Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 From the earliest visit by white...
 The Transylvania Company - Boone's...
 Kentucky during the Revolutionary...
 Kentucky during the Revolutionary...
 From the close of the Revolution...
 From the close of the Revolution...
 Kentucky a state - Seven years...
 The bank of Kentucky - tThe Burr...
 Kentucky in the War of 1812
 The Jackson purchase - Financial...
 Kentucky in the Mexican War
 From 1850 to 1860 - Kentucky in...
 Kentucky in the Civil War: From...
 Kentucky in the Civil War: From...
 After the Civil War
 Education in Kentucky
 Art, science, and literature
 African slavery in Kentucky
 Miscellaneous notes, comments,...
 Note to teachers with suggestive...
 Back Cover

Title: A young people's history of Kentucky for schools and general reading
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00085975/00001
 Material Information
Title: A young people's history of Kentucky for schools and general reading
Physical Description: x, 344 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill., ports., col. folded map ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thompson, Edwin Porter, 1834-
A. R. Fleming Publishing Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: A.R. Fleming Publishing Co.
Place of Publication: St. Louis Mo
Publication Date: 1897
Subject: Explorers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Characters and characteristics -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Kentucky   ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1897   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1897
Genre: Textbooks   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Missouri -- St. Louis
General Note: Includes index.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ed Porter Thompson.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00085975
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002238496
notis - ALH9012
oclc - 240302725

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    List of Illustrations
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    From the earliest visit by white men till the Transylvania Company was organized
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    The Transylvania Company - Boone's trace or the wilderness road , etc.
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Kentucky during the Revolutionary War: First four years
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Kentucky during the Revolutionary War: Last four years
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    From the close of the Revolution till Kentucky became a state - Separation from Virginia
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    From the close of the Revolution till Kentucky became a state - Indian invasions and atrocities - Expeditions of Harmar and St. Clair
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Kentucky a state - Seven years under the first constituion, etc.
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    The bank of Kentucky - tThe Burr conspiracy - Kentucky in the Battle of Tippecanoe, etc.
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Kentucky in the War of 1812
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    The Jackson purchase - Financial conditions in Kentucky - Old court and new court
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
    Kentucky in the Mexican War
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
    From 1850 to 1860 - Kentucky in the Civil War: Some of the events of 1860-1861
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Kentucky in the Civil War: From September 1861 till after the Battle of Perryville
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
    Kentucky in the Civil War: From Bragg's retreat to the close
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
    After the Civil War
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
    Education in Kentucky
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
    Art, science, and literature
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
    African slavery in Kentucky
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
    Miscellaneous notes, comments, etc.
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
    Note to teachers with suggestive questions
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text



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Ex-Superintendent of Public Instruction; Author of "The Academic
Arithmetic," "History of the Orphan Brigade," etc.




Among our commonwealths no other has so remarkable a
history as Kentucky. None other is so well worthy of being
carefully studied by all who find pleasure, instruction, and
inspiration in the annals of the past, and particularly by her
own people. In "the winning of the west" she stands first
and unapproachable; in the up-building of thirty states her
influence has been strongly exerted through her statesmen in
the national councils and in most of their local governments;
through her soldiers on the ever-receding frontiers; and
through those citizens who "westward took their way," to
people the new lands.
While England was provoking the colonists to revolt, the
early pioneers, as though led by an inscrutable hand, were
finding their way over the mountains and preparing to estab-
lish themselves as the outguard of civilization and hold the
vast and almost unknown west, that it might become the pos-
session of the sons of freedom; when British injustice culmi-
nated in war, and that war was being waged, Kentuckians,
few in number, and almost unaided, not only stood like a
wall of fire to forbid foreign occupation of the great domain,
but obtained by their arms a title to territory far greater than
all then occupied by the struggling colonists, and made good
their footing in that portion which soon afterward became
their own state.
The strong characteristics of the men and women who, with
unexampled courage, endurance, and patriotic devotion,
achieved so much, with so little means and in the face of
obstacles so great, could but impress themselves upon the
commonwealth of their making; and to every call of the coun-
try since that age of heroes and heroines Kentucky has
responded with ardor and made herself felt with unmistak-
able force.
Her people have been charged with lack of enterprising
spirit, with failing of that progressiveness so characteristic of
the age; but, if they are a little too firmly moored to the past,
they have some comfort and no small compensation in the


fact that none of the fanatical isms and pernicious ologies that
are sapping the foundations of public morality elsewhere have
had their origin and abiding place among them. For more
than a century they have escaped that sign of Athenian deca-
dence, the restless desire to be ever hearing and telling some
new thing; so that they still manifest a disposition not to cut.
loose from time-honored and restful traditions.
What has been said of an individual may be said of them,
that "even their faults, (of which they have their share), all
lean to virtue's side;" that beneath all there is that manly and
and womanly moral fibre which gives strength, permanence,
and unlimited possibilities of growth to a people.
This book claims to be but an epitome of the History of
Kentucky; but it will be found to contain a connected
and logical general account, to which the interest of variety
is added by an unusual number of well-executed illus-
trations, brief personal sketches, special and peculiar in-
cidents, etc. The adult mind will read far more between
the lines than is found in the text; to the young, enough
is presented, it is earnestly hoped, to kindle a desire for
a thorough exploration of this great historical field; and
above all, the author trusts that he has imparted to the short
story something of that spirit which should be impressed upon
the young people of Kentucky whose minds and characters
are still in the formative state-an admiration of their own
country and a pride in its past, the surest guarantees that in
the future her fair fame will be enhanced, her honor main-
tained, and her progress in all right lines be steadily and
nobly promoted.
With much labor and pains and at no little cost the por-
traits of many of our statesmen, jurists, and military leaders,
hitherto not published, have been obtained, and these add
greatly to the wealth of object-lessons which 'the work will be
found to possess. And to those who have so generously aided
us in this department, (owners of old family paintings and
other portraits), it is fitting here to acknowledge obligation
and to record the sincere thanks of author and publishers.


Introductory: To the Young Reader, 11
I. The Kentucky Character.-II. Kentuckians a Peculiar Type of
People, 17
Geography, 19
From the Earliest Visit by White Men till the Transylvania Com-
pany was Organized, 31
I. Thomas Bullitt.-II. First White Women in Kentucky.-III. The
Hunter's Rifle.-IV. The Hunting Shirt.-V. The Tomahawk.
-VI. The Long Hunters.-VII. Long Knife, or Big Knife, 43
The Transylvania Company.-Boone's Trace or the Wilderness
Road, etc., 47
I. Daniel Boone.-II. Col. James Harrod.-III. Gen. Benjamin
Logan.-IV. Richard Henderson, 52
Kentucky During the Revolutionary War: The First Four Years, 63
I. Gen. James Ray.-II. Significance of 'Indian Trails, and How a
Lost One Was Found.-III. Betsy Calloway's Bravery and
Thoughtfulness.-IV. The First Marriage in Kentucky, 78
Kentucky in the Revolutionary War: Last Four Years, 82

I. The Todd Brothers.-II. The Heroines of Bryan's Station.-
III. Simon Girty.-IV. Capt. James Estill.-V. Joseph Proc-
tor.-VI. Monk Estill.-VII. The Children Knew the Story
by Heart.-VIII. The Terrible Experience of Benham and Wat-
son.-IX. Mrs. Samuel Daveiss and the Indians.-X. Mrs.
Samuel Daveiss and the Robber.-XI. Saved by His Dogs, 97
I. Hon. John Brown.-II. John Filson.-III. The McAfee Broth-
ers.-IV. The First Newspaper in Kentucky, 118
From the Close of the Revolution till Kentucky Became a State;--
Indian Invasions and Atrocities.-Expeditions of Harmar and
St. Clair, 123
I. Col. John Floyd.-II. Men Engaged in the Salt River Fight.-
III. Col. Wm. Hardin.-IV. Wild-Cat McKinney.-V. The
Heroines of South Elkhorn.-VI. Mrs. John Merrill.-VII.
Burning at the Stake.-VIII. Scalping an Enemy.-IX. Ben
Stockton.-X. A Singular Adventure.-XI. Rescued by an
Indian Chief.-XII. A Noble Boy, 134
Kentucky a State.-Seven Years Under First Constitution.-Citizen
Genet.-Wayne Conquers a Peace.-Resolutions of '98, etc., 145
I. Col. John Hardin.-II. First Preachers and First Churches.-
III. A Fleet-Footed Woman.-IV. Story of a Lincoln County
Family.-V. Gen. Peter Muhlenburg.-VI. Pioneer Women.-
VII. Elector of Senate, 156
Bank of Kentucky.-The Burr Conspiracy.-Kentucky in the Battle
of Tippecanoe, etc., 184

I. Gen. Charles Scott.-II. Squire Boone.-III. Edmund Rogers.-
IV. Aaron Burr.-V. Gen. Thomas Fletcher.-VI. The Treat-
ment of the Boones and Simon Kenton.-VII. Cut Money, 170
Kentucky in the War of 1812. 179
I. Gov. Isaac Shelby.-II. Logan, the Indian Chief.-III. The
Militia Pig.-IV. Scene at the Raisin Eight Months After the
Massacre.-V. Kentucky Mothers.-VI. General Harrison's
Confidence in Kentucky Troops.-VII. The Indians Dreaded
Kentuckians. VIII. Some Kentuckians Who Fought With
Perry, .190
The Jackson Purchase.-Financial Conditions in Kentucky.-Old
Court and New Court. 199
I. Gen. Simon Kenton.--II. Gen. George Rogers Clark.-III.
Capt. Bland Ballard.-IV. The Todds, Father and Son.-V.
Gen. John Adair.-VI. The Ancient Governor, 205
Kentucky in the Mexican War, 216
I. Kentucky's Great Orators. II. Kentuekians Among the
Troops of Other States During the Mexican War, 223

From 1850 to 1860.-Kentucky in the Civil War.-Some of the
Events of 1860-61, 227
Kentucky in the Civil War.-From September, 1861, till After the
Battle of Perryville, 237
Kentucky in the Civil War.-From Bragg's Retreat to the Close, 251
I. The American Citizen-Soldier.-II. General Officers Furnished
by Kentucky to the Two Armies, 264

After the Civil War, 266
Education in Kentucky, 278
I. Conspicuous Service to the Common School System, 285
Art, Science and Literature. 288
I. Durrett and the Filson Club, 291
African Slavery in Kentucky, 293
I. Kentucky's Governors, Lieutenant-Governors, and Secretaries
of State.-II. Increase of Population in Kentucky by Periods
During 115 Years.-III. Works Consulted in Preparation of
this Book.-IV. United States Senators from Kentucky. .302

Y 1


Adair, Gen. and Gov. John, 189
Anderson, Brig. and Brevet 234
Maj.-Gen. Robert, J
Ashland-Henry Clay's Res-1 224
idence, j
Barnyard in Franklin County, 22
Barry, Senator Wm. T., 202
Beck, Senator James B., 272
Beckner, Hon. Wm. M., '. 286
Bibb, Senator George M., 170
Blackburn, Gov. Luke P., 270
Blackburn, Senator J. C. S.,. 273
Boone, Daniel, 53
Boonesborough Stockade, 49
Boyle, Brig.-Gen. J. T., 258
Bradley, Gov. Wm. O., 276
Bramlette, Gov. Tho. E., 266
Breckinridge, Rev. Doctor t 285
Robt. J. .
Breckinridge, Senator John, 155
Breckinridge, Maj.-Gen. J. C., 232
Brown, Senator John, 119
Brown, Gov. John Young, 273
Buckner, Lieut.-Gen. S. B., 241
Buell, Maj.-Gen. Don Carlos, 245
Buford, Brig.-Gen. Abraham, 254
Bullock, Judge W. F., 285
Carlisle, Senator John G., 277
Cartwright, Peter, 160
Centre College, Danville, Ky., 282
Clark, Gen. George Rogers, 209
Clark, Gov. -James, 204
Clay, Senator Henry, 205
Clay, Gen. Green, 184
Clay, Maj.-Gen. Cassius M., 294
Crittenden, Gov. and Senator 231
John J., .
Crittende n, Maj -Gen. } 239
George B., .239

