. Green Clay, 243
Smith, Hon. Z. F., . 285
State Arsenal at Hisnkcfort, 89
State House and Office Build-
ing, 3 146
State’ MonuaeTt at Frankfort, 14
Stevenson, Gov. and maul 268
tor John W., Z
Stockade at beens A 83
Talbott, Senator Isham, . 199
Taylor, Gen. James, . 181
Tecumseh, : . 185
The Boone Monument, . 55
The Typical Rural Canna
tion—Chureh,School- house | 279
and Cemetery,
Tilghman, Brig.-Gen. Lloyd, . 240
Todd, Hon. Thomas, . 213
Migoseco Barn in Bourbon 93
County, . .
Tobacco Field in Fleming ) 24
County, .
Ward, Bri and Brevet Maj ‘
Gen. WoT., Tf 263
Wikitiaker, Brig. sal Brovet 263
Maj.- Gen. Walter C., =
Wickliffe, Gov. Charles A., 136
Williams, Gen. and Benatony 99]
John Gis : Se
Wood, Mai. -Gen. Tho. J., . 242





KENTUCKY COURT OF APPEALS, 1896.

1 Chief Justice Wm. S. Pryor. 2 Associate-Justice Jos. H. Lewis. 38 Associate-Justice J. H. Hazlerigg. 4 Associate-Justice Tho, H. Paynter.
5 Associate-Justice J. J. Landes, 6 Associate-Justice B. L. D. Guffy. 7 Associate-Justice Geo. Durelle.



YOUNG PEOPLE’S

HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTORY: TO THE YOUNG READER.

1. History in its simpler form is but the story of those
whose lives exerted so marked an influence upon their times
that they should be recorded for the instruction of mankind.
‘Its office is to warn no less than to light, to inspire, and to
guide all who are capable of applying the lessons of the past
to the conduct of the present; and it takes note of whatever
stands out conspicuous, whether noble or ignoble, heroic or
base, false or true.

2. I purpose to tell you the story of Kentucky, as a
teacher interested in his pupil and speaking with him face
‘to face, not as one setting down details to be conned over
as a task.

8. It is related of a patriotic French gentleman that when
he sought to impress on a nephew a sense of his duty to his
country the young man turned upon him with the question,
‘Uncle, what 7s my country?’ He replied, ‘‘It is the sky
above you, the sun that gives you light, the winds that fan
your cheek, the recurring seasons—all that combines to make
a genial and salubrious clime; it is not alone that earth
beneath your feet which is circumscribed by the boundary
lines of the kingdom, with its hills and vales and streams, its
forests and fields, but its toiling and directing and achieving

millions, and their homes in the districts and the cities; it is
5 11



12 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

the government that administers the laws and the army and
navy that protect you; it is your food and drink and raiment ;
it is your father and mother who have reared you and made
you what you are; it is all who love you; it is the glo-
rious memory of our ancestors—men and women who for
two thousand years have been making our beautiful France
what she is, the pride of her people and the wonder of the
nations. All these and more are your country; and the noble
soul will hold them sacred in thought and give them lasting
love and unshaken allegiance.”’

4. It is in this high-hearted and all-embracing way that
I would have Kentucky boys and girls think of Kentucky.
Then the effort to acquire a knowledge of what she has been
and what she is—how those who have preceded them have
demeaned themselves in every line of endeavor by which a
great commonwealth is founded and built up—will not be
tiresome drudgery but a lively pleasure.

5. A gentleman of another state who rose to high com-
mand in the Federal army during the civil war, and who
has since won fame as an author, had occasion a few years ago
when addressing a meeting of his fellow-veterans to allude
to the singular heroism and constancy displayed by Kentucky
soldiers in every war of the republic; and he maintained that
it was easily accounted for. It was well known, he said, that
Kentuckians have a rather overweening state pride, and that
the Old Virginia sort of family pride which it has become
fashionable in some sections to laugh at, was an equally strong
characteristic. Where these are combined in a people, their
men can be relied on in even the most desperate emergencies—
they are invincible. The soldiers of Kentucky, he said in
substance, would dare anything and bear anything rather than
disgrace an honored name or bring a blot upon the fame of
their native state.

6. This is a striking tribute from a brave and true man.
In the course of the narrative to which I invite your attention



INTRODUCTORY. 13

you will discover upon what he based his assertions, and
much to confirm his theory. When I seek to encourage in
you the thoughts and feelings to which he alludes, I would
have you understand that there is no surer way to foster that
larger patriotism which comprehends our whole country and
gives every one of its millions of inhabitants a personal in-
terest in the ‘‘flag of the free, that commands respect in every
land and floats on every sea.”’

7. The historian, Mann Butler, says of them: ‘‘To the
fruits of courage and endurance of suffering in every appall-
ing form, no portion of the western country has superior
claims to those of Kentucky. She has been the nursing
mother of the west; the blood of her citizens has flowed
freely on every battle-field; now let them and their posterity
enjoy the honors so manfully won.”’

8. There are few young people who do not take pleasure in
reading or hearing tales of adventure; of dangers and diffi-
culties boldly met and manfully resisted; of trials and suffer-
ings so borne as to make man seem defiant of calamity and
superior to adverse fate. In these the history of Kentucky
so abounds that they cannot be recounted except in the briefest
way.

9. Are you thrilled by the recital of savage cunning
thwarted by the shrewdness and circumspection of honorable
foes? Of fiendish perfidy punished by open fight? Of mas-
acres avenged in honorable battle by those who scorned to
retaliate by visiting destruction on helpless captives? Of
women not only sharing the hardships and dangers of pioneer
life, but bravely fighting in defense of theirhomes? Then the
early annals of your native state can furnish you this excite-
ment and help to impress upon a healthful mind a sense of
the chivalry of the unpretending pioneers who conquered the
wilderness and left to us a heritage of great names as well as
of a noble commonwealth. In the wars with Great Britain,
by which liberty was won and confirmed to us; in that with





STATE MONUMENT AT FRANKFORT,



INTRODUCTORY. 15

Mexico, by which the territory of the United States was ex-
tended to the shores of the Pacific; in the gigantic sectional
struggle, when more than three millions of fellow-countrymen
were fou years engaged in a death-grapple over vital ques-
tions that had failed of peaceable settlement — wherever
supreme tests of courage and fortitude have béen applied,
-your fathers and forefathers have proved themselves great
among the greatest, and have won for Kentucky a world-wide
fame.

10. But not alone in martial strife have their high quali-
ties been manifested. ‘Peace hath had her victories’’ for
them. In the national councils the statesmen and orators
of Kentucky have been among the foremost; in legal tribu-
nals, state and federal, her jurists have been the peers of the
proudest; and letters, divinity and medicine have contributed
to our list of eminent names.

11. Kentuckians have played a most important part in the
civil as well as military affairs of the general government ;
and wherever they have found a foothold in the building up
of new states their fitness for leader ship has been ee
More than eighty of them have been ambassadors, foreee
ministers, and consuls; twenty-two have held high command
in the United States army (regular and volunteer) and navy;
twenty-eight were generals of volunteers in the Federal army
during the civil war, and twenty-seven in the Confederate
army; thirty have been heads of departments and officers
of the United States government; seven have been judges
of the United States Supreme Court, and about thirty have
been judges of other courts (state and United States); more
than fifty have been governors and lieutenant-governors of
other states and territories; more than eighty are known
to have represented other states in Congress; twenty-two
have been presidents of universities and colleges in other
states; and six have been President of the Senate and Vice-
President of the United States. The two great heads of the



16 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

respective governments during the civil war, Abraham Lin-
coln and Jefferson Davis, were native Kentuckians. Equally
remarkable is the list of those whom the people. of their
adopted states have elected to minor positions of honor and
responsibility.

12. But it is not in the matter of office-holding only that
this characteristic of leadership has been manifested. Since
Kentucky was admitted to the Union, thirty new states have
been organized; and for this work she has contributed of
her native population, for a long series of years, about twice
as many as she has received from all the other states and
from foreign countries. At the bar, in the pulpit, in the
ranks of educators, in the conception and‘ conduct of great
business enterprises, public and private, they are found in
the foremost rank in almost every other state and city west
of the Alleghanies.

13. Certain traits that indicate sterling nobility of char-
acter are conspicuous, as, loyalty to family. fidelity to friends,
devotion to comrades in times of suffering and peril, and
scorn of snivellers and shams. To the study and apprecia-
tion of these characteristics you should give earnest heed.

14. Our great philosopher, Dr. Franklin, says of the acts
of those who struggled for freedom and the promotion of
human happiness: ‘‘My countrymen, these things ought not
to be forgotten. For the benefit of our children and those
that follow them they should be recorded.”’

15. And the immortal Roman orator said of history: ‘It
is the messenger of the past and the teacher of life.’? This
messenger of Kentucky’s past brings that to you which is
full of instruction as well as entertainment; and his lesson, if
received and understood, will go far to prepare you for a
useful and honorable career.



INTRODUCTORY. 17

NOTES AND COMMENTS,

I. The Kentucky Character.—Arthur & Carpenter, who
in 1852 published a history of Kentucky, have this to say of
our pioneers and their descendants: <‘‘As the self-reliant
type of American character at the epoch of the Revolution; the
Kentuckian stands pre-eminent. He may even stand for it at
the present day. The descendant of the cavaliers of Virginia
and Maryland, he carried with him into the wilderness many
of the noble qualities for which that brave, high-toned, but
reckless class of people were distinguished; while he left
behind him not a few of their vices. Daring even to rash-
ness, he was yet full of all generous impulses; fierce to his
enemies, he was yet hospitable to the stranger; quick to
resent an injury, yet prompt to forgive it; fertile in strata-
gem, yet steadfast in resolve; fiery in pursuit, yet cool and
collected in action ; never retreating but to fight, Parthian-like,
as he fell back; never stooping to the earth but to gather
strength for the rebound; simple in his tastes and pleasures;
a doer of brave acts and generous deeds—not to gain the
applause of others, but from native nobility of soul. Free,
even to the verge of lawlessness, time has reversed in him the
stigma which Capt. John Smith cast upon his progenitors, who,
if they were amenable to the censure of that valiant soldier,
as being ‘more fitted to corrupt than to found a common-
wealth,’ have yet the merit of having redeemed their memory
in the pure republicanism. of their children.”’

Il. Kentuckians a Peculiar Type of People.—In Ken-
tucky we find nearly pure English blood, mainly derived
through the Old Dominion .and altogether from districts
that shared the Virginia conditions. It is, moreover, the
largest body of pure.English folk that has, speaking gener-
ally, been separated from the mother country for two hundred
years. We see, therefore, how interesting is the problem of
this Kentucky population. It has seriously been maintained
that the European blood tends to enfeeblement in American
conditions; that it requires the admixture of new blood from
the Old World in order to keep its quality unimpaired. There
is an experiment provided that will give a full disproval to
this hypothesis. The reader will do well to bear it in mind
while he follows the history of Kentucky people. * * *

2



18 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Twenty years of such life [that from 1775 to 1795] devel-
oped a particular sort of man—a kind that was never known
before or since in such numbers in any country. The men
who took their shape from the life that was lived in the first
three decades of Kentucky civilization had a very peculiar
quality of mind. Its most characteristic feature was a certain
dauntlessness, a habit of asserting independence of all control
except that of the written law. * * * ‘There was a great
solidity to this people. None but a-people of character could
stand the strain in which they lived. * * * The crimii-
nals, the weaklings, and other refuse of society had no place
in this embattled colony.—V. S. Shaler.





GEOGRAPHY. 19

CHAPTER II.
GEOGRAPHY.

1. To study history profitably you must at every step asso-
ciate events, times, persons, and places. You will then have
a more distinct impression of each occurrence and its relation
to all the others that make up the account. If any place asso-
ciated with a particular historical event is in your locality, or
if in your travels you visit one, you will regard it with a live-



LOADING COAL BARGE ON GREEN RIVER.

lier interest and carry in your mind a more perfect and life-
like picture of what you have heard andread. It is important,
therefore, for you to acquire a knowledge of the surface feat-
ures of Kentucky and note also its surroundings.

2. As you are scon .to take upon you the duties and
responsibilities of a citizen, it is scarcely less important that
you understand the geography of your state in its larger
sense, as embracing not alone the description of its surface
features, but its physical structure and characteristics, natural



20 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

products, and the people by whom it is inhabited. Fully to
comprehend its physical structure and characteristics implies
an acquaintance with the science of geology; but a plain state-
ment of its natural resources, as found in connection with its
geological formation, will serve to show you how greatly its
people are favored by the possession of immense and various
underground wealth, as well as of advantageous surface and
atmospheric conditions.

8. Kentucky lies between 36° 30’ and 36° 6’ north latitude,
and 82° 3’ and 89° 41’ west longitude. It includes all that






ea fil GRO “ong nf Nie
Ss ‘ TEE UTE



HAYFIELD NEAR RUSSELLVILLE.

territory southwest of the line beginning at the mouth of the
Big Sandy, and running up the northeasterly branch thereof
to the great Laurel Ridge or Cumberland mountain, and with
that southwest, to a line of Tennessee. It is bounded on the
north by Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio; on the east by West Vir-
ginia and Virginia; on the south by Tennessee; and on the
west by Missouri. It is about 500 miles in length east and
west, with the mean breadth of 150 miles, and is estimated
to contain over 41,000 square miles, or nearly twenty-seven
million acres,



GEOGRAPHY. E 21

4. The surface is an irregular broken plain, sloping west
and northwest from the summit of the Cumberland mount-
ains. These summits are 3000 feet above sea-level; there is
a gradual decrease northwest and west till the elevation in
the extreme west is but 260 feet; and the estimated mean ele-
vation is 600 feet. Thirty-two of the eastern and southeastern
counties are more or less rough and mountainous throughout ;
but the remainder of the state is an undulating tableland,
comparatively little broken except by a range of highlands
known in one part as The Knobs, in another as Muldraugh’s
Hill, extending westward to the Ohio river below Louisville,
and by deep-cutting river excavations.

5. It is penetrated and bounded by more water-ways, now
navigable and capable of being made so by ordinary means,
than any other state. Besides these there are more than 800
creeks, which not only afford in every section abundance of
fresh water for stock, but much valuable power for machinery.

6. The principal rivers, now navigable in the aggregate for
a distance of more than 1800 miles, are the Ohio, Mississippi,
Big Sandy, Licking, Kentucky,Cumberland, Tennessee, Green,
Big Barren, Salt, Pond, and Tradewater. ‘The Ohio touches
ane whole northern boundary, 653 miles, as the river runs.
The Mississippi forms its entire western boundar y, about 100
miles as the river runs. -The Big Sandy touches its eastern
boundary for more than a hundred miles. The lesser rivers,
some of them now navigable for short distances during high
water, and all of which can be made so for an aggregate dis-
tance of between 2000 and 3000 miles, are: the Little Sandy,
Red, Little Kentucky, Elkhorn, Blood, Dick’s, Laurel, Rock-
castle, Rough, Little Barren, Chaplin, Nolin, Muddy, Gaspar,
Clark’s, Little, Little Obion, and Wolf. Allthese you should
trace on your map, and so fix in your mind what part of the
state each is in, with its relative position, and extent of coun-
try drained, as to be able to answer promptly all pertinent
questions,



22 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

7. The Ohio belongs to the Mississippi river system, and all
the rivers and creeks having their origin and course in the state,
except those that rise in the first two tiers of counties in the
extreme western part, belong to the Ohio system. Though
there is a small portion of the state that has a southwestern
inclination, carrying the Cumberland into the state of Ten-
nessee, in which it has its greater length before it re-enters
_ Kentucky, the course of all the main streams indicate sub-

DRL



BARNYARD IN FRANKLIN COUNTY.

stantially a single water-shed, with a constant slope north by
west. ;

8. Except in the lowlands along the banks of the numerous
streams, where washings from the hills and the overflow of
the water-courses have formed what is known as the alluvial
or river land, the soils have been derived from the decay of
underlying rocks. Those resulting from the decomposition of
blue limestone are in general most productive and most
enduring under cultivation, though the deep alluvials are
exceedingly fertile, The entire counties of Bourbon, Fay-



GEOGRAPHY. 23

ette and Woodford, and portions of Bath, Clark, Franklin,
Harrison, Jessamine, Nicholas, Owen and Scott, constitute a
great body of blue-grass land. There are in Boyle, Garrard,
Green, Laurel, Lincoln, Madison, Mercer, Nelson, and Shelby,
sections of blue-grass lands that are equally rich; and large
portions of a number of counties south and west of Green river
_ are notably productive. This singular condition obtains in
Kentucky, that while a great part of it is underlaid by val-



TOBACCO BARN IN BOURBON COUNTY.

uable mineral stores, less than one-fortieth of its surface is
wholly unfit for agricultural purposes.

‘9. The climate is moderate. Change of weather is fre-
quently sudden and severe; but the extremes of temperature
prevail for only very brief periods. The lowest seldom
reaches zero, while its greatest summer heat is frequently
below that of regions bordering on the great lakes and the
Atlantic. On the Cumberland mountains it is about fifty
degrees, the increase from east to west and southwest being
almost uniform, till at the southwest corner it is about sixty



24. YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

degrees. The seasons are more regular in succession, more
nearly equal in duration, and more distinct.in the character-
istics peculiar to each than in other latitudes; the rainfall
(an. annual average of 46 inches) is generally very equally
distributed over the state, and destructive drouths in any
section are rare; snow seldom falls to such a depth as to
interfere with local traffic or impede travel; and destructive
tornadoes or cyclones scarcely ever occur.

10. Climatic conditions, purity of water, quality of food
products, and healthful occupation, combine to give the people









; TOBACCO FIELD IN FLEMING COUNTY.

size, strength and endurance. Among the hundreds of thou-
sand of volunteers from all parts of the Union, natives and
foreigners, during the civil war, official tables show that those
born and reared in Kentucky and Tennessee exceeded all
others in average height, weight, size of head, circumference
of chest, and ratio of weight to stature.

11. Here almost every product of the soil known in the
temperate zones flourishes — grains, grasses, textile plants,
and fruits; very profitable ones, as tobacco and hemp, in
greater abundance than in any other state; domestic animals



GEOGRAPHY. 5 25

attain to such superior development that the finer kinds are
searcely equalled in the world; while the live-stock and dairy
products are yielded in excess of those of nearly every other
state in proportion to the number of animals.

12. About half the area of the state is still covered with
forests, in which are found almost every species of tree indig-
enous to temperate regions, and the supply of both hard and
soft woods used for building and in the manufactures is hardly
excelled in quality or quantity by that of any other section of
the United States.

13. But the surface resources, however various and virtu-
ally inexhaustible, are surpassed by underground treasures
that have been as yet but little developed. The geological
structure of Kentucky embraces seven or eight formations or
beds as classified by scientists according to the principal
mineral contents of each. The coal fields embrace fifteen
thousand six hundred and eighty square miles, covering for
the most part twenty counties in the western section of the
state and thirty-three in the eastern. Deposits of the differ-
- ent kinds of iron ore are enormous. Besides the different

kinds of coal and iron ore, there are more than forty kinds of
mineral products known -to the arts and to trade, and con-
tributing to the convenience, comfort, and luxury of mankind.
Our mineral stores take a wide range as to number, and their
commercial value is beyond computation. Those of coal and
iron alone are considerably in excess of those of Great
Britain.

14. Chiefly in the central part of the state are more than
a hundred salt licks or springs, which, prior to the white
man’s coming, were the resort of multitudes of herbivorous
animals to obtain salt by licking the earth and rocks impreg-
nated with it; and for a long time the settlers were dependent
on the springs, and upon wells which were sunk in other parts
of the state, for their supply of salt, which they made by
, boiling the water.



26 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

15. Certain kinds of game, animals and birds, are still
found in the woods and fields. The law for the protection of
birds recites twenty-seven species of these still common among
us, besides the scavengers, birds of prey, and those that are
destructive of grain and fruit crops.

16. The natural scenery is at certain seasons of the year
beautiful, and in some mountain sections and along the prin-
cipal rivers as picturesque as much of that so extravagantly
described by tourists in foreign lands.

17. There are many matical curiosities, and such of these
as are in your locality you should see and study. A habit of
observing and considering the different aspects of nature and
the peculiarities of objects around you will afford you intel-
lectual pleasure through life, and give zest to the tasks set for
you by your teachers in the study of natural sciences. I men-
tion a few of those noted by geographers and others: ‘as, the
Split Hill, in Boone county, by which a deep zigzag avenue
of considerable extent has been formed; Sinking creek, in
Breckinridge county, a stream which furnishes sufficient
water-power to drive machinery the year round but has five, or
six miles of its course underground—sinking suddenly about
seven miles from its source and afterward reappearing; Dis-
mal Rock, in Edmonson county, an almost perpendicular
and distinct mass one hundred and sixty-three feet high; The
Indian Hill, also in Edmonson county, eighty-four feet high,
a mile in circumference, and perpendicular except on one side,
where ascent on foot is practicable; a natural circular tunnel
under the elevation on which Bardstown is built; the Point of
Rocks, the Jump-off, and Pond Branch, in Owen county;
large, flat and solid rocks in several localities, having on them
deeply indented and distinct impressions of human feet and
the feet of dogs; Anvil Rock, in Union county, fifty feet
high, twenty feet wide, and two feet thick, having a spur
like the horn of an anvil and standing entirely isolated on level
* bottom-land; Wolf Sink, in Warren county, a depression



GEOGRAPHY. 27

apparently formed by the sinkmg of a section of level open
barren, three hundred feet long, one hundred and fifty feet
wide, but with a sloping bottom which is about twenty feet
below the surrounding surface at the south end and one hun-
dred and fifty feet at the north end; so-called Bottomless Pits,
some of which are filled with water—no sounding line having
yet ascertained their depth; and numerous caverns. Of these
Mammoth cave known throughout the civilized world, is
regarded as the greatest of natural wonders; but the Colossal
cave only recently explored, is claimed by its discoverers and
owners to exceed the Mammoth in extent and splendor. Both
these great caves are in Edmonson county. The Falls of the
Cumberland, in Whitley county, about fourteen miles below
Williamsburgh, are among the most remarkable objects in the
state. The river has an almost perpendicular fall of more
than. sixty feet, and the roar of the water can at times be
heard for many miles above and below. Behind the falling
sheet, arched as it plunges from the top of the cliff, a person
can go nearly across the river bed.

18. When the white man came to Kentucky and explored
it he found it uninhabited except by a small body of Indians,
who really belonged to a village on the north side, near
the mouth of the Scioto; and there were perhaps a few living
along the eastern shore of the Mississippi. But north of
the Ohio, on the Scioto, Muskingum, and Miami rivers; were
the homes of the Shawnee Indians; farther west, in the
valley of the Wabash, were the Wabash Indians; and in the
Tennessee valley, south, were the Chickasaws, Cherokees, and
Choctaws. While none of these tribes could dwell here, all
claimed it as a hunting ground; and their hunting excursions
resulted in conflicts whenever the northern and southern tribes
chanced to meet, which, according to their own account, and
from indications discerned by the pioneer whites, was of fre-
quent occurrence. A tradition among the Indians_told of a
race of people. who inhabited the country centuries before,



28 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

but who had been either destroyed or driven far to the south-
west. Memorials of this pre-historic race—mounds, burying
grounds, embankments, fortifications of stone and of earth,
ditched and walled towns, and articles of handicraft found in
them—testify that the original inhabitants, to whom the set-
tlers gave the general name of Mound-Builders, were much
farther advanced in the arts of civilization than any known in
North America except the Aztecs, or Mexicans.

19. Well-defined and notable relics of this extinct people
have been found in forty-one counties, to the number, in the
aggregate, of more than five hundred. In the caverns and
mounds, explorers and excavators have discovered mummified
human bodies, stone coffins, bones of human beings and of
animals, beads and other articles made of copper, small breast-
plates, earthenware and queensware, ivory beads, polished
flints, etc, In sinking wells and excavating for house-founda-
tion and cellars, numerous bones of a gigantic race, as well as
those of ordinary size, have been exhumed. ©

20. There was abundant evidence, too, that at a former
period some species of animals larger than are now known to
man existed here. At Big Bone Lick in Boone county was
found a great collection of bones and teeth of the mammoth
or mastodon—the remains of those which had perished from
time to time at this salt-water resort to which pathways led’
from every direction.

21. The whites who came to explore and settle Kentucky
ascertained it to be an almost unbroken forest—more than
seven-eighths of this vast area being thus covered. In many
sections were great bodies of magnificent old trees; in some
where these grew the woodland was comparatively open; in
others a thick undergrowth of brushwood, vines, and briers;
and here and there along the streams almost impenetrable
cane-brakes or thickets of cane. About six thousand square
miles of the central and western or southwestern parts consti-
tuted almost the whole unwooded or prairie district.



GEOGRAPHY. 29

22. In this great forest land, unbroken even by Indian
settlements and clearings, were immense herds of buffalo;
while deer, elk, bears, wolves, panthers, and the smaller wild
animals abounded; as did wild turkeys and the many other
species of birds that are still common. The numerous
streams were prolific of the kinds of food fishes which they
still supply in abundance notwithstanding the ceaseless
destruction that has been going on for more than a century.
It was hardly extravagant in some of the enthusiastic pioneers



SHEEP PASTURE IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY.

who declared Kentucky to be the paradise of the hunter and
fisherman.

23. The population at the present time (1896), is more
than two millions. In the main it is of Anglo-Saxon descent.
Those who took the lead in the pioneer and formative period
were chiefly from Virginia; but Maryland, Pennsylvania, and
the Carolinas have contributed. no inconsiderable portion.
There has been a singular absence of admixture of blood
since emigration from foreign countries began to be attracted,



30 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY,

About three-fourths of the immigrants, as noted by the census
of 1890, have come from the other states of the Union, and
are for the most part of English stock, though there is a
strong element among these, as well as among the descend-
ants of the original settlers, of those noble peoples, the
Scotch-Irish and the French-Huguenots. Less than one- ’
twentieth of the population are foreign born, and less than
one-seventh are of the negro race.

24. Soon after the first settlements were established, Ken-
tucky began to be designated The Dark and Bloody Ground.
There is some uncertainty as to the precise significance which
attaches to the phrase as a whole; but it is most probable
that the term ‘‘dark’” refers, not to the deeds which have
rendered the state a bloody ground, but to the natural
appearance of the country when the white man caine to take
possession, A vast region, covered with an almost contin-
uous forest, whose shades in any except the brightest weather
would give it a gloomy aspect, and more especially So when
the great solitude was unbroken by the voice and occupations
of civilized men—all this made it to~be fitly termed dark ;
while the numerous sanguinary engagements which for a long
series of years, preceding and closely following the coming of
the pioneers, made it a land of blood. -The phrase that thus
early gained currency had in it an element of prophetic mean-
ing, for besides the many localities made memorable by sav-
age atrocities as well as by pitched battles between white men
and Indians, there are more than a hundred places where con-
flicts occurred on Kentucky soil during the great civil war.

wean



THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN. 31

4

CHAPTER III.

FROM THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN TILL THE TRANSYL-
VANIA COMPANY WAS ORGANIZED.
1660-1775.

1. For more than fifty years after the first settlement was
made in Virginia the country lying westward between the Alle-
ghanies and the Mississippi river was to white men an unknown
region. In 1660 the Menguy Indians came from the north-
east to make war upon the Shawnees, who then inhabited
Kentucky, and as the invaders carried fire-arms procured from



INDIAN WIGWAM.

the French in Canada, it is probable that French adventurers
were among them; but the first white visitor of whom we
have any record was the great explorer La Salle, who is said
to have come down the Ohio in 1670 and landed at the Falls
of Ohio, where Louisville now stands. For a hundred years
_prior to 1750, however, it is certain that boatmen onthe Ohio
and Mississippi at least viewed the adjacent shores, and prob-
able that they occasionally landed and hunted in the forest ;
and as early as 1751 many whites were found by Gist on both



.

32 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

sides the Ohio near where Portsmouth now stands, who had
come to trade with the Indians.

2. In 1750 the first party of white men to penetrate the
wilderness was led by Dr. Thomas Walker, of Virginia. They
came by way of Powell’s Valley, through a gap in Laurel
mountain, and travelled as far as central Kentucky. Walker
named that branch of the Alleghanies now known as Cumber-
land mountains, in honor of the Duke of Cumberland, and
gave to Shawnee river also the name of Cumberland. These
men built near the point at which they first entered the first
cabin erected-in Kentucky.

8. In 1751 Capt. Christopher Gist came as agent of the
Ohio Land Company, which had from Virginia a grant of
500,000 acres, to explore with a view to locating desirable
lands. He stopped at Shawneetown near the mouth of the
Scioto river, and explored as far down as Big Bone Lick;
then reached the Kentucky river and followed that to the
mountains and crossed over to the Kanawha on his way back ~
to North Carolina. From his report Lewis Evans made the
first map of Kentucky, a revised copy of which was published
in 1755. :

4. The first white women known to have set foot on Ken-
tucky soil were Mrs. Mary Inglis and a Dutch woman, who,
in 1756, escaped from captivity at Big Bone Lick. You will
find a short account of them at the end of this chapter.

5. In 1758 Dr.Walker came again to Kentucky, but gained
little additional knowledge, and did not attempt to settle.

6. In 1765 Col. George Croghan came from Pittsburgh
down the Ohio to make surveys. He and his party went on ,
this journey as far as the Mississippi river. His were the
first surveys made in the Ohio valley southward.

7. John Finley, with a few companions, came from North
Carolina in 1767, to hunt and trade with the Indians. They
-established a camp on Red river, in the neighborhood of where
Clark, Estill and Powell counties touch each other, Their







FINLEY, THE DISCOVERER OF KENTUCKY.
3 33



a4 . YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

explorations doubtless took a comparatively wide range, though
they did not remain long. When they returned to North Caro-
lina their account of what they had seen excited in others a
desire to visit the wonderful country described.

8. I notice now some occurrences out of their regular
order (except the first), to which you should pay especial
attention, because they gave rise among the whites themselves
to conflicting claims to the lands of Kentucky, and because
they led settlers to believe that when they were driving the
Indians from the territory they were not wantonly outraging
that sense of right which demands that even a savage shall
have some compensation when his property is to pass into
other hands.

9. By royal charter from the British government, which,
at the time when colonies were planted in North America, did
not respect the red man’s title to his home, Virginia was
recognized as having dominion over every thing westward, —
between certain parallels, from the Atlantic to the Mississippi
river, if not farther. This great domain included what is now
West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky. Subsequently, however,
the English deemed it proper to treat with the Mohawks or
Six Nations for all of Kentucky east of the Tennessee river.
The Mohawks based their claim upon the fact that they had
conquered the Shawnees who owned the territory. At Fort
Stanwix, New York, in October, 1768, a council was held and
the Six Nations ceded their claims on condition of receiving
from the English about fifty thousand dollars. The Shawnees
refused to relinquish their title, and in October, 1774, Lord
Dunmore, governor of Virginia, made a treaty with them at
Old Chillicothe, Ohio, after their defeat at Point Pleasant
had made them sue for peace. By this treaty they ceded the
territory to Virginia.

10. The Cherokees on the upper Tennessee, who had been
driven out of Kentucky by the Shawnees and their allies before
the coming of white men, still asserted their right to part of



THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN. 35

the lands; and when the Transylvania Company (of which I
am to tell you hereafter) was organized, Daniel Boone was
employed to negotiate with these Indians for their title.
March 17th, 1775, at Sycamore Shoals, onthe Wataga, a branch
of the Holston river, the company purchased, for about fifty
thousand dollars, all the lands lying between the Ohio and
Cumberland rivers and west and south of Kentucky river,
stretching from Louisville to Nashville.

11. Another claim remained undisposed of. The Chickasaw
Indians maintained till October 19th, 1818, their title to that
part of Kentucky lying between the Tennessee and Mississippi
rivers now known as Jackson’s Purchase. This was bough®
that year by the United States. Thus, you see, the whites
acquired by treaty and purchase the claims which the Indians
disregarded and compelled them to make good by twenty years
of bloody conflict.

12. May Ist, 1769, Daniel Boone, with five companions,
one of whom was John Finley, acting as guide, set out from
their home on the Yadkin river in North Carolina, and on the
7th of June reached the place on Red river at which Finley
had made his headquarters in 1767. They hunted together
during the summer and autumn, but in early winter, having
experienced no molestation, they became incautious and divided
into two parties. Boone, accompanied by John Stewart, pro-
ceeded towards the Kentucky river, near which, on the 22nd
of December, they were surprised by Indians and captured.

18. For some days, as their captors marched with them,
they were closely watched and guarded, but by the seventh
night the Indians had relaxed their vigilance and all fell
soundly asleep. The crafty demeanor of the prisoners, who
appeared indifferent, and even cheerful, deceived their cap-
tors. Boone remained awake; and when he found by stealthily
observing the Indians that all were in deep sleep he awoke
Stewart. Securing their rifles, they were soon out of hear-
ing and in rapid flight. They found their old camp, but their



SA

Ss.

SW

i

i ie
a

7 ty “Eel
ope

Sar nA

on EONS

TA



DANIEL BOONE ALONE IN THE WILDERNESS OF KENTUCKY.
36



o

THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN. 37

four companions were gone and the camp had been despoiled.
Nothing is known as to the fate of Finley and the three men
who had stayed with him. Boone and Stewart now hunted as
before for their subsistence—changing their sleeping place
from time to time for fear the Indians might return to their
cabin. In January, 1770, Boone’s brother Squire, who, with
one man, had set out from North Carolina to find him, dis-
covered the two by their camp-fire, and for some time they
all hunted together. Again a separation took place. Daniel
Boone and Stewart went hunting far beyond the camp and
were suddenly set upon by the Indians, who killed and scalped
Stewart. He was the first white man known to have met this
fate in Kentucky. Boone escaped and returned to his brother,
A short time afterward: the man who had come with Squire
wandered away alone and was never seen again. His fate was
not certainly ascertained; but bones were found which led to
the belief that he became entangled in a swamp and either
died of starvation or was killed by wolves.

14, The two brothers continued here their roving life until

May, 1770; when, their ammunition having grown scarce, it
was agreed that Squire should return home and bring a supply
of this and other necessary things. He departed on this mis-
sion, and Daniel was left without éven the companionship of
man’s faithful friend, the dog, as the one that had been with
them followed the home-going brother. On the 27th of July
Squire returned to the spot agreed upon. He had come with
two horses, one laden with powder, ball, and cther articles.
During his absence, Daniel had roamed over’ many new sec-
tions—having gone as far as the Ohio river and travelled along
its shores.

15. For seven or eight months after Squire’s return they
sought to extend their knowledge of the country—tracing the
course of streams and giving them names; also making a
more particular examination of all the features of central
Kentucky. It appears that about this time Daniel Boone first



s
38 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

conceived the idea of bringing his family and making his
home here. He had now a definite object in view—the selec-
tion of a spot upon which to locate. He finally made choice
of a point on the Kentucky river, and in March, 1771, the
brothers set out on their return to their homes on the Yadkin,
which they reached when Daniel had been absent nearly two
years.

16. During the same year in which Boone’s party left
North Carolina for Kentucky (1769), Col. James Knox, one
of forty men from the valleys of New, Holston, and Clinch
rivers, in Virginia, came in, under the leadership of Knox, by
a more southerly route. Their object was hunting and trap-
ping; and their influence upon the history of the state was of
little consequence except that it extended the knowledge of a
hitherto unexplored region and increased the tide of immigra-
tion which set in soon afterward. They established a camp
and depot of supplies, which were to be deposited every five
weeks, at Price’s Meadow, about six miles from where Monti-
cello now stands. They hunted south and west. Two boat
loads of skins and wild meats were sent down the Cumberland
river under charge of ten of the party, for sale to the Span-
ish garrison at Natchez, on the Mississippi, from which place
the boatmen returned to Virginia. Some who had remained
with Knox were lost in the forest; others, separating from
the main body, reached home at times of which we have no
record; but Knox, with a party of nine, turned northward in
the autumn and found and probably named Dick’s river.
More than a year afterward, the party was increased by the
return of some of the men who had gone to Natchez and others
from the old settlements, and went farther west. Some
time in 1771 they built on the site of Mount Gilead church,
nine miles east of Greensburgh, another house for deposit and
shelter, and from here hunted south and west over Green,
Hart, Barren, and contiguous counties. They returned to Vir-
ginia after an absence of two years without having met ‘the



THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN. 39

Boone party, or even knowing that they were in the country.
After the departure of these two bands of hunters, nothing
of special note occurred for two years.

17. September 25th, 1773, Daniel Boone with his own and
five other families set out for that part of Kentucky where he
had determined to make his home. In Powell’s Valley they
were joined by forty men. When near Cumberland Gap,
October 10th, they were suddenly attacked by Indians, and
before the men could rally and drive them off six of the whites







7 Laer
Se f
@
a tea





tae N

STATE ARSENAL AT FRANKFORT. ,

were killed, Boone’s oldest son being one of them. This was
so dreadful a blow, falling where they least expected danger,
that Boone and other resolute persons who were for pushing
on could not prevail upon the rest, and, their dead having
been buried, they went back to their several homes.

18. Somewhat previous to this time Virginia had granted
land bounties to her surviving soldiers of the French and
Indian war. These lands were to be located westward; and
as the accounts carried back by Finley, the Boones, Knox and
others, had created a wide-spread interest, various parties of



40 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

surveyors came in 1773 and explorations were greatly ex-
tended. One company, of which Thomas Bullitt became the
leader, left Virginia, in the spring of 1773, and, proceeding
to the Ohio, passed leisurely down by boat. A part of
them reached the mouth of Beargrass creek, July 8th, and
encamped a short distance above. For the greater security,
their nights were generally spent on Corn Island, opposite
where Louisville now stands. For six weeks they made sur-
veys along the river and southward as far as Salt river in
Bullitt county.

+19. The MéAfees (three brothers), with others, left Botte-
tourt county, Virginia, about the same time and came across
to Kanawha river, where they took canoes and a small boat for
the Ohio. On their journey they overtook the Bullitt party
(May 29), and remained with them till they reached the mouth
of Kentucky river. They went up this to Drennon’s Lick, in
Henry county, where they found a man named Drennon who
had come across from Big Bone and reached the Lick the day
before. Here they took a Entek beaten through almost impass-
able cane-brakes by wild animals seeking the springs, and
followed it up the river to a point opposite Lee? s Town, below
Frankfort, where they crossed over. Turning south, they
surveyed the bottom in which Frankfort now stands, July 6th,
the first survey made on the Kentucky. The boundary described
comprised six hundred acres. They then went up the ridge along
the present Lexington road and turning to the right crossed
the Kentucky seven miles above Frankfort. The next encamp-
ment was at Lillard’s Spring near Lawrenceburgh. From
here they hunted westwardly to Salt river and down this to
Hammond’s creek, from which point they surveyed to the
mouth of the branch on which Harrodsburgh now stands.
During this journey from the mouth of the Kentucky, two of
the party, one of whom was Hancock Taylor, went to joinâ„¢
Bullitt on the Beargrass. On the 31st of July, the others
took a course nearly southeast across Dick’s river and on the



THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN, AL

5th of August reached the forks of the Kentucky. On their
ascent of the mountain country, over a route hitherto untrod-
den by white men, and rendered difficult not alone by its
roughness but in places by tangled brushwood, vines and
briers, and at times finding it impossible to procure either suf-
ficient food or water, they became so foot-sore and exhausted
as almost to despair, but managed to kill sufficient game to
preserve life, though at one time two days without food. At
length they struck a hunter’s path across the head of Powell’s
Valley and reached their Virginia homes.

- 20. During this year three deputies of William Preston,
who was surveyor for Fincastle county, Virginia (as Ken-
tucky was then designated), were here surveying and locat-
ing lands for themselves and others. These deputies were
Hancock Taylor, who was awhile with the McAfees; James
Douglas, who stopped on his way to the Falls of Ohio,
whither Bullitt had preceded him, to view the wonders at Big
Bone Lick, of which accounts had already gone abroad; and
John Floyd, who made many surveys along the banks of the
Ohio, one of which was for locating a tract in Lewis county
for Patrick Henry, the orator of the Revolution.

21. Simon Kenton, afterward to become famous as a Ken-
tucky pioneer, came down the Ohio this year with a party who
wished to join Bullitt. Failing to find him at the mouth of
the Miami river, where report had led them to expect him,
they supposed that he and his followers had been killed or
captured by the Indians, and concluded to return. Kenton,
having previously been for a short time on a hunting expe-
dition between the Kanawha and Kentucky rivers, and know-
ing something of the country, led them back through the
counties of Boone, Kenton and others to the southeast, across
the Big Sandy, to the settlements in Virginia.

22. In May, 1774, James Harrod led a party of forty hunt-
ers and surveyors from Monongahela county, Virginia. Boat-
ing down the Ohio to a point opposite the Licking river they



42 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

tarried there for a few days, during which they felled the first
trees on the ground where Cincinnati now stands. Shortly
afterward they probably went down as far as the Falls, but
returned to the Kentucky river and ascended it in canoes
to what is now Oregon Landing in Mercer county. They
explored to the southward and selected the present site of
Harrodsburgh as a place to begin permanent settlement, and
built the first cabin on a spot in Kentucky laid off and plotted
to become atown. June 16th, 1774, is given as the date of
the founding of the oldest town in the state—called for some
years Harrodstown. Several eligible spots for residence were
selected, surveys made for farms, and cabins erected. These
were assigned by lot. Two, near the present town of Dan-
ville, fell to John Crow and James Brown; about Boiling
Spring, six miles from Harrodsburgh, James Harrod .and
others were located; while cabins three miles east of Harrods-
burgh, fell to James Wiley and others. John Harman raised
the first crop of corn in the settlement.

23. Towards the last of July, four of Harrod’s men were
out surveying three miles below Harrodsburgh, when they
were fired upon by concealed Indians. Jared Cowan was
killed. One of the party made his way back to the camp;
but Jacob Sandusky and another man, believing that the set-
tlement had been surprised and probably destroyed, went to
the Falls and afterward by a circuitous water and land route
reached Virginia.

24, During this summer Hancock Taylor, leading a party
who were surveying along the Kentucky, was shot from
ambush by Indians, near the mouth of the river, in Carroll
county, and died in a few days as his companions were trying
to convey him to his old home.

25. Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia, having sent for
Daniel Boone and requested him to go to the Falls of Ohio and
guide back through the wilderness some men whom he had.
sent to Kentucky on a surveying expedition, he chose as a





Ct

a

THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN. 43

companion Michael Stoner, and set out June 6th, 1774. He
was also to call wherever he knew white men to be encamped
and warn them to return at once to the states. The Shaw-
nees had induced other northern tribes to unite with them in
a campaign of extermination against Virginia, and the small
bodies of whites in Kentucky were in imminent danger. Boone
and Stoner reached Harrodstown: soon after the real work of
settlement began, and the entire party left their new homes
and went back to Virginia. “Thus the territory was abandoned
for a time. Dunmore had ordered the enlistment of three
thousand men, who were organized in two divisions, the
right wing under his own corona the left under that of
Gen. Andtew Lewis. Boone was ordered to take general
charge of three garrisons along the border. The right wing
, proceeded to Pittsburgh, the left to the mouth of the Kana-
wha, where General Lewis met the allied savages, fifteen hun-
dred strong, while his own force was but eleven hundred. At
Point Pleasant, October 10th, a long and desperate battle
ensued, in which the Indians were defeated and driven back
to their villages beyond the Ohio. Dunmore came down
with the right wing, and proceeded with his whole command
to Old Chillicothe. The Indians sued for peace, and, as
has previously been told you, they relinquished all claim to
Kentucky.

——_00 S@40-0—_—

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

‘I. Thomas Bullitt.—This gentleman, who surveyed about
the Falls in 1773, as I have already told you, and in August of
that year laid out a town on ground now covered by Louisville,
had a most daring adventure on his way down the river to
that place. He stopped at a point on the Ohio opposite Old
Chillicothe, and went alone to that place to confer with the
Indians. Approaching with a white handkerchief displayed
as a flag of truce, he succeeded in removing their suspicions;
induced them to call a council for the next day; and at this



Z

44. YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

council, during which he seems to have been frank in stating
the purpose of the white men to settle in Kentucky, he
obtained their consent to proceed—and at length left them in
perfect good humor.
Il. First White Women in Kentucky.—In ‘1756 Mrs.
- Mary Inglis, who had been a Miss Draper, was captured in
Montgomery county of what is now West Virginia, by Shaw-
nee Indians. Her two little boys, Mrs. Draper (her sister-
in-law), and others, were also made prisoners. ‘They were
taken to the salt regions of the Kanawha; thence to the
Indian village at the mouth of the Scioto, ia Ohio. Afterward
Mrs. Inglis had to go with the Indians on a salt-making expe-
dition to Big Bone Lick in Boone county, Kentucky. Here
she induced an old Dutch woman, who had long been a pris-
oner, to attempt to escape with her. Obtaining leave to gather
grapes, they managed to carry off a blanket, a tomahawk, and
a knife, but, to avoid suspicion, took neither additional cloth- .
ing nor food. Going to the Ohio river, they followed this up,
and in five days reached a point opposite the Indian village,
the home of their captors. Resting that night in an empty
cabin on this side the Ohio, next morning they loaded a horse
found grazing near by rith corn which ‘they had discovered,
and went on up to the mouth of the Big Sandy. They could
not cross there, but higher up they attempted to cross on drift-
wood with the horse. He became entangled and had to be
left. Taking what corn they could, they went on towards the
Kanawha river, living upon the corn, grapes, nuts, roots, etc.,
for many days. The Dutch woman at last became wild with
hunger and other suffering, and tried to kill Mrs. Inglis; but
she broke away, reached the Kanawha, found a canoe in hie h
she crossed over, and at last, after forty and a half days,
having travelled about twenty miles a day, her strength now
almost gone, her feet and limbs swollen with cold and fatigue,
she reached the residence of a white family, whose kind and
careful treatment soon so restored her that she was able to go
on home. She sent help to the Dutch woman, who was
brought in and at last restored to health. One of Mrs, Inglis’s
little boys died among the Indians, and the other was a pris-
oner for thirteen years before he was found and ransomed by
his father, This is one example of the dangers and sufferings



THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN, 45

to which the pioneers of the west were subjected, and which
even women so bravely encountered and so wonderfully bore.

Ill. The Hunter’s Rifle.—Few young people-of this gen-
eration have any knowledge of the weapon which their pioneer
fore-fathers made so effective in procuring their supplies of
meat, and so deadly in conflict, and a brief description is appro-
priate. In the hands of those acquainted only with breech-
loading repeaters, needle guns, metal cartridges, &c., the
hunter’s rifle would seem a clumsy fire-arm, incapable of
doing rapid execution; but it was a great improvement on the
blunderbuss and similar guns used by the early settlers of
America. It was a rifle of small bore, for which a pound of
lead would make from seventy to one hundred and twenty
round bullets, made by pouring the melted lead into iron
moulds. The barrel was heavy, and usually considerably
longer than that of the gun with which the State Guard is
now armed. To load it required more motions, more care,
and more time than is necessary to load and fire deliberately
every chamber of the Winchester. The process involved the
use of a ‘‘charger’’ (a horn or bone receptacle holding just
the requisite amount of powder), into which the powder was
poured from a horn or flask; from the charger this was
poured into the barrel; the placing of a bit of domestic (the
patching) on the muzzle and the bullet on that; then the
drawing of the ramrod from the thimbles which held it to the
underside of the barrel, and ramming the ball down; then the
powder-horn was again to be unstopped and the ‘‘pan’’ of the
rifle (at the touch-hole) to be filled and the steel-faced frizzle
drawn down upon it; next the hammer containing the flint for
striking fire into the pan was to be cocked, and the gun was
ready to be aimed and discharged. When the distance did
not exceed one hundred yards, it was an effective weapon,
though not as death-dealing in war, even within its range, as
the modern rifle, which carries a heavy conical ball. The per-
cussion cap did not come into general use until about the
middle of the present century, and the metal cartridge until
many years afterward. The pioneer hunters and fighters were
skillful marksmen, and with them the process of loading, which
to the men of this day would be tedious, was executed, in time
of action, with almost incredible rapidity.





46 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

IV. The Hunting Shirt.—This, of which you hear and read
in connection with the pioneers, was but one part of a hunter’s
garb, all of which was generally of the same character. The
so-called shirt was a loose frock coat, with a cape, made of
dressed deerskin. Leggings, and shoes (called moccasins )
were usually of the same material; and cape, coat, and leg-
gings were often fringed. Many of the backwoodsmen wore
caps made of the skins of wild animals. For this purpose the
coonskin was the favorite. The under garments, except woloen
or cotton socks, were of home-made cotton cloth. In a leather
belt was hung, on the right side, a hatchet, or tomahawk; on
the left, a hunting or butcher knife, a powder horn, and a
pouch for bullets, flints, and cloth (called ‘‘patching’’), in
which the bullets were inclosed when the rifle was loaded.

V. The Tomahawk.—Before white traders introduced the
use of iron or steel among the Indians, this dreadful imple-
ment of war was sometimes the horn of a deer secured near
the end of a piece of wood for a handle—and somewhat resem-
bled a pickax. Another plan was to sharpen a stone at both
ends, and fasten it by thongs near one end of the handle,
which was split to receive it. When Europeans began to
trade with the Indians, the steel-edged hatchet soon came into
use among them. The ‘‘pipe-tomahawk,’’ sometimes alluded
to in writings about the Indians, was their hatchet with the
blunt end formed into a pipe-bowl, which communicated with
a hollow made in the handle; so that instead of smoking an
ordinary pipe the Indian who owned one of these smoked his
tomahawk.

VI. The Long Hunters.—The term ‘‘Long Hunters’’ was
applied to the Knox party only, who were absent in Kentucky
from 1769 to 1771, though Boone remained fully as long.

VII. Long Knife.—Indians called the Virginians (and
afterwards the Kentuckians) Long Knife, or Big Knife,
because they were the first men whom they knew to carry
such a weapon, or a short sword, on hunting or warlike
expeditions.





THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY, 47

CHAPTER IV.

THE. TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY.—-BOONE’S TRACE OR THE
WILDERNESS ROAD, ETC.
1774-1776.

1. In the autumn of this year (1774) occurred an event
which notably increased immigration, and for some years
exerted an active influence in settling Kentucky. Judge Rich-
ard Henderson, of Granville county, North Carolina, organ-
ized a company for the purchase of about two-thirds of the
territory now comprised in the bounds of this state. Not-
withstanding the chartered rights of Virginia and the fact
that Dunmore’s treaty extinguished, in favor of that state,
the entire Shawnee claim, these gentlemen made haste after
the battle of Point Pleasant to recognize the pretensions of
the Cherokees in Tennessee, who asserted that the land from
which they had long before been driven was still their own.

2. With Henderson were associated eight gentlemen of
Virginia and North Carolina; but he was the originator of
the scheme and the active agent in its execution. The asso-
ciation was to be known as the Transylvania Company; and
the territory acquired took the name of Transylvania, which
name was for some time used in speaking of the whole region
of Kentucky and was applied to the first great institution of
learning west of the mountains, the Transylvania University.
At fee Sycamore shoals, on the Wataga river, a tributary of
the Holston, in what is now Horiheese Tennessee, the com-
pany, aided by Daniel Boone, whose services they had engaged,
made preliminary arrangements with the Cherokee Indians for
a treaty which was to be formally entered into a few months
later. Accordingly, Boone, with Henderson and other members
of the company, met them at Wataga in February, 1775. After
a conference of twenty days an agreement was reached, and on



\

48 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

the 17th of March the treaty was perfected, the company pay-
ing about $50,000 for perpetual right and title to all the lands
claimed by the Cherokees as their hunting grounds in Ken-
tucky and that part of Tennessee lying southward between
the southern boundary of Kentucky and the Cumberland
river. The territory was described as including all the terri-
tory bounded on the north by the Ohio river, on the east by
the Kentucky river and the Cumberland mountains, on the
south and west by the Cumberland river.

8. Boone had previously been employed to open a road for
men and pack-horses from Clinch river to the mouth of Otter
creek, on the Kentucky river. This was afterward known as
Boone’s Trace. It appears that a week before the Wataga con-
ference closed Boone left it in company with some men from
North Carolina, who were on their way to Kentucky, and pro-
ceeded to Long Island in Holston river, to meet his brother
and others whom he had engaged to assist him; and with
about thirty well-armed men he set out from Long Island,
March 10th, 1775, to mark the road. It was to be nothing
more than a practicable route, straightforward as possible,
for men and horses, the work required being simply to re-
move, with ax or hatchet, sufficient bark of trees, at inter-
vals, to make a white and clearly discernible spot, and cut-
ting out the undergrowth where necessary. This marking of
trees was called, in pioneer phrase, ‘‘blazing the way.”’

4, They made such rapid progress that by March 20th they
were within fifteen miles of where Richmond now stands.
Here Indians attacked them, killing two men and wounding
two. They drove off the savages and pressed on; but before
they reached the Kentucky river they were again fired upon.
Tio men were killed and three wounded. By April 1st they
had reached the mouth of Otter, and about sixty yards south
.of where the railroad from Richmond to Winchester now
crosses the Kentucky, and near a salt lick, they began to build

Fae



THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 49

Boonesborough—a fort, the walls of which were made in part
of the back-walls of cabins and in part of strong timbers set
upright firmly inthe ground. Four days afterward the Indians
killed another man. Some time during April, Henderson
arrived with thirty fighting mea to re-enforce them, and about
the middle of June the stockade and cabins were completed.
Before this time, however, Henderson had taken import-
ant steps toward colonizing Transylvania. Soon after his
arrival, he issued a call for a convention at See oe rou ee to
be composed of delegates
from the principal senies
“ments, to form a govern-
ment. Boonesborough
chose six of its leadnig
men; St. Asaph’s, or
Logan’s Fort, four; while
Harrodstown and Boiling
Spring, both embraced in
Harrod’s settlement, se-
lected four each. At
Boonesborough, May ._ xgoonzsBporoveH sTOCKADE.
28rd, 1775, the. meeting
was opened with prayer by the Rev. John Lythe, and the
convention was organized. Henderson made a speech set-
ting forth the work to be done, to which the chairman made
due response. Proceeding with all the formality of a legis-
lature, the assembly appointed a committee to represent the
people in the making of a constitutional compact, while Hen-
derson and two others were to represent the company. The
constitution was made and signed by these members of the
company and by the chairman of the committee for the peo-
ple. A code of laws embraced in nine acts was passed and
recorded, as follows: (1) To establish courts of justice and
regulate practice in them; (2) To provide for a militia; (3)
To punish criminals; (4) To prevent profane swearing and
4





50 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Sabbath-breaking; (5) To provide for writs of attachments ;
(6) To regulate clerks’ and sheriffs’ fees; (7) To impose
conditions for the use of the range or public pasture; (8) To
preserve the breed of horses; and (9) To preserve the game.
The company had already established a land office at Boones-
borough and made known the terms upon which land would
be granted to settlers. It took upon itself the cost of furnish-
ing all supplies of powder and lead for the defense of families
and of the country. The terms were so reasonable and were
so to continue for more than a year, that notwithstanding
some provisions and penalties that would ultimately have sub-
jected the settlers to great losses, immigration materially
increased, and by December more than five hundred and sixty
thousand acres had been sold.

6. The contract or agreement, ‘for the peace of the pro-
prietors and the security of the people,’’ above alluded to,
gave the Transylvania Company dangerous power over the
rights and liberties of the settlers, in spite of the reasonable
code of laws enacted at the time; and it was not long before
reflection on the part of the delegates and the people led them
to feel that they had been craftily dealt with. Before the year
closed another circumstance occasioned uneasiness: increased
prices for lands and extravagant fees for entry and survey were
announced. The people became alarmed, and in December,
1775, a petition, signed by eighty-four men, was forwarded to
the Virginia Assembly, setting forth the cause of dissatisfac-
tion, and asking that state to assert its jurisdiction over the
territory claimed by the Transylvania Company. The con-
vention never re-assembled, though it had adjourned to do so in
September. The company attempted to secure representation
in the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, but their delegate
was refused admission, Governor Dunmore issued a proc-
lamation declaring illegal the Wataga purchase of lands over
which Virginia had asserted claim, and the governor of North
Carolina did so with respect to lands now in Tennessee, When



THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 51

George Rogers Clark went to Virginia in 1776 (as will be noticed
subsequently) to obtain means of defense for Kentucky, he
succeeded not only in that but in having the Wataga purchase
declared null and void, in spite of the efforts of Henderson
and his associates, and Kentucky made a county of Virginia.

7. Subsequently, November 4th, 1778, the Virginia Assem-
bly resolved that though the company’s title was void, it had
been at great expense in purchasing and settling said lands, and
it was but just and reasonable that they should be compensated.
Some time afterward it was enacted by the general assembly
of Virginia that to Richard Henderson & Company be granted —
200,000 acres of land in a body, extending along the Ohio for
twenty-five miles, and up Green river twelve and a half miles,
an equal area on each side of the latter stream; and North
Carolina granted them also 200,000 acres in the present state
of Tennessee.

8. In May, 1775, Simon Kenton came again to Kentucky,
in company with Thomas Williams. They landed at the mouth
of Cabin creek, and went out to where Washington, Mason
county, now is. Here they built a cabin. Hunting inland,
along the Licking, they visited the Upper and the Lower Blue
Licks, and one day fell in with two men who seemed to have
been lost in the wilderness—Fitzpatrick and Hendricks. The
former wished to return to Virginia, but Hendricks chose to
remain. He was left at the cabin when Kenton and Williams
set out to pilot Fitzpatrick to the Ohio. When they came
back, they found the charred remains of Hendricks, whom
the Indians had captured and burnt at the stake. He was the
first white man to lose his life in Kentucky in this barbarous
manner, and the last, as far as is known, though others met this
fate at the Indian towns on the borders. Kenton and Williams
cleared an acre of ground, on which they raised this year a
crop of corn.

9. The victory of Point Pleasant, and the consequent favor-
able treaty, gave such renewed impulse to emigration that-



52 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

even the earlier months of 1775, before the inducements offered
by the Transylvania Company were widely known, brought con-
stant accessions to the settlers in Kentucky. Extensive sur-
veys were made and settlements begun at different points.
Early in March, James Harrod came back to Harrodstown and
again began the work of building, fortifying and clearing.
Jobn Floy d, who had been on a surveying expedition in 1778,
came again early in May, 1775, and some time afterward set-
tled on the middle fork of Beargrass creek, six miles from the
Falls, at what was called Floyd’s Station. During the spring,
Benjamin Logan arrived from Virginia with a number of men
and settled at the big spring near the present town of Stanford.
Towards the last of April some hunters and explorers were
encamped on the present site of Lexington, where news of the
battle of Lexington, the first one of “the revolution, reached
them, and they dared this place accordingly, though perma-
nent settlement was not made there until some time after ward,
10. There were now three important settlements, while
scattered here and there in other localities were small bodies
of men. It was estimated that by June there were about three
hundred men at Harrodstown, Boonesborough, Logan’s Fort,
and elsewhere in Kentucky. Thus, you see, by the time the
Revolutionary war had fairly begun on the seaboard, a few
settlements, that proved to be permanent, had been made in
Kentucky» and a form of government established, which had
its basis in that respect for law and order which characterizes
the Anglo-Saxon race, rather than upon a greed of gain and a
love of power on the part of Henderson and his associates.

—-0 293, 00-—_-

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.



I. Daniel Boone.—This man is justly regarded as first
among the great pioneers of Kentucky, because he really
opened the way for those who came with a fixed purpose to
settle here, and led the van; because his experience, sagacity,



THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 53

and courage made settlement practicable; and because his
patient, faithful, and always brave yet prudent service in
behalf of his countrymen contributed more than that of any
other dhe man to make the settlements permanent and at last
peaceful and prosperous. He was the fourth son of Squire and
Sarah (Morgan) Boone; was born near Exeter, Bucks county,
Pennsylvania, July 14th, 1732; lived there and at Reading,
near the head-waters of the Schuylkill river, until he was
eighteen or twenty years old, when his father moved to North
Carolina, settling on the Yadkin river. His boyhood was
passed in a region that was still a wilderness country, in which
wild animals, even of the more dangerous kind, were plentiful,
and Indians occasionally appeared; and he had already devel-
oped a passion for hunting and for CER

the solitude of the woods. To a
native fearlessness he added an im-
perturbable presence of mind and
great skill in the use of the rifle.
He had so little chance to get educa-
tion that his scholarship amounted to
nothing more than the ability to read,
to write an indifferent hand, and to
make simple arithmetical calcula- RM
tions. In 1755, he was married to XS
Rebecca Bryan, the daughter of a §
neighbor. Of five sons born to them,
two, James and Israel, were killed
by Indians; their four daughters and é
three sons were married, and many Kentucky and Mis-
souri families trace their connection with them. Previous
to 1769 Boone had made comparatively long hunting excur-
sions to the west, and is known to have been as far as the
Wataga branch of the Holston in Tennessee; but it was not
till the year mentioned that his connection with the history of
Kentucky begins. From that time the story of his life is so
interwoven with that of our state that it is unnecessary to
recount it here.

Apparently he left his family in 1769, and was absent nearly
two years, with no higher motive than to gratify a love of
hunting, to enjoy that solitude which evidently had a charm
for him even before his boyish strength was equal to the




WZ



WMâ„¢~
DANIEL BOONE.



54. YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY,

steadying of a rifle, and possibly to find some of the excite-
ment of dangerous adventure; but afterward he came to feel
that he had been led by a mysterious influence, as one ordained
by heaven to settle the wilderness, and that up to 1770, when
he determined to:make Kentucky his home, his thirty-eight
years of life had been but one long course of training to fit
him for it. Through lack of experience in civil affairs and of
business aptitude, with a certain improvidence begotten of his
manner of life, he began as early as 1779 to experience mis-
fortunes which in 1795 culminated in his self-imposed exile
from the state which he had done so much to establish.
About four years after bringing his family to Boonesborough,
he disposed of most of his little property in the old settlement
for money with which to buy land warrants, and in this way
obtained about $20,000 of the depreciated paper money of
that time. The whole of this was stolen from him on his
return to Kentucky after having perfected the transaction,
and he was left destitute. He afterward entered lands in Ken-
tucky, of which he was deprived because of defective or prior
title. . Saddened, discouraged, and somewhat embittered by
what he attributed to the villainy of others rather than to his
own lack of caution and disregard of business principles, he
left Kentucky (November, 1795), and located on the Missouri
river, fifty miles west of St. Louis, in what is now St. Charles
county—then Spanish territory. The Spanish governor gave
him ten thousand acres of land and appointed him to an office;
but he failed to perfect his title to this magnificent domain
because it required a trip to New Orleans, and so lost that.
Old, without a home, without knowledge of handicraft by
which to obtain means to buy one, he appealed to Kentucky.
In one of his petitions occurred the pathetic words: ‘I have
not a spot of ground whereon to lay my bones.’’ The staie
asked Congress (February 8th, 1812) to donate to him out
of the public domain ten thousand acres, which was done; but
there seemed to be a fatality in connection with the heroic old
woodman’s desire to possess a moiety of the vast territory
of which he had done much to make his countrymen lords;
and through lawsuits this last gift was soon lost, and he died
landless. His passion for hunting and for the great solitudes
seems never to have waned. When enfeebled by age he would
wander away into remote forests, with a single companion,



THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 55

whom he bound by written contract to take care of him and
bring him home, dead or alive. When eighty-five years old he
went on one of these excursions a hundred miles. In 1819 a
distinguished American artist went to his home in Missouri to
paint his portrait. A full-length painting now hangs in the
House of Representatives in Frankfort. This was the work
of a young Kentucky artist, W. C. Allen, who presented it to
the state, December 9th, 1839. He died at the home of Flan-
ders Calloway, his son-in-law, in Charette, Missouri, Septem-
ber 26th, 1820, in his eighty-ninth year. In 1845, the legisla-
ture ‘of. Kentucky had the remains of himself and wife removed



THE BOONE MONUMENT.

to Frankfort, where (September 13th) they were re-interred
with imposing ceremonies. He is described as having been
‘five feet ten inches high, and of robust and powerful propor-
tions, His countenance was mild and contemplative—indicat-
ing a frame of mind altogether different from the restlessness
and activity that distinguished him.” A distinguished author
and statesman wrote of him while he was still living: ‘‘From
the country of his choice and of his fondest predilection, he
has been banished by difficulties he knew not how to surmount.
* * * # * * Yet history shall do him justice; and those
who come after him may balance his relative claims to the
regards of posterity. * * * * * To appreciate the merit



56 YOUNG PEOPLE'S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

of an enterprise we should have in view the difficulties which
opposed its execution. Eulogiums on those who have founded
great cities and states have been multiplied. * * * * * *
Boone and other pioneer Kentuckians merit the appellation of
founders, and not less than the great ones of the past do they
deserve the notice of subsequent generations. Naturally his
sagacity was considerable; and as a woodsman he was soon
- expert and ultimately supereminent. Far from ferocity, his
temper was mild, humane, and charitable; his manners gentle; -
his address conciliating; his heart open to friendship and hos-
pitality. Yet his most remarkable quality was an enduring
and unshakable fortitude.”’

In his Boonesborough address, Governor Morehead said:
‘sSuch were his qualities that with a very common education
he was enabled to maintain, through a long and useful career,
a conspicuous rank among the most distinguished of his
cotemporaries; and the testimonials of public gratitude with
which he was honored after death are never awarded by*an
intelligent people to the undeserving. * * * * * He united
in an eminent degree the qualities of shrewdness, caution,
and courage, with uncommon muscular strength. He was
seldom taken by surprise, he never shrank from danger nor
cowered beneath the pressure of exposure and fatigue. In
every emergency he was a safe guide and a wise counsellor.
* * * His judgment and penetration were proverbially accu-
rate. * * * * It is not assuming too much to say that with-
out him, in all probability, the settlements could not have
been upheld, and the conquest of Kentucky might have been
reserved for the emigrants of the nineteenth century. * * * *
Resting on the solid advantages of his services to his country,
his fame will survive when the achievements of men greatly
his superiors in rank and intellect will be forgotten.”

He was a pure-minded, honorable man; modest and always-
ready to serve rather than to seek prominence as a leader;
brave without rashness; and with a fortitude that nothing but
death could overcome.

II. Col. James Harrod.—The Hon. Humphrey Marshall,
in his History of Kentucky (1824), says of this leader of the
settlers of Harrodsburgh :

‘Among the hardy sons of that hardy race of men called
woodsmen and hunters was James Harrod—no less a soldier



THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 57

than a hunter. In 1774 he joined Colonel Lewis, and with
his followers was in the battle at the mouth of the Kana-
wha; the next year he returned to the place of his choice and
there established himself. He was six feet high, well propor-
tioned, and finely constructed for strength and activity. His
complexion was dark; his hair and eyes black; his counte- .
nance animated; his gait firm; his deportment grave; his con-
versation easily drawn out but not obtruded; his speech was
mild and his manners conciliating, rather by the confidence
they inspired than any grace or elegance they displayed.
Yet, he could but imperfectly read or write. * * * It may
be asked, what was there in the character of such a man that
merits the notice of an historian? * * * * Before the estab-
lishment of schools; before the term, ‘ =
education, was even known—aye, be-
fore letters were invented—the human
heart was the seat of kindness, of
generosity, of fortitude, of magna-
nimity, of all the social virtues.
Without knowing how to read or
write, James Harrod could be kind
and obliging to his fellow-men; active
and brave in their defense; dexterous
in killing game (the source of sup-
ply) and in the distribution of his
spoils. He could be an expert pilot \
in the woods and guide his followers SuNaTon
with certainty and safety. In fine, HUMPHREY MARSHALL.
he could be a captain over others as

illiterate as himself and less endowed with the useful and
benevolent traits of the heart and the head; and he was. He
was vigilant, active, and skillful. He was always ready to
defend his country and companions against the Indians. News
is brought to him that the Indians had surprised a party four
miles hence and killed a man. ‘Boys,’ says he to those
about him, ‘let us go and beat the red rascals;’ then snatches
up his gun and runs at their head. He hears that a family are
in want of meat. He gets his rifle, repairs to the forest, kills
the needful supply, and presently offers it to the sufferers. .A
plow-horse is in the range (a pasture without. bounds), and -
the owner, yet unused to the woods, or apprehensive of the —







58 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

danger attending search says to Harrod: ‘My horse has not
come up; I can’t plow to-day.’ ‘What kind of a horse is
yours?’ he inquires. The answer is given; Harrod disap-
pears; and in a little time the horse is driven to the owner’s
door. These traits not only portray the character of Harrod
but delineate the circumstances of the country. They belong
to history. Usefulness is merit. * * * * A fort was
too circumscribed a field for his active disposition. To
breathe the fresh air of the forest; to range the woods and
hunt game; to trap the otter, the beaver, and the wolf—
were congenial to his feelings, and occupied most of his
time. He was nevertheless actively engaged in the defense
of the country on several expeditions into the Indian ter-
ritory, as well. as on various scouts and explorations on
the frontiers. In these the dexterity of the woodsman and
the bravery of the soldier were conspicuous and useful.
There was no labor too great for his hardihood, no enterprise
too daring for his courage. His comrades knew his personal
worth and the public acknowledged his services. The rank of
colonel which was conferred upon him is a durable testimonial
in his favor. After the country became extensively popu-
lated, and when he was a husband and father of a family, and
in circumstances to enjoy every social comfort, such was the
effect of habit or of an original disposition ever predominant,
that he would leave his home, repair to distant and unsettled
localities, and remain for weeks at a time, obscured in the
forests or buried among knobs. On one of these expeditions
he lost his life; whether by natural death, the fangs of wild
beasts, or the tomahawk of the savage, is not known. He left
one daughter, and with her an ample patrimony in rich lands.
* * * * * He was simple in his manners, frugal in his diet,
independent in his sentiments, open in his counsels, complying
in his conduct, seeming to command because always foremost
in danger. If he ever consented to be a leader, it was of a
hunting or a military band of his willing friends, whose safety
he regarded as his own and whose obedience was voluntary.
Born free and accustomed to control his own actions, one pas-
sion predominated—a love of liberty. What he was himself
he wished every other human creature to be—free. * * ee
James Harrod will be remembered with affection and regret
by the last of his comrades, and-this memorial of his merits



THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 59

. will descend to posterity.’’ His wife maintained that he was
murdered by a man named Bridges, who had a personal
grudge against him growing out of a lawsuit.

Il. Gen. Benjamin Logan.—Like many other men of ac-
tion whose names are inseparably connected with the history of
Kentucky, Logan had little knowledge of books, but he had a
" quick and comprehensive mind, was a student of men, and had
a practical turn for both private and public affairs. He was
a man of commanding influence among his fellow-pioneers in
their long contest with savages and in their courts and delib-
erative bodies. He has been described as having had ‘‘a com-
manding form, which towered conspicuous among all—tall,
athletic, and dignified; aface castin the finest mould of manly
beauty—dark, grave, and contemplative, and which, while it
evinced unyielding fortitude and impenetrable reserve, invited
to a confidence which was never betrayed.’’ He was born in
Augusta county, Virginia, in 1742; when he was fourteen
years old he lost his father and thus became the chief stay of
his mother and several children younger than himself; refused,
when he became of age, to take advantage of the law that gave
to the oldest son the father’s lands, and, with his mother’s
consent, sold or divided them and shared equally with his
brothers and sisters; aided by a brother he provided for the
mother a home for life; then removed to the Holston river,
purchased land, married, and began farming there. It is prob-
able that before settling on the Holston he had had his first expe-
rience in warfare, as he was sergeant in a company of Virginia
troops on Col. Henry Bouquet’s expedition which resulted
in the complete defeat of the Indians at Bushy Run, August 5th
and 6th, 1763, when he was about twenty-one years old. In
1774 he served on Dummore’s campaign; in 1775, as we have
seen, he joined the Boone party on its way to Kentucky, but
he is said to have distrusted Henderson’s plans, and so he
determined to form an independent settlement, for which pur-
pose he proceeded to the place afterward known as Logan’s
Station, near the present city of Stanford. He took with him
Wm. Galaspy and two or three slaves; built a fort, cleared
ground, and made a crop; went back to Virginia in the
autumn and brought to the new home his other slaves and his
cattle; returned again to Virginia and in March, 1776, brought
his family; and was thenceforth prominent in both the mili-



60 “YOUNG PROPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

tary and civil affairs of the country. His services as a par-
ticipant (and in most cases a leader) in conflicts with the
Indians are noted in ensuing chapters. Instances of his deter-
mined and self-sacrificing courage occurred during the siege of
his station which began May 20th, 1777. When the concealed
Indians fired that morning upon the men who were guarding
the women engaged outside milking their cows, and Burr -
Harrison, badly wounded, fell before he could reach the gate,
he lay within range of the Indian rifles and in sight of his
agonized wife and anxious friends till Logan brought him in.
This he did by covering himself with a small feather bed and
going out as soon as darkness set in sufficiently to make a man
on all fours appear to the Indians to bea big hog, moving around.
the walls of the stockade in search of something to eat. He
crept hither and thither to deepen the deception, but finally
reached Harrison, apparently by accident, when he gathered
him in his arms and sprang to his feet. Indian bullets at once
showered around them, but he carried his comrade into the
fort without further hurt, and himself was untouched. When
ammunition was about to fail, he took upon himself the des-
perate alternative of procuring a supply. Choosing two gal-
lant comrades to accompany him, he made his way through
the Indian lines, and in ten days performed the almost incredi-
ble feat of going to the settlements on the Holston, procuring
supplies, and returning—a distance, back and forth, of more
than three hundred miles, and for the most part by a rough and
untravelled route. In 1777 he was a member of the Court of
Quarter Sessions at Harrodstown; when Kentucky was divided
into three counties (November Ist, 1780), he was commis-
sioned colonel, or county lieutenant for Lincoln; was a mem-
ber of the Virginia Legislature, 1781; was a member of the
conventions which met in Danville in 1785, 1787, and 1788; a
member of the convention of 1792 which formed the first
state constitution, and was one of the electors of senate;
and he several times represented his county in the legisla-
ture. He lived to old age, beloved and honored by the
people of the whole state.

IV. Richard Henderson.—Some writers give this man a
military title, speaking of him as Colonel Henderson. Thisis .
merely a courtesy, and seems trivial in itself; but it has a
tendency to degrade the term as applied to several of our

'



THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 61

noble pioneers, who, whether commissioned or not, did bear
arms, exercise command, incur danger, fight gallantly, and in
some instances give up their lives in conflict or meet death by
torture at the hands of captors who took a demoniac delight
in the torments of helpless prisoners. The only semblance of
warlike service rendered by Henderson was the bringing of
about thirty men, April, 1775, to re-enforce Boonesborough.
He had little part in the hardships incident to pioneer life, and
was at no time exposed to any grave danger. His connection
with the settlers, however, as the leading spirit of the Tran-
sylvania Company, made him for a short time prominent in
their affairs and left its influence upon the state; and while
he was never really a citizen or a useful factor in the upbuild-
ing of the commonwealth, his name is indissolubly associated
with it, and deserves a brief notice. He was born in Hanover
county, Virginia, April 20th, 1735, but his parents afterward
removed to Granville county, North Carolina. He had no oppor-
tunities for education, and when he reached manhood he was
unable to read and write. His natural abilities, though, were
very great; he was ambitious of distinction, and by diligent
application he qualified himself for business; was appointed a
constable, then an under sheriff; studied law (for a time
under the direction of an able counsellor); became a success-
ful practitioner in both the inferior and superior courts of the
Province of North Carolina; was noted for his solid profes-
sional attainments, and was appointed an associate judge, which
place he filled with distinction until the courts were abolished
by the British crown. By the time he was forty years old,
however, he had indulged in wild speculations, which, with
ostentatious and extravagant living, had deeply involved him
in debt; and he now conceived and proceeded to carry out a
most tremendous scheme, apparently with a view to both
enriching himself and attaining to a power similar to that of
a feudal lord of the olden time. The formation of the Tran-
sylvania Company and the first steps to colonize the com-
pany’s purchase have been noticed in the preceding chapter.
It is not to be inferred that the company’s great design con-
templated a wanton and vicious disregard of either the rights
of the pioneers or of Virginia’s claim under previous treaty.
Its services were recognized and amply remunerated by both
Virginia and North Carolina, though its pretensions were set

er



62 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

aside; and with Henderson were associated Virginia aud No1th
Carolina gentlemen, several of whom took an active part in
the settlement and defense of the state, whose names are
familiar in its stirring annals, and whose descendants are
among the most honorable of Kentucky families. Of Hen-
derson himself it has been recorded that he died at his home
in Granville, North Carolina, ‘‘universally loved and respected.”’





KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 63

CHAPTER V.

KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR: FIRST FOUR
YEARS,
1775-1778.

‘1. You come now to a time which you should keep in mind
as a distinct period in the history of your state. It is remark-
able not only because the events that followed each other in
rapid succession were important in themselves but because of
their far-reaching consequences. During the eight years in
which the thirteen colonies were engaged in war with a mighty
power to freé themselves from tyrannical rule and establish a
government of their own, the pioneers of Kentucky were fix-
ing themselves firmly in their new home, and at the same time
conquering for the struggling government beyond the Allegha-
nies a vast region north and northeast, considerably greater in
area than all the thirteen states together, and now the home
of more than fifteen millions of free people. But for the
heroic deeds of the pioneers, and their perseverance under
many forms of trial and suffering, ‘‘the magnificent country,’
says an able jurist, <‘which now extends as one with us to the
north Pacific might have been broken from us at the summit
of the eastern mountains.”’ ~

2. Many of the first settlers of Kentucky had been soldiers
in the French and Indian war, 1754 to 1763. The effect of
this experience, as well as their unconquerable spirit, was
shown in a striking way in the campaign of 1774 against the
Shawnees and their fierce allies from the northeast. While
Dunmore was getting ready, in his lordly British way (or perfidi-
ously delaying, asis understood ), to move down the Ohio from
Pittsburgh, with the strong right wing of his army, General
Lewis, an old border fighter and leader, had pushed across
with the weaker left wing to Point Pleasant, where he met a



.

64 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

well-armed savage force, one-third greater than his own, and
so utterly routed them that they fled to their villages in Ohio,
and their war of destruction was over. With Lewis that day
were the Boones, Floyd, Harrod, Shelby, McDowell, and other
master spirits in the settling of Kentucky.

3. After the attacks on Boone’s party previously men-
tioned, the Indians were not constantly menacing and trouble-
some during the remainder of 177 5, and immigration notably
increased. Before the close of the year, the Wells brothers
and seven other men encamped on Limestone creek and made
surveys embracing 15,000 acres; in Bourbon county, on a
creek which afterward took his name, John Hinkston built, in
April, a cabin on the spot afterward occupied by Ruddle’s
Station; some improvements were made at Drennon Springs,
Henry county; Haggins, Williams_and others located Martin’s
Station, near what is now Lair’s depot, in Scott county; the
Royal Spring, now in the limits of Georgetown, was visited
early in the year, and in November, John McClelland settled
there with his family; in May Joseph Lindsey built a cabin
on Elkhorn, a short distance from Lexington; Elias Tobin
built a cabin and made a small clearing on Slate creek in
Bath county; Calk built one about a mile from Mount Ster-
ling; William Whitley and wife, with a brother-in-law of his
and seven other persons, located near Crab Orchard in Lin-
coln county; Colonel Calamore raised a crop of corn on Lulbe-
grud creek in Clark county; and John Floyd made surveys in
Bourbon county and elsewhere. Altogether, it was a time of
much activity in exploring and locating homes.

4. Shortly after completing the Boonesborough stockade,
Boone went back to North Carolina for his family. In about
three months he returned to Boonesborough, bringing them
with him. Richard Calloway, William Poague, and John
Stager, with their familes, accompanied the Boones. They
arrived September 26th, 1775, and this was the beginning
of domestic life in Kentucky,



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 65

5. Soon afterward, a party from North Carolina, led by
Hugh McGary, reached Harrodstown. McGary, Richard
Hogan, and Thomas Denton hrought their families, so there
were now two important stations made home-like by women
and children. During the winter following, the fort of Har-
rodstown was begun, on what is now Seminary Hill.

6. Early in the spring of this year George Rogers Clark
came to Harrodstown. He was then less than twenty-three
years old, but had held a commission as captain in Governor
Dunmore’s army the year before. During his stay of a few
months he visited the settlements, and made himself familiar
with existing conditions and the needs of the scattered colon-
ists. His agreeable manner, as well as his evident ability and
the lively interest he manifested, soon won him the esteem
and eonfidence of the people, and he was placed in command
of their militia.

7. In the spring of next year, Clark came again to Ken-
tucky to make it his home. At his suggestion a general
meeting was held at Harrodstown, June 6th, 1776, to take
steps to ascertain whether the territory south and west of the
Kentucky river belonged to Virginia. Noting the confusion
and uncertainty arising from conflicting claims and the grow-
ing dissatisfaction with the Henderson Company, whose title
he did not admit, he had conceived the plan of using the lands
as an inducement to immigrants and thus establishing an
independent state, provided Virginia would not assert her
claims and aid in protecting the settlements. The meeting

chose him and Gabriel John Jones as agents of the people of
Kentucky to the Virginia Legislature.

8. Accepting the trust they set out on horse-back, but they
soon lost or abandoned their horses; the season was so rainy
as to make travelling on foot unusually laborious and slow, and
at last to afflict them with scald feet; they suffered for food;

and were compelled to rest some days in an abandoned fort
5

as



66 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

near Cumberland Gap; but at length they reached Williams-
burgh to find the legislature adjourned.

9. Jones went to his old home on the Holston, but Clark
stayed to follow up his purpose. Gov. Patrick Henry was
at home sick; but when Clark got audience with him he
promptly approved of his plan, and gave him a letter to the
Executive Council. To the council he applied for 500 pounds
of powder—an article for which the Kentucky colonists were
now dependent upon the Henderson Company.

10. Though disposed to help their countrymen the council
replied that as the Kentuckians had not been recognized as
citizens and under Virginia’s protection they could do nothing
more than lend the powder, and Clark must be responsible for
it and bear expense of moving it. They gave him an order
on the keeper of the public magazine, with these express pro-
visions. After reflection, he resolved to go back to Harrods-
town and move for the erection of Kentucky into an inde-
pendent state, and returned the order, with a letter showing
why he could not accept the loan. He said that a country
which was not worth defending was not worth claiming, and
that his people must look elsewhere for help.

11. This brought a reconsideration, with the result that the
order was made to furnish the powder and have it conveyed
to Pittsburgh or Fort Pitt and delivered to Clark for Ken-
tucky. 'He endeavored to notify the settlers at Harrodstown
to have it carried thither, and remained in Virginia to attend
the autumn session of the legislature. Jones having rejoined
him, they moved that body to assert their claim to all the ter-
ritory now constituting this state and organize it as Kentucky
county. In spite of the efforts of Henderson and his associ-
ates, they were successful. The title of the Transylvania
Company was thus declared null and void; but as compensa-
tion for expenses incurred, and for services rendered to the

settlers, the Virginia Legislature granted the company 200,000
acres of Jand lying along Ohio river on both sides of the Green.



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 67

12. Late in September of this year (1776), Clark learned
that the powder still lay at Fort Pitt, his message having
failed to reach Harrodstown, and he hastened to take charge
of it. Employing seven boatmen, he succeeded in carrying
it safe to the mouth of Limestone creek, though harassed all
the way by Indians. Going up that stream, he hid it along
the bank, and set off on foot, with Jones and probably others,
to Harrodstown for an escort. At Hinkston Station he
learned that John Todd, with a party of surveyors, was in
the neighborhood, and waited some days, intending to ask
their assistance; but as they did not come, he left Jones, and
resumed his journey, two men accompanying him. When
Todd came in and loarned what Clark wanted he set out with
ten men, Jones being guide, to find the powder and take it to
Harrodstown; but near Blue Licks Indians attacked them;
Jones and others were killed and the rest captured; but Clark
sent a party, who found the powder and carried it to the set-
tlement. In October, 1776, the Virginia Legislature estab-
lished the county of Kentucky, as a part of that state, and the
settlers were entitled to protection, and to be represented in
that body.

13. I have dwelt at some length on these transactions
because the result of Clark’s mission was a turning point in
the destiny of Kentucky. The authority of Virginia was
established and acknowledged, and the pioneers had indis-
pensable means of defense. Rival claims to the territory and
conflicting pretensions.to control were no longer to produce
confusion and prevent éoncert of action in building up the
new commonwealth. Soon after the Boonesborough conven-
tion, and the establishment of a land office there by the
Henderson Company, the more thoughtful settlers began to
question the legality of that company’s claims, and dissatis-
faction increased when the price of lands and fees of entry
were raised. Eighty-four settlers, as previously stated (some
of whom had been delegates to the Boonesborough con-



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CUSTOM HOUSE AND OLD BRIDGE OVER THE KENTUCKY RIVER, AT FRANKFORT.