Crittenden, Maj.-Gen. T. L., 235
Croxton Brig. and Brevet 260
Maj.-Gen. John T., .
Cosby, Brig.-Gen. George B., 247
Custom House andOld Bridge
Over the Kentucky River at 68
Frankfort, J
Daniel Boone Alone in thel 36
Wilderness of Kentucky, J
Daveiss, Col. Joseph Hamil- 166
ton, 166
Davis, Jefferson, 230
Desha, Gov. Joseph, 203
Durelle, Judge George, 10
Durrett, Col. Reuben T., 292
Field, Maj.-Gen. Chas. W., 265
Filson, John, 120
Finley, the Discoverer of 3
Kentucky, .
Fry, Brig.-Gen. Speed S., .262
Garrard, Gov. James, 154
Garrard, Brig.-Gen. T. T., 238
Georgetown College, 284
Governor's Mansion, 151
Guffy, Judge B. L.D., 10
Guthrie, Senator James, 267
Hanson, Brig.-Gen. Roger W., 252
Harlan, Gen. John M., 251
Hayfield Near Russellville, 20
Hazlerigg, Judge James H., 10
Helm, Gov. John L., 268
Helm, Brig.-Gen. Ben Hardin, 262
Hobson, Brig.-Gen. Ed H., 253
Hodge, Brig.-Gen. George B., 249
Indian Wigwam, 31
Jackson, Brig.-Gen. James S., 248
Johnston, Gen. Albert Sidney, 237
Johnson, Senator Richard M., 187
Kenton and Fletcher, 176


Kenton, Gen. Simon, 2 Price, Brig.-Gen. Samuel W., 246
Kentuckyand Indiana Bridge 87 Pryor, Judge Wm. S., 10
at Louisville, Robinson, Gov. James F., 259
Knott, Gov. J. Proctor, .271 Rousseau, Maj.-Gen. Lovell H., 233
Landes, Judge J. J., 10 Rowan, Senator John, 109
Leslie, Gov. Preston H., 269 Scott, Gen. and Gov. Charles, 171
Letcher, Gov. Robt. P., 204 Sheep Pasture in Montgom-1 29
Lewis, Gen. and Judge 10 ery County, .
Joseph H., Shelby, Gen. and Gov. Isaac, 191
Lincoln, Abraham, 229 Smith, Brig.-Gen. Green Clay, 243
Lincoln and the Ohio River 114 Smith, Hon. Z. F., 28
Keel-boat, .State Arsenal at Frankfort, .39
Lindsay, Senator Wm., .271 State House and Office Build- 1
Loading Coal Barge on Green 19 ing, 14
River, State" Monument at Frankfort, 14
McCreary, Gov. James B., 270 Stevenson, Gov. and Sena-
McCreery, Senator Tho. C., 267 tor John W., 268
McDowell, Col. Samuel, 116 Stockade at Lexington, 83
Machen, Senator Willis B., 269 Talbott, Senator Isham, .199
Magoffin, Gov. Beriah, 231 Taylor,.Gen. James, 181
Marshall, Senator Humphrey, 57 Tecumseh, 18
Marshall, Brig.-Gen. Hum-1 239 The Boone Monument, 55
phrey, The Typical Rural Combina-
Marshall, Thomas F., 225 tion-Church,School-house 279
Menefee, Richard H.,. 225 and Cemetery, .
Merriwether, Senator David, 227 Tilghman, Brig.-Gen. Lloyd, 240
Metcalfe, Gov. and Senator 203 Todd, Hon. Thomas, 213
Thomas, Tobacco Barn in Bourbon 23
Morgan, Brig.-Gen. John H., 242 County, I
Murray, Brig.-Gen. Eli H., .264 Tobacco Field in Fleming 24
Nelson, Maj.-Gen. Wm., 244 County, .
Office of the "Kentucke Ga- Ward, Brig, and Brevet Maj. 1 263
zette"1787-the First Print- 122 Gen. W. T., .
ing House in Kentucky, Whittaker, Brig. and Brevet1 263
Paynter, Judge Thomas H., 10 Maj.- Gen. Walter C., J
Powell, Gov. and Senator 222 Wickliffe, Gov. Charles A., .136
Lazarus W., 1 Williams, Gen. and Senator 221
Prentice, Geo. D., 290 John S., .
Preston, Maj.-Gen. Wm., 218 Wood, Maj.-Gen. Tho. J., 242

1 Chief Justice Wm. S. Pryor. 2 Associate-Justice Jos. H. Lewis. 3 Associate-Justice J. H. Hazlerigg. 4 Associate-Justice Tho. H. Paynter.
5 Associate-Justice J. J. Landes. 6 Associate-Justice B. L. D. Guffy. 7 Associate-Justice Gee. Durelle.



1. History in its simpler form is but the story of those
whose lives exerted so marked an influence upon their times
that they should be recorded for the instruction of mankind.
Its office is to warn no less than to light, to inspire, and to
guide all who are capable of applying the lessons of the past
to the conduct of the present; and it takes note of whatever
stands out conspicuous, whether noble or ignoble, heroic or
base, false or true.
2. I purpose to tell you the story of Kentucky, as a
teacher interested in his pupil and speaking with him face
to face, not as one setting down details to be conned over
as a task.
3. It is related of a patriotic French gentleman that when
he sought to impress on a nephew a sense of his duty to his
country the young man turned upon him with the question,
"Uncle, what is my country?" He replied, "It is the sky
above you, the sun that gives you light, the winds that fan
your cheek, the recurring seasons-all that combines to make
a genial and salubrious clime; it is not alone that earth
beneath your feet which is circumscribed by the boundary
lines of the kingdom, with its hills and vales and streams, its
forests and fields, but its toiling and directing and achieving
millions, and their homes in the districts and the cities; it is


the government that administers the laws and the army and
navy that protect you; it is your food and drink and raiment;
it is your father and mother who have reared you and made
you what you are; it is all who love you; it is the glo-
rious memory of our ancestors-men and women who for
two thousand years have been making our beautiful France
what she is, the pride of her people and the wonder of the
nations. All these and more are your country; and the noble
soul will hold them sacred in thought and give them lasting
love and unshaken allegiance."
4. It is in this high-hearted and all-embracing way that
I would have Kentucky boys and girls think of Kentucky.
Then the effort to acquire a knowledge of what she has been
and what she is-how those who have preceded them have
demeaned themselves in every line of endeavor by which a
great commonwealth is founded and built up-will not be
tiresome drudgery but a lively pleasure.
5. A gentleman of another state who rose to high com-
mand in the Federal army during the civil war, and who
has since won fame as an author, had occasion a few years ago
when addressing a meeting of his fellow-veterans to allude
to the singular heroism and constancy displayed by Kentucky
soldiers in every war of the republic; and he maintained that
it was easily accounted for. It was well known, he said, that
Kentuckians have a rather overweening state pride, and that
the Old Virginia sort of family pride which it has become
fashionable in some sections to laugh at, was an equally strong
characteristic. Where these are combined in a people, their
men can be relied on in even the most desperate emergencies-
they are invincible. The soldiers of Kentucky, he said in
substance, would dare anything and bear anything rather than
disgrace an honored name or bring a blot upon the fame of
their native state.
6. This is a striking tribute from a brave and true man.
In the course of the narrative to which I invite your attention


you will discover upon what he based his assertions, and
much to confirpl his theory. When I seek to encourage in
you the thoughts and feelings to which he alludes, I would
have you understand that there is no surer way to foster that
larger patriotism which comprehends our whole country and
gives every one of its millions of inhabitants a personal in-
terest in the "flag of the free, that commands respect in every
land and floats on every sea."
7. The historian, Mann Butler, says of them: "To the
fruits of courage and endurance of suffering in every appall-
ing form, no portion of the western country has superior
claims to those of Kentucky. She has been the nursing
mother of the west; the blood of her citizens has flowed
freely on every battle-field; now let them and their posterity
enjoy the honors so manfully won."
8. There are few young people who do not take pleasure in
reading or hearing tales of adventure; of dangers and diffi-
culties boldly met and manfully resisted; of trials and suffer-
ings so borne as to make man seem defiant of calamity and
superior to adverse fate. In these the history of Kentucky
so abounds that they cannot be recounted except in the briefest
9. Are you thrilled by the recital of savage cunning
thwarted by the shrewdness and circumspection of honorable
foes? Of fiendish perfidy punished by open fight? Of mas-
acres avenged in honorable battle by those who scorned to
retaliate by visiting destruction on helpless captives? Of
women not only sharing the hardships and dangers of pioneer
life, but bravely fighting in defense of their homes ? Then the
early annals of your native state can furnish you this excite-
ment and help to impress upon a healthful mind a sense of
the chivalry of the unpretending pioneers who conquered the
wilderness and left to us a heritage of great names as well as
of a noble commonwealth. In the wars with Great Britain,
by which liberty was won and confirmed to us; in that with



Mexico, by which the territory of the United States was ex-
tended to the shores of the Pacific; in the gigantic sectional
struggle, when more than three millions of fellow-countrymen
were four years engaged in a death-grapple over vital ques-
tions that had failed of peaceable settlement -wherever
supreme tests of courage and fortitude have been applied,
*your fathers and forefathers have proved themselves great
among the greatest, and have won for Kentucky a world-wide
10. But not alone in martial strife have their high quali-
ties been manifested. "Peace hath had her victories" for
them. In the national councils the statesmen and orators
of Kentucky have been among the foremost; in legal tribu-
nals, state and federal, her jurists have been the peers of the
proudest; and letters, divinity and medicine have contributed
to our list of eminent names.
11. Kentuckians have played a most important part in the
civil as well as military affairs of the general government;
and wherever they have found a foothold in the building up
of new states their fitness for leadership has been recognized.
More than eighty of them have been ambassadors, foreign
ministers, and consuls; twenty-two have held high command
in the United States army (regular and volunteer) and navy;
twenty-eight were generals of volunteers in the Federal army
during the civil war, and twenty-seven in the Confederate
army; thirty have been heads of departments and officers
of the United States government; seven have been judges
of the United States Supreme Court, and about thirty have
been judges of other courts (state and United States); more
than fifty have been governors and lieutenant-governors of
other states and territories; more than eighty are known
to have represented other states in Congress; twenty-two
have been presidents of universities and colleges in other
states; and six have been President of the Senate and Vice-
President of the United States. The two great heads of the


respective governments during the civil war, Abraham Lin-
coln and Jefferson Davis, were native Kentuckians. Equally
remarkable is the list of those whom the people of their
adopted states have elected to minor positions of. honor and
12. But it is not in the matter of office-holding only that
this characteristic of leadership has been manifested. Since
Kentucky was admitted to the Union, thirty new states have
been organized; and for this work she has contributed of
her native population, for a long series of years, about twice
as many as she has received from all the other states and
from foreign countries. At the bar, in the pulpit, in the
ranks of educators, in the conception and, conduct of great
business enterprises, public and private, they are found in
the foremost rank in almost every other state and city west
of the Alleghanies.
13. Certain traits that indicate sterling nobility of char-
acter are conspicuous, as, loyalty to family, fidelity to friends,
devotion to comrades in times of suffering and peril, and
scorn of snivellers and shams. To the study and apprecia-
tion of these characteristics you should give earnest heed.
14. Our great philosopher, Dr. Franklin, says of the acts
of those who struggled for freedom and the promotion of
human happiness: "My countrymen, these things ought not
to be forgotten. For the benefit of our children and those
that follow them they should be recorded."
15. And the immortal Roman orator said of history: "It
is the messenger of the past and the teacher of life." This
messenger of Kentucky's past brings that to you which is
full of instruction as well as entertainment; and his lesson, if
received and understood, will go far to prepare you for a
useful and honorable career.


I. The .Kentucky Character.-Arthur & Carpenter, who
in 1852 published a history of Kentucky, have this to say of
our pioneers and their descendants: "As the self-reliant
type of American character at the epoch of the Revolution, the
Kentuckian stands pre-eminent. He may even staid for it at
the present day. The descendant of the cavaliers of Virginia
and Maryland, he carried with him into the wilderness many
of the noble qualities for which that brave, high-toned, but
reckless class of people were distinguished; while he left
behind him not a few of their vices. Daring even to rash-
ness, he was yet full of all generous impulses; fierce to his
enemies, he was yet hospitable to the stranger; quick to
resent an injury, yet prompt to forgive it; fertile in strata-
gem, yet steadfast in resolve; fiery in pursuit, yet cool and
collected in action; never retreating but to fight, Parthian-like,
as he fell back; never stooping to the earth but to gather
strength for the rebound; simple in his tastes and pleasures;
a doer of brave acts and generous deeds-not to gain' the
applause of others, but from native nobility of soul. Free,
even to the verge of lawlessness, time has reversed in him the
stigma which Capt. John Smith cast upon his progenitors, who,
if they were amenable to the censure of that valiant soldier,
as being 'more fitted to corrupt than to found a common-
wealth,' have yet the merit of having redeemed their memory
in the pure republicanism of their children."
H. Kentuckians a Peculiar Type of People.-In Ken-
tucky we find nearly pure English blood, mainly derived
through the Old Dominion .and altogether from districts
that shared the Virginia conditions. It is, moreover, the
largest body of pure.English folk that has, speaking gener-
ally, been separated from the mother country for two hundred
years. We see, therefore, how interesting is the problem of
this Kentucky population. It has seriously been maintained
that the European blood tends to enfeeblement in American
conditions; that it requires the admixture of new blood from
the Old World in order to keep its quality unimpaired. There
is an experiment provided that will give a full disprovMa to
this hypothesis. The reader will do well to bear it in mind
while he follows the history of Kentucky people. *


Twenty years of such life [that from 1775 to 1795] devel-
oped a particular sort of man-a kind that was never known
before or since in such numbers in any country. The men
who took their shape from the life that was lived in the first
three decades of Kentucky civilization had a very peculiar
quality of mind. Its most characteristic feature was a certain
dauntlessness, a habit of asserting independence of all control
except that of the written law. There was a great
solidity to this people. None but a people of character could
stand the strain in which they lived. The crimi-
nals, the weaklings,- and other refuse of society had no place
in this embattled colony.--N. S. Shaler.



1. To study history profitably you must at every step asso-
ciate events, times, persons, and places. You will then have
a more distinct impression of each occurrence and its relation
to all the others that make up the account. If any place asso-
ciated with a particular historical event is in your locality, or
if in your travels you visit one, you will regard it with a live-


lier interest and carry in your mind a more perfect and life-
like picture of what you have heard and read. It is important,
therefore, for you to acquire a knowledge of the surface feat-
ures of Kentucky and note also its surroundings.
2. As you are soon .to take upon you the duties and
responsibilities of a citizen, it is scarcely less important that
you understand the geography of your state in its larger
sense, as embracing not alone the description of its surface
features, but its physical structure and characteristics, natural


products, and the people by whom it is inhabited. Fully to
comprehend its physical structure and characteristics implies
an acquaintance with the science of geology; but a plain state-
ment of its natural resources, as found in connection with its
geological formation, will serve to show you how greatly its
people are favored by the possession of imniense and various
underground wealth, as well as of advantageous surface and
atmospheric conditions.
3. Kentucky lies between 36 30' and 36 6' north latitude,
and 820 3' and 89 41' west longitude. It includes all that


territory southwest of the line beginning at the mouth of the
Big Sandy, and running up the northeasterly branch thereof
to the great Laurel Ridge or Cumberland mountain, and with
that southwest, to a line of Tennessee. It is bounded on the
north by Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio; on the east by West Vir-
ginia and Virginia; on the south by Tennessee; and on the
west by Missouri. It is about 500 miles in length east and
west, with the mean breadth of 150 miles, and is estimated
to contain over 41,000 square miles, or nearly twenty-seven
million acres.


4. The surface is an irregular broken plain, sloping west
and northwest from the summit of the Cumberland mount-
ains. These summits are 3000 feet above sea-level; there is
a gradual decrease northwest and west till the elevation in
the extreme west is but 260 feet; and the estimated mean ele-
vation is 600 feet. Thirty-two of the eastern and southeastern
counties are more or less rough and mountainous throughout;
but the remainder of the state is an undulating tableland,
comparatively little broken except by a range of highlands
known in one part as The Knobs, in another as Muldraugh's
Hill, extending westward to the Ohio river below Louisville,
and by deep-cutting river excavations.
5. It is penetrated and bounded by more water-ways, now
navigable and capable of being made so by ordinary means,
than any other state. Besides these there are more than 800
creeks, which not only afford in every section abundance of
fresh water for stock, but much valuable power for machinery.
6. The principal rivers, now navigable in the aggregate for
a distance of more than 1800 miles, are the Ohio, Mississippi,
Big Sandy, Licking, Kentucky,Cumberland, Tennessee, Green,
Big Barren, Salt, Pond, and Tradewater. The Ohio touches
the whole northern boundary, 653 miles, as the river runs.
The Mississippi forms its entire western boundary, about 100
miles as the river runs. -The Big Sandy touches its eastern
boundary for more than a hundred miles. The lesser rivers,
some of them now navigable for short distances during high
water, and all of which can be made so for an aggregate dis-
tance of between 2000 and 3000 miles, are: the Little Sandy,
Red, Little Kentucky, Elkhorn, Blood, Dick's, Laurel, Rock-
castle, Rough, Little Barren, Chaplin, Nolin, Muddy, Gaspar,
Clark's, Little, Little Obion, and Wolf. All these you should
trace on your map, and so fix in your mind what part of the
state each is in, with its relative position, and extent of coun-
try drained, as to be able to answer promptly all pertinent


7. The Ohio belongs to the Mississippi river system, and all
the rivers and creeks having their origin and course in the state,
except those that rise in the first two tiers of counties in the
extreme western part, belong to the Ohio system. Though
there is a small portion of the state that has a southwestern
inclination, carrying the Cumberlaid into the state of Ten-
nessee, in which it has its greater length before it re-enters
Kentucky, the course of all the main streams indicate sub-

"011 N.


stantially a single water-shed, with a constant slope north'by
8. Except in the lowlands along the banks of the numerous
streams, where washings from the hills and the overflow of
the water-courses have formed what is known as the alluvial
or river land, the soils have been derived from the decay of
underlying rocks. Those resulting from the decomposition of
blue limestone are in general most productive and most
enduring under cultivation, though the deep alluvials are
exceedingly fertile. The entire counties of Bourbon, Fay-


ette and Woodford, and portions of Bath, Clark, Franklin,
Harrison, Jessamine, Nicholas, Owen and Scott, constitute a
great body of blue-grass land. There are in Boyle, Garrard,
Green, Laurel, Lincoln, Madison, Mercer, Nelson, and Shelby,
sections of blue-grass lands that are equally rich; and large
portions of a number of counties south and west of Green river
are notably productive. This singular condition obtains in
Kentucky, that while a great part of it is underlaid by val-


able mineral stores, less than one-fortieth of its surface is
wholly unfit for agricultural purposes.
9. The climate is moderate. Change of weather is fre-
quently sudden and severe; but the extremes of temperature
prevail for only very brief periods. The lowest seldom
reaches zero, while its greatest summer heat is frequently
below that of regions bordering on the great lakes and the
Atlantic. On the Cumberland mountains it is about fifty
degrees, the increase from east to west and southwest' being
almost uniform, till at the southwest corner it is about sixty


degrees. The seasons are more regular in succession, more
nearly equal in duration, and more distinct. in the character-
istics peculiar to each than in other latitudes; the rainfall
(an annual average of 46 inches) is generally very equally
distributed over the state, and destructive drouths in any
section are rare; snow seldom falls to such a depth as to
interfere with local traffic or impede travel; and destructive
tornadoes or cyclones scarcely ever occur.
10. Climatic conditions, purity of water, quality of food
products, and healthful occupation, combine to give the people

size, strength and endurance. Among the hundreds of thou-
sand of volunteers from all parts of the Union, natives and
foreigners, during the civil war, official tables show that those
born and reared in Kentucky and Tennessee exceeded all
others in average height, weight, size of head, circumference
of chest, and ratio of weight to stature.
11. Here almost every product of the soil known in the
temperate zones flourishes -grains, grasses, textile plants,
and fruits; very profitable ones, as tobacco and hemp, in
greater abundance than in any other state; domestic animals


attain to such superior development that the finer kinds are
scarcely equalled in the world; while the live-stock and dairy
products are yielded in excess of those of nearly every other
state in proportion to the number of animals.
12. About half the area of the state is still covered with
forests, in which are found almost every species of tree indig-
enous to temperate regions, and the supply of both hard and
soft woods used for building and in the manufactures is hardly
excelled in quality or quantity by that of any other section of
the United States.
13. But the surface resources, however various and virtu-
ally inexhaustible, are surpassed by underground treasures
that have been as yet but little developed. The geological
structure of Kentucky embraces seven or eight formations or
beds as classified by scientists according to the principal
mineral contents of each. The coal fields embrace fifteen
thousand six hundred and eighty square miles, covering for
the most part twenty counties in the western section of the
state and thirty-three in the eastern. Deposits of the differ-
ent kinds of iron ore are enormous. Besides the different
kinds of coal and iron ore, there are more than forty kinds of
mineral products known ,to the arts and to trade, and con-
tributing to the convenience, comfort, and luxury of mankind.
Our mineral stores take a wide range as to number, and their
commercial value is beyond computation. Those of coal and
iron alone are considerably in excess of those of Great
14. Chiefly in the central part of the state are more than
a hundred salt licks or springs, which, prior to the white
man's coming, were the resort of multitudes of herbivorous
animals to obtain salt by licking the earth and rocks impreg-
nated with it; and for a long time the settlers were dependent
on the springs, and upon wells which were sunk in other parts
of the state, for their supply of salt, which they made by
.boiling the water.