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KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 69

vention), filed in the Virginia Legislature a written pro-
test against the pretensions of the company, and asked that
body to decide whether Kentucky was a part of that state or
whether it belonged to Great Britain, under which govern-
ment the Transylvania Company claimed to exercise control.
The exertions of the far-seeing and determined Clark had
brought the matter to a happy conclusion.

14. Among the various small settlements made this year
(1776), was one at Leestown, a mile below Frankfort; one
on Stoner creek in Bourbon county ; and one, called Sandusky’s
Station, on Pleasant’ Run creek, in Washington county, by
Jacob and James Sandusky.

15. About the middle of July, it was learned that some
time before a large body of Indians had invaded Kentucky
and divided into small parties, to strike all the settlements at
the same time and so prevent their assisting one another. On
the 7th of this month, Elizabeth Calloway who was about
grown, and her sister Frances and Jemima Boone, both
thirteen or fourteen years old, were taken prisoners by
Indians and hurried away. They had incautiously rowed a
canoe too near the north shore of the river, opposite Boones-
borough, suspecting no danger because for more than a year
the whites had been free from molestation. It was late in
the afternoon; the only canoe was on the other side of the
river; and it was not until next morning that the fathers of
the girls, Daniel Boone and Richard Calloway, with John
Floyd and five others could cross over. ‘After travelling
altogether about forty miles, delayed by the difficulty of keep-
ing track of the savages, which they had been careful to con-
ceal, the pursuers came upon them next day as they were
kindling a fire to cook. Four men fired upon the Indians and
all rushed forward. They fled, though two of them were
wounded, and left everything but one shotgun. The girls
were recovered unharmed.



70 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

16. About mid-summer the Indians attacked Hinkston and
other settlers along the Licking. They killed several persons,
and forced others to take refuge at Boonesborough, Harrods-
town, and McClelland’s Station at the Royal Spring. Robert
Patterson, who had been one of the first to visit the last-named _
place the year before and assist in building the fort, started in
October with six others to Pittsburgh to get ammunition and
other supplies. They went by canoe up the Ohio, and on the
12th landed on the north side of the river, where they, built
a fire. Sleeping on their arms that night they were fired upon
by Indians and then attacked with tomahawks. All but one
or two were killed or wounded. Patterson was so badly hurt
that he was for a year under a surgeon’s care.

17. On the 29th of December, forty or fifty Mingo Indians
attacked McClelland’s Station, which was defended by twenty
men. ‘Their chief, Pluggy, was killed, and after several hours
fighting they were driven off; but John McClelland, the
founder of the station, was mortally wounded, as was one
other man, while two others were badly wounded. The fort
was abandoned for a time, the survivors taking refuge at
Harrodstown.

18. March 6th, 1777, James and William Ray, with two
other men, were clearing land near Shawnee Spring, four
miles from Harrodstown, when a party of forty-seven Indians
under the chief Blackfish attacked them, killing William Ray
and capturing one man. James Ray, a rapid runner, escaped
to the fort, and the other man saved himself by hiding. The
occupants of the fort strengthened the works and otherwise
prepared for an attack. Next morning, the Indians fired a
cabin east of the town; and a number of the whites in the fort,
having seen nobody, were deceived and rushed out to save the
house. The Indians tried to prevent their return; but they
retreated to a wooded knoll, where the Harrodsburgh court-
house now stands, and took shelter. A fight ensued, in which
one Indian was killed and four white men wounded—one of



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. val

them mortally. They succeeded in reaching the fort, and the
Indians soon withdrew.

19. On the 15th of April, about one hundred Indians
attacked Boonesborough, killing one man and wounding four
others. They were quickly driven off, with what loss was
not ascertained.

20. On the 20th of May, a band estimated also at one hun-
dred, concealed themselves near Logan’s Fort and fired upon
men who were standing guard outside, where women were
milking. One man was killed and two wounded—one mor-
tally. There were now but twelve fighting men left, but they
succeeded in maintaining themselves until some time in Sep-
tember, when Colonel Bowman, coming from Virginia with a
hundred men, reached the place. His advance was fired upon
from ambush and several killed. When the main body came
up the Indians fled. During this siege the ammunition of the
whites grew so svarce that Logan, with two men, left the fort
by night and went to the Holston, beyond Cumberland Gap
for a supply. The food supply so failed that men had to take
the risk of going out beyond hearing of gunshot at such times
of night as would be most likely to escape observation, to
kill and bring in wild game. Their neighbors at Boones-
borough and Harrodstown could not help them, being com-
pelled to guard themselves. Threatened with starvation;
apprehensive that their supply of powder and ball would
utterly fail; girt about by merciless foes nearly ten times out-
numbering their own riflemen; knowing that to be captured
was to meet horrible death or horrors worse than death;
two-thirds of the little community shut in there being women
and children—how sorely were they all tried!

21. On an other occasion during this year Indians were
gathered at Big Flat Lick, two miles from Logan’s Station,
when they were discovered by Logan, who raised a party of
men and attacked them, driving them off with much loss and
without any on his part. Later, when he was on horse-back,



72 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

hunting near the same place, they fired upon him from am-
bush. His right arm was broken and he was slightly wounded
in the breast. The savages rushed upon him but he escaped,
though narrowly.

i 22. In June a party of Indians discovered in the vicinity .
of Boonesborough were driven by Major Smith, with seven-
teen men, across the Ohio, and one of them was killed.
Returning, they found on the way about thirty more con-
cealed. One of these, separated at the time from the rest,
was killed, and part of Smith’s force fired upon and charged
the main body, dispersing them. On the 4th of July, how-
ever, two hundred Indians appeare:l before Boonesborough
and began a close and fierce attack. This lasted but two days,
as they found themselves suffering severely in proportion to
the effect produced upon the garrison. The whites lost one
man killed and two wounded, while the Indian loss was known
to be seven killed, and the wounded were probably many
more. On the 25th of this month the force at Boonesborough
was greatly strengthened by the arrival of forty-five men
from North Carolina.

23. After the attack on Harrodstown, of which E have
told you, the Indians hung about the settlement to prevent
the raising of corn and to kill or drive off stock at pasture on
the range. Of forty horses, all but one disappeared, and
most of the cattle, and little corn had been raised. While
some of the men were clearing a spot for turnips two hundred
yards from the fort, one of them standing guard discovered
and fired at an Indian. Other indications showed that a band
of them was near. By a stratagem, planned and executed
by Clark, they were discovered in concealment and four of
them killed before they could make resistance, and the rest
fled. While pursuing them, the whites found within four
hundred yards of the fort a deserted camp which seemed to
have been occupied by five or six hundred warriors.



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. ~— 73

24. Turning to transactions of an earlier date, let us note
that in the midst of dangers and far removed from the parent
state, the settlers were not unmindful of their rights as citi-
zens of the new county of Kentucky. On the 19th of April,
1777, the first general election was held, and John Todd and
Richard Calloway were chosen members of the Virginia Legis-
lature. On the 23rd of May they set out to take their places
in that body.

25. Early in the spring a party was sent by Clark (who
seems to have acted by common consent asa leader in matters
other than those strictly pertaining to his station as com-
mander of the militia) to break some hemp and flax left at
Hinkston’s place when the whites were forced to abandon it.
They found Indians encamped there and were driven back,
but without loss.

26. In July, Clark ordered a force of spies and scouts to
be organized, to patrol the Ohio river and some interior
places weekly, by twos, and give notice of Indian movements.
Boonesborough, Harrodstown and Logan’s Station appointed
two each, and the plan proved beneficial, though the number
was too small to keep close watch in all quarters and detect
the coming of every small body of savages.

27. Suspecting that the great activity of the Indians this
year was due to British influence, he had sent two spies to the
British posts at Detroit, Vincennes and Kaskaskia, who dis-
covered that his surmises were correct, and further that they
.. were endeavoring to influence against Virginians and Kentuck-
-' jans the well affected French residents of these outposts.
’ This information had a most important bearing, as it con-
firmed his impression that a movement against them ought to
be made. October Ist he set out for Virginia, without hay-
ing disclosed his plans, to submit them to the Executive
Council of Virginia; and after settling the accounts of the
Kentucky militia, and studying the disposition of those in
power he laid his scheme (December 10th) before Governor



74 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Henry. The result was that, after due deliberation on the
part of the governor and the able and patriotic gentlemen
whom he took into his confidence, Clark received, January
2nd, 1778, secret instructions to take the British post at Kas-
kaskia, in Illinois, on the Kaskaskia river, seven or eight miles
above its mouth.

28. At Harrodstown, September 2nd, 1777, was held the
first court in the new county. ‘The act establishing it was
passed on the 6th of December preceding. This court was
composed of eight magistrates, who were to meet monthly
for the transaction of business. Levi Todd was chosen clerk
of the court, and besides other matters then attended to,
officers for a regiment of militia were commissioned, John
Bowman being made colonel.

29. This year had proved unfavorable to the pioneers.
Indian hostilities had reduced the settlements to the three
principal ones, Boonesborough, Harrodstown, and Logan’s;
but these had so successfully defended themselves that their
permanency was assured. —

30. On the lst of January, 1778, Boone with thirty men
went to the Blue Licks to make salt for the settlements, of
which they were in great want. February 7th, while he was
out hunting game for the salt-makers, he was captured by a
large Indian force (with which were two Frenchmen), as they
were on their way to attack Boonesborough. On the 15th they
brought him to the Blue Licks, where, upon his advice, twenty-
seven of the men surrendered, having been promised good
treatment, and for once the savages kept faith. Three of the
men had been sent home with salt, and so escaped capture.
The Indians returned to Chillicothe with their prisoners, and
in March took Boone and ten others to Detroit, where they
delivered the ten to the British, but brought Boone back with
them. Here he was adopted into the tribe, and remained
among them, feigning to be contented till he found that four
hundred and fifty of their warriors were preparing to march

hv
is
4



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, 75

against Boonesborough. He contrived to escape (June 16th),
and made the journey to the stockade (one hundred and sixty
miles) in five days, with but one substantial meal, which he
had hidden in his blanket before starting. Preparation was
made to receive the attack but the Indians did not appear.

31. Some time in August he led a party to attack their
town at Paint creek on the Scioto river, but met thirty of
them on their way to join the large force from Chillicothe,
which was then on the march for Boonesborough. A fight
ensued, with a loss to the Indians of one killed and one or two
wounded. Boone’s party received no injury. They took
from the Indians three horses and all their baggage. As-
certaining by spies that their town had been deserted, the
company hastily returned to Boonesborough, where they
arrived before the enemy. Next day they marched up, flying
the British flag, and demanded a surrender. The force, more
than four hundred in number, was commanded by Captain
Duquesne, a Canadian Frenchman, and with him were eleven
of his countrymen. Though Boonesborough had but fifty
fighting men, they refused to surrender. Duquesne proposed
other terms, and Boone with eight men went out to treat with
him, but quickly discovered that they meant treacherously to
violate the rules of warfare, as known and observed even in
those days, whereupon they ran back into the fort. Firing
immediately began, and that of the Kentuckians was so deadly
that the Indians fell back and sought better shelter. Still
suffering loss without being able to inflict any, an attempt was
made to reach the stockade by digging a mine from a con-
cealed point on the river bank and blow it up; but it was soon
found that the inmates had discovered the plan and were
countermining. Duquesne then abandoned the project and
laid regular siege to the place, according to the Indian fashion.
This proved no better, and after having spent nine days with
a loss of thirty-seven killed and many wounded, the Indians
abandoned the attempt, and Boonesborough was never again
disturbed by so great a force.



76 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

7-82. Clark, who had been commissioned colonel, having
received instructions as previously stated, proceeded at once
to raise a sufficient force to execute his orders. This was to
be recruited west of the Alleghanies, and it was some months
before everything was in readiness, but by the 27th of May, |
having embarked at Fort Pitt, he reached Corn Island with
three companies, and a considerable number of families. Here

he built a fort and drilled his raw troops. He was joined
meanwhile by volunteers from among the Kentucky settlers
under Capt. Joseph Bowman, and on the 27th of June he
began his voyage down the Ohio with about one hundred and
thirty-five men.

33. Landing on the Illinois side, a little above the mouth
of the Tennessee, he proceeded across the country, northwest,
having fallen in with a party of hunters (who consented to
join them) and found a guide who knew the country. On the
afternoon of July 4th they were within a few miles of Kas-
kaskia, held by a British garrison; and so skillfully did Clark
conduct the affair that the fort was taken and the town in his
possession that night, without bloodshed. The coming of the
invader was unexpected and when his presence became known
it was too late to resist.

34. About sixty miles up the Mississippi was another post,

. Cahokia, near which a considerable body of Indians was gath-
ered, A detachment of mounted men under Bowman, which
a number of French citizens of Kaskaskia volunteered to

“ accompany, set out for this place, and, on the 6th of July,

took it also by surprise and without resistance. The Indians

fled when they learned that the two places were in possession
of Clark’s men, and the inhabitants took the oath of allegiance
to Virginia.

35. Courts were established and a form of government
provided for the towns, the people co-operating; and the civil
control of Virginia was thus established over this far-outlying
section,



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 77

36. Between Kaskaskia and the Falls of Ohio, two hun-
dred and thirty miles across country, from the former, was
another station, St. Vincent’s on the Wabash river, where
Vincennes, Indiana, now stands. Colonel Clark saw. the
importance of getting possession of this, and applied to
M. Gibault, priest of Kaskaskia and St. Vincent’s, for informa-
tion. This gentleman proved to be a warm friend to Vir-
ginia, and offered to induce the people of St. Vincent’s to
throw off British rule and ally themselves with the Americans.
On the 14th of July he set out with one Dr. Lafont and one
of Clark’s spies, and by the first of August his mission was
accomplished. The inhabitants took the oath of allegiance to
Virginia, elected a commandant of their own, and hoisted the
American flag. The successful commander now established
garrisons under trusty officers at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, and
sent Capt. Leonard Helm to take command at St. Vincent’s.
William Linn, a volunteer from Kentucky, was sent back, with
the men who wished to return, to establish a fort on the
present site of Louisville.

37. Upon the recommendation of Colonel Clark the Vir-
ginia Legislature organized, in October 1778, the territory of
which he now held possession, as Illinois county, and ap-
pointed John Todd its governor. Clark neglected no oppor-
tunity to treat with Indian tribes and to cultivate friendly
relations with the French settlers in the territory, in order
still further to weaken British influence and so protect Ken-
tucky as well as otherwise to aid the patriot army beyond the
Alleghanies in their struggle for liberty.

88. In December, Hamilton, the British commandant at
Detroit, came to St. Vincent’s, with a force of four hundred
men. Captain Helm had not been furnished troops to defend
the place, nor was there a local militia, and he with one other
American was compelled tq surrender the fort and town to
Hamilton, though not until he had made terms. that he and his
one private should have the honors of war.



78 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

’
PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS,

I. Gen. James Ray.—Ray was evidently one of the most
daring, vigilant, and efficient among the remarkable men
‘who made the first settlements, and his public services con-
tinued for more than forty years; but historians have spoken
of him in a kind of matter-of-course way and have not’
recorded enough to enable us to give a connected and really
satisfactory account of his life. It is nowhere stated how he
acquired the title of general. He came to Harrodstown with
his step-father, McGary, in 1775, when he was but fifteen years
old; was left near the mouth of Gilbert’s creek, with two
other boys, when the party became bewildered, in charge of
the horses and cattle, and remained three soaks before the
others found the station and relieved him of his danger and
responsibility; and thereafter bore the part of a man in the
work of the colony, in its defense, in scouting, and in expedi-
tions against the savages. It is gathered here and there that
he was of stalwart frame, erect, broad-shouldered, with keen
black eyes, and active as a cat. In the attack on the little
party (March, 1777), when his brother was killed and Shores
made prisoner he escaped to the fort, four miles off, by out-
running the fleetest of Blackfish’s warriors, so astonishing
them that long afterward the chief spoke of ‘the boy at
Harrodstown’’ who could outrun his men, When out one day
about two hundred yards from the fort, with one McConnell,
shooting at a mark, and McConnell was shot from ambush, Ray
instantly detected where the shot came from and killed an
Indian, then bounded off amid a shower of balls; but the sav-
ages being close upon him when he came near the gate it could
not be opened without incurring the risk of destruction to the
garrison, and he threw himself on the ground behind a stump
scarcely large enough to screen him from the balls which
Bock around him for oe hours. At oes he was relieved
by « a cabin
wall, one as he was bat about ively fect awa ay he eicceeta
in reaching it and getting inside. In 1777, while the Indians
hung continuously round the station to prevent the cultivation
of the fields, and the inhabitants were so reduced to distress
by scarcity of food, he proved te be the most successful of
their hunters in evading the enemy and bringing in supplies





KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 09

of game. He was-then but seventeen years old. Stealing out
before day, he would mount an old horse—the only one of
forty brought to Kentucky by his step-father—and_ make his
way out of. hearing of the besiegers, taking care to break his
trail by riding in the water of Salt river or such other streams
as he struck, ‘and kill his load of game, which he brought back
after nightfall. He thus inspired confidence and rendered him-
self also a great favorite. He was one of the volunteers from
Harrodstown on the unfortunate expedition to old Chillicothe
in 1779; and when Colonel Bowman was afterward censured
for not signaling Colonel Logan as agreed upon, he maintained
that Bowman was not blameworthy because the vigorous
attack of the Indians was made before he got near enough.
Setting forth one morning on a hunt, after he had seen an old
Scotchman start out to plow a field of corn in which the fami-
lies in the fort had a common interest, he apprehended that
the plowman might not be safe, as he had the evening before
seen traces of Indians. Approaching the field he saw a well-
armed Indian about two hundred yards before him, keeping a
tree between him and the Scotchman, advancing on him as the
latter moved toward the other end of the field, and hiding when
he turned to come back. This he did three Gee and was at
last within fifty yards of his intended victim, when he attempted
to level his rifle, but Ray shot him dead. The Indian fired as
he fell, but without effect. The Scotchman set off on such a
furious run that he broke through the brush fence by which
the ground was enclosed, and could not be stopped by Ray’s
calling to him; and when he got home he maintained that he
had been attacked by a whole band of Indians; but his deliverer
explained and went back after the Indian’s scalp, taking some
men along that Shey might see for themselves. Between 1800
and 1820, Genera Haz" was ten or twelve times a representative
of his county in the legislature.

Il. Significance of Indian Trails, and How a Lost One
Was Found.—tThe early pioneers soon learned to understand
the meaning of signs made by Indians during their incursions
and in their attempts to escape atter committing outrages.
When they wished to be followed they made no effort to conceal
their route; and the abundant signs showed the whites that
they must be on guard against ambuscades, When they really
sought to avoid pursuit it required constant, and keen observa-







80 YOUNG oo. HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

tion to detect any sign at all, and only a practiced eye would
note accidental displacement of stones, a dim moccasin track,
a broken twig, a bruised plant, a hair or feather, and other
little indications that the most circumspect savage band on a
hasty march would leave in spite of their painstaking. When
it was necessary for white men to follow an uncertain trail in
rapid pursuit, one mar was put on it at the outset and the
others took their places in line to his right and left, at inter-
vals that kept each within easy speaking distance of one on
each hand, and the march began at a quick step or a run, as
agreed upon. If the man who had the clue at the start lost it
he spoke loud enough for those nearest him to hear, ‘trail
lost!’? and this was passed along the line. The march was
kept up, every man watching eagerly for signs, and when
these were found he called to his companions right and left,
“trail found!’’ This was repeated till all were advised, and in
this way loss of time was prevented and rapid progress made.
Ill. Betsy Calloway’s Bravery and Thoughtfulness.—
While the Indians who captured the Misses Calloway and
Boone were dragging them from the canoe, Betsy Calloway
fought with her paddle and gashed the head of one of them;
and when the three were ordered to take off their shoes and
put on moccasins she refused, though the younger ones com-
plied, so that she could make the impress of her shoe-heels
on the ground where it was not too hard, thus leaving a sign
for pursuers. Occasionally she stealthily broke off twigs,
but this was discovered and an Indian with uplifted tomahawk
threatened her life. Then she tore off bits of her dress when
she could do so without detection, and dropped them. Their
captors adopted every precaution to throw the white men off
the trail; but the forethought and courage of Miss Calloway
in providing these clues aided her friends materially in keep-
ing the course. Her black hair and black eyes, with a some-
what dark complexion, rendered more so by exposure to the
sun, caused one of the rescuers to mistake her in the excite-
ment of attack for an Indian and raise his empty gun to kill
her with the heavy breech. She was sitting by a tree, with a
large bandana handkerchief around her neck, while the heads
of the other two girls lay in her lap. One of the men recog-
nized her in time to arrest the blow. The pursuing party
consisted of Daniel Boone, Maj. Wm. B. Smith, Col. John



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 81

Floyd, Bartlett Searcy, Catlett Jones, Samuel Henderson,
Capt. John Holder, and Flanders Calloway. Henderson
afterward married Betsy Calloway, Holder married Fannie,
and Calloway married. Jemima. Boone.

IV. The First Marriage in Kentucky.—This was that
of Samuel Henderson (younger brother of Judge Richard
Henderson) and Elizabeth (or Betsy) Calloway, the oldest
daughter of Col. Richard Calloway. It occurred at Boones-
borough, August 7th, 1776, less than a month after the
young lady with her sister Fannie and Jemima Boone, had
been rescued from the Indians. ‘The ceremony was per-
formed by Squire Boone, who was a Baptist preacher. Fannie
Henderson, their first child, born May 29th, 1777, was the
first white child born of parents who had been married in
Kentucky, and the fifth one born in the state.

6





f

82 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CHAPTER VI.

KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR: LAST FOUR
YEARS.
1779-1782.

1. About the last of January, 1779, Colonel Clark received
notice of Hamilton’s having occupied St. Vincent’s, and he
made immediate preparations to retake it. He began his
march February 7th, with one hundred and seventy men.
This expedition was one of the most remarkable on record,
because of difficulties that the British now in possession of St.
Vincent’s did not believe it possible for Clark and his men to
overcome. By the evening of February 23rd, the little force
was before the town, and next day fire was opened on the
fort. On the 25th Governor Hamilton surrendered; the
American flag again floated over the strongest British post in
the northeast; and a grand campaign, which Hamilton had
planned, to destroy all the infant settlements in Kentucky and
elsewhere west of the Alleghanies, was prevented.

2. The year 1779 was remarkable for a great increase of
settlements in Kentucky. On the 17th of April, Robert Pat-
terson began building a block-house or fort on the present site
of Lexington. He was joined by a number of others, among
them Mrs. John Morrison, who was the first woman to settle
here, and a town was laid off. During the year Bryan’s Sta-
tion, about five miles northeast of Lexington, was established
by four brothers from North Carolina, of whom the leader
was William Bryan, who had been a captain in the Continental
army. For his services during the revolution he had a grant
of land which he located in Kentucky. His wife was Mary, a
sister of Daniel Boone’s. He was killed by Indians, May
21st, 1781, near the mouth of Cave Run, while hunting with a
number of other men from the station,



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 83

3. Martin’s Station, about three miles below Paris, on
Stoner creek, heretofore noticed as having been abandoned,
was reoccupied and strengthened; Isaac Ruddle rebuilt Hink-
ston’s; Pitman’s Station, about five miles west of Greens-
burgh, near the mouth of Pitman’s creek, was established.
Squire Boone and family, with a number of gentlemen, some
of whom had families, settled at Painted Stone, on Clear
creek, near where Shelbyville now stands; George Boone

mee $y 3
tue Rea



STOCKADE AT LEXINGTON.

founded one about six miles from Richmond, on the present
Lexington turnpike; James Estill settled on Little Muddy
creek, in Madison county, and -his place soon became an
important station; Stephen Hancock, David Crews, and John
Tanner established stations in the same section of country;
and the McAfee brothers came back to their old survey on
Salt river, bringing their families, and built cabins and a
stockade,



84. YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

4. In May, Colonel Bowman, commander of the militia,
ordered the enlistment of a force to invade the Indian country
and strike such a blow as would deter them from infesting
‘the settlements in small bodies and killing and destroying
wherever they found men off guard or property exposed.
Over two hundred men, under experienced and able officers,
met near the mouth of the Licking, and marched to Old Chilli-
cothe without giving the alarm. Dispositions were made to
approach the town in the night, in two divisions, one under
Bowman, the other under Benjamin Logan, and begin a
simultaneous attack at daylight; but from some cause, Logan
did not receive a promised signal from Bowman before the
presence of the Kentuckians was discovered. Logan with
his detachment fought gallantly until he received an order from
the commander to retreat. They were pursued by the Indians,
and confusion ensued; but Logan and his officers at length
succeeded in restoring order, and when matters seemed to be
desperate they selected the boldest and best-mounted men
and checked pursuit by charging upon the Indians and cut-
ting them down as they drove them from cover. One chief,
Blackfish, was killed when the retreat began; their new chief
who assumed command, Red Hawk, was killed in the charge,
and they fled. Part of Old Chillicothe was burned, and the
Kentuckians brought away about one hunderd and sixty
horses and some other property; but they had lost nine men
and several wounded, and though the Indians lost heavily in
comparison the expedition failed of that great success which
at one time seemed assured.

5. In October of this year, David Rogers, who had been
sent some months previously to New Orleans to procure mili-
tary supplies for Fort Pitt, with Robert Benham, was ascend-
ing the Ohio with two keel boats, manned by about one hun-
dred men and loaded with the supplies. One of these boats
was under his command, the other under Benham’s. When
opposite the mouth of the Licking, they discovered Indians



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 85

who had come down the Miami river on boats and rafts, and
were entering the Licking. Rogers ordered the two crews to
land and attack, hoping to take them at a disadvantage by
marching through willows covering a sand-bar; but they soon
found themselves surrounded by nearly five times their num-
ber. Rogers and all the men except nine or ten were killed.
One of the boats with two men escaped to the Falls, while the
few other survivors reached their friends at different times.

6. The winter of 1779-80 was for three months, from the
middle of November, so intensely cold that the settlers seemed
to be in the grasp of a more pitiless and terrible enemy than
the savage red man. Navigable rivers were so frozen over
as to arrest the boats of immigrants and compel them to
debark and await in camp the return of milder weather;
while the smaller streams were frozen solid. The supply of
food. in the hands of those who had been here during the
cropping and hunting seasons was not sufficient to meet fully
their own demands, and sharing it with those but newly come
increased the difficulty with the passing weeks. Game starved
and froze in the forests and domestic animals around the
camps and cabins. From fifty to one hundred and seventy-
five dollars of the depreciated continental currency was the
price of a bushel. of corn. The extremity was dreadful and
could not be wholly relieved until spring and summer and
autumn came with their respective products:0 of garden, field
and forest.

7. With the breaking of winter, however; the tide of
immigration rose beyond precedent. By this time there were
already six stations on Beargrass creek, with a population of
six hundred, and early in the spring three hundred large

family boats arrived at the Falls, bringing, as is estimated:
three thousand persons.

8. In June (1780) six hundred Canadians and Indians,
under command of Colonel Byrd, an officer of the British
army, with six pieces of artillery, came down the Miami and



86 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

up the Licking to where Falmouth now stands. He marched
thence to Ruddle’s Station, arriving on the 22nd. The people
were taken by surprise, and even if time had been given for
preparation the stockade would not have been proof against
_artillery. When an unconditional surrender was demanded,
Ruddle asked the one condition that the prisoners should not
be delivered to the Indians but kept under the protection of
the English. This was promised; but when the gates were
opened, the Indians rushed in and each claimed whatever
prisoner he seized. They were subjected to shocking bar-
barities, which Byrd claimed he was unable to prevent. They
next went to Martin’s Station, five miles farther, but not until
Byrd had exacted from the chief a promise that the Indians
should have only the property while the prisoners should be
under his control. The place surrendered and the agreement
was carried out. The Indians urged the commander to press
on to Bryan’s Station and Lexington, but he refused to go
further, alleging various reasons, and the invaders returned
to the forks of the Licking. Re-embarking, they left the
country.

9. Colonel Clark, on hearing of these attacks, came promptly
from St. Vincent’s to Louisville, and soon had about a thou-
sand men, ably officered, assembled at the mouth of the Lick-
ing. Building a block-house, in which to leave stores, on the
present site of Cincinnati, he proceeded to Old. Chillicothe,
surprised the Indians, who hastily fled, burned the town, and
destroyed the crops. At Pickaway the Indians made a stand
and Clark lost seventeen men killed and some wounded, but
the place was taken und everything was destroyed or taken
into possession, as at Chillicothe. Detachments were sent to
other villages, and these also were laid waste. With such
property as could be carried away, including horses and cattle,
the victorious Kentuckians returned home, and the expedition
had proved so disastrous to the Indians that for nearly two
years no considerable body of them invaded the state.





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KENTUCKY AND INDIANA BRIDGE AT LOUISVILLE.



88 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

10. During this year (1780) the Virginia Legislature passed
an act to establish Louisville. Trustees were appointed to lay
off the town on a tract of one thousand acres, formerly the
property of a British subject.

41. Early in the summer, under orders from Thomas Jef-
ferson, then governor of Virginia, Colonel Clark built a fort
and some block-houses on the Mississippi, five miles below the
mouth of the Ohio, and mounted cannon which had been
sent him. He named the place Fort Jefferson.

12. About the first of November the Virginia Legislature
divided Kentucky into three counties of Jefferson, Fayette,
and Lincoln.

18. Fort Jefferson was held by Gana George, with about
thirty men, in the summer of 1781, when the Chickasaw and
Choctaw Indians, on whose land it had been built without
their consent, besieged it in great force. The garrison, not
anticipating attack, was ill-provided with food, and two-thirds
of the men were sick; but Captain George held out for five
days. On the sixth he met the leader of the savages, a white
man named Colbert, under a flag of truce, to consider terms of
capitulation; but they could not agree. As Colbert was
retiring he received a wound from some Indians, friendly to
the Kentuckians and then in one of the block-houses. . This
treacherous act, though not perpetrated by the whites, exas-
perated the besiegers; and at night they collected all their
force to storm the works. Capt. George Owen, who was
then commanding one of the block-houses, had loaded his
swivels or small cannon with musket balls, and when the
Indians, in crowded column, came near the walls, he dis-
charged them with such dreadful effect that they were dis-
persed with great slaughter. General Clark, then stationed
at Kaskaskia, having been sent for, now arrived with supplies
and reinforcements, and. the enemy left the place. The
fort was.so remote from other Kentucky settlements, and



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 89

therefore difficult to maintain, that it was soon permanently
abandoned. .

14. During the year 1781 the Indians were exceedingly
troublesome in Jefferson and Shelby counties. In March
several parties of them came over into Jefferson and killed
William Linn and Captains Tipton and Chapman. Captain
Aquilla Whittaker, with fifteen men, traced them to the foot
of the Falls and embarked in canoes to cross over and follow
them; but they were still on the Kentucky side and fired on
the men in the canoes, killing and wounding nine of them.
Those who were unhurt, and the wounded who were still able
to fight, rowed back and defeated the Indians, killing and
wounding a number much in excess of their own.

15. In September, 1781, Squire Boone set out with his and
“other families from his station at Painted Stone to find on
the Beargrass a place of greater safety. The moving party
was attacked near Long Run by a large body of Indians and
suffered considerable loss, Boone himself being among the
wounded, As soon as Col. John Floyd heard of the affair
he set out from his station with thirty-seven men to follow
the Indians. Though he divided his force, placing one
detachment under Captain Holder, and all moved with much
caution, they were ambushed by about two hundred savages,
whose fire killed and wounded sixteen. The white men held
their ground until the Indians, who had lost nine or ten men
killed, rushed upon them with their tomahawks and compelled
them to retreat.

16. The station at Painted Stone was reoccupied about
Christmas of that year; but a year or two afterward Squire
Boone transferred it to Colonel Lynch, and it was from that
time known as Lynch’s Station.

17. That Indians had been in the neighborhood of Estill’s .
Station, about fifteen miles south of Boonesborough, was dis-
covered March 19th, 1782; and Capt. James Estill, with-
twenty-five men, set out to find them. About daylight on



90 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

the morning of the 20th, while the party was still absent,
Indians killed and scalped Miss Jennie Gass who was outside
but near the station, milking. Monk, a slave of Estill’s, who
had gone with her, was captured. When questioned as to the
force inside the stockade he represented it as considerably
greater than that of the Indians, and that they were preparing
to defend themselves. Besides the women and children there
were only four men; but the savages were deceived, and, after
killing the cattle, retreated across the river. The intelligent
and faithful slave had thus, probably, prevented a massacre.

18. Two boys, Samuel South and Peter Hackett, were sent
to notify Captain Estill. Finding the party below the mouth
of Red river, they told them what had occurred, and immedi-
ate pursuit was begun. At Little Mountain, near what is
now Mount Sterling, they discovered twenty-five Wyandottes,
and Captain Estill promptly led his men to the attack. The
forces were equal, and a fierce and bloody conflict began.
The Indians were apparently taken by surprise, as at the first
fire of the whites they began a retreat; but their chief,
though mortally wounded, called to them to stand, and they
rallied and took position with somewhat the advantage of
ground. Captain Estill had halted and disposed his men in
line, every one covering himself as well as possible, as the
Indians did, by a tree. Hinkston creek, a branch of the
Licking river, lay between them; and across this, about sixty
yards apart, the two lines engaged in one of the most
remarkable combats of pioneer times.

19. For more than an hour the firing was kept up ‘with
such deliberation that it was deadly in spite of the shelter
afforded by tree-trunks, and more than a fourth of the
men on each side had fallen. When it appeared to Captain
. Estill that to continue in this way would lead to the exter-
mination of his little force, as quickly as to that of the enemy,
sand that the Indians were trying to extend their line with a
view to turning his flank with part of their force, he ordered



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 91

six of his men under command of a lieutenant to proceed by
a route which he pointed out—a valley running from the
creek to the rear of the enemy—and come up on that flank or
behind their line. The officer in charge did not execute the
order, but ran away with his detachment. The Indians, dis-
covering how Estill had weakened his line, rushed across the
shallow stream and a hand-to-hand fight followed. Estill,
already wounded, grappled with a powerful savage, but in the
struggle, his arm, which had been broken by a shot from an
Indian three months before, gave way, and his enemy plunged
a knife to his heart. Nine of the whites were left dead upon
the field, and four of those who escaped were wounded. ‘The
Indian loss was never certainly known; but reports from their
towns indicated that about half of them were killed and all
the others except one were wounded.

20. The affair, though generally referred to as ‘‘Estill’s
Defeat,’’ was more deadly to the savages than to the whites,
and drove the survivors, and others who were elsewhere in
that part of the country, back across the border.

21. In August, 1782, a party of Indians captured two boys
near Hoy’s Station, five miles south of Richmond, and recrossed
the Kentucky river. They were pursued by Captain John
Holder, with seventeen men, and overtaken, August 12th, at
Upper Blue Licks. Holder attacked, but was defeated, with
a loss of four men, and compelled to retreat; but the Indians
did not follow.

22. Bryan’s Station contained at this time a force of fight-
ing men which has been variously estimated at from forty to
sixty. On the night of August 14th, the men were engaged
in preparing for an expedition against the Indians who had
repulsed Holder at Blue Licks. When the gate was thrown
open next morning and the men started out, they were driven
back by a heavy fire from the woods in their front. A force
of six hundred Indians, led by the infamous Simen Girty and
a British officer, had reached the place during the night and



99 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

taken position within rifle-shot. The whites were taken by
surprise; and as no attack in force had been anticipated, they
were poorly prepared to defend themselves against great odds.
The palisades- were out of repair, and their only source of
water supply was a spring outside, about eighty yards from
one of the gates. -

23. Two mounted messengers broke through the Indian
lines to warn the neighboring stations and ask aid; and the
walls were hastily repaired. To be destitute of water, how-
ever, was to be subjected to other dangers than the shots and
assults of the foe. It was impossible to withstand without it
a siege of any considerable duration; and it was to be appre-
hended that the besiegers would endeavor to fire the stockades
or the roofs of the cabins by burning arrows (which, indeed
was repeatedly done during the day), when water would be
needed. with which to quench incipient flames.

24. In this emergency, Capt. Elijah Craig, in command
of the station, called the women together and asked them to
undertake to bring in a supply. It was rightly conjectured
that a strong body of the Indians lay concealed near the
spring; but he reasoned that as they knew it to be customary
for the women to go for water daily, and without a guard
when no enemy was supposed to be near, they would consider
their doing so now as evidence that their ambuscade had not
been discovered, and that their plans of attack could be carried
out. These wives and mothers and daughters realized the
peril in which all were placed; they listened to the represen-
tations and entreaties of the brave men who would gladly have
shielded them from every danger had it been in their power ;
they took the fearful risk and brought in the needful supply
from under hundreds of guns in the hands of merciless foes
—an act of heroism which requires no high-sounding descrip-
tion, no labored panegyric, to impress it upon a generous

“mind: it speaks for itself.



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 93

25. Captain Craig next resorted to a stratagem which drew
the Indians from ambush and exposed them to effective fire.
Thirteen young men were sent out to attack some Indians who
had appeared on the opposite side of the fort, with orders to
fire rapidly and keep up so much noise as to lead the con-
cealed enemy to suppose that the whole garrison had gone
against the few Indians sent there to draw them out. They
- were to fall back through the gate as soon as firing began in
the fort. The enemy’s object was to arouse the whole force
in the stockade to rush out after those who appeared on the
farther side, so that the main body in ambush could assault
on the side adjacent to the spring and carry the place before
the defenders could return. When the firing showed that the
detachment had gone some distance, several hundred Indians
sprang from cover and rushed upon the wall which they
believed to be undefended. About forty rifles poured a vol-
ley into them and beat them back with great loss. The
party that had been sent out returned promptly on hearing
the fusillade and were admitted through the opposite gate.

26. The messengers who had been sent for re-enforce-
ments met the men of the Lexington garrison on their way to -
Blue Licks, expecting to join those of Bryan’s Station in the
proposed expedition. As they hurried now to the latter, in
response to the summons, part mounted and part on foot, they
fell into an ambuscade which Girty had prepared for them
near Bryan’s, on a narrow road bordered on one side by a field
of high corn, on the other by a dense wood. .The horsemen
fell into the trap, but dashed through the storm of bullets
and gained the fort without loss. The men on foot, who
were trying to reach the station by creeping through the corn,
ran to the rescue of the horsemen, but were met by the over-
whelming odds and forced to retreat, with a loss of six killed.

27. At night, Girty, concealed behind a stump within
speaking distance of the garrison, demanded a surrender, with
lies about expected re-enforcements and artillery, and with



94 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

threats of massacre in case of refusal; but he was defied; and
next morning the Indian camps were found deserted. The
boastful and confident besiegers had retreated apparently a
short time before daylight.

28. Neighboring stations had been preparing to join in the
expedition to the Blue Licks which’ was interrupted by the
movement against Bryan’s; and within .a few hours after
the Indians had disappeared a sufficient number of men had
arrived to increase the force to one hundred and sixty (some
accounts say one hundred and eighty-two). It was known
that Col. Ben Logan was marching with three hundred
others to join them; but, fearing that the savages would
escape across the river, and notwithstanding some of the
more prudent advised delay, that Logan might come up, they
set off in pursuit.

29. Col. John Todd, at that time commandant of IIli-
nois county, was at Bryan’s Station on a visit to his wife, and
was placed in command. Late in the morning of August
19th, they came in sight of the Indians, who were on the
opposite side of the Licking, near the Lower Blue Licks, and
halted for council. Boone, Todd and others insisted that the
attack should not be made till Logan had arrived. The odds
against the pioneers was believed to be more than three to
one, and the savages had the protection of timber, while an
assault in front would probably be met while they were cross-
ing the river and moving up a naked slope beyond. Major
Hugh McGary, however, precipitated the fight by crying out,
‘* Let all who are not cowards follow me!’’ and spurring his
horse into the stream. The whole party, horse and foot,
dashed into the river, and reached the opposite shore in such
confusion that it was with difficulty that Todd, Boone and
other experienced men, could restore any degree of order.
As it proved, the Indians had fallen back about a mile.

-80. Pushing on up the rising ground, without regular for-
mation and without ordinary caution they came to brushy



KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 95

ravines on each hand and were met by a destructive fire, which
brought them to a stand. Then for some time they fought
the heavy odds heroically, and with such effect, notwithstand-
ing some advantage of shelter which the Indians had, that the
Indian loss was believed to be about as great in number as
that of the whites.

31. When it became evident that the Indians were making
a movement to surround them, they retreated in confusion,
and were fiercely pursued. Most of the mounted men suc-
ceeded in re-crussing the river; but those on foot, pressing
together towards the shallow ford, were overtaken and many
were tomahawked. 3

32. The Indian flankers crossed above and below the ford
and sought to surround them, so that it was with difficulty
that the survivors escaped. They were pursued for several
miles, but without further loss.

83. Between sixty and seventy of the whites were killed,
twelve were wounded, and seven captured—a loss of nearly
half of all engaged. Among them were several leading men.
Colonels Todd and Trigg, Majors Harlan and Bulger, Captains
McBride, Gordon, Kincaid and Overton, and Lieutenants
Givens, Kennedy, Lindsey, and Rogers, were killed. About
one-tenth of the fighting men in central Kentucky had lost
their lives through the unpardonable rashness of McGary. The
unhappy affair not only brought grief to many a pioneer
home, but was depressing and discouraging to the settlements
in general.

34. Colonel Logan reached the field with three hundred
men on the 20th or 21st and buried the dead and mangled
remains of his countrymen; but the Indian force had returned
to their homes across the Ohio and were beyond the reach of
present punishment.

85. Samuel Daveiss, who had located at Gilmer’s Lick, six
or seven miles from Whitley’s Station in Lincoln county, was
surprised early one morning in August, 1782, by Indians, one



sx

96 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

of whom sprang, with uplifted tomahawk, between him and
his cabin door as he walked out unarmed. When he ran round
the house with a view to leading the Indian in pursuit and
getting back first to the door, he found the room already
occupied by savages. He then ran five miles to the station of
his brother James, where there were five men. They gave
him a spare rifle, and all, well armed, went at once to his
house. The Indians had carried away his wife and children,
and so concealed their trail that the pursuers were compelled
to go for awhile at haphazard; but it was soon discovered.
Shortly afterward they came upon the Indians, and rescued
the family with no loss of life. The oldest boy was knocked
down and scalped when the firing began, but he was not
seriously injured.

. 86. About the 1st of September, 1782, a band of Indians,
coming up from the west, surprised Kincheloe’s Station, on
Simpson creek, in Spencer county, and killed and captured
nearly all the men, women, and children of the six or seven
families there, though the men fought desperately and killed a
number of the savages. Some of the women and children who
were carried off returned home the next year, having been
liberated after the treaty of peace which terminated the
revolutionary war. _

37. These Indian raids and outrages determined Col. George
Rogers Clark to avenge them by invading the Indian country.
His call for volunteers met with a prompt response; and in
November more than a thousand men in two divisions, led
respectively by Col. John Floyd and Col. Ben Logan, united
at the mouth of the Licking river. Crossing into the Ohio,
Clark marched rapidly with this force about one hundred
and thirty miles up the Miami, and on the 10th of November
destroyed the principal Shawnee towns, Chillicothe, Pickaway,
Willstown, and others, and sent out detachments to continue
the devastation by burning villages and destroying fields of
corn, Comparatively few Indians were killed, as they fled on



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tonor?d aon

2 SIMON KENTON.
YOUNG PEOPLE’S

History oF KENTUCKY

siets @) Reals

SCHOOLS AND GENERAL READING

.. - BY...

ED PORTER THOMPSON

Ex-Superintendent of Public Instruction; Author of ‘The Academic
Arithmetic,” “History of the Orphan Brigade,” etc.



ST. LOUIS, MO.:
A. R. FLEMING PUBLISHING CO.
1897
COPYRIGHT 1897 BY ED PORTER THOMPSON.
AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

Among our commonwealths no other has so remarkable a
history as Kentucky. None other is so well worthy of being
carefully studied by all who find pleasure, instruction, and
inspiration in the annals of the past, and particularly by her
own people. In ‘‘the winning of the west’’ she stands first
and unapproachable; in the up-building of thirty states her
influence has been strongly exerted through her statesmen in
the national councils and in most of their local governments ;
through her soldiers on the ever-receding frontiers; and
through those citizens who ‘‘westward took their way,’’ to
people the new lands.

While England was provoking the colonists to revolt, the
early pioneers, as though led by an inscrutable hand, were
finding their way over the mountains and preparing to estab-
lish themselves as the outguard of civilization and hold the
vast and almost unknown west, that it might become the pos-.
session of the sons of freedom; when British injustice culmi-
nated in war,and that war was being waged, Kentuckians,
few in number, and almost unaided, not only stood like a
wall of fire to forbid foreign occupation of the great domain,
but obtained by their arms a title to territory far greater than
all then occupied by the struggling colonists, and made good
their footing in that portion which soon afterward became
their own state.

The strong characteristics of the men and women who, with
unexampled courage, endurance, and patriotic devotion,
achieved so much, with so little means and in the face of
obstacles so great, could but impress themselves upon the
commonwealth of their making; and to every call of the coun-
try since that age of heroes and heroines Kentucky has
responded with ardor and made herself felt with unmistak-
able force.

Her people have been charged with lack of enterprising
spirit, with failing of that progressiveness so characteristic of
the age; but, if they area little too firmly moored to the past,
they have some comfort and no small compensation in the
iv AUTHOR’S PREFACE,

fact that none of the fanatical zsms and pernicious ologies that
are sapping the foundations of public morality elsewhere have
had their origin and abiding place among them. For more
than a century they have escaped that sign of Athenian deca-
dence, the restless desire to be ever hearing and telling some
new thing; so that they still manifest a disposition not to cut
loose from time-honored and restful traditions.

What has been said of an individual may be said of them,
that ‘even their faults, (of which they have their share), all
lean to virtue’s side ;’’ that beneath all there is that manly and
and womanly moral fibre which gives strength, permanence,
and unlimited possibilities of growth to a people.

This book claims to be but an epitome of the History of
Kentucky; but it will be found to contain a connected
and logical general account, to which the interest of variety
is added by an unusual number of well-executed illus-
trations, brief personal sketches, special and peculiar in-
‘ cidents, etc. The adult mind will read far more between
the lines than is found in the text; to the young, enough
is presented, it is earnestly hoped, to kindle a desire for
a thorough exploration of this great historical field; and
above all, the author trusts that he has imparted to the short
story something of that spirit which should be impressed upon
the young people of Kentucky whose minds and characters
are still in the formative state—an admiration of their own
country and a pride in its past, thé surest guarantees that in
the future her fair fame will be enhanced, her honor main-

tained, and her progress in all right lines be steadily and
nobly promoted.

With much labor and pains and at no little cost the por-
traits of many of our statesmen, jurists, and military leaders,
hitherto not published, have been obtained, and these add.
greatly to the wealth of object-lessons which the work will be
found to possess. And to those who have so generously aided
us in this department, (owners of old family paintings and
other portraits), it is fitting here to acknowledge obligation
and to record the sincere thanks of author and publishers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.

[FOR INDEX IN DETAIL, ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED, SEE LAST PAGES OF THE BOOK. |



FIRST PERIOD.

FRoM THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN TO THE BEGINNING OF

THE REVOLUTION.

CHAPTER I. ae.

Introduetcry: To the Young Reader,

NOTES AND COMMENTS.
I. The Kentucky Character.—II. Kentuckians a Peculiar Type of
People, ‘ ‘ ; ; : j ;

CHAPTER ITI.

Geography, j ‘ 3

CHAPTER III.

From the Earliest Visit by White Men till the ee Com-

pany was Organized, : : : 3 : F
PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

I. Thomas Bullitt—II. First White Women in Kentucky.—III. The
Hunter’s Rifle—IV. The Hunting Shirt.—V. The Tomahawk.
—VI. The Long Hunters.—VII. Long Knife, or Big Knife,

CHAPTER IV.

The Transylvania Company. —Boone’ s Trace or the Wilderness
Road, ete., .

PERSONAL SKETCHES.

I. Daniel Boone.—II. Col. James Harrod.—III. Gen. Benjamin
Logan.—IV. Richard Henderson, : : 3 ;

SECOND PERIOD.
Kentucky DuRING THE REVOLUTIONARY War.

CHAPTER V.
ieniticky During the Revolutionary War: The First Four Years,
PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

I. Gen. James Ray.—Il. Significance of Indian Trails, and How a
Lost One Was Found. —III. Betsy Calloway’s Bravery and
Thoughtfulness.—IV. The First Marriage in Kentucky,

CHAPTER VI.

Kentucky in the Revolutionary War: Last Four Years,
v

ll

17

19

31

43

47

63

78
vi. TABLE OF CONTENTS,

PaGe.

5 PERSONAL SKETCHES AND INCIDENTS.

I. The Todd Brothers.—II. The Heroines of Bryan’s Station.—
Ill. Simon Girty.—IV. Capt. James Estill.—V. Joseph Proe-
tor.—VI. Monk Estill—VII. The Children Knew the Story
by Heart.—VIII. The Terrible Experience of Benham and Wat-
son.—_IX. Mrs. Samuel Daveiss and the Indians.—X. Mrs.
Samuel Daveiss and the Robber.—XI. Saved by His Dogs, 97

THIRD PERIOD.

FROM THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTIONARY War TILL KEN-
TuCKY BECAME A STATE: SEPARATION FRoM VIRGINIA.
PERSONAL SKETCHES AND INCIDENTS.

I. Hon. John Brown.—II. John Filson.—III. The McAfee Broth-
ers.—IV. The First Newspaper in Kentucky, 3 118
CHAPTER VIII.

From the Close of the Revolution till Kentucky Became a State:—
Indian Invasions and Atrocities.—Expeditions of Harmar and
St. Clair, 5 : : - : ‘ 5 : : 3 5 123

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.
I. Col. John Floyd.—II. Men Engaged in the Salt River Fight.—
III. Col. Wm. Hardin.—IV. Wild-Cat McKinney.—V. The
Heroines of South Elkhorn.—VI. Mrs. John Merrill.—VII.
Burning at the Stake.—VIII. Scalping an Enemy.—IX. Ben
_Stockton.—X. A Singular Adventure.—XI. Rescued by an
Indian Chief.—XII. A Noble Boy, . - 3 : ; ; 134

FOURTH PERIOD.
SEVEN YEARS UNDER THE FIRST CONSTITUTION.

CHAPTER IX.
Kentucky a State.—Seven Years Under First Constitution.—Citizen
Genet.—Wayne Conquers a Peace.—Resolutions of °98, ete., 145

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

I. Col. John Hardin.—II. First Preachers and First Churehes.—
III, A Fleet-Footed Woman.—IV. Story of a Lincoln County
Family.—V. Gen. Peter Le Pioneer Women.—
we Elector of Senate, . is : j ; : : 156

FIFTH PERIOD.
Firrty YEARS UNDER SECOND CONSTITUTION.
CHAPTER X.

Bank of Kentucky.—The Burr Conspiracy.—Kentucky in the Battle
of Tippecanoe, etc., . : : ; i : : ; 184
TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii
Pace.
PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, ETO. _
I. Gen. Charles Scott.—II. Squire Boone.—III. Edmund Rogers.—
IV. Aaron Burr.—V. Gen. Thomas Fletcher.—VI. The Treat-
ment of the Boones and Simon Kenton.—VII. Cut Money, 170

CHAPTER XI.
Kentucky in the War of 1812. 5 5 : : § : . 179

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, ETC.

I. Gov. Isaac Shelby.—II. Logan, the Indian Chief.—III. The
Militia Pig.—IV. Scene at the Raisin Eight Months After the
Massacre.—V. Kentucky Mothers.—VI. General Harrison’s
Confidence in Kentucky Troops.—VII. The Indians Dreaded
Kentuckians. — VIII. Some Kentuckians Who oe With
Perry, : é 190

" CHAPTER XII,

The Jackson Purchase.—Financial Conditions i in Kentucky.—Old

Court and New Court. : ; af 5 3 3 ; 199

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, ETC.

I. Gen. Simon Kenton.—II. Gen. George Rogers Clark.— III.
Capt. Bland Ballard.—IV. The Todds, Father and Son.—V.

Gen. John Adair.—VI. The Ancient Governor, . A : 205
CHAPTER XIII.

Kentucky in the Mexican War, 2 5 : , a : : 216

PERSONAL SKETCHES, ETC.
I. Kentucky’s Great Orators. — II. Kentugkians Among the
Troops of Other States During the Mexican War, ; ; 223

SIXTH PERIOD.

Forty YEARS UNDER THE THIRD CONSTITUTION AND SIx UNDER
_ THE FouRTH.
CHAPTER XIV.

From 1850 to 1860.—Kentucky in the Civil War.—Some of the
Events of 1860-61, .. 5 3 s j ; : : : 227

CHAPTER XV.
Kentucky in the Civil War.—From ee 1861, till After the
Battle of Perryville, . ; : 5 237
CHAPTER XVI.
Kentucky in the Civil War.—From Bragg’s Retreat to the Close, 251

PERSONAL SKETCHES, ETC.

J. The American Citizen-Soldier.—II. General Officers Furnished
by Kentucky to the Two Armies, . : ‘ ; . : 264
Vili TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PaGE.
CHAPTER XVII.
After the Civil War, ; s ; ; 266
: CHAPTER XVIII.
Education in Kentucky, . 3 : - : : 4 : j 278
PERSONAL SKETCHES, ETC.
I. Corispicuous Service to the Common School System, : 3 285
; CHAPTER XIX.
Art, Science and Litcrature. . : 3 : : : 4 : 288
NOTES AND COMMENTS.
I. Durrett and the Filson Club, : é 3 3 : ; 291
; CHAPTER XX.
African Slavery in Kentucky, : ; ; : : : 3 293

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES, COMMENTS, ETC.
I. Kentucky’s Governors, Lieutenant-Governors, and Secretaries
of State.—II. Increase of Population in Kentucky by Periods
During 115 Years.—III. Works Consulted in Preparation of
this Book.—_IV. United States Senators from Kentucky. . 302


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE. Page.
Adair, Gen. and Gov. John, . 189 Crittenden, Maj.-Gen. T. L., 235

Anderson, Brig. and Brevet | 94, geenten Bie: and Brevet
Maj. -Gen. Robert, } 234 Maj. -Gen. John T \ 260

Ashland—Henry Clay’ s Ree \ 294 Cosby, Brig.-Gen. Geers B., 247

idence, Custom House andOld Bridge
Barnyard in Gann Connie: 22 Over the Kentucky River aa 68

Barry, Senator Wm. T., . 202 aoe < 3

Beck tor Ja Bs: . 272 aniel Boone Alone in “¢ e
Boe poe EAE * 996 Wilderness of Kentucky, } oo

9 . . “9 «al . .

Bibb, Senator George M., . 170 Daveiss, Col. Joseph Hamil-\ 16,
Bisekburn, Gov. Luke P., . 270 DAG ehe aes es 930
Blackburn, Senator J.C. S., . 273 BOS eee ae ee ee ae
B . D 1 53 Desha, Gov. Joseph, ; . 203
Anes b oe St k a : 49 Durelle, Judge George, . . 10
Boyle, Brig.-Gen. a T.. e, ; 958 Durrett, Col. Reuben T., . 292

Field, Maj.-Gen. Chas. W., . 265

Bradley, Gov. ee 0. Ag a Filson, John, . . . ~—. :120
Bramlette, Gov Os sae Finley, the Discoverer of
Breckinridge, Rev. Dogon 985 Kentucky, . \ 33
Robt. J. . -. Fry, Brig.-Gen. Speed S., . 262
Breckinridge, Senator John, . 155 G. dGer et. 154
Breckinridge, Maj.-Gen. J. C., 232 eta Ne Br cas pee
8 Garrard. Brig.-Gen. T. T., . 238
Brown, Senator John, . . 119 i z
5., Georgetown College, : . 284
Brown, Gov. John Young, . 273 ade: :
; i ; Governor’s Mansion, 3 . 161
Buckner, Lieut.-Gen. S. B., . 241 z
Buell. Maj.-Gen. D ‘avlos, 245 Guffy, Judge B.L. D., . . 10
me ? BOOP sear oe 25) Fr Guthrie, Senator James, . 267
Buford, Brigs-Gen- Abraham, i Hanson, Brig.-Gen. Roger W., 252
pecs anes aus ot C Sere ae Harlan, Gen. John M., . . 251
arlisle, Senator John G., — . 277 Havfeld Near Russellville, . 2
Cartwright, Peter, . : . 160 eee. aoe Moseel alls a

Hazlerigg, Judge James H., . 10
Helm, Gov. John L., .. . 268
Helm, Brig.-Gen. Ben Hardin 262

Centre College, Danville, Ky., 282
Clark, Gen. George Rogers, . 209

ce eae oe. Hobsons Baie)-Gen Ha Hel ons
y, Senator Henry, . - 205 Hoa 3 “eu 249
Clay, Gen. Green, . . 184 pdeer ere Gen: George Be

Indian Wigwam, . 31

Clay, Maj.-Gen. Cassius M., . 294 Jackson, Brig.-Gen. Tamesce 248

Crittenden, Gov. and d Senator} 931

John J., Tohaston: Gen. Albert Sidnee 237
Graitten q en, Maj.- Gen. \ 5a Johnson, Senator Richard M., 187
George B., 7 Kenton and Fletcher, . . 176

ix
xX LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE,
Kenton, Gen. Simon, . 2

Kentucky and Indiana Budee
at Tigteevillee 5 } 87

Knott, Gov. J. Proctor, . . 271
Landes, Judge J. J., ‘ . 10
Leslie, Gov. Preston H., . 269
Letcher, Gov. Robt. P., . . 204

Lewis, Gen. and Judge
Joseph H., ; } 10

Lincoln, caine : . 229

Lincoln and the Ohio River ;
Keel-boat, } ud

Lindsay, Sernten Wm. te . 271

Loading Coal Barge on aGineen
River, } 19

McCreary, Gov. 7 ames B., . 270
McCreery, Senator Tho. C., . 267
McDowell, Col. Samuel, . 116
Machen, Senator Willis B., . 269
Mecetin. Gov. Beriah, . . 231
Marshall, Senator Fiainphirey: 57
Marshall, Brig. on Hum- 939

phrey,
Marshall, Thomas F., : . 225
Menefee, Richard re ; . 225
Merriwether, Senator David. . 227

Metcalfe, Gov. and Senator
Thomas, } 203

Morgan, Brig. (Cam ona H., 242
Murray, Brig.-Gen. EliH., . 264
Nelson, Maj.-Gen. Wm., . 244
Office of the ‘‘Kentucke mt}

Ht
bo
bo

zette’’ 1787—the First Print-
ing House in Kentucky,

Paynter, Judge ThomasH., . 10

Powell, Gov. and Senator
Lazarus W ; y } 222

Prentice, Geo. D., . . . 290
Preston, Maj.-Gen. Wm., . 218

Page.
Price, Brien -Gen. Samuel W., 246
Dryer Judge Wm. 8., . 10
Robinson, Gov. cranes F., . 289
Rousseau, Maj.-Gen. Lovell H., 233°
Rowan, Senator John, . . 109
Scott, Gen. and Gov. Charles 171
Sheep Pasture in M m-
Beacon —— } 29
Shelby, Gen. and Gor Tans 191
Smith, Brig.-Gen. Green Clay, 243
Smith, Hon. Z. F., . 285
State Arsenal at Hisnkcfort, 89
State House and Office Build-
ing, 3 146
State’ MonuaeTt at Frankfort, 14
Stevenson, Gov. and maul 268
tor John W., Z
Stockade at beens A 83
Talbott, Senator Isham, . 199
Taylor, Gen. James, . 181
Tecumseh, : . 185
The Boone Monument, . 55
The Typical Rural Canna
tion—Chureh,School- house | 279
and Cemetery,
Tilghman, Brig.-Gen. Lloyd, . 240
Todd, Hon. Thomas, . 213
Migoseco Barn in Bourbon 93
County, . .
Tobacco Field in Fleming ) 24
County, .
Ward, Bri and Brevet Maj ‘
Gen. WoT., Tf 263
Wikitiaker, Brig. sal Brovet 263
Maj.- Gen. Walter C., =
Wickliffe, Gov. Charles A., 136
Williams, Gen. and Benatony 99]
John Gis : Se
Wood, Mai. -Gen. Tho. J., . 242


KENTUCKY COURT OF APPEALS, 1896.

1 Chief Justice Wm. S. Pryor. 2 Associate-Justice Jos. H. Lewis. 38 Associate-Justice J. H. Hazlerigg. 4 Associate-Justice Tho, H. Paynter.
5 Associate-Justice J. J. Landes, 6 Associate-Justice B. L. D. Guffy. 7 Associate-Justice Geo. Durelle.
YOUNG PEOPLE’S

HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTORY: TO THE YOUNG READER.

1. History in its simpler form is but the story of those
whose lives exerted so marked an influence upon their times
that they should be recorded for the instruction of mankind.
‘Its office is to warn no less than to light, to inspire, and to
guide all who are capable of applying the lessons of the past
to the conduct of the present; and it takes note of whatever
stands out conspicuous, whether noble or ignoble, heroic or
base, false or true.

2. I purpose to tell you the story of Kentucky, as a
teacher interested in his pupil and speaking with him face
‘to face, not as one setting down details to be conned over
as a task.

8. It is related of a patriotic French gentleman that when
he sought to impress on a nephew a sense of his duty to his
country the young man turned upon him with the question,
‘Uncle, what 7s my country?’ He replied, ‘‘It is the sky
above you, the sun that gives you light, the winds that fan
your cheek, the recurring seasons—all that combines to make
a genial and salubrious clime; it is not alone that earth
beneath your feet which is circumscribed by the boundary
lines of the kingdom, with its hills and vales and streams, its
forests and fields, but its toiling and directing and achieving

millions, and their homes in the districts and the cities; it is
5 11
12 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

the government that administers the laws and the army and
navy that protect you; it is your food and drink and raiment ;
it is your father and mother who have reared you and made
you what you are; it is all who love you; it is the glo-
rious memory of our ancestors—men and women who for
two thousand years have been making our beautiful France
what she is, the pride of her people and the wonder of the
nations. All these and more are your country; and the noble
soul will hold them sacred in thought and give them lasting
love and unshaken allegiance.”’

4. It is in this high-hearted and all-embracing way that
I would have Kentucky boys and girls think of Kentucky.
Then the effort to acquire a knowledge of what she has been
and what she is—how those who have preceded them have
demeaned themselves in every line of endeavor by which a
great commonwealth is founded and built up—will not be
tiresome drudgery but a lively pleasure.

5. A gentleman of another state who rose to high com-
mand in the Federal army during the civil war, and who
has since won fame as an author, had occasion a few years ago
when addressing a meeting of his fellow-veterans to allude
to the singular heroism and constancy displayed by Kentucky
soldiers in every war of the republic; and he maintained that
it was easily accounted for. It was well known, he said, that
Kentuckians have a rather overweening state pride, and that
the Old Virginia sort of family pride which it has become
fashionable in some sections to laugh at, was an equally strong
characteristic. Where these are combined in a people, their
men can be relied on in even the most desperate emergencies—
they are invincible. The soldiers of Kentucky, he said in
substance, would dare anything and bear anything rather than
disgrace an honored name or bring a blot upon the fame of
their native state.

6. This is a striking tribute from a brave and true man.
In the course of the narrative to which I invite your attention
INTRODUCTORY. 13

you will discover upon what he based his assertions, and
much to confirm his theory. When I seek to encourage in
you the thoughts and feelings to which he alludes, I would
have you understand that there is no surer way to foster that
larger patriotism which comprehends our whole country and
gives every one of its millions of inhabitants a personal in-
terest in the ‘‘flag of the free, that commands respect in every
land and floats on every sea.”’

7. The historian, Mann Butler, says of them: ‘‘To the
fruits of courage and endurance of suffering in every appall-
ing form, no portion of the western country has superior
claims to those of Kentucky. She has been the nursing
mother of the west; the blood of her citizens has flowed
freely on every battle-field; now let them and their posterity
enjoy the honors so manfully won.”’

8. There are few young people who do not take pleasure in
reading or hearing tales of adventure; of dangers and diffi-
culties boldly met and manfully resisted; of trials and suffer-
ings so borne as to make man seem defiant of calamity and
superior to adverse fate. In these the history of Kentucky
so abounds that they cannot be recounted except in the briefest
way.

9. Are you thrilled by the recital of savage cunning
thwarted by the shrewdness and circumspection of honorable
foes? Of fiendish perfidy punished by open fight? Of mas-
acres avenged in honorable battle by those who scorned to
retaliate by visiting destruction on helpless captives? Of
women not only sharing the hardships and dangers of pioneer
life, but bravely fighting in defense of theirhomes? Then the
early annals of your native state can furnish you this excite-
ment and help to impress upon a healthful mind a sense of
the chivalry of the unpretending pioneers who conquered the
wilderness and left to us a heritage of great names as well as
of a noble commonwealth. In the wars with Great Britain,
by which liberty was won and confirmed to us; in that with


STATE MONUMENT AT FRANKFORT,
INTRODUCTORY. 15

Mexico, by which the territory of the United States was ex-
tended to the shores of the Pacific; in the gigantic sectional
struggle, when more than three millions of fellow-countrymen
were fou years engaged in a death-grapple over vital ques-
tions that had failed of peaceable settlement — wherever
supreme tests of courage and fortitude have béen applied,
-your fathers and forefathers have proved themselves great
among the greatest, and have won for Kentucky a world-wide
fame.

10. But not alone in martial strife have their high quali-
ties been manifested. ‘Peace hath had her victories’’ for
them. In the national councils the statesmen and orators
of Kentucky have been among the foremost; in legal tribu-
nals, state and federal, her jurists have been the peers of the
proudest; and letters, divinity and medicine have contributed
to our list of eminent names.

11. Kentuckians have played a most important part in the
civil as well as military affairs of the general government ;
and wherever they have found a foothold in the building up
of new states their fitness for leader ship has been ee
More than eighty of them have been ambassadors, foreee
ministers, and consuls; twenty-two have held high command
in the United States army (regular and volunteer) and navy;
twenty-eight were generals of volunteers in the Federal army
during the civil war, and twenty-seven in the Confederate
army; thirty have been heads of departments and officers
of the United States government; seven have been judges
of the United States Supreme Court, and about thirty have
been judges of other courts (state and United States); more
than fifty have been governors and lieutenant-governors of
other states and territories; more than eighty are known
to have represented other states in Congress; twenty-two
have been presidents of universities and colleges in other
states; and six have been President of the Senate and Vice-
President of the United States. The two great heads of the
16 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

respective governments during the civil war, Abraham Lin-
coln and Jefferson Davis, were native Kentuckians. Equally
remarkable is the list of those whom the people. of their
adopted states have elected to minor positions of honor and
responsibility.

12. But it is not in the matter of office-holding only that
this characteristic of leadership has been manifested. Since
Kentucky was admitted to the Union, thirty new states have
been organized; and for this work she has contributed of
her native population, for a long series of years, about twice
as many as she has received from all the other states and
from foreign countries. At the bar, in the pulpit, in the
ranks of educators, in the conception and‘ conduct of great
business enterprises, public and private, they are found in
the foremost rank in almost every other state and city west
of the Alleghanies.

13. Certain traits that indicate sterling nobility of char-
acter are conspicuous, as, loyalty to family. fidelity to friends,
devotion to comrades in times of suffering and peril, and
scorn of snivellers and shams. To the study and apprecia-
tion of these characteristics you should give earnest heed.

14. Our great philosopher, Dr. Franklin, says of the acts
of those who struggled for freedom and the promotion of
human happiness: ‘‘My countrymen, these things ought not
to be forgotten. For the benefit of our children and those
that follow them they should be recorded.”’

15. And the immortal Roman orator said of history: ‘It
is the messenger of the past and the teacher of life.’? This
messenger of Kentucky’s past brings that to you which is
full of instruction as well as entertainment; and his lesson, if
received and understood, will go far to prepare you for a
useful and honorable career.
INTRODUCTORY. 17

NOTES AND COMMENTS,

I. The Kentucky Character.—Arthur & Carpenter, who
in 1852 published a history of Kentucky, have this to say of
our pioneers and their descendants: <‘‘As the self-reliant
type of American character at the epoch of the Revolution; the
Kentuckian stands pre-eminent. He may even stand for it at
the present day. The descendant of the cavaliers of Virginia
and Maryland, he carried with him into the wilderness many
of the noble qualities for which that brave, high-toned, but
reckless class of people were distinguished; while he left
behind him not a few of their vices. Daring even to rash-
ness, he was yet full of all generous impulses; fierce to his
enemies, he was yet hospitable to the stranger; quick to
resent an injury, yet prompt to forgive it; fertile in strata-
gem, yet steadfast in resolve; fiery in pursuit, yet cool and
collected in action ; never retreating but to fight, Parthian-like,
as he fell back; never stooping to the earth but to gather
strength for the rebound; simple in his tastes and pleasures;
a doer of brave acts and generous deeds—not to gain the
applause of others, but from native nobility of soul. Free,
even to the verge of lawlessness, time has reversed in him the
stigma which Capt. John Smith cast upon his progenitors, who,
if they were amenable to the censure of that valiant soldier,
as being ‘more fitted to corrupt than to found a common-
wealth,’ have yet the merit of having redeemed their memory
in the pure republicanism. of their children.”’

Il. Kentuckians a Peculiar Type of People.—In Ken-
tucky we find nearly pure English blood, mainly derived
through the Old Dominion .and altogether from districts
that shared the Virginia conditions. It is, moreover, the
largest body of pure.English folk that has, speaking gener-
ally, been separated from the mother country for two hundred
years. We see, therefore, how interesting is the problem of
this Kentucky population. It has seriously been maintained
that the European blood tends to enfeeblement in American
conditions; that it requires the admixture of new blood from
the Old World in order to keep its quality unimpaired. There
is an experiment provided that will give a full disproval to
this hypothesis. The reader will do well to bear it in mind
while he follows the history of Kentucky people. * * *

2
18 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Twenty years of such life [that from 1775 to 1795] devel-
oped a particular sort of man—a kind that was never known
before or since in such numbers in any country. The men
who took their shape from the life that was lived in the first
three decades of Kentucky civilization had a very peculiar
quality of mind. Its most characteristic feature was a certain
dauntlessness, a habit of asserting independence of all control
except that of the written law. * * * ‘There was a great
solidity to this people. None but a-people of character could
stand the strain in which they lived. * * * The crimii-
nals, the weaklings, and other refuse of society had no place
in this embattled colony.—V. S. Shaler.


GEOGRAPHY. 19

CHAPTER II.
GEOGRAPHY.

1. To study history profitably you must at every step asso-
ciate events, times, persons, and places. You will then have
a more distinct impression of each occurrence and its relation
to all the others that make up the account. If any place asso-
ciated with a particular historical event is in your locality, or
if in your travels you visit one, you will regard it with a live-



LOADING COAL BARGE ON GREEN RIVER.

lier interest and carry in your mind a more perfect and life-
like picture of what you have heard andread. It is important,
therefore, for you to acquire a knowledge of the surface feat-
ures of Kentucky and note also its surroundings.

2. As you are scon .to take upon you the duties and
responsibilities of a citizen, it is scarcely less important that
you understand the geography of your state in its larger
sense, as embracing not alone the description of its surface
features, but its physical structure and characteristics, natural
20 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

products, and the people by whom it is inhabited. Fully to
comprehend its physical structure and characteristics implies
an acquaintance with the science of geology; but a plain state-
ment of its natural resources, as found in connection with its
geological formation, will serve to show you how greatly its
people are favored by the possession of immense and various
underground wealth, as well as of advantageous surface and
atmospheric conditions.

8. Kentucky lies between 36° 30’ and 36° 6’ north latitude,
and 82° 3’ and 89° 41’ west longitude. It includes all that






ea fil GRO “ong nf Nie
Ss ‘ TEE UTE



HAYFIELD NEAR RUSSELLVILLE.

territory southwest of the line beginning at the mouth of the
Big Sandy, and running up the northeasterly branch thereof
to the great Laurel Ridge or Cumberland mountain, and with
that southwest, to a line of Tennessee. It is bounded on the
north by Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio; on the east by West Vir-
ginia and Virginia; on the south by Tennessee; and on the
west by Missouri. It is about 500 miles in length east and
west, with the mean breadth of 150 miles, and is estimated
to contain over 41,000 square miles, or nearly twenty-seven
million acres,
GEOGRAPHY. E 21

4. The surface is an irregular broken plain, sloping west
and northwest from the summit of the Cumberland mount-
ains. These summits are 3000 feet above sea-level; there is
a gradual decrease northwest and west till the elevation in
the extreme west is but 260 feet; and the estimated mean ele-
vation is 600 feet. Thirty-two of the eastern and southeastern
counties are more or less rough and mountainous throughout ;
but the remainder of the state is an undulating tableland,
comparatively little broken except by a range of highlands
known in one part as The Knobs, in another as Muldraugh’s
Hill, extending westward to the Ohio river below Louisville,
and by deep-cutting river excavations.

5. It is penetrated and bounded by more water-ways, now
navigable and capable of being made so by ordinary means,
than any other state. Besides these there are more than 800
creeks, which not only afford in every section abundance of
fresh water for stock, but much valuable power for machinery.

6. The principal rivers, now navigable in the aggregate for
a distance of more than 1800 miles, are the Ohio, Mississippi,
Big Sandy, Licking, Kentucky,Cumberland, Tennessee, Green,
Big Barren, Salt, Pond, and Tradewater. ‘The Ohio touches
ane whole northern boundary, 653 miles, as the river runs.
The Mississippi forms its entire western boundar y, about 100
miles as the river runs. -The Big Sandy touches its eastern
boundary for more than a hundred miles. The lesser rivers,
some of them now navigable for short distances during high
water, and all of which can be made so for an aggregate dis-
tance of between 2000 and 3000 miles, are: the Little Sandy,
Red, Little Kentucky, Elkhorn, Blood, Dick’s, Laurel, Rock-
castle, Rough, Little Barren, Chaplin, Nolin, Muddy, Gaspar,
Clark’s, Little, Little Obion, and Wolf. Allthese you should
trace on your map, and so fix in your mind what part of the
state each is in, with its relative position, and extent of coun-
try drained, as to be able to answer promptly all pertinent
questions,
22 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

7. The Ohio belongs to the Mississippi river system, and all
the rivers and creeks having their origin and course in the state,
except those that rise in the first two tiers of counties in the
extreme western part, belong to the Ohio system. Though
there is a small portion of the state that has a southwestern
inclination, carrying the Cumberland into the state of Ten-
nessee, in which it has its greater length before it re-enters
_ Kentucky, the course of all the main streams indicate sub-

DRL



BARNYARD IN FRANKLIN COUNTY.

stantially a single water-shed, with a constant slope north by
west. ;

8. Except in the lowlands along the banks of the numerous
streams, where washings from the hills and the overflow of
the water-courses have formed what is known as the alluvial
or river land, the soils have been derived from the decay of
underlying rocks. Those resulting from the decomposition of
blue limestone are in general most productive and most
enduring under cultivation, though the deep alluvials are
exceedingly fertile, The entire counties of Bourbon, Fay-
GEOGRAPHY. 23

ette and Woodford, and portions of Bath, Clark, Franklin,
Harrison, Jessamine, Nicholas, Owen and Scott, constitute a
great body of blue-grass land. There are in Boyle, Garrard,
Green, Laurel, Lincoln, Madison, Mercer, Nelson, and Shelby,
sections of blue-grass lands that are equally rich; and large
portions of a number of counties south and west of Green river
_ are notably productive. This singular condition obtains in
Kentucky, that while a great part of it is underlaid by val-



TOBACCO BARN IN BOURBON COUNTY.

uable mineral stores, less than one-fortieth of its surface is
wholly unfit for agricultural purposes.

‘9. The climate is moderate. Change of weather is fre-
quently sudden and severe; but the extremes of temperature
prevail for only very brief periods. The lowest seldom
reaches zero, while its greatest summer heat is frequently
below that of regions bordering on the great lakes and the
Atlantic. On the Cumberland mountains it is about fifty
degrees, the increase from east to west and southwest being
almost uniform, till at the southwest corner it is about sixty
24. YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

degrees. The seasons are more regular in succession, more
nearly equal in duration, and more distinct.in the character-
istics peculiar to each than in other latitudes; the rainfall
(an. annual average of 46 inches) is generally very equally
distributed over the state, and destructive drouths in any
section are rare; snow seldom falls to such a depth as to
interfere with local traffic or impede travel; and destructive
tornadoes or cyclones scarcely ever occur.

10. Climatic conditions, purity of water, quality of food
products, and healthful occupation, combine to give the people









; TOBACCO FIELD IN FLEMING COUNTY.

size, strength and endurance. Among the hundreds of thou-
sand of volunteers from all parts of the Union, natives and
foreigners, during the civil war, official tables show that those
born and reared in Kentucky and Tennessee exceeded all
others in average height, weight, size of head, circumference
of chest, and ratio of weight to stature.

11. Here almost every product of the soil known in the
temperate zones flourishes — grains, grasses, textile plants,
and fruits; very profitable ones, as tobacco and hemp, in
greater abundance than in any other state; domestic animals
GEOGRAPHY. 5 25

attain to such superior development that the finer kinds are
searcely equalled in the world; while the live-stock and dairy
products are yielded in excess of those of nearly every other
state in proportion to the number of animals.

12. About half the area of the state is still covered with
forests, in which are found almost every species of tree indig-
enous to temperate regions, and the supply of both hard and
soft woods used for building and in the manufactures is hardly
excelled in quality or quantity by that of any other section of
the United States.

13. But the surface resources, however various and virtu-
ally inexhaustible, are surpassed by underground treasures
that have been as yet but little developed. The geological
structure of Kentucky embraces seven or eight formations or
beds as classified by scientists according to the principal
mineral contents of each. The coal fields embrace fifteen
thousand six hundred and eighty square miles, covering for
the most part twenty counties in the western section of the
state and thirty-three in the eastern. Deposits of the differ-
- ent kinds of iron ore are enormous. Besides the different

kinds of coal and iron ore, there are more than forty kinds of
mineral products known -to the arts and to trade, and con-
tributing to the convenience, comfort, and luxury of mankind.
Our mineral stores take a wide range as to number, and their
commercial value is beyond computation. Those of coal and
iron alone are considerably in excess of those of Great
Britain.

14. Chiefly in the central part of the state are more than
a hundred salt licks or springs, which, prior to the white
man’s coming, were the resort of multitudes of herbivorous
animals to obtain salt by licking the earth and rocks impreg-
nated with it; and for a long time the settlers were dependent
on the springs, and upon wells which were sunk in other parts
of the state, for their supply of salt, which they made by
, boiling the water.
26 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

15. Certain kinds of game, animals and birds, are still
found in the woods and fields. The law for the protection of
birds recites twenty-seven species of these still common among
us, besides the scavengers, birds of prey, and those that are
destructive of grain and fruit crops.

16. The natural scenery is at certain seasons of the year
beautiful, and in some mountain sections and along the prin-
cipal rivers as picturesque as much of that so extravagantly
described by tourists in foreign lands.

17. There are many matical curiosities, and such of these
as are in your locality you should see and study. A habit of
observing and considering the different aspects of nature and
the peculiarities of objects around you will afford you intel-
lectual pleasure through life, and give zest to the tasks set for
you by your teachers in the study of natural sciences. I men-
tion a few of those noted by geographers and others: ‘as, the
Split Hill, in Boone county, by which a deep zigzag avenue
of considerable extent has been formed; Sinking creek, in
Breckinridge county, a stream which furnishes sufficient
water-power to drive machinery the year round but has five, or
six miles of its course underground—sinking suddenly about
seven miles from its source and afterward reappearing; Dis-
mal Rock, in Edmonson county, an almost perpendicular
and distinct mass one hundred and sixty-three feet high; The
Indian Hill, also in Edmonson county, eighty-four feet high,
a mile in circumference, and perpendicular except on one side,
where ascent on foot is practicable; a natural circular tunnel
under the elevation on which Bardstown is built; the Point of
Rocks, the Jump-off, and Pond Branch, in Owen county;
large, flat and solid rocks in several localities, having on them
deeply indented and distinct impressions of human feet and
the feet of dogs; Anvil Rock, in Union county, fifty feet
high, twenty feet wide, and two feet thick, having a spur
like the horn of an anvil and standing entirely isolated on level
* bottom-land; Wolf Sink, in Warren county, a depression
GEOGRAPHY. 27

apparently formed by the sinkmg of a section of level open
barren, three hundred feet long, one hundred and fifty feet
wide, but with a sloping bottom which is about twenty feet
below the surrounding surface at the south end and one hun-
dred and fifty feet at the north end; so-called Bottomless Pits,
some of which are filled with water—no sounding line having
yet ascertained their depth; and numerous caverns. Of these
Mammoth cave known throughout the civilized world, is
regarded as the greatest of natural wonders; but the Colossal
cave only recently explored, is claimed by its discoverers and
owners to exceed the Mammoth in extent and splendor. Both
these great caves are in Edmonson county. The Falls of the
Cumberland, in Whitley county, about fourteen miles below
Williamsburgh, are among the most remarkable objects in the
state. The river has an almost perpendicular fall of more
than. sixty feet, and the roar of the water can at times be
heard for many miles above and below. Behind the falling
sheet, arched as it plunges from the top of the cliff, a person
can go nearly across the river bed.

18. When the white man came to Kentucky and explored
it he found it uninhabited except by a small body of Indians,
who really belonged to a village on the north side, near
the mouth of the Scioto; and there were perhaps a few living
along the eastern shore of the Mississippi. But north of
the Ohio, on the Scioto, Muskingum, and Miami rivers; were
the homes of the Shawnee Indians; farther west, in the
valley of the Wabash, were the Wabash Indians; and in the
Tennessee valley, south, were the Chickasaws, Cherokees, and
Choctaws. While none of these tribes could dwell here, all
claimed it as a hunting ground; and their hunting excursions
resulted in conflicts whenever the northern and southern tribes
chanced to meet, which, according to their own account, and
from indications discerned by the pioneer whites, was of fre-
quent occurrence. A tradition among the Indians_told of a
race of people. who inhabited the country centuries before,
28 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

but who had been either destroyed or driven far to the south-
west. Memorials of this pre-historic race—mounds, burying
grounds, embankments, fortifications of stone and of earth,
ditched and walled towns, and articles of handicraft found in
them—testify that the original inhabitants, to whom the set-
tlers gave the general name of Mound-Builders, were much
farther advanced in the arts of civilization than any known in
North America except the Aztecs, or Mexicans.

19. Well-defined and notable relics of this extinct people
have been found in forty-one counties, to the number, in the
aggregate, of more than five hundred. In the caverns and
mounds, explorers and excavators have discovered mummified
human bodies, stone coffins, bones of human beings and of
animals, beads and other articles made of copper, small breast-
plates, earthenware and queensware, ivory beads, polished
flints, etc, In sinking wells and excavating for house-founda-
tion and cellars, numerous bones of a gigantic race, as well as
those of ordinary size, have been exhumed. ©

20. There was abundant evidence, too, that at a former
period some species of animals larger than are now known to
man existed here. At Big Bone Lick in Boone county was
found a great collection of bones and teeth of the mammoth
or mastodon—the remains of those which had perished from
time to time at this salt-water resort to which pathways led’
from every direction.

21. The whites who came to explore and settle Kentucky
ascertained it to be an almost unbroken forest—more than
seven-eighths of this vast area being thus covered. In many
sections were great bodies of magnificent old trees; in some
where these grew the woodland was comparatively open; in
others a thick undergrowth of brushwood, vines, and briers;
and here and there along the streams almost impenetrable
cane-brakes or thickets of cane. About six thousand square
miles of the central and western or southwestern parts consti-
tuted almost the whole unwooded or prairie district.
GEOGRAPHY. 29

22. In this great forest land, unbroken even by Indian
settlements and clearings, were immense herds of buffalo;
while deer, elk, bears, wolves, panthers, and the smaller wild
animals abounded; as did wild turkeys and the many other
species of birds that are still common. The numerous
streams were prolific of the kinds of food fishes which they
still supply in abundance notwithstanding the ceaseless
destruction that has been going on for more than a century.
It was hardly extravagant in some of the enthusiastic pioneers



SHEEP PASTURE IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY.

who declared Kentucky to be the paradise of the hunter and
fisherman.

23. The population at the present time (1896), is more
than two millions. In the main it is of Anglo-Saxon descent.
Those who took the lead in the pioneer and formative period
were chiefly from Virginia; but Maryland, Pennsylvania, and
the Carolinas have contributed. no inconsiderable portion.
There has been a singular absence of admixture of blood
since emigration from foreign countries began to be attracted,
30 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY,

About three-fourths of the immigrants, as noted by the census
of 1890, have come from the other states of the Union, and
are for the most part of English stock, though there is a
strong element among these, as well as among the descend-
ants of the original settlers, of those noble peoples, the
Scotch-Irish and the French-Huguenots. Less than one- ’
twentieth of the population are foreign born, and less than
one-seventh are of the negro race.

24. Soon after the first settlements were established, Ken-
tucky began to be designated The Dark and Bloody Ground.
There is some uncertainty as to the precise significance which
attaches to the phrase as a whole; but it is most probable
that the term ‘‘dark’” refers, not to the deeds which have
rendered the state a bloody ground, but to the natural
appearance of the country when the white man caine to take
possession, A vast region, covered with an almost contin-
uous forest, whose shades in any except the brightest weather
would give it a gloomy aspect, and more especially So when
the great solitude was unbroken by the voice and occupations
of civilized men—all this made it to~be fitly termed dark ;
while the numerous sanguinary engagements which for a long
series of years, preceding and closely following the coming of
the pioneers, made it a land of blood. -The phrase that thus
early gained currency had in it an element of prophetic mean-
ing, for besides the many localities made memorable by sav-
age atrocities as well as by pitched battles between white men
and Indians, there are more than a hundred places where con-
flicts occurred on Kentucky soil during the great civil war.

wean
THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN. 31

4

CHAPTER III.

FROM THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN TILL THE TRANSYL-
VANIA COMPANY WAS ORGANIZED.
1660-1775.

1. For more than fifty years after the first settlement was
made in Virginia the country lying westward between the Alle-
ghanies and the Mississippi river was to white men an unknown
region. In 1660 the Menguy Indians came from the north-
east to make war upon the Shawnees, who then inhabited
Kentucky, and as the invaders carried fire-arms procured from



INDIAN WIGWAM.

the French in Canada, it is probable that French adventurers
were among them; but the first white visitor of whom we
have any record was the great explorer La Salle, who is said
to have come down the Ohio in 1670 and landed at the Falls
of Ohio, where Louisville now stands. For a hundred years
_prior to 1750, however, it is certain that boatmen onthe Ohio
and Mississippi at least viewed the adjacent shores, and prob-
able that they occasionally landed and hunted in the forest ;
and as early as 1751 many whites were found by Gist on both
.

32 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

sides the Ohio near where Portsmouth now stands, who had
come to trade with the Indians.

2. In 1750 the first party of white men to penetrate the
wilderness was led by Dr. Thomas Walker, of Virginia. They
came by way of Powell’s Valley, through a gap in Laurel
mountain, and travelled as far as central Kentucky. Walker
named that branch of the Alleghanies now known as Cumber-
land mountains, in honor of the Duke of Cumberland, and
gave to Shawnee river also the name of Cumberland. These
men built near the point at which they first entered the first
cabin erected-in Kentucky.

8. In 1751 Capt. Christopher Gist came as agent of the
Ohio Land Company, which had from Virginia a grant of
500,000 acres, to explore with a view to locating desirable
lands. He stopped at Shawneetown near the mouth of the
Scioto river, and explored as far down as Big Bone Lick;
then reached the Kentucky river and followed that to the
mountains and crossed over to the Kanawha on his way back ~
to North Carolina. From his report Lewis Evans made the
first map of Kentucky, a revised copy of which was published
in 1755. :

4. The first white women known to have set foot on Ken-
tucky soil were Mrs. Mary Inglis and a Dutch woman, who,
in 1756, escaped from captivity at Big Bone Lick. You will
find a short account of them at the end of this chapter.

5. In 1758 Dr.Walker came again to Kentucky, but gained
little additional knowledge, and did not attempt to settle.

6. In 1765 Col. George Croghan came from Pittsburgh
down the Ohio to make surveys. He and his party went on ,
this journey as far as the Mississippi river. His were the
first surveys made in the Ohio valley southward.

7. John Finley, with a few companions, came from North
Carolina in 1767, to hunt and trade with the Indians. They
-established a camp on Red river, in the neighborhood of where
Clark, Estill and Powell counties touch each other, Their




FINLEY, THE DISCOVERER OF KENTUCKY.
3 33
a4 . YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

explorations doubtless took a comparatively wide range, though
they did not remain long. When they returned to North Caro-
lina their account of what they had seen excited in others a
desire to visit the wonderful country described.

8. I notice now some occurrences out of their regular
order (except the first), to which you should pay especial
attention, because they gave rise among the whites themselves
to conflicting claims to the lands of Kentucky, and because
they led settlers to believe that when they were driving the
Indians from the territory they were not wantonly outraging
that sense of right which demands that even a savage shall
have some compensation when his property is to pass into
other hands.

9. By royal charter from the British government, which,
at the time when colonies were planted in North America, did
not respect the red man’s title to his home, Virginia was
recognized as having dominion over every thing westward, —
between certain parallels, from the Atlantic to the Mississippi
river, if not farther. This great domain included what is now
West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky. Subsequently, however,
the English deemed it proper to treat with the Mohawks or
Six Nations for all of Kentucky east of the Tennessee river.
The Mohawks based their claim upon the fact that they had
conquered the Shawnees who owned the territory. At Fort
Stanwix, New York, in October, 1768, a council was held and
the Six Nations ceded their claims on condition of receiving
from the English about fifty thousand dollars. The Shawnees
refused to relinquish their title, and in October, 1774, Lord
Dunmore, governor of Virginia, made a treaty with them at
Old Chillicothe, Ohio, after their defeat at Point Pleasant
had made them sue for peace. By this treaty they ceded the
territory to Virginia.

10. The Cherokees on the upper Tennessee, who had been
driven out of Kentucky by the Shawnees and their allies before
the coming of white men, still asserted their right to part of
THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN. 35

the lands; and when the Transylvania Company (of which I
am to tell you hereafter) was organized, Daniel Boone was
employed to negotiate with these Indians for their title.
March 17th, 1775, at Sycamore Shoals, onthe Wataga, a branch
of the Holston river, the company purchased, for about fifty
thousand dollars, all the lands lying between the Ohio and
Cumberland rivers and west and south of Kentucky river,
stretching from Louisville to Nashville.

11. Another claim remained undisposed of. The Chickasaw
Indians maintained till October 19th, 1818, their title to that
part of Kentucky lying between the Tennessee and Mississippi
rivers now known as Jackson’s Purchase. This was bough®
that year by the United States. Thus, you see, the whites
acquired by treaty and purchase the claims which the Indians
disregarded and compelled them to make good by twenty years
of bloody conflict.

12. May Ist, 1769, Daniel Boone, with five companions,
one of whom was John Finley, acting as guide, set out from
their home on the Yadkin river in North Carolina, and on the
7th of June reached the place on Red river at which Finley
had made his headquarters in 1767. They hunted together
during the summer and autumn, but in early winter, having
experienced no molestation, they became incautious and divided
into two parties. Boone, accompanied by John Stewart, pro-
ceeded towards the Kentucky river, near which, on the 22nd
of December, they were surprised by Indians and captured.

18. For some days, as their captors marched with them,
they were closely watched and guarded, but by the seventh
night the Indians had relaxed their vigilance and all fell
soundly asleep. The crafty demeanor of the prisoners, who
appeared indifferent, and even cheerful, deceived their cap-
tors. Boone remained awake; and when he found by stealthily
observing the Indians that all were in deep sleep he awoke
Stewart. Securing their rifles, they were soon out of hear-
ing and in rapid flight. They found their old camp, but their
SA

Ss.

SW

i

i ie
a

7 ty “Eel
ope

Sar nA

on EONS

TA



DANIEL BOONE ALONE IN THE WILDERNESS OF KENTUCKY.
36
o

THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN. 37

four companions were gone and the camp had been despoiled.
Nothing is known as to the fate of Finley and the three men
who had stayed with him. Boone and Stewart now hunted as
before for their subsistence—changing their sleeping place
from time to time for fear the Indians might return to their
cabin. In January, 1770, Boone’s brother Squire, who, with
one man, had set out from North Carolina to find him, dis-
covered the two by their camp-fire, and for some time they
all hunted together. Again a separation took place. Daniel
Boone and Stewart went hunting far beyond the camp and
were suddenly set upon by the Indians, who killed and scalped
Stewart. He was the first white man known to have met this
fate in Kentucky. Boone escaped and returned to his brother,
A short time afterward: the man who had come with Squire
wandered away alone and was never seen again. His fate was
not certainly ascertained; but bones were found which led to
the belief that he became entangled in a swamp and either
died of starvation or was killed by wolves.

14, The two brothers continued here their roving life until

May, 1770; when, their ammunition having grown scarce, it
was agreed that Squire should return home and bring a supply
of this and other necessary things. He departed on this mis-
sion, and Daniel was left without éven the companionship of
man’s faithful friend, the dog, as the one that had been with
them followed the home-going brother. On the 27th of July
Squire returned to the spot agreed upon. He had come with
two horses, one laden with powder, ball, and cther articles.
During his absence, Daniel had roamed over’ many new sec-
tions—having gone as far as the Ohio river and travelled along
its shores.

15. For seven or eight months after Squire’s return they
sought to extend their knowledge of the country—tracing the
course of streams and giving them names; also making a
more particular examination of all the features of central
Kentucky. It appears that about this time Daniel Boone first
s
38 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

conceived the idea of bringing his family and making his
home here. He had now a definite object in view—the selec-
tion of a spot upon which to locate. He finally made choice
of a point on the Kentucky river, and in March, 1771, the
brothers set out on their return to their homes on the Yadkin,
which they reached when Daniel had been absent nearly two
years.

16. During the same year in which Boone’s party left
North Carolina for Kentucky (1769), Col. James Knox, one
of forty men from the valleys of New, Holston, and Clinch
rivers, in Virginia, came in, under the leadership of Knox, by
a more southerly route. Their object was hunting and trap-
ping; and their influence upon the history of the state was of
little consequence except that it extended the knowledge of a
hitherto unexplored region and increased the tide of immigra-
tion which set in soon afterward. They established a camp
and depot of supplies, which were to be deposited every five
weeks, at Price’s Meadow, about six miles from where Monti-
cello now stands. They hunted south and west. Two boat
loads of skins and wild meats were sent down the Cumberland
river under charge of ten of the party, for sale to the Span-
ish garrison at Natchez, on the Mississippi, from which place
the boatmen returned to Virginia. Some who had remained
with Knox were lost in the forest; others, separating from
the main body, reached home at times of which we have no
record; but Knox, with a party of nine, turned northward in
the autumn and found and probably named Dick’s river.
More than a year afterward, the party was increased by the
return of some of the men who had gone to Natchez and others
from the old settlements, and went farther west. Some
time in 1771 they built on the site of Mount Gilead church,
nine miles east of Greensburgh, another house for deposit and
shelter, and from here hunted south and west over Green,
Hart, Barren, and contiguous counties. They returned to Vir-
ginia after an absence of two years without having met ‘the
THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN. 39

Boone party, or even knowing that they were in the country.
After the departure of these two bands of hunters, nothing
of special note occurred for two years.

17. September 25th, 1773, Daniel Boone with his own and
five other families set out for that part of Kentucky where he
had determined to make his home. In Powell’s Valley they
were joined by forty men. When near Cumberland Gap,
October 10th, they were suddenly attacked by Indians, and
before the men could rally and drive them off six of the whites







7 Laer
Se f
@
a tea





tae N

STATE ARSENAL AT FRANKFORT. ,

were killed, Boone’s oldest son being one of them. This was
so dreadful a blow, falling where they least expected danger,
that Boone and other resolute persons who were for pushing
on could not prevail upon the rest, and, their dead having
been buried, they went back to their several homes.

18. Somewhat previous to this time Virginia had granted
land bounties to her surviving soldiers of the French and
Indian war. These lands were to be located westward; and
as the accounts carried back by Finley, the Boones, Knox and
others, had created a wide-spread interest, various parties of
40 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

surveyors came in 1773 and explorations were greatly ex-
tended. One company, of which Thomas Bullitt became the
leader, left Virginia, in the spring of 1773, and, proceeding
to the Ohio, passed leisurely down by boat. A part of
them reached the mouth of Beargrass creek, July 8th, and
encamped a short distance above. For the greater security,
their nights were generally spent on Corn Island, opposite
where Louisville now stands. For six weeks they made sur-
veys along the river and southward as far as Salt river in
Bullitt county.

+19. The MéAfees (three brothers), with others, left Botte-
tourt county, Virginia, about the same time and came across
to Kanawha river, where they took canoes and a small boat for
the Ohio. On their journey they overtook the Bullitt party
(May 29), and remained with them till they reached the mouth
of Kentucky river. They went up this to Drennon’s Lick, in
Henry county, where they found a man named Drennon who
had come across from Big Bone and reached the Lick the day
before. Here they took a Entek beaten through almost impass-
able cane-brakes by wild animals seeking the springs, and
followed it up the river to a point opposite Lee? s Town, below
Frankfort, where they crossed over. Turning south, they
surveyed the bottom in which Frankfort now stands, July 6th,
the first survey made on the Kentucky. The boundary described
comprised six hundred acres. They then went up the ridge along
the present Lexington road and turning to the right crossed
the Kentucky seven miles above Frankfort. The next encamp-
ment was at Lillard’s Spring near Lawrenceburgh. From
here they hunted westwardly to Salt river and down this to
Hammond’s creek, from which point they surveyed to the
mouth of the branch on which Harrodsburgh now stands.
During this journey from the mouth of the Kentucky, two of
the party, one of whom was Hancock Taylor, went to joinâ„¢
Bullitt on the Beargrass. On the 31st of July, the others
took a course nearly southeast across Dick’s river and on the
THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN, AL

5th of August reached the forks of the Kentucky. On their
ascent of the mountain country, over a route hitherto untrod-
den by white men, and rendered difficult not alone by its
roughness but in places by tangled brushwood, vines and
briers, and at times finding it impossible to procure either suf-
ficient food or water, they became so foot-sore and exhausted
as almost to despair, but managed to kill sufficient game to
preserve life, though at one time two days without food. At
length they struck a hunter’s path across the head of Powell’s
Valley and reached their Virginia homes.

- 20. During this year three deputies of William Preston,
who was surveyor for Fincastle county, Virginia (as Ken-
tucky was then designated), were here surveying and locat-
ing lands for themselves and others. These deputies were
Hancock Taylor, who was awhile with the McAfees; James
Douglas, who stopped on his way to the Falls of Ohio,
whither Bullitt had preceded him, to view the wonders at Big
Bone Lick, of which accounts had already gone abroad; and
John Floyd, who made many surveys along the banks of the
Ohio, one of which was for locating a tract in Lewis county
for Patrick Henry, the orator of the Revolution.

21. Simon Kenton, afterward to become famous as a Ken-
tucky pioneer, came down the Ohio this year with a party who
wished to join Bullitt. Failing to find him at the mouth of
the Miami river, where report had led them to expect him,
they supposed that he and his followers had been killed or
captured by the Indians, and concluded to return. Kenton,
having previously been for a short time on a hunting expe-
dition between the Kanawha and Kentucky rivers, and know-
ing something of the country, led them back through the
counties of Boone, Kenton and others to the southeast, across
the Big Sandy, to the settlements in Virginia.

22. In May, 1774, James Harrod led a party of forty hunt-
ers and surveyors from Monongahela county, Virginia. Boat-
ing down the Ohio to a point opposite the Licking river they
42 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

tarried there for a few days, during which they felled the first
trees on the ground where Cincinnati now stands. Shortly
afterward they probably went down as far as the Falls, but
returned to the Kentucky river and ascended it in canoes
to what is now Oregon Landing in Mercer county. They
explored to the southward and selected the present site of
Harrodsburgh as a place to begin permanent settlement, and
built the first cabin on a spot in Kentucky laid off and plotted
to become atown. June 16th, 1774, is given as the date of
the founding of the oldest town in the state—called for some
years Harrodstown. Several eligible spots for residence were
selected, surveys made for farms, and cabins erected. These
were assigned by lot. Two, near the present town of Dan-
ville, fell to John Crow and James Brown; about Boiling
Spring, six miles from Harrodsburgh, James Harrod .and
others were located; while cabins three miles east of Harrods-
burgh, fell to James Wiley and others. John Harman raised
the first crop of corn in the settlement.

23. Towards the last of July, four of Harrod’s men were
out surveying three miles below Harrodsburgh, when they
were fired upon by concealed Indians. Jared Cowan was
killed. One of the party made his way back to the camp;
but Jacob Sandusky and another man, believing that the set-
tlement had been surprised and probably destroyed, went to
the Falls and afterward by a circuitous water and land route
reached Virginia.

24, During this summer Hancock Taylor, leading a party
who were surveying along the Kentucky, was shot from
ambush by Indians, near the mouth of the river, in Carroll
county, and died in a few days as his companions were trying
to convey him to his old home.

25. Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia, having sent for
Daniel Boone and requested him to go to the Falls of Ohio and
guide back through the wilderness some men whom he had.
sent to Kentucky on a surveying expedition, he chose as a


Ct

a

THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN. 43

companion Michael Stoner, and set out June 6th, 1774. He
was also to call wherever he knew white men to be encamped
and warn them to return at once to the states. The Shaw-
nees had induced other northern tribes to unite with them in
a campaign of extermination against Virginia, and the small
bodies of whites in Kentucky were in imminent danger. Boone
and Stoner reached Harrodstown: soon after the real work of
settlement began, and the entire party left their new homes
and went back to Virginia. “Thus the territory was abandoned
for a time. Dunmore had ordered the enlistment of three
thousand men, who were organized in two divisions, the
right wing under his own corona the left under that of
Gen. Andtew Lewis. Boone was ordered to take general
charge of three garrisons along the border. The right wing
, proceeded to Pittsburgh, the left to the mouth of the Kana-
wha, where General Lewis met the allied savages, fifteen hun-
dred strong, while his own force was but eleven hundred. At
Point Pleasant, October 10th, a long and desperate battle
ensued, in which the Indians were defeated and driven back
to their villages beyond the Ohio. Dunmore came down
with the right wing, and proceeded with his whole command
to Old Chillicothe. The Indians sued for peace, and, as
has previously been told you, they relinquished all claim to
Kentucky.

——_00 S@40-0—_—

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

‘I. Thomas Bullitt.—This gentleman, who surveyed about
the Falls in 1773, as I have already told you, and in August of
that year laid out a town on ground now covered by Louisville,
had a most daring adventure on his way down the river to
that place. He stopped at a point on the Ohio opposite Old
Chillicothe, and went alone to that place to confer with the
Indians. Approaching with a white handkerchief displayed
as a flag of truce, he succeeded in removing their suspicions;
induced them to call a council for the next day; and at this
Z

44. YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

council, during which he seems to have been frank in stating
the purpose of the white men to settle in Kentucky, he
obtained their consent to proceed—and at length left them in
perfect good humor.
Il. First White Women in Kentucky.—In ‘1756 Mrs.
- Mary Inglis, who had been a Miss Draper, was captured in
Montgomery county of what is now West Virginia, by Shaw-
nee Indians. Her two little boys, Mrs. Draper (her sister-
in-law), and others, were also made prisoners. ‘They were
taken to the salt regions of the Kanawha; thence to the
Indian village at the mouth of the Scioto, ia Ohio. Afterward
Mrs. Inglis had to go with the Indians on a salt-making expe-
dition to Big Bone Lick in Boone county, Kentucky. Here
she induced an old Dutch woman, who had long been a pris-
oner, to attempt to escape with her. Obtaining leave to gather
grapes, they managed to carry off a blanket, a tomahawk, and
a knife, but, to avoid suspicion, took neither additional cloth- .
ing nor food. Going to the Ohio river, they followed this up,
and in five days reached a point opposite the Indian village,
the home of their captors. Resting that night in an empty
cabin on this side the Ohio, next morning they loaded a horse
found grazing near by rith corn which ‘they had discovered,
and went on up to the mouth of the Big Sandy. They could
not cross there, but higher up they attempted to cross on drift-
wood with the horse. He became entangled and had to be
left. Taking what corn they could, they went on towards the
Kanawha river, living upon the corn, grapes, nuts, roots, etc.,
for many days. The Dutch woman at last became wild with
hunger and other suffering, and tried to kill Mrs. Inglis; but
she broke away, reached the Kanawha, found a canoe in hie h
she crossed over, and at last, after forty and a half days,
having travelled about twenty miles a day, her strength now
almost gone, her feet and limbs swollen with cold and fatigue,
she reached the residence of a white family, whose kind and
careful treatment soon so restored her that she was able to go
on home. She sent help to the Dutch woman, who was
brought in and at last restored to health. One of Mrs, Inglis’s
little boys died among the Indians, and the other was a pris-
oner for thirteen years before he was found and ransomed by
his father, This is one example of the dangers and sufferings
THE EARLIEST VISIT BY WHITE MEN, 45

to which the pioneers of the west were subjected, and which
even women so bravely encountered and so wonderfully bore.

Ill. The Hunter’s Rifle.—Few young people-of this gen-
eration have any knowledge of the weapon which their pioneer
fore-fathers made so effective in procuring their supplies of
meat, and so deadly in conflict, and a brief description is appro-
priate. In the hands of those acquainted only with breech-
loading repeaters, needle guns, metal cartridges, &c., the
hunter’s rifle would seem a clumsy fire-arm, incapable of
doing rapid execution; but it was a great improvement on the
blunderbuss and similar guns used by the early settlers of
America. It was a rifle of small bore, for which a pound of
lead would make from seventy to one hundred and twenty
round bullets, made by pouring the melted lead into iron
moulds. The barrel was heavy, and usually considerably
longer than that of the gun with which the State Guard is
now armed. To load it required more motions, more care,
and more time than is necessary to load and fire deliberately
every chamber of the Winchester. The process involved the
use of a ‘‘charger’’ (a horn or bone receptacle holding just
the requisite amount of powder), into which the powder was
poured from a horn or flask; from the charger this was
poured into the barrel; the placing of a bit of domestic (the
patching) on the muzzle and the bullet on that; then the
drawing of the ramrod from the thimbles which held it to the
underside of the barrel, and ramming the ball down; then the
powder-horn was again to be unstopped and the ‘‘pan’’ of the
rifle (at the touch-hole) to be filled and the steel-faced frizzle
drawn down upon it; next the hammer containing the flint for
striking fire into the pan was to be cocked, and the gun was
ready to be aimed and discharged. When the distance did
not exceed one hundred yards, it was an effective weapon,
though not as death-dealing in war, even within its range, as
the modern rifle, which carries a heavy conical ball. The per-
cussion cap did not come into general use until about the
middle of the present century, and the metal cartridge until
many years afterward. The pioneer hunters and fighters were
skillful marksmen, and with them the process of loading, which
to the men of this day would be tedious, was executed, in time
of action, with almost incredible rapidity.


46 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

IV. The Hunting Shirt.—This, of which you hear and read
in connection with the pioneers, was but one part of a hunter’s
garb, all of which was generally of the same character. The
so-called shirt was a loose frock coat, with a cape, made of
dressed deerskin. Leggings, and shoes (called moccasins )
were usually of the same material; and cape, coat, and leg-
gings were often fringed. Many of the backwoodsmen wore
caps made of the skins of wild animals. For this purpose the
coonskin was the favorite. The under garments, except woloen
or cotton socks, were of home-made cotton cloth. In a leather
belt was hung, on the right side, a hatchet, or tomahawk; on
the left, a hunting or butcher knife, a powder horn, and a
pouch for bullets, flints, and cloth (called ‘‘patching’’), in
which the bullets were inclosed when the rifle was loaded.

V. The Tomahawk.—Before white traders introduced the
use of iron or steel among the Indians, this dreadful imple-
ment of war was sometimes the horn of a deer secured near
the end of a piece of wood for a handle—and somewhat resem-
bled a pickax. Another plan was to sharpen a stone at both
ends, and fasten it by thongs near one end of the handle,
which was split to receive it. When Europeans began to
trade with the Indians, the steel-edged hatchet soon came into
use among them. The ‘‘pipe-tomahawk,’’ sometimes alluded
to in writings about the Indians, was their hatchet with the
blunt end formed into a pipe-bowl, which communicated with
a hollow made in the handle; so that instead of smoking an
ordinary pipe the Indian who owned one of these smoked his
tomahawk.

VI. The Long Hunters.—The term ‘‘Long Hunters’’ was
applied to the Knox party only, who were absent in Kentucky
from 1769 to 1771, though Boone remained fully as long.

VII. Long Knife.—Indians called the Virginians (and
afterwards the Kentuckians) Long Knife, or Big Knife,
because they were the first men whom they knew to carry
such a weapon, or a short sword, on hunting or warlike
expeditions.


THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY, 47

CHAPTER IV.

THE. TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY.—-BOONE’S TRACE OR THE
WILDERNESS ROAD, ETC.
1774-1776.

1. In the autumn of this year (1774) occurred an event
which notably increased immigration, and for some years
exerted an active influence in settling Kentucky. Judge Rich-
ard Henderson, of Granville county, North Carolina, organ-
ized a company for the purchase of about two-thirds of the
territory now comprised in the bounds of this state. Not-
withstanding the chartered rights of Virginia and the fact
that Dunmore’s treaty extinguished, in favor of that state,
the entire Shawnee claim, these gentlemen made haste after
the battle of Point Pleasant to recognize the pretensions of
the Cherokees in Tennessee, who asserted that the land from
which they had long before been driven was still their own.

2. With Henderson were associated eight gentlemen of
Virginia and North Carolina; but he was the originator of
the scheme and the active agent in its execution. The asso-
ciation was to be known as the Transylvania Company; and
the territory acquired took the name of Transylvania, which
name was for some time used in speaking of the whole region
of Kentucky and was applied to the first great institution of
learning west of the mountains, the Transylvania University.
At fee Sycamore shoals, on the Wataga river, a tributary of
the Holston, in what is now Horiheese Tennessee, the com-
pany, aided by Daniel Boone, whose services they had engaged,
made preliminary arrangements with the Cherokee Indians for
a treaty which was to be formally entered into a few months
later. Accordingly, Boone, with Henderson and other members
of the company, met them at Wataga in February, 1775. After
a conference of twenty days an agreement was reached, and on
\

48 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

the 17th of March the treaty was perfected, the company pay-
ing about $50,000 for perpetual right and title to all the lands
claimed by the Cherokees as their hunting grounds in Ken-
tucky and that part of Tennessee lying southward between
the southern boundary of Kentucky and the Cumberland
river. The territory was described as including all the terri-
tory bounded on the north by the Ohio river, on the east by
the Kentucky river and the Cumberland mountains, on the
south and west by the Cumberland river.

8. Boone had previously been employed to open a road for
men and pack-horses from Clinch river to the mouth of Otter
creek, on the Kentucky river. This was afterward known as
Boone’s Trace. It appears that a week before the Wataga con-
ference closed Boone left it in company with some men from
North Carolina, who were on their way to Kentucky, and pro-
ceeded to Long Island in Holston river, to meet his brother
and others whom he had engaged to assist him; and with
about thirty well-armed men he set out from Long Island,
March 10th, 1775, to mark the road. It was to be nothing
more than a practicable route, straightforward as possible,
for men and horses, the work required being simply to re-
move, with ax or hatchet, sufficient bark of trees, at inter-
vals, to make a white and clearly discernible spot, and cut-
ting out the undergrowth where necessary. This marking of
trees was called, in pioneer phrase, ‘‘blazing the way.”’

4, They made such rapid progress that by March 20th they
were within fifteen miles of where Richmond now stands.
Here Indians attacked them, killing two men and wounding
two. They drove off the savages and pressed on; but before
they reached the Kentucky river they were again fired upon.
Tio men were killed and three wounded. By April 1st they
had reached the mouth of Otter, and about sixty yards south
.of where the railroad from Richmond to Winchester now
crosses the Kentucky, and near a salt lick, they began to build

Fae
THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 49

Boonesborough—a fort, the walls of which were made in part
of the back-walls of cabins and in part of strong timbers set
upright firmly inthe ground. Four days afterward the Indians
killed another man. Some time during April, Henderson
arrived with thirty fighting mea to re-enforce them, and about
the middle of June the stockade and cabins were completed.
Before this time, however, Henderson had taken import-
ant steps toward colonizing Transylvania. Soon after his
arrival, he issued a call for a convention at See oe rou ee to
be composed of delegates
from the principal senies
“ments, to form a govern-
ment. Boonesborough
chose six of its leadnig
men; St. Asaph’s, or
Logan’s Fort, four; while
Harrodstown and Boiling
Spring, both embraced in
Harrod’s settlement, se-
lected four each. At
Boonesborough, May ._ xgoonzsBporoveH sTOCKADE.
28rd, 1775, the. meeting
was opened with prayer by the Rev. John Lythe, and the
convention was organized. Henderson made a speech set-
ting forth the work to be done, to which the chairman made
due response. Proceeding with all the formality of a legis-
lature, the assembly appointed a committee to represent the
people in the making of a constitutional compact, while Hen-
derson and two others were to represent the company. The
constitution was made and signed by these members of the
company and by the chairman of the committee for the peo-
ple. A code of laws embraced in nine acts was passed and
recorded, as follows: (1) To establish courts of justice and
regulate practice in them; (2) To provide for a militia; (3)
To punish criminals; (4) To prevent profane swearing and
4


50 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Sabbath-breaking; (5) To provide for writs of attachments ;
(6) To regulate clerks’ and sheriffs’ fees; (7) To impose
conditions for the use of the range or public pasture; (8) To
preserve the breed of horses; and (9) To preserve the game.
The company had already established a land office at Boones-
borough and made known the terms upon which land would
be granted to settlers. It took upon itself the cost of furnish-
ing all supplies of powder and lead for the defense of families
and of the country. The terms were so reasonable and were
so to continue for more than a year, that notwithstanding
some provisions and penalties that would ultimately have sub-
jected the settlers to great losses, immigration materially
increased, and by December more than five hundred and sixty
thousand acres had been sold.

6. The contract or agreement, ‘for the peace of the pro-
prietors and the security of the people,’’ above alluded to,
gave the Transylvania Company dangerous power over the
rights and liberties of the settlers, in spite of the reasonable
code of laws enacted at the time; and it was not long before
reflection on the part of the delegates and the people led them
to feel that they had been craftily dealt with. Before the year
closed another circumstance occasioned uneasiness: increased
prices for lands and extravagant fees for entry and survey were
announced. The people became alarmed, and in December,
1775, a petition, signed by eighty-four men, was forwarded to
the Virginia Assembly, setting forth the cause of dissatisfac-
tion, and asking that state to assert its jurisdiction over the
territory claimed by the Transylvania Company. The con-
vention never re-assembled, though it had adjourned to do so in
September. The company attempted to secure representation
in the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, but their delegate
was refused admission, Governor Dunmore issued a proc-
lamation declaring illegal the Wataga purchase of lands over
which Virginia had asserted claim, and the governor of North
Carolina did so with respect to lands now in Tennessee, When
THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 51

George Rogers Clark went to Virginia in 1776 (as will be noticed
subsequently) to obtain means of defense for Kentucky, he
succeeded not only in that but in having the Wataga purchase
declared null and void, in spite of the efforts of Henderson
and his associates, and Kentucky made a county of Virginia.

7. Subsequently, November 4th, 1778, the Virginia Assem-
bly resolved that though the company’s title was void, it had
been at great expense in purchasing and settling said lands, and
it was but just and reasonable that they should be compensated.
Some time afterward it was enacted by the general assembly
of Virginia that to Richard Henderson & Company be granted —
200,000 acres of land in a body, extending along the Ohio for
twenty-five miles, and up Green river twelve and a half miles,
an equal area on each side of the latter stream; and North
Carolina granted them also 200,000 acres in the present state
of Tennessee.

8. In May, 1775, Simon Kenton came again to Kentucky,
in company with Thomas Williams. They landed at the mouth
of Cabin creek, and went out to where Washington, Mason
county, now is. Here they built a cabin. Hunting inland,
along the Licking, they visited the Upper and the Lower Blue
Licks, and one day fell in with two men who seemed to have
been lost in the wilderness—Fitzpatrick and Hendricks. The
former wished to return to Virginia, but Hendricks chose to
remain. He was left at the cabin when Kenton and Williams
set out to pilot Fitzpatrick to the Ohio. When they came
back, they found the charred remains of Hendricks, whom
the Indians had captured and burnt at the stake. He was the
first white man to lose his life in Kentucky in this barbarous
manner, and the last, as far as is known, though others met this
fate at the Indian towns on the borders. Kenton and Williams
cleared an acre of ground, on which they raised this year a
crop of corn.

9. The victory of Point Pleasant, and the consequent favor-
able treaty, gave such renewed impulse to emigration that-
52 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

even the earlier months of 1775, before the inducements offered
by the Transylvania Company were widely known, brought con-
stant accessions to the settlers in Kentucky. Extensive sur-
veys were made and settlements begun at different points.
Early in March, James Harrod came back to Harrodstown and
again began the work of building, fortifying and clearing.
Jobn Floy d, who had been on a surveying expedition in 1778,
came again early in May, 1775, and some time afterward set-
tled on the middle fork of Beargrass creek, six miles from the
Falls, at what was called Floyd’s Station. During the spring,
Benjamin Logan arrived from Virginia with a number of men
and settled at the big spring near the present town of Stanford.
Towards the last of April some hunters and explorers were
encamped on the present site of Lexington, where news of the
battle of Lexington, the first one of “the revolution, reached
them, and they dared this place accordingly, though perma-
nent settlement was not made there until some time after ward,
10. There were now three important settlements, while
scattered here and there in other localities were small bodies
of men. It was estimated that by June there were about three
hundred men at Harrodstown, Boonesborough, Logan’s Fort,
and elsewhere in Kentucky. Thus, you see, by the time the
Revolutionary war had fairly begun on the seaboard, a few
settlements, that proved to be permanent, had been made in
Kentucky» and a form of government established, which had
its basis in that respect for law and order which characterizes
the Anglo-Saxon race, rather than upon a greed of gain and a
love of power on the part of Henderson and his associates.

—-0 293, 00-—_-

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.



I. Daniel Boone.—This man is justly regarded as first
among the great pioneers of Kentucky, because he really
opened the way for those who came with a fixed purpose to
settle here, and led the van; because his experience, sagacity,
THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 53

and courage made settlement practicable; and because his
patient, faithful, and always brave yet prudent service in
behalf of his countrymen contributed more than that of any
other dhe man to make the settlements permanent and at last
peaceful and prosperous. He was the fourth son of Squire and
Sarah (Morgan) Boone; was born near Exeter, Bucks county,
Pennsylvania, July 14th, 1732; lived there and at Reading,
near the head-waters of the Schuylkill river, until he was
eighteen or twenty years old, when his father moved to North
Carolina, settling on the Yadkin river. His boyhood was
passed in a region that was still a wilderness country, in which
wild animals, even of the more dangerous kind, were plentiful,
and Indians occasionally appeared; and he had already devel-
oped a passion for hunting and for CER

the solitude of the woods. To a
native fearlessness he added an im-
perturbable presence of mind and
great skill in the use of the rifle.
He had so little chance to get educa-
tion that his scholarship amounted to
nothing more than the ability to read,
to write an indifferent hand, and to
make simple arithmetical calcula- RM
tions. In 1755, he was married to XS
Rebecca Bryan, the daughter of a §
neighbor. Of five sons born to them,
two, James and Israel, were killed
by Indians; their four daughters and é
three sons were married, and many Kentucky and Mis-
souri families trace their connection with them. Previous
to 1769 Boone had made comparatively long hunting excur-
sions to the west, and is known to have been as far as the
Wataga branch of the Holston in Tennessee; but it was not
till the year mentioned that his connection with the history of
Kentucky begins. From that time the story of his life is so
interwoven with that of our state that it is unnecessary to
recount it here.

Apparently he left his family in 1769, and was absent nearly
two years, with no higher motive than to gratify a love of
hunting, to enjoy that solitude which evidently had a charm
for him even before his boyish strength was equal to the




WZ



WMâ„¢~
DANIEL BOONE.
54. YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY,

steadying of a rifle, and possibly to find some of the excite-
ment of dangerous adventure; but afterward he came to feel
that he had been led by a mysterious influence, as one ordained
by heaven to settle the wilderness, and that up to 1770, when
he determined to:make Kentucky his home, his thirty-eight
years of life had been but one long course of training to fit
him for it. Through lack of experience in civil affairs and of
business aptitude, with a certain improvidence begotten of his
manner of life, he began as early as 1779 to experience mis-
fortunes which in 1795 culminated in his self-imposed exile
from the state which he had done so much to establish.
About four years after bringing his family to Boonesborough,
he disposed of most of his little property in the old settlement
for money with which to buy land warrants, and in this way
obtained about $20,000 of the depreciated paper money of
that time. The whole of this was stolen from him on his
return to Kentucky after having perfected the transaction,
and he was left destitute. He afterward entered lands in Ken-
tucky, of which he was deprived because of defective or prior
title. . Saddened, discouraged, and somewhat embittered by
what he attributed to the villainy of others rather than to his
own lack of caution and disregard of business principles, he
left Kentucky (November, 1795), and located on the Missouri
river, fifty miles west of St. Louis, in what is now St. Charles
county—then Spanish territory. The Spanish governor gave
him ten thousand acres of land and appointed him to an office;
but he failed to perfect his title to this magnificent domain
because it required a trip to New Orleans, and so lost that.
Old, without a home, without knowledge of handicraft by
which to obtain means to buy one, he appealed to Kentucky.
In one of his petitions occurred the pathetic words: ‘I have
not a spot of ground whereon to lay my bones.’’ The staie
asked Congress (February 8th, 1812) to donate to him out
of the public domain ten thousand acres, which was done; but
there seemed to be a fatality in connection with the heroic old
woodman’s desire to possess a moiety of the vast territory
of which he had done much to make his countrymen lords;
and through lawsuits this last gift was soon lost, and he died
landless. His passion for hunting and for the great solitudes
seems never to have waned. When enfeebled by age he would
wander away into remote forests, with a single companion,
THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 55

whom he bound by written contract to take care of him and
bring him home, dead or alive. When eighty-five years old he
went on one of these excursions a hundred miles. In 1819 a
distinguished American artist went to his home in Missouri to
paint his portrait. A full-length painting now hangs in the
House of Representatives in Frankfort. This was the work
of a young Kentucky artist, W. C. Allen, who presented it to
the state, December 9th, 1839. He died at the home of Flan-
ders Calloway, his son-in-law, in Charette, Missouri, Septem-
ber 26th, 1820, in his eighty-ninth year. In 1845, the legisla-
ture ‘of. Kentucky had the remains of himself and wife removed



THE BOONE MONUMENT.

to Frankfort, where (September 13th) they were re-interred
with imposing ceremonies. He is described as having been
‘five feet ten inches high, and of robust and powerful propor-
tions, His countenance was mild and contemplative—indicat-
ing a frame of mind altogether different from the restlessness
and activity that distinguished him.” A distinguished author
and statesman wrote of him while he was still living: ‘‘From
the country of his choice and of his fondest predilection, he
has been banished by difficulties he knew not how to surmount.
* * * # * * Yet history shall do him justice; and those
who come after him may balance his relative claims to the
regards of posterity. * * * * * To appreciate the merit
56 YOUNG PEOPLE'S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

of an enterprise we should have in view the difficulties which
opposed its execution. Eulogiums on those who have founded
great cities and states have been multiplied. * * * * * *
Boone and other pioneer Kentuckians merit the appellation of
founders, and not less than the great ones of the past do they
deserve the notice of subsequent generations. Naturally his
sagacity was considerable; and as a woodsman he was soon
- expert and ultimately supereminent. Far from ferocity, his
temper was mild, humane, and charitable; his manners gentle; -
his address conciliating; his heart open to friendship and hos-
pitality. Yet his most remarkable quality was an enduring
and unshakable fortitude.”’

In his Boonesborough address, Governor Morehead said:
‘sSuch were his qualities that with a very common education
he was enabled to maintain, through a long and useful career,
a conspicuous rank among the most distinguished of his
cotemporaries; and the testimonials of public gratitude with
which he was honored after death are never awarded by*an
intelligent people to the undeserving. * * * * * He united
in an eminent degree the qualities of shrewdness, caution,
and courage, with uncommon muscular strength. He was
seldom taken by surprise, he never shrank from danger nor
cowered beneath the pressure of exposure and fatigue. In
every emergency he was a safe guide and a wise counsellor.
* * * His judgment and penetration were proverbially accu-
rate. * * * * It is not assuming too much to say that with-
out him, in all probability, the settlements could not have
been upheld, and the conquest of Kentucky might have been
reserved for the emigrants of the nineteenth century. * * * *
Resting on the solid advantages of his services to his country,
his fame will survive when the achievements of men greatly
his superiors in rank and intellect will be forgotten.”

He was a pure-minded, honorable man; modest and always-
ready to serve rather than to seek prominence as a leader;
brave without rashness; and with a fortitude that nothing but
death could overcome.

II. Col. James Harrod.—The Hon. Humphrey Marshall,
in his History of Kentucky (1824), says of this leader of the
settlers of Harrodsburgh :

‘Among the hardy sons of that hardy race of men called
woodsmen and hunters was James Harrod—no less a soldier
THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 57

than a hunter. In 1774 he joined Colonel Lewis, and with
his followers was in the battle at the mouth of the Kana-
wha; the next year he returned to the place of his choice and
there established himself. He was six feet high, well propor-
tioned, and finely constructed for strength and activity. His
complexion was dark; his hair and eyes black; his counte- .
nance animated; his gait firm; his deportment grave; his con-
versation easily drawn out but not obtruded; his speech was
mild and his manners conciliating, rather by the confidence
they inspired than any grace or elegance they displayed.
Yet, he could but imperfectly read or write. * * * It may
be asked, what was there in the character of such a man that
merits the notice of an historian? * * * * Before the estab-
lishment of schools; before the term, ‘ =
education, was even known—aye, be-
fore letters were invented—the human
heart was the seat of kindness, of
generosity, of fortitude, of magna-
nimity, of all the social virtues.
Without knowing how to read or
write, James Harrod could be kind
and obliging to his fellow-men; active
and brave in their defense; dexterous
in killing game (the source of sup-
ply) and in the distribution of his
spoils. He could be an expert pilot \
in the woods and guide his followers SuNaTon
with certainty and safety. In fine, HUMPHREY MARSHALL.
he could be a captain over others as

illiterate as himself and less endowed with the useful and
benevolent traits of the heart and the head; and he was. He
was vigilant, active, and skillful. He was always ready to
defend his country and companions against the Indians. News
is brought to him that the Indians had surprised a party four
miles hence and killed a man. ‘Boys,’ says he to those
about him, ‘let us go and beat the red rascals;’ then snatches
up his gun and runs at their head. He hears that a family are
in want of meat. He gets his rifle, repairs to the forest, kills
the needful supply, and presently offers it to the sufferers. .A
plow-horse is in the range (a pasture without. bounds), and -
the owner, yet unused to the woods, or apprehensive of the —




58 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

danger attending search says to Harrod: ‘My horse has not
come up; I can’t plow to-day.’ ‘What kind of a horse is
yours?’ he inquires. The answer is given; Harrod disap-
pears; and in a little time the horse is driven to the owner’s
door. These traits not only portray the character of Harrod
but delineate the circumstances of the country. They belong
to history. Usefulness is merit. * * * * A fort was
too circumscribed a field for his active disposition. To
breathe the fresh air of the forest; to range the woods and
hunt game; to trap the otter, the beaver, and the wolf—
were congenial to his feelings, and occupied most of his
time. He was nevertheless actively engaged in the defense
of the country on several expeditions into the Indian ter-
ritory, as well. as on various scouts and explorations on
the frontiers. In these the dexterity of the woodsman and
the bravery of the soldier were conspicuous and useful.
There was no labor too great for his hardihood, no enterprise
too daring for his courage. His comrades knew his personal
worth and the public acknowledged his services. The rank of
colonel which was conferred upon him is a durable testimonial
in his favor. After the country became extensively popu-
lated, and when he was a husband and father of a family, and
in circumstances to enjoy every social comfort, such was the
effect of habit or of an original disposition ever predominant,
that he would leave his home, repair to distant and unsettled
localities, and remain for weeks at a time, obscured in the
forests or buried among knobs. On one of these expeditions
he lost his life; whether by natural death, the fangs of wild
beasts, or the tomahawk of the savage, is not known. He left
one daughter, and with her an ample patrimony in rich lands.
* * * * * He was simple in his manners, frugal in his diet,
independent in his sentiments, open in his counsels, complying
in his conduct, seeming to command because always foremost
in danger. If he ever consented to be a leader, it was of a
hunting or a military band of his willing friends, whose safety
he regarded as his own and whose obedience was voluntary.
Born free and accustomed to control his own actions, one pas-
sion predominated—a love of liberty. What he was himself
he wished every other human creature to be—free. * * ee
James Harrod will be remembered with affection and regret
by the last of his comrades, and-this memorial of his merits
THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 59

. will descend to posterity.’’ His wife maintained that he was
murdered by a man named Bridges, who had a personal
grudge against him growing out of a lawsuit.

Il. Gen. Benjamin Logan.—Like many other men of ac-
tion whose names are inseparably connected with the history of
Kentucky, Logan had little knowledge of books, but he had a
" quick and comprehensive mind, was a student of men, and had
a practical turn for both private and public affairs. He was
a man of commanding influence among his fellow-pioneers in
their long contest with savages and in their courts and delib-
erative bodies. He has been described as having had ‘‘a com-
manding form, which towered conspicuous among all—tall,
athletic, and dignified; aface castin the finest mould of manly
beauty—dark, grave, and contemplative, and which, while it
evinced unyielding fortitude and impenetrable reserve, invited
to a confidence which was never betrayed.’’ He was born in
Augusta county, Virginia, in 1742; when he was fourteen
years old he lost his father and thus became the chief stay of
his mother and several children younger than himself; refused,
when he became of age, to take advantage of the law that gave
to the oldest son the father’s lands, and, with his mother’s
consent, sold or divided them and shared equally with his
brothers and sisters; aided by a brother he provided for the
mother a home for life; then removed to the Holston river,
purchased land, married, and began farming there. It is prob-
able that before settling on the Holston he had had his first expe-
rience in warfare, as he was sergeant in a company of Virginia
troops on Col. Henry Bouquet’s expedition which resulted
in the complete defeat of the Indians at Bushy Run, August 5th
and 6th, 1763, when he was about twenty-one years old. In
1774 he served on Dummore’s campaign; in 1775, as we have
seen, he joined the Boone party on its way to Kentucky, but
he is said to have distrusted Henderson’s plans, and so he
determined to form an independent settlement, for which pur-
pose he proceeded to the place afterward known as Logan’s
Station, near the present city of Stanford. He took with him
Wm. Galaspy and two or three slaves; built a fort, cleared
ground, and made a crop; went back to Virginia in the
autumn and brought to the new home his other slaves and his
cattle; returned again to Virginia and in March, 1776, brought
his family; and was thenceforth prominent in both the mili-
60 “YOUNG PROPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

tary and civil affairs of the country. His services as a par-
ticipant (and in most cases a leader) in conflicts with the
Indians are noted in ensuing chapters. Instances of his deter-
mined and self-sacrificing courage occurred during the siege of
his station which began May 20th, 1777. When the concealed
Indians fired that morning upon the men who were guarding
the women engaged outside milking their cows, and Burr -
Harrison, badly wounded, fell before he could reach the gate,
he lay within range of the Indian rifles and in sight of his
agonized wife and anxious friends till Logan brought him in.
This he did by covering himself with a small feather bed and
going out as soon as darkness set in sufficiently to make a man
on all fours appear to the Indians to bea big hog, moving around.
the walls of the stockade in search of something to eat. He
crept hither and thither to deepen the deception, but finally
reached Harrison, apparently by accident, when he gathered
him in his arms and sprang to his feet. Indian bullets at once
showered around them, but he carried his comrade into the
fort without further hurt, and himself was untouched. When
ammunition was about to fail, he took upon himself the des-
perate alternative of procuring a supply. Choosing two gal-
lant comrades to accompany him, he made his way through
the Indian lines, and in ten days performed the almost incredi-
ble feat of going to the settlements on the Holston, procuring
supplies, and returning—a distance, back and forth, of more
than three hundred miles, and for the most part by a rough and
untravelled route. In 1777 he was a member of the Court of
Quarter Sessions at Harrodstown; when Kentucky was divided
into three counties (November Ist, 1780), he was commis-
sioned colonel, or county lieutenant for Lincoln; was a mem-
ber of the Virginia Legislature, 1781; was a member of the
conventions which met in Danville in 1785, 1787, and 1788; a
member of the convention of 1792 which formed the first
state constitution, and was one of the electors of senate;
and he several times represented his county in the legisla-
ture. He lived to old age, beloved and honored by the
people of the whole state.

IV. Richard Henderson.—Some writers give this man a
military title, speaking of him as Colonel Henderson. Thisis .
merely a courtesy, and seems trivial in itself; but it has a
tendency to degrade the term as applied to several of our

'
THE TRANSYLVANIA COMPANY. 61

noble pioneers, who, whether commissioned or not, did bear
arms, exercise command, incur danger, fight gallantly, and in
some instances give up their lives in conflict or meet death by
torture at the hands of captors who took a demoniac delight
in the torments of helpless prisoners. The only semblance of
warlike service rendered by Henderson was the bringing of
about thirty men, April, 1775, to re-enforce Boonesborough.
He had little part in the hardships incident to pioneer life, and
was at no time exposed to any grave danger. His connection
with the settlers, however, as the leading spirit of the Tran-
sylvania Company, made him for a short time prominent in
their affairs and left its influence upon the state; and while
he was never really a citizen or a useful factor in the upbuild-
ing of the commonwealth, his name is indissolubly associated
with it, and deserves a brief notice. He was born in Hanover
county, Virginia, April 20th, 1735, but his parents afterward
removed to Granville county, North Carolina. He had no oppor-
tunities for education, and when he reached manhood he was
unable to read and write. His natural abilities, though, were
very great; he was ambitious of distinction, and by diligent
application he qualified himself for business; was appointed a
constable, then an under sheriff; studied law (for a time
under the direction of an able counsellor); became a success-
ful practitioner in both the inferior and superior courts of the
Province of North Carolina; was noted for his solid profes-
sional attainments, and was appointed an associate judge, which
place he filled with distinction until the courts were abolished
by the British crown. By the time he was forty years old,
however, he had indulged in wild speculations, which, with
ostentatious and extravagant living, had deeply involved him
in debt; and he now conceived and proceeded to carry out a
most tremendous scheme, apparently with a view to both
enriching himself and attaining to a power similar to that of
a feudal lord of the olden time. The formation of the Tran-
sylvania Company and the first steps to colonize the com-
pany’s purchase have been noticed in the preceding chapter.
It is not to be inferred that the company’s great design con-
templated a wanton and vicious disregard of either the rights
of the pioneers or of Virginia’s claim under previous treaty.
Its services were recognized and amply remunerated by both
Virginia and North Carolina, though its pretensions were set

er
62 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

aside; and with Henderson were associated Virginia aud No1th
Carolina gentlemen, several of whom took an active part in
the settlement and defense of the state, whose names are
familiar in its stirring annals, and whose descendants are
among the most honorable of Kentucky families. Of Hen-
derson himself it has been recorded that he died at his home
in Granville, North Carolina, ‘‘universally loved and respected.”’


KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 63

CHAPTER V.

KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR: FIRST FOUR
YEARS,
1775-1778.

‘1. You come now to a time which you should keep in mind
as a distinct period in the history of your state. It is remark-
able not only because the events that followed each other in
rapid succession were important in themselves but because of
their far-reaching consequences. During the eight years in
which the thirteen colonies were engaged in war with a mighty
power to freé themselves from tyrannical rule and establish a
government of their own, the pioneers of Kentucky were fix-
ing themselves firmly in their new home, and at the same time
conquering for the struggling government beyond the Allegha-
nies a vast region north and northeast, considerably greater in
area than all the thirteen states together, and now the home
of more than fifteen millions of free people. But for the
heroic deeds of the pioneers, and their perseverance under
many forms of trial and suffering, ‘‘the magnificent country,’
says an able jurist, <‘which now extends as one with us to the
north Pacific might have been broken from us at the summit
of the eastern mountains.”’ ~

2. Many of the first settlers of Kentucky had been soldiers
in the French and Indian war, 1754 to 1763. The effect of
this experience, as well as their unconquerable spirit, was
shown in a striking way in the campaign of 1774 against the
Shawnees and their fierce allies from the northeast. While
Dunmore was getting ready, in his lordly British way (or perfidi-
ously delaying, asis understood ), to move down the Ohio from
Pittsburgh, with the strong right wing of his army, General
Lewis, an old border fighter and leader, had pushed across
with the weaker left wing to Point Pleasant, where he met a
.

64 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

well-armed savage force, one-third greater than his own, and
so utterly routed them that they fled to their villages in Ohio,
and their war of destruction was over. With Lewis that day
were the Boones, Floyd, Harrod, Shelby, McDowell, and other
master spirits in the settling of Kentucky.

3. After the attacks on Boone’s party previously men-
tioned, the Indians were not constantly menacing and trouble-
some during the remainder of 177 5, and immigration notably
increased. Before the close of the year, the Wells brothers
and seven other men encamped on Limestone creek and made
surveys embracing 15,000 acres; in Bourbon county, on a
creek which afterward took his name, John Hinkston built, in
April, a cabin on the spot afterward occupied by Ruddle’s
Station; some improvements were made at Drennon Springs,
Henry county; Haggins, Williams_and others located Martin’s
Station, near what is now Lair’s depot, in Scott county; the
Royal Spring, now in the limits of Georgetown, was visited
early in the year, and in November, John McClelland settled
there with his family; in May Joseph Lindsey built a cabin
on Elkhorn, a short distance from Lexington; Elias Tobin
built a cabin and made a small clearing on Slate creek in
Bath county; Calk built one about a mile from Mount Ster-
ling; William Whitley and wife, with a brother-in-law of his
and seven other persons, located near Crab Orchard in Lin-
coln county; Colonel Calamore raised a crop of corn on Lulbe-
grud creek in Clark county; and John Floyd made surveys in
Bourbon county and elsewhere. Altogether, it was a time of
much activity in exploring and locating homes.

4. Shortly after completing the Boonesborough stockade,
Boone went back to North Carolina for his family. In about
three months he returned to Boonesborough, bringing them
with him. Richard Calloway, William Poague, and John
Stager, with their familes, accompanied the Boones. They
arrived September 26th, 1775, and this was the beginning
of domestic life in Kentucky,
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 65

5. Soon afterward, a party from North Carolina, led by
Hugh McGary, reached Harrodstown. McGary, Richard
Hogan, and Thomas Denton hrought their families, so there
were now two important stations made home-like by women
and children. During the winter following, the fort of Har-
rodstown was begun, on what is now Seminary Hill.

6. Early in the spring of this year George Rogers Clark
came to Harrodstown. He was then less than twenty-three
years old, but had held a commission as captain in Governor
Dunmore’s army the year before. During his stay of a few
months he visited the settlements, and made himself familiar
with existing conditions and the needs of the scattered colon-
ists. His agreeable manner, as well as his evident ability and
the lively interest he manifested, soon won him the esteem
and eonfidence of the people, and he was placed in command
of their militia.

7. In the spring of next year, Clark came again to Ken-
tucky to make it his home. At his suggestion a general
meeting was held at Harrodstown, June 6th, 1776, to take
steps to ascertain whether the territory south and west of the
Kentucky river belonged to Virginia. Noting the confusion
and uncertainty arising from conflicting claims and the grow-
ing dissatisfaction with the Henderson Company, whose title
he did not admit, he had conceived the plan of using the lands
as an inducement to immigrants and thus establishing an
independent state, provided Virginia would not assert her
claims and aid in protecting the settlements. The meeting

chose him and Gabriel John Jones as agents of the people of
Kentucky to the Virginia Legislature.

8. Accepting the trust they set out on horse-back, but they
soon lost or abandoned their horses; the season was so rainy
as to make travelling on foot unusually laborious and slow, and
at last to afflict them with scald feet; they suffered for food;

and were compelled to rest some days in an abandoned fort
5

as
66 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

near Cumberland Gap; but at length they reached Williams-
burgh to find the legislature adjourned.

9. Jones went to his old home on the Holston, but Clark
stayed to follow up his purpose. Gov. Patrick Henry was
at home sick; but when Clark got audience with him he
promptly approved of his plan, and gave him a letter to the
Executive Council. To the council he applied for 500 pounds
of powder—an article for which the Kentucky colonists were
now dependent upon the Henderson Company.

10. Though disposed to help their countrymen the council
replied that as the Kentuckians had not been recognized as
citizens and under Virginia’s protection they could do nothing
more than lend the powder, and Clark must be responsible for
it and bear expense of moving it. They gave him an order
on the keeper of the public magazine, with these express pro-
visions. After reflection, he resolved to go back to Harrods-
town and move for the erection of Kentucky into an inde-
pendent state, and returned the order, with a letter showing
why he could not accept the loan. He said that a country
which was not worth defending was not worth claiming, and
that his people must look elsewhere for help.

11. This brought a reconsideration, with the result that the
order was made to furnish the powder and have it conveyed
to Pittsburgh or Fort Pitt and delivered to Clark for Ken-
tucky. 'He endeavored to notify the settlers at Harrodstown
to have it carried thither, and remained in Virginia to attend
the autumn session of the legislature. Jones having rejoined
him, they moved that body to assert their claim to all the ter-
ritory now constituting this state and organize it as Kentucky
county. In spite of the efforts of Henderson and his associ-
ates, they were successful. The title of the Transylvania
Company was thus declared null and void; but as compensa-
tion for expenses incurred, and for services rendered to the

settlers, the Virginia Legislature granted the company 200,000
acres of Jand lying along Ohio river on both sides of the Green.
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 67

12. Late in September of this year (1776), Clark learned
that the powder still lay at Fort Pitt, his message having
failed to reach Harrodstown, and he hastened to take charge
of it. Employing seven boatmen, he succeeded in carrying
it safe to the mouth of Limestone creek, though harassed all
the way by Indians. Going up that stream, he hid it along
the bank, and set off on foot, with Jones and probably others,
to Harrodstown for an escort. At Hinkston Station he
learned that John Todd, with a party of surveyors, was in
the neighborhood, and waited some days, intending to ask
their assistance; but as they did not come, he left Jones, and
resumed his journey, two men accompanying him. When
Todd came in and loarned what Clark wanted he set out with
ten men, Jones being guide, to find the powder and take it to
Harrodstown; but near Blue Licks Indians attacked them;
Jones and others were killed and the rest captured; but Clark
sent a party, who found the powder and carried it to the set-
tlement. In October, 1776, the Virginia Legislature estab-
lished the county of Kentucky, as a part of that state, and the
settlers were entitled to protection, and to be represented in
that body.

13. I have dwelt at some length on these transactions
because the result of Clark’s mission was a turning point in
the destiny of Kentucky. The authority of Virginia was
established and acknowledged, and the pioneers had indis-
pensable means of defense. Rival claims to the territory and
conflicting pretensions.to control were no longer to produce
confusion and prevent éoncert of action in building up the
new commonwealth. Soon after the Boonesborough conven-
tion, and the establishment of a land office there by the
Henderson Company, the more thoughtful settlers began to
question the legality of that company’s claims, and dissatis-
faction increased when the price of lands and fees of entry
were raised. Eighty-four settlers, as previously stated (some
of whom had been delegates to the Boonesborough con-
89

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CUSTOM HOUSE AND OLD BRIDGE OVER THE KENTUCKY RIVER, AT FRANKFORT.



lp


KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 69

vention), filed in the Virginia Legislature a written pro-
test against the pretensions of the company, and asked that
body to decide whether Kentucky was a part of that state or
whether it belonged to Great Britain, under which govern-
ment the Transylvania Company claimed to exercise control.
The exertions of the far-seeing and determined Clark had
brought the matter to a happy conclusion.

14. Among the various small settlements made this year
(1776), was one at Leestown, a mile below Frankfort; one
on Stoner creek in Bourbon county ; and one, called Sandusky’s
Station, on Pleasant’ Run creek, in Washington county, by
Jacob and James Sandusky.

15. About the middle of July, it was learned that some
time before a large body of Indians had invaded Kentucky
and divided into small parties, to strike all the settlements at
the same time and so prevent their assisting one another. On
the 7th of this month, Elizabeth Calloway who was about
grown, and her sister Frances and Jemima Boone, both
thirteen or fourteen years old, were taken prisoners by
Indians and hurried away. They had incautiously rowed a
canoe too near the north shore of the river, opposite Boones-
borough, suspecting no danger because for more than a year
the whites had been free from molestation. It was late in
the afternoon; the only canoe was on the other side of the
river; and it was not until next morning that the fathers of
the girls, Daniel Boone and Richard Calloway, with John
Floyd and five others could cross over. ‘After travelling
altogether about forty miles, delayed by the difficulty of keep-
ing track of the savages, which they had been careful to con-
ceal, the pursuers came upon them next day as they were
kindling a fire to cook. Four men fired upon the Indians and
all rushed forward. They fled, though two of them were
wounded, and left everything but one shotgun. The girls
were recovered unharmed.
70 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

16. About mid-summer the Indians attacked Hinkston and
other settlers along the Licking. They killed several persons,
and forced others to take refuge at Boonesborough, Harrods-
town, and McClelland’s Station at the Royal Spring. Robert
Patterson, who had been one of the first to visit the last-named _
place the year before and assist in building the fort, started in
October with six others to Pittsburgh to get ammunition and
other supplies. They went by canoe up the Ohio, and on the
12th landed on the north side of the river, where they, built
a fire. Sleeping on their arms that night they were fired upon
by Indians and then attacked with tomahawks. All but one
or two were killed or wounded. Patterson was so badly hurt
that he was for a year under a surgeon’s care.

17. On the 29th of December, forty or fifty Mingo Indians
attacked McClelland’s Station, which was defended by twenty
men. ‘Their chief, Pluggy, was killed, and after several hours
fighting they were driven off; but John McClelland, the
founder of the station, was mortally wounded, as was one
other man, while two others were badly wounded. The fort
was abandoned for a time, the survivors taking refuge at
Harrodstown.

18. March 6th, 1777, James and William Ray, with two
other men, were clearing land near Shawnee Spring, four
miles from Harrodstown, when a party of forty-seven Indians
under the chief Blackfish attacked them, killing William Ray
and capturing one man. James Ray, a rapid runner, escaped
to the fort, and the other man saved himself by hiding. The
occupants of the fort strengthened the works and otherwise
prepared for an attack. Next morning, the Indians fired a
cabin east of the town; and a number of the whites in the fort,
having seen nobody, were deceived and rushed out to save the
house. The Indians tried to prevent their return; but they
retreated to a wooded knoll, where the Harrodsburgh court-
house now stands, and took shelter. A fight ensued, in which
one Indian was killed and four white men wounded—one of
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. val

them mortally. They succeeded in reaching the fort, and the
Indians soon withdrew.

19. On the 15th of April, about one hundred Indians
attacked Boonesborough, killing one man and wounding four
others. They were quickly driven off, with what loss was
not ascertained.

20. On the 20th of May, a band estimated also at one hun-
dred, concealed themselves near Logan’s Fort and fired upon
men who were standing guard outside, where women were
milking. One man was killed and two wounded—one mor-
tally. There were now but twelve fighting men left, but they
succeeded in maintaining themselves until some time in Sep-
tember, when Colonel Bowman, coming from Virginia with a
hundred men, reached the place. His advance was fired upon
from ambush and several killed. When the main body came
up the Indians fled. During this siege the ammunition of the
whites grew so svarce that Logan, with two men, left the fort
by night and went to the Holston, beyond Cumberland Gap
for a supply. The food supply so failed that men had to take
the risk of going out beyond hearing of gunshot at such times
of night as would be most likely to escape observation, to
kill and bring in wild game. Their neighbors at Boones-
borough and Harrodstown could not help them, being com-
pelled to guard themselves. Threatened with starvation;
apprehensive that their supply of powder and ball would
utterly fail; girt about by merciless foes nearly ten times out-
numbering their own riflemen; knowing that to be captured
was to meet horrible death or horrors worse than death;
two-thirds of the little community shut in there being women
and children—how sorely were they all tried!

21. On an other occasion during this year Indians were
gathered at Big Flat Lick, two miles from Logan’s Station,
when they were discovered by Logan, who raised a party of
men and attacked them, driving them off with much loss and
without any on his part. Later, when he was on horse-back,
72 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

hunting near the same place, they fired upon him from am-
bush. His right arm was broken and he was slightly wounded
in the breast. The savages rushed upon him but he escaped,
though narrowly.

i 22. In June a party of Indians discovered in the vicinity .
of Boonesborough were driven by Major Smith, with seven-
teen men, across the Ohio, and one of them was killed.
Returning, they found on the way about thirty more con-
cealed. One of these, separated at the time from the rest,
was killed, and part of Smith’s force fired upon and charged
the main body, dispersing them. On the 4th of July, how-
ever, two hundred Indians appeare:l before Boonesborough
and began a close and fierce attack. This lasted but two days,
as they found themselves suffering severely in proportion to
the effect produced upon the garrison. The whites lost one
man killed and two wounded, while the Indian loss was known
to be seven killed, and the wounded were probably many
more. On the 25th of this month the force at Boonesborough
was greatly strengthened by the arrival of forty-five men
from North Carolina.

23. After the attack on Harrodstown, of which E have
told you, the Indians hung about the settlement to prevent
the raising of corn and to kill or drive off stock at pasture on
the range. Of forty horses, all but one disappeared, and
most of the cattle, and little corn had been raised. While
some of the men were clearing a spot for turnips two hundred
yards from the fort, one of them standing guard discovered
and fired at an Indian. Other indications showed that a band
of them was near. By a stratagem, planned and executed
by Clark, they were discovered in concealment and four of
them killed before they could make resistance, and the rest
fled. While pursuing them, the whites found within four
hundred yards of the fort a deserted camp which seemed to
have been occupied by five or six hundred warriors.
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. ~— 73

24. Turning to transactions of an earlier date, let us note
that in the midst of dangers and far removed from the parent
state, the settlers were not unmindful of their rights as citi-
zens of the new county of Kentucky. On the 19th of April,
1777, the first general election was held, and John Todd and
Richard Calloway were chosen members of the Virginia Legis-
lature. On the 23rd of May they set out to take their places
in that body.

25. Early in the spring a party was sent by Clark (who
seems to have acted by common consent asa leader in matters
other than those strictly pertaining to his station as com-
mander of the militia) to break some hemp and flax left at
Hinkston’s place when the whites were forced to abandon it.
They found Indians encamped there and were driven back,
but without loss.

26. In July, Clark ordered a force of spies and scouts to
be organized, to patrol the Ohio river and some interior
places weekly, by twos, and give notice of Indian movements.
Boonesborough, Harrodstown and Logan’s Station appointed
two each, and the plan proved beneficial, though the number
was too small to keep close watch in all quarters and detect
the coming of every small body of savages.

27. Suspecting that the great activity of the Indians this
year was due to British influence, he had sent two spies to the
British posts at Detroit, Vincennes and Kaskaskia, who dis-
covered that his surmises were correct, and further that they
.. were endeavoring to influence against Virginians and Kentuck-
-' jans the well affected French residents of these outposts.
’ This information had a most important bearing, as it con-
firmed his impression that a movement against them ought to
be made. October Ist he set out for Virginia, without hay-
ing disclosed his plans, to submit them to the Executive
Council of Virginia; and after settling the accounts of the
Kentucky militia, and studying the disposition of those in
power he laid his scheme (December 10th) before Governor
74 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Henry. The result was that, after due deliberation on the
part of the governor and the able and patriotic gentlemen
whom he took into his confidence, Clark received, January
2nd, 1778, secret instructions to take the British post at Kas-
kaskia, in Illinois, on the Kaskaskia river, seven or eight miles
above its mouth.

28. At Harrodstown, September 2nd, 1777, was held the
first court in the new county. ‘The act establishing it was
passed on the 6th of December preceding. This court was
composed of eight magistrates, who were to meet monthly
for the transaction of business. Levi Todd was chosen clerk
of the court, and besides other matters then attended to,
officers for a regiment of militia were commissioned, John
Bowman being made colonel.

29. This year had proved unfavorable to the pioneers.
Indian hostilities had reduced the settlements to the three
principal ones, Boonesborough, Harrodstown, and Logan’s;
but these had so successfully defended themselves that their
permanency was assured. —

30. On the lst of January, 1778, Boone with thirty men
went to the Blue Licks to make salt for the settlements, of
which they were in great want. February 7th, while he was
out hunting game for the salt-makers, he was captured by a
large Indian force (with which were two Frenchmen), as they
were on their way to attack Boonesborough. On the 15th they
brought him to the Blue Licks, where, upon his advice, twenty-
seven of the men surrendered, having been promised good
treatment, and for once the savages kept faith. Three of the
men had been sent home with salt, and so escaped capture.
The Indians returned to Chillicothe with their prisoners, and
in March took Boone and ten others to Detroit, where they
delivered the ten to the British, but brought Boone back with
them. Here he was adopted into the tribe, and remained
among them, feigning to be contented till he found that four
hundred and fifty of their warriors were preparing to march

hv
is
4
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, 75

against Boonesborough. He contrived to escape (June 16th),
and made the journey to the stockade (one hundred and sixty
miles) in five days, with but one substantial meal, which he
had hidden in his blanket before starting. Preparation was
made to receive the attack but the Indians did not appear.

31. Some time in August he led a party to attack their
town at Paint creek on the Scioto river, but met thirty of
them on their way to join the large force from Chillicothe,
which was then on the march for Boonesborough. A fight
ensued, with a loss to the Indians of one killed and one or two
wounded. Boone’s party received no injury. They took
from the Indians three horses and all their baggage. As-
certaining by spies that their town had been deserted, the
company hastily returned to Boonesborough, where they
arrived before the enemy. Next day they marched up, flying
the British flag, and demanded a surrender. The force, more
than four hundred in number, was commanded by Captain
Duquesne, a Canadian Frenchman, and with him were eleven
of his countrymen. Though Boonesborough had but fifty
fighting men, they refused to surrender. Duquesne proposed
other terms, and Boone with eight men went out to treat with
him, but quickly discovered that they meant treacherously to
violate the rules of warfare, as known and observed even in
those days, whereupon they ran back into the fort. Firing
immediately began, and that of the Kentuckians was so deadly
that the Indians fell back and sought better shelter. Still
suffering loss without being able to inflict any, an attempt was
made to reach the stockade by digging a mine from a con-
cealed point on the river bank and blow it up; but it was soon
found that the inmates had discovered the plan and were
countermining. Duquesne then abandoned the project and
laid regular siege to the place, according to the Indian fashion.
This proved no better, and after having spent nine days with
a loss of thirty-seven killed and many wounded, the Indians
abandoned the attempt, and Boonesborough was never again
disturbed by so great a force.
76 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

7-82. Clark, who had been commissioned colonel, having
received instructions as previously stated, proceeded at once
to raise a sufficient force to execute his orders. This was to
be recruited west of the Alleghanies, and it was some months
before everything was in readiness, but by the 27th of May, |
having embarked at Fort Pitt, he reached Corn Island with
three companies, and a considerable number of families. Here

he built a fort and drilled his raw troops. He was joined
meanwhile by volunteers from among the Kentucky settlers
under Capt. Joseph Bowman, and on the 27th of June he
began his voyage down the Ohio with about one hundred and
thirty-five men.

33. Landing on the Illinois side, a little above the mouth
of the Tennessee, he proceeded across the country, northwest,
having fallen in with a party of hunters (who consented to
join them) and found a guide who knew the country. On the
afternoon of July 4th they were within a few miles of Kas-
kaskia, held by a British garrison; and so skillfully did Clark
conduct the affair that the fort was taken and the town in his
possession that night, without bloodshed. The coming of the
invader was unexpected and when his presence became known
it was too late to resist.

34. About sixty miles up the Mississippi was another post,

. Cahokia, near which a considerable body of Indians was gath-
ered, A detachment of mounted men under Bowman, which
a number of French citizens of Kaskaskia volunteered to

“ accompany, set out for this place, and, on the 6th of July,

took it also by surprise and without resistance. The Indians

fled when they learned that the two places were in possession
of Clark’s men, and the inhabitants took the oath of allegiance
to Virginia.

35. Courts were established and a form of government
provided for the towns, the people co-operating; and the civil
control of Virginia was thus established over this far-outlying
section,
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 77

36. Between Kaskaskia and the Falls of Ohio, two hun-
dred and thirty miles across country, from the former, was
another station, St. Vincent’s on the Wabash river, where
Vincennes, Indiana, now stands. Colonel Clark saw. the
importance of getting possession of this, and applied to
M. Gibault, priest of Kaskaskia and St. Vincent’s, for informa-
tion. This gentleman proved to be a warm friend to Vir-
ginia, and offered to induce the people of St. Vincent’s to
throw off British rule and ally themselves with the Americans.
On the 14th of July he set out with one Dr. Lafont and one
of Clark’s spies, and by the first of August his mission was
accomplished. The inhabitants took the oath of allegiance to
Virginia, elected a commandant of their own, and hoisted the
American flag. The successful commander now established
garrisons under trusty officers at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, and
sent Capt. Leonard Helm to take command at St. Vincent’s.
William Linn, a volunteer from Kentucky, was sent back, with
the men who wished to return, to establish a fort on the
present site of Louisville.

37. Upon the recommendation of Colonel Clark the Vir-
ginia Legislature organized, in October 1778, the territory of
which he now held possession, as Illinois county, and ap-
pointed John Todd its governor. Clark neglected no oppor-
tunity to treat with Indian tribes and to cultivate friendly
relations with the French settlers in the territory, in order
still further to weaken British influence and so protect Ken-
tucky as well as otherwise to aid the patriot army beyond the
Alleghanies in their struggle for liberty.

88. In December, Hamilton, the British commandant at
Detroit, came to St. Vincent’s, with a force of four hundred
men. Captain Helm had not been furnished troops to defend
the place, nor was there a local militia, and he with one other
American was compelled tq surrender the fort and town to
Hamilton, though not until he had made terms. that he and his
one private should have the honors of war.
78 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

’
PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS,

I. Gen. James Ray.—Ray was evidently one of the most
daring, vigilant, and efficient among the remarkable men
‘who made the first settlements, and his public services con-
tinued for more than forty years; but historians have spoken
of him in a kind of matter-of-course way and have not’
recorded enough to enable us to give a connected and really
satisfactory account of his life. It is nowhere stated how he
acquired the title of general. He came to Harrodstown with
his step-father, McGary, in 1775, when he was but fifteen years
old; was left near the mouth of Gilbert’s creek, with two
other boys, when the party became bewildered, in charge of
the horses and cattle, and remained three soaks before the
others found the station and relieved him of his danger and
responsibility; and thereafter bore the part of a man in the
work of the colony, in its defense, in scouting, and in expedi-
tions against the savages. It is gathered here and there that
he was of stalwart frame, erect, broad-shouldered, with keen
black eyes, and active as a cat. In the attack on the little
party (March, 1777), when his brother was killed and Shores
made prisoner he escaped to the fort, four miles off, by out-
running the fleetest of Blackfish’s warriors, so astonishing
them that long afterward the chief spoke of ‘the boy at
Harrodstown’’ who could outrun his men, When out one day
about two hundred yards from the fort, with one McConnell,
shooting at a mark, and McConnell was shot from ambush, Ray
instantly detected where the shot came from and killed an
Indian, then bounded off amid a shower of balls; but the sav-
ages being close upon him when he came near the gate it could
not be opened without incurring the risk of destruction to the
garrison, and he threw himself on the ground behind a stump
scarcely large enough to screen him from the balls which
Bock around him for oe hours. At oes he was relieved
by « a cabin
wall, one as he was bat about ively fect awa ay he eicceeta
in reaching it and getting inside. In 1777, while the Indians
hung continuously round the station to prevent the cultivation
of the fields, and the inhabitants were so reduced to distress
by scarcity of food, he proved te be the most successful of
their hunters in evading the enemy and bringing in supplies


KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 09

of game. He was-then but seventeen years old. Stealing out
before day, he would mount an old horse—the only one of
forty brought to Kentucky by his step-father—and_ make his
way out of. hearing of the besiegers, taking care to break his
trail by riding in the water of Salt river or such other streams
as he struck, ‘and kill his load of game, which he brought back
after nightfall. He thus inspired confidence and rendered him-
self also a great favorite. He was one of the volunteers from
Harrodstown on the unfortunate expedition to old Chillicothe
in 1779; and when Colonel Bowman was afterward censured
for not signaling Colonel Logan as agreed upon, he maintained
that Bowman was not blameworthy because the vigorous
attack of the Indians was made before he got near enough.
Setting forth one morning on a hunt, after he had seen an old
Scotchman start out to plow a field of corn in which the fami-
lies in the fort had a common interest, he apprehended that
the plowman might not be safe, as he had the evening before
seen traces of Indians. Approaching the field he saw a well-
armed Indian about two hundred yards before him, keeping a
tree between him and the Scotchman, advancing on him as the
latter moved toward the other end of the field, and hiding when
he turned to come back. This he did three Gee and was at
last within fifty yards of his intended victim, when he attempted
to level his rifle, but Ray shot him dead. The Indian fired as
he fell, but without effect. The Scotchman set off on such a
furious run that he broke through the brush fence by which
the ground was enclosed, and could not be stopped by Ray’s
calling to him; and when he got home he maintained that he
had been attacked by a whole band of Indians; but his deliverer
explained and went back after the Indian’s scalp, taking some
men along that Shey might see for themselves. Between 1800
and 1820, Genera Haz" was ten or twelve times a representative
of his county in the legislature.

Il. Significance of Indian Trails, and How a Lost One
Was Found.—tThe early pioneers soon learned to understand
the meaning of signs made by Indians during their incursions
and in their attempts to escape atter committing outrages.
When they wished to be followed they made no effort to conceal
their route; and the abundant signs showed the whites that
they must be on guard against ambuscades, When they really
sought to avoid pursuit it required constant, and keen observa-




80 YOUNG oo. HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

tion to detect any sign at all, and only a practiced eye would
note accidental displacement of stones, a dim moccasin track,
a broken twig, a bruised plant, a hair or feather, and other
little indications that the most circumspect savage band on a
hasty march would leave in spite of their painstaking. When
it was necessary for white men to follow an uncertain trail in
rapid pursuit, one mar was put on it at the outset and the
others took their places in line to his right and left, at inter-
vals that kept each within easy speaking distance of one on
each hand, and the march began at a quick step or a run, as
agreed upon. If the man who had the clue at the start lost it
he spoke loud enough for those nearest him to hear, ‘trail
lost!’? and this was passed along the line. The march was
kept up, every man watching eagerly for signs, and when
these were found he called to his companions right and left,
“trail found!’’ This was repeated till all were advised, and in
this way loss of time was prevented and rapid progress made.
Ill. Betsy Calloway’s Bravery and Thoughtfulness.—
While the Indians who captured the Misses Calloway and
Boone were dragging them from the canoe, Betsy Calloway
fought with her paddle and gashed the head of one of them;
and when the three were ordered to take off their shoes and
put on moccasins she refused, though the younger ones com-
plied, so that she could make the impress of her shoe-heels
on the ground where it was not too hard, thus leaving a sign
for pursuers. Occasionally she stealthily broke off twigs,
but this was discovered and an Indian with uplifted tomahawk
threatened her life. Then she tore off bits of her dress when
she could do so without detection, and dropped them. Their
captors adopted every precaution to throw the white men off
the trail; but the forethought and courage of Miss Calloway
in providing these clues aided her friends materially in keep-
ing the course. Her black hair and black eyes, with a some-
what dark complexion, rendered more so by exposure to the
sun, caused one of the rescuers to mistake her in the excite-
ment of attack for an Indian and raise his empty gun to kill
her with the heavy breech. She was sitting by a tree, with a
large bandana handkerchief around her neck, while the heads
of the other two girls lay in her lap. One of the men recog-
nized her in time to arrest the blow. The pursuing party
consisted of Daniel Boone, Maj. Wm. B. Smith, Col. John
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 81

Floyd, Bartlett Searcy, Catlett Jones, Samuel Henderson,
Capt. John Holder, and Flanders Calloway. Henderson
afterward married Betsy Calloway, Holder married Fannie,
and Calloway married. Jemima. Boone.

IV. The First Marriage in Kentucky.—This was that
of Samuel Henderson (younger brother of Judge Richard
Henderson) and Elizabeth (or Betsy) Calloway, the oldest
daughter of Col. Richard Calloway. It occurred at Boones-
borough, August 7th, 1776, less than a month after the
young lady with her sister Fannie and Jemima Boone, had
been rescued from the Indians. ‘The ceremony was per-
formed by Squire Boone, who was a Baptist preacher. Fannie
Henderson, their first child, born May 29th, 1777, was the
first white child born of parents who had been married in
Kentucky, and the fifth one born in the state.

6


f

82 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CHAPTER VI.

KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR: LAST FOUR
YEARS.
1779-1782.

1. About the last of January, 1779, Colonel Clark received
notice of Hamilton’s having occupied St. Vincent’s, and he
made immediate preparations to retake it. He began his
march February 7th, with one hundred and seventy men.
This expedition was one of the most remarkable on record,
because of difficulties that the British now in possession of St.
Vincent’s did not believe it possible for Clark and his men to
overcome. By the evening of February 23rd, the little force
was before the town, and next day fire was opened on the
fort. On the 25th Governor Hamilton surrendered; the
American flag again floated over the strongest British post in
the northeast; and a grand campaign, which Hamilton had
planned, to destroy all the infant settlements in Kentucky and
elsewhere west of the Alleghanies, was prevented.

2. The year 1779 was remarkable for a great increase of
settlements in Kentucky. On the 17th of April, Robert Pat-
terson began building a block-house or fort on the present site
of Lexington. He was joined by a number of others, among
them Mrs. John Morrison, who was the first woman to settle
here, and a town was laid off. During the year Bryan’s Sta-
tion, about five miles northeast of Lexington, was established
by four brothers from North Carolina, of whom the leader
was William Bryan, who had been a captain in the Continental
army. For his services during the revolution he had a grant
of land which he located in Kentucky. His wife was Mary, a
sister of Daniel Boone’s. He was killed by Indians, May
21st, 1781, near the mouth of Cave Run, while hunting with a
number of other men from the station,
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 83

3. Martin’s Station, about three miles below Paris, on
Stoner creek, heretofore noticed as having been abandoned,
was reoccupied and strengthened; Isaac Ruddle rebuilt Hink-
ston’s; Pitman’s Station, about five miles west of Greens-
burgh, near the mouth of Pitman’s creek, was established.
Squire Boone and family, with a number of gentlemen, some
of whom had families, settled at Painted Stone, on Clear
creek, near where Shelbyville now stands; George Boone

mee $y 3
tue Rea



STOCKADE AT LEXINGTON.

founded one about six miles from Richmond, on the present
Lexington turnpike; James Estill settled on Little Muddy
creek, in Madison county, and -his place soon became an
important station; Stephen Hancock, David Crews, and John
Tanner established stations in the same section of country;
and the McAfee brothers came back to their old survey on
Salt river, bringing their families, and built cabins and a
stockade,
84. YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

4. In May, Colonel Bowman, commander of the militia,
ordered the enlistment of a force to invade the Indian country
and strike such a blow as would deter them from infesting
‘the settlements in small bodies and killing and destroying
wherever they found men off guard or property exposed.
Over two hundred men, under experienced and able officers,
met near the mouth of the Licking, and marched to Old Chilli-
cothe without giving the alarm. Dispositions were made to
approach the town in the night, in two divisions, one under
Bowman, the other under Benjamin Logan, and begin a
simultaneous attack at daylight; but from some cause, Logan
did not receive a promised signal from Bowman before the
presence of the Kentuckians was discovered. Logan with
his detachment fought gallantly until he received an order from
the commander to retreat. They were pursued by the Indians,
and confusion ensued; but Logan and his officers at length
succeeded in restoring order, and when matters seemed to be
desperate they selected the boldest and best-mounted men
and checked pursuit by charging upon the Indians and cut-
ting them down as they drove them from cover. One chief,
Blackfish, was killed when the retreat began; their new chief
who assumed command, Red Hawk, was killed in the charge,
and they fled. Part of Old Chillicothe was burned, and the
Kentuckians brought away about one hunderd and sixty
horses and some other property; but they had lost nine men
and several wounded, and though the Indians lost heavily in
comparison the expedition failed of that great success which
at one time seemed assured.

5. In October of this year, David Rogers, who had been
sent some months previously to New Orleans to procure mili-
tary supplies for Fort Pitt, with Robert Benham, was ascend-
ing the Ohio with two keel boats, manned by about one hun-
dred men and loaded with the supplies. One of these boats
was under his command, the other under Benham’s. When
opposite the mouth of the Licking, they discovered Indians
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 85

who had come down the Miami river on boats and rafts, and
were entering the Licking. Rogers ordered the two crews to
land and attack, hoping to take them at a disadvantage by
marching through willows covering a sand-bar; but they soon
found themselves surrounded by nearly five times their num-
ber. Rogers and all the men except nine or ten were killed.
One of the boats with two men escaped to the Falls, while the
few other survivors reached their friends at different times.