15. Certain kinds of game, animals and birds, are still
found in the woods and fields. The law for the protection of
birds recites twenty-seven species of these still common among
us, besides the scavengers, birds of prey, and those that are
destructive of grain and fruit crops.
16. The natural scenery is at certain seasons of the year
beautiful, and in some mountain sections and along the prin-
cipal rivers as picturesque as much of that so extravagantly
described by tourists in foreign lands.
17. There are many natural curiosities, and such of these
as are in your locality you should see and study. A habit' of
observing and considering the different aspects of nature and
the peculiarities of objects around you will afford you intel-
lectual pleasure through life, and give zest to the tasks set for
you by your teachers in the study of natural sciences. I men-
tion a few of those noted by geographers and others: as, the
Split Hill, in Boone county, by which a deep zigzag avenue
of considerable extent has been formed; Sinking creek, in
Breckinridge county, a stream which furnishes sufficient
water-power to drive machinery the year round but has five or
six miles of its course underground-sinking suddenly about
seven miles from its source and afterward reappearing; Dis-
mal Rock, in Edmonson county, an almost perpendicular
and distinct mass one hundred and sixty-three feet high; The
Indian Hill, also in Edmonson county, eighty-four feet high,
a mile in circumference, and perpendicular except on one side,
where ascent on foot is practicable; a natural circular tunnel
under the elevation on which Bardstown is built; the Point of
Rocks, the Jump-off, and Pond Branch, in Owen county;
large, flat and solid rocks in several localities, having on them
deeply indented and distinct impressions of human feet and
the feet of dogs; Anvil Rock, in Union county, fifty feet
high, twenty feet wide, and two feet thick, having a spur
like the horn of an anvil and standing entirely isolated on level
bottom-land; Wolf Sink, in Warren county, a depression


Apparently formed by the sinking of a section of level open
barren, three hundred feet long, one hundred and fifty feet
wide, but with a sloping bottom which is about twenty feet
below the surrounding surface at the south end and one hun-
dred and fifty feet at the north end; so-called Bottomless Pits,
some of which are filled with water-no sounding line having
yet ascertained their depth; and numerous caverns. Of these
Mammoth cave known throughout the civilized world, is
regarded as the greatest of natural wonders; but the Colossal
cave only recently explored, is claimed by its discoverers and
owners to exceed the Mammoth in extent and splendor. Both
these great caves are in Edmonson county. The Falls of the
Cumberland, in Whitley county, about fourteen miles below
Williamsburgh, are among the most remarkable objects in the
state. The river has an almost perpendicular fall of more
than. sixty feet, and the roar of the water can at times be
heard for many miles above and below. Behind the falling
sheet, arched as it plunges from the top of the cliff, a person
can go nearly across the river bed.
18. When the white man came to Kentucky and explored
it he found it uninhabited except by a small body of Indians,
who really belonged to a village on the north side, near
the mouth of the Scioto; and there were perhaps a few living
along the eastern shore of the Mississippi. But north of
the Ohio, on the Scioto, Muskingum, and Miami rivers; were
the homes of the Shawnee Indians; farther west, in the
valley of the Wabash, were the Wabash Indians; and in the
Tennessee valley, south, were the Chickasaws, Cherokees, and
Choctaws. While none of these tribes could dwell here, all
claimed it as a hunting ground; and their hunting excursions
resulted in conflicts whenever the northern and southern tribes
chanced to meet, which, according to their own account, and
from indications discerned by the pioneer whites, was of fre-
quent occurrence. A tradition among the Indians told of a
race of people who inhabited the-country centuries before,


but who had been either destroyed or driven far to the south-
west. Memorials of this pre-historic race--mounds, burying
grounds, embankments, fortifications of stone and of earth,
ditched and walled towns, and articles of handicraft found in
them-testify that the original inhabitants, to whom the set-
tlers gave the general name of Mound-Builders, were much
farther advanced in the arts of civilization than any known in
North America except the Aztecs, or Mexicans.
19. Well-defined and notable relics of this extinct people
have been found in forty-one counties, to the number, in the
aggregate, of more than five hundred. In the caverns and
mounds, explorers and excavators have discovered mummified
human bodies, stone coffins, bones of human beings and of
animals, beads and other articles made of copper, small breast-
plates, earthenware and queensware, ivory beads, polished
flints, etc. In sinking wells and excavating for house-founda-
tion and cellars, numerous bones of a gigantic race, as well as
those of ordinary size, have been exhumed.
20. There was abundant evidence, too, that at a former
period some species of animals larger than are now known to
man existed here. At Big Bone Lick in Boone county was
found a great collection of bones and teeth of the mammoth
or mastodon-the remains of those which had perished from
time to time at this salt-water resort to which pathways led
from every direction.
21. The whites who came'to explore and settle Kentucky
ascertained it to be an almost unbroken forest-more than
seven-eighths of this vast area being thus covered. In many
sections were great bodies of magnificent old trees; in some
where these grew the woodland was comparatively open; in
others a thick undergrowth of brushwood, vines, and briers;
and here and there along the streams almost impenetrable
cane-brakes or thickets of cane. About six thousand square
miles of the central and western or southwestern parts consti-
tuted almost the whole unwooded or prairie district.


22. In this great forest land, unbroken even by Indian
settlements and clearings, were immense herds of buffalo;
while deer, elk, bears, wolves, panthers, and the smaller wild
animals abounded; as did wild turkeys and the many other
species of birds that are still common. The numerous
streams were prolific of the kinds of food fishes which they
still supply in abundance notwithstanding the ceaseless
destruction that has been going on for more than a century.
It was hardly extravagant in some of the enthusiastic pioneers


who declared Kentucky to be the paradise of the hunter and
23. The population at the present time (1896), is more
than two millions. In the main it is of Anglo-Saxon descent.
Those who took the lead in the pioneer and formative period
were chiefly from Virginia; but Maryland, Pennsylvania, and
the Carolinas have contributed no inconsiderable portion.
There has been a singular absence of admixture of blood
since emigration from foreign countries began to be attracted.


About three-fourths of the immigrants, as noted by the census
of 1890, have come from the other states of the Union, and
are for the most part of English stock, though there is a
strong element among these, as well as among the descend-
ants of the original settlers, of those noble peoples, the
Scotch-Irish and the French-Huguenots. Less than one-
twentieth of the population are foreign born, and less than
one-seventh are of the negro race.
24. Soon after the first settlements were established, Ken-
tucky began to be designated The Dark and Bloody Ground.
There is some uncertainty as to the precise significance which
attaches to the phrase as a whole; but it is most probable
that the term "dark" refers, not to the deeds which have
rendered the state a bloody ground, but to the natural
appearance of the country when the white man came to take
possession. A vast region, covered with .n almost contin-
uous forest, whose shades in any except the brightest weather
would give it a gloomy aspect, and :more especially so when
the great solitude was unbroken by the voice and occupations
of civilized- men-all this made it to be fitly termed dark;
while the numerous sanguinary engagements which for a long
series of years, preceding and closely following the coming of
the pioneers, made it a land of blood. The phrase that thus
early gained currency had in it an element of prophetic mean-
ing, for besides the many localities made memorable by sav-
age atrocities as well as by pitched battles between white men
and Indians, there are more than a hundred places where con-
flicts occurred on Kentucky soil during the great civil war.


1. For more than fifty years after the first settlement was
made in Virginia the country lying westward between the Alle-
ghanies and the Mississippi river was to white men an unknown
region. In 1660 the Menguy Indians came from the north-
east to make war upon the Shawnees, who then inhabited
Kentucky, and as the invaders carried fire-arms procured from

the French in Canada, it is probable that French adventurers
were among them; but the first white visitor of whom we
.have any record was the great explorer La Salle, who is said
to have come down the Ohio in 1670 and landed at the Falls
of Ohio, where Louisville now stands. For a hundred years
prior to 1750, however, it is certain that boatmen on the Ohio
and Mississippi at least viewed the adjacent shores, and prob-
able that they occasionally landed and hunted in the forest;
and as early as 1751 many whites were found by Gist on both


sides the Ohio near where Portsmouth now stands, who had
come to trade with thte Indians.
2. In 1750 the first party of white men to penetrate the
wilderness was led by Dr. Thomas Walker, of Virginia. They
came by way of Powell's Valley, through a gap in Laurel
mountain, and travelled as far as central Kentucky. Walker
named that branch of the Alleghanies now known as Cumber-
land mountains, in honor of the Duke of Cumberland, and
gave to Shawnee river also the name of Cumberland. These
men built near the point at which they first entered the first
cabin erected in Kentucky.
3. In 1751 Capt. Christopher Gist came as agent of the
Ohio Land Company, which had from Virginia a grant of
500,000 acres, to explore with a view to locating desirable
lands. He stopped at Shawneetown near the mouth of the
Scioto river, and explored as far down as Big Bone Lick;
then reached the Kentucky river and followed that to the
mountains and crossed over to the Kanawha on his way back
to North Carolina. From his report Lewis Evans made the
first map of Kentucky, a revised copy of which was published
in 1755.
4. The first white women known to have set foot on Ken-
tucky soil were Mrs. Mary Inglis and a Dutch woman, who,
in 1756, escaped from captivity at Big Bone Lick. You will
find a short account of them at the end of this chapter.
5. In 1758 Dr.Walker came again to Kentucky, but gained
little additional knowledge, and did not attempt to settle.
6. In 1765 Col. George Croghan came from Pittsburgh
down the Ohio to make surveys. He and his party went on
this journey as far as the Mississippi river. His were the
first surveys made in the Ohio valley southward.
7. John Finley, with a few companions, came from North
Carolina in 1767, to hunt and trade with the Indians. They
established a camp on Red river, in the neighborhood of where
Clark, Estill and Powell counties touch each other. Their




sTIB, ~-

~--- -""" 1




explorations doubtless took a comparatively wide range, though
they did not remain long. When they returned to North Caro-
lina their account of what they had seen excited in others a
desire to visit the wonderful country described.
8. I notice now some occurrences out of their .regular
order (except the first), to which you should pay especial
attention, because they gave rise among the whites themselves
to conflicting claims to the lands of Kentucky, and because
they led settlers to believe that when they were driving the
Indians from the territory they were not wantonly outraging
that sense of right which demands that even a savage shall
have some compensation when his property is to pass into
other hands.
9. By royal charter from the British government, which,
at the time when colonies were planted in North America, did
not respect the red man's title to his home, Virginia was
recognized as having dominion over every thing westward,
between certain parallels, from the Atlantic to the Mississippi
river, if not farther. This great domain included what is now
West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky. Subsequently, however,
the English deemed it proper to treat with the Mohawks or
Six Nations for all of Kentucky east of the Tennessee river.
The Mohawks based their claim upon the fact that they had
conquered the Shawnees who owned the territory.. At Fort
Stanwix, New York, in October, 1768, a council was held and
the Six Nations ceded their claims on condition of receiving
from the English about fifty thousand dollars. The Shawnees
refused to relinquish their title, and in October, 1774, Lord
Dunmore, governor of Virginia, made a treaty with them at
Old Chillicothe, Ohio, after their defeat at Point Pleasant
had made them sue for peace. By this treaty tiey ceded the
territory to Virginia.
10. The Cherokees on the upper Tennessee, who had been
driven out of Kentucky by the Shawnees and their allies before
the coming of white men, still asserted their right to part of