6. The winter of 1779-80 was for three months, from the
middle of November, so intensely cold that the settlers seemed
to be in the grasp of a more pitiless and terrible enemy than
the savage red man. Navigable rivers were so frozen over
as to arrest the boats of immigrants and compel them to
debark and await in camp the return of milder weather;
while the smaller streams were frozen solid. The supply of
food. in the hands of those who had been here during the
cropping and hunting seasons was not sufficient to meet fully
their own demands, and sharing it with those but newly come
increased the difficulty with the passing weeks. Game starved
and froze in the forests and domestic animals around the
camps and cabins. From fifty to one hundred and seventy-
five dollars of the depreciated continental currency was the
price of a bushel. of corn. The extremity was dreadful and
could not be wholly relieved until spring and summer and
autumn came with their respective products:0 of garden, field
and forest.

7. With the breaking of winter, however; the tide of
immigration rose beyond precedent. By this time there were
already six stations on Beargrass creek, with a population of
six hundred, and early in the spring three hundred large

family boats arrived at the Falls, bringing, as is estimated:
three thousand persons.

8. In June (1780) six hundred Canadians and Indians,
under command of Colonel Byrd, an officer of the British
army, with six pieces of artillery, came down the Miami and
86 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

up the Licking to where Falmouth now stands. He marched
thence to Ruddle’s Station, arriving on the 22nd. The people
were taken by surprise, and even if time had been given for
preparation the stockade would not have been proof against
_artillery. When an unconditional surrender was demanded,
Ruddle asked the one condition that the prisoners should not
be delivered to the Indians but kept under the protection of
the English. This was promised; but when the gates were
opened, the Indians rushed in and each claimed whatever
prisoner he seized. They were subjected to shocking bar-
barities, which Byrd claimed he was unable to prevent. They
next went to Martin’s Station, five miles farther, but not until
Byrd had exacted from the chief a promise that the Indians
should have only the property while the prisoners should be
under his control. The place surrendered and the agreement
was carried out. The Indians urged the commander to press
on to Bryan’s Station and Lexington, but he refused to go
further, alleging various reasons, and the invaders returned
to the forks of the Licking. Re-embarking, they left the
country.

9. Colonel Clark, on hearing of these attacks, came promptly
from St. Vincent’s to Louisville, and soon had about a thou-
sand men, ably officered, assembled at the mouth of the Lick-
ing. Building a block-house, in which to leave stores, on the
present site of Cincinnati, he proceeded to Old. Chillicothe,
surprised the Indians, who hastily fled, burned the town, and
destroyed the crops. At Pickaway the Indians made a stand
and Clark lost seventeen men killed and some wounded, but
the place was taken und everything was destroyed or taken
into possession, as at Chillicothe. Detachments were sent to
other villages, and these also were laid waste. With such
property as could be carried away, including horses and cattle,
the victorious Kentuckians returned home, and the expedition
had proved so disastrous to the Indians that for nearly two
years no considerable body of them invaded the state.


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Waianae



















= té
Se oN 2
ee
ven
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KENTUCKY AND INDIANA BRIDGE AT LOUISVILLE.
88 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

10. During this year (1780) the Virginia Legislature passed
an act to establish Louisville. Trustees were appointed to lay
off the town on a tract of one thousand acres, formerly the
property of a British subject.

41. Early in the summer, under orders from Thomas Jef-
ferson, then governor of Virginia, Colonel Clark built a fort
and some block-houses on the Mississippi, five miles below the
mouth of the Ohio, and mounted cannon which had been
sent him. He named the place Fort Jefferson.

12. About the first of November the Virginia Legislature
divided Kentucky into three counties of Jefferson, Fayette,
and Lincoln.

18. Fort Jefferson was held by Gana George, with about
thirty men, in the summer of 1781, when the Chickasaw and
Choctaw Indians, on whose land it had been built without
their consent, besieged it in great force. The garrison, not
anticipating attack, was ill-provided with food, and two-thirds
of the men were sick; but Captain George held out for five
days. On the sixth he met the leader of the savages, a white
man named Colbert, under a flag of truce, to consider terms of
capitulation; but they could not agree. As Colbert was
retiring he received a wound from some Indians, friendly to
the Kentuckians and then in one of the block-houses. . This
treacherous act, though not perpetrated by the whites, exas-
perated the besiegers; and at night they collected all their
force to storm the works. Capt. George Owen, who was
then commanding one of the block-houses, had loaded his
swivels or small cannon with musket balls, and when the
Indians, in crowded column, came near the walls, he dis-
charged them with such dreadful effect that they were dis-
persed with great slaughter. General Clark, then stationed
at Kaskaskia, having been sent for, now arrived with supplies
and reinforcements, and. the enemy left the place. The
fort was.so remote from other Kentucky settlements, and
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 89

therefore difficult to maintain, that it was soon permanently
abandoned. .

14. During the year 1781 the Indians were exceedingly
troublesome in Jefferson and Shelby counties. In March
several parties of them came over into Jefferson and killed
William Linn and Captains Tipton and Chapman. Captain
Aquilla Whittaker, with fifteen men, traced them to the foot
of the Falls and embarked in canoes to cross over and follow
them; but they were still on the Kentucky side and fired on
the men in the canoes, killing and wounding nine of them.
Those who were unhurt, and the wounded who were still able
to fight, rowed back and defeated the Indians, killing and
wounding a number much in excess of their own.

15. In September, 1781, Squire Boone set out with his and
“other families from his station at Painted Stone to find on
the Beargrass a place of greater safety. The moving party
was attacked near Long Run by a large body of Indians and
suffered considerable loss, Boone himself being among the
wounded, As soon as Col. John Floyd heard of the affair
he set out from his station with thirty-seven men to follow
the Indians. Though he divided his force, placing one
detachment under Captain Holder, and all moved with much
caution, they were ambushed by about two hundred savages,
whose fire killed and wounded sixteen. The white men held
their ground until the Indians, who had lost nine or ten men
killed, rushed upon them with their tomahawks and compelled
them to retreat.

16. The station at Painted Stone was reoccupied about
Christmas of that year; but a year or two afterward Squire
Boone transferred it to Colonel Lynch, and it was from that
time known as Lynch’s Station.

17. That Indians had been in the neighborhood of Estill’s .
Station, about fifteen miles south of Boonesborough, was dis-
covered March 19th, 1782; and Capt. James Estill, with-
twenty-five men, set out to find them. About daylight on
90 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

the morning of the 20th, while the party was still absent,
Indians killed and scalped Miss Jennie Gass who was outside
but near the station, milking. Monk, a slave of Estill’s, who
had gone with her, was captured. When questioned as to the
force inside the stockade he represented it as considerably
greater than that of the Indians, and that they were preparing
to defend themselves. Besides the women and children there
were only four men; but the savages were deceived, and, after
killing the cattle, retreated across the river. The intelligent
and faithful slave had thus, probably, prevented a massacre.

18. Two boys, Samuel South and Peter Hackett, were sent
to notify Captain Estill. Finding the party below the mouth
of Red river, they told them what had occurred, and immedi-
ate pursuit was begun. At Little Mountain, near what is
now Mount Sterling, they discovered twenty-five Wyandottes,
and Captain Estill promptly led his men to the attack. The
forces were equal, and a fierce and bloody conflict began.
The Indians were apparently taken by surprise, as at the first
fire of the whites they began a retreat; but their chief,
though mortally wounded, called to them to stand, and they
rallied and took position with somewhat the advantage of
ground. Captain Estill had halted and disposed his men in
line, every one covering himself as well as possible, as the
Indians did, by a tree. Hinkston creek, a branch of the
Licking river, lay between them; and across this, about sixty
yards apart, the two lines engaged in one of the most
remarkable combats of pioneer times.

19. For more than an hour the firing was kept up ‘with
such deliberation that it was deadly in spite of the shelter
afforded by tree-trunks, and more than a fourth of the
men on each side had fallen. When it appeared to Captain
. Estill that to continue in this way would lead to the exter-
mination of his little force, as quickly as to that of the enemy,
sand that the Indians were trying to extend their line with a
view to turning his flank with part of their force, he ordered
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 91

six of his men under command of a lieutenant to proceed by
a route which he pointed out—a valley running from the
creek to the rear of the enemy—and come up on that flank or
behind their line. The officer in charge did not execute the
order, but ran away with his detachment. The Indians, dis-
covering how Estill had weakened his line, rushed across the
shallow stream and a hand-to-hand fight followed. Estill,
already wounded, grappled with a powerful savage, but in the
struggle, his arm, which had been broken by a shot from an
Indian three months before, gave way, and his enemy plunged
a knife to his heart. Nine of the whites were left dead upon
the field, and four of those who escaped were wounded. ‘The
Indian loss was never certainly known; but reports from their
towns indicated that about half of them were killed and all
the others except one were wounded.

20. The affair, though generally referred to as ‘‘Estill’s
Defeat,’’ was more deadly to the savages than to the whites,
and drove the survivors, and others who were elsewhere in
that part of the country, back across the border.

21. In August, 1782, a party of Indians captured two boys
near Hoy’s Station, five miles south of Richmond, and recrossed
the Kentucky river. They were pursued by Captain John
Holder, with seventeen men, and overtaken, August 12th, at
Upper Blue Licks. Holder attacked, but was defeated, with
a loss of four men, and compelled to retreat; but the Indians
did not follow.

22. Bryan’s Station contained at this time a force of fight-
ing men which has been variously estimated at from forty to
sixty. On the night of August 14th, the men were engaged
in preparing for an expedition against the Indians who had
repulsed Holder at Blue Licks. When the gate was thrown
open next morning and the men started out, they were driven
back by a heavy fire from the woods in their front. A force
of six hundred Indians, led by the infamous Simen Girty and
a British officer, had reached the place during the night and
99 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

taken position within rifle-shot. The whites were taken by
surprise; and as no attack in force had been anticipated, they
were poorly prepared to defend themselves against great odds.
The palisades- were out of repair, and their only source of
water supply was a spring outside, about eighty yards from
one of the gates. -

23. Two mounted messengers broke through the Indian
lines to warn the neighboring stations and ask aid; and the
walls were hastily repaired. To be destitute of water, how-
ever, was to be subjected to other dangers than the shots and
assults of the foe. It was impossible to withstand without it
a siege of any considerable duration; and it was to be appre-
hended that the besiegers would endeavor to fire the stockades
or the roofs of the cabins by burning arrows (which, indeed
was repeatedly done during the day), when water would be
needed. with which to quench incipient flames.

24. In this emergency, Capt. Elijah Craig, in command
of the station, called the women together and asked them to
undertake to bring in a supply. It was rightly conjectured
that a strong body of the Indians lay concealed near the
spring; but he reasoned that as they knew it to be customary
for the women to go for water daily, and without a guard
when no enemy was supposed to be near, they would consider
their doing so now as evidence that their ambuscade had not
been discovered, and that their plans of attack could be carried
out. These wives and mothers and daughters realized the
peril in which all were placed; they listened to the represen-
tations and entreaties of the brave men who would gladly have
shielded them from every danger had it been in their power ;
they took the fearful risk and brought in the needful supply
from under hundreds of guns in the hands of merciless foes
—an act of heroism which requires no high-sounding descrip-
tion, no labored panegyric, to impress it upon a generous

“mind: it speaks for itself.
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 93

25. Captain Craig next resorted to a stratagem which drew
the Indians from ambush and exposed them to effective fire.
Thirteen young men were sent out to attack some Indians who
had appeared on the opposite side of the fort, with orders to
fire rapidly and keep up so much noise as to lead the con-
cealed enemy to suppose that the whole garrison had gone
against the few Indians sent there to draw them out. They
- were to fall back through the gate as soon as firing began in
the fort. The enemy’s object was to arouse the whole force
in the stockade to rush out after those who appeared on the
farther side, so that the main body in ambush could assault
on the side adjacent to the spring and carry the place before
the defenders could return. When the firing showed that the
detachment had gone some distance, several hundred Indians
sprang from cover and rushed upon the wall which they
believed to be undefended. About forty rifles poured a vol-
ley into them and beat them back with great loss. The
party that had been sent out returned promptly on hearing
the fusillade and were admitted through the opposite gate.

26. The messengers who had been sent for re-enforce-
ments met the men of the Lexington garrison on their way to -
Blue Licks, expecting to join those of Bryan’s Station in the
proposed expedition. As they hurried now to the latter, in
response to the summons, part mounted and part on foot, they
fell into an ambuscade which Girty had prepared for them
near Bryan’s, on a narrow road bordered on one side by a field
of high corn, on the other by a dense wood. .The horsemen
fell into the trap, but dashed through the storm of bullets
and gained the fort without loss. The men on foot, who
were trying to reach the station by creeping through the corn,
ran to the rescue of the horsemen, but were met by the over-
whelming odds and forced to retreat, with a loss of six killed.

27. At night, Girty, concealed behind a stump within
speaking distance of the garrison, demanded a surrender, with
lies about expected re-enforcements and artillery, and with
94 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

threats of massacre in case of refusal; but he was defied; and
next morning the Indian camps were found deserted. The
boastful and confident besiegers had retreated apparently a
short time before daylight.

28. Neighboring stations had been preparing to join in the
expedition to the Blue Licks which’ was interrupted by the
movement against Bryan’s; and within .a few hours after
the Indians had disappeared a sufficient number of men had
arrived to increase the force to one hundred and sixty (some
accounts say one hundred and eighty-two). It was known
that Col. Ben Logan was marching with three hundred
others to join them; but, fearing that the savages would
escape across the river, and notwithstanding some of the
more prudent advised delay, that Logan might come up, they
set off in pursuit.

29. Col. John Todd, at that time commandant of IIli-
nois county, was at Bryan’s Station on a visit to his wife, and
was placed in command. Late in the morning of August
19th, they came in sight of the Indians, who were on the
opposite side of the Licking, near the Lower Blue Licks, and
halted for council. Boone, Todd and others insisted that the
attack should not be made till Logan had arrived. The odds
against the pioneers was believed to be more than three to
one, and the savages had the protection of timber, while an
assault in front would probably be met while they were cross-
ing the river and moving up a naked slope beyond. Major
Hugh McGary, however, precipitated the fight by crying out,
‘* Let all who are not cowards follow me!’’ and spurring his
horse into the stream. The whole party, horse and foot,
dashed into the river, and reached the opposite shore in such
confusion that it was with difficulty that Todd, Boone and
other experienced men, could restore any degree of order.
As it proved, the Indians had fallen back about a mile.

-80. Pushing on up the rising ground, without regular for-
mation and without ordinary caution they came to brushy
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 95

ravines on each hand and were met by a destructive fire, which
brought them to a stand. Then for some time they fought
the heavy odds heroically, and with such effect, notwithstand-
ing some advantage of shelter which the Indians had, that the
Indian loss was believed to be about as great in number as
that of the whites.

31. When it became evident that the Indians were making
a movement to surround them, they retreated in confusion,
and were fiercely pursued. Most of the mounted men suc-
ceeded in re-crussing the river; but those on foot, pressing
together towards the shallow ford, were overtaken and many
were tomahawked. 3

32. The Indian flankers crossed above and below the ford
and sought to surround them, so that it was with difficulty
that the survivors escaped. They were pursued for several
miles, but without further loss.

83. Between sixty and seventy of the whites were killed,
twelve were wounded, and seven captured—a loss of nearly
half of all engaged. Among them were several leading men.
Colonels Todd and Trigg, Majors Harlan and Bulger, Captains
McBride, Gordon, Kincaid and Overton, and Lieutenants
Givens, Kennedy, Lindsey, and Rogers, were killed. About
one-tenth of the fighting men in central Kentucky had lost
their lives through the unpardonable rashness of McGary. The
unhappy affair not only brought grief to many a pioneer
home, but was depressing and discouraging to the settlements
in general.

34. Colonel Logan reached the field with three hundred
men on the 20th or 21st and buried the dead and mangled
remains of his countrymen; but the Indian force had returned
to their homes across the Ohio and were beyond the reach of
present punishment.

85. Samuel Daveiss, who had located at Gilmer’s Lick, six
or seven miles from Whitley’s Station in Lincoln county, was
surprised early one morning in August, 1782, by Indians, one
sx

96 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

of whom sprang, with uplifted tomahawk, between him and
his cabin door as he walked out unarmed. When he ran round
the house with a view to leading the Indian in pursuit and
getting back first to the door, he found the room already
occupied by savages. He then ran five miles to the station of
his brother James, where there were five men. They gave
him a spare rifle, and all, well armed, went at once to his
house. The Indians had carried away his wife and children,
and so concealed their trail that the pursuers were compelled
to go for awhile at haphazard; but it was soon discovered.
Shortly afterward they came upon the Indians, and rescued
the family with no loss of life. The oldest boy was knocked
down and scalped when the firing began, but he was not
seriously injured.

. 86. About the 1st of September, 1782, a band of Indians,
coming up from the west, surprised Kincheloe’s Station, on
Simpson creek, in Spencer county, and killed and captured
nearly all the men, women, and children of the six or seven
families there, though the men fought desperately and killed a
number of the savages. Some of the women and children who
were carried off returned home the next year, having been
liberated after the treaty of peace which terminated the
revolutionary war. _

37. These Indian raids and outrages determined Col. George
Rogers Clark to avenge them by invading the Indian country.
His call for volunteers met with a prompt response; and in
November more than a thousand men in two divisions, led
respectively by Col. John Floyd and Col. Ben Logan, united
at the mouth of the Licking river. Crossing into the Ohio,
Clark marched rapidly with this force about one hundred
and thirty miles up the Miami, and on the 10th of November
destroyed the principal Shawnee towns, Chillicothe, Pickaway,
Willstown, and others, and sent out detachments to continue
the devastation by burning villages and destroying fields of
corn, Comparatively few Indians were killed, as they fled on
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 97

the approach of the whites; but the blow was a dreadful one,
as the destruction of their property and provisions left them
destitute for a year, and the Shawnee and allied tribes never
afterward invaded Kentucky in force. Clark’s loss during
this desolating foray was but four or five men. 2

38. During this year (1782) depredations and murders
were committed elsewhere than those already noticed. Among
others, about the time the battle of Little Mountain occurred
several persons were killed by Indians at the Duree settlement
above Boonesborough; and during the same month in which
Bryan’s Station was besieged, Capt. Nathaniel Hart, who had
been an associate of Henderson’s in the Transylvania Com-
pany, was killed near Boonesborough by a small party of
Indians. About the middle of September, Silas Hart, a
noted Indian fighter and the leading man in a settlement
near Elizabethtown, was killed, and his: wife, son, and
daughter captured. The latter, being unable to march rap-
idly, was tomahawked after having proceeded a few miles.

39. This last year of the war of independence had proved
to be one of peculiar trial to Kentucky settlers, and full of
tragic incidents.

PERSONAL SKETCHES AND INCIDENTS.

I. The Todd Brothers.—The name Todd occurs so often
in Kentucky history, and so frequently without any indication
of which one is meant, that it is sometimes difficult to
determine without studying the context. There were three
brothers, John, Levi, and Robert, who figured conspicuously
in both the military and civil affairs of the new state, and sev-
eral of the name who afterward became prominent, though
their relationship (if they were related) is not clearly estab-
lished. The three brothers referred to were natives of Mont-
gomery county, Pennsylvania. They seem to have been more
liberally educated than any of their famous fellow-pioneers.

7

x ‘ ors
98 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Col. John Todd, the oldest, in honor of whom Todd county

was named, was educated in Virginia and practiced law in that
state several years before settling in Kentucky. He came
first to Boonesborough (1775), and purchased lands from the
Transylvania Company. Subsequently he located within two
miles of Lexington. He was a member of the Boonesborough
convention (May, 1775); was one of the party that set out
from Hinton’s Station December 25th, 1776, to find and con-
vey to Harrodstown the powder secreted near Limestone by
George Rogers Clark, but was defeated with loss at the Blue
Licks; was amember of the first Court of Quarter Sessions held
at Danville (spring of 1777) ; accompanied Clark on the expedi-
tion for the reduction of Kaskaskia, and was left in command
there; when the conquered territory was erected into the
county of Illinois (October, 1778), he was appointed com-
mandant and county lieutenant, with authority to raise a regi-
ment for the defense of his territory; was a member of the
Virginia Assembly in 1780, and while so engaged was married
to a Miss Hawkins. When Kentucky was divided into three
counties (November Ist, 1780), he was appointed colonel of
militia for Fayette, though it appears that he still retained
command of Illinois county, as when he returned from Vir-
ginia he settled Mrs. Todd in Lexington, after which he was
much absent, engaged in the administration of affairs in
Illinois. In the summer of 1782, he was on a visit to his
home when Bryan’s Station was attacked; he assisted in the
defense, after which he joined in the pursuit which terminated
in the battle of Blue Licks (August 19th), where he was
killed, fighting to the last. He left one daughter who became |
the wife of Robert Wickliffe, Sr.

Robert Todd (who is sometimes referred to as General Todd)
came to Harrodstown January 30th, 1777; was wounded in
the attack on McClelland’s Station (December 29th, 177 6);
patented land where Covington now stands; was engaged in
an expedition against Indians at Paint Creek Town, Ohio;
was a member of the Virginia Assembly, 1780; member of
the Danville convention of May, 1785; was one of the com-
missioners to fix seat. of government for Kentucky, 1792;
elector of senate, 1792; senator for Fayette county, 1792-96;
was one of the nine commissioners appointed by Governor
Garrard (1803) to copy partially burned public books and
KENTUCKY. DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 99

restore the records of state; was circuit judge for a number
of years and held other offices of honor and trust.

Levi Todd (also referred to by historians as General Todd)
came first to Harrodstown, but in 1779 established a station
ten miles southwest of Lexington; afterward removed to
Lexington. He was chosen clerk of the Court of Quarter
Sessions at its first sitting (spring of 1777); was a member
of the Danville convention of May, 1785, August, 1785, and
of that of 1787. He fought at the Blue Licks, August 19th,
1782, and is alluded to as having held there the rank of
captain.

II. The Heroines of Bryan’s Station.—An incident oc-
curred during the siege noted in the preceding chapter in
which a high order of womanly courage and devotion was
. exhibited, and which has been a theme for many a pen. One
essential in the location of those stations was the placing of
them in such a position that with palisades of the ordinary
height they could not be fired into from any elevation within
gunshot; and this in general precluded the building of them
so as to inclose springs of water. When an attack was appre.
hended, the inmates took the precaution of having a supply of
water on hand; but as in this instance the whites were sur,
prised, no provision had been made. When hasty repairs and
other preparations had been made in the fort, the want of
water impressed itself upon all, and as it was rightly con-
jectured that an ambuscade had been established near the
spring, which was about eighty-five yards outside the walls,
they knew that any attempt the men might make to approach
it would be certain death and a consequent depletion of the
fighting force, which was very small as compared with the
enemy. ‘The women were appealed to, on the ground that as
they had been in the habit of going to the spring, the Indians
would regard their doing so now as evidence that their plans
had not been discovered and would not fire upon them, lest
they might thereby lessen their chances to destroy the settle-
ment. It has been said that they did not relish the proposal,
that at first they demurred, etc., all of which may well be
spared from the story, unless we -are to assume that when a-
woman is heroic she must be senseless and act under different
impulses from those which ‘move’ men’ to daring deeds. It
was apparently: as perilous an enterprise as any which their
100 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

heroic fathers, husbands, sons, and brothers had ever under-
taken; and not to have felt some trepidation and manifested
momentary hesitancy would have implied stolid insensibility.
But true courage is that which realizes that danger is to be
encountered, and that wounds or captivity or speedy death
may be just in the path where duty calls, and yet goes sternly
forward, come what will. Those women knew their peril;
and life, even in the wilderness, was sweet to them; but they
knew also all that was involved in their refusal or their com-
pliance, and they chose the heroic, the possibly sacrificial,
course. The boldest among them spoke out (there are leaders
in all momentous enterprises) and set forth, Jemima Johnson
foremost, and all who were strong enough for the service fol-
lowed. Then from the fountain under the guns of five hun-
dred fierce enemies, whose delight was to shed blood of man, .
woman, or child, they brought back in their vessels the indis-
pensable supply. Fortunately, Captain Craig, who proposed
it, had reasoned aright: they came back unharmed; but the
deed was none the less imperishable. It has been the subject
of a poem by Mrs. Jennie C. Morton, a granddaughter of
one of the heroines of that day, and by Maj. Henry T.
Stanton. The Kentucky Society of Daughters of the Ameri-
can Revolution has inclosed the historic spring with an octag-
onal wall of solid- masonry, in which tablets are inserted
containing suitable inscriptions, among others all the names
of the noble matrons and maids that could be learned; and on
the 18th of August, 1896, the one hundred and fourteenth
anniversary, this memorial fabric was unveiled, with impres-
sive ceremonies.

The following are the names of some of the women in
the fort which have been preserved, most of whom, no
doubt, participated in the daring act which became historic.
From them many families in Kentucky and the Western States —
proudly trace their descent: Mrs. Jemima Suggett Johnson
and her daughter, Miss Betsy Johnson; Mrs. Sarah Page Craig
and her daughters, Misses Betsy, Sally, Nancy and Polly
Craig; Mrs. Lucy Hawkins Craig and her daughters, Misses
Polly and Franky Craig; Mrs. Elizabeth. Johnson Craig and
her daughters, Misses Polly and Nancy Craig; Mrs. Jane
Craig Saunders and her daughters, Misses Polly, Betsy and
Lydia Saunders; Mrs, Elizabeth Craig Cave and her daughters,
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 101

Misses Hannah and Polly Cave; Mrs. Fanny Saunders Lea,
Mrs. Sarah Clement Hammond, Mrs. Betsy Johnson Bryan,
and Miss Sarah Bryan (who was one of the youngest of the
women who went to the spring, and who afterward married
Col. Wm. Chinn).

III. Simon Girty.—It would be well if the name of this
monster could be erased from the annals of Kentucky, unless
it may be assumed that some good can accrue to the young
from a knowledge of how fiendish even a white man may
become when he puts himself outside of the pale of Christian
civilization. His life presents nothing to be imitated; and it
can hardly be said that a picture so demoniac is necessary in
this enlightened age to awaken those feelings of strong repro-
bation which incline the inexperienced to shun the paths that
lead to cruelty and crime. There is a tradition that blows
inflicted by Gen. Andrew Lewis with a cane aroused a spirit of
revenge and made him so desperate that he became the implac-
able foe of the whites; but even unjust treatment by one white
man offers nothing in extenuation of the heinousness of his
crimes against men, women, and children who had never done
him harm. The young reader who prosecutes the study of
the history of Kentucky will find that his associates from boy-
hood were brutal savages, and that he was more brutal than
they; that his hatred of the pioneers was more satanic than
that of the red men who believed that the white man was their
natural enemy, who had come to drive them from their hunt-
ing grounds, and many of whose enormities were instigated by
the British and French; and that he took a keener delight in
the murder of helpless children and the torture of captive men
and women than the drunken and frenzied Indians who inflicted
them. His natural powers of mind were considerable, and he
had some skill in planning and executing military movements,
so that he exercised a pernicious influence over the barbarous
tribes. Twice his conduct seemed to evince that he was not
utterly dead to every sentiment of humanity—the first when
he rescued Kenton, for the time, from the stake, and the other
when he posted his brother near the mouth of the Kanawha
to warn Colonel Marshall not to be decoyed to the north shore
of the Ohio with his boat; but the first appears to have been
whimsical, while the sincerity of the latter has been doubted.

pee
102 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

It would be unprofitable to give the details of his murderous
career, which was terminated at the battle of the Thames,
when he was killed and trodden under foot by the Kentucky
Mounted. Rifles.

IV. Capt. James Estill.—Of this man, whom Governor
Morehead pronunced one of Kentucky’s bravest and most
beloved defenders, only enough-is recorded to show that he
was an intelligent and active leader; a determined. fighter and
a generous promoter of the safety and comfort of those who
needed assistance in reaching the new settlements. In 1779,
he was enrolled as a private in Capt. John Holder’s company
of Madison county riflemen; and in the winter of 1780-81, he
was made judge of quarter sessions at Harrodsburgh. At the
desperate battle of Little Mountain, where he lost the victory
by the failure of a subaltern to execute an order, and his life
because his right arm had not fully recovered from the break
of three months before, he displayed the qualities of a general,
as well as indomitable courage. ‘He left a name,”’ says Gov-
ernor Morehead, ‘‘of which his descendants may well be proud
a name which will live in the annals of Kentucky as long as
her men appreciate patriotism and devotion to the cause of
humanity and civilization.’

V. Joseph Proctor.—This man, afterward a Methodist
minister, was one of the heroes of the battle of Little Mount-
ain, and was otherwise distinguished in pioneer times. When
Captain Estill was struggling with his stalwart foe, Proctor,
though in extreme peril “himself, watched for an opportunity
to shoot the Indian, but could not do so for fear of killing his
captain: but when Estill fell he instantly shot the savage dead.
Col. Wm. Irvine was badly wounded, but when the retreat
began, Proctor fought as they fell back and helped him, till a
horse was found. Mounting this, with Proctor’s assistance,
he made his escape. He accompanied three expeditions’ into
Ohio, and on one of them killed an Indian chief. It has been

said of him: ‘*He was a brave soldier, a stranger to fear, and
an ardent friend to the institutions of his country. When
he died, after having been an ordained minister for thirty-five
years (December 2nd, Meee he was buried with - military
honors.

VI. Monk Estill.—In the family of Capt. James Estill was
a negro slave, Monk, who was intelligent, bold as a lion, and


KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 103

faithful to his pioneer friends as though he had been a free
white settler, defending also his own rights. When the
Indians suddenly appeared before Estill’s Station (March
20th, 1782) killing Miss Jennie Gass and capturing Monk, as
noticed in the preceding chapter, his exaggerated account of
the strength and preparation of the garrison doubtless saved
the women, children, and few invalid men from capture or
massacre. When the battle of Little Mountain opened, two
days afterward, Monk, who was still a prisoner with the
Indians, cried out: ‘Don’t give way, Mas’ Jim! ‘There’s -
only about twenty-five red-skins, and you can whip ’em!”’
This was valuablé and encouraging information to the whites.
When the Indians began to advance on Miller, when he was
sent to prevent a flank movement and guard the horse-holders,
Monk called also to him to hold his ground and the white men
would win. Instead of being instantly killed, as was to be
apprehended, even though the savages might not understand
his English, he made his escape before the fight closed, and
got back to his friends. On their return to the station,
twenty-five miles, without sufficient horses for the wounded,
he carried on his back, most of the way, James Berry, whose
thigh was broken. He had learned to make gunpowder, and,
obtaining saltpetre from Peyton’s cave, in Madison county, he
frequently furnished this indispensable article to Estill’s Sta-
tion and Boonesborough. He has been described as being five
feet five inches high and weighing two hundred pounds. He
was arespected member of the Baptist church when whites
and blacks worshipped together. He was held in high esteem
by. the settlers, and his young master, Wallace Estill, gave
him his freedom, besides clothing and feeding him as long as
he lived thereafter—till about 1835.

VII. The Children Knew the Story by Heart.—Chief
Justice Robertson said of the battle of Little Mountain: «It
is a memorable incident, and perhaps one of the most memor-
able in the history of the settlement of Kentucky. The use-
fulness and popularity of Captain Estill; the deep and uni-
versal sensation excited by the premature death of a citizen
so gallant and so beloved; the emphatic character of his asso-
ciates in battle; the masterly skill and chivalric daring dis-
played throughout the action (‘every man to his man and each
to his tree’); the grief and despondence produced by the
104 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

catastrophe—all contributed to give Estill’s defeat a most
signal notoriety and importance, especially among the early
settlers.’? And the historian Butler adds: ‘ with all its circumstances of locality and of the fight, was told
and told again and again until even the children knew it by
heart. No legendary tale was ever listened to with as intense
anxiety, or was impressed so vividly on the hearts of the few
of both sexes who then constituted the hope and strength of:
Kentucky.”’

VIII. The Terrible Experience of Benham and Watson.—
When the ten men of Major Rogers’ force, at the fight at
Four-Mile Bar, as noticed in preceding chapter, broke through
the Indian line, the two men wounded and left on the ground
were Robert Benham and John Watson. Benham was shot
through the hips, but crawled among the boughs of a fallen
tree and the savages failed to discover him. Lying there
without food till late in the afternoon of the second day, he
then discovered a raccoon near him and shot it. Instantly
some one called out; but fearing that it was an Indian he
remained silent and reloaded his gun, determined to sell his
life dearly as possible. He presently heard the same voice
much nearer, and then the exclamation in plain English:
‘©Whoever you are, for God’s sake answer me!’’ On repiying,
Watson came to him, with both arms broken. . It proved
to be a happy meeting for both,.and resulted in their final
recovery and return to their friends. Watson kicked the rac-
coon within Benham’s reach, and the latter skinned and
cooked it—one could provide fuel with his feet, while the
other could work with his hands. When they had eaten—
Benham feeding his companion—Watson suggested a plan by
which he could procure water, and had his companion place a
hat between his teeth, which he filled by wading far enough
into the Licking river to dip by stooping over. Benham made
use of their shirts to dress their wounds, which soon began to
heal. Watson drove turkeys and other game within rifle-shot
of Benham, and when anything was killed, Watson kicked it
within reach of his friend, who attended to dressing and
cooking it. In this way they lived at that spot two weeks, at
the end of which time Benham could get forward somewhat
by using his gun as a crutch; but it took them two weeks to
reach the mouth of the Licking, one mile. Benham being
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 105

able to hobble about a little and Watson to begin using one
arm, they put up a small shed, and here, subsisting as before, |
they remained until late in November, when a flat-boat came
down the Ohio and they succeeded in attracting attention and
allaying the suspicions of the boatmen, who at first suspected
that Indians were trying to decoy them ashore. The two
sufferers, almost naked, and each helpless without the other,
were taken to Louisville, where they received the necessary
care and soon recovered of their wounds. Benham after- .
ward served on the expeditions of Harmer, St. Clair, Wayne
and Wilkinson, and finally purchased a home near the spot
where he and Watson had had their singular experience.
He was one of the justices of the peace that constituted the
first county court of Campbell county. He lived to old age.
IX. Mrs. Samuel Daveiss and the Indians.—The rescue
of this lady and all her children, almost unharmed, and so
soon after their capture, as noticed in Chapter VI, was due
almost wholly to her own presence of mind. The four savages
who rushed into the house after Mr. Daveiss had gone out and
set off unarmed for his brother’s, followed by the fifth red-
skin, found her and her seven children in bed. One of them
contrived by signs to inquire how far to the next settlement.
She knew the importance of gaining time by making the dis-
tance appear great, and indicated eight miles by counting on
her fingers. When directed to rise, she got up at once, dressed
herself, and then began showing them articles of clothing, one
by one, which so entertained them that it was nearly two hours
before they left the house. Meanwhile the one who had been
pursuing her husband had come back flourishing his toma-
hawk, while his hands were red with pokeberry juice, by which
he meant to indicate that he had killed Mr. Daveiss. She was
not deceived, and so continued to keep her perfect self-
control.. Taking everything from the house they could con-
veniently carry, they presently showed signs of intention to
kill the younger children because they could not travel fast
enough, whereupon she ordered the older ones to carry them
on their backs. When the rescuing party overtook them and
fired upon the Indians, one of them knocked the oldest boy
down and scalped but did not kill him; and she, seeing that
she could render no assistance to the rest, jumped into a sink-
hole with the babe in her arms, thus saving herself and it from
106 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

anticipated tomahawking. The Indians did not stand to fight,
‘however, and mother and children were recovered unhurt with
the exception that the oldest boy lost his scalp. Her cool and
deliberate way of dealing with her captors had so retarded
their movements that the pursuers overtook them before nine
o’clock that morning, though Mr. Daveiss had to run five
miles before he could get help with which to return to the
cabin and take up the trail. She could handle a rifle skillfully,
and had formed in her mind a plan to procure one or more of
theirs stealthily that night and fire upon them as they slept—
calculating that a night attack might throw those who were
not killed into such a panic that they would flee. It is said
that those who knew her believed she would have made the
attempt and would probably have succeeded.

X. Mrs. Samuel Daveiss and the Robber.—One day Daveiss
and some of his neighbors set out to find a scoundrel who had
his hiding place somewhere in their section, from which he
stole property and committed other outrages, and up to that
time he had defied the laws. While they were absent searching
for him, he walked into Daveiss’ house, armed with rifle and
tomahawk, and unaware that he and his ways were known or
that he was being hunted. Only her children were with her;
but the desperate character of the outlaw did not disconcert
her. She set out a bottle of whiskey and asked him to have
a drink. Suspecting nothing, he set his gun up by the door
and proceeded to help himself. When he had done so and
turned around he was terrified to find her standing in the door
with the gun cocked and leveled at him. She told him to take
a seat or she would shoot. He asked what he had done, to
which she replied that he had stolen her husband’s property
and that she meant to take care of him herself; and, gun in
hand, she kept him there till the men returned and took
charge of him.

XI. Saved by His Dogs.—Shortly before settlements
were formed in what is now Whitley county, John Tye, with
his son and two or three other men, having encamped at the
head of the Big Poplar creek, were attacked after dark by a
party of Cherokees. John Tye was wounded and his son was
killed. The other men fled at the first fire. The Indians
rushed upon the camp, but before the foremost of them could
reach the wounded man they were met by two huge cur dogs,
KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR.’ 107

which fiercely defended him and his dead son. One of the
Indians was severely hurt by them, and when he extricated





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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FRANKFORT.

himself from their jaws the party fled precipitately, leaving
their moccasins and leggins’on the opposite side of the creek
where they had left them in order to ford the stream.

%
108 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CHAPTER VII.

FROM THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION TILL KENTUCKY BECAME
A STATE,—SEPARATION FROM VIRGINIA.
: 7 1783-1792.

1. The treaty of peace between England and the United
States was finally agreed upon and signed November 30th,
1782, more than a year after the battle of Yorktown had put
an end to hostilities on land; but the news did not reach Ken-
- tucky till the spring of 1783, .This gave some assurance of
exemption from further serious Indian depredations, as well
as of independence of a foreign and oppressive power, and
was hailed with gladness by the people west of the Allegha-
nies, whose conflicts and sufferings during the seven-year
struggle had exceeded those of their kindred of the Atlantic
states, and who had won a title to a vast wilderness domain
which afterward became the six states of Kentucky, Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. :

2. With the coming of peace came also a great influx of
population and a desire to obtain land and engage in the
peaceful and profitable pursuits. Land offices were estab-
lished in November, 1782, by Thomas Marshall, surveyor for
Fayette county, at Lexington; and John May, surveyor for
Jefferson county, at Cox’s Station. At Boonesborough was .
already one for the county of Lincoln. Soon afterward the
settlers, present and incoming, began more eagerly to lay
claim to choice lands by locating treasury warrants and by
direct purchase from Virginia. There had been no authorized
survey of the territory by Virginia, so that the description of
an entry was generally indefinite. The survey of any particu-
lar tract was left to the individual claimant, and this often
conflicted with the claims of a neighbor—a plat overlying
wholly or in part one previously made; and almost intermin-
THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION. 109

able confusion in the matter of land titles ensued. The absence
of prescribed and legal method soon gave rise to vexatious
and often ruinous litigation, all the effects of which had
hardly ceased to be felt a century afterward. In the language
of Judge Rowan: ‘‘The territory of Kentucky was cumbered
and cursed with a triple layer of- adverse claims.”’

8. With the increase of population, growing industries, and
more home-like life, came also problems of government. Vir-
ginia was not unmindful of the interests of Kentucky in this
respect, and early in 1783, provided for the regular adminis-
tration of justice. The three counties, Fayette, Jefferson,
and Lineoln, were formed into one e
judicial district, and a court ap-
pointed, consisting of John Floyd,
Samuel McDowell, and George Muter,
judges. The first meeting of the
court was at Harrodstown, March
ard, and John May was appointed
clerk. Danville was chosen as the
place at which it would subse-
quently sit.

4. A question of more absorbing
interest to them, however, than that
of district courts and county officers
was that of a separate state existence. The various steps taken
to obtain this can better be given you in consecutive order, be-
fore we notice certain Indian incursions and outrages to which
the settlers were frequently subjected during the eight years
of which this chapter treats.

5. After the close of the revolutionary war a sentiment in
favor of separation from the parent state began to manifest
itself; and with the growing population and consequent
increasing need for local or home government this became
more pronounced,



SENATOR JOHN ROWAN.
110 YOUNG PEOPLE’S ‘HISTORY: OF “KENTUCKY.

6: To. understand the spirit of. the:people, and especially
to place a right estimate-upon the. conduct of certain leading
men who had much to doin moulding public sentiment, you
should have a distinct view of the conditions then prevailing.
It is important to note, first, that these pioneers had in mind
the fact that up to 1775 the thirteen colonies had: been each a
separate and independent commonwealth ; that it was not until
1778-79 that they all united in a general government; and
that even up to the time of which we now speak this union was
regarded as a kind of loose compact, which had been entered
into chiefly for the more effective prosecution of the war with
Great Britain. Thus, you see, that in their earnest desire for
separate political existence they were but seeking to adopt the
course maintained - for more than a century by the colonies
along the sea-board. The circumstance that for a time the
sentiment ‘in favor of entering the union of states was weak,
and at no time unequivocal in the minds of many, is accounted
for in part by the fact that the idea of federal union was
comparativély new to them, in part by conditions that need
now to be briefly stated.

7. With but little help from Virginia (which was ungr alse
ingly given, however, when it could be given at all), ‘hey had
gained a footing in the wilderness. Having maintained them-
selves thus far against many disadvantages, they reasonably
felt themselves able to do so under more favorable condi-
tions. In the main they had furnished their own supplies and
fought their own battles. They had been very weak, but now
they had grown strong—the population, though much scat-
tered, was probably from twenty to twenty-five thousand, in
the sumnier of 1783. They were shut off by a great natural
barrier from ‘easy communication with the United States; and
as they now began to look forward to the necessity of finding
an accessible market for their peltries and farm products, they
realized that their natural highway was the Mississippi river,
by which they could pass to Spanish ports and to the gulf.
THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION. 111

8. They were still exposed to the danger of invasion by
powerful Indian tribes, and they knew the need of a home
government which could provide for meeting every peril and:
punishing every outrage promptly; and their experience had
taught them that they could not expect this from states beyond
the mountains. They were a daring and adventurous race,
with a confidence in themselves born of trial and achievement;
and they had among them many men to whom they could look
for leadership in war and wisdom in council. Add to all these
the further fact that from time to time inducements were held
out to them to avail themselves of alleged advantages that
would accrue from their being independent of the sea-board
states and free to make at least a commercial alliance with
Spain; and you will clearly comprehend why they were some-
what impatient of the restraints laid upon them by their
dependence upon Virginia (though they really loved and hon-
ored their mother state), and why the sentiment in favor of
union with the thirteen states was of slow growth, though it
became at last strong and sincere.

9. In February, 1784, Col. Benj. Logan, the chief military
officer of the county of Lincoln, after consultation with other

leading men, called an informal meeting to consider the con-
dition of the district. Each militia company was requested
to send a delegate. The convention met-at Danville, Decem-
ber 27th, 1784, and discussed the question of parting from
Virginia. Theytook no more decisive step than to ask the
people to elect a convention of twenty-five delegates to take
final action.

10. The first formal convention. assembled May 3rd, 1785;
at Danville, which remained the territorial capital till 1792. It
was decided that separation was desirable; but they deter-
mined upon nothing further than to pass resolutions in favor
of separation, and to send these with an address to the people,
asking them to consider the question for themselves.
112 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

11. The second convention met August 14th, 1785. By
this time some decisive action seemed to be urgent. Rumors
of an Indian outbreak had gained currency, and the delegates
felt the need of either help from the parent state or full
authority to act for themselves in meeting threatened danger.
It was manifest that they could not rely on timely aid and
equally manifest that full power to meet emergencies promptly
should be lodged with-the people who were in jeopardy. They
drew up a bold petition to the Virginia Assembly, and set out
their views in strong terms in an address to the Kentuckians.
Virginia agreed to the plan in general, but imposed conditions.
One of these was that the people, through their representa-
tives in a third convention, should declare for separation; the
other that before separation should take place the consent of
the Federal Congress to admit Kentucky to the Union should
be given.

12. This gave rise to parties, and brought out the fact that
there was an element among the people who favored union
only on the condition that all their-rights and interests were
secured, and advised forcible separation from Virginia and a
treaty with Spain if they were not; another that was for
maintaining unconditional loyalty to Virginia and the Federal
Union. In the spring of 1786 an election was held to choose
delegates to a third convention, which was to assemble in Sep-
tember. Gen. James Wilkinson boldly advocated an imme-
diate declaration of independence without awaiting the action
of Congress as proposed by Virginia, and his views were
adopted by a considerable number ; but it soon became evident
that his following was not sufficient to determine the action of
the coming convention.

13. This, the third one, met on the fourth Monday in Sep-
tember, 1786; but at that time many of the delegates were
absent on Clark’s expedition against the Indians on the
Wabash, and a quorum for the transaction of business could
not be had. They adjourned from day to day till January,
THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION. 113

1787, when a sufficient number were present to organize. A
memorial to the Virginia Assembly had been prepared, how-
ever, by those who had previously assembled, explaining delay
and asking an alteration of some of the terms of the first act.
This caused an entire revision, which required the election of
another convention in August, 1787. It provided that only a
majority of two-thirds could decide in favor of separation; and
fixed the first day of January, 1789, as the time when the laws
of Virginia should cease to be binding on Kentucky. The
first act had fixed September, 1787, as the time.

14. The convention having ordered the election of the dele-
gates as required, adjourned. The people were angry and
disgusted; and in this state of mind they were agitated by a
report (which proved to be false) that negotiations were on
foot between the United States and Spain by which the former
would cede to Spain the navigation of the Mississippi for
twenty years in consideration of advantages to be enjoyed by
the eastern states alone; and this rumor was seized upon
to increase dissatisfaction with the terms proposed by Vir-
ginia and to alienate the people from the Federal Union. The
free navigation of this stream was a vital matter to Ken-
tuckians. The treaty of peace with England had guaranteed
them this right; and they resented the alleged proposition to
barter it away for the benefit of others. A meeting called to
consider the matter was held at Danville in May, but even
before it assembled, it had become known -that the United
States authorities had entertained no thought of disregarding
the interests of the western settlers, and the meeting adjourned
without taking action.

15. General Wilkinson, however, continued his efforts to
strengthen his party, and the Spanish authorities were active
and persistent, though it is impossible to notice in a work of
this kind the details of the so-called ‘‘Spanish Conspiracy.”’
The primary object of Spain was to induce Kentucky not to
apply for admission to the Union, :

8
114 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

416. In June, 1787, Wilkinson carried to New Orleans a cargo
of tobacco, ostensibly to find out what privileges would be
granted to Kentuckians desiring to find a Spanish market. He









LINCOLN AND THE OHIO RIVER KEEL-BOAT.

was hospitably received; allowed to deposit his cargo in the
king’s store-rooms; sold his tobacco for about five times its
cost in Kentucky; and brought back the assurance that Spain
would grant, on the most liberal terms, the free navigation of
THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION. . 115

the Mississippi to Kentucky as a separate government, but not
to the United States. The most flattering inducements were
held out.

17. Meantime, September 17th, 1787, the fourth conven-
tion met, and by a unanimous vote decided to accept the terms _
last offered by Virginia. ° =

18. In the Virginia convention, June, 1788, called for the
purpose of adopting or rejecting the constitution of the
United States, Kentucky county had fourteen. delegates. Of
these, only three voted in favor of adoption, eleven being
opposed to it, and evidently not satisfied that union would be
to the advantage of their own state in case of its es
from Virginia.

19. On the 3rd of July, 1788, the old Congress took up the
question of the admission of Kentucky, but declined to‘ act
upon the petition and referred it to the new government,
which was to go into operation in the spring of 1789.

20. On the 28th of July, 1788, the fifth convention as-
sembled at Danville. The action of Congress was now com-
municated to them, and it was further understood that the
north-eastern states were earnestly opposed to the admission of
Kentucky, unless Vermont and Maine should be admitted at
the same time; and thus new occasions of anger and disappoint-
ment gave temporary encouragement to the party in favor of
violent and unlawful separation. The convention after some
heated discussion on the question of forming at once and sub-
mitting to a vote of the people a constitution creating an
independent state, it was resolved that another convention
should be elected in October, to meet in November, and take
the best steps for securing admission to the Union and the
navigation of the Mississippi, and otherwise do what should
seem best for the interests of the district.

21. Previous to the meeting of this convention, the Vir-
ginia Legislature passed a third act of separation, requiring
Kentucky to elect a convention to meet in July, 1789, and
116 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

provide for the formation of a state government. Some new
conditions were imposed which gave dissatisfaction, but these
were repealed when complaint was made by a subsequent
convention.

22. The sixth convention assembled November 8rd, 1788,
and after considering the question of illegal separation and the
ever-present question of the navigation of the Mississippi,
finally adopted an address to the Virginia Legislature, praying
the good offices-of that state in procuring the admission of
Kentucky to the Union.

23. The seventh convention met July 20th, 1789, and

“= remonstrated against the obnoxious
provisions of Virginia’s third act of
separation. These were repealed by
a new act which required another
convention.

24. The eighth one met July 26th,
1790, and formally accepted the Vir-
ginia act of separation. A petition
to the President of the United States
> and to Congress was adopted and

jj transmitted; and provision was made
: for a ninth convention, to form a
state constitution.

25. On the 4th of February, 1791, an act for the admission
of Kentucky to the Union passed both houses of Congress.

26. April 2nd, 1792, the ninth convention met and adopted
a constitution, under which Kentucky became a state June
Ist, 1792.

27. Samuel McDowell was president of eight of these con-
ventions, and Thomas Todd (afterward a judge of the United
States Supreme Court) was the secretary of every one.

28. For about seven years after Gen. Ben Logan called the
first meeting to consider the condition and needs of the people,
Kentucky appears rather as the patient suppliant for a local



y
Yyy



COL. SAMUEL M’D
THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION. 117

government and for admission to the union of states than
as a refractory and revolutionary community. Delays and
disappointments; apparent coldness and neglect on the part of
the Federal government; and the insidious wiles of the
Spanish power—through all these the people in general mani-_
fested a devotion to law and order, and steady loyalty to their
kindred beyond the mountains.

29. For four years of this time of trial and perplexity
(1786 to 1790) there existed at Danville a most remarkable
society, which singularly escaped notice at the hands of histo-
rians and had passed out of the memory of men till Capt.
Thomas Speed, in 1878, discovered among the papers of his
grandfather, Thomas Speed, who was the society’s secretary,
the record of its meetings and debates. It was composed of
thirty men who styled themselves the ‘Political Club.’’ The
minutes of its meetings disclose that in the woods of Kentucky
were banded together for the study and discussion of questions
of state-craft a body of men who would have done honor to
any deliberative assembly in either the Old or the New World.
Among them were the fathers of the first constitution (and
of the second, for that matter), and they left their impress
upon every phase of Kentucky history. They were statesmen,
soldiers and citizens after the Virginia type, who had done and
were still doing so much to make possible a union of the states
and lay deep and sure the foundations of a republic which,
from small and experimental beginnings, became within less
than a century mighty, commanding, and of beneficent influ-
ence among the nations of the earth.

30. The coming of a British agent to Kentucky this
year (1788) has been regarded as an indication that at this
time the English people did not accept the result of the
revolution as final, and that they had hopes of either restrict-
ing the United States to the territory beyond the Allegha-
nies, or perhaps of even reducing them to subjection. When
the colonies declared their independence, one Dr. John
118 YOUNG PROPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Connelly, an Englishman, owned two thousand acres of land
on the Ohio, opposite the Falls—present site of Louisville.
In 1780 (July 1st) it was declared that he was a British
subject and had joined himself to the subjects of the king
when the war began. His lands at the Falls were adjudged
to be confiscated. In 1788 he came from Quebec, pretending
to inquire into the possibility of recovering his claim. He
told certain prominent gentlemen at Lexington, confidentially,
that Great Britain would give the same protection to Ken-
tucky as to Canada, and guarantee to her the navigation of
the Mississippi, provided she would ally herself to the British
power; that there was a large body of troops in Canada ready
to be dispatched for the capture of New Orleans. A rumor
got afloat that a British spy was in town, and the indignation .
of the people was so great that it: was deemed prudent to
have him privately conveyed to Maysville, on his way to
Canada, to save him from violence.

31. Much as Kentuckians were incensed by failure, after
successive trials, to obtain separate government, and much as
many of them doubted the propriety of applying to be
admitted to the league of states, they were in no temper to
consider for a moment an alliance with a government whose
officers on the border had incited the Indians to massacre
their countrymen, and were still encouraging them to con-
tinue their barbarous warfare.

_—0.09400——_

oi ee. INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

Z 1. “Hon. John Brown.—This was the oldest son of the
Rev, John Brown and Margaret (Preston) Brown, of Staun-
‘ton, Virginia. The family ‘connection includes the Prestons,
Breckinridges, McDowells, Harts, and several other distin-
guished ones in Kentucky and Virginia. He was born at
Staunton, September 12th, 1757. After receiving the rudi-
ments of education, and having some training in the hardy
THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION. 119

pursuits incident to the state of society in those times, he was
sent to Princeton College. When the college was broken up
on the retreat of the American army through the Jerseys,
he volunteered for service under General Washington and
remained with his troops some time after the crossing of the
Delaware. Afterwards he enlisted in a Rockbridge company
which served under General LaFayette. He completed his
education at William and Mary College; was for two years
assistant in the school of Dr. Waddill; studied law in the
office of Thomas Jefferson; came to Kentucky in 1782, and
soon began that career as a citizen, soldier, and statesman
which made him one of the foremost men in our history. He
was active in planning and promoting expeditions into the
- Indian country and accompanied one
of the most successful of them; took
a prominent part in the movements
to erect an independent state govern-
ment, obtain for it admission to the
Union, and secure for the west the ,
free navigation of the Mississippi; //s/
was a Kentucky member of the Vir- |
ginia Assembly ; was one of the mem-
bers of the old Congress, for Vir-
ginia, 1787-88 ; a member of the Dan-
ville convention of 1788; member for
the Kentucky district in the new
Congress, 1789-92; was appointed a
member of the local board of war,
1791; in 1792 was elected United States Senator for Kentucky
and was re-elected in 1798, closing his second term in 1806;
was President of the United States Senate, pro tem., 1803-4.
During Jefferson’s administration he declined to:. accept
important and lucrative offices; also declined to accept. prefer-
ment proffered by President Monroe. He was ‘the; first
member of Congress sent from the Mississippi valley. When
his senatorial term expired, he retired to private life; but
continued to interest himself in all that concerned the welfare
of the growing commonwealth. He died in Frankfort in. his
eightieth year, August 28th, 1837. :
Il. John Filson.—Too little is known of this man, the first
to publish a history and a map of Kentucky, both of which had



MEE:
SENATOR JOHN BROWN.
120 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

intrinsic merit and much influence in attracting immigration.
This first connected account of the wonderful region west of
the Alleghanies, about which many exciting stories had reached
not only the sea-board states but the countries of Europe, was
held to be of so much consequence as an answer to interested
trans-Atlantic inquirers that it was translated into French within
a year after its first publication (1784), and three editions
were reprinted in England by Imlay, who incorporated it in
his Topographical Description of the Western Territory.
About two-fifths of Filson’s History of Kentucky consists of
the adventures of Daniel Boone, written from Boone’s dicta-
tion, but in a style peculiarly Filson’s own. As a writer he
was diffuse and somewhat bombastic, but he did not indulge
in exaggeration or seck to substitute
mere flights of fancy for historic truth
and accurate description. He was ac-
tive, enterprising, keenly observant,
and well educated for one of his
time; and his own researches as well
as information imparted by Boone,
Todd, Harrod, and others, enabled
i! him to give his work the character of
' authenticity, Of his origin, and of
his life prior to his appearance in
” Kentucky, little is known; and _ his
career as a pioneer and explorer was
so brief as to leave little for the
chroniclers of that period to record.
A short time before the publication of his history and map, he
was ateacher in Fayette county—the second one who taught in
the log school-house which stood near the site of the present
court-house in Lexington. To his other scholastic attain-
ments he added that of a skillful surveyor, which doubtless
induced Denman, Patterson and others to associate him with
them, in 1788, in the purchase of a large body of land oppo-
site the mouth of the Licking river, upon part of which Cin-
cinnati was afterward built. The plan of a town had been
agreed upon, and drafted by Filson, to which, at his sugges-
tion, the company had given the name of Losantiville (the
mouth opposite the village), and when the party arrived on
the site of the future great: city they decided to defer survey-
ing and staking off lots till spring; and Filson, with several



JOuN FILSON.

‘
THE GLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION, 121

others, went up to North Bend, thence up the Great Miami,
surveying its meanderings. It appears that he ventured fur-
ther than his associates were willing to go; that eventually he
concluded to set off alone across the country to return to the
camp on the Ohio and was killed by Indians, as nothing was
afterward heard of him.

III. The McAfee Brothers.—These men were prominent
in the affairs of Kentucky, military and civic, during three or
four decades from 1773, and many of their descendants have
been notable men of their times. There were five brothers,
James, George, Robert, Samuel, and William, sons of James
McAfee, Senior, of Virginia. James, George and Robert,
with some other gentlemen, came down the Ohio in the spring
of 17738; visited the Falls and some points in the interior, as
indicated in preceding chapters; returned in August to their
Virginia homes, having made a trying and almost disastrous
journey ; were deterred by Indian troubles on the frontiers from
making further explorations until 1775, but in the spring of
that year the five brothers were at Boonesborough and Harrods-
town, and cleared and planted land near both stations... In the
fall some of the company returned to Virginia and in May,
1776, started back with families and stores to make permanent
settlement, but were prevented by obstacles in transporting
their effects by canoes, and later by the destruction of their
outfit which they had left concealed in the wilderness. As
the war of independence was raging, the execution of their
project was hindered for more than two years. In 1779 they
and their families were settled on the ground chosen four years
before, on Salt river, within six or seven miles of Harrods-
town, afterward known as McAfee’s Station. Defensive works
seem to have been built at two places on the river, as one,
where a cabin had been built four or five years previous, was
known as James McAfee’s Station. From this time (1779),
the name of the brothers and their associates are found in con-
nection with the active and stirring events which transpired
during the remainder of their lives.

IV. The First Newspaper in Kentucky.—On the 11th of
August, 1787, John and Fielding Bradford published in
Lexington the first number of the Hentucke Gazette. The e
was retained as the final letter in the name of the territory till
March 14th, 1789, when some advertisements were sent for
publication, in which the Virginia Legislature had given the
122 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

word its present spelling. The brothers dissolved partnership
May 31st, 1788, but John continued the paper till April Ist,
1802, when he gave up the establishment to Daniel Bradford
(ason), who published the Gazette for many years. The first
number, it is said, was printed on a sheet of the size known
as demy (which is indefinite, as there are two sizes of this);
the second on a half sheet; and as paper was hard to get, it
was afterward printed for some months on a half-sheet of
foolscap. The type was brought by boat down the Ohio to

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OFFICE OF THE “KENTUCKE GAZETTE,’’ 1787—THE FIRST PRINTING-
HOUSE IN KENTUCKY.

Limestone (now Maysville), and thence by pack-horse or
wagon to Lexington, in July, 1787. During the time when
it was difficult to replenish the stock of type, John Bradford
ingeniously supplied missing letters by carving them out of
seasoned dogwood. This pioneer editor, printer and publisher
had served awhile in the revolutionary army, came to Kentucky
in 1779, when he was thirty years old, and remained a short
time; in 1785, he brought his family and settled on Cane Run,
near Lexington. He was on one of the expeditions against
the Indians at Old Chillicothe.
INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES. 123

CHAPTER VIII.

FROM THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION TILL KENTUCKY BECAME
A STATE.—INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES.—EXPE-
DITIONS OF HARMAR AND ST. CLAIR.

1783-1792.

1. The years 1783, 1784, and 1785, were notably years of
growth in population and increased activity in the land specula-
tion; and the absence of Indian raids on a large scale gave
the people some feeling of security and enabled them to
engage more generally in clearing and cultivating the soil.
There was also during this period greatly increased mercantile
trade.

2. Though there were no invasions in force, however, the
frequent irruptions of small bodies into the interior, and their
attacks on the boats of immigrants descending the Ohio, were
destructive and harassing, and contributed much to increase dis-
affection towards a government that could not protect them and
would not promptly consent to their organizing an efficient
government of their own, as previously noted.

3. In April, 1783, Indians hanging about the settlements
on the Beargrass killed one of the most prominent and use-
ful men in that section, Col. John Floyd; and during these
and a few subsequent years, the Ohio river was the scene of
numerous outrages, committed by savage bands lying in wait
along the northern shore to rob and murder.

4. Early in 1784, Simon Kenton having returned, after
nine years’ absence, to -his improvements in Mason county,
assisted Edward and John Waller and George Lewis to erect
a block-house on the present site of Maysville; and numerous
small settlements were made in different localities—some with-
out the precaution of fortifying against Indian attack.
124 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

5. In 1784, a party of forty immigrants, having incau-
tiously encamped one night, were attacked, and about half of
them killed; in March, 1785, a Mr. Elliott, who had built
near the mouth of the Kentucky river, was killed, and his
house burned, and the other members of his family were dis-
persed; also, some time in 1785, six of a party of immigrants
under a Mr. McClure, encamped on Skege’s creek in Lincoln
county, were killed. One of Mrs. McClure’ s children was
among the slain. She and another child, with a negro woman,
were captured, but afterward rescued by Col. William Whit-
ley, who pursued and intercepted the savages and killed and
wounded several of them.

6. In April, 1786, a party of Indians who had stolen
horses from settlers on the Beargrass were followed across
the Ohio by Col. Wm. Christian, with a company of men,
who overtook them after a rapid march of twenty miles. In
the fight that ensued, Christian and one of his men were
killed. The Indian force was destroyed.

7. Two men were killed in an attack on Haggin’s block-
house in Harrison county; in October a large number of
families travelling by land had encamped between Big and
Little Laurel rivers, and at night were surprised by Indians,
who killed twenty-one persons, captured some, and dispersed
the rest. Some time during this year occurred a desperate
and destructive fight, for a time hand-to-hand, between a

company of ore white men, led by Col. Wm. Hardin, of

Breckinridge county, and a large body of Indians on Saline
creek in Tilinoiaes in which, after both sides had lost heavily
the Indians were repulsed.

8. So common and so dreadful had become the robberies
and butcheries that General Clark was authorized to adopt
retaliatory measures, and called for a force of volunteers and
militiamen. A thousand men were soon assembled at Louis-
ville. In September, 1786, having dispatched provisions by
keel-boats, which were to proceed by way of the Ohio and the
INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES. 125

Wabash to Vincennes, he set out with his troops and marched
by land to that place—his object being to drive the Indians
from the upper waters of the Wabash and destroy their towns
and crops. At Vincennes, the little army lay for nine days
awaiting the supply boats.

9. The provisions carried by the troops were almost
exhausted; the river was low and the weather was warm, so
that on the slow voyage half that on board was spoiled. A
march toward the Indian towns was begun, but disaffection
had already set in, which soon grew to insubordination, and
the general who had hitherto been successful in every enter-
prise could not control his troops. Though at this time but
thirty-five years old he had become greatly addicted to drink,
and no longer commanded the respect and confidence of his
soldiers. The expedition failed; and his usefulness, as it
proved, was forever ended.

10. When the expedition had reached Silver creek, oppo-
site Louisville, at the beginning of the march, Clark sent Col.
Ben Logan back to Kentucky with orders to raise as quickly
as possible a force to march against the Shawnees. Logan was
soon at the head of four or five hundred mounted riflemen,
with whom he crossed the Ohio at Maysville and marched
rapidly to the headwaters of Mad river. Here he burned
eight Indian towns, destroyed many fields of corn, killed
about twenty of the savages, including a chief, and brought
away seventy or eighty prisoners. His own loss was about
ten men.

11. In the home of a widow Skeggs, on Cooper’s Run, in
Bourbon county, were Mrs. Skeggs, a widowed daughter
with one child, three unmarried daughters, and two sons. In
April, 1787, Indians attacked the house at night. The con-
struction of the building was such that three of the daughters
in one room could not be defended by the rifles of their
brothers. The old mother, oneson, and two of the daughters
were killed; one daughter was made prisoner, and afterward
126 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

killed; while the widowed daughter and her child and one of
the brothers escaped. The oldest daughter killed a savage
with a knife, and the sons made heroic efforts to save their
mother and enable the widowed sister and her child to escape
after the house had been fired. Two of the Indians were
afterward killed by a pursuing party.

12. In the summer of the same year the house of John
Merrill, in Nelson county, was attacked. How it was success-
fully defended by the brave wife is noticed at the end of this
chapter. At a station at Drennon’s Lick, in Henry county,
several persons were killed; and in Mason county numerous
depredations were committed. To prevent the recurrence of
raids, thefts, and outrages, several hundred men, under com-
mand of Col. John Todd, actively aided by Simon Kenton,
invaded the Indian country; burned again the rebuilt Chilli-
cothe and other towns, laid waste the fields, and killed many
of the Indians. Kenton organized a body of rangers, and for
some years did effective service in punishing the Indians and
protecting the settlements along the northeastern border.

13. In May, 1788, a remarkable engagement took place on
Salt river, near the mouth of the Rolling Fork. On board a
flat-boat, conveying kettles from Louisville to Bullitt’s Lick,
near the present site of Shepherdsville, were twelve men and
one woman. A short time before dark, as the boat lay by the
northern bank, they were attacked. The boat was unfortu-
nately so chained to a tree that when assailed by the Indians,
outnumbering them ten to one, they found it exceedingly diffi-
cult to unfasten and float it away, after an hour’s fighting.
After five of the men were dead, one mortally wounded, and -
three others so disabled as to preclude the possibility of escape,
the three men unhurt refused for some time to abandon the
wounded. ‘They carried the three helpless men to shore and
hid them in the brush and then sought to remove the woman,
but she was so beside herself with fright that she was inca-
pable of profiting by their assistance and was left, When
INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES. 127

these three brave men saw that nothing could be done to aid
others, they broke through the Indians who had crossed and
collected on the south bank; but before they could effect their
escape one was mortally wounded, and another had a foot
badly broken, while the third was unhurt, and escaped.

14. The wounded man made his way to Bullitt’s Lick on
one foot till it gave out, then by crawling, and without food,
arriving in the neighborhood of the pctlemicat on the fourth
day, when he was carried in. He finally recovered. The
woman was captured but was at length ransomed by a trader,
after which she returned to Kentucky. About thirty Indians
were killed in the fight.

15. A station built on Lick creek, four miles east of Shel-
byville, by Capt. Robert Tyler and Bland Ballard, Sr., and
called Tyler’s Station, was attacked during this year (1788)
by fifteen Indians. Ballard had built a cabin near a sugar
camp, some distance from the fort, and he and his wife, with
three daughters, were in this house when the Indians fired
from ambush and killed a son, Ben Ballard, who was hauling
wood. They then assailed the house. The younger Bland
Ballard was at the fort, from which he hastened with his
rifle to defend the family; but he was unable to drive off the
savages before they had killed his father and Mrs. Ballard
Ge was the young man’s step-mother), and two of the
daughters. The youngest of the three sisters was wounded
with a tomahawk, but not fatally. Six of the Indians were
killed.

16. Numerous minor instances of Indian raids, attacks,
theft and destruction of stock, murders and captures, occurred
during the years 1787 and 1788, and occasionally in 1789.
The British continued to keep their stations along the north-
-ern frontier garrisoned; and to them was attributed much of
the responsibility for these outrages on Kentucky. The gen-
eral government had as yet done little to protect the western
settlers, and had been unable to have the treaty carried out
’

128 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

by which England had agreed to abandon her posts on
American soil, The Indians, incited to such action and
encouraged by their British friends, utterly disregarded the
several treaties made with Virginia for the security and
advantage of her citizens in Kentucky.
17. Early in 1790 their attacks on families and small sta-
tions and on immigrants descending the Ohio by boats were
renewed with even increased malignity. In January they cap-
tured a boat about fifteen miles above Maysville and killed or
carried away captive all the passengers; in March, ten or
twelve persons were killed at Kenton’s Station, and the settle-
ment was temporarily broken up; and about the same time
three boats were assailed near the mouth of the Scioto; and
settlements on the Beargrass, at Big Bone Lick, and. else-
where in the interior were subjected to their murderous visits.
18. In April, Gen. Charles Scott, with two hundred and
thirty Kentuckians, joined General Harmar, of the United
States army, who had under command one hundred regulars,
and crossing the Ohio at Maysville (April 18th), marched by
a circuitous route to the Scioto river, with a view to intercept
a band of Indians by marching down that stream. A few
Indians were killed, but the expedition had little of practical
result. Incursions and the massacre of small bodies of whites
were frequent during the summer.
_ 19. President Washington favored vigorous measures; but
Congress was slow to act. At length, however, he adopted
such a course as was in his power, and furnished General
Harmar more than three hundred regular troops, with authority
to call upon Pennsylvania and Virginia (including Kentucky)
for a sufficient force of volunteers. The command was in-
creased by enlistment to about fourteen hundred men; and in
September, 1790, he marched from Fort Washington, now
Cincinnati, toward the Miami towns. Harmar allowed a de-
tachment of regulars and Kentucky volunteers, amounting to
one hundred men, under command of Col, John Hardin, to be
INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES. - 129

drawn into an ambuscade, where they were engaged with more
~ than three times their number of savages, and were repulsed
with heavy loss, while he lay with the main body within six
miles, doing nothing to relieve Hardin or afterward to pursue
with the large force at his command.

20. Two days afterward, about one-third of his force,
again detached from the main body, with which latter he lay
idle, encountered odds and fought at great disadvantage; and
again there was slaughter and the whites were compelled to
retreat. The expedition thus ended in disaster—and in dis-
grace to the general. Kentuckians had expected much good
from the expedition. They realized, instead, the fruitless loss
of many of their brave men; and the Indians had been encour-
aged to continue their outrages rather than overawed and
induced to desist.

21. One immediate effect of this experience with a regular
army officer was to destroy what little confidence the people
of Kentucky had in the ability of the Federal government to
deal effectively with their savage foes. In December, 1790,
they petitioned Congress to allow them to fight the Indians in
- their own way. In January, 1791, that body established for
Kentucky a Local Board of War, with discretionary power to
provide for the defense of the settlements. It was composed
of able and experienced men, who had the wisdom to plan and
the boldness to execute. They had the confidence of their
people. These were Gen. Charles Scott, Harry Innis, John
Brown, Benjamin Logan, and Isaac Shelby.

22. In May (1791), they organized a force of eight hun-
dred volunteers and sent them against the Indian towns on
the Wabash, near where LaFayette, Indiana, now stands.
The veteran, Charles Scott, was chief in command; Gen.
James Wilkinson, second. Setting out May 23rd, they reached
the Indian towns early in June. When General Scott led the
main body to attack the principal town, he found the Indians

trying to escape in canoes across the Wabash. He ordered
9
130 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

General Wilkinson with a battalion to follow them, and his
riflemen inflicted much loss, emptying five of their canoes.
Two companies under command of a major and their captains
were sent to cross below and attack an Indian town on the
other side. The Indians fled. - Meanwhile, Col. John Hardin,
who had been sent with a hundred and eighty men to strike
some smaller neighboring towns, had killed and captured
about sixty of the enemy. General Wilkinson was now sent
with about four hundred men to the mouth of the Eel river,
where he drove the Indians from an important town, burned
it, and destroyed hundreds of acres of grain. The Indians had
suffered a loss of more than a hundred killed, many taken
prisoners, and the destruction of their growing crops; and
realized the difference between Kentuckians led by their own
general and a mixed force under the direction (not under the
lead) of one who sent his troops in detachments and unsup-
ported to fight overwhelming odds,

23, This was so early in the year, however, that the Indians
could rebuild their towns and replant their crops, and be
ready in the autumn to begin a new series of raids into Ken-
tucky. The Board of War took measures to cripple them for
the winter. In August five hundred men were sent under
command of General Wilkinson, with Colonels Hardin and
McDowell, to the same section. Reaching the most impor-
tant Indian town, they attacked it, killed nine of the enemy,
captured thirty, burnt that and other towns, laid waste about
five hundred acres of their growing crops—an apparently cruel
measure, but it was the Indian way. The unprotected settlers
in Kentucky could not be safe from savage barbarity unless
the barbarians were either killed or deprived of the means of
subsisting their families while the men went on the war-path.

24. In March of this year the Federal War Department
had placed under the command of Gen. Arthur St. Clair,
Governor of the Northwest Territory, two thousand regulars,
composed of cavalry, infantry, and artillery, for a campaign


INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES. 131

against the Indians; but he was not ready for active operations
before November.

25. Meanwhile, there was an almost constant succession of
attacks by predatory bands. Creeping through the forests
here and there throughout the inhabited parts of the state
they fell suddenly upon exposed settlements, wrought quick
destruction, and eluded pursuit by rapidly retiring beyond the
border. ;

26. One especially notable conflict occurred on the Ohio
river, some distance above Maysville (March 24th, 1791).
Capt. William Hubbell, who, after settling his family near
Frankfort, had gone east on business, was returning in a flat-
boat. The party on board consisted of nine men, three
women, and eight children. About daylight that morning
they were attacked by from seventy-five to a hundred Indians,
who approached them in canoes; but Hubbell, a brave, pru-
dent, and sensible man, who had done six years of service
during the revolution, had made every possible preparation,
having the day before seen indications of trouble; and as soon
as the canoes had come within close musket range of the boat,
partly surrounding it, the little band of white men opened an
effective fire on them, and after a most intrepid and well-
conducted fight, drove them off. During the engagement the
Indians in one canoe attempted to board the boat, but Hub-
bell, though one arm had been broken, beat them off with
shots from two pistols at hand, and with sticks of wood.
Another boat, which had been with Hubbell’s the night
before, but had fallen behind, came in sight during the
engagement, and the Indians turned away from such a desper-
ate conflict, and attacked that. Meeting with no resistance

_from the latter, they killed the men and captured the women
and children.

27. Re-enforcing their canoes with fresh men from the
shore, and placing the women before them, they again
attacked Hubbell’s boat. There were now but four men in
7 132 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

this which had not been killed or disabled; but these fought
with deadly effect, firing deliberately whenever an Indian
exposed himself, if they could shoot without killing a
woman. The canoes at length retired to the shore; at this
time only two men were unhurt and able to handle the oars,
and the Indians had gathered along the bank; but the
unwounded men succeeded in rowing out of range of their
guns, though for a time exposed to a shower of balls; and the

_boat, with its bloody cargo of dead and wounded men and
horses (of which some on board had been killed), reached
Maysville about twelve o’clock that night.

28. The women and children, who had lain down so as to
be protected by the sides of the vessel, were all unhurt except
a little boy, who was wounded on the head and in one arm by
balls that had passed through the boat’s side. Of the men,
three were killed and five wounded. Attacks on immigrant
boats occurred at intervals for a long time afterwards.

29. By November, 1791, General St. Clair was ready for
acampaign. He had enlisted in the several states two thou-
sand recruits for the regular army. Kentucky had been called
on for a thousand volunteers; but the people not only had no
confidence in St. Clair, but were intensely prejudiced against
him; and for once Kentuckians declined to enlist. They knew
that the Federal authorities had made an unaccountable mis-
take in appointing him to the command. He was known to
have made no reputation as an officer during the revolution;
he was now old and afflicted with rheumatism and gout; and
had had no experience in campaigning against Indians. To
Kentuckians the idea of drafting men for military service
(compelling them to fight for their country) was shameful;
but there was no other way to answer the call of General St. |
Clair, and this was resorted to. When they had been ‘con-
scripted and organized, no general officer could be found who
would take command, This was finally accepted by Col. Wm.
Oldham.
INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES. 133

80. With these and the regulars he had been able to organ-
ize, St. Clair had more than two thousand men, well armed
and supplied. About the 1st of October, 1791, he set out
from the present site of Cincinnati, and marched in a slow and
orderly manner, observing strict military regulations—build-
ing forts and store-houses along the route, and constructing _
roads for artillery. On the 3rd of November he reached a
small tributary of the Wabash. By this time most of his
Kentuckians had abandoned him, and his force did not number
more than fourteen hundred.

31. He was attacked shortly after daylight (November 4th) .
by about an equal number of savages. Neglect of scouting had
made it possible for the Indians to be upon them while their
arms were laid aside and they were preparing their morning
meal. Confusion ensued; but the troops were ably officered,
except as to their general, who was back in his tent, too old
and sick and stiff to mount a horse. The officers rallied their
men, who fought bravely, but they were surrounded and at a
fearful disadvantage. The Indians, rushing in with their
tomahawks, for close and certain work, were charged with
the bayonet; but the slaughter of the whites was so great and
the contest so hopeless that at length they made a dash for a
road towards the rear, with fixed bayonets, cleared it, and
fled. More than eight hundred had fallen. Among the slain
was Gen. Richard Butler, of Pennsylvania, a brave and good
officer, second in command. The Indian chief, Little Turtle,
is said to have withdrawn his warriors from pursuit because,
as he said, they had killed enough. St. Clair was helped
upon his horse by his aids and so escaped.

32. The survivors reached Fort Washington in four days;
but the rumor had gotten abroad in Kentucky that they had
stopped at Fort Jefferson and were besieged. Generals Scott
and Wilkinson called for volunteers to relieve them, and a
strong force quickly responded; but they were disbanded on

rc
134° YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

learning the facts. Kentucky was still to be harassed by small
bands of prowling and blood-thirsty savages.

833. In the spring of 1792, an attack was made on the set-
tlement in Quinn’s Bottom, about four miles from Frankfort,
in which six persons were killed and two slaves captured; and
subsequently during the year several were made on Green
river, in Ohio county, in which a number of persons were
killed, wounded, and captured; and one on the house of a Mr.
Stephenson, in Madison, in which Stephenson was wounded
and a young man killed. Occasionally, the parties attacked
killed and wounded their assailants, and sometimes pursuit
was made, but with little result.

—0 2f,0-0—_——_

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

I: Col. John Floyd.—This was one of the foremost and
best- men of the early pioneer days. He was one of five
brothers, three of whom were killed by Indians. On ‘his
father’s side he was of Welsh blood; on his mother’s, of
English-Indian, his maternal grandmother having been a niece
of. Powhatan, the Indian chief. He was born in Virginia in
1750. His education was very considerable; his mind of a
high order; his manner agreeable and impressive. He was
more than six feet in height and of handsome person. In
May, 1774, he was surveying in what is now Lewis county, as
the deputy of Col. Wm. Preston, who held appointment as
surveyor of Kentucky (or, as it was then designated, Fin-
castle county, Virginia). In Lewis county he located and
surveyed two hundred acres for the orator of the revolution,
Patrick Henry. He was actively engaged in surveying for
more than two months along the Ohio as far as the Falls;
next, in the present counties of Scott, Fayette, and Woodford.
In July he returned to Virginia, under orders of Governor
Dunmore to surveyors and settlers to abandon temporarily
their work and stations because of threatened Indian hostili-
ties. In April, 1775, he returned with a considerable party
and became the principal surveyor of the Transylvania Com-
INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES, 135

pany. He was one of the delegates from Logan’s Station to
the Boonesborough convention, May, 1775; and in July took
a prominent part with Boone and others in rescuing the Misses
Boone and Calloway from the Indians. In the autumn of 1776
he went back to Virginia to take part in the war of independ-
ence, and in company with a Colonel Radford fitted out a
privateer. They destroyed much British shipping, but were
at length captured and confined at Dartmouth, England, for
nearly a year. The jailor’s wife, who had a brother in America,
favored the cause of the colonists, and assisted them to escape
and cross the channel to Paris, whence, aided by Dr. Franklin,
they returned to Virginia, and after somewhat over a year’s
absence Colonel Floyd was again in Kentucky.

In addition to surveying (of which he did a great deal),
he took an active and leading part in the defense of the settle-
ments and in plans to promote immigration and development.
He accompanied General Clark on his expeditions into the
enemy’s country, and made himself so known and feared
that the British commandant at Detroit offered him money
and the title of duke to join the British power in stirring up
the Indians to make war on the settlenrents in Kentucky,
which of course he spurned with indignation. In 1779 he
established a station near the Falls, but soon afterward
removed into the interior and built on Beargrass creek, about
six miles from its mouth, the station known by his name.

‘His prompt and generous but costly and partially unavailing
effort to relieve Squire Boone’s party and punish the savages
who had assailed them on their way to stronger settlements,
has been noticed. His life was saved here by a man with
whom he had had a personal difference (Capt. Samuel Wells),
and whose magnanimous conduct made them friends for life.
On the retreat he was on foot, nearly exhausted, and closely
pursued by Indians, when Wells, on horseback, overtook him.
Dismounting, he assisted Colonel Floyd into the saddle and
then ran by his side to support him.

On the 12th of April, 1783, he and his brother Charles wer
riding together some miles from the station, apprehending no
danger from Indians, as no recent trouble had occurred, when
they were fired upon from ambush and Colonel Floyd was
mortally wounded. His brother, abandoning his own horse,
which had been hit, sprang up behind the wounded man, threw
136 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

his‘arms around him, took the reins, and rode home with him,
where he died in a few hours. Floyd county was named in
his honor.

II. Men Engaged in the Salt River Fight,—The owners of
the boat on which occurred the desperate engagement noticed
in preceding chapter were Henry Crist and Solomon Spears.
With them were ten men, only five of whose names have been
kept. These were Christian Crepps, Thomas Floyd, Joseph
Boyce, Evan Moore, and an Irishman named Fossett. Six
had been killed or mortally wounded while Crist, Crepps, and
Moore yet remained unhurt and might have escaped, but they
refused to abandon the woman and the wounded men until

mae everything had been done that could be
done to save them. In the attempt to
break through the savages who had
gained the south shore, Crepps received
a wound of which he died shortly after
he was found and carried to Bullitt’s
Lick. Crist was wounded in the foot,
but after great suffering reached the
settlement and finally recovered.
Moore was the only man who escaped
\ without a wound. The gallant and gen-
erous Crepps left a wife and two chil-
dren, the latter a daughter, who became A

CORREO the wife of Charles A. Wickliffe, after-

CHARLES A. wickiirrr. Ward governor of Kentucky.

III. Col. William Hardin, — This
noted pioneer was one of the earliest settlers in Breckinridge
county. He was a skillful fighter, a leader in times of danger,
and of such indomitable resolution as to seem unconquerable.
He brought on the fierce and bloody battle referred to in the
preceding chapter by invading what the savages thought at
that time their own country. They were building a town too
close to Hardin, and in threatening nearness to other Ken-
tucky settlers; and he and his neighbors thought it proper
to drive them off; and Indian depredations during the year
had also aroused a spirit of retaliation.

When the conflict with the main body began, Hardin was
shot through the thighs; but he;would not relinquish his com-
mand. Seating himself upon a log he remained during the
whole action, coolly giving orders and encouraging his men.


INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES. 137

IV. “Wild-Cat’? McKinney.—In the spring of 1783 a
stranger came to the little settlement where Lexington now
stands bringing a newspaper in which were published the
articles of peace with Great Britain. The pioneers felt a deep
interest in the publication, rejoicing to know that terms had
at last been agreed upon, though not yet ratified by Congress;
and as the owner of the paper would not leave it with them,
' they asked John McKinney, who taught the first school in the
county in a cabin a few rods outside the palisades, to make a
copy of the articles, to be retained among them. Before day-
light the next morning he went to the school-house for that
purpose, and while at his desk busily writing he heard a slight
noise at the door, and on looking round saw an enormous wild-
cat, with her forefeet on the step, her tail over her back,
bristles erect, and glaring into the room. Moving slightly he
attracted her attention, and as their eyes met he made an
effort to disconcert her by an exercise of the reputed power of
the human eye to quell by a steady gaze even the most fero-
cious animals; but this only angered the cat, and before he
could jump to his feet and seize a cylindrical ruler which lay
in his reach she had sprung upon him, fastened her teeth in
his side, and begun to tear furiously with her claws. In a
moment his clothes were stripped from his side and his flesh
dreadfully mangled. He struggled to beat or tear her loose,
but the teeth of the strong and furious creature were fastened
between his ribs, and his “efforts seemed to increase her rage.
He then threw himself against the edge of the table and
pressed with all his weight ‘and strength upon her, whereupon
she set up a wild cry, while he called loudly for help, and
their mingled shrieks alarmed the town. Some women were
first to arrive ; but the noise inside was so unaccountable that
they hesitated to go in, till at last one of the boldest made the
venture and found the man still pressing against the table,
writhing in agony, while the cat was by this time nearly dead.
She is said to have screamed out: ‘‘Good heavens, Mr.
McKinney! what is the matter?’’ To which he answered,
turning towards her his agonized face, streaming with sweat
from the effects of pain, fright, and exertion, while his now
lifeless assailant still clung to his side: ‘‘I have caught a cat,
madam!’’ Some.of the neighbors now came in and with diffi-
culty removed the firmly-locked teeth from his ribs. He grew
138 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

very sick, and was for a time confined to his bed, but entirely
recovered, and took an active part in subsequent affairs.
Some years afterward he removed to Bourbon, and was one
of the five members from that county in the Danville conven-
tion (1792), which formed the first constitution of Kentucky ;
and on the 4th of June of that year he took his seat in the
first legislature, at Lexington. He removed to Missouri in
1820, and lived to old age.