the lands; and when the Transylvania Company (of which I
am to tell you hereafter) was organiized, Daniel Boone was
employed to negotiate with these Indians for their title.
March 17th, 1775, at Sycamore Shoals, ontheWataga, a branch
of the Holston river, the company purchased, for about fifty
thousand dollars, all the lands lying between the Ohio and
Cumberland rivers and west and south of Kentucky river,
stretching from Louisville to Nashville.
11. Another claim remained undisposed of. The Chickasaw
Indians maintained till October 19th, 1818, their title to that
part of Kentucky lying between the Tennessee and Mississippi
rivers now known as Jackson's Purchase. This was bougl4
that year by the United States. Thus, you see, the whites
acquired by treaty and purchase the claims which the Indians
disregarded and compelled them to make good by twenty years
of bloody conflict.
12. May 1st, 1769, Daniel Boone, with five companions,
one of whom was John Finley, acting as guide, set out from
their home on the Yadkin river in North Carolina, and on the
7th of June reached the place on Red river at which Finley
had made his headquarters in 1767. They hunted together
during the summer and autumn, but in early winter, having
experienced no molestation, they became incautious and divided
into two parties. Boone, accompanied by John Stewart, pro-
ceeded towards the Kentucky river, near which, on the 22nd
of December, they were surprised by Indians and captured.
13. For some days, as their captors marched with them,
they were closely watched and guarded, but by the seventh
night the Indians had relaxed their vigilance and all fell
soundly asleep. The crafty demeanor of the prisoners, who
appeared indifferent, and even cheerful, deceived their cap-
tors. Boone remained awake; and when he found by stealthily
observing the Indians that all were in deep sleep he awoke
Stewart. Securing their rifles, they were soon out of hear-
ing and in rapid flight. They found their old camp, but their




i -


four companions were gone and the camp had been despoiled.
Nothing is known as to the fate of Finley and the three men
who had stayed with him. Boone and Stewart now hunted as
before for their subsistence-changing their sleeping place
from time to time for fear the Indians might return to their
cabin. In January, 1770, Boone's brother Squire, who, with
one man, had set out from North Carolina to find him, dis-
covered the two by their camp-fire, and for some time they
all hunted together. Again a separation took place. Daniel
Boone and Stewart went hunting far beyond the camp and
were suddenly set upon by the Indians, who killed and scalped
Stewart. He was the first white man known to have met this
fate in Kentucky. Boone escaped and returned to his brother.
A short time afterward the man who had come with Squire
wandered away alone and was never seen again. His fate was
not certainly ascertained; but bones were found which led to
the belief that he became entangled in a swamp and either
died of starvation or was killed by wolves.
14. The two brothers continued here their roving life until
May, 1770; when, their annmmunition having grown scarce, it
was agreed that Squire should return home and bring a supply
of this and other necessary things. He departed on this mis-
sion, and Daniel was left without even the companionship of
man's faithful friend, the dog, as the one that had been with
them followed the home-going brother. On the 27th of July
Squire returned to the spot agreed upon. He had come with
two horses, one laden with powder, ball, and other articles.
During his absence, Daniel had roamed over/ many new sec-
tions-having gone as far as the Ohio river and travelled along
its shores.
15. For seven or eight months after Squire's return they
sought to extend their knowledge of the country-tracing the
course of streams and giving them names; also making a
more particular examination of all the features of central
Kentucky. It appears that about this time Daniel Boone first


conceived the idea of bringing his family ancf making his
home here. He had now a definite object in view-the selec-
tion of a spot upon which to locate. He finally made choice
of a point on the Kentucky river, and in March, 1771, the
brothers set out on their return to their homes on the Yadkin,
which they reached when Daniel had been absent nearly two
16. During the same year in which Boone's party left
North Carolina for Kentucky (1769), Col. James Knox, one
of forty men from the valleys of New, Holston, and Clinch
rivers, in Virginia, came in, under the leadership of Knox, by
a more southerly route. Their object was hunting and trap-
ping; and their influence upon the history of the state was of
little consequence except that it extended the knowledge of a
hitherto unexplored region and increased the tide of immigra-
tion which set in soon afterward. They established a camp
and depot of supplies, which were to be deposited every five
weeks, at Price's Meadow, about six miles from where Monti-
cello now stands. They hunted south and west. Two boat
loads of skins and wild meats were sent down the Cumberland
river under charge of ten of the party, for sale to the Span-
ish garrison at Natchez, on the Mississippi, from which place
the boatmen returned to 'Virginia. Some who had remained
with Knox were lost in the forest; others, separating from
the main body, reached home at times of which we have no
record; but Knox, with a party of nine, turned northward in
the autumn and found and probably named Dick's river.
More than a year afterward, the party was increased by the
return of some of the men who had gone to Natchez and others
from the old settlements, and went farther west. Some
time in 1771 they built on the site of Mount Gilead church,
nine miles east of Greensburgh, another house for deposit and
shelter, and from here hunted south and west over Green,
Hart, Barren, and contiguous counties. They returned to Vir-
ginia after an absence of two years without having met the


Boone party, or even knowing that they were in the country.
After the departure of these two bands of hunters, nothing
of special note occurred for two years.
17. September 25th, 1773, Daniel Boone with his own and
five other families set out for that part of Kentucky where he
had determined to make his home. In Powell's Valley they
were joined by forty men. When near Cumberland Gap,
October 10th, they were suddenly attacked by Indians, and
before the men could rally and drive them off six of the whites


"r 'if IIlir'


were killed, Boone's oldest son being one of them. This was
so dreadful a blow, falling where they least expected danger,
that Boone and other resolute persons who were for pushing
on could not prevail upon the rest, and, their dead having
been buried, they went back to their several homes.
18. Somewhat previous to this time Virginia had granted
land bounties to her surviving soldiers of the French and
Indian war. These lands were to be located westward; and
as the accounts carried back by Finley, the Boones, Knox and
others, had created a wide-spread interest, various parties of


surveyors came in 1773 and explorations were greatly ex-
tended. One company, of which Thomas Bullitt became the
leader, left Virginia, in the spring of 1773, and, proceeding
to the Ohio, passed leisurely down by boat. A part of
them reached the mouth of Beargrass creek, July 8th, and
encamped a short distance above. For the greater security,
their nights were generally spent on Corn Island, opposite
where Louisville now stands. For six weeks they made sur-
veys along the river and southward as far as Salt river in
Bullitt county.
)-19. The McAfees (three brothers), with others, left Botte-
tourt county, Virginia, about the same time and came across
to Kanawha river, where they took canoes and a small boat for
the Ohio. On their journey they overtook the Bullitt party
(May 29), and remained with them till they reached the mouth
of Kentucky river. They went up this to Drennon's Lick, in
Henry county, where they found a man named Drennon who
had come across from Big Bone and reached the Lick the day
before. Here they took a track beaten through almost impass-
able cane-brakes by wild animals seeking the springs, and
followed it up the river to a point opposite Lee's Town, below
Frankfort, where they crossed over. Turning south, they
surveyed the bottom in which Frankfort now stands, July 6th,
the first survey made on the Kentucky. The boundary described
comprised six hundred acres. They then went up the ridge along
the present Lexington road and turning to the right crossed
the Kentucky seven miles above Frankfort. The next encamp-
ment was at Lillard's Spring near Lawrenceburgh. From
here they hunted westwardly to Salt river and down this to
Hammond's creek, from which point they surveyed to the
mouth of the branch on which Harrodsburgh now stands.
During this journey from the mouth of the Kentucky, two of
the party, one of whom was Hancock Taylor, went to join'-
Bullitt on the Beargrass. On the 31st of July, the others
took a course nearly southeast across Dick's river and on the


5th of August reached the forks of the Kentucky. On their
ascent of the mountain country, over a route hitherto untrod-
den by white men, and rendered difficult not alone by its
roughness but in places by tangled brushwood, vines and
briers, and at times finding it impossible to procure either suf-
ficient food or water, they became so foot-sore and exhausted
as almost to despair, but managed to kill sufficient game to
preserve life, though at one time two days without food. At
length they struck a hunter's path across the head of Powell's
Valley and reached their Virginia homes.
20. During this year three deputies of William Preston,
who was surveyor for Fincastle county, Virginia (as Ken-
tucky was then designated), were here surveying and locat-
ing lands for themselves and others. These deputies were
Hancock Taylor, who was awhile with the McAfees; James
Douglas, who stopped on his way to the Falls of Ohio,
whither Bullitt had preceded him, to view the wonders at Big
Bone Lick, of which accounts had already gone abroad; and
John Floyd, who made many surveys along the banks of the
Ohio, one of which was for locating a tract in Lewis county
for Patrick Henry, the orator of the Revolution.
21. Simon Kenton, afterward to become famous as a Ken-
tucky pioneer, came down the Ohio this year with a party who
wished to join Bullitt. Failing to find him at the mouth of
the Miami river, where report had led them to expect him,
they supposed that he and his followers had been killed or
captured by the Indians, and concluded to return. Kenton,
having previously been for a short time on a hunting expe-
dition between the Kanawha and Kentucky rivers, and know-
ing something of the country, led them back through the
counties of Boone, Kenton and others to the southeast, across
the Big Sandy, to the settlements in Virginia.
S22. In May, 1774, James Harrod led a party of forty hunt-
ers and surveyors from Monongahela county, Virginia. Boat-
ing down the Ohio to a point opposite the Licking river they


tarried there for a few days, during which they felled the first
trees on the ground where Cincinnati now stands. Shortly
afterward they probably went down as far as the Falls, but
returned to the Kentucky river and ascended it in canoes
to what is now Oregon Landing in Mercer county. They
explored to the southward and selected the present site of
Harrodsburgh as a place to begin permanent settlement, and
built the first cabin on a spot in Kentucky laid off and plotted
to become a town. June 16th, 1774, is given as the date of
the founding of the oldest town in the state-called for some
years Harrodstown. Several eligible spots for residence were
selected, surveys made for farms, and cabins erected. These
were assigned by lot. Two, near the present town of Dan-
ville, fell to John Crow and James Brown; about Boiling
Spring, six miles from Harrodsburgh, James Harrod and
others were located; while cabins three miles east of Harrods-
burgh, fell to James Wiley and others. John Harman raised
the first crop of corn in the settlement.
23. Towards the last of July, four of Harrod's men were
out surveying three miles below Harrodsburgh, when they
were fired upon by concealed Indians. Jared Cowan was
killed. One of the party made his way back to the camp;
but Jacob Sandusky and another man, believing that the set-
tlement had been surprised and probably destroyed, went to
the Falls and afterward by a circuitous water and land route
reached Virginia.
24. During this summer Hancock Taylor, leading a party
who were surveying along the Kentucky, was shot from
ambush by Indians, near the mouth of the river, in Carroll
county, and died in a few days as his companions were trying
to convey him to his old home.
25. Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia, having sent for
Daniel Boone and requested him to go to the Falls of Ohio.and
guide back through the wilderness some men whom he had.
sent to Kentucky on a surveying expedition, he chose as a


companion Michael Stoner, and set out June 6th, 1774. He
was also to call wherever he knew white men to be encamped
and warn them to return at once to the states. The Shaw-
nees had induced other northern tribes to unite with them in
a campaign of extermination against Virginia, and the small
bodies of whites in Kentucky were in imminent danger. Boone
and Stoner reached Harrodstown soon after the real work of
settlement began, and the entire party left their new homes
and went back to Virginia. "Thus the territory was abandoned
for a time. Dunmore had ordered the enlistment of three
thousand men, who were organized in two divisions, the
right wing under his own command, the left under that of
Gen. Andrew Lewis. Boone was ordered to take general
charge of three garrisons along the border. The right wing
proceeded to Pittsburgh, the left to the mouth of the Kana-
wha, where General Lewis met the allied savages, fifteen hun-
dred strong, while his own force was but eleven hundred. At
Point Pleasant, October 10th, a long and desperate battle
ensued, in which the Indians were defeated and driven back
to their villages beyond the Ohio. Dunmore came down
with the right wing, and proceeded with his whole command
to Old Chillicothe. The Indians sued for peace, and, as
has previously been told you, they relinquished all claim to