V. The Heroines of South Elkhorn.—In the attack made
on the settlement in Quinn’s Bottom, noticed in the preceding
chapter, the conduct of the two Mrs. Cooks was remarkable
for its intrepidity and the coolness which enabled them to see
what was necessary to be'done. Their three children were in
the cabin; and when their husbands were shot, they barred
the door as soon as the younger man had gotten inside. One
of them seized the only rifle in the house, but found no bullets,
whereupon she cut a bit of lead from a bar and shaped it
to enter the muzzle of the gun, thus succeeding in loading it.-
The Indians had been firing at. the door, but it was so thick
that the balls did not penetrate the room; and one of them,
apprehending no danger from the women, had seated himself
on a log, where the heroine with the gun could see him
through a narrow aperture in the wall; and she took such
deliberate aim that he fell dead. Some of the savages imme-
diately climbed to the roof and kindled a fire; but by the time
it began to take effect one of the women was in the loft and
the other was handing up water, with which it was extin-
guished. The boards were set ablaze again and again, till the
water supply was exhausted, and still there was fire; but the
ready-witted defenders broke up a lot of eggs which they had
at hand and quenched the blaze with them. Lastly they were
compelled to strip the bloody coat from the man who had
gotten in before he died, and smother a new flame with that.
Twice the Indians fired through the roof, taking this chance
of striking the brave woman in the loft, but without effect.
By the time the last expedient to put out fire was exhausted,
the savages became uneasy lest a young man whom they saw
escape should bring from a neighboring settlement a rescuing
party, and, throwing their dead fellow into Elkhorn creek,
hurried back over the Ohio.
Co

INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES. 139

VI. Mrs. John Merrill.—About twelve o’clock one night in
the summer of 1787 the barking of a dog awakened John Merrill
at his home in Nelson county. Opening the door to ascertain
the cause of the disturbance, he was fired upon by Indians and
had an arm and thigh broken. He fell upon the floor and
called upon his wife to close the door. She had scarcely done
so before the Indians were trying to chop it to pieces or beat,
it in with their tomahawks, and they quickly made a breach.
Mrs. Merrill, a strong and courageous woman, was armed
with an ax, and either killed or badly wounded four of them
as they tried to force their wayin. Two of them then mounted
to the roof and started down the chimney, but, seizing a bed,
she ripped it and threw the feathers on the fire. These
were quickly ablaze and the stifling smoke brought down the
_ Indians, whom, again snatching up her ax, she killed. Turn-
ing to the door she found the last of the party so far in that
he received a gash in the cheek before he could withdraw,
whereupon he yelled and hastily ran off. Thus the dauntless
woman had stricken down six of the assailants and badly
wounded a seventh. It was reported by a prisoner who after-
ward returned that when this last one reached the home of
the tribe at Chillicothe, Ohio, he gave an exaggerated account
of the strength and fierceness of the ‘‘Long Knife Squaw.”

VII. Burning at the Stake.—A vivid idea of the horrors
. of this method of execution as practiced by the Indians is fur-
nished by a description of the burning of Col. Wm. Crawford.
It is from the narrative of Dr. Knight, a fellow-prisoner,
who witnessed it. Crawford had undertaken an expedi-
tion against the Delawares and Wyandots on the Sandusky
river, in retaliation for Indian outrages on the frontier settle-
ments, but the greater part of his command were killed or
captured—most of the prisoners being put to death after sur-
render. Knight says: ‘‘When we were come to the fire,
Colonel Crawford was stripped naked and ordered to sit down
by it, and then they beat him with sticks and their fists.
Presently afterward I was treated in the same manner. Then
they tied a rope to the top of a post about fifteen feet high,
bound the colonel’s hands behind his back, and fastened the
rope to the ligature between his wrists. The rope was long
enough for him either to sit down or walk round the post once
or twice and return the same way. He then called to Girty


140 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

and asked whether they intended to burn him. Girty
answered yes. The colonel said he wou'd take it all patiently.
Upon this Captain Pipe, a Delaware chief, made a speech to
the Indians (thirty or forty men and sixty or seventy squaws
and children). When the speech was finished they all yelled
a hideous and hearty assent to what had been said. The
Indian men then took up their guns and shot powder into the
colonel’s body from his feet as far up as his neck. I think
not less than seventy loads were discharged upon his naked
body. They then c:owded about him, and to the best of my
observation cut off his ears; when the throng had dispersed a
little I saw the blood running from both sides of his head.
The fire was.six or seven yards from the post. It was made
of small hickory poles, burnt quite through in the middle,
each end of the poles remaining about six feet long. Three
or four Indians would take up, by turns, each a burning piece
of wood and apply it to his naked body, already burned black
by powder. These tormentors presented themselves on every
side of him, so that whichever way he ran round the post they
met him with burning fagots and poles. Some of the squaws
took broad boards, upon which they put quantities of burning
coa's and hot embers and threw upon him, so that in a short
time he had nothing but coals of fire and hot embers to walk
upon. In the midst of these extreme tortures, he called to
Simon Girty and begged him to shoot him; but Girty made
no answer, and he called to him again. Girty then, by way
of derision, told him he had no gun, at the same time turning
to an Indian who was behind him, laughing heartily, and by
all his gestures seeming delighted at the horrid scene. He
then came up to me and bade me prepare for death. He said,
however, I was not to die at that p!ace, but to be burnt at the
Shawnee town. He swore profane'y I need not expect to
escape death, but to suffer it in all its extremities. * * * *
Colonel Crawford at this point of his sufferings besought the
Almighty to have mercy on his soul, spoke very low, and bore
his torments with the most manly fortitude. He continued
in all the extremities of pain for an hour and three-quarters
or two hours longer, as near as I could judge, when at last
being almost spent he lay down with his face to the ground.
They then scalped him and repeatedly threw the scalp in my
face, telling me that that was.my ‘great captain.’ An old
INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES. 141

squaw (whose appearance every way answered the ideas people
have of the devil) got a board, took a parcel of coals and
ashes, and laid them on his back and head after he had been
scalped. He then got upon his feet and began to walk round
the post. They next put a burning stick to him as usual; but
he seemed more insensible of pain than before. The Indian
who had me in charge now took me away about three-quarters
of a mile, where I was bound all night and thus prevented
from: seeing the last of the horrid spectacle. Next morning
we set off for the Shawnee town. We soon came to the spot
where Colonel Crawford had been burnt. I saw his bones
lying among the remains of the fire, almost burnt to ashes. I
suppose after he was dead they laid his body on the fire. The
Indian told me that was my ‘big captain,’ and then gave the
scalp halloo.”’

VIII. Sealping an Enemy.—A scalp was a part of the
hairy skin of the head cut with knife or tomahawk from a
fallen enemy. It was considered by the Indians a trophy of
valor—a warrior was honored among his people in proportion
to the number of scalps he had taken. After shooting down
a man, woman, or child, an Indian would sometimes even
dart from under cover and risk his life in order to get the
scalp, though in general an Indian was very much averse to
exposing himself, and never fought openly if he could avoid it.

IX. Ben Stockton.—This was a slave in the family of
Maj. George Stockton, of Fleming county. Collins describes
him as having been ‘‘a regular negro; devoted to his master;
hating an Indian and loving to moralize over a dead one;
getting into a towering rage and swearing magnificently when
a horse was stolen; handling his rifle well, though somewhat
foppishly; and hopping, dancing, and showing his teeth
when a prospect offered to chase the ‘yaller varmints.’”’
His master, he says, had confidence in his resolution and pru-
dence, while he was a great favorite with all the hunters and
added much to their fun on dull expeditions. On one occa-
sion, when a party of white men in pursuit of Indians who
had stolen their horses called at Stockton’s Station for re-en-
forcements, Ben, among others, volunteered. They overtook
the savages at Kirk’s Springs, in Lewis county, and dis-
mounted to fight; but as they advanced they could see only
eight or ten, who quickly disappeared over the mountain,




142 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Pressing on, they discovered on descending the mountain
such indications as convinced them that the few they had seen
were but decoys to lead them into an ambuscade at the base,
and a retreat was ordered. Ben was told of it by a man near
him; but he was so intent on getting a shot that he did not
hear, and the order was repeated in a louder tone; whereupon
he turned upon his monitor a reproving look, grimaced and
gesticulated ludicrously, and motioned to the man to be silent.
He then set off rapidly down the mountain. His white
comrade, unwilling to leave him, ran after him and reached
his side just as he levelled his gun at a big Indian standing
tiptoe on a log and peering into the thick woods. At the
crack of Ben’s rifle the savage bounded into the air and fell.
The others set up a fierce yell, and, as the fearless negro said,
‘‘skipped from tree to tree like grass-hoppers.’’ He bawled
out, ‘*Take dat to *member Ben—de black white man!’’ and
the two then beat a hasty and safe retreat.

X. A Singular Adventure.—One day, probably in 1783,
three young men set out from Harrodstown in search of
strayed or stolen horses. Following their tracks for some
miles they found signs of Indians; but at night they had seen
neither the latter nor the horses, and as a cold rain was fall-
ing, they took shelter in a deserted cabin. Fearing to make a
fire lest it might lead to their discovery by the savages, they
went up into the loft and lay down upon the floor to sleep.
The floor was made of clap-boards, resting upon round poles.
Six well-armed Indians soon came into the cabin, lighted a fire,
and indulged in mirthful noise—said to be characteristic of
Indians when in camp and free from want and apprehension.
One of the white men, lying on his back between the other
two, attempted to turn over and peep down to ascertain how
many there were, and as his companions held him to prevent
it there was a quiet struggle during which the poles broke and
men and boards fell with a crash among the Indians, so fright-
ening them that they ran away, leaving guns and accoutre-
ments, and did not return. The whites were also frightened
for the moment, of course; but they remained till morning
and then returned to the station, taking the abandoned arms
and ammunition and laughing over the singular victory they
had won.


INDIAN INVASIONS AND ATROCITIES, 143

XI. Rescued by an Indian Chief.—In the contests be-
tween the whites and Indians during the pioneer days of Ken-
tucky occasional incidents occurred which indicated that every

savage was not wholly destitute of pity for a helpless captive.
In March, 1790, a boat having on board John May, Charles
Johnston, a Mr. Skyles, a Mr. Flinn, and two sisters named
Fleming, was coming down the Ohio, ‘having set out for Mays-
ville from Kelley’s Station on the Kanawha. About daylight
on the morning of March 20th, when near the mouth of the
Scioto, the man on the watch aroused the rest, who were still
sleeping, and pointed out a sign of danger—the smoke of an
Indian fire on the Ohio shore. The boatman endeavored to
row to the Kentucky side; but before they could leave the cur-
rent two white men appeared on the Ohio side and represent-
ing that they had escaped from the Indians begged to be taken
on board. Fearing treachery, it was some time “before the boat-
men could be induced to approach them, the pretended fugi-
tives meanwhile running along the bank, crying and entreat-
ing piteously. Finally, yielding to the request of Flinn and
the two ladies, whose sympathies for the pretended sufferers
overcame their prudence, May and the others agreed to row
to their rescue, When they reached the bank Flinn jumped
ashore, but was instantly seized by Indians who sprang from
ambush and began at once to fire on the boat. The fire was
returned and an effort made to get back into the current; but.
the beach was quickly crowded with Indians, and it was found
impossible to do bhia before all on board would be killed, and
they ceased firing; but the Indians kept it up until one of the
Miss Flemings and John May were killed,-and Skyles was
wounded in both shoulders. Of the captives, Flinn, whose kind-
ness of heart had in great part led to the disaster, was afterward
burned at the stake; Skyles was subjected to running the
gauntlet and afterward condemned to death, but succeeded in
escaping to the white settlements ; and Johnston was ransomed
by a Frenchman. The fiendish captors determined to buru
Miss Fleming alive, but an Indian chief rescued her at the
moment they were preparing to do so, and conducted her safe
to Pittsburgh.

XII. A ‘Noble Boy.—After the battle between Captain
Hubbell’s boat and the Indians, noticed in the preceding
chapter, was over, a little son of a man named Plascut came


144 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

to him and coolly asked him to take a ball out of his head.
Hubbell found that a bullet, which had passed through the
side of the boat where the women and children lay concealed
had struck the forehead of the young hero and was lodged
under the skin. , He took it out; then the boy said, ‘
At

ROGERS CLARK CROSSING THE WABASH.

GEO.



not all;’’ and raising’
had been shot off the point of his elbow and was hanging by
the skin. His mother asked in astonishment, ‘‘Why did you
not tell me?’’ *‘*Because,’’ replied he, ‘‘the captain told us to
be silent, and I thought you would make a noise if I told you.”


KENTUCKY A STATE. 145

CHAPTER IX.

KENTUCKY A STATE.—SEVEN YEARS UNDER THE FIRST CON-
STITUTION.—CITIZEN GENET,.—WAYNE CONQUERS A
PEACE.—RESOLUTIONS OF 798, ETC.

1792-1799.

[To obviate the necessity of repetition in the matter of successive
elections for governor and other state officers, a list of all the gov-
ernors, lieutenant-governors, and secretaries of state, with terms of
service, is given in Notes and Comments after Chapter XX.]

1. As noticed in the preceding chapter a constitution was
framed and adopted in April, 1792, under which Kentucky
became a state in the Federal Union on the Ist of June.
Isaac Shelby, the veteran soldier, who proved himself to be
also a wise statesman, was chosen governor.

2. The population at this time was probably 100,000.
Immigration during the last nine years had been great, not-
withstanding the well known suffering and danger that must
be encountered.

3. The first legislature met in Lexington on the 4th of
June. There were’ then nine counties, and the General
Assembly, or two houses of the legislature, consisted of forty
representatives and eleven senators. Among the important
_ questions to be acted upon was the location of the state
capital. Danville, Frankfort, and Lexington sought this dis-
tinction. John Allen, John Edwards, Thomas Kennedy,
Henry Lee, and Robert Todd were appointed a committee to
determine the matter, and reported.in favor of Frankfort,
which report was adopted. John Brown and John Edwards
were elected United States senators. Laws to regulate
elections, to raise revenue, to establish courts, to establish
the office of auditor of public accounts, and various minor
provisions were passed and the machinery of government. for
the new commonwealth was soon in operation,

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STATE HOUSE AND OFFICE BUILDING.
KENTUCKY A STATE. 147

4. The people were not yet free, however, from Indian
troubles. Marauding bands continued to infest the state.
The Federal government had taken no decisive steps to reduce
_ the tribes to submission. Boats on the Ohio were intercepted
and those on board murdered or taken captive, and their prop-
erty carried off; and settlements, especially on the frontier,
had to be continually on their guard.

5. Maj. John Adair led about a hundred militia across the
Ohio to inflict punishment for the oft-recurring outrages, and
on the 6th of November, 1792, was attacked by the chief
Little Turtle with so great a force that the Kentuckians were
at length compelled to retreat, with a loss of six killed and
five wounded, and of their pack-horses and supplies, though
they fought heroically and repeatedly drove back the enemy.

6. The Federal authorities, far removed from the scenes of
danger and distress, believed that terms could be made with
the savage tribes, and some efforts to treat with them were
made. In December (1792) Col. John Hardin, accompanied
by a Major Truman, was sent on a peaceful mission to the
hostile tribes and was murdered on the way. Truman was
killed after the Indians had started to carry him captive to
their village. President Washington sent commissioners to
the tribes to offer them just terms and put an end to hostili-
ties without making destructive war on them; but they treated
all overtures with disdain.

7. In April, 1793, thirty-five Indians captured and burned
Morgan’s Station, on Slate creek, seven miles from Mount
Sterling. Most of the men were absent, attending to their
planting, expecting no danger. Two persons were killed,
and nineteen (chiefly women and children) were captured.
When pursuit was made they tomahawked all who were unable
to march rapidly, and carried the others to the northwest,
where they were sold and kept in captivity till after the treaty
of Greenville. During the same year three white settlers
148 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

were killed and scalped near Bear Wallow in Hart county,
and depredations were committed in Logan county.

8. In the summer of 1794, a hundred Kentuckians under
Capt. Wm. Whitley, of Lincoln county, joined Colonel Orr in
Tennessee, who had collected several hundred men, for the
purpose of punishing the Nickojack Indians in that territory,
who had been raiding in Kentucky. After a hard night’s
march, they surprised a town, killed fifty of the savages, took
nineteen prisoners, and destroyed the place. Whitley, with
part of the force, set out to attack another town; but was met
by a large body of savages and suffered some loss, though he
succeeded in defeating it.

9. Early in the spring of 1793 events occurred which caused
much excitement in Kentucky and led to conduct on the part
of many of her citizens that has been severely criticised by
certain writers whose prejudices blinded them to the impor-
tance of circumstances which go. far to extenuate if they do
not wholly excuse all that may have seemed reprehensible.
To understand the matter in all its bearings, you should
acquaint yourself particularly with that part of United States
history which treats of the administration of President
Washington.

10. One Genet had been accredited by the French govern-
ment as minister to the United States. Instead of proceeding
at once tothe seat of government (at that time Philadelphia),
he arrived early in the spring at Charleston, South Carolina,
and addressed himself to the work of inflaming the minds of
the people against their own government and inducing them,
in defiance of its laws and the policy of the administration, to
ally themselves with France in her struggle for the establish-
ment of a republic, which had combined against her England,
Spain, and other monarchies of Europe. The sympathies of
the American people were naturally with France because of
the aid she extended to them during the revolution.
KENTUCKY A STATE, 149

41. With Kentuckians, two causes operated to intensify
this feeling, and make them eager to strike a blow for the
land of LaFayette. In the first place, it is probable that
nowhere else on the continent was there such deep-seated and
apparently ineradicable hatred of the British. To the wrongs
inflicted upon the colonists, which had led them to revolt and
establish for themselves a free and independent government,
was added the atrocious conduct of British soldiers and states-
men during the revolution and for years after peace was
declared, in subjecting Kentucky to all the horrors of savage
warfare. To British influence were attributed Indian inva-
sions, depredations, murder of women and children, torture
of prisoners, the thousand enormities perpetrated on the early
settlers of Kentucky since the beginning of the revolution.
At the conclusion of hostilities between the Americans and
English on the sea-board, Kentucky received a great influx of
the gallant soldiers who had fought for independence; but
instead of finding peace and safety after their contest with the
British themselves they had for years to feel British ven-
geance, inflicted by merciless red men at the instigation of
their white masters, who fed, clothed, and armed them.

12. Another incentive was the desire, elsewhere noticed, to
enjoy the unrestricted navigation of the Mississippi river.
The trading posts on the lower waters of this stream, espe-
cially New Orleans, afforded almost the sole lucrative markets
for the sale of Kentucky products. Spain still exercised con-
trol of this great inland highway, as she held the territory on
both shores for about 150 miles from its mouth, and Spain
was now at war with France. The offer of an opportunity to
destroy the Spanish power in America and secure to the new
state this coyeted privilege, to avenge the outrages they had
experienced from the allied British and Indians on the Canad-
ian border, while striking a double blow for the French people
to whom they were grateful—all this was exciting and seduct-
ive, and for a time it blinded the eyes of many to the repre-


150 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

hensible conduct of the French minister and to wise and
patriotic conduct of the great Washington in his efforts to
save the new republic from ‘‘entangling alliances.”’

13. In some states, clubs were organized for the purpose
of discussing the relations of the French and American
peoples, and for promoting a movement to commit the United
States to a war policy in favor of France. In Kentucky there
were three of these, whose object was more directly to bring
about independent action in this state for the overthrow of
the Spanish power in North America. These clubs were in
imitation of those violent revolutionary societies of Jacobins,
or turbulent agitators, which had for some time existed in
France.

14. During the excitement, Genet sent four men to Ken-
tucky (November, 1793), with orders to enlist men for an
expedition against the Spanish possessions on the Mississippi,
though at that time negotiations were going on between the
United States and Spain, with a view to securing for Ameri-
can citizens the free navigation of the great river. These
men brought blank commissions, to be filled out and presented
to such able and experienced Kentuckians as were necessary
to officer a small army for a secret expedition against New
Orleans, the Spanish capital in North America. A leader was
found in Gen. George Rogers Clark (see sketch at-the end of
this chapter), and the work of enlisting, organizing, and
equipping two thousand men was begun; but pending these
operations President Washington received information of the
contemplated movement, and ordered General Wayne, in com-
mand of troops in the west, to stop it. In the spring of 1794,
the French government, at the request of the United States
authorities, recalled Genet, and disavowed all his acts, so that
the French agents in Kentucky, having now no color of
authority, abandoned their efforts and withdrew from the
state. BS
33

=

THEIL eC) : - _
oA Wee
Ne
———



GOVERNOR’S MANSION.
152 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

15. St. Clair had been succeeded as military governor of
the Northwest Territory by Gen. Anthony Wayne, who
assembled some troops at Fort Washington. He was author-
ized to call on Kentucky for a force of mounted volunteers
to re-enforce his regulars, and had made a requisition upon
Governor Shelby; but Kentucky had had a bitter experience
with the two regular officers, Harmar and St. Clair, and they
feared to find in Wayne another general who would lead them
to useless slaughter and defeat, and again they declined to
volunteer. The governor was compelled to meet the demand
by ordering a draft of a thousand men from the militia. Gen.
Charles Scott, -in command of these, marched to join Wayne,
then about eighty miles beyond the Ohio, near Fort Jefferson,
which place he reached October 24th. General Wayne, ascer-
taining that the Indians were in great force in the vicinity of
the Miami towns, and believing that his army was not in con-
dition to attack successfully, or to make an active campaign
~ during the rigor of winter, concluded not to advance. The

regular troops went into winter-quarters and fortified, and the
Kentuckians were allowed to return home.

16. During their brief experience with General Wayne they
learned to admire and trust him. He impressed them as being
not only the bold and dashing man whose daring conduct
during the revolution had won him the name of ‘“Mad
Anthony?’ but as being able, circumspect, and safe as a
leader. In the summer of 1794, when General-Scott was

called.on.to rejoin him for a decisive movement, he reported

to him on the 26th of July with sixteen hundred willing men,
who could be depended upon to endure hardship milout com-
‘plaint and to do their whole duty in battle. General Wayne
had now about three thousand men, with whom he soon began
a destructive march towards the Maumee river. The cam-
paign terminated in an engagement at Fallen Timber, in which
the Indians were routed with heavy loss. The victory was
decisive. A British garrison, near'the battle-field, refused to
KENTUCKY A STATE, 153

receive the fleeing Indians inside their stockades. Beaten by
the American army and deserted by their secret allies, their
spirit was broken. When next invited to make a treaty, they
met the American commissioners at. Greenville, Ohio (1795),
and agreed upon terms of peace. At last, after twenty years of
trial, Kentuckians had won freedom from molestation in their
homes; but at what a cost of blood and suffering! It is esti-
mated that during this time not less than 3,600 men, women,
and children had met death at the hands of the Indians.

17. Two important events that occurred about this period
gave increased assurance of peace, safety, and commercial
advantage to Kentucky. In 1794 a supplemental treaty was
had with England, by which she gave up her forts on the
northwestern frontier, held for more than ten years in viola-
tion of the agreement that put an end to the revolutionary
war; and in 1795 Spain made a‘ treaty conceding to the
Americans the right to navigate the Mississippi to the gulf,
and the right for three years to deposit their produce at New
Orleans.

18. Even after Kentucky had become a state of the Union,
the Spanish authorities in Louisiana were not satisfied to
abandon all efforts to induce her to ally herself in some way
with them. The Spanish governor of New Orleans sent
Thomas Power, in 1795, on a secret mission to Kentucky to
consult with leading public men as to plans to separate the
entire west from the United States and set up an independent
government, the final object being alliance with Spain and a
great Spanish power west of the Alleghanies. It is doubtful
whether he received real encouragement from any; and at any
rate, news came while he was engaged in his mission that the
treaty had been made between the United States and Spain
by which, as previously noticed, the latter ceded to the Ameri-
cans the right to navigate the Mississippi to the gulf, and, for
‘the three years, to deposit their produce at New Orleans for
purposes of exchange and sale, The arguments and induce-
154 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

ments upon which the schemer had ‘relied were now of no
force, and he left the state. Two years afterward he was
here again, but effected nothing.

19. In 1796, James Garrard was elected governor. His
message to the legislature that year showed that Kentucky
was in a flourishing condition, but that certain laws were
defective and that it was necessary to consider and act upon
some weighty questions in order to insure continued happiness
and prosperity. :

20. In 1798, the people of Kentucky, in common with
those of Virginia, were almost unanimous in their condemna-
tion of meagures enacted by Con-
gress which seemed to them an in-
fringement of the rights of the states
and a violation of the spirit of our
government, which was intended to
- guarantee to all the right of free
thought and free speech. These were
the famous alien and sedition laws.
| The first of these gave the president
full power to order out of the United
States all citizens of foreign coun-
tries, visiting here, whom he might
BO GuEN ORT AnTne GARR: judge to be unsafe to peace and good

order, under penalty, in case of re-
turn, of being imprisoned as long as the president might
deem it necessary to public safety. This was investing the
chief officer of the republic with the authority of a mon-
arch, By the sedition law any citizen who might speak or
print any falsehood, scandal or malice against the government,
the president, or Congress, with intent to defame or excite
the hatred of the people against any of them, was made sub-
ject to fine and imprisonment. oe

21. This extraordinary legislation was instigated by the
conduct of citizen Genet and those who in this country favored


KENTUCKY A STATE, 155

his schemes to involve the United States in a war with England
for French advantage, and joined him in his abuse of the
president and Congress because of their wise and conservative
policy; but even the people of Kentucky, who hated the
British power and were grateful to the French, were not pre-
pared to indorse measures tending to a strong and somewhat
irresponsible central power.

22. In the Kentucky Legislature of 1798 (November 8th),
John Breckinridge introduced resolutions denying that the
Federal government had any power beyond that named ex-
pressly in the words of the constitution; that no authority
had been given to enact the alien and
sedition laws or similar ones; and
that a state was not bound to execute
the unconstitutional and offensive
laws of Congress. They met with
little opposition, and were adopted
almost unanimously. Copies were
sent to the other states, with the re- |
quest that they indorse them and join
in the effort to have Congress repeal :
the offensive acts. Most of the states
sent answers strongly condemning the aaa
resolutions. The legislature of 1799 youn BRECKINRIDGE.
slightly revised them, but the few op-
ponents of the doctrine laid down could not command sufficient
force to modify it in any material particular.

23. During the last three years of the century the feelings
of the people of Kentucky were again enlisted in behalf of
France. The latter country, having failed to form a league
with the United States against Great Britain, refused to respect
the neutral position assumed by the president and Congress,
and began to assail American trading vessels and a state of war
between the two countries actually existed on the seas. There
was a strong party in Kentucky that boldly opposed war with


156 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

their former ally. Their hostility to Great Britain was still
intense, and the failure of the Federal authorities to adjust
the difficulties with France amicably was attributed to ingrati-
tude towards those who had helped to gain American inde-
pendence, and to the absence of that feeling of animosity
toward England which they themselves felt. The enactment
of the alien and sedition laws and other unpopular legislation
on the part of Congress had much to do in producing oppo-
sition in Kentucky to the existing policy of the United States.

24. In Logan county, in 1799, began a most extraordinary
revival of religion, which spread over the entire state and
into Tennessee and continued for many years. It was char-
acterized by peculiar manifestations, which gave rise to
various and not always favorable comment; but it had a pro-
found meaning and beneficent uses.

25. Some features of the first constitution of Kentucky
proved unsatisfactory during a trial of five years, and in
1797 and 1798 elections were held to take the sense of the
people on the question of calling a convention to revise it.
The legislature of 1798 passed a law calling a convention for
this purpose. This met July 22d, 1799, and on the 17th of
August, the second constitution was reported, differing from
the first in a few important particulars—to go into operation
June Ist, 1800.

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, AND EXPLANATIONS.

I. Col. John Hardin.—The Hardin family has furnished
many eminent names to the history of Kentucky, pioneer and
state; but to none other of them attaches such melancholy
interest as to the good and gallant subject of this brief notice.
He was a descendant of one of three Huguenot brothers who
early in the eighteenth century came first to Canada, subse-

_ quently to the more salubrious climate of Virginia, and whose
posterity is now found among the prominent families of sev-
KENTUCKY A STATE. 157

eral states. John Hardin was born in Fauquier county, Vir-
ginia, October Ist, 1753. When he was twelve years old his
father removed to the borders of Pennsylvania and settled on
the Monongahela—a frontier, where hunting was an occupa-
tion, and where he became a most expert rifleman and acquired
that strength and endurance which were characteristic of the
most famous woodsmen. He was-ensign of a company in
Dunmore’s expedition, 1774; in August, 1775, he volunteered
for service with Col. Zach Morgan, and in an engagement with
Indians received a ball in his thigh, as he rested on one knee
to deliver fire, which ranged up, lodged near the groin, and
could never be extracted. Before he could dispense with
crutches because of this wound, he joined an expedition against
Indian towns. When the American Congress determined to
raise a force for war with Great Britain, he engaged in recruit-
ing, and in the company with which he joined the Continental
army he was second lieutenant. Subsequently he was
attached to Gen. Daniel Morgan’s rifle corps, and was pro-
moted to first lieutenant. Morgan held him in high esteem
and employed him in enterprises requiring judgment and cool
but intrepid courage. ‘ Once he was sent out with a party to
reconnoiter, with orders to take a prisoner from whom to
obtain information, and when ahead of his detachment, and
alone, he found himself, on reaching the summit of a hill, con-
fronted by three British soldiers and a Mohawk Indian.
Without hesitation he raised his rifle and ordered them to sur-
render. The white men threw down their arms, but the Indian
clubbed his gun, and they remained motionless while he
advanced on them. None of the men having come to his assist-
ance he turned his head slightly and called to them to come on.
The Indian, seeing Hardin’s eye withdrawn, instantly brought
his rifle to bear, but Hardin caught a gleam of light from the
polished barrel, fired without levelling his piece, and gave him
a mortal wound as the Indian’s bullet passed through his hair.
He marched the British soldiers to the camp of General Gates,
who. complimented him on the exploit. In 1779she was offered
amajor’s commission, but for some reason he declined this
and also resigned his lieutenancy; and in 1780 he was in Ken-
tucky, locating lands on treasury warrants, for himself and
friends. In 1786 he removed his family to what was after-
ward Washington county. He accompanied Clark’s Wahash


158 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

expedition, that year, as quartermaster; in 1789 he was
appointed county lieutenant, with the rank of colonel; made a
successful expedition across the Ohio, with two hundred men,
to break up prowling bodies of Indians, recover stolen horses,
and prevent the recurrence of such theft. With one exception
he was on every expedition against the Indians from the time
he settled in Kentucky until 1792, and failed the one time
only because he was disabled by accidental wound. In the
spring of 1792 he was sent by General Wilkinson to the vil-
lages on the Miami to propose a treaty of peace. Attended
by an Indian interpreter, and bearing a flag of truce, he was
within a few miles of his destination, when he was overtaken
by a few Indians who proposed camping with him and going
with him next day to their chiefs. During the night they
murdered him, in order to possess themselves, as has been
deemed most probable, of his valuable horse and equipments.
He has been described as a man of ‘‘unassuming manners and
great gentleness of deportment, yet of singular inflexibility.
For several years previous to his death he was a member of
the Methodist Church.”’

II. The First Preachers and First Churches. = arene
the very foundation stones of the commonwealth were churches
organized by the leading religious denominations of that day;
and literally ‘‘the groves were God’s first temples’’ in Ken-
tucky. Brave and devoted ministers of the gospel came with
the earliest settlers and shared with them their dangers and
privations while they conquered the wilderness.

The Rey. John Lythe, of the Episcopal Church, came in
1774, and he has been regarded as the first preacher to cross
the mountains. He was one of the Harrodstown delegates to
the Transylvania .convention, and Aa eed divine service
when that body met to organize ( 28rd, 1775). On the
28th, according to Henderson’s Stil ‘‘divine service for
the first time in Kentucky was performed by the Rev. John
Lythe,’’ inthe open air, underthe great elm at Boonesborough.
The service of the 23rd, it is inferred, was simply one of
prayer. An Episcopal church was formed in Lexington in
1794, but there was no organized parish till 1809.

The first Baptist ministers were the Rev. Peter Tinsley and
the Rev. Wm. Hickman, and in May, 1776, Tinsley preached
the first Baptist sermon, in the shade of a great elm at the
KENTUCKY A STATE, 159

big spring, now in the corporate limits of Harrodsburgh. He
was immediately followed by Hickman; and the latter is
regarded as in fact the first Baptist minister in the state, as he
remained several months, engaged in his calling, and in 1784
took up his permanent residence here and spent his life in the
service, while of Tinsley nothing more is recorded. The first
organized Baptist church was that of the Rev. Lewis Craig, at
Craig’s Station, on Gilbert’s creek, in Garrard county, a few
miles east of Lancaster. This church was organized in Spott-
sylvania county, Virginia, and the members travelled together
to Kentucky—a church on the road, regularly constituted for
“business as well as worship. ‘The first one organized in Ken-
tucky (1783) was on South Elkhorn, five miles south of
Lexington.

The Rev. David Rice was the first Presbyterian minister to
come to Kentucky. He came in 1783; and_the first congre-
gations he organized were at Danville, Cane Run, and the
forks of Dick’s river. The Transylvania presbytery held its
first meeting at Danville, October 17th, 1786.

The first Methodist-Episcopal church was organized in the
cabin of Thomas Stevenson, between two and three miles
southwest from Washington, Mason county, by the Rev.
Benjamin Ogden, in 1786. He and the Rev. James Haw
were the first preachers.

The first Roman Catholics came in 1775, and by 1787 there
were about fifty Catholic families, chiefly in Marion and
Nelson counties, and their first clergyman ~was the Rev.
Father Whelan, who stayed three years. The Rey. Father
Stephen Theodore Badin then came, and entered permanently
upon a widely extended and arduous work.

These may be regarded as essentially the pioneer churches,
under charge of capable, pious, and brave men, who were
every way equal to the demands of the times. The move-
ment that resulted in establishment of the Church of the Dis-
ciples, or Christian Church, began in Kentucky as early as
1801, but no distinctive churches were organized for some
years after Elders Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell,
and Barton W. Stone began the discussions which brought
about a separation from the Presbyterian and the Baptist
churches. :

The formal separation of the Cumberland Presbyterian
Church from the older body did not take place till February
~~

160 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

4th, 1810, when the Independent Presbytery was organized
by the Revs. Samuel McAdoo, Finis Ewing, and Samuel King.

Besides those ministers of the gospel mentioned above as
being the founders of the earliest churches, Kentucky has hae

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many subsequently who have been famous as pioneer evange-
lists, pulpit orators, and of such marked originality and
force of character as to leave their impress upon society not
only in their own state but in the whole western and southern
country. Among these may be mentioned the Rey, Andrew
KENTUCKY A STATE, 161

Tribble, of the Baptist Church, the Rev. Charles Nerinckx
and Bishop Martin John Spalding, of the Catholic Church,
the Rev. Francis Clark,-the founder of Methodism in Ken-
tucky, and Bishop H. H. Kavanaugh of that church, whose
fame was co-extensive with the Union, the Rev. Robert J.
Breckinridge, of the Presbyterian Church, the Rev. Thomas P.
Dudley, of the Particular Baptist Church, Elder John Smith,
of the Christian Church, the Rev. Henry B. Bascom, of the
Methodist Church, and the Rey. Peter Cartwright, also a
Methodist, a Logan county man, who boldly carried the gospel
to the remotest settlements, maintained himself by sheer force
of indomitable courage and physical prowess among the most.
desperate classes of society, and established churches and
Sunday-schools in fields where even law officers found it
impossible to execute their functions.

Ill. A Fleet-Footed Woman.—Among the earliest settlers
in Whitley county were Joseph Johnson and his father, who
built their houses about one hundred and fifty yards apart, on
Lynn Camp creek. One evening just before dark three
Cherokees entered the house of Joseph Johnson when he was
alone and killed him with their tomahawks and knives. His
wife was out milking the cows and knew nothing of the
murder of her husband until she returned to the door. See-
ing him down and the savages still striking him with their
weapons, she dropped her milk, and fled towards her father-
in-law’s house. One of the Indians, who had sprung towards
her with his tomahawk when she reached her own door, pur-
sued; but she was young and active and kept ahead. Reach-
ing the yard-fence of the elder Johnson she cleared it with a
bound. The savage was near enough to aim an unsuccessful
blow at her head; but seeing that she had escaped him he
yelled with rage and disappointment and disappeared.

IV. Story of a Lincoln County Family.—A year or two
after the close of the revolutionary war, a Mr. Woods was
living near Crab Orchard, with his wife, one daughter (said
to have been ten years old), and alame negro man. Early
one morning, her husband being away from home, Mrs.
Woods, when a short distance from the house, discovered
seven or eight Indians in ambush. She ran back into the
house, so closely pursued that before she could fasten the
door one of the savages forced his way in. The negro instantly

11
162 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

seized him and in the scuffle the Indian threw him, falling on
top. The negro held him in a strong grasp and called to the
girl to take an ax which was in the room and kill him. This
she did by two well-aimed blows; and the negro then asked
Mrs. Woods to let in another, that he with the ax might dis-
patch him as he came, and so, one by one, kill them all. By
this time, however, some men from the station near by, hav-
ing discovered that the house was attacked, had come up and
opened fire on the savages, by which one was killed and the
others put to flight.

V. Gen. Peter Muhlenberg.—Muhlenberg was at no time
a resident of Kentucky; but his name and his deeds are of
interest to us because some of the gallant members of his
church who followed him when he left his pulpit to fight for
independence had grants of land for military service, which
they located on and below Green river, soon after the close of
the revolution, and made their homes in what are now Muhl-
enberg, McLean, and Ohio counties. One of them, the Hon.
Henry Rhoads, was a member of the legislature in 1798,
when Muhlenberg county was established, and procured it to
be named in honor of his pastor and general. When the war
began the Rev. Peter Muhlenberg, then a young man, was
pastor of a German Lutheran church at Woodstock, Virginia,
though he was a native of Pennsylvania. In 1776 he was
authorized to raise a regiment among the Germans of the
Shenandoah valley, and was commissioned colonel. Having
enlisted his command (the 8th Virginia, called also the ‘‘Ger-
man regiment’’), he entered the pulpit with his sword and
cockade and preached his farewell sermon. On the day fol-
lowing he set out with his men to join the army. In 1777 he
was commissioned brigadier-general. After the war he was
for several years state treasurer of Pennsylvania, and served
three terms in Congress. Through the influence of one to
whom he had been a pastor in peace and a valiant captain
in the fight for freedom his ever-enduring monument (a
county’s name) was erected, not in his own land, but in the
wilderness of Kentucky. ‘

VI. Pioneer Women.—Among all the sufferers at the -
hands of the Indians, none bore heavier sorrows and received
less credit for them than the pioneer women. * * *
Who has ever heard of the. many brave ones who resisted
KENTUCKY A STATE. 163

or succumbed to the tomahawk and the scalping-knife?
While their husbands fired from the loop-holes of the forts
upon the besieging enemy, their wives moulded the bullets
with which the guns were loaded. They guarded. the forts
while the men were fighting the Indians elsewhere or hunting
the game. When death took a pioneer from his toils, it was
the women who wrapped him in his coarse shroud and laid
him in his rough coffin and wetted his obscure grave with
their tears. They were the doctors of the times; and while
their remedies for wounds and diseases seem strange to
modern science, they were thought to work wonderful cures
in their day. From their home in the old settlement they
brought religious feelings, and when the itinerant preacher
turned the hour-glass for the second or third time and still
went on, they never grew weary of him but heard the words
of the good man to the end, and remembered them. Col-
lectively and individually they showed a courage on trying
occasions of which men might well be proud.—Reuben T.
Durrett.

VIL. Elector of Senate.—This term, so frequently used in
speaking of men who held public position in the early years
of the state, needs to be explained. It was a peculiar provision
of the first constitution. This divided the legislature into
the two usual branches, a Senate and House of Representa-
tives. Representation was to be in proportion to the number
of inhabitants in a county, instead of one member from each
county or legislative district, so that in the legislature which
assembled June 4th, 1792, Fayette, having the greatest popu-
lation, had nine members, while Mason, which had least pop-
ulation, had only two. These representatives were to be
elected annually by the free white vote. Senators (one for
each county and two extra ones for the state at large) were
chosen by electors. The first electors were chosen at the
same time as the representatives, and in equal number, to
serve four years. They were to constitute a college for the
choice of one senator for each'county and two extra ones for
the state at large, and also to elect a governor, whose term
was likewise four years. The first General Assembly con-
sisted of forty in the house, with nine regular and two extra
in the senate. The second constitution dispensed with this
college of electors, and provided for the election of governor
and senators by direct vote of the people.
164 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CHAPTER X.

THE BANK OF KENTUCKY.—THE BURR CONSPIRACY.—KENTUCKY
IN THE BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE, ETC.
1800-1811.

1. The new constitution did not render a governor ineligible
for a succeeding term, and in 1800 James Garrard was again
elected.

2. The legislature of 1801-2 passed an act to which it
is worth while to call your attention, even in this brief
account of the rise and progress of the commonwealth, since
it gave the people their first experience in banking—an expe-
rience which afterward resulted in monetary derangement and
general distress. Their trouble with Continental money (paper
currency, which became so worthless before the close of the
revolution that it required a thousand dollars to get one of
silver or gold) had led them to distrust bank notes, and the
greater part of them were strongly prejudiced against them.
A company at Lexington was chartered to insure the produce
of the state on its passage to market, and authorized to take
and give bills, which would pass by indorsement, and these
were essentially bank bills, though this feature of the act
seems to have been misunderstood at the time. In 1807 the
company was regularly chartered as the Bank of Kentucky.

8. The most exciting event during Garrard’s second term
was the suspension (1802) of the right of deposit at New
Orleans, noticed in preceding chapter as having been granted
by Spain in 1795, It had been continued for seven years, and
there was a further provision in the treaty that if this should
be withheld, another place, somewhere near the mouth of the
Mississippi, should be granted. This was now refused by the
Spanish governor, in arbitrary violation of the treaty, and the
whole western country was seriously affected; Kentucky was
THE BURR CONSPIRACY. 165

deprived of a profitable market for her produce, and again
aroused on the oft-recurring question of being allowed the
unrestricted use of the great river.

4..In October, 1800, Spain had ceded to France the
Louisiana territory, west of the river but was still allowed to
control navigation as far as her own ports were concerned.
In the spring of 1803, however, the United States purchased
Louisiana from the French emperor, and soon organized that
part of it embracing the present state of Louisiana, The pos-
session of the Mississippi was now no longer in dispute. The
temporary inconvenience and injury to Kentucky was removed
and the excitement subsided.

5. During the administration of Gov. Christopher Greenup
(1804-1808), events of startling interest occurred—one of
which, the Burr conspiracy, may be noticed somewhat in
detail.

6. During the year 1805 Aaron Burr came to Kentucky for
the first time, in the prosecution of his celebrated scheme to
set up an empire in the west and southwest. His sinister
efforts to involve Kentuckians in his conspiracy, and possibly
to detach the state from the Federal Union, connected him for
a brief period with our history.

7. During this first visit he was at Lexington and Louis-
ville; went thence to Nashville, St. Louis, Natchez, and New
Orleans; then came back to Lexington where he spent sometime.
There was no special development this year; but in 1806 he
reappeared in Kentucky and Tennessee, and matters assumed
such shape that the United States attorney for the district
of Kentucky, Col. Joseph Hamilton Daveiss, whose suspicions
had been aroused and who had been watching and making
quiet investigation, appeared before the District Court at
Frankfort (November 3rd, 1806), and moved for a process
to compel Burr to attend and answer a charge of high misde-
meanor in organizing within the territory and jurisdiction of
the United States a military expedition against a friendly
166 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

power. The motion was based upon a sworn statement by
Colonel Daveiss, accurately setting forth the preparations
being made by the accused, and alleging what afterward
proved to be correct as to Burr’s design.

8. There was a great sensation. Daveiss was admired for
his splendid powers, his integrity, and his patriotism; but
Burr had made himself popular in Kentucky, and the affidavit
was so startling that the presiding judge took time to consider.
Two days afterward he overruled the motion. Meanwhile
Burr had come from Lexington, and now appeared on his own
motion before the court and in a captivating speech still
further prepossessed the auditors in
his favor. He asked the judge to re-
consider and entertain the motion at
once.

9. Accordingly a day was fixed for
the investigation. When the case was
Z called, Daveiss found that an import-
ant witness was absent and asked a
postponement, whereupon the grand-
Sige g jury was instantly discharged; but

= FT Burr insisted upon giving his accuser
SY one more opportunity to prove his
HAMILTON pavntss, Charges, This being granted and De-
cember 2nd fixed as the time, the case
came up, but now another important witness was gone. The
day was spent mainly in a spirited contest between the prose-
cutor and one of Burr’s counsel, Henry Clay, over questions
of law and procedure; on the next day the grand jury began
the examination of witnesses; and two days afterward they
not only reported ‘‘not a true bill,’’ but sent in a written
declaration, signed by the whole panel, which completely
exonerated Burr.

10. The able, vigilant, patriotic attorney was beaten. The

majority of the people were infatuated in favor of the unprin-








THE BURR CONSPIRACY. 167

cipled adventurer; and they now regarded the efforts of Col-
onel Daveiss as having been prompted by political animosity,
which had led him to persecute an innocent man. Burr’s
acquittal was celebrated at Frankfort, December 26th, by a
brilliant ball. One was given in honor of the baffled prose-
cutor, by friends who believed that he was right; but the auda-
cious conspirator seemed to be triumphant. Daveiss had not
long to wait, however, for his vindication. Almost imme-
diately after the congratulatory ball was over, a proclamation
reached Frankfort denouncing Burr’s enterprise and warning
the west against it. A law had already been passed by the
Ohio Legislature under which ten boats, loaded with supplies
for an expedition southward, had been seized. The Kentucky
Legislature immediately passed a similar act to seize boats
which had eluded the Ohio authorities and were then descend-
ing the river. Burr had left Kentucky and was on his way
south,

11. His amazing mendacity can be gathered from this
smple recital: He had engaged two eminent and honorable
gentlemen, Henry Clayand John Allen, to defendhim. Before
undertaking the case Mr. Clay required of him an explicit
disavowal, upon his honor, of any sinister design. On the
lst of December, a week after the president had issued his
proclamation, he declared in a carefully-worded, comprehen-
sive, and apparently earnest statement, that he was not and
had not been engaged in any enterprise inimical to the peace
and dignity of the United States or in violation of the laws.
At the very time he was in court, an armed force in his
service, occupied Blannerhassett’s Island in the Ohio, and
boat-loads of munitions of war were starting down the river.
More than four months previous he had written to some of
his adherents and verbally unfolded to others the main feat-
ures of his preliminary plan, and indicated the preparations
already made.
168 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

i2. If his entire scheme was clearly defined in his own
mind, he was crafty enough to withhold from his trusted
adherents its full scope, or else some who were involved were
better informed than has ever been made to appear. It seems
to have contemplated taking from Spain some portions of her
possessions on the Gulf of Mexico and also the southwestern
part of the United States, embracing New Orleans, in the
recently purchased territory of Louisiana. It is probable
that, in case of succeeding in this, he meant to detach from
the United States the whole country west of the Alleghanies,

13. One feature of his enterprise with which the history of
Kentucky has to do, in addition to the failure of Daveiss’
efforts to bring him to justice, is the fact that some of her
citizens, men prominent in arms and in her civil councils, were
sufficiently identified with him to bring them under the sus-
picion of having been fully committed to his scheme and in
active co-operation with him. In a work of this scope all
recorded facts cannot be given in detail and evidence weighed.
Without this, there is danger of doing injustice to the memory
of honorable and useful men by merely naming them in this
connection. You should study this remarkable episode, how-
ever, in more elaborate works. In doing so you should note
in the outset the great probability that in dealing with Ken-
tuckians Burr used the plausible argument that he was planning
an expedition to seize Spanish provinces only, and that such
a scheme was not inconsistent with the interests of the United
States. It may be presumed that to the less informed and
more impetuous and warlike spirits he represented that as
Spain was known to be unfriendly because of the transfer of
Louisiana, the Federal government would even countenance
an enterprise designed to punish her by seizing her American
territory. It was known that in the spring of 1806, Spanish
troops, with apparently hostile purpose, had advanced to the
Sabine river, the southwestern boundary of the United States,
THE BURR CONSPIRACY. 169

and that General Wilkinson, commanding our forces in that
quarter, had orders to prevent their crossing.

14. While it is known that some prominent Kentuckians
favored Burr’s proposed expedition against Spanish provinces,
it is not established that they were committed to a conspiracy
to separate Kentucky from the Atlantic states. When he was
unmasked, a reaction set in and the late favorite was bitterly
denounced. In the excitement some leading men were charged
with guilty complicity with him and with Spanish intriguers
before he came, and their fair fame was temporarily obscured;
but investigation failed to displace them in the esteem and confi-
dence of their fellow-citizens or to terminate their usefulness.

15. In one instance, however, criminality was proved, and
a public man, hitherto high in the confidence of the people,
was disgraced. Benjamin Sebastian had been for many years
on of the judges of the Court of Appeals. He had been
known to hold communication with the Spanish agent, Power,
in 1795 and 1797; and in the agitation consequent upon the
trial of Burr and the disclosure of his schemes, Sebastian was .
charged with complicity in the latter. He resigned his office
to prevent action by the legislature; but the matter was
pressed to investigation, and though nothing appeared as to
his connection with Burr, it was proved that for about ten
years he had received from the Spanish government an annual
pension of two thousand dollars. Inquiries into the conduct
of accused persons and the conviction of this one were the
last acts in the Spanish conspiracy.

16. During the administration of Gov. Charles Scott (1808
1812), General Harrison, the governor and military com-
mandant of the Northwest Territory, with headquarters at
Vincennes, made a campaign against Indian tribes under the
Prophet, a brother to the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, which
resulted in the battle of Tippecanoe, November 7th, 1811.
Numerous depredations had been committed during the year,
on the frontier settlers in Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, and
170 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

it had been found impossible to bring them to terms. The
president of the United States sent to General Harrison a regi-
ment of regulars and directed him to increase the force by
militia, and take measures for the defense of the citizens.

17. When it was known that he was authorized to march
against the warriors assembled on the upper waters of the
Wabash, a number of Kentuckians
volunteered their services and joined
, the expedition. Among them were
Joseph Hamilton Daveiss, Gen. Sam-
uel Wells, Colonel Keiger, and Col.
Abraham Owen. Keiger had raised
{a company of young men around
Louisville, among whom were several
who were afterward distinguished
H//) | | officers in the United States army—
oe Croghan, Chum, Edwards, Meade,
Fallon, Sanders, and Shipp. In the
battle of Tippecanoe were about sixty
Kentuckians, who fought heroically and effectively. The vic-
tory was decisive, but among the killed were two gallant sol-
diers and honored citizens whom Kentucky could ill spare—
Daveiss and Owen.












SENATOR GEO. M. BIBB.

PERSONAL SKETCHES, ETC,

I. Gen. Charles Scott.—Of the life and character of this
noble old soldier, pioneer citizen, and statesman, nothing more
need be said than is found in Col. (afterward Major-General )
Thomas L. Crittenden’s address on the occasion of the re inter-
ment, November 8th, 1854: ‘*A hundred years ago these poor
remains were clothed with the manly form of Corporal Charles
Scott, and the soldier’s heart, that ever stirred in his bosom,
was stirred by the clang of arms and the terrible battle-cry.
In 1775, side by side with Washington, he fought in that dis-
r
THE BURR CONSPIRACY. 171

astrous battle which resulted in Braddock’s defeat and death.
* * * * When the great struggle of the revolution
began, he took at once, and manfully, as he did everything,
the side of justice and freedom. He raised the first company
south of James river that entered into actual service. He so
distinguished himself that a county in Virginia was named
for him as early as 1777. Soon after this—to put the very
stamp and seal of genuine patriotism and all soldierly qualities
upon him—Washington himself appointed him to the com-
mand of a regiment in the Continental line. Very soon we
find him a brigadier-general at the battles of Monmouth and
Charleston. * * * * Just hereand there, in times when
none but men are wanted, and at places i
where none but men are found, you
will see his name. Starting as he did
under the eye of Washington, and
from the ranks, it is clear that his
rapid and distinguished promotion was
the result of good conduct and true /(!) é
merit. After almost thirty years of |j
fighting, from the beginning of the i i
French and Indian wars to the close,
of our wonderful revolution, Genera
Scott removed to Kentucky (1785),
and settled in Woodford county. The
Indians continued their depredations,
and the veteran soldier could not re-
pose even upon all his laurels while the
women and children of his adopted state were exposed to mur-
derous and merciless savages. In 1791 he was with General St.
Clair at what has been well called a second Braddock’s defeat.
In 1793, seconded by General Wilkinson, he commanded a corps
of horsemen in a successful expedition against the Indian towns
onthe Wabash. In 1794 he commanded a portion of Wayne’s
army at the battle of Fallen Timber, where the most effective
and brilliant victory was gained. And now, after almost forty
years of warfare, the peaceful life of General Scott may be said
tobegin. * * * * Hethought but little of himself. No
intrigue or art was ever used by him to exalt himself in the
public estimation. He felt the impulse and he played his part.
In 1808, when most of his life was spent, and arduous services








GENERAL AND GOVERNOR
CHARLES SCOTT.
172 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

had wasted the strength and vigor of his manly form, though
his intellect was still unimpaired, he stood before the highest
tribunal of the state—the whole sovereign people; and they
pronounced him their chief man. No eloquence, no flattering
tongue, besought their support. The old soldier, with mod-
esty unfeigned and real as his merit, thought the office of
governor too high for his ability, and too great a reward for
his services. In the honesty of his soul, he bluntly told the
people, in the brief speeches he made to them, that his com-
petitor was far better qualified for the position than he, but
that if they should be foolish enough to elect him, he would
do his best for them. He was almost unanimously elected;
and the same singleness of purpose, the same fidelity to his
country, which had marked his military conduct, distinguished
his administration. He was governor when the war of 1812
was declared, and one of his last official acts was to commission
William Henry Harrison as major-general and so give him
command of Kentucky troops. * * * * Let us remem-
ber that Scott was a chief, even among the wondrous men of
the revolution—and that these men purchased all our blessings
by the hardships they endured, the bravery with which they
encountered every danger, and by the blood they spilt. No
living man can rightly claim so much gratitude from his
countrymen, on the score of hard and perilous services ren-
dered, as General and Governor Charles Scott.’’ :
II. Squire Boone.—In the history of Kentucky this man
has been awarded an inferior place, as compared with his
brother, with Clark, Kenton, Harrod, Logan, and others; but
in some respects he deserves to be ranked among the noblest
of our pioneers. He was not self-assertive and desirous of.
prominence, but was content to do faithfully and courageously
whatever he found it necessary to do; and such men seldom
find their names blazoned among those whose fortune it is to
be recognized as leaders. A study of his conduct leads us to
conclude that he was a brave and indomitable fighter and at
the same time gentle and affectionate. While his feelings
and convictions marked him as a strong character, he was
simple-hearted, trustful, and religious. He preached occa-
sionally; and it appears that he had not only the confidence
of his fellow-pioneers, but some gift of speech, as he was
made one of the delegates to represent Boonesborough at the
THE BURR CONSPIRACY. 173

convention of May 23d, 1775, and after Kentucky was organ-
ized as a county of Virginia, he was elected a representative to
the Virginia Legislature. It is by no means certain that his
first visit to Kentucky (which determined his future) was not
rather owing to affection for his long-absent brother and
sympathy with that brother’s family than to any selfish or
roving disposition. He was wounded in the shoulder during
the siege of Boonesborough; in defense of his settlement,
Painted Stone, he was shot in the breast and one arm;
and while moving his people temporarily to the Beargrass,
1781, he was again shot. After Kentucky became a state
and courts of law were established, he, like his noble com-
rades, Daniel Boone and Simon Kenton, was deprived of all
his real estate through mere legal technicalities. At one
time he was even arrested for debts which he could not pay,
and escaped a debtor’s prison only through the interference
of generous friends. In 1806 he left the state which for
more than thirty-five years he had served so well, and located
with his family and five great-nephews at what was aftér-
ward known as Boone’s settlement, in what is now Harrison
county, Indiana, about twenty-five miles northwest of Louis-
ville; and in 1815, aged about seventy-eight years, he died at
this new: home. He was buried, as he had requested, in a
cave, on an eminence that commanded a wide and picturesque
view.

IIL, Edmund Rogers.—This was one of the earliest and
most distinguished of the pioneers who passed beyond Mul-
draugh’s Hill and made settlements southward and westward
of Green river—a man of mind, a man of character, who left
his impress upon the times and upon the subsequent dwellers
in that region. He was born in Caroline county, Virginia,
May Sth, 1762; was of gentle blood, of considerable scholas-
tic attainments, and before seeking the wilderness in search of
a new home had done a patriot’s part in the war of independ-
ence. When eighteen years of age he was serving in his
native state; fought at Green Springs and Jamestown, and
was at the siege of Yorktown where the British power was
finally broken. Under the acts of Congress he was entitled to
a pension but refused to apply for it. In 1783 he came to Ken-
tucky, and during that fall began surveying the lands in
Indiana, opposite Louisville, which Virginia had granted to the
174 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

conqueror of the Northwest Territory, his cousin, Gen. George
Rogers Clark, and his soldiers—the lands then known as the
Illinois grant. In 1784 he went south of the Green river and
that year and subsequently made most of the surveys on Big
and Little Barren rivers. He settled upon a tract of land on
which he afterward (1800) laid out the town of Edmunton.
In 1808 he married Miss Mary Shirley, and to them were born
seven daughters’ and a son, John T. Rogers. While rearing
and educating these he extended a like service to an orphaned
nephew, Joseph Rogers Underwood, afterward an eminent
jurist and statesman. He was a pure, upright, generous-
hearted man, a true friend to the worthy, and helpful in time
of need, but openly intolerant of injustice, under whatever
guise. He died in his eighty-second year, August 28th, 1843,
and was buried near Edmunton, beside his wife, whose death
occurred eight years before.

IV. Aaron Burr.—Of this man who projected himself into
the affairs of Kentucky with evil design and is known chiefly
because of his ‘‘bad eminence,’’ but little need be said to give
the reader additional view of him than that which is afforded
by the preceding account of his schemes.

He was Vice-President of the United States during Jeffer-
son’s first term (1801-05), and he had been ambitious of first
place; was at variance with the president and other leading
men of the party to which he owed his elevation; had been
defeated as independent candidate for governor of New York,
in opposition to the regular nominee; charged his defeat to the
active influence of Alexander Hamilton, with whom he pro-
voked a duel in which he killed that illustrious statesman.
Ambitious of power and being now odious in the Atlantic
states he turned his attention to the west. He was a man of
extraordinary accomplishments and of fascinating manners,
and for atime wielded an influence in the west which was per-
nicious, and, to one family at least, destructive. Harman
Blennerhassett, a wealthy Irish gentleman, who lived in ele-
gant retirement, with an accomplished and beautiful wife, on —
an island in the Ohio river, below the mouth of the Muskin-
gum, he involved in his conspiracy and ruined. His intro-
duction into the home of this happy but too credulous couple
has fitly been compared to the entrance of Satan into Paradise.
He seems to have modelled his character on Lord Chesterfield,
THE BURR CONSPIRACY. 175

whose life and writings had produced at least one crop of
polished British scoundrels and extended their baleful influ-
ence in some degree to America. There are evidences warrant-
ing the conclusion that his much-talked-of boldness of design
was not based upon a conciousness of power to plan and exe-
cute a great movement, but upon a settled belief that lying,
accompanied by a captivating demeanor, was a fine art, by the
cunning exercise of which he could hoodwink authorities and
mould the western pioneers to his will. A graphic Kentucky
historian, Shaler, aptly describes one of his prominent char-
acteristics when he says of him ‘‘he was a measureless liar.”’

In February, 1807, he was arrested in Alabama, and was
tried in Richmond, Virginia, on a charge of treason. The ver-
dict was, ‘‘Not guilty, for want of sufficient proof.’’? Under an
assumed name he fled from the country, but a few years after-
ward he came back to New York and resumed the practice of
law. He died in extreme old age, alone, and in abject poverty.

V. Gen. Thomas Fletcher.—When Kenton was on the
streets of Frankfort in 1824, having arrived on horseback
from his Ohio home, not knowing that he had an acquaintance
in town and being in need of a friend, Fletcher chanced to
meet and recognize him. He quickly ceased to be the appar-
ently obscure and neglected stranger. The general, who had
known him while both were serving with Governor Shelby in
Harrison’s army (1813) had him fitted out with a becoming suit
of clothes and introduced him to his friends. The people
testified to his worth by flocking eagerly to see him, and make
him welcome, so that he was the hero of the time. General
Fletcher, a citizen of Bath county, was himself a man of
mark—an officer of Kentucky troops during the northwestern
campaigns, and afterward serving as a member of Congress and
frequently representing his people in the General Assembly.
His father served with LaFayette in the revolutionary army,
and was wounded in a sally from Fort Erie when that place
was besieged. His negro servant was awarded his freedom
for running to him when he fell in the fight and carrying him
back into the fort. Gen. Thomas Fletcher visited Europe
several times and was the guest of his father’s distinguished
comrade, the noble LaFayette. His mother was the youngest
sister of the great artist Benjamin West. In addition to his
own earnings, Fletcher had a large bequest of Jands from a
176 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

friend, the Hon. John Fowler, who for ten years (1797-1807)
represented a Kentucky district in Congress; and a magnifi-
cent brick residence which he erected near Sharpsburgh is
still standing. ;

VI. The Treatment of the Boones and Simon Kenton.—
It has been the fashion with writers and speakers not only to

sept
=

NT











































































irr











Ni
N

rT
GTN

KENTON AND FLETCHER.

inveigh against the manner in which these men were deprived
of their lands and so harassed by suits for the recovery of
debts that they sought in other states the peace and security
denied them in their own, but to make the impression that it
has left a stigma upon the State of Kentucky. This is unjust
and unwarranted, That they were deprived of their posses-
THE BURR CONSPIRACY. 177

sions through mere forms of law is indisputable; but law is
the safeguard of property, and where its forms are disre-
garded by those who set up ownership, it is unreasonable to
suppose that a sense of justice will restrain the cupidity of
individuals or invoke the corporate power of the state to pro-
tect them, however meritorious they may be because of self-
sacrificing public service. In every community may be found
‘“‘the desperate, hardened, wicked few who have no check but
human law,’’ and the brave and generous old pioneers but
suffered the inevitable consequences of their own ignorance of
the ways of a self-seeking world, and their lack of worldly
wisdom would have appealed to noble hearts to spare them;
but rapacious land-grabbers were insensible to merit and
incapable of appreciating the claims of those who had given
their lives, as it were, to make possible the peaceable posses-
sion of a magnificent territory, where millions might now find
homes without robbing their benefactors. But to cry shame
on the state because of the conduct of a few is to stigmatize a
great people for having numbered among them certain con-
scienceless scoundrels who robbed under cover of law but in
defiance of right. Untaught, simple-minded, trusting as he
was, the nobility of soul that dwelt in Kenton shone out in
the subsequent occasional manifestations of feeling which are
recorded of him. He seemed to apprehend, with some clear-
ness, that the great wrong which had been done him was in
some sort his own fault, and to refrain from whining. Collins
says of him: ‘‘He never repined; and such was his exalted
patriotism that he would not suffer others to upbraid his
country in his presence without expressing a degree of anger
which was altogether foreign to his usual mild and amiable
manner.’’ And when, an old man, he came from his home in
Ohio to Frankfort, and was treated by the legislature and the
citizens with that marked respect which was yet far below his
dues, he felt that he had been so honored and rewarded that
‘cit was the proudest day of his )ife.’’

VII. Cut Money.—Before Kentucky attained to statehood,
and for a long time afterward, but little coin was in use, and
exchange of commodities was effected by barter. When mer-
chantable products increased to such an extent as to furnish
a surplus for keel-boat shipment to the cities on the lower

12
178 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Mississippi, the Spanish silver dollar was received in payment
and became current coin. Small change was supplied by cut-
ting the dollar into halves, quarters, eighths, and sixteenths.
This ‘‘cut money’’ was used in Kentucky as a medium of
exchange long after small silver currency began to be sup-
plied by the United States mints.
KENTUCKY IN THE WAR OF 1812. 179

CHAPTER XI.
KENTUCKY IN THE WAR OF 1812.

1. British insults and aggressions on the seas were the
leading cause of a second war with that great power. To
these were added the injuries inflicted on settlers in the
northwest by Indians, who were incited to their invasions,
robberies, and outrages by British colonists in Canada, along
our north and northeastern frontier, and by the English
officers in charge of their garrisons there.

2. Nearly thirty years had now elapsed since the termina-
tion of the war of independence; and during all that period
Americans had been made to feel that the English govern-
ment was at least unfriendly, if not desirous of provoking a
war with the young republic. This had been steadily growing
in importance in the matter of trade with foreign nations by
sea. France and England were natural rivals, and for years
they had been at war. A brief explanation will enable you
to understand how this circumstance gave American trading
vessels great advantage and yet subjected them to propor-
tionately great danger: France and England had each
declared the ports of the other in a state of blockade; that is,
each stationed men-of-war in the neighborhood of the other’s
ports, to seize the vessels of nations not at war with either if
they should attempt to enter these ports for trading purposes.

8. As French and English merchant ships were the lawful
prey of the respective powers, under the rules of war, while
those sailing under the American flag were exempt from
molestation except in case of entering the blockaded ports, it
is easy to see that American commerce thrived. . Before the
beginning of the war of 1812, the United States had grown
to be the grestest commercial power in the world except
England,
180 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

4. On the English theory that ‘‘once a Briton always a
Briton,’’ the English government had for many years author-
ized her armed vessels to search American ships and take
therefrom all who were suspected of being British subjects.
All who were thus seized were impressed into the English
navy, without inquiry as to their citizenship. Among these
were many who were either native-born or naturalized Ameri-
cans. Remonstrances on the part of the United’ States,
demands for reparation, all efforts to bring about amicable
adjustment, were either disregarded or insolently spurned.
The conduct of the British government was not only in viola-
tion of the law of nations and unjust, but was arrogant and
insulting, Notwithstanding the blockade, however, Ameri-
cans persisted in trying to carry on trade with the French
people, for whom they felt a strong sympathy and attachment ;
and about a thousand American vessels were seized by British
ships of war, and American seamen were impressed into the
English naval service.

5. At length, however, when appeals for justice and remon-
strance against open violation of her rights seemed to have no
effect but to encourage arrogance, the United States declared
war. The president’s proclamation was issued June 20th,
1812. We come now to notice briefly Kentucky’s part in this
conflict.

6. Among Kentuckians the sentiment in favor of war had
for some years been almost unanimous, and the feeling was
more intense here than elsewhere. The bitter animosities
of the revolution had been kept alive, as previously indicated,
by the conduct of British officers on the Canadian border in
secretly bribing the Indians to continue their depredations
on the western settlers.

7. When the president called for a hundred thousand mili-
tia, Kentucky’s quota was fixed at fifty-five hundred. Seven
thousand volunteers quickly offered their services, and these
were organized into ten regiments, Fifteen hundred men
KENTUCKY IN THE war or 1812. 181

were to be sent at once to the aid of General Hull at Detroit.
The volunteering for this special service was so enthusiastic that
when the brigade was organized it consisted of two thousand
_men. The four regiments of which it was composed were com-
manded by Colonels Allen, Lewis, Scott, and Wells, under
Brig.-Gen. John Payne. Gen. William Hull, the governor of
Michigan Territory, with a force of fifteen hundred men
(regulars and volunteers), had been ordered to overawe the
savages on the northwestern frontier, and authorized, if it
should be found practicable, to invade Canada; but when the
Kentuckians crossed the Ohio on their march for Detroit, they
learned that after some fruitless
movements Hull had shamefully
surrendered his army to a British
‘force of little more than half his
own, and with it the whole of Mich-
igan territory. This excited furious
indignation throughout the state,
and a call made by Governor Shelby
for fifteen hundred men to march
against Indian villages in Illinois
was promptly answered by more
than two thousand volunteers, who
assembled at Louisville and marched
into the Indian country; but from lack of efficiency in the
supply department and other unfavorable circumstances this
expedition proved a failure.

8. The people of Kentucky now had much apprehension
that the British army, with their murderous red allies, would
push on to the Ohio river; and their sterling old governor,
Scott, knowing that several weeks would elapse before help
could be expected from the action of the war office at Wash-
ington, made prompt provision for preventing this calamity.
He commissioned William H. Harrison, then a citizen of Ohio,
and governor of Indiana territory, a major-general.of Ken-



GENERAL JAMES TAYLOR.
182 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

tucky, and put him in command of troops to move on Detroit.
With Kentucky and Ohio troops, Harrison was in a short time
marching northward as rapidly as possible and was soon upon
the waters of the great lakes. The Indians were driven back.
upon the British lines. Meantime the president had made
Harrison a major-general in the regular army and given him
command of the northwest.

9. Fort Wayne, on the Maumee river, occupied by a small
garrison, had been invested by a large body of Indians. He
advanced to the relief of this; but the savages fled at his
approach, All their towns and crops that were in reach were
destroyed. Two detachments of Kentucky troops were now
sent on special service, which was promptly and efficiently
executed. General Payne destroyed the towns and crops of
the Miamis on the Wabash and Colonel Wells those of the
Potawatamies on the Elkhart. A number of minor engage-
ments occurred during the autumn, but nothing decisive was
accomplished before heavy rains set in and made the whole
region so swampy and muddy that it was exceedingly difficult
for the army to move; and it was not until January, 1813,
that any important action took place. -

10. General Winchester, now in command of the north-
west (though but temporarily, as General Harrison was soon
restored), had reached the Maumee Rapids with fifteen hun-
dred troops, and General Harrison was at Fort Sandusky with
twenty-five hundred. Abouta thousand British and Indians
were fortified at Frenchtown, on the river Raisin, about forty
miles from the Rapids, and Colonel Lewis was sent with from
seven hundred to one thousand Kentuckians, mostly of Allen’s
regiment, to dislodge them. With Lewis were Colonel Allen,
Major Graves, and Major Madison. On the 18th of January
the command reached Frenchtown, made a vigorous and suc-
cessful attack, and before nightfall drove the enemy a consid-
able distance. Taking possession of the fort, Colonel Lewis
reported his success to General Winchester, who at once set
KENTUCKY IN THE WAR oF 1812. 183

out with two hundred and fifty regulars under Colonel Mills
to re-enforce the Kentuckians. Arriving on the afternoon of
the 21st, the regulars went into camp on open ground some
distance from the stockade. A camp-guard was posted, but
the ordinary precaution of picketing the roads by out-guards
was neglected by the officers in charge. On the morning of
the 22nd, two thousand British regulars and Indians suddenly
assailed the fortifications. The Kentucky riflemen easily
drove them back, inflicting great loss; but they rallied, and
part of the force, with small arms and a six-gun battery
attacked the fort, while the greater part fell upon Mills in his
exposed position and put the regulars to route.

11. At this point the gallant and generous heart of Ken-
tucky manifested itself conspicuously. Colonel Allen and
Colonel Lewis with some of their subalterns and men rushed
out of the stockade to save the hard-pressed regulars from
destruction, by enabling them to take shelter in the fortifica-
tions. Striving to restore order and fighting heroically
Colonel Allen was killed and Colonel Lewis captured. The
effort failed to save any of the regulars from butchery; and
of the Kentuckians who had sallied out, officers and men, not
one returned.

12. Majors Madison and Graves had remained in command
of those in the enclosure, and they kept the enemy at bay for
severalhours. When their ammunition was nearly exhausted,
the British general summoned them to surrender. On being
promised honorable terms and protection from the savages,
they became prisoners of war. All who were unhurt were
marched to Malden. The wounded were left at Frenchtown
without a guard. Next morning a number of drunken Indians
entered the town and murdered the helpless captives. Among
those who were tomahawked were three brave officers, Maj.
Benjamin Graves, Capt. Paschal Hickman, and Capt. Nathaniel
G. T. Hart. Two houses were set on fire and the wounded
officers and men with which they were crowded perished in the
184 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

flames. ‘‘The massacre of the Raisin’’ sent a thrill of horror
throughout the country, and aroused burning indignation and
a feeling of fierce revenge in Kentucky.

13. General Shelby, now governor for the second time,
was authorized by the legislature to take the field in person.
A call for volunteers to re-enforce Harrison and avenge the
death of their countrymen was promptly responded to.. Four
regiments, under Col. Ambrose Dudley, Col. Wm. E. Boswell,
Colonel Cox, and Colonel Caldwell, were brigaded under Gen.
Green Clay. Part of this re-enforcement reached Harrison
April 12th, the remainder reached Fort Defiance on the river
above, about the Ist of May. The
winter had been employed in building
Fort Meigs at the mouth of the Mau-
mee. Before the last detachment of
Kentuckians had reached the fort, it

IN .. was strongly besieged by British and
J \, Indians, and under fire of cannon, to
\s which the Americans had so little
ih ix ammunition with which to reply, that
/) ? they gathered and used the balls that
f= came from the British batteries.

14. General Harrison had infor-
mation that on the 5th of May,
the Kentuckians, coming down the river from Fort De-
fiance, would reach Fort Meigs, and sent orders to General
Clay to land eight hundred of his men on the northern shore
and take the British batteries, disable the guns, and then
regain their boats and cross to the fort. The order was not
fully understood, and the result was another massacre. The
detachment under command of Colonel Dudley, took the bat-
teries in the rear and carried them, but, in the excitement and
eagerness of the fight, pursued the fleeing enemy instead of
returning to the river. When they had gone beyond the sup-
port of the remainder of Clay’s troops, Indians crossing from




GENERAL GREEN CLAY.
»

KENTUCKY IN THE waR oF 1812, 185

the south side fell upon their rear; Proctor came up with a
British force and incepted further advance, and less than two
hundred of them escaped into the fort—the greater number
of them being killed or captured. The prisoners were taken
to an old British fort lower down the river, with but a slight
guard, and here, as they were huddled together, the Indians
began shooting and scalping them. It is to the credit of the
great Indian chief, Tecumseh, that he galloped up and with
furious indignation compelled his warriors to desist.

15. About the time all this was taking place on the north
side of the river, a sally em
was made from the stock-
ade, and a company of
Kentuckians made a bril-
liant charge on a battery
on the south side, inflict-
ing some loss but suffer-
ing severely. General
Clay had some difficulty
in reaching the stockade
with the remainder of his
command by landing on
the southern shore and
fighting his way through
the enemy there.

16. ‘‘Dudley’s defeat’’
was another instance of THCUMSER.:
Kentucky dash and valor that ended disastrously, and of sav-
age barbarity perpetrated under the eye, if not with the ap-
probation, of a British officer. It is an instance, too, of
the better nature that sometimes manifested itself in an In-
dian warrior.

17. Proctor’s force was greater than Harrison’s, and his
supply of heavy ammunition was abundant; but on the night
of May the 8th he abandoned the siege and marched back


186 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

towards Malden. The American loss was about eight hundred
men; that of the British and Indians about five hundred.

18. In July Proctor besieged Fort Meigs again, with
-nearly four thousand men. Remaining a few days without
effecting anything, he set out on his return by way of Fort
Stephenson at Lower Sandusky. This was held by a hundred
and sixty men under command of Col. George Croghan
(Croan), a young Kentuckian only twenty-one years old.
He had one cannon. Proctor summoned ‘him to surrender,
and threatened that in case of refusal the garrison would be
massacred. The intrepid young officer replied that the fort
should be held as long as there was a man in it left alive.
Proctor cannonaded the works for some time with but little
effect. On the 2d of August he undertook to carry the place
by storm. Croghan heavily loaded his cannon with slugs and
grape-shot, and masked it in a position to rake the inter-
vening ditch from end to end. The enemy had subjected the
little redoubt to a heavy cannonade, and as there was no reply
by Croghan’s one gun they seemed to believe that there
would be little resistance to direct assault. They crowded
into the trench, and were swept away almost toa man, ‘This
signal repulse, and the fear that General Harrison would
come up on his rear, led Proctor to abandon the siege. He
had lost about one hundred and fifty men, while Croghan had
but eight killed and wounded.

19. In Commodore Perry’s great naval fight, which drove
the British from Lake Erie, Kentucky bore an honorable
part. A hundred of her sharp-shooters were on board his
ships, plying the deadly Kentucky rifle.

20. The British and Indians withdrew from Detroit into
Canada. General Harrison followed, and soon forced Proctor
to fight him on the banks of the Thames. The British general
had the choice of position, and he chose a good one; but the
Americans now had the advantage in numbers. Many of their
Indian allies had deserted the British. Proctor had one regi-
KENTUCKY IN THE WAR OF 1812. 187

ment of British regulars and about fifteen hundred Indians, led
by the famous Tecumseh. This man was a general. He had
profited by his association with the trained soldiers of Europe
and by his conflicts with pioneer Americans, and he had made
soldiers of ‘his savages. General Harrison had more than three
thousand men; but in battle the choice of position counts for
much, and often neutralizes the advantage of numerical odds.

21. The battle of the Thames was, on the part of the
Americans, substantially a Kentucky fight. In addition to the
troops previously mentioned, Col. Richard M. Johnson had
enlisted a regiment. of twelve hundred
mounted infantry—men. armed with
rifles or muskets and trained to fight
either on horseback or on foot.
Aided by Col. James Johnson, his
brother, he had brought his command
to an excellent state of discipline be-
fore it reached the frontier. There
were a few regulars and Ohio volun-
teers, but nearly the whole force was #
from Kentucky, and with them was 4
their gallant old governor, Shelby. !

22. On the morning of October
5th, 1818, General Harrison attacked
the enemy’s line, Colonel Johnson leading. The right of
his line struck the British regulars and dashed through.
Then wheeling about they fired into their broken ranks.
Those who could not escape threw down their arms and
surrendered. ‘The perfidious Proctor fled on horseback and
left his men to their fate. That part of Harrison’s force
that met the Indians encountered more resistance and were
temporarily checked; but the defeat of the regulars made it
possible for the Kentuckians to envelop the Indians, and the
latter soon found themselves exposed flank and rear, notwith-
standing a swamp gave them much advantage, and they took to



fh Aes
SENATOR
RICHARD M. JOHNSON.
188 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

flight. Tecumseh was killed early in the action, and about the
same time Colonel Johnson was dangerously wounded. ‘The
victory was decisive, and the campaign closed with signal
advantage to the American cause.

23. Through many hardships and much suffering, at the cost
of many of her dauntless citizen-soldiers, who fell in conflict or
were butchered in cold blood, Kentuckians had regained all
that Hull had lost, relieved Ohio from the danger of invasion,
and contributed in a remarkable degree to driving the British
army a second time from American soil. A few weeks after
this battle the volunteers were disbanded.

24. But Kentucky was not yet done with Indians in the
northwest. In the summer of 1814, the Potawatamies on the
shores of Lake Michigan manifested a disposition still to
adhere to the British, and were known to be committing dep-
redations on the American settlers along the borders. General
McArthur was authorized (August 2nd, 1814) by the War
Department, to raise a thousand mounted men to operate
against them. He called on the governors of Ohio and Ken-
tucky for five hundred each. Governor Shelby received the
call August 20th, one month before the troops were to
assemble at Urbana. By the 20th of September seven com-
panies under Major Peter Dudley had reported at that place
and were ready for service. A counter-order to disband had
not been received by Dudley, but the Ohio troops had gotten
it, and when General McArthur found that existing conditions
required him to push on, two-thirds of his little force were
Kentuckians. He crossed into Canada; had frequent skir-
mishes with the savages; finally met a considerable force of
Canadians and Indians, and routed them with a loss of more
than one-third of their number (November 4th, 1814). Hav-
ing penetrated the enemy’s country more than two hundred
miles, and rendered the American cause essential service by
destroying the resources of the British commandant in that
quarter and striking fear into the Indians, McArthur returned
KENTUCKY IN THE WAR OF 1812. 189

to the border. Onthe 17th of November the volunteers were
honorably disbanded. In the general’s report they were com-
mended for the manner in which they had supported him.

25. Before the war closed, however, Kentucky was called
upon for help in another quarter. Governor Shelby, ready in
any emergency to second the efforts of the general government
in repelling an enemy from its territory, sent twenty-five
hundred men, in the autumn of 1814, under General Thomas,
to re-enforce General Jackson in the defense of New Orleans.
In a month after the call was made, these troops were on their
way down the Mississippi. When they reported to Jackson
they were almost entirely without
arms and ammunition, having ex-
pected to be furnished from a supply
which had been shipped from Pitts-
burgh. Jackson succeeded by unre-
mitting. and immense exertions in
arming most of his recruits, and
when the great day of the battle
came (January 8th, 1815), most of —
the Kentucky troops were armed and 2
ready for action.

26. General Thomas was ill, and GENERAL AND GOVERNOR
the command devolved on Gen. John eee
Adair, then adjutant-general of Kentucky. One hundred
and eighty Kentuckians were detached to re-enforce Gen-
eral Morgan on the right bank of the Mississippi, to check
an anticipated movement of the enemy on that side. The
greater part occupied the center of Jackson’s line on the left
or New Orleans side, against which Packenham advanced with
the main body of his army. Morgan was routed, his raw
militia, poorly fortified, being unable to stand against the
British veterans thrown against them; and, of course, the
little Kentucky re-enforcement went with the rest, but they
were only about one-tenth of the whole force, Jackson, on


190 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

the New Orleans side of the river, won a great victory, losing
but eight men killed and thirteen wounded, and inflicting a
loss upon the British of seven hundred killed, fourteen
hundred wounded, and five hundred captured; and more than
one-fifth of the soldiers with which he did this were Kentuck-
ians. An impartial United States historian says: ‘‘Every
discharge of the Tennessee and Kentucky rifles told with
awful effect upon the exposed veterans of England.”’

27. Atreaty of peace between the United States and Great
Britain had been signed at Ghent, Belgium, fifteen days
before this battle; but in that period of slow-going ships and
no telegraph the news had not reached the opposing armies.

——00 Sf*,0-0—_

PERSONAL SKETCHES, INCIDENTS, ETC.

I. Gov. Isaac Shelby.—This is one of the noblest names on
the roll of Kentucky pioneers. He was great as a man, as a
soldier, and as a statesman. His part in the war of independ-
ence will compare favorably with that of Greene and Morgan
and Marion—men to whom, in connection with Washington,
the country owes so much. His father, Gen. Evan Shelby,
was a Welshman, who settled near Hagerstown, Maryland,
where Isaac Shelby was born December 11th, 1750. He re-
ceived a plain English education, embracing the art of survey-
ing. His practical training included that of arms, as from his
early boyhood the colonists were still annoyed by the frontier
Indians. His ambition was not to strive for commanding
place, but to be honorable and useful, and his usefulness
made him one of the first men of histime. With a robust
frame, a strong, comprehensive, and practical mind, with
military ardor and the instinct of a strategist, he could plan
movements with the genius of a born general and execute
them with the energy, pertinacity, and indomitable courage of
a proud soldier fighting under the immediate eye of a trusted
leader. Atthe age of twenty-one he went to West Virginia,
and began work as a herder of stock; when Dunmore’s expe-
dition was organized he became a lieutenant in his father’s
KENTUCKY IN THE WAR OF 1812. 191

company, in General Lewis’ wing of the army; fought at
Point Pleasant and helped to execute that flanking movement
late in the day when the Indian left was broken; remained
on outpost there till July, 1775, when the company was dis-
banded; came then to Kentucky, surveyed for Henderson &
Company, and located land; returned to Virginia in July,
1776, and took command of a company of minute men of
which he had been appointed captain; served as such and as
commissary for various troops till 1779, during which he
showed executive ability and a determination that overrode
obstacles; in the spring of 1779 was elected a member of the
Virginia Assembly for Washington county, and was soon
afterward made a major by Governor Jefferson and com-
manded an escort for commissioners

to extend boundary lines between
Virginia and North Carolina. By the
extension of this line his home was
found to bein the new county of Sul-
livan, North Carolina, of which he
was shortly afterward appointed,
colonel. In 1780 he was again in Ken- f
tucky, locating and securing lands # i
which five years before he had marked Magi
out and improved for himself. When jf
news of the fall of Charleston reached \
him he hastened back to devote him- WN
self to service in the army tillinde- — we :
pendence should be established. In See x ie ee ee ea
a few days he joined Colonel McDow-

ell, with three hundred mounted rifles, and with detached
troops, in connection with Sevier and Clark, was soon
fighting the British and Tories at Moore’s Fort, at Cedar
Spring, and at Musgrove’s Mill, capturing many prisoners.
He was the leading spirit among the Americans in that
prompt and well-planned movement towards the Blue Ridge
mountains, which secured the prisoners, and then planned
the attack on Ferguson at King’s mountain. With the
eye of a general he saw in the heat of action what was
necessary, at a critical juncture, to insure victory, and did it.
The salutary effect of this brilliant achievement on the Conti-
nental cause was incalculable, and to Shelby, more than to any



S=


x

192 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

other, was the honor due. It contributed largely to give heart
and hope to the Americans who had recently been so cast
down by the great disaster at Camden. It was his general-
ship, also, that resulted in the battle of the Cowpens and
another patriot victory. He continued in the field, efficiently
engaged, till active operations were about over; then served a
term in the North Carolina Legislature; afterward settled pre-
emption claims and laid off lands alloted in the Territory of
Tennessee to officers and soldiers; returned in the winter of
1782-83 to Boonesborough and married Susanna, second
daughter of Nathaniel Hart; established himself on first pre-
emption granted in Kentucky, and began the work of clear-
ing and tilling; but the people had need of him in public
capacity, and he became at once prominent in their affairs—
taking an active part in their prolonged struggle for separation
and statehood. ‘The minor public positions he held need not
be enumerated. As Kentucky’s first chief magistrate he was
sagacious, prudent, and a thorough patriot. He rendered valu-
able assistance to General Wayne in his operations in 1794—
his energy and influence contributing materially to the effi-
ciency of the Kentucky volunteers. At the expiration of his
first term he retired to his Lincoln county farm; but he was not
allowed to pass the remainder of his life in repose. When
the country was involved in another war with England (1812)
he was again chosen governor, and with characteristic energy
and good judgment seconded the general government in all
needful ways. After the disaster of the Raisin, as has been
noticed elsewhere, he took the field in person and bore a gal-
lant part in the operations which terminated with the battle
of the Thames. In 1817, President Madison appointed him
Secretary of War, but he declined to accept, and spent his
few remaining years a private citizen, dying in his seventy-
sixth year, July 18th, 1826.

II. Logan, the Indian Chief.—In 1786, Gen. Benj. Logan
captured a young Shawnee-Mingo chief, a nephew of Tecum-
seh’s, whom he kept with him for some years. Before he was
allowed to return to his people his captor had named him
James Logan, but he is usually referred to simply as Logan,
or Logan, the Indian Chief. He was evidently a man of
native ability and possessed of a high sense of soldierly honor.
General McAfee says of him that he was ‘‘of a bold and gen-
KENTUCKY IN THE WAR OF 1812. 193

erous spirit. His features were formed on the best model,
and exhibited the strongest marks of ‘courage, intelligence,
and sincerity. Before the treaty of Greenville he had dis-
tinguished himself as a warrior though still very young.”’

Early in the campaigns of 1812 he attached himself with a
few of his warriors, to the Kentucky troops, and was employed
as guide and spy, and in reconnoitering the positions of the
enemy; but some suspected his fidelity and reproached him
with being friendly to the British and their savage allies.
This was unjust, and so stung him that on his next scouting
expedition, he and two companions rashly turned upon a
British officer and five Ottawas who had captured them, rather
than allow them to carry them to the British post and so
deprive him of a chance to prove his fidelity. They killed
four of their captors, but he received a fatal wound. He
rode back, however, to the American camp, twenty miles, in
five hours. McAfee says further: ‘‘He had rescued from
obloquy his character as a brave and faithful soldier; but he
had preserved his honor at the expense of his life. He lived
two days in agony, which he bore with uncommon fortitude,
and died with the utmost composure and resignation.’’ Gen-
eral Winchester said in a letter to the commanding general:
‘‘More firmness and consummate bravery have seldom appeared
on the military theater.’’ And Major Hardin wrote to Gov-
ernor Shelby: ‘Logan was buried with all the honors due to
his rank, and with sorrow as sincerely and generally displayed
as I ever witnessed.”’

III, The Militia Pig.—A company of Kentucky voluntcers
that marched from Harrodsburgh to join Harrison for the
campaign of 1812 saw, when a mile or two out of town, a
ficht between two shoats, and presently discovered that the
victorious one was trotting along with them towards the seat
of war. It kept constantly with them, halting to rest when
they did, finding shelter at night and sleeping like a tired
soldier, but turning out promptly each morning when the
bugle sounded the reveille. It is not recorded that it answered
to roll-call, but it is to its credit that no mention is made of its
having been reported ‘‘sick and unable for duty.’’ When the
men reached the Ohio river, the pig either disliked the ferry-
boat on which they embarked or was apprehensive of being
left, and so plunged into the water and swam over—waiting

13


194 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

on the other sidé until the march was resumed. It kept up
with the troops until¢they reached Lake Erie, petted by the
men and receiving a full share of the rations issued to them ;
and though often destitute of sufficient food they seemed
never to think of killing their faithful four-legged comrade.
In 1813, when the army was to cross into Canada, the pig
embarked, and went as far as Bass Island. General McAfee
says: ‘‘She was there offered a passage into Canada, but
obstinately refused to embark a second time, Some of the
men. attributed her conduct to constitutional scruples.’’ [This
was said in derision of some Pennsylvanians, who refused to
invade Canada because they. had constitutional scruples. |
«‘The Kentuckians observed that she knew it was contrary to
the constitution to force a militia pig over the line. They
therefore gave her leave to stay.’’ When the campaign was
over, the Kentuckians recrossed the lake, to the American side,
where some had left their horses. When the line of march
was formed, there, to their astonishment, was the pig ready
to accompany them. Wintry weather had set in and the
march homeward was so hard on her that by the time the
troops reached Maysville, where they ‘recrossed the Ohio, she
gave out, but Governor Shelby took her in hand and had her
brought on to Frankfort. At his home she received the con-
sideration due to a faithful soldier, broken down in the
service of his country, and passed the remainder of her days in
peace and plenty. General McAfee says that on the cam-
paign, ‘‘The soldiers called her the governor’s pig, and were
careful to protect her, as they deemed her conduct an auspi-
cious omen.”’

IV. Scene at the Raisin Eight Months After the Mas-
sacre.— When Colonel Johnson reached the Raisin river
(September 28th, 1813), on the march to join General Harri-
son, the scene presented by the battle-field of the preceding
January is thus described by General McAfee: ‘‘The bones
of the massacred Kentuckians were scattered over the plains
for three miles on this side of the river. The detachment
which, under Colonel Johnson, had revisited the place in
June, had collected and buried a great many of them; but
they had been torn up and scattered over the fields again.
The sight had a powerful effect on the feelings of the men.
The wounds inflicted by that barbarous transaction were again
(

KENTUCKY IN THE WAR OF 1812. 195

torn open. The bleaching bones appealed to heaven, and
called on Kentucky to avenge the outrage on humanity. We
had heard the scene described before; we now witnessed it in
these impressive memorials. The feelings they excited I can-
not describe, but I can never forget them; nor while there is
a recording angel in heaven or a historian on earth will the
tragedy of the Raisin be suffered to sink into oblivion. Future
generations will often ponder on this fatal field of blood; and
the future inhabitants of Frenchtown will long point out to
the curious traveller the garden where the intrepid Madison
for several hours maintained the unequal contest against four
to one and repulsed the bloody Proctor in every charge.
Yonder is the wood where the gallant Allen fell! Here the
accomplished Hart and Woolfolk were butchered! There the
brave Hickman was tomahawked and thrown into the flames!
That is the spot where the lofty Simpson breathed his last!
And, a little farther, Surgeons Montgomery, Davis and
Mcllvain, amiable in their manners and profound in science,
fellin their youth and left the sick to mourn their loss! The
gallant Meade fell in battle; but his magnanimous lieutenant,
Graves, was reserved for massacre.’’

V. Kentucky Mothers.—In the old Frankfort Common-
wealth, Orlando Brown told as follows an incident of the war of
1812: ‘Soon after the battle of the Raisin where the captain
of the Frankfort company (Paschal Hickman) had been bar-
barously massacred in the officers’ house after the surrender,
Lieut. Peter Dudley returned for the purpose of raising
another company. ‘The preceding and recent events of the
campaign had demonstrated to all that war was, in reality,
a trade of blood; and the badges of mourning worn by the
men and women, evidenced that here its most dire calamity

- had been felt. He who would volunteer now knew that he

had embarked on a hazardous enterprise. On the occasion
alluded to there was a public gathering of the people. The
young lieutenant, with a drummer and a fifer, began his
march through the crowd, proclaiming his purpose, and
requesting all who were willing to go with him to fall into the
ranks. In afew minutes he was at the head of a respectable
number of young men; and, as he marched around, others
were continually dropping in. There was in the crowd of
spectators a lad of fifteen years of age; a pale stripling of a
196 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

boy, the son of a widow whose dwelling was hard-by the
parade ground. He looked on with a burning heart and filled
‘with the passion of patriotism, until he could refrain no
longer, and, as the volunteers passed again, he leaped into
the ranks with the resolve to be a soldier. ‘You are a brave
boy,’ exclaimed the lieutenant, ‘and I will take care of you;’
and a feeling of admiration ran through the crowd. In a
little time the news was borne to the widow. It struck a
chill to her heart, as he was her oldest son. In a few min-
utes she came in breathless haste to my father, who was her
nearest neighbor and long-tried friend. ‘Mr. Brown,’ said
she, ‘James has joined the volunteers! The foolish boy does
not know what he is about. I want you to make haste and
get him out of the ranks. He is too young—he is weak and
sickly. Mr. Brown, he will die on the march. If he does
not, he will be killed by the enemy, for he is too small to
take care of himself. If he escapes the enemy he will die of
fever. O, my friend, go and take him away!’ After a few
minutes she began again: ‘I don’t know what has got into
the boy—I can’t conceive why he wants to go to the army—
he can do nothing, he is not able to do anything.’ Again
she paused, and at last, rising from her seat, with her eyes
flashing fire, she exclaimed—‘But I should despise him if he
didn’t want to go!’ That noble thought changed the current
of her reflections and of her grief—she went home, prepared
for him the plain uniform of that day, and sent him forth with
a mother’s blessing. He went on with the troops; bore all the
trials of the march; was in the battle of Fort Meigs, and
fought as bravely and efficiently as the boldest man in the
company. The widow’s son came home safe. Her patriotism
was not unrewarded. Yesterday I saw the son bending over
the sick bed of the aged mother. He is her only surviving
child, and has been spared as the prop and stay of her
declining years. Is it any wonder that Kentuckians are brave
and chivalric? Were they otherwise they would be recreant
to the land of their birth and a reproach to their mothers.’’

VI. General Harrison’s Confidence in Kentucky Troops,
—General McAfee, speaking of crossing Lake Erie into Brit-
ish territory, preceding the battle of the Thames, gives an
interesting account of Kentucky spirit and of General Harri-
son’s reliance on our volunteers: ‘‘Ihe preparations for the
KENTUCKY IN THE WAR OF 1812. 197

_ expedition being nearly completed, it became necessary to
detail a guard of one out of every twenty men, for the protec-
~ tion of the horses which were to be left behind. In furnish-
ing the men, many of the colonels had to resort to a draft, as
volunteers to stay on this side of the lake could not be
’ obtained. The Kentuckians had no constitutional scruples
about crossing the boundary line; and no greater insult could
be offered to one of Shelby’s men than to insinuate that he did
not desire to cross into Canada. This, however, was not the
case with all the militia. When the order for embarking was
issued, the gentlemen of the Pennsylvania regiment from
Erie were unfortunately seized with constitutional scruples.
Harrison addressed them personally, and requested the officers
for the honor of their state to prevail on their men to embark.
After making an attempt to persuade them, one of the cap-
tains returned to Harrison and said, in a pusillanimous tone:
‘I believe the boys are not willing to go, General.’ Harrison
eyed him with contempt and replied: ‘The boys, eh! I
believe some of the officers, too, are not willing to go. Thank
God, I have Kentuckians enough to go without you!’ ”’

VII. The Indians Dreaded Kentuckians.—Elias Darnell,
in his Journal of the Campaign of 1812-13, tells the following
as illustrative of how Kentuckians were regarded by the
Indians: ‘‘A Frenchman who lived in this village (French-
town), said that when word came that the Americans were in
sight, an old Indian was smoking at his fireside. He exclaimed:
‘Ho! de ’Mericans come; I suppose Ohio men come; we give
?em another chase,’—(alluding to the time they chased Gen-
eral Tupper from the Rapids). He walked to the door
smoking, apparently unconcerned, ,and looked at us till we
formed line of battle andrushed on them with a mighty shout.
Then he called out with an oath, ‘Kentuck!’ and picking up
his gun ran to the woods like a wild beast.”

VIIL. Some of the Kentuckians Who Fought With Perry.
—In 1868 six of the men of Captain Stockton’s and Captain
Payne’s companies who so promptly volunteered to go on
board one of Commodore Perry’s ships and act as sharp-
shooters during the engagement on Lake Erie, September
18th, 1813, were still living. They were James Artus, Jobn
Tucker, John Norris, Dr. William T. Taliafero, Ezra Young-
love, and Samuel Hatfield. The Kentucky Legislature (Feb-
198 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

ruary 17th, 1860) directed the governor to procure a gold
medal for each of the first four named. March 9th, 1860,
another name had been furnished and a medal was ordered that



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day for Younglove; and in 1868, stili another having |been
found one was ordered for Hatfield. In the war excitement
of 1860-61, the matter was overlooked, but in January, 1867,
the medals for the first four were delivered, and subsequently
the others,


THE JACKSON PURCHASE. 199

CHAPTER XII.

THE JACKSON PURCHASE.—FINANCIAL CONDITIONS IN KEN-
TUCKY.—OLD COURT AND NEW COURT.
1816-1844.

1. In 1816, George Madison was elected governor, but he
died in a few weeks after his inauguration. The law was.
found to be silent, cr of uncertain construction, as to whether
the lieutenant-governor should succeed him or the legislature
order a new election. The question
was discussed with much warmth, and
finally decided in favor of succession
by the lieutenant-governor, and, a
week after Governor Madison’s death,
Gabriel Slaughter became governor
(October 21st, 1816).

2. In his message to the legisla-
ture Governor Slaughter recommended
that steps should be taken in co-
operation with the Federal govern-
ment to obtain clear title to that part
of Kentucky lying west of the Ten- spyaror 1sHaM TALBOTT.
nessee river. The Chickasaw Indi-
ans owned the territory in Kentucky and Tennessee which
lay between the Tennessee and the Mississippi, having never
entered into any treaty to relinquish their claims. October
19th, 1818, the United States bought from them all the ter-
ritory; and the part that fell to Kentucky (Ballard, Callo-
way, Fulton, Graves, Hickman, McCracken, and Marshall
counties), is still known as The Purchase, or Jackson’s Pur-
chase. Governor Shelby and Andrew Jackson were the com-
missioners who negotiated with the Indians and signed the
treaty on behalf of the United States, and through popular


200 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

misapprehension Jackson’s name came to be associated with
it, to the exclusion of Shelby’s.

3. Though for awhile after the close of the war. of 1812,
Kentucky was singularly prosperous, a serious financial dis-
turbance had its beginning in the action of. the legislature of
1817-18, and soon grew to ruinous proportions.

4. It is impossible to give you here more than a mere out-
line view of the monetary troubles which disturbed the people
of Kentucky during this period. These were by no means
confined at first to our own state, but prevailed in all civilized
countries. In 1817-18 the policy of free banking was adopted,
and proved disastrous. For more than seven years there was
- monetary confusion, and embarrassment of all trade relations;
and for much of the time unusual party strife and great
excitement,

5. The legislature of 1801-02, as you have previously noted,
chartered a Lexington insurance company with banking privi-
leges, and this latter feature was more definitely confirmed in
1807 by the charter of the Bank of Kentucky, with a capital
of $1,000,000.

6. At the time previously referred to (1817-18), forty-six
separate banks were chartered, having a capital of $8,720,000.
They were authorized to issue notes redeemable in the notes
of the Bank of Kentucky instead of gold and silver. In a few
months the state was flooded with the notes of these banks; a
spirit of speculation sprang up; and men engaged in wild and
impracticable enterprises. Great loans were made on insuf-
ficient or worthless security, so that in many instances, when
confidence was lost and creditors wished to recover their own,
they found it impossible to enforce their claims. It was not
long before the Bank of Kentucky, which up to 1818 had
been strong and of good credit, was forced by unusual calls,
for specie from the United States Bank and from individual
depositors, to suspend the payment of gold and silver, and
most of the free banks were quickly wrecked, The pressure
THE JACKSON PURCHASE. 201

of debt became so great that the next legislature (1819-20)
passed an act to prevent forcible collection for twelve months.
Next came a cry for some other medsure of relief, and the ;
election of 1820 for governor and members of the General
Assembly was decided in favor of the candidates who pledged
themselves to obtain this legislation.

7. When the legislature met (1820-21), it chartered a state
bank, called the Bank of the Commonwealth, with a capital
stock of $2,000,000. Gold and silver as a basis for the issue
of notes could not be obtained, and certain state lands, west ~
of the Tennessee river, were pledged for the payment of the
notes of this bank. These notes were made receivable for
debts and taxes. The individual creditor had the choice of
taking them when offered in payment of his debt or of being
prevented for two years from enforcing his claims by legal
process.

8. Another radical step was taken by this legislature.
The charter of the Bank of Kentucky gave the General
Assembly power to elect a sufficient number of its directors
to control the action of the board; and this was now done.
The new members were pledged to receive the notes of the
Bank of the Commonwealth in payment of debts due the Bank
of Kentucky. This at once lessened the value of the stock
of this bank to half its face value, and made it impossible for
it to resume specie payments while such laws were in force.

9. When cases were brought before two of the circuit
courts of the state, the judges decided that the legislative acts
which interfered with the prompt collection of debts or pro-
vided for the payment of debts in any way contrary to con-
tract were unconstitutioual and of no force. There was then
an appeal to the Court of Appeals, and in the autumn of
1823 that body sustained the lower courts. The wide-spread
financial distress, which had brought about the ruin of many
estates, great and small, rendered the people unreasonable to
the verge of madness. Instead of accepting the decision of
202 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

this highest legal tribunal in the state, composed as it was of
learned and incorruptible judges, they cried out against it and
demanded the removal of men who had chosen to give a true
construction of law instead of a popular opinion.

10. The people were now divided into two parties, known
as the Relief and the Anti-Relief. Each contained some of
the leading public men of the day. Profound lawyers and
able statesmen were found arrayed against each other, and
the strife was bitter. In 1824, the Relief party elected its
candidate for governor and a majority of the General

. Assembly. This body repealed the
law under which the Court of Ap-
peals had been organized, and then
passed an act providing for a new
, court, to consist of four members,
who were appointed by the governor.
The old court refused to be thus leg-
| islated out of office, and continued to
act. Cases were appealed to both the
old court and the new, and of course
there was confusion in the legal ma-
’ chinery of the state. The excitement

was even intensified for some time;
but before the election of 1825 a more reasonable state of
mind prevailed, and the Old Court or Anti-Relief party elected
a majority of the lower house of the legislature; but as the
senate still continued to have a majority of Relief members,
the act which had created the new court remained unrepealed.
In 1826, however, the Old Court party triumphed, and the
legislature of 1826-27 reinstated the three old judges. All
the decisions of the new court were afterward treated as of
no effect. The excitement ~gradually subsided, a better
state of feeling prevailed, and business affairs at length
came into a more natural and healthful condition.







THE JACKSON PURCHASE. 203

_ 11. Inthe year 1824, General LaFayette, the French nobie-
man who had early espoused the cause of the colonists in their
struggle for liberty, had rendered them material assistance,
and shed his blood in their battles—
the friend and confidant of Washing-
ton, and beloved of America—came
to the United States and made a jour-
ney through the country. On the
17th of November, while he was yet
in the eastern states, the legislature
and governor, in the name of the Tf
people, sent him an invitation to visit /
Kentucky. This he accepted and was /
treated by Kentuckians with a warm- |
hearted, enthusiastic consideration



foreigner.
12. The great question of internal improvements began to
be much agitated throughout the Union during the year 1817.
eS During the first thirty years after
Kertucky became a state, laws were
enacted for making ordinary roads
and keeping them in repair; but in
i\; his message to the legislature of
My, 1826-27, Governor Desha urged the
importance of providing for certain
turnpikes; and on the 22nd of Janu-
) ary, 1827, the Maysville and Lexing-
ton Turnpike Company was incorpo-
rated. After some delay, caused in
part by the expectation of national aid,
which was not realized, the work was
begun and carried on by private
enterprise and some appropriation from the state treas-
ury. During the next fifteen years, besides private sub-
scription, the state expended about $7,000,000 in making



ie " ‘i \\ ) ‘

GOVERNOR AND SENATOR
THOMAS METCALFE.


204 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

these roads, building locks and dams and otherwise im-
proving the rivers for navigation, and in building (1831-
35) the Louisville and Lexington railroad. The state had un-.
dertaken on her own credit a vast sys-
tem of other public improvements, be-
sides aiding to construct turnpikes. At
present there are in the state more than
3,000 miles of railroad (main track),
and at least 7,500 miles of turnpike
and gravel roads—these roads afford-
ing easy and expeditious means for
transporting by wagon the various agri-
cultural products to commercial and
trade centers and to points along the
railroad -and river routes for sale or
shipment.

13. In 1837 the United States experienced another most
serious financial panic. In Kentucky the embarrassment was
great, and it affected all classes of
people. Business was paralyzed, and
thousands were rendered bankrupt.
At first a prudent course was adopted,
and the wild schemes and undue ex-
citement of the previous crisis (1818—
27) were not-renewed.

14. The banks suspended specie \
payment, andthe legislature met and .\}
legalized their action, so that their
charters were not forfeited; and
these (of which two more had been
chartered in 1833, and 1834) re- AORt ERE
frained from pressing their cred-
itors, but conducted their affairs with such judgment that in
the latter part of 1838, they were able to resume specie pay-
ment; confidence was restored,-and business revived. In



GOVERNOR JAMES CLARK.


THE JACKSON PURCHASE. 205

about a year, however, specie payment was again suspended.
The scheme of internal improvements in which the state was
engaged had to be abandoned for the time. The direct tax
had to be doubled to enable Kentucky to meet debts already
‘contracted; and in 1841-42, the distress was so great and so
general that the old cry for relief by legislation was raised,
and entered into the elections of 1842; butthe legislature, wisely
refraining from dangerous experi-
ments, provided for giving debtors
a little more time in which to meet
their obligations, and a better state of
feeling soon obtained. During the
years 1843-44 the state gradually
came back to a.settled condition, and
entered upon a safe course, that
brought renewed prosperity, which
had no material interruption for many
years.

~ 15. At the presidential election
1844, the great issue was the annex-
ation of. Texas to the United States. In the ensuing chapter
let us notice the attitude of Kentucky in this matter and
during the war which resulted from the policy of which
the people declared themselves in favor by the election of Mr.
Polk, over Kentucky’s great citizen and stateSman, Henry
Clay, who was the candidate of the Whig party.



SENATOR HENRY CLAY.

——-059$ 00-—_—

PERSONAL SKETCHES, “ETC,

I. Gen. Simon Kenton.— This man’s life, like that of
Boone’s, is so intimately associated with the fitst half century
of Kentucky’ s history that. to know the latter is in a meastire
to know Kenton; but in a succinct sketch may be supplied
those particulars which are necessary to a clearer view of the
individual man.

eee ny
i Sees
206 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Born in Fauquier county, Virginia, April 13th, 1755, he
grew to be a stalwart youth of sixteen, with scarcely any edu-
cation and little of noteworthy incident, when he resented the-
loss of his sweetheart by going uninvited to her wedding and
making himself so disagreeable that the groom and _ his
brothers beat him severely. Meeting his successful rival alone
shortly afterward he provoked a fight, at the conclusion of
which he thought he had killed his adversary, which so
alarmed him that he ran away to hide himself in the wilder-
ness west of the mountains, and in April, 1771, reached Cheat
river, where he changed his name to Butler and engaged him-
self to labor. Having earned enough to buy a rifle and
accoutrements, he went to Fort Pitt and was employed to
hunt for the garrison. In the autumn of 1771 he made his
first visit to Kentucky—coming down the Ohio as far as the
mouth of the Kentucky. He and his companions, Yager and
Strader, soon went back to the mouth of the Big Kanawha
and established a camp (winter of 1771-72), where they
remained, hunting and trapping in the vicinity till March,
1773, when Indians fired upon them at night and killed Yager.
Kenton and Strader fled without guns and almost without
clothing, and travelled for six days, hungry, cold, foot-sore
and torn by briers, when they reached the Ohio and found a
party of hunters who fed and clothed them. Going with this
party up to the mouth of the Little Kanawha he again went to
work to pay for a rifle and some other articles, and during the
summer he accompanied a party down the Ohio in search of
Captain Bullitt. Failing to find him, they returned through
Kentucky to Virginia, Kenton acting as a guide. During the
winter of 1773-74 he and others hunted on the Big Sandy
river; in the spring of 1774 he volunteered in Dunmore’s
army, and was engaged as a scout and spy during the expedi-
tion of Dunmore and Lewis. When discharged in the autumn
he returned with one Williams to his hunting ground on the
Big Sandy, where they spent the winter. In the spring of
1775, they came down to the mouth of Cabin creek and
thence into the country, and in May encamped within a mile
of the present site of Washington, Mason county, where they
cleared about an acre of ground and planted it with corn
which they bought from a French trader. This was the first
crop planted by white men in Kentucky north of the Kentucky
THE JACKSON PURCHASE. 207

river, and though he left the place in the fall, after Hendricks
was captured and killed, as noticed elsewhere, he returned
after nine years of hunting, exploring, scouting, fighting, etc.,
and erected a block-house, thus establishing Kenton’s Station.
He assisted in building a block-house on the present site of
Maysville (1784). His services in behalf of the settlers were
too constant and varied to be given in detail. At Hinkston’s,

> at McClelland’s, at Harrodstown, at Boonesborough, on the

he.

expeditions of Clark and Boone—wherever a man was required
for special duty, wherever danger was to be encountered—he
was in demand and always quick to respond. He was captured
in September, 1778, near the mouth of Eagle creek, a few
miles below Maysville, while trying to make his way from
Old Chillicothe, whither he and two companions had rashly
ventured, and was kept a prisoner for more than eight months,
during which he was subject to fiendish cruelties and several
times narrowly escaped death. They beat him almost to the limit
of endurance; ‘‘he was eight times compelled to run the
gauntlet, three times tied to the stake, once brought to the
brink of the grave by a blow from an ax.’’ Simon Girty once
interposed to save him from being burned; why he was spared
on another occasion is not stated; but the third time the
Shawnee-Mingo chief, Logan, interfered and induced a Ca-
nadian trader, Druyer, to buy him. This man turned him
over to the British at Detroit, from whom he finally escaped,
in company with John Cofer and Nathaniel Bullock, through
the good offices ofa Mrs. Harvey, the wife of an Indian trader ;
and after travelling thirty-three days, suffering almost incredi-
ble hardships, reached Louisville in July, 1779. :

‘In 1782, he learned that the man whom he thought he had
beaten to death in Virginia was still alive, and he resumed his
rightful name, Kenton.

After nearly two years more of various adventures and
decided usefulness, he went back (1784) to see his father’s
family and his old friends, and late in the autumn set out to
bring the family to a new settlement which he had made on
Salt river. His father died on the way, but the rest arrived
safe during the winter of 1783-84. In July, 1784, he went
back to his old station in Mason county, which was his home
henceforth until misfortune drove him from the country.
208 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

He had now acquired some kind of title to many valuable
tracts of land, in different localities, and in 1786 he. sold or
gave away one thousand acres, on which the present town of
Washington was laid out. As early as 1789, however, there
were suits against his Bourbon county lands for debt; after
ward, under the debtor’s law then in force, he was impris-
oned by civil authorities on the very spot where in 1775 he
had made: the initial clearing in north Kentucky and planted
corn; and by 1779 nearly all his possessions had been wrested
from him by lawsuits. After twenty-eight years of danger, suf-
fering, and incalculable service to the new state, he left it in
poverty, and settled at Urbana, Ohio. Fitted by nature and
circumstance to play a great part in the work of founding a
commonwealth, he was a stranger to the ways of the world in
business matters, and had failed to perfect titles and make to
himself ‘friends of the god of Mammon,’’ and so was set
aside when the day of his great usefulness was over. In 1805
he was elected a brigadier-general of Ohio militia; in 1810 he
became amember of the Methodist-Episcopal Church; in 1813
he joined the Kentucky troops under Gov. Isaac Shelby and
fought at the battle of the Thames—a soldier and a patriot
still. In 1820 he removed to the head of Mad river, in Logan
county, Ohio, ‘‘in sight of Wapakoneta, where he had been
tied to the stake by the Indians while a prisoner in their
hands.’’ Here, still harassed by judgments and executions
from Kentucky, he entered lands in the name of his wife and
children. Some mountain tracts which he yet had here were
forfeited for taxes, and in 1824 he came to Frankfort to ask
the legislature to release the claims on the lands. The slight
justice which it was in the power of the state to do him was
quickly done; and the old hero was treated with such distin-
'. guished consideration that he seemed to feel himself compen-
sated for all the wrongs he had suffered. His friends soon
afterward obtained for him by act of Congress a pension of
$240 ayear,
At the age of eighty-one he died at his Ohio home, April
29th, 1836, and in another state still lie the remains of one of
Kentucky’s noblest. pioneers.

II. Gen. George Rogers Clark.—The services rendered by
General Clark to Kentucky, to the west, indeed to the United
States, have been noted. It would be impossible to form any
THE JACKSON PURCHASE. 209.

just estimate of their far-reaching and remarkable conse-
quences. In speaking of the early heroes and statesmen of
Kentucky it is idle to undertake by comparison to determine
their relative worth. Each had his place, and when he acted
well his part he was entitled to a niche in the temple of fame
‘over which no critical finger has written ‘‘this is more worthy
than that.’’ The faults and frailties of some may serve as
solemn warnings to those who came after them, without dim-
ming the luster of their fair deeds as crime would do. Let
their failings and their self-imposed misfortunes ‘‘be buried
with their bones,’’ while their good ‘‘lives after them.”’
Clark was born in Albermarle county, Virginia, November
19th, 1752; grew to manhood without attracting sufficient
attention to lead the chroniclers of
the time to say much of him or his % Y
family, so that we know little of -his YJ
boyhood or his lineage, and little of 7
his education except his showing in 4
public life that it had by no means 4
been wholly neglected. He was a
surveyor; could express himself well ‘4
and forcibly with pen and tongue; -
and gave other evidences of having ,
been subjected to some early mental 4
discipline. In his twenty-second year
he commanded a company in Dun-
more’s campaign; was then offered a
commission in the British army, which
he declined because of unpleasant. re-
lations between England and the colonies; when little more
than twenty-two, he came to Kentucky and so quickly
attracted attention and inspired confidence that he was placed
in, command of the irregular militia. He was evidently-
distrustful of Henderson’s pretensions; and the meeting
at Danville (June 6th, 1775), to consider what should be
done in view of the rival claims of Virginia and the Tran-
sylvania Company, was at his suggestion. Having been
chosen in connection with Gabriel John Jones to lay the mat-
ter before the Virginia Assembly, it was due to his influence
and diplomacy that Kentucky was soon organized as a county
and means of defense furnished, From that time till he
14




GENERAL
GEO. ROGERS CLARK.
210 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

retired from public life (1786), he made his impress upon
almost every leaf of the history of Kentucky and of the west.
He attained to the rank of brigadier-general of Kentucky
troops. His plans were those of a true military genius as well
as statesman; and his ability and energy in executing such as
he found means to undertake showed that in a wider field and-
with adequate resources he would have become one of the
great historic characters of the world.

The expedition against the Indians on the Wabash (1786),
terminated his active career. He was then less than thirty-
four years old. Having given his life thus far to his country
he had made no provision for himself. Great land bounties,
had been voted him by the Legislature of Virginia, but they
were inadvertently withheld and he found a home with his
nephew, Colonel Croghan, about eight miles from Louisville.
In 1798, when the French minister Genet undertook to raise
troops in Kentucky for a secret expedition against the Spanish
possessions on the, Mississippi, Clark was induced to accept a
major-general’s commission in the armies of France, and he
prepared to enter again into active military life; but Genet
was recalled and the plan abandoned, and he withdrew again
from the public gaze.. Some years afterward, when the Virginia
legislature was mindful to send a delegation to present him a
sword which had. been voted him by that body, he listened to
the eloquent spokesman who recounted his gallant deeds and
great services, and said to him at the close: ‘“Young man, tell
Virginia that when she needed a sword, I found one. Now I
want bread!’’ The sword was returned, and the Virginia
legislature proceeded to make available for him the lands
donated to him and his soldiers; but his life was well-nigh
spent. He had long before fallen into intemperance; had so
suffered with rheumatism as to lose the use of his right leg,
which was finally amputated; and in February, 1818, he died
and was buried at Locust Grove. In 1869, by act of the
legislature, his remains were removed to Cave Hill cemetery,
Louisville.

In person he was tall and imposing, being about six feet
three inches high and of well-proportioned body and limbs.
Of dignified demeanor, he was yet so gentle and affable that
he made friends as readily as he commanded respect and
Inspired confidence,
THE JACKSON PURCHASE. 211

Ill. Capt. Bland Ballard.—In his oration on the occa-
sion of the reinterment of Captain Ballard, November 8th,
1854, General Marshall described his splendid qualities in this
strong language: ‘‘His rank and title as a military man were
acquired only from public confidence in his capacity as a sol-
dier; and the legislative honors bestowed upon him by the
county of Shelby resulted from the conviction that his advice
in council would be as sagacious as his action in the field had
been gallant. * * * Fortitude, valor, and patient-endur-
ance; physical and moral energy, quick to perceive danger
and to apply the means to avoid or overcome it; shrewd to
learn the necessities of a young. and exposed country and to
adopt a prompt line of action to meet every occasion; but,
above all, a constant disposition to offer his life to the service
of his country; to present his person at the post of danger;
to volunteer his assistance in every expedition planned to
punish her enemies and avenge her wrongs; with a modesty
which refused to press his name into the lists of ambition
eager for preferment—these were the qualities of character
which made Bland Ballard a man of mark among the early
settlers of Kentucky, and now entitle his name to stand
before us as that of a representative of those who are known
to history as ‘The Western Pioneers.’ ”’

He was born near Fredericksburgh, Virginia, October 16th,
1761; came to Kentucky before he was eighteen years old
(1779), in time to accompany Bowman’s expedition against
Old Chillicothe (May, 1779); joined Capt. John Holder’s
company of Madison county riflemen, June 10th, 1779;
accompanied the expedition of Clark against the Pickaway
towns of Ohio, and received a wound in the hip, from which
he came near bleeding to death and from which he suffered
through life;. rendered gallant and efficient service in defense
of Squire Boone’s party when they were attacked while remov-
ing to Beargrass (1781); was on the second expedition of
Clark (1782), to destroy Pickaway towns; served Clark as
scout and spy on the Wabash expedition (1786), and for two
and a half years at other times; in 1788, when his father’s
house was attacked, as noticed previously, and all the family
except himself and youngest sister were murdered, he killed
four or five of the Indians while they were at their bloody
work and drove off the remainder, This fearful tragedy made ~


212 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

him the fierce and unrelenting foe to the red man which he
proved to be as long as there was an Indian to fight. In 1791
he served as euide for Generals Scott and Wilkinson; and
fought under General Wayne at the decisive battle of August
20th, 1794. He commanded a company in Colonel Allen’s
regiment of mounted rifles on Harrison’s northwestern cam-
paign, 1812-13, and was twice wounded (severely at the battle
of the Raisin), was captured and suffered terribly on the
march to Malden and from there to Fort George. He had
been captured once before, while acting as spy for General
Clark, but made his escape the next day.

His many daring deeds, his narrow escapes, his great serv-
ices to the country, cannot be given in detail in the space
allotted to these little sketches. Enough has been said to
show that of the brave, intelligent, prompt and useful men of
those trying times he was among the first.

He served several terms as representative of Shelby county
in the legislature, and lived to be ninety-two years old, dying
in 1853. By act of that body his remains and those of his
wife were removed to Frankfort and reinterred in the State
Cemetery, November 8th, 1854, with befitting ceremonies,

IV. The Todds, Father and Son.—Thomas Todd, born in
King and Queen county, Virginia, January 23rd, 1765, came
to Kentucky in 1784 with the family of his kinsman, Judge
Harry Innis, and settled with them at Danville. He had
received an unusually liberal education for that time; had
served awhile during the latter part of the revolution, though
and subsequently (when
Arnold invaded Virginia) as a member of the Manchester
cavalry troop. He began the practice of law soon after com-
ing to Kentucky. He was clerk of all the conventions held to
consider separation from Virginia; was clerk of the Federal
Court for the District of Kentucky until the state was admit-
ted to the Union; was elector of senate for Lincoln county,
1792; was then appointed clerk of the Court of Appeals, and
held this office till 1801, when Governor Garrard appointed
him to the newly created judgeship of the Court of Appeals,
which position he retained till Judge Muter resigned (1806),
when he was appointed chief justice. When the Seventh
United States Circuit Court was established (1806-07), and a
new judgeship created, President Jefferson appointed him the


THE JACKSON PURCHASE, © 213.

new member of the United States Supreme Court. He filled
this position, as he had the others, with signal ability and
incfeasing reputation till his death, February 7th, 1826. He.
married first a Miss Harris; after her death he acrid the
widow of Maj. Geo. Sleptoe Washington, General Washing-
ton’s nephew. This lady was Lucy “Payne, a sister of Mrs.
President Madison.

Col. Charles Stewart Todd was the second son of Judge
Thomas Todd; was born in Lincoln county, Kentucky, January
22nd, 1791; was educated for the bar; volunteered for serv-
ice during Winchester’s campaign, 1812— 13; held a commis-
sion on the staff of General Harrison, and so distinguished
himself in battle that his chief wrote of him that he ‘‘was
equal in bravery and superior in intel-
ligence to any other officer of his rank
in the army.’’ He was secretary of
state under Governor Madison; rep-
resented his county (Shelby) in the
legislature; was minister to Colombia,
South rmericas a commissioner to
the Presbyterian General Assembly, 4
1837-89 ; and minister to St. Peters- ///
burgh under President. Tyler (1841—
45). His wife was Letitia, youngest |
daughter of Governor Shelby. He ti
took an active interest in affairs, po-
litical and religious, as long as he
lived. He died in his eighty-first
eer» May 14th, 1871. First Kentuckian made Judge of

Besides those mentioned, many tS. Supreme Bees
gentlemen of this name have been
useful and honored citizens, since Kentucky attained to
statehood, distinguished in various walks of life. Promi-
nent among these was Col. Robert S. Todd, the father of Mrs.
Abraham Lincoln, Mrs. Ben Hardin Helm, Mrs. Wm. Wal-
Jace’ Herr, and four talented and gallant sons, all of whom
were soldiers, and all of whom except one fell during the civil
war. Colonel Todd was born in 1792, and early “became a
popular man of affairs and a politician. He was for many
years clerk of the House of Representatives; was president
of the Lexington Branch Bank of Kentucky from the time of



HON. THOMAS TODD.
214 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

its establishment till 1836; represented Fayette county in the
legislature, 1841, 1842, 1844; and was state senator, 1845—
1849. He died at the age of fifty-seven, June 16th, 1849.

V. Gen. John Adair.—This distinguished soldier and
statesman did not come to Kentucky till some time after the
close of the revolution; but while yet a young man he bore
his part as a fighter in the American army and a sufferer in
British prisons, during that memorable contest. He was born
in South Carolina in 1757. In 1786 he came to what is now
Mercer county, and began an active, useful, and honorable
‘career, and soon became distinguished among the many not-
able men of a period, 1774 to 1813, which has been styled
“the heroic age of Kentucky.’’ In command of the detach-
ment that was attacked by Little Turtle near Fort St. Clair, as
previously noticed, his coolness, discretion, and invincible
courage led to victory against odds and disadvantage. Fre-
quently engaged in repelling savage forays, he was recognized
as a leader; in the civil affairs of the young commonwealth,
he was regarded as a citizen of good judgment, liberal views,
and genuine public spirit. When General Shelby took the
field in 1813, Adair accompanied him as aide-de-camp, and
was in the battle of the Thames. His gallantry and efficiency
were commended in Shelby’s report; and after the conclu-
sion of the northwestern campaign he was appointed adjutant-
general of the Kentucky troops, with the rank of brigadier- _
general, and as such commanded the Kentuckians at the battle
of New Orleans. He represented Mercer county in the legis-
latures of 1793-94-95; 1798; and 1800-1-2-3. Subsequently
he was register of the Land Office; was in the legislature
again in 1817; and in 1820 he was elected governor in oppo-
sition to formidable opponents. In 1825 he was elected to
the United States Senate for one year; and was elected to
Congress for the term 1831-33. He died at the age of
eighty-three, May 19th, 1840. .

VI. The “Ancient Governor.”—When Gov. James Clark
came to Frankfort (1836), to assume the duties of his office,
he had with him as a body-servant a negro man, Daniel Clark,
who, many years before, had been brought by slave-dealers from
Africa to Charleston, South Carolina, and afterward came into
possession of the Clark family in Kentucky. He was old
enough when bought or captured in his native country to note


THE JACKSON PURCHASE. 915

the incidents of the ocean voyage, which he remembered dis-
tinctly during his long life. On coming to Frankfort, he was
employed about the governor’s mansion and executive office,
and for thirty-six years, through all the changes of adminis-
tration, he continued in this service, and came to be known as
the ‘‘Ancient Governor.’’ On the 27th of January, 1872, the
Senate of Kentucky passed a bill by amajority of 30 out of 34
votes, giving him a pension of $12.50 per month for life, on
the ground that he was then, in the language of the bill, ‘‘a
very old and infirm man, not able to work or perform the
full duties of said office any longer, and as an evidence of the
appreciation in which Kentucky holds his faithfulness and -
honesty, and of her unwillingness that he shall want for a
support.’? Pending the consideration of the bill by the house
he died; and the legislature passed a resolution (February
17th), commending him as ‘‘a notable example to all men,
white. or black, of industry, sobriety, courtesy according to
his station, and integrity in office,”’
916 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CHAPTER XIII.

KENTUCKY IN THE MEXICAN WAR. |
1845-1849.

1, The war with Mexico cannot be noticed in detail, but
Kentucky played an important part in the contest; and the
conduct of her people generally, and of her volunteers in the
field, constitutes an interesting chapter of her history.

2. The trouble was caused by the annexation of Texas to
the United States. From 1821 to 1836 the territory now
constituting that great state was a province of Mexico. For a
long time it was the policy of Spain and Mexico to keep Texas
uninhabited, as a sort of barrier between Mexico and the
United States; but at length large land grants were made to
the citizens of the latter country, and in a few years they had
laid the foundation of an English-speaking commonwealth.
Among the early settlers were many Kentuckians.

8. When the population and wealth of Texas had so
increased as to afford opportunities for injustice and oppres-
sion, the course of the Mexican government was such as out-
raged the sense of right in a people who had been accustomed
to just and lawful rule. In 1835 they revolted and took up
arms to establish their independence. Volunteers from differ-
ent states of the Union hurried to their support. Shaler says
that ‘‘many hundred of the soldiers of the Texan army were
from Kentucky. Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, Gen. Felix
Huston, and many other distinguished officers were her sons.’’
A few engagements were sufficient to throw off the Mexican
yoke; and in 1836 the independence of the new state was
acknowledged by the United States and other leading powers.

4. Texas soon afterward asked to be admitted to the Union;
but there was a great party in the United States that opposed
nw

KENTUCKY IN THE MEXICAN WAR. 217

this; and it was not till 1844 that the question of annexation
became an issue in a presidential election. Polk, the candi-
date of those who favored it, was elected. On the Ist of
March, 1845, three days before Polk was inaugurated, a bill
of annexation was adopted, in accordance with the will of the
people, and approved by the outgoing president. The Texas
‘Legislature ratified it July 4th, 1845, and sent an immediate
request to President Polk to dispatch troops for their protec-
tion against Mexico, whereupon Gen. Zachary Taylor was

ordered to occupy Texas with a part of the regular army. All . 5

efforts of the United States to settle the Alspute (which was
mainly one of boundary) were fruitless.

5. On the 26th of April, 1846, the Mexican general on ilie
frontier notified General Taylor that war had Sbezuty and.a
company of United States dragoons was attacked the same
day. Other engagements quickly followed; and on the 11th
of May Congress declared that by the act of the Republic of
Mexico a state of war already existed between that govern-
ment and the United States.

6. A careful study of the history of the country will show
you that the people of Kentucky had at least been slow to
advocate annexation and probable war with a neighboring
power; but as soon as the Mexicans crossed the border and
killed and captured a small force of United States troops,
party differences were lost sight of, party feeling subsided,
and the whole state was ablaze with patriotic ardor. Reliable
information as to the action of Congress had hardly reached
Frankfort when Governor Owsley, anticipating a formal call
from the president, appealed to the men of the state (May
17th, 1846) to form themselves into volunteer companies and
report forthwith to him. Next day the Louisville Legion
(commanded by Col. Stephen Ormsby) offered their services
to the governor.and were accepted. Wm. Preston (afterward
famous as a statesman and general) procured in Louisville a
subscription of $50,000 which he placed to the credit of the
918 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

governor, to be used if necessary in dispatching troops to the
seat of war; and the Northern Bank of Kentucky, at Lexing-
ton, tendered the governor $250,000 more for thé same
purpose. :

7. The president called on all the states for 43,500 volun-
teers, and now (May 22nd, 1846) Governor Owsley made
formal requisition for two regiments of infantry and one of
cavalry. Four days afterward he
proclaimed that the requisition was
full. Ormsby’s regiment, First Ken-
tucky Infantry, was already on its
way to Mexico. In response to this
call for three regiments, or thirty
companies, one hundred and _ five
companies were organized and. ten-
dered to the governor. Seventy-five
of these were of course disbanded.
Besides these there were many others

SNasS" in process of enlistment. In a few
MAJOR-GENERAL weeks Kentucky offered about one-
ae eee fourth as many men as the entire
eee twenty-nine states had been asked
for. Had every other state enlisted proportionately the pres-
ident would have had at his disposal, within a month after
issuing his call, more than 400,000 volunteers.

8. On the 29th of June, President Polk appointed three
Kentuckians to high military command, as follows: Zachary
Taylor, major-general in the regular army; William O. But-
ler, major-general of volunteers; and Thomas Marshall,
brigadier-general of volunteers. Philip N. Barbour already
held a major’s commission and S. B. Buckner that of a lieu-
tenant, in the regular army.

9. The field officers of the First Regiment Kentucky In-
fantry were Col. Stephen Ormsby, Lieut.-Col. Jason Rogers,
and Maj.John 3. Shepherd. Of theSecond Kentucky Infantry,


KENTUCKY IN THE MEXICAN WAR, 219

Col. Wm. R. McKee, Lieut.-Col. Henry Clay, Jr., and Maj.
Carey H. Fry. Of the First Kentucky Cavalry, Col. Hum-
phrey Marshall, Lieut.-Col. Ezekiel H. Field, and Maj. John
P. Gaines. Capt. John S. Williams had raised a company for
this regiment which was not included; but it was accepted by
special order of the war office, as a separate command.

10. In addition to these, four companies were recruited in
Kentucky, early in 1847, for the Sixteenth United States
Infantry, and did service with that regiment in Mexico.

11. During the second year of the war Kentucky was called
on for two more regiments of infantry (August 31st, 1847),
and within a short time these, numbering nearly two thousand
men, were organized and reported. The field officers of the
Third Kentucky Infantry were Col. Manlius V. Thomson,
Lieut.-Col. Thomas L. Crittenden, and Maj. John C. Breck-
inridge. Of the Fourth Kentucky Infantry, Col. John S.
Williams, Lieut.-Col. William Preston, and Maj. Wm. T.
Ward. Twelve more companies were reported, and a number
of others were partly made up, but only the two organized
regiments were accepted. These were dispatched to the seat
of war; but even before they left Kentucky the United States
army had taken the City of Mexico, and the conflict was
virtually over. The new regiments lost hundreds of men by
accident and disease; but were disbanded in July, 1848, with-
out having engaged in other than garrison duty. The names
of all officers and men of the five Kentucky regiments that
went to Mexico, with some facts relating to each, are recorded
in the report of the Adjutant-General of Kentucky, Roster
of Officers and Soldiers of the Mexican alee published in
1889.

12. Of these volunteers for service in the Mexican war,
and Kentuckians in the regular service, at least thirty attained
to eminence during the war of 1861-65, about equally divided
between the Federal and Confederate armies. One of them
220 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

was a lieutenant-general, eight were major-generals, thirteen
were brigadier-generals, and eight were colonels.

18. The first engagement in which Kentuckians had any part
was that at Monterey (September 19th-23rd, 1846). Here
Gen. Wm. O. Butler, of the regulars, was severely wounded,
and Maj. Philip N. Barbour, of the Third Regular Infantry,
was killed. The only regiment of Kentucky volunteers pres-
ent was the Louisville Legion, and that was not actively.
engaged in the several assaults which resulted in the capture
of the town; but it had a harder duty to perform—the hardest
to which troops can be subjected. It was posted to guard a
battery of cannon against Mexican cavalry and artillery, and
was nearly twenty-four hours exposed to an artillery fire with-
out being able to return it. In the official report of the siege
it was said of these young men, subjected for the first time. to
a severe and long-continued test, that they ‘displayed obedi-
ence, patience, discipline, and courage.”’

14. In the battle of Buena Vista (February 22nd—23rd,
1847), General Taylor had 4,759 men, nearly one-fifth of whom
were Kentuckians. This little force had to fight a Mexican
army of about 25,000 men, with twice as many and better
cannon ; but the American general had taken position where the
character of the ground made it impossible for General Santa
Anna to bring his whole force against him at one time.

15. In the little fighting that took place on-the 22nd (late
in the afternoon), the Kentuckians had no part; but on the
28rd their services were in demand, the old-time valor of their
state was notably displayed, and their sacrifices brought
sorrow as well as patriotic pride to many a Kentucky home.
After the battle had raged here and there on the rugged field
with doubtful fortune, the Second Kentucky, in conjunction
with some Illinois troops, was ordered forward to break a
part of the Mexican line which proved to be mach stronger
than it appeared to the American general. They were met by
four times their number, and a fierce conflict ensued. The
KENTUCKY IN THE MEXICAN WAR. 221

Kentuckians and Illinoisans were at length borne back by
the overwhelming odds, with very serious loss. Among the
many who had fallen, Colonel McKee, Lieutenant-Colonel
Clay and Capt. William T. Willis, were all killed. Their men
fought over their bodies and tried to bear them back to their
lines; but a number were slain in the attempt. The on-rush-
ing Mexicans, in a somewhat confused mass, were at length
repulsed with great slaughter by the partially enfilading cross-
fire of two batteries of American artillery; but in this, the
most serious loss during the battle,
the Kentuckians had suffered out of
proportion to their numbers:

16. The Kentucky ‘cavalry also
came in this afternoon for their share
of the fighting and their contribution
to the final victory. A large body of 4,
the Mexican cavalry had worked its y
way around a flank of the American %
army, to attack it in the rear. Colonel
Marshall’s regiment, the First Ken-
tucky Cavalry, and a small part of
Colonel Yell’s Arkansas Cavalry,
turned upon them and charged.
There was a short hand-to-hand fight, and-the Mexicans,
though greatly outnumbering the attacking force, sustained
much loss and fled from the field. The Americans were poorly
armed and poorly mounted, but they made up in stern courage
what they lacked in ‘these respects. Among the killed of
the First Kentucky in this engagement was its gallant adju-
tant, Edward M. Vaughn.

17. Of Taylor’s troops that won the great victory, nineteen
per cent. were Kentuckians. Their killed and wounded were
eighteen out of every hundred. So, you see that Kentucky
gave more than her share toward winning for the United
States the glory of the famous field of Buena Vista,




We

' GENERAL AND SENATOR
JOHN S. WILLIAMS.
222 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

18. It has been previously noted that the company of
Capt. John S. Williams which was intended for the First
Cavalry, failed to be included in that regiment and was
specially accepted by the War Department. It joined General
Scott at Vera Cruz and was on the campaign which resulted
in the capture of the Mexican capital—doing honorable and
efficient service throughout and especially distinguishing itself
in the assault on Cerro Gordo (April 18th, 1847).

19. Maj. John P. Gaines, Capt. Cassius M. Clay, and thirty
men of the First Cavalry were captured at Encarnacion
(January 29th, 1847), having - been
surrounded by an overwhelming force
of Mexicans; and for several months
they were imprisoned in the City of
Mexico.

20. During the war Kentucky was
affectionately mindful of those who
XX’ had fought as became Kentuckians and
had fallen in defense of their country.
On the 20th of July, 1847, the remains
SNS of Col. Wm. R. McKee, Lieut.-Col.
GOVERNOR AND senator Harry Clay, Capt. Wm. H. Maxey,

LAZARUS W. POWELL. Adj, E. M. Vaughn, Lieut. James
Powell, and a_number of private soldiers, were re-interred
in the state section of the beautiful and picturesque ceme-
tery at Frankfort, with the most impressive ceremonies, in
which twenty thousand citizens participated. Subsequently
the soldiers from Franklin, Montgomery and Shelby counties,
who had fallen in the service, were brought home and re-in-
terred in the State Cemetery with funeral honors. This
has since been the policy of the state.

21. ‘Since the world began,’”’ says Gen. Thomas L. Crit-
tenden, ‘‘no people have ever risen to power and splendor
who have not cherished the memory of their great men and
striven to perpetuate it. * * * To us, God has revealed
the right idea of virtue, which forbids us to worship honor


KENTUCKY IN THE MEXICAN WAR, 223

while it teaches us to esteem it, seek after it, and maintain
it.”’ And no country that lovingly gathers up the dust of
those who have died in its service, in foreign lands, that it
may rest in its native soil,.with that of its kindred, can ever
lack for statesmen and defenders.

22. Atthe August election of 1848 the sense of the people
as to the propriety of revising the constitution was taken,
and a large majority declared in favor of calling a convention
for this purpose. The delegates were chosen at the August’
election of 1849, and met at Frankfort October lst. A new
constitution was drafted and submitted to a vote of the
people, the election to be held May 7th, 1850. It was
adopted by a majority of more than 40,000. The convention
re-assembled June 8rd, adopted several amendments, and pro-
claimed the new instrument to be in effect from and after the
_ day of adjournment, June 11th, 1850.

23. The great cause of dissatisfaction with the constitution
of 1798 was that all judges and county officers were appointed
by the governor or some other authority and held their offices
during life or good behavior. The new one made them peri-
odically elective, by the vote of the people.

——005@40-0-—_—_

PERSONAL SKETCHES,

I. Kentucky’s Great Orators.—At almost every stage of
her history Kentucky has had able and brilliant men in the
pulpits, at the bar, or in the state and Federal councils, who
have had a national reputation as orators; but the most emi-
nent of these were Henry Clay, Thomas F. Marshall, and
Richard H. Menefee. Clay was born in Hanover county, Vir-
ginia, April 12th, 1777; was licensed to practice law in 1797;
came soon after to Lexington, Kentucky, and very soon
attracted popular attention and speedily attained to eminence
as one of the most able statesmen and brilliant orators in the
_ United States, Till the day of his death (June 29th, 1852),
PCG

































































































































































































































































































ASHLAND—HENRY CLAY’S RESIDENCE.
KENTUCKY IN THE MEXICAN WAR. 225

he held a commanding position among the many great public
men of the first half of this century; and his fame is world-
wide.

Marshall was born in Frankfort, Kentucky, June 7th, 1801,
and died near Versailles, September 2S
22nd, 1864. With a solidity of mind
that is seldom found in a man distin-
guished for entrancing eloquence, he
was one of the most remarkable men
of a remarkable age. Learned, logical,
witty, humorous, and full of pathos
when occasion required, he may be said
to have stood almost unrivalled as an
orator, whether at the bar, as a polit-
ical campaigner, or in state and na-
tional councils.

Menefee was born in Bath county in
1810, and was not only dependent upon
his exertions for an education, but had to
struggle against influences that would have discouraged and
defeated a less noble spirit. Beginning the practice of law at

Z an early age he quickly attained to
reputation and success; when barely
eligible he was elected to the legisla-
ture, in which body he attracted the
attention of the whole state; and at
the age of twenty-seven he was elected
to Congress, where he at once took
rank not only as an orator but as a
statesman. Like Marshall, his mind
owas strong and logical, and he was
eloquent because he sought earnestly
to convince and not to captivate by
mere brilliant rhetoric and studied
elocution. He died of consumption

RICHARD My MENEEER: (1840), in his thirty-first year, but
thus early he had achieved a splendid reputation.

The careers of these men are full of lessons for talented
and ambitious young Kentuckians; and a study of their lives
as found more particularly recorded elsewhere will furnish
emphatic warning as well as stirring inspiration.

15



THOMAS F. MARSHALL.


226 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

II. Kentuckians Among Other State Troops. — Other
states numbered among their volunteers for the war with
Mexico many natives of Kentucky. Col. John J. Hardin,
commander of the First Regiment of Illinois Infantry, who
was killed at Buena Vista, gallantly leading his regiment in the
desperate charge in which so many of the Second Kentucky
fell, was a Kentuckian—the son of Senator Martin D. Hardin,
of Frankfort. To Kentucky, too, belongs the honor of having
furnished the western division of the army which conquered
Mexico a commander ‘‘who made one of the most brilliant
movements of the war,’’ Gen. Alexander W. Doniphan. He
was born and reared in Mason county. With a force of only
seven hundred men he marched from Santa Fé, in the winter
of 1846-47, a distance of more than eight hundred miles, to
join the army in Mexico; routed on the way, in two battles,
greatly superior forces of the enemy; and finally reached his
destination with small loss.

ie,
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR, 227

CHAPTER XIV.

FROM 1850 To 1860.—KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR: SOME
OF THE EVENTS OF 1860 To 1861.

1. For ten years after the constitution of 1849-50 went
into effect, few events of notable prominence occurred except
exciting political contests, in which, as noted elsewhere, Ken-
tuckians have always engaged with a lively zest. During all
this time, however, the slavery ques-
tion became more and more a cause
of anxiety and agitation. In a sepa-
rate chapter you will find the subject
of African slavery in Kentucky and
the relations of the colored race to
our people—in slavery, in time of i
war, in the condition of freemen and 3
citizens—especially treated.

2. From 1850 to 1860, Kentucky
was almost uniformly and more than
usually prosperous, though from 1854
to 1857 there was again financial dis-
turbance in the United States which
had its effect in Kentucky, but was far less serious than pre-
vious ones.

3. In this year, too, the military ardor and love of adven-
ture which have always been notable traits in the men of Ken-
tucky had another opportunity to manifest itself. The Terri-
tory of Utah was opposed to Federal control, and when a
Federal judge was sent to reside there and preside over the
United States Court, he was forcibly prevented from exercis-
ing the duties of his office. There was, in effect, an insurrec-
tion. In the autumn, an army of 2,500 men under Albert
Sidney Johnston, then a colonel in the United States service,



SENATOR
DAVID MERRIWETHER.
228 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

was sent to quell it. Before the matter was adjusted and the
Federal troops withdrawn, the Kentucky Legislature empow-
ered Governor Morehead (February 15th, 1858) to raise a
regiment of volunteers to aid the United States in restoring
order in the refractory region. On the 6th of March, the
governor made his call, and within a month twenty-three
companies offered their services. There had previously been
outrages, and butcheries of inoffensive immigrants, incited by
Mormon authorities; and of the general feeling of resentment
Kentuckians were quick to partake. The governor chose
from the twenty-three, by lot, ten strong and well-officered
companies; but the Federal authority was established early
in the spring of 1858, and they were not called upon for
service.

4, You come now to the saddest episode in the great story
of your state. Hitherto, in all their sanguinary conflicts the
Kentuckians had stood together. Shoulder to shoulder, aid-
ing and encouraging each other, they had fought their battles,
borne their burdens, and endured their sufferings. Together
they had wrested from a foreign and oppressive power a wide
domain for the United States, reduced to submission the
treacherous Indians who would not abide by solemn treaties,
and built up, on part of the hard-won territory, a great com-
monwealth for themselves and their posterity.

5. Now we have to consider them as divided, estranged,
and, for four unhappy years, turning their arms against each
other, and engaging in mortal strife with that fierceness and
persistence which characterized them when they fought insult-
ing strangers who had made themselves their common foes,
and prowling savages who sought to murder and destroy.
Brothers against brothers, fathers against sons, kinsmen
against those whom they had proudly claimed as of their own
blood, friends who had long discharged toward each other the
offices of good neighborhood and kindly sympathy, those who
from childhood had assembled in the same sanctuaries to
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 229

worship God—these, parting in bitterness, and arraying them-
selves in the ranks of great opposing armies to shed each
other’s blood! On many a sanguinary field, when the battle
was done and the wounded were to be gathered up and the dead
rudely buried where they fell, did. some who performed those
offices come upon the lifeless forms or look upon the agonized
faces of mangled kinsmen and friends whom they had loved in
other days, and whom, perhaps, their own shots and saber-
strokes had brought down. It is such a picture when viewed
in all its lights and shadeés, as the pen of history has seldom
if ever drawn, and will never have to draw again,

6. Neither the causes nor the conse-
quences of the civil war can be dis-
cussed in detail in a work of this kind. q ;
In the outset it is sufficient to say that \ :
the great underlying cause was the \%
different view taken by the two sec-
tions (north and south) of the consti- W
tution of the United States, as to the A
relation between the general govern-
ment and the states. Northern people,
in general, held that under the consti-
tution the Union is one and inseparable;
in fact, that it is a great central power
to which the states are subordinate; that the acts of Congress
are binding on the states, however repugnant they may be,
until declared by the supreme court to be unconstitutional;
and that the highest allegiance of a citizen is to the central
government, not to his own state. The people of the south
held that the states were sovereign, and that the Union was
but a conditional compact, which could be dissolved—each of
the states having the right to judge for itself, ‘as well of
infractions as of the mode and measure of fedress.’? The
effective mode of redress, in case of disaffection with the cen-
tral power, was to dissolve connection with it—to secede from


230 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY,

the Union and resume its own unequalified sovereignty. With
this party, the allegiance of a citizen was first to his own state,
then to the general government.

7. The immediate occasion of the war was slavery. In the
south the great burden of labor was borne chiefly by negroes
who were held in bondage and regarded as property. The
southern people had come to regard slavery with favor; to
believe it warranted by the divine law; to deem it essential to
their prosperity.

8. In 1860, there were four candidates for the presidency
of the United States. The Democratic party was divided on
‘some aspects of the slavery question
and had two candidates in the field.
The National Americans or the last
organization of the old Whig party
also made a nomination. The candi-
date of the Republican party, Abra-
ham Lincoln, was elected.

9. From the foundation of the
government there had been opposition
to slavery, and agitation increased
until a sectional division arose. The
north and the south were arrayed
against each other in Congress on
questions affecting this peculiar institution. A powerful fac-
tion at the north favored the speedy and unconditional aboli-
tion of slavery; the Republican party was known to be in
favor of confining it to the states where it already existed
and of its ultimate extinction. The south had long regarded
the unfriendly attitude of the north as destructive of her
peace and a menace to her prosperity. When a strong anti-
slavery party came into power with the election of Mr. Lin-
coln, eleven southern states seceded and organized a separate
government, with Jefferson Davis as president.



JEFFERSON DAVIS.
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 231

10. Kentucky, though a slave-holding state, refused to se-
cede. Her people were divided in sentiment as to the right of
secession, and more radically divided as to the propriety of
asserting it and allying themselves
with the Confederacy. From the first
she took the attitude of a peace-
maker. When it became evident that
the secession of the southern states ‘
was about to begin, the senior senator
of Kentucky, John J. Crittenden, of- ,
fered in the United States Senate
(December 18th, 1860) some amend-
ments to the constitution designed to
restore peace; but madness had al-
ready seized upon the people, and %
there was no longer in the halls of @0VBRNOR AND SENATOR

se . JOHN J. CRITTENDEN.

Congress a spirit of compromise.

Crittenden’s resolutions were rejected. In January, 1861, a
committee of border slave state men framed compromise reso-
lutions which came to be known as
the Crittenden Compromise. He took
the lead in urging their favorable
consideration and trying to allay the
storm of excitement, but in vain.

11. Governor Magoffin, then in the
first year of his administration as
Kentucky’s chief executive, called an
. extra session of the legislature to con-
i, sider the condition of the country.
This met January 17th, 1861, and in
his message to that body the governor
recommended among other things the
calling of a convention, that the peo-
ple might decide for themselves the attitude which Kentucky
should assume. He, with the newly-elected United States
senator, John C. Breckinridge, and other leading men, be-





GOVERNOR
BERIAH MAGOFFIN.
232 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Â¥

lieved that if Kentucky and other border slave states would
take prompt and definite action either in favor of the seceded
states or in opposition to them, there would be no war. The
legislature declined to call a convention; but appointed six
able, influential and representative gentlemen to a peace con-
ference. This conference met in Washington, February 4th,
1861, but nothing was effected.

12. When President Lincoln called upon the states (April,
1861) for troops to carry out the policy of. maintaining
the Union by force, Governor Magoffin emphatically re-
fused to furnish them, and his action
met with the approval of the people
generally. Though there was a great
and growing party that opposed seces-
sion, there was among nearly all a
strong sentiment against going to war
to compel the southern states to return
to their allegiance to the Federal gov-
ernment. At a convention called to
consider the matter, composed of dele-
gates representing both wings of the

Democratic party, strong resolutions

MAJOR-GENERAL _—_ were adopted indorsing the governor’s
JNO. C. BRECKINRIDGE. -

Gnas refusal to furnish troops to make war
upon the south.

13. The called session of January adjourned on the 11th
of February, to reassemble March 20th, but at this latter
term there was wide diversity of opinion and no decisive
action.

14. After the call for troops, public speakers and writers
who favored the southern movement became more and more
direct, earnest and even vehement in their insistence that the
state should secede; and strong Union men, though now
hopeless of preventing war (which had already begun),
steadily opposed them, and recommended that Kentucky


KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 233

should keep her place in the Union and still stand as a media-
tor between the two sections. At Lexington, April 17th,
1861, Senator Crittenden advocated this policy in a great
speech that had much to do in shaping the course which was
subsequently adopted.

15. The legislature again met in called session (May 6th,
1861) and adopted the position of armed neutrality; that is,
a declaration that Kentucky, as a state, would take no part
with either section, but would defend herself against invasion
by either. To carry out this policy the State Guard was to be
increased and thoroughly armed and equipped. ‘To the State
Guard, organized under a previous act,
was added a reserve force know spe-
cifically as the Home Guard. The arms
and amnunition furnished the state
troops were not to be used against
either belligerent except in repelling in- ¥,,,1
vasion. The older organization was in
the main in sympathy with the south- |j|
ern movement; the more recent one an
consisted chiefly of Union men. The
governor proclaimed neutrality and for- °
bade the United States and the Con- ohn
federate States to enter Kentucky with Lovetn 3. Roussmav.
armed forces. Bes

16. Meanwhile, feeling had intensified, and there was hope-
_ less division. Passion usurped the place of reason; and angry
“recrimination was substituted for sober discussion. The
people in general had identified themselves with the two an-
tagonistic parties, and neutrality was to them but an official
declaration for which, as individuals, they had no respect.
The warlike spirit of Kentuckians made it impossible for them
to stand idly by when blows were to be given in defense of
their respective views of right. If their state declined to lead
them against one or the other hostile power they would enter


234 ‘YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

the lists on their own account; and volunteeriny for service
in the army of their own individual choice was soon actively
going on. Even previous to this the First Regiment of Ken-
tucky Infantry, for the Confederate service, had been organ-
ized and was now on duty in the Army of Northern Virginia.
Recruiting stations for the Federal army were established
just over the border—Camp Clay, in Ohio, opposite New-
port, and Camp Joe Holt, in Indiana, opposite Louisville.
For the Confederate army, Camp Boone, Camp Burnett, and
other stations were established in Tennessee, just beyond our
southwestern boundary. ‘To these re-
paired thousands of the men of Ken-
tucky, where they enrolled them-
selves for service. 2
17. Many southern sympathizers
crossed over the eastern border into
Virginia; and it was but a short time
before troops for both armies were
organizing ‘within the limits of the
state. The existence of a recruiting
station, known’as Camp Dick Robin-
son, in Garrard county, which no



MAJOR-GENERAL effort was made to break up, was re-
Spe eeeloe a eee garded by the Confederate authori-

U.S. A.
: ties as a violation of the state’s neu-

trality, though otherwise construed by the Union men, and on
the 3rd of September, 1861, a Confederate force under Gen.
Leonidas Polk invaded Kentucky and took position at Colum-
bus, on the Mississippi river; and Gen. Felix Zollicoffer came
at the same time into the southern part of the state and sta-
tioned his forces near Cumberland Gap. On the 5th of Sep-
tember, Federal troops under General Grant occupied Paducah.

18. At the August election, 1861, the Union men elected
an overwhelming majority of the General Assembly, and it
was no longer a question as to who should control. <
is

KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 935

Previous to this (June 20th, 1861), at a special election for
members of Congress, but a single State Sovereignty candi-
date was successful, the entire Union majority being 54,760.

19. September 11th, 1861, the legislature, which had met
a few days before and ordered the United States flag to be
hoisted over the capitol, resolved, by a joint vote of 96 to 34,
that Governor Magoffin be instructed to inform those con-
cerned that Kentucky expected the Confederate troops to be
withdrawn from her soil unconditionally. This the governor
vetoed, but it was immediately passed over his head by more
than the necessary two-thirds vote.
A motion in the House of Repre-
sentatives to instruct the governor to
demand the removal of the Federal
as well as the Confederate troops was
rejected by a majority of 39 out of
97 votes cast. |!

20. On the 18th of September,
resolutions were passed by the Gen-
eral Assembly, over the governor’s %
veto, formally abandoning neutrality $
and fully committing the state to alle- \ /
giance to the Federal government. MAJOR-GENERAL
Gen. Robert Anderson, a native Ken- TOMAS a = ee
tuckian, the defender of Fort Sum-
ter, who had been appointed commandant of the Department
of the Cumberland, which included Kentucky, was authorized
to call out a volunteer force of 40,000, which he was requested
to place under the immediate command of Brig.-Gen. Thomas
L. Crittenden (an officer of the State Guard who had adhered
to the Union cause), for the purpose of expelling the Confed-
erates from Kentucky. War was thus virtually declared
against the Confederacy.

21. It is of interest to consider Kentucky’s contribution
of soldiers to the armies engaged in this mighty conflict. In


236 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

1860, her population was less than one-thirtieth of that of the
United States and organized territories; but she contributed
at least one-thirtieth of all the men that were enlisted by both
contending sections. For the Federal service she gave more
than 78,000 men; for the Confederate service, the number
has been estimated at from 25,000 to 40,000. Her volun-
teers were in all about ninety in every hundred men of mili-
tary age.

\
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 237

CHAPTER XV.

KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR: FROM SEPTEMBER 1861 TILL
AFTER THE BATTLE OF PERRYVILLE.

1. To write in detail the history of Kentucky soldiers would
be to write the history of the war, particularly that part of it
which was fought we-t and south of Virginia. All that can
be attempted here is to give you a brief statement of what
occurred in our own borders—actions and events in which
Kentucky soldiers participated or with
which they were identified by being
meanwhile at the battle’s front else-
where.

2. Early in September, Gen. Albert
Sidney Johnston took command of that 4
part of the Confederate force which §
was designated as the Central Army of }
Kentucky, to confront the Federal i
troops along the northern border of
the Confederacy and contend for the
possession of Kentucky. On the 18th





GENERAL
of September, he ordered General atsext stpney JOHNSTON,

Buckner to advance from Camp Boone oben

to Bowling Green, with Kentucky and Tennessee troops, and
fortify. This was the center of a line of operations extend-
ing from the Mississippi-river to the Cumberland Gap. détachment was thrown forward to Green river, and the
Nashville railroad was broken up northward to within forty
miles of Louisville, to prevent its use by the Federal army.
On the 21st, the Confederates destroyed the locks and dams
on Green river to prevent General Grant from moving un
the flank of their position by boats,
238 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

8. Occasional conflicts occurred during the next few weeks.
On the 21st of October, General Zollicoffer began, with seven
thousand men, an advance towards the central part of the
state, but was encountered by Col. (afterward General) T. T.
Garrard, at Wild Cat mountain, near London, with the Sev-
enth Kentucky Federal Infantry, and a fight with Zollicoffer’s
advance ensued, which was maintained by the Federal officer
until re-enforcements came up. General Schoepff arrived
with six regiments of infantry and Wolford’s cavalry, and
position. After some loss, on both sides, of
—<—S which the Confederates sustained the
_ greater part, Zollicoffer withdrew.

4. Col. John S. Williams, in Novem-
ber, then organizing a Confederate
regiment at Prestonburgh, was threat-






J, pe ates might retire by way of Pikeville,
Yue Ls? CO) % ith men and supplies, into Virginia.
Sie: The Federals were encountered at Ivy

BRIGADIER-GENERAL =
THEOPHILUS T. GARRARD, Mountain, November 8th, and after a

Pee spirited engagement of more than an
hour, during which loss was inflicted by both combatants,
the Confederates retreated. Nelson’s advance was so delayed,
however, by the attack that Williams was enabled to withdraw
from the state with all his military stores.

5. On the 18th of November, Kentuckians who were iden-
tified with the southern movement in feeling, and were deter-
mined to give it active support, met in a Sovereignty conven-
tion at Russellville, and during a three days’ session, formed
a provisional government for Kentucky, with a view to secur-
ing representation in the Confederate Congress and_ ulti-
mately, in case the southern arms should prove triumphant,
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 239

of securing its endorsement by the people. Of this, George
W. Johnson, of Scott county, was chosen governor. The
usual state officers were also elected. Under this provisional
form the state was admitted to the MET
‘Confederacy in December; and, on sg
the 22nd of January, 1862, the sol-
~ diers in the field elected representa-
tives and senators to the Confederate |
Congress. : |
- 6. At Sacramento, in McLean
county, a company of Federal sol-
diers was attacked (December 27th, :
1861) by Colonel (afterward Gen- }
eral) Forrest, and defeated, losing h
thirty-three in killed, wounded and iy
BRIGADIER-GENERAL
captured—Confederate loss not re- HUMPHREY MARSHALL,
ported. Cc. Ss. A.
7. During this year there were various other small affairs,
between isolated bodies of soldiers, of no special conse-
quence to either of the belligerents.
8. Early in 1862, more vigorous
and effective operations began. On
the 10th of January, Gen. Hum-
phrey Marshall, commanding Con-
federate troops in eastern Kentucky,
became engaged with a Federal force
under Col. James A. Garfield (aft-
erward president), at the Forks of
Middle Creek, near Prestonburgh,
Floyd county, and was defeated,
with a loss of fifty-two killed,





MAJOR-GENERAL wounded, and prisoners, while the
GEO. B. CRITTENDEN,
C. Ss. A. Federal loss was but twenty-seven

. killed and wounded.
9. Before this time General Buell, in command of the
Department of the Cumberland since November 18th, 1861,
- had organized at Louisville an army of 60,000 men. In Jan-
240 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

uary the Federal general, George H. Thomas, marched
against a Confederate force on the north bank of the Cum-
berland river, in Pulaski county, under Gen. George B. Crit-
tenden. On the 19th, General Zollicoffer was sent forward
with about five thousand men, and encountered Thomas at
Mill Spring, with nearly an equal force. The battle raged for
hours, and the result seemed to be in doubt till large re-en-
forcements reached General Thomas; about the same time
General Zollicoffer was killed; and the Confederates were
forced back to their fortifications. They managed to escape
‘ across the Cumberland during the
night, but were compelled to abandon
a large amount of artillery and mili-
tary stores. The loss in killed and
wounded in this engagement was not
great as compared with subsequent
battles of the war; but it was sufii-
cient to indicate the fighting qualities
: of the opposing armies.

10. The retreat of Crittenden
- exposed the right flank of Johnston’s
line of operations. On the 6th of

BRIGADIER-GENERAL February, Fort Henry, in advance of

rae gn the extreme left of this line, and in-

tended to prevent the passage of

Federal troops by water-craft up the Tennessee river, was

forced to surrender to General Grant. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman,

, the Confederate officer commanding there, was a Kentuckian,

who had resigned from the State Guard to take service for
the south.

11. In a week afterward, Grant, approaching both by land
and by the Cumberland river, had invested Fort Donelson, on
that stream, under command of Generals Floyd and Pillow.
It was the only obstacle now between the Federal ‘army
and Nashville, in the rear of Johnston’s central position at


KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 241

Bowling Green. On the 12th of February, late in the day,
there was picket fighting as the Federals approached; on the
morning of, the 13th the battle began in earnest. For three
days it raged furiously, with occasional lulls in the storm, and
varied by a gun-boat attack on the Confederate land batteries.
On the night of the 15th, Floyd and Pillow transferred their
authority to General Buckner, who had been third in com-
mand, and abandoned the field with a few troops. Next
morning, General Buckner surrendered the Confederate army
to Grant, and the Kentucky line of defense was exposed to
attack, front, flank, and rear, and
was no longer tenable.

12. General Johnston, however,
had evacuated Bowling Green Feb-
ruary 14th, and moved southward in
time to pass Nashville before Gen-
eral Grant could intercept him there
or Buell attack him, with his power-
ful Federal force, in front.

18. Buell took possession of Nash-
ville February 25th. On the 27th,
Polk evacuated Columbus and with-



LIEUTENANT-GENERAL
drew to Corinth, Mississippi, where SIMON B. BUCKNER,

2 ‘ : CG. 8. A.
his forces were united with those of

Johnston. There was no longer an organization of armed
Confederates in Kentucky.

14. At Donelson, two regiments of Kentucky infantry,
some companies of cavalry and a battery of artillery, fought
on the southern side, while two regiments of Kentucky infan-
try fought in the army of General Grant. This was repeated,
though on a far larger scale, in many subsequent engagements.

15. In Kentucky, the legislature, besides providing a great
force for the prosecution of war against the Confederate
states, passed a war measure while these stirring events were
going on well calculated to deter men who were not enrolled

in either army from passing beyond the southern border and
16
242 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

identifying themselves with the southern movement, though
it proved in the end to have little effect: This was the expa-
triation act—an official declaration that those who had gone

z into the Confederate army had for-
feited their citizenship, which could
not be restored except by permission
of the legislature. The governor
vetoed this; but it was promptly
passed by more than the necessary
| two-thirds vote, the objections of the
governor notwithstanding.

16. During the spring and summer
of 1862, the respective great armies
with which Kentuckians were identi-
fied fought on fields removed from



MAJOR-GENERAL
THO. J. WOOD, the state—at Shiloh, Vicksburg, and

U. S. A.
Baton Rouge.

17. General Bragg i in command of the Confederate army
of the Tennessee, Sapte the death of General Jolmnsren at
Shiloh, and the transfer of Beaure-
gard to another field, planned an in-
vasion of Kentucky; and from about
the last of August till some time in
October there were again great armies
confronting each other on Kentucky
soil.

18. Meanwhile, Gen. John H.
Morgan, who achieved the distinction
of being regarded as a military genius
—bold, dashing, full of resources,
disconcerting his enemy by swift and



BRIGADIER-GENERAL
unexpected movements—one of the JOHN H. MORGAN,

c. 8S. A.



great cavalry leaders of the war
made his first raid into Kentucky. In 1860-61 he was the
captain of a state guard cavalry company at Lexington, com-
posed of spirited young men, well-drilled, and for the most
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 243

part in sympathy with the south. This company maintained
its organization while most of those that composed the guard
were breaking up and their members allying themselves, as
individuals, with one or the other of the contending sections.
Early in the autumn of 1861 he eluded the state and Federal
troops and joined the southern army at Bowling Green.
During the next nine months he did active and efficient serv-
ice in connection with that army, scouting, covering its front
as outguard, developing the enemy, and fighting him to pro-
tect the Confederate flanks. The fame of his achievements
attracted the young men of Kentucky
and Tennessee to his standard; and by
June, 1862, he was in command of
about eight hundred daring riders.
19. Starting from Knoxville, July
4th, 1862, he reached Tompkinsville
‘on the 6th and defeated a small Fed-
eral force there; passed by way of
Glasgow to Bear Wallow, where an
expert operator whom he kept in his
service, employed the new device of
using the telegraph to mislead Federal srigaprER-GENERAL
officers and prevent them from over- GRBEN OLAX SMITH,
whelming his command as he moved
northward. At New Hope, in Nelson county, he encountered
opposition and a temporary check, but on the 12th he captured
Lebanon with the small garrison stationed there. Moving
through Springfield, Harrodsburgh, Lawrenceburgh, Versailles,
and Midway to Georgetown, skirmishing occasionally and
using the telegraph as occasion offered, tearing up the rail-
ways, and burning bridges, he captured Georgetown. Thence
his march was to Cynthiana, where, on the 17th of July, he
encountered a force of home guards and a newly organized
regiment, under command of Col. John J. Landrum. After
severe fighting, in which each side lost about sixty in killed


244 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

and wounded, Morgan captured the place and destroyed a
large amount of government property. A superior force of
Kentucky cavalry under Gen. Green Clay Smith and Col. Frank
Wolford now prepared to assail him and he was compelled to
retreat rapidly into east Tennessee. In twenty-four days he
had marched more than a thousand miles, taken seventeen
towns, captured and paroled about twelve hundred soldiers,
destroyed supplies and munitions of war to the amount of a
million of dollars, and kept busy in fighting, pursuing and guard-
ing against vgn more than twenty epee as many aed men
as he had on the expedition. His loss
in killed and wounded was ninety.

- 20. During the summer General
Bragg, at Ghutanoopas had organized
an army of about 45,000 men for the
4 invasion of Kentucky. Gen. E. Kirby
Smith, with headquarters at Knox-
y ville, Tennessee, was in command of
: 15,000 men of this force. General
Morgan was sent forward to break up
the railroad between Nashville and
Bowling Green and otherwise obstruct



“MAJOR-GENERAL
WM. NELSON, the advance of the Federal army under

U. S. A.

General Buell, then between Mur-
freesboro and Nashville—deceived as to Bragg’s purpose and
expecting an attack in Tennessee. Disposing part of his force
under General Stevenson in observation of Cumberland Gap,
General Smith entered Kentucky through Big Creek Gap
towards the last of August, with about 12,000 men. Leaving
5,000 under General Heth, to move after him more delib-
erately, he made a rapid march for Richmond, Kentucky, with
the remainder of the army. On the 23rd of August, there was
a severe cavalry engagement at Big Hill, in Rockcastle county,
resulting in the defeat of the Federal troops. At Richmond
was a Federal force of about 8,000 men, under command of
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 245

Gen. William Nelson, who, however, was in Lexington—the
command devolving for the time on Colonel Manson. In the
general battle that followed at Richmond (August 30th, 1862),
the Federal forces, after a gallant resistance, were defeated,
with a loss in killed, wounded and prisoners, of about 5,000.
Smith’s killed and wounded were nine hundred and fifty. The
Federals who escaped retreated to Lexington, and thence,
with about 1,500 men who were stationed there, fell back
towards the Ohio. Other detachments of Federal troops, east
of Louisville, retreated across the
river,

21. On Sunday night, August 31st,
the legislature met in extraordinary if
session, transacted some ordinary busi- _
ness, and adjourned to meet in Louis-
ville September 2nd, carrying the
state archives with them, in accord-
ance with a previous act providing for
such an emergency. y

22. September Ist, Kirby Smith’s Jy
immediate command reached Lexing-/ ////
ton; General Heth, with his 5,000 MajOR-GUNERAL
men, soon joined him; and General PON CARLOS BUELL,
Morgan, having come from Tennes-
see in advance of Bragg’s main army, reported to Smith for
duty, September 4th.

23. The Federal general, George Morgan, was at Cumber-
land Gap with 8,000 men. Smith, as noted previously, had
left General Stevenson south of the Gap to observe Morgan,
and attack him in case of his making an effort to fall back and
connect with Federal forces northward. Gen. Humphrey
Marshall was at Mt. Sterling with his command of cavalry, in
position to strike his flank, but he was without definite orders.
General Morgan (George) withdrew from the Gap and had

reached Campton, in Wolfe county, unmolested, when he found


246 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Gen. John H. Morgan in his front, but without sufficient force
to fight him effectively or materially to delay his onward
movement,

24. It had been contemplated that Stevenson would follow
closely and that Marshall would attack the Federal left flank,
so that his capture would be certain; but the only opposition
came from Morgan’s cavalry, and the Federal command suc-
ceeded in reaching Greenupsburg with little loss—having
marched about two hundred miles in sixteen days, through a
nd being harassed from Campton to
Grayson by Confederate cavalry; but
his men had suffered much from hard
travel over rough roads, from anxiety
and watching and fighting, and from
lack of food. When they reached the
| Ohio they were almost naked and
~ barefoot, as well as worn out.

25. Bragg had left Chattanooga Sep-
tember 5th, with 30,000 men. Threat-
‘ening Nashville in order to deceive
MAK General Buell as to his real design, he
See ee ee nar _ then turned to the right and came into
SAMUEL W. PRICE, Kentucky by way of Carthage, Ten-
ene nessee. On the 12th of September he |
was at Glasgow, while Buell was yet below Bowling Green.
The only serious obstacle between him and Louisville was a
Federal garrison of 3,500 men, under General Wilder, at
Munfordville. On the 14th this was attacked, but the Con-
federates were repulsed. The attack was successfully renewed
on the 16th, and General Wilder surrendered.