-I. Thomas Bullitt.-This gentleman, who surveyed about
the Falls in 1773, as I have already told you, and in August of
that year laid out a town on ground now covered by Louisville,
had a most daring adventure on his way down the river to
that place. He stopped at a point on the Ohio opposite Old
Chillicothe, and went alone to that place to confer with the
Indians. Approaching with a white handkerchief displayed
as a flag of truce, he succeeded in removing their suspicions;
induced them to call a council for the next day; and at this


council, during which he seems to have been frank in stating
the purpose of the white men to settle in Kentucky, he
obtained their consent to proceed-and at length left them in
perfect good humor.
II. First White Women in Kentucky.-In 1756 Mrs.
Mary Inglis, who had been a Miss Draper, was captured in
Montgomery county of what is now West Virginia, by Shaw-
nee Indians. Her two little boys, Mrs. Draper (her sister-
in-law), and others, were also made prisoners. They were
taken to the salt regions of the Kanawha; thence to the
Indian village at the mouth of the Scioto, in Ohio. Afterward
Mrs. Inglis had to go with the Indians on a salt-making expe-
dition to Big Bone Lick in Boone county, Kentucky. Here
she induced an old Dutch woman, who had long been a pris-
oner, to attempt to escape with her. Obtaining leave to gather
grapes, they managed to carry off a blanket, a tomahawk, and
a knife, but, to avoid suspicion, took neither additional cloth-
ing nor food. Going to the Ohio river, they followed this up,
and in five days reached a point opposite the Indian village,
the home of their captors. Resting that night in an empty
cabin on this side the Ohio, next morning they loaded a horse
found grazing near by with corn which they had discovered,
and went on up to the mouth of the Big Sandy. They could
not cross there, but higher up they attempted to cross on drift-
wood with the horse. He became entangled and had to be
left. Taking what corn they could, they went on towards the
Kanawha river, living upon the corn, grapes, nuts, roots, etc.,
for many days. The Dutch woman at last became wild with
hunger and other suffering, and tried to kill Mrs. Inglis; but
she broke away, reached the Kanawha, found a canoe in which
she crossed over, and at last, after forty and a half days,
having travelled about twenty miles a day, her strength now
almost gone, her feet and limbs swollen with cold and fatigue,
she reached the residence of a white family, whose kind and
careful treatment soon so restored her that she was able to go
on home. She sent help to the Dutch woman, who was
brought in and at last restored to health. One of Mrs. Inglis's
little boys died among the Indians, and the other was a pris-
oner for thirteen years before he was found and ransomed by
his father. This is one example of the dangers and sufferings


to which the pioneers of the west were subjected, and which
even women so bravely encountered and so wonderfully bore.
III. The Hunter's Rifle.-Few young peopleof this gen-
eration have any knowledge of the weapon which their pioneer
fore-fathers made so effective in procuring their supplies of
meat, and so deadly in conflict, and a brief description is appro-
priate. In the hands of those acquainted only with breech-
loading repeaters, needle guns, metal cartridges, &c., the
hunter's rifle would seem a clumsy fire-arm, incapable of
doing rapid execution; but it was a great improvement on the
blunderbuss and similar guns used by the early settlers of
America. It was a rifle of small bore, for which a pound of
lead would make from seventy to one hundred and twenty
round bullets, made by pouring the melted lead into iron
moulds. The barrel was heavy, and usually considerably
longer than that of the gun with which the State Guard is
now armed. To load it required more motions, more care,
and more time than is necessary to load and fire deliberately
every chamber of the Winchester. The process involved the
use of a "charger" (a horn or bone receptacle holding just
the requisite amount of powder), into which the powder was
poured from a horn or flask; from the charger this was
poured into the barrel; the placing of a bit of domestic (the
patching) on the muzzle and the bullet on that; then the
drawing of the ramrod from the thimbles which held it to the
underside of the.barrel, and ramming the ball down; then the
powder-horn was again to be unstopped and the "pan" of the
rifle (at the touch-hole) to be filled and the steel-faced frizzle
drawn down upon it; next the hammer containing the flint for
striking fire into the pan was to be cocked, and the gun was
ready to be aimed and discharged. When the distance did
not exceed one hundred yards, it was an effective weapon,
though not as death-dealing in war, even within its range, as
the modern rifle, which carries a heavy conical ball. The per-
cussion cap did not come into general use until about the
middle of the present century, and the metal cartridge until
many years afterward. The pioneer hunters and fighters were
skillful marksmen, and with them the process of loading, which
to the men of this day would be tedious, was executed, in time
of action, with almost incredible rapidity.


IV. The Hunting Shirt.-This, of which you hear and read
in connection with the pioneers, was but one part of a hunter's
garb, all of which was generally of the same character. The
so-called shirt was a loose frock coat, with a cape, made of
dressed deerskin. Leggings, and shoes (called moccasins)
were usually of the same material; and cape, coat, and leg-
gings were often fringed. Many of the backwoodsmen wore
caps made of the skins of wild animals. For this purpose the
coonskin was the favorite. The under garments, except woloen
or cotton socks, were of home-made cotton cloth. In a leather
belt was hung, on the right side, a hatchet, or tomahawk; on
the left, a hunting or butcher knife, a powder horn, and a
pouch for bullets, flints, and cloth (called "patching"), in
which the bullets were inclosed when the rifle was loaded.
V. The Tomahawk.-Before white traders introduced the
use of iron or steel among the Indians, this dreadful imple-
ment of war was sometimes the horn of a deer secured near
the end of a piece of wood for a handle-and somewhat resem-
bled a pickax. Another plan was to sharpen a stone at both
ends, and fasten it by thongs near one end of the handle,
which was split to receive it. When Europeans began to
trade with the Indians, the steel-edged hatchet soon came into
use among them. The "pipe-tomahawk," sometimes alluded
to in writings about the Indians, was their hatchet with the
blunt end formed into a pipe-bowl, which communicated with
a hollow made in the handle; so that instead of smoking an
ordinary pipe the Indian who owned one of these smoked his
VI. The Long Hunters.-The term "Long Hunters" was
applied to the Knox party only, who were absent in Kentucky
from 1769 to 1771, though Boone remained fully as long.
VII. Long Knife.-Indians called the Virginians (and
afterwards the Kentuckians) Long Knife, or Big Knife,
because they were the first men whom they knew to carry
such a weapon, or a short sword, on hunting or warlike


1. In the autumn of this year (1774) occurred an event
which notably increased immigration, and for some years
exerted an active influence in settling Kentucky. Judge Rich-
ard Henderson, of Granville county, North Carolina, organ-
ized a company for the purchase of about two-thirds of the
territory now comprised in the bounds of this state. Not-
withstanding the chartered rights of Virginia and the fact
that Dunmore's treaty extinguished, in favor of that state,
the entire Shawnee claim, these gentlemen made haste after
the battle of Point Pleasant to recognize the pretensions of
the Cherokees in Tennessee, who asserted that the land from
which they had long before been driven was still their own.
2. With Henderson were associated eight gentlemen of
Virginia and North Carolina; but he was the originator of
the scheme and the. active agent in its execution. The asso-
ciation was to be known as the Transylvania Company; and
the territory acquired took the name of Transylvania, which
name was for some time used in speaking of the whole region
of Kentucky and was applied to the first great institution of
learning west of the mountains, the Transylvania University.
At the Sycamore shoals, on the Wataga river, a tributary of
the Holston, in what is now northeast Tennessee, the com-
pany, aided by Daniel Boone, whose services they had engaged,
made preliminary arrangements with the Cherokee Indians for
a treaty which was to be formally entered into a few months
later. Accordingly, Boone, with Henderson and other members
of the company, met them at Wataga in February, 1775. After
a conference of twenty days an agreement was reached, and on


the 17th of March the treaty was perfected, the company pay-
ing about $50,000 for perpetual right and title to all the lands
claimed by the Cherokees as their hunting grounds in Ken-
tucky and that part of Tennessee lying southward between
the southern boundary of Kentucky and the Cumberland
river. The territory was described as including all the terri-
tory bounded on the north by the Ohio river, on the east by
the Kentucky river and the Cumberland mountains, on the
south and west by the Cumberland river.
3. Boone had previously been employed to open a road for
men and pack-horses from Clinch river to the mouth of Otter
creek, on the Kentucky river. This was afterward known as
Boone's Trace. It appears that a week before the Wataga con-
ference closed Boone left it in company with some men from
North Carolina, who were on their way to Kentucky, and pro-
ceeded to Long Island in Holston river, to meet his brother
and others whom he had engaged to assist him; and with
about thirty well-armed men he set out from Long Island,
March 10th, 1775, to mark the road. It was to be nothing
more than a practicable route, straightforward as possible,
for men and horses, the work required being simply to re-
move, with ax or hatchet, sufficient bark of trees, at inter-
vals, to make a white and clearly discernible spot, and cut-
ting out the undergrowth where necessary. This marking of
trees was called, in pioneer phrase, "blazing the way."
4. They made such rapid progress that by March 20th they
were within fifteen miles of where Richmond now stands.
Here Indians attacked them, killing two men and wounding
two. They drove off the savages and pressed on; but before
they reached the Kentucky river they were again fired upon.
Two men were killed and three wounded. By April 1st they
had reached the mouth of Otter, and about sixty yards south
.of where the railroad from Richmond to Winchester now
crosses the Kentucky, and near a salt lick, they began to build

/ t


Boonesborough-a fort, the walls of which were made in part
of the back-walls of cabins and in part of strong timbers set
upright firmly in the ground. Four days afterward the Indians
killed another man. Some time during April, Henderson
arrived with thirty fighting men to re-enforce them, and about
the middle of June the stockade and cabins were completed.
5. Before this time, however, Henderson had taken import-
ant steps toward colonizing Transylvania. Soon after his
arrival, he issued a call for a convention at Boonesborough, to
be composed of delegates
from the principal settle-
ments, to form a govern-
ment. Boonesborough
chose six of its leading -
men; St. Asaph's, or
Logan's Fort, four; while
Harrodstown and Boiling
Spring, both embraced in
Harrod's settlement, se-
lected four each. At
23rd, 1775, the meeting
was opened with prayer by the Rev. John Lythe, and the
convention was organized. Henderson imide a speech set-
ting forth the work to be done, to which the chairman made
due response. Proceeding with all the formality of a legis-
lature, the assembly appointed a committee to represent the
people in the making of a constitutional compact, while Hen-
derson and two others were to represent the company. The
constitution was made and signed by these members of the
company and by the chairman of the committee for the peo-
ple. A code of laws embraced in nine acts was passed and
recorded, as follows: (1) To establish courts of justice and
regulate practice in them; (2) To provide for a militia; (3)
To punish criminals;- (4) To prevent profane swearing and


Sabbath-breaking; (5) To provide for writs of attachments;
(6) To regulate clerks' and sheriffs' fees; (7) To impose
conditions for the use of the range or public pasture; (8) To
preserve the breed of horses; and (9) To preserve the game.
The company had already established a land office at Boones-
borough and made known the terms upon which land would
be granted to settlers. It took upon itself the cost of furnish-
ing all supplies of powder and lead for the defense of families
and of the country. The terms were so reasonable and were
so to continue for more than a year, that notwithstanding
some provisions and penalties that would ultimately have sub-
jected the settlers to great losses, immigration materially
increased, and by December more than five hundred and sixty
thousand acres had been sold.
6. The contract or agreement, "for the peace of the pro-
prietors and the security of the people," above alluded to,
gave the Transylvania Company dangerous power over the
rights and liberties of the settlers, in spite of the reasonable
code of laws enacted at the time; and it was not long before
reflection on the part of the delegates and the people led them
to feel that they had been craftily dealt with. Before the year
closed another circumstance occasioned uneasiness: increased
prices for lands and extravagant fees for entry and survey were
announced. The people became alarmed, and in December,
1775, a petition, signed by eighty-four men, was forwarded to
the Virginia Assembly, setting forth the cause of dissatisfac-
tion, and asking that state to assert its jurisdiction over the
territory claimed by the Transylvania Company. The con-
vention never re-assembled, though it had adjourned to do so in
September. The company attempted to secure representation
in the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, but their delegate
was refused admission. Governor Dunmore issued a proc-
lamation declaring illegal the Wataga purchase of lands over
which Virginia had asserted claim, and the governor of North
Carolina did so with respect to lands now in Tennessee. When