26. By this time Bragg had been considerably re-enforced
by Kentuckians who seized the opportunity of taking service
in a campaign which seemed then full of promise. The forces
under his immediate command were probably equal to those
under General Buell. Smith was in central Kentucky with















KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 247

the men who had won Richmond, with General Heth’s 5,000
now up; and Morgan’s and Marshall’s cavalry commands were
within easy reach of the Ohio river or of the point where
Bragg lay between Buell and Louisville; but in a few days
Bragg abandoned his strong position in front of Buell, moved
to Bardstown, and allowed the Federal general to march to
Louisville without a fight, where he arrived September 25th.
By this time re-enforcements for the Federal army were rap-
idly concentrating, and in a short time Buell had at his dis-
position and available for the defense of Kentucky about
100,000 men. Bragg’s troops were
in the main disposed along a line
extending from Bardstown to. Mt.
Sterling.

27. Meanwhile, Smith had sent
Heth along the Kentucky Central to
the vicinity of Covington to threaten
Cincinnati; but though that city was 7
for a time in imminent danger it was %,
soon put in a fair state of defense,
and Bragg was not in position to pur-
sue advantages or to direct his sub-
ordinate judiciously.



BRIGADIER-GENERAL

: GEO. B. COSBY,
28. There were numerous minor C. Ss. A.

engagements during September—for
the most part disconnected, and having no relation to a plan
of battle on a commanding scale.

29. One ineffectual attempt was made by Confederates
to cross the Ohio river forty miles above Cincinnati, to
threaten that city in the rear. September 27th, Colonel
(afterward General) Basil Duke, of Morgan’s cavalry, with
about four hundred men and some light field-pieces, attempted
to effect acrossing at Augusta. Two extemporized gun-boats
were quickly driven off by the fire of Duke’s little howitzers ;
but he was attacked by about one hundred home guards
248 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

commanded by Dr. Joshua T. Bradford, who fought from
house to house in the town, for several hours, both sides
engaging with such ferocity that about fifty of the Confed-
erates were killed and wounded, among whom were three cap-
tains and six lieutenants; and the Federals left unhurt were
compelled to surrender only after they were disloged by burn-
ing the houses where they were posted.

80. On the 1st of October General Buell marched out of
Louisville and assumed the offensive. He had at his imme-
diate disposition about 70,000 men of all arms. He and Brage
now began a series of movements
which resulted (October 8th) in a
great battle near Perryville, in Boyle
county.

31. Neither commander was thor-
oughly advised as to the position of
- his adversary, and when the battle
opened, a little after noon of that
day, their respective forces were not
massed at the point where the engage-
ment occurred, and there were upon
the field but about 16,000 Confeder-

BRIGADIER-GENERAL ates and about 25,000 Federals—the
JAMES S. JACKSON,
U. S. A.



latter under the immediate command
of Gen. Alexander McCook, the
former under that of Gen. Wm. J. Hardee. While the Federal
army, in doubt as to whether the advantage lay with them or
their enemy, were waiting for the corps of Gen. Thomas L.
Crittenden, one corps of Confederates, commanded by Gen-
eral Polk, brought on the engagement by a vigorous attack.
The battle raged till nightfall, and for the time occupied was
one of the most desperately contested of the war. ‘This bat-
tle,’’ said General Buell, ‘will stand conspicuous for its
severity.’’ The Federal loss in killed, wounded, and missing
was 4,364; that of the Confederates, 3,396, The Kentuckians
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 249

engaged in this great battle were mainly those belonging to
the Federal army. Bragg had left all his veteran Kentucky
infantry in Mississippi, bringing back to aid in taking posses-
sion of their state only the cavalry of Morgan and Helm’s old
regiment. Among the Federal Kentuckians killed was Gen.
James §. Jackson, who fell in front of his troops, trying to
rally and lead forward a broken line.

32. Night put an end to the conflict, with some ground
gained by the Federal army, but nothing decisive accom-
plished. Next day Bragg withdrew towards Harrodsburgh.
Near this place, the two armies, greatly
increased by a concentration of their
hitherto scattered forces faced each
other again; but Bragg declined to risk
another battle and retreated from the
state, carrying immense supplies for
his army, but no substantial fruits of Up,
victory. Kentucky was not again in- 4
vaded by any formidable Confederate :
force.

33. For atime after the attack on
Richmond and the advance of Brage’s



° fs ‘ BRIGADIER-GENERAL
main army to Munfordville, there was GEO. B. HODGE,

wild excitement in Kentucky and along aa

its northern border. It scemed that he would beat Buell and*
make good his footing. News of Lee’s successes on the Poto-
mac had reached the people, and those who were in sympathy
with the Confederate cause were elated at the prospect of a
termination of the war in favor of the southern arms. The
Union people were of course proportionately depressed. At
Frankfort, while a Confederate force held that city, Richard
Hawes was inaugurated governor of Kentucky (October 4th)
under the provisional government created at Russellville, in
place of George W. Johnson, killed at Shiloh. Since Bragg’s
success was apparently not yet impossible, it was deemed
250 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

important to have the frame-work of a state government ready
to assume the administration of civil affairs. The ceremonies
were hardly completed, however, before a detachment of
Buell’s army was in sight, and the Confederate troops were
retiring before it. The campaign, of which the adherents to
the southern cause had expected so much, and from which the
adherents to the Federal cause apprehended disaster to the
Union, had ended in mortifying failure.


KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 251

CHAPTER XVI. :

KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR: FROM BRAGG’S RETREAT TO
THE CLOSE.

1. When Bragg was well out of Kentucky, the Federal
army, now under command of General Rosecrans, marched to
Nashville, to prevent him from turning upon-the garrison
there.

2. Bragg concentrated his army at Murfreesboro. On the
22nd of December (1862), General
Morgan set out on another expedition j “ny
to Kentucky at the head of 3,000 men, ie
to break up lines of transportation .
and cripple the plans of the Federal
general at Nashville. The garrisons |
of comparatively raw troops which Ne
had been left to guard important jf
points were unable to check Morgan’s .
veterans, and he captured Glasgow
and Elizabethtown. He was pursued
as he continued his march towards
Louisville, but pushed on and~capt- aoe aR
ured the block-houses protecting the Judge U. 8. Supreme Court.
bridges at Muldraugh’s Hill, burned the trestle-work, and tore
up the track. Along this road he destroyed more than 2,000
feet of bridges. December 28th, a detachment of his com-
mand (about 800 men), while crossing the Rolling Fork was
attacked by 7,000 Federal troops under General Harlan and
suffered some loss, but made skillful and resolute defense and
escaped capture.

3. The main object of the expedition having been accom-
plished, he turned towards Bardstown, and thence made a
swift and safe retreat into Tennessee.

\.
Mi!
yg NG


252 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

4. As a counter-check to these raids, Federal officers began
now to adopt Morgan’s plan of swift and unexpected invasion,
as applied to southern territory. On the 25th of December,
while Morgan was yet in the state, General Carter set out from
Winchester, Kentucky, with eleven hundred picked cavalrymen
and made his way, over a difficult route, to the valley of the Hol-
ston in Tennessee; surprised and captured a garrison of three
hundred men under a Major McDowell, at Blountsville, and
made such destruction of the track and bridges of the Ten-
nessee and Virginia Railroad as rendered it useless for months.

5. The great battle of Stone River
occurred about the time these brill-
iant cavalry dashes terminated, and
in this thousands of Kentucky soldiers
faced each other. Soon afterward,
part of Morgan’s command re-entered
' the state. In March, 1863, a brigade
under Colonel Cluke defeated a Fed-
eral force of five hundred at Mt.
Sterling (March 22nd), captured army
supplies, and destroyed some railway
trains, but was defeated (March 30th )

ROGER W. HANSON, by Kentucky cavalry under Colonel
CAS as Walker, and retired from the state.

6. About the same time General Pegram with two thou-
sand six hundred men made a raid without important results.
Before reaching Danville he encountered Wolford’s Kentucky
cavalry, over which he obtained a temporary advantage, but
soon retreated to Dutton Hill, in Pulaski county, where he was
attacked and defeated with severe loss by a much smaller
force under General Q. A. Gilmore. There was fighting in
Lawrence county between the troops of General Marshall and
General White, in which White was repulsed. May 11th,
the Ninth Kentucky Federal Cavalry was defeated in Wayne

county by a part of Morgan’s command; and some time dur-








KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 253

ing the spring some Confederate cavalry under Capt. Pete
Everett, after a raid on Maysville, was defeated near More-
head, Kentucky, with a loss of forty men, by a regiment. of
mounted Kentuckians. :

7. In June, 1863, General Morgan started on his famous
raid through Indiana and Ohio. Crossing the Cumberland
river near Burksville, with between three and four thousand
men, he met with no serious opposition till after he had passed
through Columbia. At Green river bridge, on the road to
Lebanon, a detachment of his troops was repulsed, with the
loss of about a hundred men, by a regiment four hundred
strong under Colonel Moore of the
Twenty-fifth Michigan. Among the
killed were some of his able officers.
He captured the garrison at Lebanon,
July 5th—about three hundred men
of the Twentieth Kentucky, but only
after a severe fight in which his loss ;'/
was about fifty. At Bardstown, //j
twenty-six Federal soldiers intrenched 3
in a barn resisted for several hours 4
a detachment sent against them, and
were dislodged only after artillery was
brought to bear on them. Th OREO

8s. At Brandenburgh he captured UNE ea:
two steamers, in which he crossed into Indiana. Followed
closely by Kentucky Federal cavalry under Bristow, Hobson,
and Shackleford, and beset on all sides by troops hastily col-
lected, he made a wide circuit through Indiana into Ohio, in the
rear of Cincinnati, by which time his pursuers had increased to
many thousands, but were unable to effect his capture. Proceed-
ing eastward, with a view to re-crossing the Ohio at the first
available point, but finding this impracticable, by reason of gun-
boats in the river and troops pressing on his rear, he came
opposite Buffington Island, near the mouth of the Kanawha,
on the 18th of July, and tried to force a passage. By this






254. YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

time their ride of eleven hundred miles in about ten days had
exhausted the men and they were unable to make effectual
resistance. Some companies surrendered. Others tried to
swim the river, but some of these were killed in the water and
the greater part captured. Four companies succeeded in
reaching the Virginia shore. Morgan, who remained with
part of the force on the north side, seeing the hopelessness of
the attempt to cross, now continued with these the march up
the river; but on the 26th they were surrounded and forced to -
surrender. They were granted honorable terms, but the
ppzceinent was disregarded by the authorities, and the gen-
eral, with a number of his officers,
was confined in the penitentiary at Co-
lumbus, Ohio. A remarkable scheme
to escape was conceived, however,
and successfully executed as to part of
H \\ them. Through a passageway, cut

i i | through the floor of a cell and under
i the prison wall, General Morgan and
A six of his captains, Bennett, Hines,

Z Hockersmith, McGhee, Sheldon, and
Taylor, made their way out (Novem-
ber 28th, 1863), and escaped into



we
BRIGADIER- GENERAL
ABRAHAM BUFORD, — Kentucky, and all but two got through

CuBr: to the south. The rest were after-

ward transferred to other prisons and finally exchanged.

9. In March, 1864, General Forrest, with his naval Yy corps,
came into western Kentucky. With his escort and Buford’s
division of mounted Kentuckians, and some Tennesseeans, in
advance of his main force, he reached the city about two
o’clock in the afternoon of the 25th, and dashed in. General
Hicks, in command of the garrison, numbering from seven hun-
dred to a thousand men, speedily took position in Fort Anderson,
a strong redoubt, supplied with artillery, and supported by
two gun-boats lying alongside the city. The Kentuckians,
about four hundred in number, under command of Col,
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 255

Albert P. Thompson, made a desperate attack upon this fort
but were met with destructive volleys from small arms and
artillery and at length forced to take shelter in the houses,
from the upper stories and roofs of which the survivors of the
furious attack fired over the parapets until ordered by Forrest
to withdraw. Among the killed was Colonel Thompson, who,
leading the assaulting column, was torn to pieces by a cannon
shot. Notwithstanding this repulse Forrest held the city till
eleven o’clock that night. He retired, after having compelled
the gun-boats to seek shelter under the fort, destroyed a gov-
ernment steamer, a railroad depot and much rolling stock,
and a large amount of war material, and taken fifty prisoners.

10. In June, 1864, General Morgan being again in com-
mand of his re-organized old troops and some others, came
into Kentucky at Pound Gap, with two thousand five hundred
men and made another attempt to cripple the operations of
the Federal army in the south by interfering with its lines of
supplies and communication. He captured Mt. Sterling,
fought at Lexington with a part of his force with but partial
success; operated unsuccessfully, with another detachment,
against Frankfort, while his main body was engaged at Cyn-
thiana. Here he captured a train bearing several hundred Fed-
eral troops; but the town was defended by home guards which
made fierce resistance. By the time the town was taken, a
large part of it was burned and both sides had suffered
greatly. By the 12th of June a strong force of Federal
troops was upon him, and after an hour’s fighting and a heavy
loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners, he was compelled to
re-assemble his detachments and fall back rapidly into south-
western Virginia,

11. On the 38rd of Septanber 1864, his troops were
encamped near Greenville, Tennessee. Next morning they
were surprised; his headquarters in town were surrounded;
and finding effectual resistance impossible, he passed into the
s

256 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

garden to escape, but was there shot and killed. General
Duke succeeded to the command.

12. When Hood advanced on Nashville (November, 1864),
General Lyon, then in command of a small brigade of Ken-
tucky cavalry, was sent into Kentucky to create a diversion in
his favor. He continued his operations in Kentucky and on
the borders until the spring of 1865. In December, 1864, he
sent a detachment under command of Colonel Chenoweth to
break direct connection between Louisville and the army of
General Thomas at Nashville. On this expedition Chenoweth
burned the Nolin bridge on the Louisville and Nashville Rail-
road and captured a train of cars loaded with Federal soldiers.
Lyon’s raid was the last one made in force. There were many
smaller affairs than those which we have noticed, occurring at
various times during the last two or three years of the war;
but they were of no real significance and had little effect
except to annoy. :

13. But it was not from invasion by great armies and dash-
ing expeditions of regularly organized cavalry that Kentucky’s
chief suffering came during those years. War is cruel, wher-
ever waged; but American armies have always been singularly
free from those shocking and inexcusable barbarities that are
forbidden by the rules of civilized warfare. But every time
of great and long-lasting public disturbance brings into promi-
nence some vicious characters, who, in the absence of the
law’s restraints, become dangerous to society.

14. Especially during the last two years of the war, the
people of Kentucky were subjected to outrages by small
predatory bands of armed men, calling themselves, in some
instances, partisan rangers, but being in fact guerillas, giving
allegiance to neither the Federal or Confedera’e power, and
unrecognized, uncontrolled, by either. The Confederate
government repudiated and condemned their acts and ordered
those under its authority to regard them as the enemies of
mankind; and the Federal authority, in control of the terri-
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 257

tory in which they operated, treated them as outlaws. In
some instances they were led by men who made a pretext of
having grievous personal wrongs, inflicted by either Union or
Confederate sympathizers, to avenge, and who claimed to be
justifiable in killing those whom they considered enemies, and
in committing other violence. In general, they were deserters
from the armies; but they attracted to them many who had
not been soldiers, and whose sole object was pillage.

15. Another circumstance was full of mischief; namely,
the interference of the military with the civil authorities.
This created great dissatisfaction; was the cause of uneasi-
ness and suffering; was accompanied in many instances with
high-handed outrage; and was in general condemned by those
who had loyally supported the government of the United
States, as soldiers, as civil officers, as quiet and law-abiding
citizens. :

16. It is proper to notice now the main facts as to military
rule during this period. That you may understand fully the
grounds of complaint against the military authorities and how
reasonable it was that the people of Kentucky were at times deeply
incensed, and at times outspoken in opposition to certain war
measures and the men who administered them, it is important
to observe that after the early autumn of 1861, the state was
unequivocally committed to the Union policy, and that the
machinery of government was substantially under the control
of the Conservative Union party—of men who were known
during those times as War Democrats.

17. Governor Magoflin, it is true, was in sympathy with
the southern movement; he was unalterably opposed to the
Federal policy of coercion; but he was equally as unalterably
opposed to any revolutionary action on the part of Kentucky.
Whatever was to be done, he insisted, must be done under
forms of law. As governor he executed the laws as he found
them, with due regard to his oath of office and a manly

17

us ‘
1

°258 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

‘determination neither to evade responsibility nor go beyond
his authority.

18. When opposed to measures which an opposition legis-
lature. enacted, he interposed his veto; when they became
laws in spite of his veto he recognized them as binding on
him. When his self-respect and the public good seemed to
demand it, he resigned (August 18th, 1862) in favor of a
man whose views were more in accordance with those of the
General Assembly, and who would probably bring about more
agreeable relations between the military and civil arm.

19. It should be borne in mind
that for a long time every demand
made on Kentucky by the United
States for men and munitions of war
had been promptly and fully met.
Further, that there had been such a
respect for law and order throughout
all the trying period that neither the
southern nor the Union element had
»= sought to institute violent and insur-
rectionary proceedings ; but had waited
with singular patience for that ac-

J. = aaa tion which would commit the state to
something definite and authoritative.

Notwithstanding all this, the war office at Washington deemed
it necessary to take steps which subordinated the civil power
in Kentucky to that of the military. June Ist, 1862,
Gen. Jeremiah T. Boyle was made chief commandant, with
headquarters at Louisville, under orders from the Secre-
tary of War to enforce an arbitrary and stringent policy.
Provost marshals were appointed in every county ; and in many
instances the rule of these men was as annoying and injurious
to loyal citizens as to those whom it was the object of the leg-
islature as well as the military power to restrain and punish.


KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 259

20. By an act of the General Assembly and by order of the
War Department, they were authorized to exercise control
over private opinions as well as of overt acts. Jurymen, school
commissioners, examiners, teachers, college professors, and
ministers of the gospel who wished to perform the marriage
rite, were required to swear to their loyalty, present and
future; and all who had given aid and comfort to the Confed-
erates or had returned to the state after going south beyond
the lines were compelled to take the oath of allegiance to the
United States and give bond, under penalty of punishment
according to the laws of war. If the .
property of loyal citizens should be
taken or injured by guerillas or by
regular Confederate troops raiding
through the state, southern sympa-
thizers were to be assessed for the NE WF
payment of damages—the innocent XY Qe} NN

must suffer for the guilty. Wiss SG
21. Ill-disposed and spiteful people .@OW

seized the occasion to wreak ven- i \
\ \Y A
with disfavor; and for a long time oN \
there was a virtual reign of terror in
the commonwealth. Many promi-
nent men had been arrested and im-
prisoned previous to the adoption of the severe policy carried
out under martial law. Now there were increased arrests,
imprisonments, banishment (women and non-combatants being
among those thus severely dealt with), assessments for dam-
ages, and acts of violence growing out of the disordered state
of society rather than from the direct exercise of the military
power.

22. The chief executive who had succeeded Governor
Magoffin (James F. Robinson, of Scott county), was an able,
prudent, and conservative man, thoroughly loyal to the United



GOVERNOR
JAMES F. ROBINSON.
260 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

States government and disposed to execute the laws in accord-
ance with the best interests of his people and for the success
of Union arms; but during his short term of little more than
a year his power for good was exceedingly limited.

23. Kentucky had early obtained the solemn assurance of
the government at Washington that the war was to be waged
to maintain the Union and not to meddle with slavery. The
people of this state relied upon the promise. The loyal posi-
tion which they had assumed with this view justified them in
believing that they would be exempt from whatever pains and
penalties might be inflicted on the
seceded states. , Their slave property
was worth more than a hundred mil-
lion of dollars; and as they were
bearing their full share of expenses
to carry on the war, they had no
thought that their property rights
would be disregarded; but when the
proclamation of January Ist, 1863,
was issued, freeing all the slaves in
the seceded states, it was clear that
its practical application was to destroy

ee jon GaNEReL Slavery in Kentucky and without

JNO. T. CROXTON, compensation. This gave such of-

Mags: fense to even the most devoted Union

men that many protested boldly and withdrew their voluntary
support.

24. July 31st, 1863, martial law was formally declared in
Kentucky for ‘‘protecting the rights of loyal citizens and the
freedom of elections.’’ At the ensuing election for governor
and other state officers and congressmen (August 3rd) the
polls were guarded by soldiers, though the real Union men
were greatly in the majority, and the result would doubtless
have been the same with an untrammelled vote.


KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 261

25. Boyle was relieved of his command as provost marshal
of Kentucky (January 12th, 1864) and resigned his commis-
sion. He was succeeded (February 15th) by a commandant
whose rule was marked by severity exceeding his orders and
was condemned by all reasonable and just men, irrespective of
Union or secession sentiments. On the 16th of July, 1864,
an order was issued that when a citizen was killed by guerillas,
four guerilla prisoners should be carried to the place where
the killing was done and shot to death. Under this order
many Contsder ate soldiers, as well as marauders, were executed
without even the pretense of atrial, Innocent men were made
to suffer for deeds for which they were in no way responsible.
The election of this year was interfered with by extensive
arrests, by forbiddding the name of a candidate for Appellate
Judge of the Second District to be entered on the poll-books,
and by stationing troops at the voting places. Other arbitrary
acts and usurpation of authority, cruel, unjust, and unneces-
sary, were so flagrant as to provoke bitterness between Gov-
ernor Bramlette (who was elected to that office in 1863), as
well as other civil officers, and the military authorities; and
Union men of all shades of opinion had cause to complain that
the war to whose honorable prosecution they had committed
themselves was about to bring about, in their own state, a
thorough subversion of civil government. An instance of
notable disregard of the loyal civil power in Kentucky was fur-
nished by the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, that
protection to personal liberty. On the 5th of July, 1864, the
president, alleging alarm because of the prevalence of guerilla
raids in the state, proclaimed a suspension of this privilege
and renewed the declaration of martial law. The writ was
suspended also in Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia, and
Missouri, but about eight months after the close of the war
(November 30th, 1865) it was restored to those states, while
refused to Kentucky, which was left under this disability for
months afterward. The views and feelings of the people
262 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

relative to the general war policy of the government were
emphatically expressed at the presidential election of Novem-
ber, 1864. Martial law was in force,
and the polls were guarded against
all but recognized loyal men; but
McClellan, the Democratic candidate,
received a majority of -more than
SN 3,600 over Lincoln.

26. In western Kentucky, one Gen.
E.A. Paine, with whom were associated
several subordinates of like character,
, committed such deeds of extreme cru-
a elty and extortion that Gen. Speed Fry
Â¥ and Col. John Mason Brown were sent

BRIGADIER-GENERAL to investigate charges. They made
Soe eager such areport of deeds perpetrated by
these monsters as to .cause their re-

moval and expose them to the execration of mankind.

27. When the United States began in eontey the enlist-
ment of negro soldiers (early in
March, 1864) there was indignation
and protest. Even the Union men
in general denounced the measure,
and some were so violent in their
expression as to provoke arrest on
charges of disloyalty and sedition.
Among those who made public
speeches against this policy and pro-
nounced it unconstitutional, unjust,
and a usurpation of power, were Gen.
Frank Wolford, and Col. Richard T.





‘ BRIGADIER-GENERAL
Jacob (the latter then lieutenant- BEN HARDIN HELM,

governor of the state). They were CES ens

gallant soldiers of the Union army and had fought to main-
tain what they believed to be the lawful power of the United
States; but they were now placed under military arrest.
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 263

28. After two years of harsh and often cruel military rule
and much antagonism between the civil authorities, the evil
was in a measure removed by the ap-
pointment of Gen. John M. Palmer
as commandant of the department
(February, 1865).

29. When the war closed (April, /
1865) at least thirty thousand of the i
soldiers of Kentucky lay dead upon |
the many battle-fields of ten or twelve
states, and in the burying grounds of \
prisons and hospitals where they had
died of wounds or disease. Thousands
more were crippled orinjured in health
by their long and exacting service.





é MAJOR-GENERAL —
80. The survivors came back to WwW. T. WARD,

ons ‘ : 2 U. 8. A.
begin life anew; and in this new life

was a manifestation of the Kentucky character which showed
that among a people of independent and warlike spirit is to
RS). be found the best type of citizen as

os well as soldier. When the Confed-
erate Kentuckians laid down their
arms and returned to the state, neither
the people nor the Federal soldiers
received them with the insolence of
ungenerous victors, but with the wel-
come accorded to friends come home
and kindred restored to their own.
Of course, some animosities had been
engendered which could not be at
once forgotten, and antagonisms cre-

See GLavaraaeeh ibe ated not readily laid aside, which
U. 8. A. brought about occasional personal en-
counters and acts of violence; but these were the very few
disagreeable exceptions to a noble rule. The men of Kentucky



i@) EUW fb
ATES OME
BRIGADIER AND BREVET
264 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

who had enlisted under different banners had served with a de-
votion and fought with a valor worthy of the name they bore.
At Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Baton Rouge, Richmond,
Munfordville, Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Mission
Ridge, in the hundred and twenty days of almost constant fight-
ing from Dalton to Jonesboro, on the numerous fields where
Wheeler, Forrest, Morgan, and other cavalry leaders had as-
sailed the Federal forces front and rear, they had met each
other in fierce conflict; but now with them the war was over.
They were neighbors and friends again, and went to work to-
gether as though the storm that had swept them asunder had
but taught them to respect each other the more and give them
increased mutual interest in the fame of their native state.
31. The first legislature that met after the return of the
Confederate soldiers restored them to all the rights of citizen-
ship by repealing the laws which had declared them aliens.

——-0 504 00—_—_

NOTES AND COMMENTS.

I. The American Citizen-Soldier.—The Hon. Alexander

ERR. P. Humphrey, in his response to the
toast, ‘‘Isaac Shelby,”’ at the Cen-
tenary banquet, June Ist, 1892, said:
“If there is one thing which has
done more than any other to make
this republic strong, independent,
and free, it is the readiness with
which the American citizen becomes
the American soldier, and the equal
readiness with which the American
soldier becomes the American citi-
zen. To follow the arts of peace;
to pursue it; to shun war; to make
it the last resort; if it come, to



BRIGADIER-GENERAL step from the plow to the ranks at
ELI - paras a moment’s call; when the war is

over to have done with it, and to
step out of the ranks back to the plow—such must be the
conduct of a people who are long to be free. The greatest
KENTUCKY IN THE CIVIL WAR. 265 ~

examples of true glory ever given by the American people
consist in the disbandment of the army of the revolution and
of the army of the Union.”

II. General Officers Furnished by Kentucky to the Two
Armies.—During the civil war, the ‘following Kentuckians
held or rose to the rank of general, in command of troops of
their own or other states:

In the Federal army—Maj.-Generals Don Carlos Buell,
Thomas L. Crittenden, Lovell H. SS
Rosseau, Cassius M. Clay, William
Nelson, Thomas J. Wood, John M.
Palmer, Ormsby M. Mitchell, and
Frank P. Blair; Brigadier and Brevet
Maj.-Generals Robt. Anderson, W. T.
Ward, Richard W. Johnson, Walter
C. Whittaker, John T. Croxton, and
Eli Long; Brigadier-Generals Samuel /f
W. Price, Speed 8. Fry, Jerry T. Z
Boyle, Green Clay Smith, Edward !
H. Hobson, James S. Jackson, T. T.
Garrard, James W. Shackleford, W.
P. Sanders, L. P. Watkins, John M. ~~
Harlan, Eli H. Murray, and Frank MAJOR-GENERAL
Wolford. - Beier ag yee

In the Confederate army—General ae
Albert Sidney Johnston; Lieut.-Generals Simon B. Buckner,
Richard Taylor, and John B. Hood; Maj.-Generals John C.
Breckinridge, George B. Crittenden, William Preston, Charles
W. Field, and Gustavus W. Smith; Brigadier-Generals John
H. Morgan, Ben Hardin Helm, Humphrey Marshall, Roger
_ W. Hanson, Basil W. Duke, Lloyd Tilghman, Geo. B. Hodge,
, George B. Cosby, John 8. Williams, Thomas H. Taylor, H.

B. Lyon, Joseph H. Lewis, Richard S. Gano, Abraham Bu-
ford, Adam R. Johnson, Stephen B. Maxey, Thomas J.
Churchill, Jo. O. Shelby, N. B. Pearce, and Randall L.
Gibson.






266 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY

CHAPTER XVII.
AFTER THE CIVIL WAR.

1. State and Federal action relative to the freedmen after
the war closed is noticed in a subsequent chapter.

2. At the August election of 1865 the returned Confederate
soldiers did not attempt to vote. The disabling acts passed
PY the legislature during the war had been deslare ed unconsti-

A Sorignele but the men who were re-
garded as disfranchised awaited their
repeal. Those whose known sympa-
thy with the south had led to dis-
criminations against them by either
the civil or the military power re-
| frained in some instances from going
# to the polls; in others they were pre-
; vented from voting by guards placed

mandant, who still exercised authority.

8. Of the two candidates for state
treasurer, the one representing the
moderate or liberal Union party was
elected. Of the candidates for Congress (then elected in August
instead of November) five of the nine were of the modes
party; and to the General Assembly the liberals elected so
many, notwithstanding a majority of the nineteen hold-over
senators were extreme men, that they had on joint ballot 80 to
58. It was made clear that the people resented the interference
of the military after the great armies which fought the battles
had astonished the civilized world by quietly disbanding and
returning to peaceful pursuits.

4. This legislature met December 4th, 1865. On the 9th
Governor Bramlette, in a special message, recommended the



GOVERNOR
THO. E. BRAMLETTE.
AFTER THE CIVIL WAR. 267

granting of pardon to all indicted in the courts for acts of war;
and by December 20th not only was this done, but the expa-
triation act, together with other severe
measures against southern soldiers
and sympathizers, were all repealed
by constantly increasing majorities as
this work of reconciliation went on.

5. The financial affairs of the state
had been conducted during the four |
years of war in such an honest, pru-
dent and business-like way that on the
return of peace the people were not
subjected to the burden of increased
taxation to meet reckless expenditure. -
Though the state debt at the begin- S®NATOR JAMES GUTHRIE.
ning of the war was $3,030,518 (exclusive of $1,698,716 of
school bonds, on which interest was payable), and $4,095,314
was borrowed for war purposes, the
state was virtually out of debt in 1873.
Her credit was good at all times, and
her bonds were worth their face value
even when the United States govern-
ment could not procure loans except
by greatly discounting its bonds.

At the August election of 1867

(the first held for state officers after
the war) candidates of three parties
were before the people. The state
had been freed of military control,
and there was no longer any re-
striction of the right of white adult citizens to vote. There
was the liberal Union party, who opposed the Federal govern-
ment’s carpet-bag policy as to reconstruction, and had previ-
ously opposed all its radical measures. This was now re-
enforced by the great body of returned Confederate soldiers





SENATOR THO. C. M’CREERY.
268 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

and other citizens who had held southern views. It was sub-
seely. the old Democratic party of the state. On the
other extreme were the radical Union .

men, who had been in sympathy with
all the war measures of the Washing-
ton government, and now stood aloof
i, from a coalition with those lately in
jj; arms against the government. Op-
posed to these extremes there was a
_ third party, composed of conservative
Union men (the Union Democratic
XY party), who organized rather to test
the strength of that element of the
people who held their moderate views
than with any hope of success at the
polls. Of 137,331 votes cast, the Democratic candidates re-
ceived more than 90,000, and the nine congressmen elected
in the previous November were all
Democrats. Before the next election
for state officers was held (1871) the
Union Democratic party had disap-
peared, while the colored men had been It fh
accorded the right to vote. The Dem-
ocratic majority was reduced about
20,000; but that party continued in
uninterrupted possession of political ¢
power in the state until 1895.
7. It must not be inferred, how-
ever, that there was at this time or
subsequently any proscriptive or in-
tolerant party in the state—one that
wished to -keep alive the bitterness or perpetuate the ani-
mosities engendered by the war. The radical Union or Re-
publican state convention, May 17th, 1871, passed resolutions
expressive of a desire fora restoration of friendly relations



GOVERNOR JOHN L. HELM.



GOVERNOR AND SENATOR
JOHN W. STEVENSON.
AFTER THE CIVIL WAR. : 269

with the people lately in arms against the national authority,
and wishing them all the blessings and PrOSpeTIby to be en-
joyed under a Republican form of y
government; favoring also complete
amnesty to all their fellow-citizens of
every state who were laboring under
disabilities by reason of any pant
taken in the war.

8. A secret society which was or-
ganized in the south after the war
closed, known as the Ku-Klux Klan,
for the protection, as it was claimed,
of the people against irregularities and SK
outrages consequent upon the rule of SOERRGE
an irresponsible class during the re- PRESTON H. LESLIE.
construction period, soon extended to Kentucky, and continued
for several years to inflict speedy and often excessive pun-
ishment upon those who were deemed
guilty of offenses against society; but
its acts speedily grew to be more dan-
gerous than those of its victims. In
his message to the legislature of 1871-
72, Governor Leslie called attention
to the character and conduct of the
organization, and recommended strong
measures for the suppression of all
\, lawless associations. A law for this
purpose was enacted, under the op-
eration of which, and of public sen-
timent strongly condemnatory, the
. clan soon ceased to exist.

9. In September, 1873, began the most serious financial panic
ever known in the United States, and business throughout the
country was almost immediately paralyzed. An epauuion of
the causes and consequences of this remarkable disturbance





SENATOR —
WILLIS B. MACHEN.
270 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

belongs appropriately to the history of the United States for
the ten or twelve years preceding. In Kentucky, the effect of
we the shock, which was first felt in the
x city of New York, was almost instan-
taneous, and it continued with some
severity for four or five years; but
was far less disastrous here than in
many other portions of the country.
Hil 10. In 1854, provision was made
| el for a geological survey, to ascertain
4, the mineral resources of Kentucky
and determine character of soils in
the different sections, but this was -
discontinued in 1859. Jn 1873, the
Pat ees survey was re-established, and Prof.
: N. S. Shaler, now of Harvard Uni-
versity, was appointed chief of a corps ‘‘to undertake and
prosecute, with as much dispatch as may be consistent with
minuteness and accuracy, a thorough
geological, mineralogical, and chemi-
cal survey of the state, to discover
and examine all beds of ore, coal,
clays, and such other mineral sub-
stances as may be useful and valua-
ble.’”? It was continued until 1892—
under Professor Shaler till May, 1880,
when he resigned and was succeeded
by Prof. John R. Proctor. When the {
work was discontinued by act of the ’ :
legislature, almost the entire surface GOVERNOR
of the state had been mapped, and © *US® F: BLACKBURN.
the character of soil, timber, and underground deposits de-
scribed, revealing a wealth of mineral and other resources
hardly surpassed by those of any state in the Union.







t
Gey

Sie

AFTER THE CIVIL WAR. 271

11. Further provision for the promotion of material pros-
perity was made by the legislature of 1875-76. A Bureau of
Agriculture, Horticulture, and Sta-
tistics was established, which is still
maintained; and an act was passed
to propagate and protect food
fishes.

12. By act of the legislature of
1831-82, a high court, to consist
of three judges, was established,
called the Superior Court, though ,
having jurisdiction over the less |
important cases before the Court of
Appeals. This was to exist four
years, in order to relieve the Court
of Appeals of business which had
accumulated beyond the power of the four judges to dispatch
it; but subsequent acts continued it till it was abolished by the
constitution of 1890-91.

13. During the ten or twelve years
preceding the close of this year (1896)
few events having a special import-
ance are to be chronicled except the
|\'\) changing of the constitution. Legis-
} ‘i lation regarded as meeting the de-
mands of the times has received at-
# tention; the interest and excitement
mn \ attendant upon state and United States
elections have come and gone at their
stated intervals, as in other like pe-



GOVERNOR J. PROCTOR KNOTT.



SENATOR wm. Linpsay. .Tiods; and the general social and
business life of the state has been

without the special features that would make a detailed account
either entertaining or instructive to those who have been iden-
tified with it,
272 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

14. The attentive student will have noted that in 1892
(which was also the four hundredth anniversary of the dis-
covery of America) Kentucky completed the first hundred
years of statehood, during which time she had grown from
small beginnings to be a great and populous commonwealth and
borne a conspicuous part in all the prominent events of
the republic. This centenary or hundredth anniversary was
celebrated at Macauley’s theater, in Louisville (Wednesday,
June Ist, 1892), under the management of the Filson Club,
in a beautiful, an intellectual, and every way most appro-
priate manner. An account of the
proceedings, with the papers read
and the speeches delivered, has been
published. They are an important
contribution to the history of Ken-
tucky. The citizens of Lexington,
also, honored with fitting ceremonies
this natal day.

15. Soon after the war, when civil
" order was restored in Kentucky, the
question of revising the constitution
SENATOR JAMES B. BECK. Of 1849—50 began to be discussed.

It lacked conformity to the consti-
stitution of the United States, and the changed local condi-
tions seemed to demand a new organic law; but there were
difficulties in the way of obtaining it. As indicated in another
chapter, it was the purpose of the framers of the old consti-
tution to make a revision very difficult, if not practicably
impossible. To call a convention for this purpose required a
majority of all citizens entitled to vote, instead of a majority
of those voting. If it should be found at an election for that
purpose that a majority of all entitled to vote were in favor of
a convention, another election was to be held, to ascertain
whether such a majority still favored a convention.


AFTER THE CIVIL WAR. 273

16. Prior to the session of 1885-86, the legislature had
passed three acts to take the sense of the people on this
question, and at the three several
elections the proposition failed be-
cause the majority of all who voted
was not a majority of all who were
entitled to vote.

17. The legislature of 1885-86
solved the difficulty by providing for
a registration of all the voters in the
commonwealth, and enacted that a
majority of the registered voters
should determine. At the August
election of 1887 the vote for the first
time under this act was taken. It
resulted in a majority in favor of a convention. As required
by the old constitution, the question was submitted a second
time, August, 1889, and again car-
ried.

1s. An act approved May 3rd,
1890, provided for the election of
i, a hundred delegates—one for each
| representative district—to meet Sep-
tember 8th, 1890. The convention
continued in session till April 11th,
1891. The constitution drafted was
submitted to a vote of the people
(August, 1890) and adopted bv a
large majority.

SES aan REO eR. 19. The changes were many and

important, and deserve to be pointed
out.* All state officers are made ineligible to re-election for
the four years succeeding an expired term; only one election



YY”
SENATOR
J.C. 8S. BLACKBURN.





* An abstract, with additions, of an address issued to the people, by
a committee of eleven members of the convention appointed for that
purpose.

18
274, YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

can be held in the state or any part thereof in any one year;
the time of election is changed from August to November;
and the system of voting by secret ballot is adopted in place
of voting by voice.

20. Local and special legislation had grown under the old
constitution to be a great and expensive evil. A single session
of the General Assembly had sat one hundred and forty-nine
days, costing the state $168,238, and the greater part of its
work was the enactment of local or personal laws covering
nearly five thousand octavo pages. The new constitution
forbids local and special legislation where general laws can
govern; and limits sessions to sixty days. If sessions of this
duration had been held during the ten years preceding the
convention, nearly half a million of dollars would have been
saved to the state.

21. All charters are to be obtained under general laws;
lotteries are forbidden and the charters under which they
operated are revoked; and no irrevocable charter for any
purpose can be made, but all must be kept subject to the
legislative will.

22. Minor civil divisions, as counties and cities, are divided
into classes and all of each class are subject to the same laws.

23. State, county, and other governmental machinery is left
practically unchanged; but the number of magistrates is lim-
ited to a maximum of eight in any county.

24. Torailroad and other corporations are granted all those
rights and privileges which will justify them in developing the
resources of the state; but checks are provided against
aggressions on the rights of individuals by corporate wealth
and influence.

25. Inequality in taxation is provided against as far as pos-
sible by putting all property on the same basis for taxation;
and minor civil divisions, as cities, counties, and districts,
cannot tax their people beyond a fixed maximum rate.

26. Cities, towns, counties, or parts thereof, cannot under
any consideration, vote a tax in aid of railroads—the conven-
AFTER THE CIVIL WAR. - 275

tion having held that all necessary roads would be built with-
out local taxation.

27. A uniform system of courts is provided, with a slightly
increased number of judges more fairly distributed; the one
court of last resort (the Court of Appeals) to have from five
to seven judges, at the will of the legislature; and the
number of grand jurors is reduced from sixteen to twelve.

28. All that part of the old constitution referring to
slavery and in conflict with the Federal constitution is omitted ;
the working of convicts outside the penitentiary is prohibited ;
and it is made the duty of the legislature to establish a
reformatory institution for young criminals.

29. A most admirable feature of this constitution is the
provision for quieting land titles in eastern Kentucky—the
adverse claims in that section having been an obstacle to peace
and progress for a hundred years.

30. That important body, the Railway Commission, is
rendered stable and efficient by making its members constitu-
tional officers; and the cause of popular education is strength-
ened by the addition to the permanent school fund of the
direct tax returned to Kentucky by the general government
in 1892—a restitution of what was taken from it about fifty
years ago by adverse legislation.

31. It provides a simple and inexpensive yet safe way for
its revision. Hither house of the General Assembly may pro-
pose amendments, which, when agreed to by three-fifths of all
the members of both branches and ratified by a vote of the
people, sha'l become part of the constitution, Or, if at any
time it may be deemed expedient to call a convention to revise
or amend, a plain and practicable mode is laid down.

32. An indication of the growth of the state and the
changed conditions of forty years is found in the fact that the
subjects of railroads and other corporations, of municipalities,
public charities, and revenue and taxation had to be covered
by new articles,
276 YOUNG ‘PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

33. The convention re-assembled September 2nd, 1891, to
transact such business as yet remained to it under the author-
ity with which it had been invested. It was found that the
people had ratified the new constitution by a majority of
138,391 votes; and on the 28th of September, 1891, it was
proclaimed to be in forceand effect from and after that date.

34. At the quadrennial election of November, 1895, the
entire Republican state ticket, headed by the Hon. Wm. O.

ee Bradley for governor, was elected,
for the first time in the history of
He; Kentucky.

| 35. Beginning about 1890 and in-

| creasing steadily to the time at which












States has experienced the most re-
markable business depression ever
known in this country, and Kentucky
‘has suffered and is still suffering in
common with the other states. The
character of her industrial occupa-
pations, being chiefly agricultural, has operated to bring less
enforced idleness and wide-spread destitution than in the great
manufacturing states; but even here the effect has been felt
in every line of productive labor as well as of trade. The
general cause of this all-pervading disturbance was a falling
off of the revenues of the United States, so that the gold
reserve in the treasury ($100,000,000 required by law) had to
be drawn upon to meet the current expenses of the govern-
ment and preserve its credit, until at last, notwithstanding
$100,000,000 of bonds had been sold at a considerable pre-
mium, for gold with which to maintain it, the reserve was
finally down to $41,000,000, and another bond issue of
$62,000,000 had to be made, which sold at a much lower
premium. This financial embarrassment brought about radi-
cal diversity of opinion among the people as to the cause and

GOV. WM. O. BRADLEY.
AFTER THE CIVIL WAR. 277

-

the proper method of relief. The great political parties were
divided upon the issue, and there were dissensions in the ranks
of the parties, and some readjustment of party lines. The
issue in the presidential election of 1896 was simply one of
finance—the proper system to be adopted by the general gov-
ernment in order to obtain speedy relief and the assurance of
a fixed and stable policy, so that lack of confidence might not
hereafter disturb business relations
and stifle enterprise. The question
with the great leading parties was
the free and unlimited coinage of jf
both gold and silver at the ratio of 16 _//\@y
of silver to 1 of gold, as opposed to 4H?
the adoption of a single gold standard |i
by which all values (including that of |
silver bullion) was to be estimated.
The candidate of the Republican 7
party, the Hon. Wm. McKinley, rep- ||{
resenting the gold standard, was suc-
cessful over the Democratic candi-
date representing free coinage at a fixed ratio, as well as over
a conservative Democratic candidate who on the financial ques-
tion was opposed to the latter. In this presidential race, as
in the gubernatorial race of 1895, Kentucky for the first time
in her history cast her vote for the Republican ticket—
twelve of her thirteen electors being McKinley men and but
one for the leading Democratic candidate, the Hon. Wm. J.
Bryan. The majority was very small, however, being less
than three hundred.

36, An idea of the fearful effect of the financial disturb-
ance and the uncertainty prevailing during the five or six years
under consideration is furnished by an able writer on the con-
dition of the people, who says: ‘‘It is doubtful whether ever
in the history of our country any five previous years had
shown as much actual destitution and suffering as were
crowded into the year 1894.,”’



SENATOR JNO. G. CARLISLE.
278 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CHAPTER XVITI.
EDUCATION IN KENTUCKY.

1. Though it was nearly fifty years after Kentucky became a
state before she had a public school system, there were not
wanting, from the’first, intelligent, broad-minded and far-
seeing citizens who sought to establish schools and in every
practicable way to promote learning.

2. Thomas Jefferson, as a man, as governor of Virginia, as
president of the United States, was to Kentucky a wise and
warm-hearted friend, and his earnest advocacy of the educa-
tion of the whole people doubtless impressed his views upon
Kentuckians. As early as May, 1780, co-operating with one
of the representatives of Kentucky county, Col. John Todd,
he induced the Legislature of Virginia to make a grant of lands
to Kentucky for educational purposes.

3. Almost immediately after the first women and children
came to Harrodstown (1775), Mrs. Wm. Coomes taught a
school there; John May was teaching at McAfee’s Station in
1777; a Mr. Doniphan taught at Boonesborough in 1779, and
it is more than probable that others had preceded him. It is
known that shortly after the first settlement was made at Lex-
ington, John McKinney was teaching there, and Filson, the
historian, had taught there before he went (1788) on the
expedition in which he lost his life. There seems to have
been difficulty in procuring the necessary text-books; but
efforts were made to surmount this; in 1798 the Kentucky
Primer and the Kentucky Speller were published in Washing-
ton, Mason county; Harrison’s Grammar at Frankfort; and
some other school-books subsequently.

4. After the state was freed from the danger of Indian
incursions, a log school-house was soon found in almost every
community containing a sufficient number of young people to
EDUCATION IN KENTUCKY. 279

justify the employment of a teacher for a few months each
-year. When a neighborhood was in need of a school-house
the men assembled with teams and tools and built it of timber
and stone convenient to the spot, and for the most part fur-
nished it, in a rough way, without the aid of either saw-mills
or skilled carpenters. The teacher, who in the earlier years
of the state was often a kind of itinerant or travelling man,



THE TYPICAL RURAL COMBINATION—CHURCH, SCHOOL-HOUSE, AND
CEMETERY.

was paid with a fund raised by subscription, and made his
home during the session with the patrons, ‘‘boarding round,”’
or staying a short time alternately with each. In this way
the children got their primary instruction (and thousands of
them enjoyed no further advantages) till after the common
school system was established and the state was regularly
districted.
280 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF. KENTUCKY.

5. The necessity for schools of higher grade early engaged —
the attention of the people of Kentucky and of the mother
state in their behalf. In 1783 Virginia endowed Transylvania
Seminary (afterward Transylvania University and one of the
most famous in the Union). This was established at Dan-
ville, but in 1789 it was removed to Lexington.

6. February 10th, 1798, the legislature gave to certain
academies and seminaries each 6,000 acres of land for their
benefit and support; and in 1805 and 1808 similar acts were
passed, extending the provision to all the counties then organ-
ized. Within twenty years about fifty of these county semi-
naries were established, and some educational benefit was
derived from them; but insufficient safeguards for the reten-
tion and use of the lands were provided, and this magnificent
provision was ill-managed and eventually squandered.

7. As Kentucky did not receive from the general govern-
ment grants of land for educational purposes, as many of the
other states did, Congress passed an act (approved June 23rd,
1836) apportioning about $28,000,000 of surplus money in
the treasury as a loan to the older states which had received
no donations of land. Of this, Kentucky’s share was $1,433,-
757, It was granted with the implied assurance that it would
be used for. educational and internal improvement purposes;
and by act of the legislature (February 23rd, 1837) $1,000,000
was set apart for a school fund, but this was subsequently
reduced to $850,000. By accumulations and additions of
unexpended surpluses this was finally increased to $1,327,000
—a sum set apart and forever dedicated by the constitution
and laws for the purpose of sustaining common schools. By
_ subsequent legislative enactments and constitutional provisions

the permanent and inviolable school fund has been made to
‘consist of bonds and stocks as follows: Seven hundred and

thirty-five shares of stock in the Bank of Kentucky, amount-
ing to $73,500 (1842); bond of the commonwealth for
$1,327,000 (1870); bond for surplus due counties, $381,986.08
EDUCATION IN KENTUCKY. 281

(1893); bond for $606,641.03 (1892), on which interest at
six per cent. is payable semi-annually. Other resources are
as follows: An annual tax of twenty-two cents on each one
hundred dollars of value of all real and personal estate and of
corporate franchises assessed for taxation, and on the state’s
portion of fines, forfeitures and licenses. From all these
sources the state pays about two millions of dollars each year
for the employment of teachers in the free schools.

8. The question of a public school system was pressed upon
the attention of the legislature by some of the governors from
time to time for more than thirty years, and often considered
by that body before any decisive action was taken. To the
General Assembly of 1822, the Hon. William T. Barry, chair-
man of a commission which had been appointed (October,
1821) to investigate the subject of common schools, made a
report which has been pronounced one of the ablest state
papers in our archives. Fe presented a summary of the edu-
cational conditions of other states, in which he found warrant
to urge upon the legislature the inauguration of an adequate
system of schools for all the children.

9. In 1830 the Rev. Benjamin O. Peers, who had- been
requested by the legislature to give them whatever informa-
tion he had as to the practical workings of public school sys-
tems, made an able and impressive report, and a plan was
proposed, but it was not acted upon.

10. On the 16th of February, 1838, a law, drafted by
Judge William F. Bullock, of Louisville, was passed, estab-
lishing a system of common schools in Kentucky; but it was
based upon the idea of furnishing education for pauper chil-
dren only. It was thirty years before really just views came
to be generally entertained and the system established on a
permanent basis and brought to anything like satisfactory
efficiency,

11. The legislature of 1873-74 provided for the education
of colored children in public schools, for the separate mainte-
jah
‘i
ge i

re

Pras
gt -



CENTRE COLLEGE, DANVILLE, KY.
EDUCATION IN KENTUCKY. - 283

nance of which the taxes assessed on the property of colored
people was to be devoted with a poll-tax of one dollar on each
colored male adult, and fines and forfeitures collected from
them; but in 1883 the amount per head for all pupil children,
iit and colored, was made the same, on which basis the
entire public fund has since been distributed.

12. The state has long exercised a beneficent care over her
defective classes, by establishing and liberally maintaining the
Kentucky Institution for Deaf Mutes, at Danville; the Ken-
tucky Institute for the Feeble-Minded, at:Frankfort; and the
Kentucky Institution for the Blind, at Louisville.

18. High-class private schools (sectarian and non- -sectarian )
have dane a noble work for nearly a hundred and ten years.
As early as 1787 there were classical and scientific schools
besides the Transylvania Seminary. Centre College was in-
corporated in 1819; and besides this are many notable insti-
tutions, some of them of long standing and famous for the
work they have done; as, Georgetown College (chartered in
1829), Bethel College, St. Joseph’s College, the Kentucky
University, Central University, Kentucky Wesleyan Univer-
sity, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Ogden College,
and Berea College. The schools of law, medicine and divinity
have uniformly commanded faculties of a high order of talent
and attainments.

14. Besides the high schools that constitute a part of the
city systems, two state institutions,.each having a department
for the special training of teachers, are connected with the
common school system—the Agricultural and Mechanical Col-
lege, at Lexington, and the State Normal School for colored
persons, at Frankfort. These are supported in part by the
state and in part by the general government.






















GEORGETOWN COLLEGE.
* EDUCATION IN KENTUCKY. 285

PERSONAL SKETCHES, ETC,

I. Conspicuous Service to the Common School System.—
From the time Governor Greenup began to press ue matter
of education upon the legislature
(1807), Kentucky has continuously
numbered among her publicmen many
able and earnest advocates of a state
system that would put within reach
of every child a fair elementary edu-
cation. Among the great number en-
titled to the gratitude of those who
reflect that only an educated people | ;
can long remain a free and happy |i
people, a few have been conspicuous |i}
by reason of timely and effective serv- 4
ice. After many years of agitation
and some ill-directed efforts, Judge te
Wim. F. Bullock drafted a bill to es- sype@e w. ¥. BULLOCK.
tablish a system of schools whose
benefits should accrue to the whole people; and he had the
address to organize its avowed friends, to win the wavering,

; and press it to a passage. But it
slowly won its way into popular favor,
notwithstanding the efforts of the able
gentlemen who administered its af-
fairs for the first nine years, and
when the Rev. Dr. Robert J. Breck-
inridge became superintendent of pub-
lic instruction (1847) some adverse
legislation, some inconsiderate if not
unjust action, and a lack of that deep
interest which would have made the
people jealous and watchful, threat-
ened to destroy it. To correct evils

and establish it upon a permanent

- REVEREND DOCTOR : .

ROBT. J. BRECKINRIDGE, ®2d more liberal basis, he brought
Sixth Superintendent of Public to bear his great ability, unyielding

Tne eton determination, and strong personal-
ity, with beneficent results. From that time there was no
backward step.






286 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

During the next ten years its growth was slow; and during
the civil war, it is true, its efficiency was impaired ; but it was
rooted and grounded, though so poorly
endowed that when the Hon. Z. F.
Smith became superintendent of public
instruction (1867) he found the pro-
ceeds of permanent funds and the little
tax then levied utterly inadequate to
provide in each district an annual term
of sufficient length to be of any de-
cided benefit. He went before the
General Assembly with a bill to vote
an increase of school tax from five to
twenty cents on the hundred dollars of
property assessed. His measure met

‘ with such formidable, uncompromis-
HON. Z. F. SMITH, ing, persistent opposition as would
PS Pablie lnstruetion. of have driven a weak man from his pur-
pose; but, he succeeded in securing its

adoption; and at the polls, in 1869, the people ratified it by
nearly twenty-five thousand majority.

In the constitutional convention of
1890-91, the Hon. Wm. M. Beckner,
the member for Clark county, who be-
gan in 1882 an agitation that led to
the passage of a new school law in ;
1883-84, and who had long and boldly |
insisted on the need of more means
to support the public school system,
and of such an energetic policy in ad-
ministering it as would make it a pow-
erful force in our state economy, took
a decided stand in guarding against
encroachments and in favor of re-
forms. He succeeded, in the face of
strong opposition, in having the di- HON. WM. M. BECKNER.
rect tax which was returned to Ken-
tucky in 1892, by the general government ($606,641.03),
made a permanent and inviolable part of the school fund.
Subsequently, during a short service in Congress, he earn-
estly and ably labored for the passage of a bill to equalize




EDUCATION IN KENTUCKY. 287

the states in the matter of land grants for school purposes.
The original thirteen states, with Vermont, Kentucky, Ten-
nessee, Maine and West Virginia, have had no part of the
public domain in aid of their common schools. Beginning
with Ohio (1803), and continuing until California was ad-
mitted (1853), Congress, acting on a suggestion of Thomas
Jefferson’s, set apart one section of 640 acres in each town-
ship of six miles square, to be used in support of the public
schools. Since 1853 this reservation has been doubled in the
act providing for the admission of each new state. It re-
quires 27,589,996 acres to equalize the states, and of this Ken-
tucky would receive 1,339,733 acres—a princely addition to
the provision for our schools. This act of simple justice would
require but a small fraction of the public lands. The United
States owned in 1894 more than 600,000,000 acres, exclusive
of Alaska, the Indian or military reservations, and certain
other lands, some of which may become part of the public
domain. It is readily seen what the success of his labors
would have meant to Kentucky.

Two popular conventions, held at his suggestion in 1883
(the first in April at Frankfort, the second in September at
Louisville), to discuss educational conditions and needs,
did much to shape public sentiment and lead to radical
improvement.


s

288 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CHAPTER XIX.
ART, SCIENCE, AND LITERATURE.

1. It is only in the older states, where obstacles to the
profitable culture of the soil have been removed, all the lead-
ing industries established, and wealth accumulated, that peo-
ple find time to cultivate a taste for the arts, sciences, and
literature, and where scholars have leisure to devote them-
selves to the more refined intellectual pursuits; but from a
very early period in her history Kentucky has not been wholly
destitute of. those who have distinguished themselves in these
lines of thought and endeavor and contributed to the enter-
tainment, the profit, and the elevation of mankind.

2. Some of her sons (pioneer and native-born) have made
remarkable and useful inventions and discoveries. John
Fitch, a pioneer who located lands in Nelson county, invented
in 1786 the steam-boat; and James Rumsey about the same
time (and, as he claimed, without knowledge of Fitch’s work)
also successfully applied steam to the navigation of water-
craft. In 1794 Kdward West, of Lexington, constructed a
small steam-boat which proved successful on an experimental
trial; and in 1802 he patented this invention; also, a gun-
lock, and a machine for cutting and heading nails. Thomas
H. Barlow, also of Lexington, built a model locomotive for a
railroad car (1827). He invented the only planetarium in
the world which perfectly imitated the motions of the solar
system. In 1840 he invented a rifle-cannon, and subsequently
a nail and tack machine which proved eminently successful.
William Kelley, who in 1846 located near Eddyville and
engaged in the manufacture of iron, discovered what is now
known as the Bessemer process of converting pig-iron into
steel—a discovery which has proved of incalculable benefit.
Scarcely a year has passed in which Kentuckians have not
ART, SCIENCE, AND LITERATURE. 289

patented something useful; but in an inventive age, when the
world has ceased to wonder at the most remarkable discover-
ies, they find their way into use without attracting marked
attention.

3. In 1806 Dr. Brashear, of Bardstown, performed a feat
of surgery which had hitherto been unknown in America; and
in 1809 Dr. Ephraim McDowell, of Danville, successfully
performed a surgical operation which was the first of the kind
in the world, one which he and Dr. Joshua T. Bradford, -of
Augusta, subsequently practiced with wonderful success, and
which became common, to the mitigation of much suffering
and the saving of many lives. McDowell was a genuine bene-
factor of the human race.

4. In the field of letters it is impossible to notice all who
have attained to distinction by their contributions to science,
history, and fiction; but the following list of those who have
become known by the publication of their poetical works,
either in permanent form or in current periodicals, embraces
some who have made a national reputation, and many who
would have become famous had they devoted themselves
steadily to poetry instead of resorting to it as a mere diver-
sion: Prof. Marcus B. Allmond, Mrs. Mary E. Betts, Mrs.
Sarah T. Bolton, Gen. William O. Butler, Noble Butler, James
R. Barrick, Granville M. Ballard, Mrs. Mary L. Cady, Mrs.
Florence Clark, Fortunatus Cosby, Jr., Madison J. Cawein,
Rev. Sydney Dyer, James G. Drake, Mrs. Alice Griffin, Miss
Mattie Griffith, Mrs. Sarah J. Howe, Dr. John Milton Har-
ney, Joel T. Hart, William Wallace Harney, Will S. Hays (a
popular song-writer), Mrs. Rosa V. Jeffrey, Thomas Johnson,
Mrs. Annie Ketchum, W. J. Lampton, Mrs. Jennie C. Mor-
ton, Mrs. Nellie (Marshall) McAfee, Mrs. Mary R. McAboy,
Miss Elvira Sydnor Miller, John B. Marshall, Samuel C.
Mercer, Mrs. Mary E. Nealy, Mrs. Sophia Oliver, Theodore
O’Hara, Mrs. Sallie M. B. Piatt, George D. Prentice, Mrs.

Mary E. F. Shannon, Mrs, Laura C. Smith, Thomas H.
19
O5

290 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Shreve, Henry T. Stanton, Mrs. Helen Trusdell, Mrs. Amelia
B. Welby, Mrs. Ann Maria Welby, Mrs. Katharine A. War-
field, William Ross Wallace, and Robert Burns Wilson.

5. Kentucky has had among her citizens, native and resi-
dent, several painters and sculptors who have been distin-

A
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oe

if





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































GEORGE D. PRENTICE.

guished and some whose superior excellence gave them national
if not world-wide fame. Matt Jouett (as he was familiarly
called), a native of Mercer county, died at the age of thirty-
nine years, and yet, almost wholly self-taught, and with little
opportunity of profiting by even the sight of famous pictures,
ART, SCIENCE, AND LITERATURE. 291

had made himself one of the most skillful portrait painters of
the nineteenth century.

6. Among others were W. C. Allen, a native of Kentucky;
Joseph H. Bush, born and reared in Frankfort; Oliver Frazer, .
a native of Lexington; Gen. Samuel W. Price, born in
Nicholasville, now a citizen of Louisville; Mrs. Eliza Brown,
of Lexington; Thomas Noble, a native of Lexington; Aaron
H. Corwine, of Mason county; Neville Cain, of Louisville;
Paul Sawyier, of Frankfort; and Robert Burns Wilson, an
adopted citizen of Kentucky, famous as the poet-artist—a
landscape and portrait painter, who has been for many years
resident in Frankfort.

7. Joel T. Hart, the ‘‘poet-sculptor,’’ who executed that
exquisite piece of work, ‘‘The Triumph of Chastity,’’ as well
as much other notable sculpture, was born in Clark county,
but in early manhood became a citizen of Lexington. A great
artist, Hiram Powers, said that this son of Kentucky, Hart,
was ‘‘the greatest sculptor in the world;’’ and the historian
Collins, says: ‘‘In 1874 the entire art world conceded that he
was the greatest of sculptors, living or dead.”’

—10 S@5,0-0——_.

NOTES AND COMMENTS.



I, Durrett and the Filson Club.—Every Kentuckian who
rightly appreciates the importance of preserving the history
of his people, in its varied aspects, is under lasting obliga-
- tions to Col. Reuben T. Durrett, of Louisville, who Jong ago
began and has since steadily prosecuted an effort to collect
and file historic and biographic matter, and to gather upon
his shelves the productions of Kentucky pens. He had the
acumen to perceive the value of ‘‘unconsidered trifles’’ as well
of works of specific aim and recognized worth; and whatever
serves to illustrate times, manners, character of mind, inci-
dents and episodes that do not rise in the estimation of the
general public to the dignity of historic importance—all
these he has held worthy of notice and been studious to rescue
292 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

from oblivion. It is to be deplored that Kentucky has not
yet a puilsoly endowed, organized, and working historical
z= society ; but the private collection of
Colonel Durrett, accessible through
his kindness to all who wish to inves-
tigate, supplies in a measure this la-
mentable defect in our state economy. .
At his suggestion a number of patri-
otic and public-spirited gentlemen
\ organized May 15th, 1884, the Filson
Club, ‘for the purpose of collecting
and preserving the history of Ken-
tucky.’’ This has been a working
body, proceeding upon lines which
he adopted as an individual. Manu-
scripts, scraps of history and _ bio-
graphy, books, pamphlets, etc., have
been collected and stored among its
archives, and a number of exceedingly valuable historic and
biographic papers have been prepared and published.



COLONEL
REUBEN T. DURRETT.


AFRICAN SLAVERY IN KENTUCKY. 293 —

CHAPTER XX.
AFRICAN SLAVERY IN KENTUCKY.

1. As most of the early settlers were from slave-holding
states they brought with them their slaves, and the institution
was fixed upon Kentucky by the terms of the first constitu-
tion. ‘There were those, however, who opposed it from the
beginning, and the views of these continued to meet with con-
sideration and respect until the extreme Abolitionists of the
north left the domain of reasonable argument and began a
tirade of violent abuse against slave owners as well as slavery.

2. Even in the making of their first constitution some of
our law-givers showed that at that time they regarded it as an
evil. The Rev. David Rice, a Presbyterian minister who was
a delegate, offered a resolution providing for gradual emanci-
pation, but he could not induce a majority to support his
proposition. When the article legalizing slavery was made a
part of the draft, a motion was made during the discussions
which followed to strike it out, and here came the crucial test
of the temper of the convention. Of the forty-two votes
cast (three delegates not voting), sixteen voted to strike out.
Sitting as delegates were six ministers of the gospel, every
one of whom voted to prohibit slavery altogether.

8. This constitution as ultimately enacted and ordained
prohibited the bringing of slaves into the state as merchan-
dise, and none were to be brought for’ any purpose who -had
been imported to America since 1789; and it recommended
to the legislature the passage of laws perniitting the emancipa-
tion of slaves, with the proviso that they should not become
a charge on the county in which they resided.

_ 4. When the matter of calling a convention to revise the
first constitution was being generally discussed, the question
of emancipation was prominent. The American Colonization
294 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

Society had been organized, and at this early day Henry Clay
took strong ground in advocacy of its principles and plans.

.5. In 1804 a number of Baptist ministers organized as the
Friends of Humanity—a body of emancipators who were bold
in their opposition to slavery and in demanding its extinction ;
but this society was not long maintained.

6. Clay continued his opposition through life; but he was
never violent, never abusive, never uncharitable to those who
owned slaves but had not been responsible for the existence of
slavery; and he steadily kept his hold upon the people of

aE: Kentucky while maintaining that it
was a great evil to the commonwealth
as well as a wrong to those who were .
held inbondage. He was at one time
president of the American Coloniza-
tion Society, and was an active pro-
moter of the Kentucky Society,
which was instrumental in procuring
Up, the freedom of many slaves and aiding
also those previously freed to emigrate
and establish themselves in the Re-
public of Liberia.
Saseivaicne Gray, 7. With the growth of the Aboli-
Des Sich’ tion party in the north, however,
came a corresponding opposition in Kentucky to its radi-
cal teachings, and when these men organized and declared
unqualified war on slavery, proclaiming the doctrine that the
constitution and laws of the United States should be disre-
garded when they interposed obstacles to their purpose, the
feeling of opposition and resentment grew so strong that for
a time freedom of speech and of the public press was not
respected when used in the advocacy of Abolition principles.
In June, 1845, Cassius M. Clay, a bold and uncompromising
anti-slavery leader, began in Lexington to publish the True
American, in which he expressed his sentiments in positive


AFRICAN SLAVERY IN KENTUCKY. 298

and not always temperate terms. In August a meeting of
citizens was held and a committee was appointed to wait upop
Mr. Clay and request him to discontinue its publication, as
they believed it dangerous to the peace of the community and
to the safety of their homes and families. Upon his defiant
refusal, another meeting was held and a committee of leading
citizens appointed to take possession of press and type and
ship them to Cincinnati, which was done.

8. For ten years preceding the constitutional convention
of 1849, the northern Abolitionists were active, aggressive and
defiant of law, and took steps to provide for the escape of
slaves from Kentucky masters by establishing stations along
the Ohio river, and sending secret emissaries into the state to
aid and encourage them, Their success was small, as the
negroes were slow to avail themselves of opportunities; but
the conduct of these people was exasperating, and its immedi-
ate effect was to create a system of patroling or night-watch-
ing and led to such rigor in the treatment of slaves as hitherto
they had not felt. in 1844, the Rev. Calvin Fairbanks and
Miss Delia A. Webster were arrested in Kentucky and tried
on a charge of abducting slaves, and conveying them to
Ohio. He was convicted on his own confession and his pun-
ishment fixed at fifteen years’ confinement in the penitentiary.
She was convicted and sentenced to two years in the peniten-
tiary, but was pardoned after seven weeks’ confinement, in
response to the petition of the jury, all of whom signed it, in
consideration of her sex.

9. On the 25th of April, 1849, a state emancipation con-
vention met in Frankfort and recommended that for dele-
gate to the constitutional convention which was to assemble
October Ist, of that year, a candidate, favorable to including in
the new instrument two provisions, be run in every county;
namely, the absolute prohibition of the importing of any more
slaves into Kentucky, and the complete power to perfect and
enforce, whenever the people desired it, a system of gradual
296 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

emancipation and colonization. One member of this-conven-
tion, a native Kentuckian, who subsequently founded Berea
College, the Rev, John G. Fee, though of a slave-holding
family, took advanced ground, and insisted that a fight be
made for the utter abolition of slavery in Kentucky; but the
strong pro-slavery party had now grown radical, as is evinced
by the long and earnest debates in the constitutional conven-
tion and in the overwhelming vote against every proposition
to interfere in any way with the institution as it then existed.
The great majority resented interference, and seemed fixed in
the belief that slavery was both right and expedient and that
its permanence ought to be assured; but upon one mind at
least, the shadow of the mighty conflict, now twelve years in
the future, and its momentous result, had fallen, even at this
time. In discussing the question Squire Turner, one of the
delegates from Madison county, a slave-holder, but favoring
permissive emancipation, used.these words: ‘‘Now I make
use of one observation which some gentlemen may probably
take exception to. I say there is no man living who sees in
the hand of Providence what I see that does not perceive that
there is a power at work above us that is above all human
institutions, and one that will yet prevail [to liberate the
slaves | even in Virginia, Maryland and Kentucky. Yes, there
is a power at work which is above all human power, and one
which we cannot resist. I do not say that I desire this; but
‘that it is coming, that it is as steadily marching upon us as we
are marching forward to the grave, and that we do not know
when it will come, is perfectly certain from the evidences around
us.’ It was a singular feature of this organic law of 1849-50
that it not only recognized the existence of slavery, but appar-
ently made it permanent, as it was afterward found that the
constitution contained no direct provision by which it could
be revised. “Despite this care to prevent change, however,
it was less than fifteen years before slavery in the United
AFRICAN SLAVERY IN KENTUCKY. 297

States was wiped out of existence, as one of the results of the
great civil war.

10. After the emancipation proclamation of January Ist,
1863, was issued, the great majority of the negroes of Ken-
tucky remained quietly with their masters; and though
Congress had not yet formally declared the abolition of
slavery, many owners, regarding them as virtually made free
by the act of the president, made terms with them to con-
‘inue as hired laborers and domestic servants. When the
enlistment of colored troops began in Kentucky, under orders
from the war office at Washington, from twelve to twenty
thousand of the men enlisted in the Federal army.

11. Two months before the close of the war, the Thirteenth
Amendment of the constitution of the United States, abolish-
ing and forbidding slavery in the states and territories of the
Union, was before the Legislature of Kentucky for action.
This amendment, adopted by Congress, February Ist, 1865,
made no provision for paying for slaves freed in the loyal
states. The people of Kentucky regarded all the measures
of the Federal government—the emancipation proclamation,
the enlisting of colored soldiers in the loyal states, the adop-
tion of this amendment, and the disregard of the rights of
private property, as unconstitutional. In addition, they
resented the application to their own state of war measures
provoked by secession; and the legislature refused, by a large
majority, to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. Before the
close of 1865, however, the requisite number of states had
ratified, and there were no longer grounds for claiming that
emancipation was not complete and final.

12. Prior to this, there was much needless interference
with the negroes by the military commandant, which brought
no good to them, while it still farther angered the whites and
increased dissatisfaction with the policy of the war office in
dealing with them. When the act of Congress establishing a
department of government known as the Freedman’s Bureau
298 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

was passed (February, 1866), intended to provide for the
ex-slaves, on the ground that they were the ‘‘wards of the
nation,’’ the agents it sent to Kentucky greatly increased the
evil. Here and there were found men and women, both
natives and foreigners, who were actuated by the highest
Christian motives in seeking to provide for the education
of the emancipated race and for pleasant relations between
the ex-slaves and their former masters; but.many of the
government’s accredited agents were of the odious carpet-bag
class, who under guise of love for the negroes stirred up
enmity between them and the whites, to the annoyance and
injury of both. Their philanthropy was but a pretense, under
which they sought so to administer their office as to increase
occasion for its continuance, that they might be retained in
the public service and profit thereby. When this cause of
irritation was removed, the two races soon adjusted them-
selves to the new conditions; the negroes learned that their
best friends were those who understood them best, and that
the civil authority was ready to extend its protection over all.

13. In April, 1866, Congress passed a Civil Rights Bill by
which the freedmen were made citizens of the United States;
and this was followed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the
constitution, providing, among other things, that all persons
born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the
jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of
the states wherein they reside. When this came before the
legislature for action (January 10th, 1867), it was soon found
that the views and temper of that body had not changed.
While accepting the results of the war, and making no pre-
tense that slavery really continued to exist among them, they
refused to endorse the manner of its abolition and the control
of the former slaves which the government assumed. The
General Assembly, composed for the most part of strong
Union men; many of whom had been soldiers in its armies.
refused to ratify by a vote of 91 to 36. The requisite number
AFRICAN SLAVERY IN KENTUCKY. 299

of states approved, however, and in 1868 the president pro-
claimed it to be inforce; and there was no longer question as
to the citizenship of the former slaves, in whatsoever state
or territory they might be found.

14.. Next was enacted the provision as to suffrage. The
Fifteenth Amendment prohibited any state from passing a law
to prevent citizens from voting ‘‘on account of race, color, or
previous condition of servitude.’’ When this came before the
General Assembly of Kentucky for action (March 18th,
1869), it refused by a vote of 107 to 11 to ratify; but by
March 15th, 1870, the requisite three-fourths of the states had
approved, and the president made proclamation accordingly.
Thus, within five years after the war closed the ex-slaves were
invested with all the legal rights which white citizens held.

15. In 1871, some of the courts of the state began to admit
negro testimony; but it was not until January 8th, 1872, that
the old laws, which limited it in many ways, were repealed,
and the colored witness was placed on the same legal footing
as the white one.

16. Placed now, as they were, on the same legal plane as
the whites, the matter of preparing this race for intelli-
gent citizenship began to receive the attention of the authori-
ties. By act of the legislature, February 23rd, 1874, a uni-
form system of public schools for colored children was pro-
vided—the fund to consist of the taxes assessed on the
property of colored people and one dollar poll-tax on each
colored male adult, with some money derived from other
sources of state revenue. The schools were to be separate
from those of the whites, but under the general control of the
_ white school commissioners, while the colored people were to
have the management in their respective districts. At that
time they numbered about 223,000, or one-seventeenth of the
entire population; but a defective return of pupil children
showed only 37,414 (about sixteen in every hundred).
300 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

17. In 1890 the colored population was 268,071, of whom
111,400 (more than forty-one in every hundred) were children
between the ages of six and twenty. For the school year
1874-75 their school fund was but $18,707, or fifty cents per
pupil child. By act of the legislature, 1883, all the school
revenues were designated as one fund, to be apportioned
equally among all children of pupil age, irrespective of color,
so that the colored people were now afforded equal opportuni-
ties with the whites to obtain that common school education
for which the state provides.

18. The legislature of 1885-86 made still further provision
for the education of colored children. An appropriation was
made to erect and furnish the necessary buildings for a state
normal school, that teachers in their common schools might
be trained for their important work; and three thousand dol-
lars annually was appropriated for its maintenance. The city
of Frankfort donated twenty-four acres of land as a site for
this institution. Buildings were erected soon afterward, and
in October, 1887, the school was opened. In 1890 Congress
made an additional appropriation for the establishment and
maintenance of agricultural and mechanical schools in the
states. Of this the colored normal school gets its proportion
of Kentucky’s share; and the industrial feature has been
added. The legislature has twice since that time made appro-
priations to supplement this United States fund and provide
buildings and machinery; and the trustees of the Slater fund
extended further aid by a donation of $2,000.

19. Thus, by making the colored children to share equally
with the whites in the apportionment of the school fund, and
by establishing and subsequently strengthening a public school
of high grade, to provide an ample corps of professional
teachers, besides giving to others a knowledge of handicraft,
the state has expended, for the benefit of those so recently
held in bondage and kept in ignorance, far in excess of the
taxes derived from the property of the colored race.
AFRICAN SLAVERY IN KENTUCKY. 301

20. These facilities, provided by the state and otherwise,
for the intellectual, moral, and manual training of the race,
have been supplemented by philanthropic private enterprise in
the establishment and endowment of institutions of note and
notable usefulness, Among these may be mentioned the Eck-
stien Norton University at Cane Spring, Bullitt county, with
departments collegiate, normal, and industrial; the State Uni-
versity at Louisville, with departments normal, theological,
and industrial; and the Chandler Normal at Lexington.

21. Enjoying equal privileges under the law, and afforded
the same opportunities for mental and moral culture, regarded
with favor in proportion as they make themselves intelligent,
honorable and useful citizens, their destiny is wholly in their
own hands—under that Providence which suffered them to be
led from the darkness of pagan barbarism into the hard school
of nearly two hundred aad fifty years of bondage, and, at
last, by ways that, in fact, both their owners and their libera-
tors knew not of, into the high estate of freedom in a heaven-
favored and mighty Christian republic


302 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES, COMMENTS, ETC.

I. Kentucky’s Governors, Lieutenant-Governors and Sec-

retaries of State.

1792-1796 :—Isaac Shelby, governor (no lieutenant-governor
under first constitution); James Brown, secretary of
state. ‘

1796-1800:—James Garrard, governor; Harry Toulmin, sec-
retary.

1800-1804 :—James Garrard, governor; Alexander Scott Bul-.
litt, lieutenant-governor ; Harry Toulmin, secretary.
1804-1808 :—Christopher Greenup, governor; John Cald-

well, lieutenant-governor; John Rowan, secretary.

1808-1812: Charles Scott, governor; Gabriel Slaughter,
lieutenant-governor ; Jesse Bledsoe, secretary.

1812-1816: Sioa Shelby, governor; Richard Hickman, lieu-
tenant-governor; Martin D. Hardin, secretary.

1816 :—George Madison, governor from the first week in Sep-
tember till October 14th; Gabriel Slaughter, lieutenant-
governor; Chas. S. Todd, secretary.

1816-1820 :—Gabriel Slaughter, governor by succession, from
October 21st, 1816, Governor Madison having died Octo
ber 14th, 1816; John Pope, secr etary, succeeded by
Oliver G. Wagoner.

1820-1824: Johns Adair, governor; Wm. T. Barry, lieuten-
ant-governor; Joseph Cabell Breckinridge, secretary,
succeeded by Thomas B. Monroe.

1824-1828:—Joseph Desha, governor; Robt. B. McAfee,
lieutenant-governor; Wm. T. Barry, secretary, succeeded
by James C. Pickett.

1828—-1832:—Thomas Metcalfe, governor; John Breathitt,
lieutenant-governor; George Robertson, secretary, suc-
ceeded by Thomas T. Crittenden.
MISCELLANEOUS NOTES, COMMENTS, ETC. 303

1832-1834:—John Breathitt, governor; James T. Morehead,
lieutenant-governor ; Lewis Sanders, secretary.

1834-1846:—James 'T. Morehead, governor by succession,
Governor Breathitt having died February 21st, 1834;
John J. Crittenden, secretary, succeeded by Wm. Ows-
ley, and he by Austin P. Cox.

~ 1836-1839:—James Clark, governor; Charles A. Wickliffe,

lieutenant-governor; James M. Bullock, secretary.

~ 1839-1840:—Charles A. Wickliffe, governor by succession,

Governor Clark having died September 27th, 1839;
James M. Bullock, secretary.

1840-1844 :—Robert P. Letcher, governor; Manlins V. Thom-
son, liewtenant-governor; James Harlan, secretary.
1844-1848:—Wm. Owsley, governor; Archibald Dixon, lieu-

-tenant-governor; Ben Hardin, secretary, succeeded by
George B. Kinkead, and he by Wm. D. Reed.
1848-1850:—John J. Crittenden, governor; John L. Helm,
lieutenant-governor; John W. Finnell, secretary.
1850-1851:—John L. Helm, governor by succession, Gov-
ernor Crittenden having resigned July 31st, 1850; John
W. Finnell, secretary.

1851-1855 :—Lazarus W. Powell, governor (elected under the
constitution of 1849-50); John B. Thompson, lieutenant-
governor; James P. Metcalfe, secretary, succeeded by
Grant Green.

1855-1859:—Charles S. Morehead, governor; James G.
Hardy, lieutenant-governor; Mason Brown, secretary.

’ 1859-1862:—Beriah Magoffin, governor; Linn Boyd, lieu-

tenant-governor (Boyd died December 17th, 1859);
Thomas B. Monroe, Jr., secretary, succeeded by Nat
Gaither, Jr.

1862-1863:—James F. Robinson, governor by succession,
Governor Magoffin having resigned August 18th, 1862
(Robinson was speaker of the senate when Magoffin
resigned); D. C. Wickliffe, secretary.
304 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

1863-1867:—Thomas E. Bramlette, governor; Richard T.
Jacob, lieutenant-governor; E. L. Van Winkle, secre-
tary, succeeded by John S. Van Winkle.

1867:—John L. Helm, governor from September 3rd to Sep-
tember 8th; John W. Stevenson, lieutenant-governor;
Samuel B. Chis chill, secretary.

1867-1871:—John W. Stevenson, governor by succession till
September, 1868, and governor by election from Septem-
ber, 1868, till February 13th, 1871; Samuel B. Churchill,
secretary.

1871:—Preston H. Leslie, governor by succession from Feb-
ruary 13th, 1871, till September, 1871, Governor Ste-
venson having resigned on former date; Samuel B.
Churchill, secretary.

1871-1875:—Preston H. Leslie, governor; John G. Carlisle,
lieutenant-governor; Andrew J. James, secretary, suc-
ceeded by Geo. W. Craddock.

1875-1879 :—James B. McCreary, governor; John C. Under-
wood, lieutenant-governor; J. Stoddard Johnston, sec-
retary.

1879-1883:—Luke P. Blackburn, governor; James E. Can-
trill, lieutenant-governor; Samuel B. Churchill, secre-
tary, succeeded by James Blackburn.

,1883-1887:—J. Proctor Knott, governor; James R. Hind-
man, lieutenant-governor; James A. McKenzie, secre-
tary.

1887-1891:—Simon B. Buckner, governor; James W. Bryan,
lieutenant-governor; George M. Adams, secretary.

1891-1895:—John Young Brown, governor (first governor
under constitution of 1890-91, and served four years,
three months, and nine days); Mitchell C. Alford, lieu-
tenant-governor; John W. Headley, secretary.

1895-1899:—Wm. O. Bradley, governor; W. J. Worthing-
ton, lieutenant-governor; Charles Finley, secretary.


MISCELLANEOUS NOTES, COMMENTS, ETC. 305

If. Increase of Population in Kentucky by Periods
During 115 Years.—









YEAR. POPULATION. INCREASE.
1775 SO ear sa) |peemee toe eeeen ee
1784 380,000 29,700
1790 73,677 AB 677
1800 222,955 149,278
1810 406,571 183,616
1820 | 564,135 157,564
1830 687,917 123,782
1840 779,828 92,111
1850 “ 982,405 202,577
1860 . 1,155,684 173,279
1870 1,321,011 165,327
1880 1,648,690 827,697
1890 . 1,858,635 209,945



Ill. Works Consulted in the Preparation of This Book.—
The author acknowledges his indebtedness to the following
valuable sources of information: Histories of Kentucky, by
Butler, Marshall, Arthur & Carpenter, Perrin & Battle, Smith,
Shaler, Allen, Collins, and Miss Kinkead; Metcalfe’s Narra-
tives of Indian Warfare; McAfee’s History of the War of
1812; Prentice’s Life of Henry Clay; Lives of Daniel Boone,
by Filson, Flint, Bogart, Hartley, and others; Toulmin’s
Description of Kentucky; Clark’s Account of his Campaign
in Illinois; Darnell’s Journal of Winchester’s Campaign;
Atherton’s Narrative; Biography of Col. Richard M. John-
son; Obituar y Addresses on the Occasion of the Re-interment
of Scott, Barry, and Ballard; and the Filson Club’s Centenary
of Kentucky, Centenary of Louisville, and the Political Club.

20
306

YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

IV. United States Senators From Kentucky. -

Jobn Brown.......2. sess: 1792 to 1805
John Bdwawrds ......:.00-----. 1792 to 1795
Humphrey Marshall.....1795 to 1801
John Breckinridge ........ 1801 to 1805
John Adair .......-... ceeeee-ee 1805 to 1806
John Buckner Thruston1805 to 1809

1806 to 1807

Henry Clay... (ie 2 ae

1849 to 1852
1807 to 1813

1811 to 1814
1829 to 1835

1813 to 1815
1814 to 1815
1815 to 1816

1815 to 1819
1820 to 1825

1816 to 1817
a oe

: 5 to 18
John J. Crittenden... 1842 to 1848
1855 to 1861

TODD Pope --rsseeceesecnes
Geo. M. Bibb.............-..

Jesse Bledsoe ..........----
George Walker...
Wm. T. Barry..



Martin D. Hardin......

Wm. Logan... 1819 to 1820
Richard M. Johnson......1820 to 1829
John Rowan... 1825 to 1831

James T. Morehead .....- 1841 to 1847
Joseph R. Underwood..1847 to 1853
Thomas Metealfe............ 1848 to 1849
David Merriwethev........ 1852 to 1853
Archibald Dixon........... 1852 to 1855
John B. Thompson .......1853 to 1859
Lazarus W. Powell....... 1859 to 1865
John C. Breckinridge ...1861 to ........
Garrett Davis............----- 1861 to 1872
James Guthrie .......------ 1865 to 1868
Thomas C. McCreery....1868 to 1871
John W. Stevenson....... 1871 to 1877
Willis B. Machen.........1873 to 1875
James B. Beck... ... 1877 to 1890
John 8. Williams 1879 to 1885
Jos. C. S. Blackburn ....1885 to 1897
John Griffin Carlisle......1890 to 1893
Wm. Lindsay ............-.... 1893 to ........


NOTE TO TEACHERS. 307

NOTE TO TEACHERS

—WITH—

SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS.

To those who use this work in the schools the author
desires to call attention to his design, and what seems to him
judicious.as to method to be observed in employing it as a
class-book,

It will be noted that whatever it contains in addition to the
regular historical narrative is given in the form of personal
sketches, incidents, etc., as supplementary to the several chap-
ters. In class-work the attention of pupils ought to be called
to this as simply biographical, anecdotal, and explanatory
recreations—at first to be taken up at will, and not being matter
for questions until the regular text has been studied by set les-
sons and in connected form throughout. After the general
subject has been studied and so well mastered that the suggest-
ive questions which follow this note, with such others as
teachers find necessary in developing the text, can be intelli-
gently answered, the supplementary matter should be taken
up as a second course of reading and pupils be required to tell
in their own way what they have found therein. This is indi-
cated by the direction at the conclusion of the suggestive ques-
tions on each chapter, ‘‘Tell what you have learned by read-
ing personal sketches, incidents, etc., etc., at the end of
chapter,’’ so and so. Of course the judicious teacher will
frame such questions as will touch upon all the subjects treated,
and bring out whatever impressions the class may have gained
in pursuing the secondary or supplementary study. d
308 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

To another matter allow me to call your particular atten-
tion. The importance of geographical knowledge as preliminary
to the study of history and in connection therewith is too
often overlooked. To study history without the ability to fix
in mind definitely the connection between events and the places
of their occurrence leaves but vague impressions. It is like
sailing the seas without chart and compass. Before studying
the history of Kentucky a pupil ought to be required to describe
all the principal water-courses, bounding the state and having
their course inland, as well as to locate the state by latitude
and longitude and by surrounding states. Next, he should be
required to answer the following and similar questions, in order
to have clearly in mind the places where historical events
occurred: Where is Powell’s Valley? Where is the valley of
the Holston? Describe the Holston river and the Wataga
branch of that stream. Where is Cumberland Gap? Where
was Boonesborough? ‘Where was Harrodstown? Where was
St. Asaph’s or Logan’s Station? Where is Limestone (now
Maysville)? Where is Washington (the site of Kenton’s
Station)? Where is Frankfort? Where is Lexington? Where
was Bryan’s Station? Where was Floyd’s Station? Where
was Painted Stone or Squire Boone’s Station? Where was
Estill’s Station? Where is Little mountain? Where was
McAfee’s Station? Where is Elkhorn creek? Where is Mul-
draugh’s Hill? Where is Munfordville? Where is Perryville?
Where is Wild-Cat mountain? Where is Ivy mountain?
Where is Mill Spring or Logan’s Cross Roads? Where is
Fishing creek? Where is Richmond? Where is Cynthiana?
Where is Corn Island? Describe the Wabash river. The
Tippecanoe. Where is Kaskaskia? Where is Cahokia? Where
is St. Vincent’s or Vincennes? Where is Detroit? Where
is Malden? Where is the Thames river? Where is the Maumee
river? Where are the Maumee rapids? Where is the River
Raisin? Where was Frenchtown? Where was Fort Meigs?
Where was Fort Stephenson? Where is Bass Island? Where
NOTE TO TEACHERS. ; 309

is Mad river? Describe the great Miami river and locate Old
Chillicothe? Where was Fallen Timber, the site of Wayne’s
victory? Where is Greenville, Ohio? Where are the Blue
Licks? Where are the Falls of Ohio? Where is Royal Spring,
the site of McClelland’s Station?

To find all the places indicated by the preceding questions
will require an atlas, as well as the small map of Kentucky herein
published, as maps of several states will have to be studied, under
directions and with the assistance of the teacher; and a good
exercise for a class is for the teacher to encourage the several
members to emulate each other in finding for themselves,
before applying to him for aid, and by using an atlas in con-
nection with this history, the several points named and the
historical events with which each is connected.

It will be noted that in the Table of Contents and in the
following questions the history of the state is divided into six
periods. This, though fairly logical, is designed rather for
convenience in connecting marked events with special eras
than for indicating strictly natural divisions.
310 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL TEXT.

(The numerals refer to paragraphs in which the answers are to be found.)

FIRST PERIOD: FROM THE EARLIEST VISIT OF WHITE MEN TILL
THE BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION.

CHaprTeR I.—1. Define history. 3. Give in your own language the
French gentleman’s idea of what one’s country is. 5. Give the Federal
general’s explanation of why Kentuckians make faithful soldiers. 10.
How besides in war have Kentuckians displayed high qualities? How
many Kentuckians have been ambassadors, foreign ministers, etc.?
How many have held high command in the United States army and
navy? How many were generals of volunteers, in the Federal army
during the civil war? How many in the Confederate army? How many
have been heads of departments and officers of the United States gov-
ernment? How many have been judges of the United States Supreme
Court?’ How many have been governors and lieutenant-governors of
other states and territories?” How many have represented other states
in Congress? How m many have been presidents of universities and col-
leges in other states?~ How many have been president of the Senate
and vice-president of the: United States? Of what state were Lincoln
and Davis natives? 12. How besides in office-holding has this quality-of
leadership been manifested? 13. pons some Kentucky traits that indi-
cate nobility of character.

Give in your own language what you find in Notes and Comments at
the end of first chapter.

CHAPTER II.—l. Why in the study of history is a knowledge of geog-
raphy important? 2. What does geography in its larger sense embrace?
3. Between what parallels and meridians does Kentucky lie? Bound
Kentucky. Give mean length and breadth; number of square miles;
number of acres.. 4. Describe the surface. 5. How do Kentucky’s
water-ways cOmpare in extent with those of other states? 6. Name the
principal rivers, and their navigable extent. What rivers lie along the
borders? Name the lesser rivers that are navigable in high water and
ean be made so for two or three thousand miles. 7. To what great river
system do the Ohio and its tributaries belong? What is the general di-
rection of Kentucky’s water-shed? 8. From what have the soils been
mainly derived? Which are in general most productive? Where is the
great body of blue-grass land? What proportion of Kentucky is unfit for
agricultural purposes? 9. Describe the climate. What is the average
yainfall? 10. What is said of the comparative sizeof Kentuckians? 11.
What is said of the products? 12. What proportion of the state is still
SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL TEXT. 311

covered with forests? 13. How many formations or beds does the geo-
logical structure embrace? How many coal-fields? Of what extent are
they? Where do they lie? Name the principal minerals. 14. What is
said of salt licks or springs? 15. What is said of game? 16. What is
said of the scenery? 17. Name some of the natural curiosities. 18. Was
Kentucky inhabited by the Indians when the white man came? What
memorials of a pre-historic race have been found? 19. How many well-
defined relics have been.found, and in how many counties? 20. What
evidences of a gigantic species of animals have been found? 21. What
proportion of the land was covered by an almost unbroken forest when
the white man came? 22. Name some animalsand birds found. 23: Of
what descent is the chief part of the population? From what states did
the pioneers come? What is said of the Scotch-Irish and the Huguenots?
24. What isthe probable origin of the term ‘‘Darkand Bloody Ground?”’

CuapTer III.—1. Who was the first known white visitor to Kentucky,
and in what year did he come? 2. In what year did Gist find white men
on both sides of the Ohio? Where and by whom was the first cabin
built in Kentucky? 3. What is said of Christopher Gist, his surveys,
and the first map made? 4. Who were the first white women in Ken-
tucky, and when were they here? 5. Who made the first surveys in the
Ohio valley southward? 6. Give an account of John Finley’s coming.
8,9, 10,11. Give some account of how white men acquired a claim to
Kentucky. 12. When did Daniel Boone and his five companions come?
13. Give an account of the capture and escape of some of them and the
death of the others. Of Squire Boone’s finding his brother. Of Stew-
art’s death. Of the probable fate of the man who came with Squire
Boone. 14,15. Of Boone’s being left alone in the wilderness; of Squire
Boone’s return; of their travels in central Kentucky; and their return
to North Carolina. 16. Give an account of the Knox party—what parts
of the state they were in, their trading expedition, ete. 17. What was
the result of Boone’s first attempt to bring families to Kentucky? 18.
What is said of Thomas Bullitt’s visit? 19. What places did the McAfee
brothers visit in 1773, and what of their work? 21. What of Kenton’s
first coming? 22, 23, Who led hunters and surveyors into Kentucky in
17742 Give an account of the founding of Harrodstown; and of Indian
attack on some of the party. 24. What of Hancock Taylor? 25. Who
was sent to warn the settlers to return to Virginia, and why? Give an
account of the battle of Point Pleasant.

State what you have learned in reading Personal Sketches, etc., at
end of Chapter III.

CHAPTER IV.—l. Who organized the Transylvania Company? 2. Give
an account of the company: (a) Of how many members composed; (b)
Where and when treaty was made and with what Indian tribe; (c)
what price was paid. 3. What was the character of road Boone was
312 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

engaged to mark out? 4. Where did Boone and his party build the
Boonesborough stockade? When was the work. completed? 5. Give an
account of the Boonesborough convention of May 28rd, 1775: (a) What
settlements were represented in it; (b) What business was transacted;
(c) What supplies the company took upon itself to furnish, ete. 6, 7.
What caused the people to become dissatisfied with the agreement with the
company? Did the convention ever re-assemble? What view was taken
of the Wataga purchase by the governors of Virginia and North Car-
olina? o influenced the Virginia Assembly to declare it null and
void?» 7. When was the act passed by the Virginia Assembly formally
setting it aside and granting the company a compensation in lands on
Green river? 8. When did Kenton return to Kentucky, and where did
he and Williams build. cabin? Give an account of Fitzpatrick and Hen-
dricks. 9. When did Harrod come back to Harrodstown? Where did
Floyd locate? Where did Logan locate?’ When was Lexington named
and why so called?: 10. What three important settlements had been
made by the time the revolutionary war had fairly begun?

Give account of what you have learned from reading Personal
Sketches, .ete., at the end of Chapter IV.

SECOND PERIOD: KENTUCKY DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR.

CHAPTER V.—l. What were the Kentucky pioneers doing during the
eight years of the revolutionary war? 2. What is said of pioneers who
fought under General Lewis at Point Pleasant, and of Lewis’ victory?
Name some Kentuckians who were with him. 3. Name some surveyors and
settlers of 1775 and where stations were established. 4. When did Boone
bring his own, with other families, to Boonesborough? 5. What families —
came to Harrodstown in 1775? What stations were now made homelike
‘by the ‘presence of women and children? 6. Tell of George Rogers
Clark’s first visit to Kentucky. 7. When did Clark come the second
time? Where and when was a meeting held at his suggestion, and for
what purpose? -Who were chosen by the meeting to act as agents to the
Virginia Legislature? 8. Give an account of their journey to Williams-
burgh, Virginia. 9. When Clark laid his plan before Governor Henry what
view did he take of it? What did Clark apply to the Executive Council for?
10. Tell what action the council took, and why? What did Clark then
determine to do? 11. What did the council do after receiving Clark’s
letter refusing to accept the loan? What was done with the powder?
What did Clark and Jones induce the Virginia Legislature to do? 12.
Explain how the supply of powder at length reached Harrodstown.
When was Kentucky made a county of Virginia? 13. Of what impor-
tance was the result of Clark’s mission to the Virginia Assembly? Why
did the people of Kentucky wish Virginia to assume control of the ter-
ritory? 14, Name some small settlements made in1776. 15. Tell the story
SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL TEXT. 313

of the capture and rescue of the Calloway and Boone girls 16. What
of Indian attacks in the summer of 1776? What of the adventure of
Robert Patterson and others? 17. What of the attack on McClelland’s
Station? 18. Give an account of the attack on the working party near
Shawnee Springs in March, 1777., 19. What is said of the attack on
Boonesborough? 20. Tell of the attackon Logan’s Station in May, 1777.
21. Of Logan’s driving the Indians from Flat Lick, and of his being
wounded. 22. Of the driving of Indians from the neighborhood of
Boonesborough by Major Smith. Of the attack on Boonesborough, July
4th, 1777. 23. Of the manner in which the Indians annoyed the people
of Harrodstown, and how they were driven off by Clark 24. Who were
chosen members of the Virginia Legislature for Kentucky county in
1777? (25. What of the attack on the hemp and flax breakers at Hink-
ston’s? 26. Of the organized force of spies and scouts, and its purpose?
27. Why did Clark send spies to Detroit and other places, and what did
they discover? For what ,purpose-did he make a visit to Virginia?
What authority did, he receive? 28. When was the first court held in
Kentucky county, and where? Who was made colonel of the militia?
How many statigns remained at the close of 1777? 30. Tell the story of
the salt-makers at Blue Licks in January, 1778. Of Boone’s capture.
Of the capture of others, and what was done with them. How many
escaped, andhow? What was done with Boone? What made him resolve
toescape? What of his journey to Boonesborough? 31. Give an account
of Boone’s expedition to Paint Creek town. Of thé siege of Boones-
borough bythe French and Indians under Captain Du Quesne/ 32. Give
an account of Clark’s preparations to take British posts. ith how
many men did he set out from Corn Island? 33. Give an account of his
' eapture of Kaskaskia. 34. Of the capture of Cahokia. 35. How did he
provide for the civil control of the territory by Virginia? 36. By
whose assistance did he get control of St. Vincent’s? Who was placed
in command at St. Vincent’s? Who was sent back to build a fort on
the present site of Louisville? 37. When was the territory of which
Clark had taken possession organized as a county of Virginia, and who
was made governor? 38. What British officer with four hundred men
compelled Captain Helm and his one private to surrender St. Vincent's?

Tell what you have learned in reading Personal Sketches at the end
of Chapter V.

Cuaprer VI.—1. Tell of Clark’s retaking St. Vincent’s. 2. Of what
city did Robert Patterson lay the foundation in 1779? Who was the first
white woman at Lexington? Who established Bryan’s Station, and
what became of the leader? Who was his wife? 3. Name some other
settlements made in 1779, and by whom. 4. Give an account of Bow-:
man’s expedition against Indian towns. 5. Give an account of the
attacks on Indians by David Rogers and his keel-boat crews at the
314 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

mouth of the Licking. 6. What is said of the hard winter, 1779-80?
7. How many stations on Beargrass creek in the spring of 1780, and
how many persons arrived at the Falls? 8. Give an account of the capt-
ure of Ruddle’s Station. 9. What retaliation was made by Clark?
10. When was Louisville incorporated by act of the Virginia Legisla-
ture? 11. When and by whom-was Fort Jefferson on the Mississippi
built? 12. When was Kentucky county divided into three counties, and
what were the three named? 13. Tell the story of the siege of Fort
Jefferson by the Chickasaws. 14. What of troubles on account of
the Indians, in what are now Jefferson and Shelby counties? Who
made pursuit to punish the savages, and with what result?y 15. Give an
account of Squire Boone’s removal from Painted Stone, and of Floyd’s
fight with the Indians who had attacked Boone’s party. 16. When did
Squire Boone re-occupy Painted Stone, and how did the station come
to be known as Lynch’s? 17. Tell of the killing of Miss Gass at Estill’s
Station; of the capture of the negro man; and the defenseless condi-
tion of the place. 18,19. Tell the story of the battle of Little Mountain.
20. To which party was the fight most deadly? 21. What of Captain
Holder’s attack and defeat?A22. Where was Bryan’s Station? How
were the men there engaged while Girty and his Indians were con-
cealing themselves near the fort on the night of August 14th, 1782?
Tell of the occurrence next morning, and in what condition the stockade
was as to the walls, and where the supply of water was to be had. 23.
Give an account of what was immediately done. For what purposes
other than drinking and cooking was water necessary? 24. Tell how a
supply of water was obtained7&25. Explain how the Indians were
drawn from ambush and exposed to the fire of the whites. 26. What
befell the men from the Lexington Station before the main body of
them got inside the stockade at Bryan’s? 27. What of Girty’s trying to
frighten the garrison to surrender, and of his retreat? 28. What of
arrangements to pursue the savages? 29. Who commanded the pur-
suing foree? When did the pursuers come in sight of the Indians at
Lower Blue Licks? Why did Todd and others insist on waiting for
Colonel Logan? How was the forward movement suddenly brought on?
30, 31, 32. Describe the battle of Blue Licks. 33. How many of the
whites were killed, wounded, and captured? What leading men were
among the killed? What effect did the disaster have upon the settle-
mentsin Kentucky? 35. Give an account of the attack on Samuel Daveiss
and the capture and rescue of his wife and children. 36. What of the
attackon Kincheloe’s? 37. Tell of Clark’s expedition against the Indian
towns on the Miami. 38. What Indian atrocities other than those
already noticed were committed during the year 1782?

Give the accounts of men and women which you have learned in Per-
sonal Sketches, etc., at the end of Chapter VI.
SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL TEXT. 315

THIRD PERIOD: FROM THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION TILL
KENTUCKY BECAME A STATE,

CHAPTER VII.—l. When was the treaty of peace between the United
States and England agreed on and signed? When did the news reach
Kentucky? What had Kentucky pioneers accomplished by this time?
2. What is said of increase of population, establishing land offices,
locating claims, and the trouble that came of having no regular
system of surveys? 3. When were the three Kentucky counties made
one judicial district? Who were the judges appointed, the clerk, and
when and where was the first district court? 4,5. What matter now
became of more consequence to Kentuckians than even courts and
county officers? 6,7, 8. State the conditions prevailing at the time sep-
aration was agitated, and show why the people were impatient of
restraint and that there was some uncertainty as to their interests and
their duty. 9. Who suggested that a preliminary meeting be held to
consider the condition of the district, and where and when was it held?
10. When was the first formal convention to consider separation held?
What was done? 11. When was thesecond held? Why did action seem
to be urgent? What did Virginia do? What was done by the Kentucky
convention? 12. Into what two parties were the people now divided?
13. When did the third convention meet? Why was business delayed?
What were the new provisions made by the Virginia Assembly, and
what did they cause? 14. What effect did these changes and delays
have on the people? What increased their dissatisfaction? 15, 16.
Give some account of General Wilkinson’s conduct. What is said of
the Spanish conspiracy? 17. When was the fourth convention held,
and what didit do? 18. How didthe Kentucky delegates to the Virginia
convention vote on the question of adopting the United States consti-
tution? 19. What did the old Congress (that prior to 1789) do with the
question of admitting Kentucky to the Union? 20. When did the fifth
convention meet? What new occasions of disappointment and anger
appear? What did the convention do? 21. What did Virginia’s third
act of separation require? 22. When did the sixth convention meet?
What did it do? 24, When did the eighth convention meet? What did
it do? 25. When did Congress pass the act to admit Kentucky? 26.
When did the ninth convention to adopt a state constitution meet?
When did Kentucky become a state? 27. Who was president of eight
of the conventions to consider separation? Who was clerk of all? 28.
What is said of the conduct of the people of Kentucky during their
seven years of disappointment and temptation? 29. Give an account of
the Political Club. 30, 31.. What were probably the views of the
English people as to the result of the revolutionary war? Tell the story
of the British agent in Kentucky.

Tell what you have learned by reading Personal Sketches, etc., at
the end of Chapter VII.
316 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CuapterR VIII.—1. What is said of the years 1783, 1784, 1785? 2. What
of irruptions of small bodies of savages? 38. What of murders and
other outrages by Indians in 1783 and the years immediately following?
4. By whom and when was a block-house built where Maysville now is?
5. What instances of conflicts with Indians in 1784-85, in different locali-
ties? 6. What of Colonel Christian’s fight? 7. What of attacks in
different places during 1786? 8, 9. Give an account of Clark’s last
expedition against the Indians. 10. Tell of Col. Ben Logan’s expe-
dition against the Shawnees. 11. Give an account of the attack on the
family of Mrs. Skeggs, in Bourbon county. 12. On John Merrill, in
Nelson county, and on settlements elsewhere. What of Col. John
Todd’s expedition? 13, 14. Tell the story of the Salt river fight near
the mouth of the Rolling Fork. 15. Of the killing ofthe Ballard family.
16. What is said of Indian raids, ete., in 1787, 1788, and 1789? Of the
conduct of the British on the Canada border? 17. Of attacks on small
stations and on emigrant boats in 1790? 18. Tell of the expedition
made by General Scott in concert with Harmar, in April, 1790. 19, 20.
Give an account of Harmar’s disastrous expedition in September, 1790,
and of his conduct while in command. 21. What effect did this expe-
rience with Harmar have on'the minds of Kentuckians? What did they
petition for? Who were the members of the Board of War provided in
1791 by Congress? 22. Give an account of General Scott’s expedition
in May, 1791, against Indians on the Wabash. 23. Of the expedition
under Wilkinson, Hardin, and McDowell in August, 1791. 24, 25. Who
was made governor of the Northwest Territory in March, 1791, and given
command of regular troops for a campaign against the Indians? What
of attacks by predatory bands? 26, 27, 28. Tell the story of Captain
Hubbell’s battle on the river above Maysville, March 24th, 1791. 29, 30,
31, 32. Give an account of St. Clair’s expedition, defeat, and retreat.
Why did Kentuckians refuse to enlist under him? What was the con-
duct of Kentuckians when news reached them that volunteers were
needed to relieve the survivors of St. Clair’s army.

Tell what you have learned by reading Personal Sketches, etc., at the
end of Chapter VIII.

FOURTH PERIOD: SEVEN YEARS UNDER THE FIRST
CONSTITUTION.

CuHapteR IX.—1. Who was the first governor of Kentucky? 2. What
was the probable population when Kentucky became a state? 3. When
and where did the first legislature meet? How many counties were there
then? How many representatives and senators comprised the legisla-
ture? Who were the members of the committee to locate state capital?
Who were elected first United States senators? 4. What is said of In-
dian troubles? 5. Tell of Major Adair’s expedition across the Ohio.
SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL TEXT. 317

6. Give an account of the murder of Hardin and Truman. 7. Of the
attack on Morgan’s Station. 8. Of Captain Whitley’s expedition in con-
nection with Colonel Orr. 9, 10. What is said of the occurrences of
1793 and the conduct of the French minister Genet? 11, 12. What two
causes operated to make Kentuckians anxious to aid the French?
12. What is said of clubs in Kentucky similar to Jacobin clubs in France?
14. Kor what purpose did Genet send agents to Kentucky? What put
a stop to their work here? 15. Who succeeded St. Clair as governor of
the Northwest Territory? How was his call for volunteers treated by
Kentuckians, and why? How were the Kentucky troops raised? Who
commanded them? Why did the Kentuckians return after going to join
Wayne? 16. What impression did they get of Wayne while with him at
Fort Jefferson? When General Scott was called on in the summer of
1784 to rejoin him, how many men did he have instead of the thousand
first called for? What was Wayne’s force when he began his move-
ment? What was the result of the battle of Fallen Timber? What
effect did Wayne’s victory have on the Indians? Where was the treaty
made which put an end forever to Indian raids into Kentucky?
17. What two other important events occurred in 1794-95? 18. What
further efforts did the Spanish make to induce Kentucky to form ‘an
alliance with their government? What success did Power have in his
mission? 19. Who was elected governor in 1796, and what was at that
time the condition. of the state? 20. Explain the alien and sedition
laws, and state how Kentuckians regarded them. 20. What led Con-
gress to pass them? 21. Tell what you understand to be meant by the
resolutions of 1798. 22. What can you tell of the trouble between
France and the United States during the last three years of the last cen-
tury? 23. What is said of the ‘‘Great Revival’? 24. When were elec-
tions held to take the sense of the people on the question of calling a
Constitutional convention? When did the convention meet? When
was the second constitution reported, and when did it go into effect?

Tell what you have learned by reading Personal Sketches, ete. +) at
the end of Chapter IX.

FIFTH PERIOD: FIFTY YEARS UNDER THE SECOND
CONSTITUTION,

CHAPTER X.—2. What was the feeling of the people of Kentucky
against banking institutions and bank-notes, and why? How did it
happen that an institution with a banking feature was chartered by the
legislature of 1801-2, notwithstanding the prejudice of the people?
When was the Bank of Kentucky regularly chartered? 3. What is said
of the suspension of the right of deposit at New Orleans in 1802?
4. How was.the excitement allayed during the next year? 5, 6. When
did Aaron Burr come to Kentucky, and what scheme was he engaged
318 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

in? 7. Give an account of the United States attorney’s efforts to bring
him to trial. 8, 9. Give the incidents of his trial and acquittal and his
standing with the people. 10. How did the people in general regard
Daveiss’ efforts to bring Burr to justice? How did they celebrate
Burr’s acquittal? How was the vindication of Daveiss’ course soon
made to appear? 11. How did Burr deceive his honorable counsel,
Clay and Allen? What preparation had been made while he was tinder
trial in Frankfort? 12. What was the probable extent of his schemes?
13, 14. What is said of Kentuckians accused of having been connected
with him? What of Burr’s arguments and his false pretenses to de-
ceive them? 15. What was learned by investigating charges against
Judge Sebastian? 16, 17. Give some account of General Harrison’s
expedition against Indians under The Prophet, and of Kentucky’s part
in the battle of Tippecanoe.

Tell what you have learned in reading Personal Sketches, ete., at
the end of Chapter X..

CHAPTER XI.—l. What was the main cause of a second war with
Great Britain? 2. What disposition did the English people manifest
towards the United States for a long time after the revolution? How
did the enmity of France and England towards each other benefit Amer-
ican commerce? 3. What rank did the United States hold among com-
mercial nations before the war of 1812 began? 6. On what theory did
Great Britain claim the right to search American vessels and press the
men into the British navy? How many American vessels were seized
by British ships of war? 5. When did the president declare war?
6. What was the feeling among Kentuckians? 7. When Kentucky’s
quota of troops was fixed at fifty-five hundred, how many volunteered?
Who commanded the four regiments? Instead of the fifteen hundred
who were wanted to re-enforce Hull how many enlisted? Tell of Hull’s
disgraceful surrender. What effect did it produce in Kentucky? What
force volunteered to march against Indians in Illinois? What was the
result of this expedition? 8. What step did Governor Scott take to pro-
vide against a movement of British and Indians towards the Kentucky.
‘border? 9. Tell of the advance on Fort Wayne. Of the destruction of
Indian towns and crops by Kentucky troops. Of the difficulty of mov-
ing, which prevented important action till January, 1813. 10. Give an
account of the fighting at Frenchtown, on the Raisin river, January 18th.
Of the enemy’s attack on Mills in his exposed camp, January 21st. Of
the gallant conduct of Kentuckians in sallying out and trying to save
the regulars, and how they suffered in consequence. 12. Of how Major
Madison and Major Graves were forced to surrender the stockade, and
of the massacre of wounded prisoners. Name some of the wounded
officers who were murdered there. What feeling did these atrocities
awaken in Kentucky? 13. Give the facts as to Governor Shelby’s tak-
SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL TEXT. 319

ing the field in person and re-enforcing General Harrison at Fort Meigs.
14. Give the facts in connection with the sending of Colonel Dudley ta
attack batteries on the north shore of the Maumee, and of his defeat.
Of the massacre of prisoners and the conduct of Tecumseh in stopping
it. 16. What was illustrated by Dudley’s defeat? 17, 18. What of
Proctor’s second siege of Fort Meigs? Tell the story of Colonel Cro-
ghan’s defense of Fort Stephenson. 19. What is said of Kentucky sharp-
shooters with Commodore Perry, during the battle on Lake Erie?
20. When the British and Indians withdrew into Canada, where did Gen-
eral Harrison force them to fight? What is said of the numbers of the
two armies and the advantage of position? What chief commanded the
Indians? What is said of his experience and ability? 21. From what
state were most of Harrison’s troops? What is said of Colonel John-
son’s mounted regiment? 22, 23. Describe the battle of the Thames,
and state what the Kentuckians had now achieved.. 24. Give an account
of McArthur’s campaign and of the Kentucky volunteers with him. 26. In
what quarter was Kentucky next called upon for help? Give the facts
as to regiments sent by Governor Shelby to General Andrew Jackson.
26. Who commanded the main body of Kentuckians at the battle of New
Orleans? 27. When was the treaty of peace made which was meant to
terminate the war of 1812? Why was the battle of New Orleans fought
after peace was made?
Tell what you have learned by reading Personal Sketches, etc., at’

the end of Chapter XI.

CHAPTER XIJ.—l. How long did Governor Madison live after his
inauguration? What question was raised after he died? 2. What impor-
tant matter was recommended by Governor Slaughter in his message to
the legislature? When was the treaty made with the Chickasaws by
which the Purchase became lawfully a part of Kentucky, and why was
it called the Jackson Purchase? 3. What was the condition of Ken-
tucky for some years after the close of the war of 1812? 4. What was
the effect of adopting the free-banking system? 5, 6. When the people
found themselves in financial embarrassment and distress, what act was
passed to afford relief? 7, 8. What additional legislation was had in
1820-21? 9. What was the decision of two of the Circuit Courts relative
to legislative acts which interfered with the collection of debts or pro-
vided for payments not in accordance with contract? What was the
judgment of the Court of Appeals as to these decisions? What effect
did the opinion of the Court of Appeals have on the minds of the peo-.
ple? 10. Into what two parties were the people now divided? What party
was successful in 1824? How did the legislature dispose of the Court
of Appeals and organize a new one? What did the old court do?
Which party was successful in 1835? Why did not the legislature re-
peal the act by which the new court had -been created? Which party
320 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

triumphed in 1826? What did the legislature of 1826-27 do with re-
spect to the old court? How were the decisions of the new court after-
ward treated? 11. What is said of LaFayette’s visit to Kentucky?
12. What is said of the work of internal improvements, for which pro-
vision was made by the legislature in January, 1827? How many miles
of railroad now in Kentucky? Of turnpike and gravel roads? 13, 14.
Give an account of the monetary panic of 1837-42. 15. What was
the great issue of the presidential election of 1844? Who was the
candidate of the Whig party?

Tell what you have learned by reading Personal Sketches, etc., at
the end of Chapter XII.

CHaprer XIII.—1. What is said of Kentucky’s part in the war with
Mexico? 2. What was the cause of the war? 3. How were the people
of Texas treated by the Mexican government, and what was the result?
When was the independence of Texas acknowledged by the United
States? 4. When was Texas annexed to the United States? When the
president was asked to send troops to protect the new state against
Mexico what general was ordered to occupy it with part of the regular
army? 5. How and when did the war begin? 6. What was the attitude
of Kentuckians in general on the question of annexation and probable
war? When war was begun what effect was produced in Kentucky?
Tell what preparations were made to furnish men and money. 7. How
many volunteers were called for by Governor Owsley, and how long
before the requisition was met? How many companies were organized
altogether? How many inexcess of what thegovernor wanted? 8. What
Kentuckians were appointed to high military command, and which
ones already held commissions in the regular army? Who were the

. field officers of the three regiments accepted? How was Williams’
company accepted? 10. What additional Kentuckians were enlisted?
11. Who were the field officers of the two additional regiments called
for in 1847? Did these regiments reach Mexico in time to take part in
the fighting? 12. How many of these volunteer Kentuckians in the
Mexican war attained to eminence during the civil war? 13. What of
Kentucky troops at the taking of Monterey? 14 and 17. What propor-
tion of the American army that won the victory at Buena Vista were
Kentuckians? What was Taylor’s force? What was Santa Anna’s? 16.
What is said of the fighting on February 22nd, 1847, and the part taken by
Kentuckians in the great battle of the 23rd? 16. Describe the action of
the First Kentucky Cavalry. 18. Whatservice was rendered during the
war by Williams’ company? 19. Who of the Kentuckians were capt-
ured and imprisoned? 20. What is said of Kentucky’s regard for those
whofell in Mexico? 21. What is saidof cherishing the memory of those
who fall in defense of their country? 22. Give an account of the steps
taken to form the third state constitution; of its adoption, and the time
SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL TEXT. 321

‘of itsgoing into effect. 23. What was the chief cause of dissatisfaction
with the constitution of 1799? What change did the one of 1849-50
make in this particular?

Give account of what you havelearned by reading Personal Sketches,
etc., at the end of Chapter XIII.

SIXTH PERIOD: FORTY YEARS UNDER THE THIRD CONSTITUTION
AND SIX UNDER THE FOURTH.

CHAPTER XIV.—1. What is said of the slavery question? 2. Whatof
the financial disturbance of 1854-57? 3. What of the manifestation of
military ardor in Kentucky during the Utah insurrection? 4. What is
said of the attitude of Kentuckians towards each other before the civil
war? 5. What of that during the civil war? 6. What was the great
underlying cause of the civil war? Explain the different views of the
North and the South as to the relation between the general government
and the several states. 7. What was the immediate cause of the war?
8. How many candidates for the presidency -were before the people in
1860? Which party elected its candidate?, 9. What is said of the differ-
ences between the North and the South on the slavery question? When
Lincoln was elected what did eleven of the slave states do? 10. How
did the people of Kentucky stand on the question of secession? What
position did Kentucky take from the first? What efforts did Senator
Crittenden make to restore peace? 11. What did Governor Magoffin rec-
ommend to the legislature which met in called session? What did the
governor, Senator Breckinridge, and others, believe would avert war?
What did the legislature do? 12. What did Governor Magoffin do when
President Lincoln called for troops to maintain the Union by force?
How did the people in general regard his action? Were they in favor
of making war on the South? 13. What of the adjourned session of
March 20th, 1861? 14. What took place after the call for troops? What
did the Union men insist that. Kentucky should do? 15. What position
was adopted by the legislature at the adjourned session of May 6th, 1861?
Explain the meaning of ‘‘armed neutrality.’”? By what force was the
State Guard to be increased? With which section was the State Guard
mostly in sympathy? With which was the Home Guard wholly in
sympathy? 16. Give an account of the state of feeling after the neu-
trality policy was adopted, and of the action of the men of each party.
17. When was the state invaded} by troops of the respective armies?
18. Which party, Union or Southern, was successful at the August
election, 1861? Which had been successful at the election of June, 1861?
19. Give an account of the action of the legislature during the called
session of September, 1861. 20. When was the position of neutrality
formally abandoned? Who was the commandant of the Department of
the Cumberland, of which Kentucky was a part? What volunteer force

‘ 21

S a
322 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

was he authorized to call out and requested to place under command of
Col. Thos. L. Crittenden, and for what purpose? 21. How many men
did Kentucky contribute to the two armies? What proportion of Ken-
tuckians of the military age enlisted during the war?

CHAPTER XV.—1. What is attempted inthisvolume as to the history
of Kentucky soldiers during the war? 2. Who was placed in command
of the (Confederate) Central Army of Kentucky? When was Bowling
Green occupied? Describe Johnston’s line of operations. What steps
were taken to obstruct the advance of the Federal forces? 3. Give an
account of the fight at Wild Cat mountain. 4. AtIvy mountain. 5. Of
the organization of a provisional government for Kentucky. 6, 7. Of
the small affairs at Sacramento and other points. 8. Of the action at
Middle creek. 9. What force did General Buell organize at Louisville?
Give an account of the battle at Mill Springs. 10. What effect did
. Crittenden’s retreat have on Johnston’s- line of operations? What is
said of the taking of Fort Henry? 11. Of Fort Donelson? Of John-
son’sevacuation of Bowling Green? 13. Of Buell’s occupation of
Nashville? Of Polk’s withdrawalfrom Columbus? 14. What Kentucky
regiments fought each other at Donelson? 15. What law was enacted
against Confederate Kentuckians? What effect did it have? 16, 17.
Where did Kentuckians fight during the spring and summer of 1862?
What of Bragg’s plan? 18. Give an account of General Morgan and
his operations up to June, 1862. 19. Give the incidents and results of
Morgan’s raid through Kentucky in July, 1862. 20. Of Kirby Smith’s
and Morgan’s invasion of Kentucky in August, 1862, and the battles of
Big Hill and Richmond. 21. What action did the legislature take on
the night of August 3lst? 22. Where were Kirby Smith’s forces concen-
trated early in September? ’ 23, 24. What Confederate troops were in
position to interfere with Gen. George Morgan’s withdrawal from Cum-
.berland Gap? Describe George Morgan’s retreat from the Gap to
Greenupsburgh. 25. Give an account of Bragg’s advance from Chatta-
nooga and his capture of Munfordville. 26. Of the condition of the
army under his immediate command, and the position of Smith with
other co-operating Confederate troops. Of his withdrawal to Bardstown
and Buell’s march to Louisville. Of the Federal force available by Sep-
tember 25th, for operations against Bragg. What line did the Confeder-
ates occupy at this time? 27, 28. What is said of General Heth’s ad-
vance to the vicinity of Covington? Of minor and disconnected en-
gagements during September. 29. Give an account of Duke’s attempt
to cross the Ohio and the attack made upon him by Federal troops
under Dr. Bradford. 30, 31, 32. Give the incidents leading up to the
battle of Perryville, and an account of the battle—its character—and the
results. 33. What is said of the excitement in Kentucky after the bat-
tle of Richmond and the capture of Munfordville? Of the hopes and
SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL TEXT. 323

fears of the Confederate and the Union people? Of the mauguration of
the provisional governor? Of the termination of Bragg’s campaign?

CHAPTER XVI.—1. Who was now put in command of the Federal
army, with which Buell had operated in Kentucky, and at what point
did he take position? 2, 3. Where did Bragg concentrate his forces?
Give the incidents and results of Morgan’s raid through Kentucky in
December, 1862. 4. Describe Carter’s raid from Winchester into the
valley of the Holston, December, 1862. 5, 6. Give an account of
Cluke’s and Pegram’s raids, 1863. Of affairs in Lawrence county,
‘Wayne county, and at Morehead. 7, 8. Give an account of Morgan’s
raid through Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio, in June and July, 1863. 9.
Of Forrest’s attack on Paducah, March 25th, 1864. 10. Of Morgan’s raid
through Kentucky in 1864. 11. Of Morgan’s death. 12. Of Lyon’s
operations in Kentucky and on the border during Hood’s Nashville
campaign. 13. What is said of the chief cause of suffering in Kentucky
during the war? 14. Who were the guerillas, and what of their con-
duct in Kentucky? 15 Whatis said of military interference with the civil
authority? 16. Under control of what party were affairs in Kentucky |
after the early autumn of 1861? 17,18. State the views of Governor
Magoffin. How did he conduct himself as chief executive of the state?
When and why did he resign? What is said of the demands made upon
Kentucky for men and munitions of war? What of the respect for law and
order which was manifested under trying circumstances? What did the
Washington war office do notwithstanding all this? What is said of
those placed in military authority? 20. What control were they author-
ized to exercise? What penalties were to be inflicted upon Confederates
and southern sympathizers? What advantage was taken of the existing
state of things by ill-disposed people? Whatis said of arrests, imprison-
ment, banishment, etc.? 22. What is said of Governor Robinson? 23.
What assurance had the Washington government given Kentuckians
before they committed the state to the war policy? How did they
expect to be dealth with? How were the promises upon which they
relied. disregarded in the matter of slavery? 24. When was martial law
declared? What is said of the election of 1863? 25. Give some account
of the acts of the military commandant who succeeded Boyle. 26. What
is said of deeds of cruelty and extortion in western Kentucky, and the
result of the investigation made by General Fry and Colonel Brown?
27. On what account were General Wolford and Colonel Jacob arrested
by the military authorities? 28. Howlong did harsh and often cruel mili-
tary rule continue? How was it in some measure removed? 29. What
is the estimated number of Kentuckians who were killed and who died
of disease during the war, and of the crippled and otherwise injured?
30. Give an account of the return of the Confederate Kentuckians after
the war closed. 31. What action did the legislature take?

Tell what you have learned from Notes and Comments at the end of
Chapter XVI.
324 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

CHAPTER XVII.—2. What is said of the election of August, 1865?
3. What party elected its candidate for treasurer and five of the nine
candidates for Congress? What was the character of the legislature
for that year? 4.’ What was recommended in Governor Bramlette’s
message? How did the legislature receive the suggestion? 5. How
had Kentucky’s financial affairs been conducted during the war? How
did Kentucky’s credit compare with that of the United States? 6. State
the conditions existing at the election of 1867; the parties having tickets
before the people; and the successful party.. When did the freedmen
vote at an annual election, and to what extent was the Democratic majority
reduced? How long did the Democratic party maintain control after
’ 1867? What is said of the absence of an intolerant and proscriptive
spirit? What resolutions were adopted by the Republican convention
of May 17th, 1871? 8. What was the Ku Klux Klan? What is said of its
operations in Kentucky? What was the effect of the law for its sup-
pression and of unfriendly public sentiment? 9. What is said of the
monetary panic of 1873? 10. Give an account of the Geological Survey.
li. Of the Bureau of Agriculture. 12. Of the Superior Court. 13. What
is said of the events of the last ten or twelve years? 14. What of the
centenary or hundredth anniversary of Kentucky? 15. State the diffi-
culties which for a long time prevented the revision of the Constitution
of 1849-50. 16. How many acts had been passed prior to 1885-86 to take
the sense of the people as to calling a convention? What was the
result of the several elections? How did the legislature of 1885-86
remove the difficulty? When was the first vote taken under this act?
When the second? What was the result? 18. When was the act order-
ing an election of delegates approved? When were delegates elected?
When was the convention organized? When was the new constitution
submitted to the people for ratification? And with what result?
19. What is said of the changes made by the new constitution? What
provision is made against continuing in office? What as to elections?
What system of voting is prescribed? 20. What is said of local or spe-
cial legislation? 21. How are charters to be obtained? What charters
are forbidden and those existing at the time revoked? To what power
are charters to be held subject? 22. What provision as to counties,
cities, etc.? 23. What is the greatest number of magistrates any county
can have? 24. What privileges are granted to corporations? 25. How
is unequal and excessive taxation provided against? 26. What is the
provision as to voting a tax in aid of railroads? 27. What is the pro-
vision as to courts? 28. What omission as to slavery? 29. What is
said of the provision to quiet land titles? 30. What important offices
are made constitutional instead of being left to the will of the legis-
lature? How was the common school fund increased? 31. What is
said of the provision to revise the constitution? 32. What indication of
state growth and changed conditions is furnished by this constitution?
SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL TEXT. 325

33. By what majority did the people ratify the new constitution? When
did it go into effect? 34. When was the entire Republican state ticket
elected for the first time in Kentucky? 35. What is said of business
depression throughout the Union, from 1890 to 1897? For which party
did Kentucky cast her vote in the presidential election of 1896?
36. What is said of the destitution and suffering of the people in 1894?

CHAPTER XVIII.—1. What is said of the public-spirited men who
from the earliest period of the state sought to promote learning? 2.
What is said of President Jefferson and Col. John Todd in connection
with land grant for educational purposes? 3. Name some of Kentucky’s
earliest teachers and some school-books published in pioneer times. 4.
What is said of school-houses and teachers after Indian troubles ceased?
5. What is said of schools of high grade and the endowing of Transyl-
vania Seminary? 6. What is said of the gifts made by the legislature
for the benefit and support of county seminaries? 7. Give an account
of how Kentucky’s permanent school fund was obtained and what it
consists of. What are the other resources of the school fund? 8, 9.
What is said of the treatment: of the public school question for more
than thirty years? What of reports made by Judge Barry and the Rev.
Mr. Peers? 10. Who drafted a bill to establish a system of common
schools in Kentucky and pressed it to a passage? When -was this bill
. Introduced? Upon what erroneous idea was the law based? How long
before the people came to entertain right views of common schoo]s? 11.
When did the legislature make first provision for educating the colored
children? How were these separate schools to be maintained? When
was the per capita equalized, so that white and colored children share
alike? 12. What is said of the state’s provision for her defective classes?
13. What is said of high-class private schools? Name some of the oldest
and best known. What of the high order of professional schools in
Kentucky? 14. What state institutions having departments for special
training of teachers are connected with the school system?

State what you have learned by reading Personal Sketches at the end
of Chapter XVIII.

CHAPTER XIX.—2. Name some Kentucky inventors and their inven-
tions. 3. Name some Kentuckians who first performed certain remarkable
surgicaloperations. 4. Are you familiar with the productions of any of the
persons named in the list of poetical writers? 5. What is said of Ken-
tucky’s painters and sculptors? Give a sketch of Matt Jouett. 6. Give
the names of other known portrait painters. 7. What is said of the
great Kentucky sculptor, Hart?

CHAPTER XX.—1. How wasthe institution of slavery fixed upon Ken-
tucky? What is said of those who opposed it from the first? 2. What

’
326 YOUNG PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.

of the sentiment among the members of the first constitutional conven- '
tion? How many of them voted for striking out the slavery clause?
How did the gospel ministers all vote? What did the first constitution
prohibit with respect to slaves? What did it recommend to the legislature?
3. When was the question again prominent? What great Kentucky
statesman strongly advocated the principles and plans of the Coloniza-
_tion Society? 4. When did the Friends of Humanity organize, and what
was their object? 5. What was said of Henry Clay’s conduct and
speech toward slave-holders, and of his connection with the Kentucky
Colonization Society? 6. What effect did the radical teachings of north-
ern Abolitionists have upon the people of Kentucky? What instance is
given of interference with right of free speech and a free press? 7.
What was the attitude of northern Abolitionists for ten years preceding
the constitutional convention of 1849? Describe their operations in
Kentucky and state how they resulted in disadvantage to the slaves.
-What persons-were arrested in 1844, and tried on the charge of abduct-.
ing slaves? To what punishment were they condemned? What led to
the pardon of Miss Webster? 8. What did the State Emancipation Con-
vention of April 25th, 1849, recommend? 9. What is said of the conduct
of the majority of the slaves after the emancipation proclamation of
January Ist, 1863, was issued, and before Congress had formally made
them free? How many of the men enlisted in the Federal army under
the call from the Washington war office? 10. What did the Kentucky
Legislature do when the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States
Constitution came before it for action? What were the grounds of their
refusal? 11. What was the effect of interference on the part of the mili-
tary commandant in Kentucky? When was the Freedman’s Bureau
established, and for what purpose? What was the character of the
agents sent to Kentucky, and what was the effect of their conduct on
both races? When military restrictions were removed what took place?
12. What action did the legislature take on the Fourteenth Amendment?
13. What action did it take on the Fifteenth or Suffrage Amendment?
How long was it after the war closed till the ex-slaves were invested
with all the legal rights held by white citizens? 14. When was the law
limiting negro testimony repealed, and the colored witness placed on
the same legal footing with the white? 15. When was a uniform system
of public schools for colored children provided? Tell how the fund to
maintain it was derived—how the schools were controlled—and what
proportion of the colored population was returned as pupil children in
1874. 16. What was the colored population in 1890 and what proportion
of it was returned as pupil children? When were all the school rev-
enues designated as one fund, to be distributed equally per head among
both white and colored children? 17. When did the legislature provide
for the State Normal School for Colored Persons and make annual
SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL TEXT. 327

appropriation for its maintenance? State what other appropriations
have been made by the general government, by the state, and by the
Slater trustees, and what feature has been added to the schools. 18.
What liberality has the state manifested in providing for the education
of the colored people?

State what you have found under head of Miscellaneous Notes, Com-
ments, etc., at the end of Chapter XX.





INDEX.

PAGE.
Adair, Gen. John, Expedition Against Indians, . : 147
Adair, Gen. J ohne Commands Kentuckians at New Orleans, i 189
Adair, Gen. John, Sketch of, : ; A 3 ; 214
avanti: a Sinsalar: 5 : 5 : ; ; 142
After the Civil War, , : : 5 : ; : 266
Agriculture, Bureau of, ‘i 3 : 2 j ; 271
Allen, W: C., Kentucky Artist, . z 5 : i 55
Mien Col; John, = Bec E 145, —_, 181, 183
American Citizen- Soldier, the, : A : ; ; 264
Anderson, Gen. Robert, ‘ : : 3 5 : 235
Animals, Giants Species of, 2 5 is é 28
Animals, Wild, Found in Kentucky, : . : : 29
Anti-Relief Party, : : fs i ; 202
Art, Science and icerarave. : Fi 5 : 5 288
ieustn. Engagement at, . z . . 5 ‘ 247
Badin, Rev. Stephen Thaodors: : : : ‘i : 159
Ballard, Capt. Bland, seit ale : F 5 : 127
Ballard, Capt Bland, Sketch of, . . : saoee eat 5 211
Ballard Family, Attack on, . ‘i : . : ; 127
Bank of Kentucky, . : 3 s é . 164, 200
Banks, Forty-six Chartered: q 5 § A x 200
Barbour, Maj. Philip N., . A ‘ fy . 218, 220
Barlow, Tho. H., Swat S 2 : : 5 288
Barry, Wm. T., 3 : A z : ‘3 ‘i 281
Bascom, Rev. Henry B., . : greanrats : g 161
Bedienor: Wm.M., . ‘ 5 s i 5 286
Benham, Robert, Neon Gives Obs US : : : : 84
Benham and Watson, Terrible Haencice of, . 5 ‘ 104
Big Knife, q : , gj , £ 46
Blackfish, Indian Chief, Killed, : ; $ : : 84
Blue eke: Saltmakers Gapiared at, i : 5 5 74
Blue Licks, Battle at the, . : : : . 94, 95
Blue Licks, Kentuckians Killed ate 5 2 3 ‘ 95
Board of War, ; ; : 5 ; : 129
‘Boat on Salt River Minekod: : : : ; : 126
Boone, Daniel, First Visit of, z pipet : ~ 85
Boone, Daniel, Guides Settlers Back to Virginia, : . 42

Boone, Daniel, Employed by Transylvania Company, . § 47
330 INDEX.

PaGE.
Boone, Daniel, Founds Boonesborough, . z 48
Boone, Daniel, ; ‘ : 64 and at intervals to 94
Boone: Daniel, Sketch of, . ; ; : : 52
Boone’s ence: or Wilderness Road, : g A : 48
Boones, the, and Kenton, Treatment of, . : é ; 176
Boone, Squire, : 5 . . 87, 81, 83, 89
Boone, Squire, Sketch of, . : 3 : : ; 172
Boone, Jemima, Capture of, : 2 : z % 69
Boone, George, : ; ; 5 83
Boone, Mary, Wife of Capt. Wai: Bryan, i : ‘ 82
Beonssborough; Stockade Built, . : 5 % : 48
Boonesborough, Convention at, . 3 ‘ Z 49
Boonesborough, Land Offce at, zs 5 So sate : . 60
Boonesborough, Attacks.on, z & 3 oes eT
Boonesborough, Siege of, . : ; : : % 75
Boswell, Col. Wm. E., : i a - 5 ‘ 184
Bowman, Col. John, : ; 5 < ; . 74, 84
Bowman, Capt. Joseph, . 5 i , ; ; 76
Boyle, Gen. J. T., . 3 : ; A s i 258
Bradford, Dr. Joshua T., ; is . . 248, 289
Bradley, Gov. Wm. O., ; ; . : 3 ; 276
Bragg, Gen. Braxton, ; , A i 3 ; 242
Bramlette, Gov. Thomas E., , . 2 2 . 261, 266
Brashear, Dr., 3 . 5 : 7 : 3 289
Breckinridge, John .. ; ; : 3 . ; 155
Breckinridge, Rev. Robt. J., ; : : Y : 285
Breckinridge, Gen. John C., 3 ji 5 ‘i . 219, 231
Bristow, Col. Frank M., ; : ‘ 5 E 253
Brown, John, Sketch of, . s : ‘ g ; 118
Brown, James, * ° ; : : : : woe 42
Brown, Orlando, quoted, . ; é 5 ‘i * 195
Brown, John Mason, . ‘ : i ° “ 5 262
Brown, Gov. John Young, . ; é : 302
Bryan, Capt. Wm., founds Bryan’s Stations ” : - 82°
Bryan, Capt. Wm., Killed, . ; ; 3 i . 82
Bryan’s Station, Siege of . p 5 ! ¢ fs ‘91
Bryan, Wm. Jennings, : ; . ; ; ‘ 277
Bryan’s Station, Heroines of, , é e 5 z “99
Buckner, Gen. Simon Bolivar, é p ‘ 5 . 218, 241
Buell, Gen. Don Carlos, Z : : 8 ; . 239
Bulger, Major, i : % ; ; 95
Bullitt, Capt. Thomas, Story of, . si 5 . : 43
Bullock, Wn. F., r ; ¢ : fs ; 281
Burning at the Stake, 3 2 5 5 ‘ : 139

Burr, Aaron, Conspiracy of, 5 y ‘ : z 165
331

103

INDEX.

PAGE.
Burr, Aaron, Sketch of, 174
Butler, Mann, quoted, 13
Butler, Gen. Richard, 133
Butler, Gen. Wm. A., 218
Byrd, Colonel, a British Officer, 3 85
Calamore, Colonel, Settles on Laibeprdd, . 64
Caldwell, Colonel, Commands Regiment in 1812, 184
Chiloway. Richard? ; 64
Calloway, Misses Betsy and ‘Frances, Captnred 69
Calloway, Betsy, Bravery of, 80
Carter, Gen., Raids Into Tenn. nig 252
Cartwright, Rew! Peter, 161
Centenary of Kentucky, . 272
Cerro Gordo, Kentucky owe in Battle at, 222
Chapman, Capt., i i 89
Chenoweth, Col. James Q., . 256
Cherokee Indians Sell Claim to Kentucky, 35
Chickasaw Indians Sell Claim to Lands, 35

Children Knew the Story by Heart,
Christian, Col. Wm., Killed, 124
Churches, First Ones Organized, 159
Clark, Gov. James, 214
Clark, Gen. Geo. Rogers, Comés to Hatodstown, 65
51

Clark, Gen. Geo. Rogers, Thwarts Henderson,

Clark, Gen. Geo. Rogers, Obtains Hoportans Chnceseons from 66

Virginia,

Clark, Gen. Geo. Racer: Daves Tndiania frGni Harrodetowig ; 72

Clark, Gen. Geo.
Clark, Gen. Geo.
Clark, Gen. Geo.

Vincent’s,

Clark, Gen. Geo:

Rogers, Organizes Spies and Scouts, ‘ ' 73
Rogers, Plans Expedition Against British Posts, 73
Hogers, Captures Keres Mshelia and 8t. by 76, 77

Rooera: Retakes St. encore: 5 A 82

Clark, Gen. Geo. Rogers, Leads Force Against Indian Towns, 96
Clark, Gen. Geo. Rogers, Sketch of, 8 : : 5 208
Clark, Rev. Francis, . ; ; “tty : ‘ ; 161
Clay, Henrys 3 . ‘ . 166, 205, 294
Clay, Lieut.-Col. Henrys $ : : Q ; . 219, 221
Clay, Gen. Green, . ‘ i . . ; : 184
Clay, Gen. Cassius M, 3 : : : 3 . 222, 294
‘Club, the Filson, 4 2 : : S 291
Club, the Political, . ; : 117
Cluke, Colonel, ‘Attacks Wodamile at Mt. Sistine: . 252
Confederate Troops Invade Kentucky, . 5 5 234
Congress, Act of, Admitting Kentucky to Statehood, : . 116

Coomes, Mrs. Wm., 3 ; 4 % . 5 278
332 INDEX.

Dudley, Rev. Thomas P., . ‘

s PAGE.

Connelly, Dr. John, British Subject, 118
Conspicuous Service to School System, j 285
Constitution of 1891, Provisions of, ‘ 273
Convention at Boonosborough (heareslenaial Company, s), 49
Convention to Consider Separation from Virginia, i to-116
Convention to Draft First Constitution, . > 116
Convention to Draft Second Constitution, 156
Convention to Draft Third Constitution, . 223
Convention to Draft Fourth Constitution, 273
Court, Superior, $ 5 271
Goran: Jared, Killed, j 42
Cox, Col., Gommanae Regiment, 1812, 184
Craig, Rey. Lewis, j 159
Craig, Capt. Elijah, . 92
Crawford, Col. Wm., Burnt at Stake, 139
Crepps, Christian, Killed, 136
Crews-and Others Settle in Madison County, 83
Crist, Henry, . ; 136
Gutionden: John J., 231
Crittenden, Gen. Goal B., : 240
Crittenden Gen. Thomas L., . 219, 235, 248
Crittenden, Gen. Thomas L., quoted, . 170, 222
Croghan, George, Surveys i in Kentucky, . 32
Croghan, Col. George. Young Commander at Fort Gianhonson: 186
Crow, John, . - : i q i 5 42
Gamberlana: Duke ote : 32
Cut Money, °. ; 177
Dark and Bloody Gouna: Ouent of Means ; 30
Daughters of American Revolution, ut : 100
Daveiss, Joseph Hamilton, . 5 5 3 165
Daveiss, Samuel, . . 5 : < 95
Daveiss, James, é : 7 3 : ‘ 96
~ Daveiss, Mrs. Samuel, ; : ‘ ‘ : 105, 106
_Davis, Jefferson, . ; . f 3 16, 230
Denton, Thomas, . ‘ : . G é 65
Desha, Gov. Joseph, ; 5 5 2 203
District, Judicial, Created, . : . 109
District Court, First One Held, . . 5 5 ; 109
Doniphan, Gen. Alexander W., . . s : : 226
Doniphan, Mr., Early Teacher, . : A 40
Douglas, James, Surveys in Kentueky, . : $ 4]
Drennon Springs, . ; . . ; A 40
Dudley, Col. Ambrose, - i ‘ : o 184, 185
Dudley, Maj. Peter, . 6 é . a 6 188
. ; 159
INDEX. 333

= PaGE.
Duke, Gen. Basil W., : ; . ; : Z 247
Dunmore, Lord, 3 ; : 3 : : : 42
Du Quesne, Cape. : : ; 3 Sec thit 75
Durrett, Col. Reuben Uae quoted: 3 = ; 7 } 162
Durrett and the Filson Club, ; : ; : : 291
Edwards, John, ee 5 ; : : : . 145
Education in Kentucky, ... : é 5 ; : 278
Election of 1861, ; i : : ; : : 234
Election of 1863, 3 : 5 ; : ; : 260
Elections Interferred with, . 3 : ch : . 260, 261
Election of 1864, 2 : : ; : 5 i 262
Election of 1865, ; : ; ; ; : : 266
Election of 1867, 4 ‘ 3 : ; ; ‘ 267
Elector of Senate, . ; } 3 163
Estill, Capt. James, Settles‘e on Little Muddy, 3 ; ; 83
Estill, Capt. Taos: Sketch of, : : ; : 3 102
Estill, Monk, . : : : i ql é . 90, 102
Evans, Lewis, 3 : : : 4 : : 22
Everett, Capt. Pete, . : d : : : : 253
Ewing, Rev. Finis, . ; : z z : i 160
Expatriation Act, : A : j ; 241, 242, 266, 267
Fairbanks, Rev. ‘Calkins : : ; i S13 295°
Families, First at Boonesborough, — 3 : : : 64
Families, First at Harrodstown, . Fu j ; 65
Federal General, His Opinion of Renmei : ; ; 12
“Federal Troops gas Kentucky, : ; ; : 234
Fee, Rev. Jno. G., . 5 3 ; : 3 ; 296
Field, Lieut.-Col. E. FS ae d 3 : ; : 219
Hilson, John, A i : ue 3 . 119, 278
Finley, John, i ; 5 2 32
First Preachers and First hunches: ; ; g ; 158
Fitch, John, . E ; ‘ 288
Wiemine: Miss, Rescued by Tada Ghicty 5 ; : 143
Fletcher, Gen. Thomas, ; ; 3 : ee 175
Floyd, Col. John, Surveys in Kentucky: j ‘ A 41
Floyd, Col. John, Sketch of, E : : : ; 134
Forrest, Gen. N. B., eae : : : . 239, 254, 264
Fort Donelson, : ; ; ‘ = E ; 240
Fort Henry, . : 3 ; ; : 240
Fort Jefferson, on the Misciseipek ‘ ; 5 S 88
Fort Jefferson, in Ohio, : 3 : : ; : 133
Fort Meigs, . d ; : ; L . ° 184, 185, 186
Fort Sandusky, y ; é : 3 ; 3 182
Fort Stephenson, : i : Beenie. : ; 186

Fort Washington, : Rae 5 : ; 5 128
334 INDEX.

Fort Wayne,

Franklin, Dr. Benjamin: queied:

French Gentlemen, quoted,

Frenchtown, Fighting at,

Fry, Maj. Cary H.,

Fry, Gen. Speed S8., :

Gaines, Maj. John P., ‘

Game Still Found in Kentucky,

Garrard, Gov. James,

Garrard, Gen. T. T.,

Gass, Miss Jennie, Killed, ;

General Officers Furmiched by ‘entuck os Naber of,
General Officers Furnished by Kentucky, Names of,
Genet, French Minister, Conduct of, :
George: Capt.,

Gibault, Father, ine cant Services of,

Gilmore: Gen. Q. A., é

Girty, Simon, Reneeade,

Gist, Christopher,

Givens, Lieut.,

Gordon, Capt.,

Governors, Theneaant Gorenion: Av Secretaries of Satay
Governor, the Ancient,

Grant, Gen. U.S.,

Graves, Maj. Benjamin, . ; : : ; : 182,

Greensburgh, Settlements Near,
Greenup, Gov. Christopher, :
Greenville, Treaty of,

Guerillas, %

Habeas Corpus, Right of, Suspended,
Hackett, Peter,

Hamilton, British Governor,
Hancock, Stephen,

Hardee, Gow: Wm. J. ne a be pas SBnh

plant

Hardin, Col. John,

Hardin, Col. John, Sketch of,
Hardin, Col. Wm.,

Harlan, Maj.,

Harlan, Gen. John M..
Harmar, Gen.,

Harmon, John,

Harrison, Gen. Wm. ene
Harrison, Burr,

Harrod, Col. James,

Harrod, Col. James, Sketch of,

. 219, 222

. 124, 136

PAGE,
182
16
li

. 182, 183

- 219
262
26
154
238
90

15
265
148
88

T
252
101
31, 32
95

95
302
214
240
183, 184
38
165
153
256
261
90
77, 82
83
248
128
156

95
251
128

42
181

60

41

56
INDEX.

Harrodstown Founded, 3 ; 5 : °
Hart, Nathaniel, Killed, : i % :
Hart, Nathaniel G. T. i Macckorsd: Z ‘ :
Hart,-Joel T., : ; : 3 :
Hart, Silas, Killed, ; ; i ; :
Hae, Rev. James, : : : 2 3
Hawes, Richard, : i ‘ 3
‘Helm, Capt. Leonard, ; ; ; i
Henderson, Richard, Sketch of, ;
Hendricks, ——, Burnt at the Stake, ‘
Henry, Gov. Patricks &

Heth, General, Genmnds Wades Kirby Smith,

Heth, General, Threatens Cincinnati,! -. 3
Beltran: Rev. Wn,,

Hickman, Capt. Paschal, Macannra of

Hicks, General: z ; : : : :

Hinkston’s Sinton,
History, a Definition of,

History, Cicero, quoted, : z i Hi :
Hobson, Gen. Ed H., : 3 A 3 ;
Hogan, Richard, : i ; ; : .
Holder, Capt. John, j ; 5 5 .
Hood, Gen. John B., j ; j ° .
ebbell, Capt. Wm., is pie i:
Hull, General, Disgraceful Sarwohdes of, j ;
aeenphecy A. P., quoted, . 5 é 5 A
Hunter’s Rifle, the, . ‘ : j A "|
Hunting Shirt, the, . : ; : ;

Huston, Gen. Felix, ; : ;

Illinois County Organized, . 5 ; : 5

Indian Trails,

Indian Outrages, 1784, 85, 186,

Inglis, Mrs. Mary,

Innis, Judge Harry,

Internal Improvements,

Ivy Mountain, Engagement at, ; ;
Jackson, Gen. Andrew, ; é : ;
Jackson, Gen. James 8., i
Jacob, Col. Richard T.,

Jefferson, President Thomas,

Johnson, Mrs. Joseph, Story of,

Johnson, Col. Richard M.,

Johnson, George W.,

Johnston and Others “Attacked on Boned fymferant Boat:

Johnston, Gen. Albert Sidney, ; g

. 189, 199

. 239, 249

335

PAGE.

42

291

41, i

158
183
254

11
16
253
65
89
256
131
181
264
45
46
216-
77
79
124
32
129
203
238

249
262
88, 278
161
187

143
216
336 INDEX.

Jones, Gabriel John, ; y : ‘ :
Kavanaugh, Bishop H. H.,

Keiger, Colonel,

Kelley, Wm.,

Kennedy, Lieutenant,

Kennedy, Thomas,

Kenton, Simon, First Comins of, ;
Kenton, Simon, Founds Station in Mason County,
Kenton, Simon: Sketch of,

Kentucky, Climate of,

Kentucky, Geography of,

Kentucky, Geology of, ;

Wontucky. Contribution of to New States,

Kentuckians, Position and Influence of in Other States, .

Kentucky Character,

Kentuckians a Peculiar Beople:

Kentuckians, Comparitive Size of,

Kentucky Not Inhabited When White Man Gites
Kentucky, White Man’s Claim to—How Obtained,
Kentucky Divided Into Three Counties,
Kentucky Sends Delegates to Virginia Assembly,
Kentucky a State, ? ; :
Kentuckians Killed at Blue Ticks:

Kentuckians, Partiality of for the Hreneky
Kentuckians, Feelings of, Against the Bava
Kentuckians Oppose War With France,
Kentuckians in Battle of Tippecanoe,

Kentucky, Volunteers of, in War of 1812, :
Kentucky Sharp- Shocters With Commodore Perry,
Kentucky Mothers, ;
Kentucky Troops, Peden s Cousdences in:
Kentucky’s Great Orators,

Kentuckians, Indians Dreaded Whee
Kentuckians Among Other State Troops,
Kentuckians Divided During the Civil War,
Kentucky Troops, Officers of in Mexican War,
Kentuckians Killed at Buena Vista,

Kentuckians Who Fell in Mexico re-interred at Frankfort,

Kentuckians, Number of, in the Two Armies During the Civil War,

the Civil War,

27

34, 35

217, 218,

Kentuckians, Number Who Died in Battle or of ages poe)

Kentuckians in Confederate Ar my, Remen of,
Kentucky, Some Historical Works on,

Kentucky Painters, Sculptors, Poets, and Tevedtors: 288, 289, 290, 291

Kentucky’s Governors, etc., List of,

88

73
145

95
149
180
150
170.
179
197
195
196
223
197
226
228
219
221
222
236
263

263
306

303°
INDEX. 337

Page.
Kentucky’s United States Senators, List of, : : : 307
Kentucky Scenery, Character of, . 5 5 Z 3 26
Kentucky, Geological TAs of, . 5 : 5 3 270
Kincaid, Capt., ., . a 3 : : 5 95
Kincheloe’ s Station, 2 i : ‘ 3 3 96
King, Rev. Samuel, . 5 160
Knox, Col. James, reais Party Through Kentucky, ; 3 38
Ku Klux Klan, the, . ; ‘ 269
LaFayette, Gen., Visits Kenic, : 5 3 203
LaFont, Dr. SAC compaTio Father Gibault, j ; oat OM
TiaSallo, is Visit to Kentucky, . H ‘ ; : 31
Land Offices Established, . : : : : - 108
Landrum, Col. Jno. J., 3 5 243
Land Surveys, Treads Arising From Want of Gaiene . 108, 109
Laws, Alien and Sedition, Character of, . | ; 5 154
Leslie, Gov. Preston H., . ‘ ; : : : 269
Lewis, Gen. Andrew, i ; 3 : ; : 43
ee: George, ji j 123
Lewis, Col., Commands Kentacley Ropiitfent Under Heeiton. 181
Lexington, Block- house Built at, . i 2 5 82
Lexington, First Legislature Meets ates 5 : : 145
Lebanon, Capture of, : . 5 Faces : 243
Lee, Henry, . : : 5 : : 145
Legislature Ajourns to Teouisvills; : 2 ‘ ; ; 245
Legislature Refuses to Ratify Amendments, - 297, 298, 299
Leestown, Settlement at, . 5 : : : : 69
Lick, Big Bone, i : bs] : i 28
THeat. -Governors of Rontaoky, [ist of, . : 4 A 303
Lieut.-Governor, Succession of, . % i e 5 199
Lincoln County Family, Story of, A 3: : : 161
Lincoln, Abraham, . : ; , . 16, 230
Lindsay, Joseph, Settles on Elkhorn, : ‘ er ‘64
Lindsey, Lieutenant, 5 ; . 4 : n 95
Linn, Capt. Wm., ‘ ‘ 5 : . 77,89
Little Mountain, Battle of, - ‘ ; ‘ : ' 89
Little Turtle, Indian Chief, 5 : : : . 133, 147
Logan, Gen. Benjamin, : x j : : ‘52
Logan, Gen. Benjamin, Sketch of, 5 ; - ; 59
Logan, James, Shawnee-Mingo Chief, a : ; 6 192
Logan’s Station, Siege of, . ; : ; : : 84
Long Hunters, the, . : ; : 3 ; ; ‘46
Long Knife, . si E 5 ee 5 46
Louisiana Territory, Cassone of, . : : f i 165
Louisville Incorporated, ; 3 3 ' , ; 88

22
338 INDEX.

Lyon, Gen. H. B.,

Lynch’s Station,

Lythe, Rev. John,

McAdoo, Rev. Samuel,

McAfee Brothers,

McAfee, Gen. Robert B., Guoted:
McArthur, Gen., Kentucky Volunteers, ane
McBride, Capt., :

McClelland, Ji ay Settles at Royal Spring,
McClellan; Gen. Géo. Bis
McClelland’s Station, Btacleeds

McClure Killed, Wife Captured,

McCook,, Gen. A. D.,

McDowell, Major, Cunnire of;

McDowell, Dr. Ephraim,

McDowell, Samuel,

McKinley, Wn. M.,

Madison, Maj. Geos eae the Raisin,
Madison, Maj. Geo. , Elected Governor,
Madison, Gov. Genrses Death of,
McGary, Hugh, ;

MaGoffin, Gov. Beriah, : :
McKinney, John, “Wild Cat,”’ Sketch of,
Manson, Colonel, :
Marriage, First in Tentuoke, %
Marshall, Senator Humphrey, quoted,
Marshall, Thomas, Surveyor,

Marshall, Thomas F.,

Marshall, Gen. Thomas,

Marshall, Gen. Humphrey, :
Martial Law Declared in SORE
Martin’s Station, i

Maxey, Capt. Wm. H.,

May, John, Clerk of First District Gaunt
May, John, One of First Teachers,
Maysville, BieeeuGase Built at,
Menefee, Richard H., A

Merrill, John, Attack on,

Merrill, Mrs., Story of,

Maley Interference,

Mills, Colonel, at the Raisin:

Mineral Recoares.

Mississippi River, Free N aripation of,
Mohawk Indians, Treaty With,

Money, Continental,

PAGE.
256
: 89
. 49, 158
j 199
40, 83, 121

192, 183, 194, 195, 196

188
95
64

262

. 109, 116
277

182

199

199

. 65, 94
. 231, 257
137

245

: 81
55, 56, 57
108

218

: 218
219, 239
258, 259
83

203

109

278

123

225

126

139

257

183

25

149, 150, 153, 164
; 34
eed


INDEX. 339

PaaE.

Money, Cut, . A 5 ; 5 i ; : 177
Monetary Crisis, 1817-’27, 5 : 200, 201, 202, 203
Monetary Crisis, 1837-’42, . 204, 205
Monetary Crisis, 1854-’57, 227
Monetary Affairs of entieley During the War, 267
Monetary Crisis, 1873, 3 ; 269
Monetary Disucbance: 1890 to 1897, . 276, 277
Monterey, Iestadkians at Taking of, 220
Morgan, Gen. George, ; 245
Morgan, Gen. John H., Operates: in eR eatacky ; . 242, 251
Morgan, Gen. John H., Raid Into the North, 253
Morgan, Gen. John Ke Escapes From prison! 204
Morgan, Gen. John H,, Death of, . . 255, 256
Morgan’s Station Captured and Burnt,: 147
Moore, Col., : A : 253
Morehead, Gov. James, ; 228
Morrison, Mrs. John, First Woman at Temneton: 82
Mound-builders, the, 5 : : 28
Muhlenberg, Gen. Peter, ? ( 162
Muter, Judge, George, i : 109
Munfordville, Engagements at, 246
Natural and Artificial Curiosities, : 26
Nelson, Gen. William, . 238, 245
Nerincks, Rev. Charles, 3 161
Neutrality, Kentucky Assumes Positiod ét- ; 233
Newspaper, First in Kentucky, . : 3 ¥ 121
New Orleans, Battle of, .. 189, 190
Note to Teachers, With Suggestive Questions, 307
Cree eas one Kentucky Troops in the se, 182, 183, 184, 187
Officers Commanding Kentucky Troops in the Mexican War, . 219
Officers and Soldiers in Mexican War, Roster of, Reference to, 219
Officers Imprisoned With Gen. Morgan, 254
Ogden, Rev. Benjamin, 159

Oldham, Col. William, Commands Ronmickiane Under St. Clair; 132

Old Chillicothe, Bowman’s Expedition against, 84
Old Court and New Court of a 202
Ormsby, Col. Stephen, . 218, 219
Orr, Col. Alexander D., 148
Overton, Capt., 95
Owen, Col. Abraham, "Killed at Mpacane: a 170
Owen, Capt. George, Coutnands Block-house at Fort J oferacn: 88
Owsley; Gov. Wm., Calls for Volunteers, ; 217
Paducah, Oceupiod: by Gen. Grant, k 234
Paducah, Forrest’s Attack on, 254
340. INDEX.

Paine, E. A., Monstrous Conduct of,
Palmer, Gen. Jno. M., ; :

Payne, Gen. John, . : ;
Patterson, Robert, at Royal Spree: ; aoe
Patterson, Robert: Founds Lexington,

Pegram, General, Raids in Kentucky,

Peers, Rev. Benj. O., fi 3 :
Perryville, Battle of, 4 a
Pig, the Militia, Story of, : :
Pillow, Gen. Gideon, : :

Pike Tomahawk,
Pittman’s Station,
Plaseut,—, a Noble Boy,
Poague, Wm.,

Point Pleasant, Battle of,
Polk, Proc dent!

Polk, Gen. Treonidas:

Population of Kentucky When Admitted 5 the Unian

Population Increased by Periods for 115 Years,
Population, Made up of What Races, ;
Population, Colored, 1873-1890, . z si
Powder, Supply Obtained by Clark,

Powder, Made by Monk Estill, .

Powell, Lieut. James, 5 .

Power Thomas, Spanish Agent, .

Provisional Government, Confederates Oussnizes
Purchase, the, or the J pokeon Purchase,
Purchase, the, Why So-called,

Prairies, Extent of in Kentucky.

Preachers, First to Organize Churches,

Preston, Williams Surveyor for. Fincastle Coane:
Preston, Gen. Williams

Price, Gen. Samuel W., :

Proctor, John R., State Geologist, |

Proctor, British General:

Proctor, Rev. Joseph, Sketch of,

Products of Kentucky, :

Prophet, the, Tecumseh’s Brother,

Publie ans for School Purposes, Act to Hgualiza Disiniicnon of, 287.

Questions on the General Text, .
Quinn’s Bottom, Indians Attack Settlers,
Race, Prehistoric, . : : 5
Raisin River, Massacre at,

Raisin River, Scene at,

Ray, Gen. James,

. 205, 217

17, 29, 30
. 299, 300

. 183, 184.

234
145
305

66, 67
103
229
153
238.
199

199, 200
28°

158

41,

218.

. 265, 291.

270.
185
102.

24
169

310.
138
27

194:
70:
INDEX. «BAL

Page,
Ray, Gen. James, Sketch of, 3 ‘ 3 ‘ 5 78
Ray, William, Killed, ‘ 5 5 5 5 : 70
Redhawk, Indian Chief, : ‘ : 5 : 5 84
Relief Paes 5 ; : : 5 : 2 202
Rescued by Indian Chief, : : ‘ ; x : 143
Resolutions of 1798, : : : 3 155
Revolutionary War, Kentioley? 8 Part i in, 2 : 63
-Rice, Rev. David, . : 5 " é A 293
Richmond, Battle of, % ; ; : ‘ . 244, 245
Right of Meponit pranteas : : ‘ : . 5 153
Right of Deposit Suspended, ; 3 : 2 ; 164
Rivers, Navigable, . ; : : ‘ : , 21
Rivers, Principal, . : 5 : : i 5 21
River Systems, Principal, . 22
Robertson, Chief-Justice George, on n Battle of Little Mountain 103
Robinson, Gov. James F., esc 7 5 259
Rogers, David. Killed, 5 ; : 3 5 5 84
Rogers, Lieutenant., : z : as 5 95
Rogers, Edmund, Sketch of; = é : ee ee 173
Rogers, Lieut.- Col. Jason, . : i 5 3 x . 219
Royal Spring, First Visit to, , 3 eaeen TG - 64
Ruddle, Isaac, Rebuilds Hinkston’s, : 5 ; a 83
Ruddle’s Station, 5 3 : ; 4 86
Rumsey, James, : : ‘5 : 5 A 288
St. Asaph’s, or Logan’s Sion ; ; 5 : - 49, 52
St. Clair, Gen. Arthur, i ; : 130
St. Clair, Gen. Arthur, Disastrous He padition of, usar . 132, 133
Salt Springs and Wells, ; 3 : 25
Salt River, Fight With eran, Men Bngaged in Wins 5 . 136
Sandusky, Jacob, . ; 3 ; 42
Sandusky, James, . ‘ : ; 5 is a 69
Sandusky Station, . : ; 5 i ‘ 5 69
Sealping an Enemy, 5 ; ; 3 ‘ ; 141 -
Scenery, Natural, in Kentucky, : a : 3 ze 26
Schoepff, General, Reinforces Garrard, . ‘ : 238
School. Fund, Whence Derived, . eoteaers : z 280
Schools, Goacnen : ‘ 3 qf : ss 281
Schools, Private, ‘ : A ¢ : : ; 283

Schools, State Charitable, . : 5 : i j 283
Schools, Colored, ‘ z 5 i 5 - — 299, 300, 301

Scott, Colonel, 5 3 dl ‘ . § : 181
Sepasuan, Judge Benjamin, . 169
Shackleford, General, Commands Cavalees in Dnrstts of Morgan, 253
Shaler, N. S., Geologist, " ; Se j . a 270

Shaler, N. S., quoted, ; ; Q 3 , 5 17.
342 INDEX.

: Pace.
Shelby, Gov. Isaac, . : 5 3 Z 181, 188, 199
Shelby, Gov. Isaac, Sketch or : : : ‘ 190
Shepherd, Maj. J ohn Besos : ; : a ; 219
Scott, Gen. Charles : ; 5 : : 128
Scott, Gen. Charles, Sketch of, eee ; : ; 170
ree Mrs., Her Family ioled, . : : 4 125
Slaughter, Gov. Gabriel, . : : J ; 199
Slavery in Kentucky, f : 298
Smith, Major, Drives Indians Brom Boonesboroush! j : 72,
Smith, Gen. Green Clay, . ; A ‘ 244
Smith, Gen. E. Kirby, Operates in ion mick: : j 3 244
Smith, Z. F., Service to School System, . ; ‘ 5 286
Saich Elder John, . : ‘ ; ‘ ; ; 161
Soil, aVaniCtiog of, ‘ : . y j 3 22
South Elkhorn, Heroines of, : : : 4 ; 138
South, Samuel, Sent to Warn Estill, 4 : i : 90
Galina: Biehops Martin John, . : : j 5 161
Spanish Conspiracy, Secret cent Sent, . : 153
Spanish Treaty, Guarantees Nampaniont and Right of Deppett . 153
Spanish Conspiracy, ‘ : ; . 153, 169
Spears, Solomon, in Salt River Fight, : : : : 136
Speed, Capt. Thomas, : 3 3 j : ; 117
Stager, John, . : ; : : : : ; 64
Stay Laws, . . 201, 205
Stevenson, General, Comianids inder Snithe in ienniele : 244
Stevenson, Rev. Thomas, i 3 , s 3 on 159
Stewart, Capture of, ; 3 j 37
Siselon, Maj. Geo., mMisann® County Dioneor 3 Z s 141
Stockton, Ben., 4 ; ; ; ; : ; 141
Stone, Elder Barton W., . ! : j ; : 159
Stoner Creek, Settlement at, , : i : ; 83
Tanner, J aie, . : 3 ; 83

- Taylor, Hancock, Joins Bullitt 3 in ieaeeeles 2 3 z 40
Taylor, Hancock, : f : : ; : = 42
Taylor, Gen. Wanhnny. ; ; : . 217, 218
Tecumseh Stops Massacre of Dudley’ 8 Men, : 3 s 85
Tecumseh, Killed at Battle of Thames, . 5 : 188
Texas, ereeation of, Attitude of Kentuckians, : 217
athamas, Battle of the, ‘ ; : 186, 187, 188

Thomas, Gen., Commands Ronee Sout to Re-enforce J: AeRsOn 189
Dhemass Gen. eG coves H., Fights Crittenden at Mill ae 240, 256

Thomas, Col. Manlius V.,_ . : ; 219
Ginomnsan’ Col. Albert P., Killed a Daducalt , ; : 255
Tilghman, Gen. Lloyd,. : : : 3 j : 240

Tinsley, Rev. Peter, ; i ; as 5 : 158
INDEX. 343

Pace

Tippecanoe, Battle of, : : : 5 169, 170
Tipton, Captain, $ : q 89
Tobin, Elias, Settles in Bath Comme 5 64
Todds, Father and Son, : 5 212
Todd, Col. John, : 5 67
Todd, Col. John, Sketch on ; 98
Todd Brothers, Ang 5 97
Todd, Levi, : 74
Todd, Thomas, Clerk of Coneentions to Consider Senaniiont Z 116
Todd, Morne’ First Se ae of U. 8. Supreme Court, 112
Todd, Robt., ; ; é 3 : 145
ie gehag ke 46
Tignes Company, é & 47
Translyvania Company, Land Grant to, 66
Translyvania Seminary, A 5 - 280
Transylvania University, 280
Trace, Boone’s, or the Wilderness Roade fi 48
Tribble, Rev. Andrew, A 160
Trigg, Colonel, 95
Truman, Major, Murdered, 147
Turner, Squire, quoted, : 296
Tye, John, Saved By His Dogs, : 106
Tyler, Capt. Robt., . “127
Tyler’s Station, Ballard Family Killed at 127
U.S. Senators From Kentucky, : 306
Utah, Insurrection in Kentucky, Volunteers, 228
Vemehan: Adj., Edward M., Killed, 3 seen
Virginia Legislature, Acts of; Relative to Separation: i 112, 118, 115
Walker, Dr. Thomas, Comes wo Kentucky, 32
Walker, Dr. Thomas, Second Visit of, 32
Walker, Colonel, Mypaves oe j 252
Waller, Edward, 123
Waller, John, . 123
War, French and Indian, Kentualp Pioneers ne 63
War, Revolutunionary, Kentucky’s Part in, 63
War of 1812, Cause of, 179
War, Mesicam Cause oe 216
War, Mexican, ieontueley Violin coe in, 217, 218, 219
War, Civil, Causes of, = : ; ; . 229, 230
War, Civil, Kentucky i in thee 2 : . 233, 234, 235, 236, 237
War De pAcnnent Orders of, : 258, 259, 260, 261
Ward, Gen. W. T., j 3 219
Washington, Gen. George, . . 128, 150
Wataga, Fort, Treaty at, 47
Wataga, Purchase Declared Void, 51
344. INDEX.

Wayne, Gen. Anthony, Interferes With Genet’s Plans,
Wayne, Gen. Anthony, Succeeds St. Clair,

Wayne, Gen. Anthony, Calls For Kentucky Volunteers:

. Wayne, Gen. Anthony, Decisive Victory of,
Webster, Miss Delia A., 5

Wells, Gen. Samuel,

West, Edward,

Whelan, Rev. Father, :

White, Gen., Engages Marshall in Lnwrcnes Gaunt,
Whetley,. Gol. Wn., . :
Whittaker, Capt. Aquilla, areas Tadians,
Wickliffe, Gov. Chas. A., .

Wild Cat ‘Mountain, Himeusernent ae
Wilder, General, in Command at Munfordville, :
Wiley, James, . : ; 5
Wilkinson, Gen. J: ames,

Willis, Capt. Wm. T.

Williams, Thomas,

“Williams, Gen. John &., ; x ; ; g
Winchester, Gen., . 3 . . ;
Winter 1779-’80, Intensely Cold,

Wolford, Gen. Frank, : : :
Woman, A Fleet-Footed, : ;

Woman, First White in Kentucky, 3

Women, Pioneer, A : : 5 : i
Woods, Mrs., Story of, :

Works Consulted in Brocanne this ‘Book, |

Zolicofter, Gen. Felix, eee



Pac.

: 150
: 152
152

. 152, 158
295

. 170, 181
264

159

é 252
64, 124, 148-
89

136

238

264

é 42
. 112,129
221

61

219

182

° 85
. 244, 262
161

| 44

162

161

305

. 234-240






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