George Rogers Clark went to Virginia in 1776 (as will be noticed
subsequently) to obtain means of defense for Kentucky, he
succeeded not only in that but in having the Wataga purchase
declared null and void, in spite of the efforts of Henderson
and his associates, and Kentucky made a county of Virginia.
7. Subsequently, November 4th, 1778, the Virginia Assem-
bly resolved that though the company's title was void, it had
been at great expense in purchasing and settling said lands, and
it was but just and reasonable that they should be compensated.
Some time afterward it was enacted by the general assembly
of Virginia that to Richard Henderson & Company be granted
200,000 acres of land in a body, extending along the Ohio for
twenty-five miles, and up Green river twelve and a half miles,
an equal area on each side of the latter stream; and North
Carolina granted them also 200,000 acres in the present state
of Tennessee.
8. In May, 1775, Simon Kenton came again to Kentucky,
in company with Thomas Williams. They landed at the mouth
of Cabin creek, and went out to where Washington, Mason
county, now is. Here they built a cabin. Hunting inland,
along the Licking, they visited the Upper and the Lower Blue
Licks, and one day fell in with two men who seemed to have
been lost in the wilderness-Fitzpatrick and Hendricks. The
former wished to return to Virginia, but Hendricks chose to
remain. He was left at the cabin when Kenton and Williams
set out to pilot Fitzpatrick to the Ohio. When they came
back, they found the charred remains of Hendricks, whom
the Indians had captured and burnt at the stake. He was the
first white man to lose his life in Kentucky in this barbarous
manner, and the last, as far as is known, though others met this
fate at the Indian towns on the borders. Kenton and Williams
cleared an acre of ground, on which they raised this year a
crop of corn.
9. The victory of Point Pleasant, and the consequent favor-
able treaty, gave such renewed impulse to emigration that


even the earlier months of 1775, before the inducements offered
by the Transylvania Company were widely known, brought con-
stant accessions to the settlers in Kentucky. Extensive sur-
veys were made and settlements begun at different points.
Early in March, James Harrod came back to Harrodstown and
again began the work of building, fortifying and clearing.
John Floyd, who had been on a surveying expedition in 1773,
came again early in May, 1775, and some time afterward set-
tled on the middle fork of Beargrass creek, six miles from the
Falls, at what was called Floyd's Station. During the spring,
Benjamin Logan arrived from Virginia with a number of men
and settled at the big spring near the present town of Stanford.
Towards the last of April some hunters and explorers were
encamped on the present site of Lexington, where news of the
battle of Lexington, the first one of the revolution, reached
them, and they named this place accordingly, though perma-
nent settlement was not made there until some time afterward.
10. There were now three important settlements, while
scattered here and there in other localities were small bodies
of men. It was estimated that by June there were about three
hundred men at Harrodstown, Boonesborough, Logan's Fort,
and elsewhere in Kentucky. Thus, you see, by the time the
Revolutionary war had fairly begun on the seaboard, a few
settlements, that proved to be permanent, had been made in
Kentucky, and a form of government established, which had
its basis in that respect for law and order which characterizes
the Anglo-Saxon race, rather than upon a greed of gain and a
love of power on the part of Henderson and his associates.

I. Daniel Boone.-This man is justly regarded as first
among the great pioneers of Kentucky, because he really
opened the way for those who came with a fixed purpose to
settle here, and led the van; because his experience, sagacity,


and courage made settlement practicable; and because his
patient, faithful, and always brave yet prudent service in
behalf of his countrymen contributed more than that of any
other dhe man to make the settlements permanent and at last
peaceful and prosperous. He was the fourth son of Squire and
Sarah (Morgan) Boone; was born near Exeter, Bucks county,
Pennsylvania, July 14th, 1732; lived there and at Reading,
near the head-waters of the Schuylkill river, until he was
eighteen or twenty years old, when his father moved to North
Carolina, settling on the Yadkin river. His boyhood was
passed in a region that was still a wilderness country, in which
wild animals, even of the more dangerous kind, were plentiful,
and Indians occasionally appeared; and he had already devel-
oped a passion for hunting and for
the solitude of the woods. To a
native fearlessness he added an im-
perturbable presence of mind and
great skill in the use of the rifle.
He had so little chance to get educa-
tion that his scholarship amounted to
nothing more than the ability to read,
to write an indifferent hand, and to
make simple arithmetical calcula-
tions. In 1755, he was married to
Rebecca Bryan, the daughter of a
neighbor. Of five sons born to them,
two, James and Israel, were killed
by Indians; their four daughters and DANIEL BOONE.
three sons were married, and many Kentucky and Mis-
souri families trace their connection with them. Previous
to 1769 Boone had made comparatively long hunting excur-
sions to the west, and is known to have been as far as the
Wataga branch of the Holston in Tennessee; but it was not
till the year mentioned that his connection with the history of
Kentucky begins. From that time the story of his life is so
interwoven with that of our state that it is unnecessary to
recount it here.
Apparently he left his family in 1769, and was absent nearly
two years, with no higher motive than to gratify a love of
hunting, to enjoy that solitude which evidently had a charm
for him even before his boyish strength was equal to the


steadying of a rifle, and possibly to find some of the excite-
ment of dangerous adventure; but afterward he came to feel
that he had been led by a mysterious influence, as one ordained
by heaven to settle the wilderness, and that up to 1770, when
he determined to 'make Kentucky his home, his thirty-eight
years of life had been but one long course of training to fit
him for it. Through lack of experience in civil affairs and of
business aptitude, with a certain improvidence begotten of his
manner of life, he began as early as 1779 to experience mis-
fortunes which in 1795 culminated in his self-imposed exile
from the state which he had done so much to establish.
About four years after bringing his family to Boonesborough,
he disposed of most of his little property in the old settlement
for money with which to buy land warrants, and in this way
obtained about $20,000 of the depreciated paper money of
that time. The whole of this was stolen from him on his
return to Kentucky after having perfected the transaction,
and he was left destitute. He afterward entered lands in Ken-
tucky, of which he was deprived because of defective or prior
title. Saddened, discouraged, and somewhat embittered by
what he attributed to the villainy of others rather than to his
own lack of caution and disregard of business principles, he
left Kentucky (November, 1795), and located on the Missouri
river, fifty miles west of St. Louis, in what is now St. Charles
county-then Spanish territory. The Spanish governor gave
him ten thousand acres of land and appointed him to an office;
but he failed to perfect his title to this magnificent domain
because it required a trip to New Orleans, and so lost that.
Old, without a home, without knowledge of handicraft by
which to obtain means to buy one, he appealed to Kentucky.
In one of his petitions occurred the pathetic words: "I have
not a spot of ground whereon to lay my bones." The state
asked Congress (February 8th, 1812) to donate to him out
of the public domain ten thousand acres, which was done; but
there seemed to be a fatality in connection with the heroic old
woodman's desire to possess a moiety of the vast territory
of which he had done much to make his countrymen lords;
and through lawsuits this last gift was soon lost, and he died
landless. His passion for hunting and for the great solitudes
seems never to have waned. When enfeebled by age he would
wander away into remote forests, with a single companion,


whom he bound by written contract to take care of him and
bring him home, dead or alive. When eighty-five years old he
went on one of these excursions a hundred miles. In 1819 a
distinguished American artist went to his home in Missouri to
paint his portrait. A full-length painting now hangs in the
House of Representatives in Frankfort. This was the work
of a young Kentucky artist, W. C. Allen, who presented it to
the state, December 9th, 1839. He died at the home of Flan-
ders Calloway, his son-in-law, in Charette, Missouri, Septem-
ber 26th, 1820, in his eighty-ninth year. In 1845, the legisla-
ture ofI Kentucky had the remains of himself and wife removed

0- -


to Frankfort, where (September 13th) they were re-interred
with imposing ceremonies. He is described as having been
"five feet ten inches high, and of robust and powerful propor-
tions, His countenance was mild and contemplative-indicat-
ing a frame of mind altogether different from the restlessness
and activity that distinguished him." A distinguished author
and statesman wrote of him while he was still living: "From
the country of his choice and of his fondest predilection, he
has been banished by difficulties he knew not how to surmount.
* Yet history shall do him justice; and those
who come after him may balance his relative claims to the
regards of posterity. * To appreciate the merit


of an enterprise we should have in view the difficulties which
opposed its execution. Eulogiums on those who have founded
great cities and states have been multiplied. * *
Boone and other pioneer Kentuckians merit the appellation of
founders, and not less than the great ones of the past do they
deserve the notice of subsequent generations. Naturally his
sagacity was considerable; and as a woodsman he was soon
expert -and ultimately supereminent. Far from ferocity, his
temper was mild, humane, and charitable; his manners gentle;-
his address conciliating; his heart open to friendship and hos-
pitality. Yet his most remarkable quality was an enduring
and unshakable fortitude."
In his Boonesborough address, Governor Morehead said:
"Such were his qualities that with a very common education
he was enabled to maintain, through a-long and useful career,
a conspicuous rank among the most distinguished of his
cotemporaries; and the testimonials of public gratitude with
which he was honored after death are never awarded by'an
intelligent people to the undeserving. * He united
in an eminent degree the qualities of shrewdness, caution,
and courage, with uncommon muscular strength. He was
seldom taken by surprise, he never shrank from danger nor
cowered beneath the pressure of exposure and fatigue. In
every emergency he was a safe guide and a wise counsellor.
His judgment and penetration were proverbially accu-
rate. It is not assuming too much to say that with-
out him, in all probability, the settlements could not have
been upheld, and the conquest of Kentucky might have been
reserved for the emigrants of the nineteenth century. *
Resting on the solid advantages of his services to his country,
his fame will survive when the achievements of men greatly
his superiors in rank and intellect will be forgotten."
He was a pure-minded, honorable man; modest and always
ready to serve rather than to seek prominence as a leader;
brave without rashness; and with a fortitude that nothing but
death could overcome.
II. Col. James Harrod.-The Hon. Humphrey Marshall,
in his History of Kentucky (1824), says of this leader of the
settlers of Harrodsburgh:
"Among the hardy sons of that hardy race of men called
woodsmen and hunters was James Harrod-no less a soldier


than a hunter. In 1774 he joined Colonel Lewis, and with
his followers was in the battle at the mouth of the Kana-
wha; the next year he returned to the place of his choice and
there established himself. He was six feet high, well propor-
tioned, and finely constructed for strength and activity. His
complexion was dark; his hair and eyes black; his counte-
nance animated; his gait firm; his deportment grave; his con-
versation easily drawn out but not obtruded; his speech was
mild and his manners conciliating, rather by the confidence
they inspired than any grace or elegance they displayed.
Yet, he could but imperfectly read or write. It may
be asked, what was there in the character of such a man that
merits the notice of an historian ? * Before the estab-
lishment of schools; before the term,
education, was even known-aye, be-
fore letters were invented-the human
heart was the seat of kindness, of
generosity, of fortitude, of magna-
nimity, of all the social virtues.
Without knowing how to read or
write, James Harrod could be kind
and obliging to his fellow-men; active
and brave in their defense; dexterous
in killing game (the source of sup-
ply) and in the distribution of his
spoils. He could be an expert pilot
in the woods and guide his followers SENATOR
with certainty and safety. In fine, HUMPHREY MARSHALL.
he could be a captain over others as
illiterate as himself and less endowed with the useful and
benevolent traits of the heart and the head; and he was. He
was vigilant, active, and skillful. He was always ready to
defend his country and companions against the Indians. News
is brought to him that the Indians had surprised a party four
miles hence and killed a man. 'Boys,' says he to those
about him, 'let us go and beat the red rascals;' then snatches
up his gun and runs at their head. He hears that a family are
in want of meat. He gets his rifle, repairs to the forest, kills.
the needful supply, and presently offers it to the sufferers. A
plow-horse is in the range (a pasture without. bounds), and
the owner, yet unused to the woods, or apprehensive of the


danger attending search says to Harrod: 'My horse has not
come up; I can't plow to-day.' 'What kind of a horse is
yours?' he inquires. The answer is given; Harrod disap-
pears; and in a little time the horse is driven to the owner's
door. These traits not only portray the character of Harrod
but delineate the circumstances of the country. They belong
to history. Usefulness is merit. A fort was
too circumscribed a field for his active disposition. To
breathe the fresh air of the forest; to range the woods and
hunt game; to trap the otter, the beaver, and the wolf-
were congenial to his feelings, and occupied most of his
time. He was nevertheless actively engaged in the defense
of the country on several expeditions into the Indian ter-
ritory, as well. as on various scouts and explorations on
the frontiers. In these the dexterity of the woodsman and
the bravery of the soldier were conspicuous and useful.
There was no labor too great for his hardihood, no enterprise
too daring for his courage. His comrades knew his personal
worth and the public acknowledged his services. The rank of
colonel which was conferred upon him is a durable testimonial
in his favor. After the country became extensively popu-
lated, and when he was a husband and father of a family, and
in circumstances to enjoy every social comfort, such was the
effect of habit or of an original disposition ever predominant,
that he would leave his home, repair to distant and unsettled
localities, and remain for weeks at a time, obscured in the
forests or buried among knobs. On one of these expeditions
he lost his life; whether by natural death, the fangs of wild
beasts, or the tomahawk of the savage, is not known. He left
one daughter, and with her an ample patrimony in rich lands.
* * He was simple in his manners, frugal in his diet,
independent in his sentiments, open in his counsels, complying
in his conduct, seeming to command because always foremost
in danger. If he ever consented to be a leader, it was of a
hunting or a military band of his willing friends, whose safety
he regarded as his own and whose obedience was voluntary.
Born free and accustomed to control his own actions, one pas-
sion predominated-a love of liberty. What he was himself
he wished every other human creature to be-free. *
James Harrod will be remembered with affection and regret
by the last of his comrades, and -this memorial of his merits


will descend to posterity." His wife maintained that he was
murdered by a man named Bridges, who had a personal
grudge against him growing out of a lawsuit.
III. Gen. Benjamin Logan.-Like many other men of ac-
tion whose names are inseparably connected with the history of
Kentucky, Logan had little knowledge of books, but he had a
quick and comprehensive mind, was a student of men, and had
a'practical turn for both private and public affairs. He was
a man of commanding influence among his fellow-pioneers in
their long contest with savages and in their courts and delib-
erative bodies. He has been described as having had "a com-
manding form, which towered conspicuous among all-tall,
athletic, and dignified; a face cast in the finest mould of manly
beauty-dark, grave, and contemplative, and which, while it
evinced unyielding fortitude and impenetrable reserve, invited
to a confidence which was never betrayed." He was born in
Augusta county, Virginia, in 1742; when he was fourteen
years old he lost his father and thus became the chief stay of
his mother and several children younger than himself; refused,
when he became of age, to take advantage of the law that gave
to the oldest son the father's lands, and, with his mother's
consent, sold or divided them and shared equally with his
brothers and sisters; aided by a brother he provided for the
mother a home for life; then removed to the Holston river,
purchased land, married, and began farming there. It is prob-
able thatbefore settling on the Holston he had had his firstexpe-
rience in warfare, as he was sergeant in a company of Virginia
troops on Col. Henry Bouquet's expedition which resulted
in the complete defeat of the Indians at Bushy Run, August 5th
and 6th, 1763, when he was about twenty-one years old. In
1774 he served on Dumnore's campaign; in 1775, as we have
seen, he joined the Boone party on its way to Kentucky, but
he is said to have distrusted Henderson's plans, and so he
determined to form an independent settlement, for which pur-
pose he proceeded to the place afterward known as Logan's
Station, near the present city of Stanford. He took with him
Wm. Galaspy and two or three slaves; built a fort, cleared
ground, and made a crop; went back to Virginia in the
autumn and brought to the new home his other slaves and his
cattle; returned again to Virginia and in March, 1776; brought
his family; and was thenceforth prominent in both the mili-


tary and civil affairs of the country. His services as a par-
ticipant (and in most cases a leader) in conflicts with the
Indians are noted in ensuing chapters. Instances of his deter-
mined and self-sacrificing courage occurred during the siege of
his station which began May 20th, 1777. When the concealed
Indians fired that morning upon the men who were guarding
the women engaged outside milking their cows, and Burr
Harrison, badly wounded, fell before he could reach the gate,
he lay within range of the Indian rifles and in sight of his
agonized wife and anxious friends till Logan brought him in.
This he did by covering himself with a small feather bed and
going out as soon as darkness set in sufficiently to make a man
on all fours appearto the Indians to be a big hog, moving around
the walls of the stockade in search of something to eat. He
crept hither and thither to deepen the deception, but finally
reached Harrison, apparently by accident, when he gathered
him in his arms and sprang to his feet. Indian bullets at once
showered around them, but he carried his comrade into the
fort without further hurt, and himself was untouched. When
ammunition was about to fail, he took upon himself the des-
perate alternative of procuring a supply. Choosing two gal-
lant comrades to accompany him, he made his way through
the Indian lines, and in ten days performed the almost incredi-
ble feat of going to the settlements on the Holston, procuring
supplies, and returning-a distance, back and forth, of more
than three hundred miles, and for the most part by a rough and
untravelled route. In 1777 he was a member of the Court of
Quarter Sessions at Harrodstown; when Kentucky was divided
into three counties (November 1st, 1780), he was commis-
sioned colonel, or county lieutenant for Lincoln; was a mem-
ber of the Virginia Legislature, 1781; was a member of the
conventions which met in Danville in 1785, 1787, and 1788; a
member of the convention of 1792 which formed the first
state constitution, and was one of the electors of senate;
and he several times represented his county in the legisla-
ture. He lived to old age, beloved and honored by the
people of the whole state.
IV. Richard Henderson.-Some writers give this man a
military title, speaking of him as Colonel Henderson. This is
merely a courtesy, and seems trivial in itself; but it has a
tendency to degrade the term as applied to several of our


noble pioneers, who, whether commissioned or not, did bear
arms, exercise command, incur danger, fight gallantly, and in
some instances give up their lives in conflict or meet death by
torture at the hands of captors who took a demoniac delight
in the torments of helpless prisoners. The only semblance of
warlike service rendered by Henderson was the bringing of
about thirty men, April, 1775, to re-enforce Boonesborough.
He had little part in the hardships incident to pioneer life, and
was at no time exposed to any grave danger. His connection
with the settlers, however, as the leading spirit of the Tran-
sylvania Company, made him for a short time prominent in
their affairs and left its influence upon the state; and while
he was never really a citizen or a useful factor in the upbuild-
ing of the commonwealth, his name is indissolubly associated
with it, and deserves a brief notice. He was born in Hanover
county, Virginia, April 20th, 1735, but his parents afterward
removed to Granville county, North Carolina. He had no oppor-
tunities for education, and when he reached manhood he was
unable to read and write. His natural abilities, though, were
very great; he was ambitious of distinction, and by diligent
application he qualified himself for business; was appointed a
constable, then an under sheriff; studied law (for a time
under the direction of an able counsellor); became a success-
ful practitioner in both the inferior and superior courts of the
Province of North Carolina; was noted for his solid profes-
sional attainments, and was appointed an associate judge, which
place he filled with distinction until the courts were abolished
by the British crown. By the time he was forty years old,
however, he had indulged in wild speculations, which, with
ostentatious and extravagant living, had deeply involved him
in debt; and he now conceived and proceeded to carry out a
most tremendous scheme, apparently with a view to both
enriching himself and attaining to a power similar to that of
a feudal lord of the olden time. The formation of the Tran-
sylvania Company and the first steps to colonize the com-
pany's purchase have been noticed in the preceding chapter.
It is not to be inferred that the company's great design con-
templated a wanton and vicious disregard of either the rights
of the pioneers or of Virginia's claim under previous treaty.
Its services were recognized and amply remunerated by both
Virginia and North Carolina, though its pretensions were set


aside; and with Henderson were associated Virginia and Noith
Carolina gentlemen, several of whom took an active part in
the settlement and defense of the state, 'whose names are
familiar in its stirring annals, and whose descendants are
among the most honorable of Kentucky families. Of Hen-
derson himself it has been recorded that he died at his home
in Granville, North Carolina,' universally loved and respected."


1. You come now to a time which you should keep in mind
as a distinct period in the history of your state. It is remark-
able not only because the events that followed each other in
rapid succession were important in themselves but because of
their far-reaching consequences. During the eight years in
which the thirteen colonies were engaged in war with a mighty
power to free themselves from tyrannical rule and establish a
government of their own, the pioneers of Kentucky were fix-
ing themselves firmly in their new home, and at the same time
conquering for the struggling government beyond the Allegha-
nies a vast region north and northeast, considerably greater in
area than all the thirteen states together, and now the home
of more than fifteen millions of free people. But for the
heroic deeds of the pioneers, and their perseverance under
many forms of trial and suffering, "the magnificent country,"
says an able jurist, "which now extends as one with us to the
north Pacific might have been broken from us at the summit
of the eastern mountains."
2. Many of the first settlers of Kentucky had been soldiers
in the French and Indian war, 1754 to 1763. The effect of
this experience, as well as their unconquerable spirit, was
shown in a striking way in the campaign of 1774 against the
Shawnees and their fierce allies from the northeast. While
Dunmore was getting ready, in his lordly British way (or perfidi-
ously delaying, as is understood), to move down the Ohio from
Pittsburgh, with the strong right wing of his army, General
Lewis, an old border fighter and leader, had pushed across
with the weaker left wing to Point Pleasant, where he met a


well-armed savage force, one-third greater than his own, and
so utterly routed them that they fled to their villages in Ohio,
and their war of destruction was over. With Lewis that day
were the Boones, Floyd, Harrod, Shelby, McDowell, and other
master spirits in the settling of Kentucky.
3. After the attacks on Boone's party previously men-
tioned, the Indians were not constantly menacing and trouble-
some during the remainder of 1775, and immigration notably
increased. Before the close of the year, the Wells brothers
and seven other men encamped on Limestone creek and made
surveys embracing 15,000 acres; in Bourbon county, on a
creek which afterward took his name, John Hinkston built, in
April, a cabin on the spot afterward occupied by Ruddle's
Station; some improvements were made at Drennon Springs,
Henry county; Haggins, Williams and others located Martin's
Station, near what is now Lair's depot, in Scott county; the
Royal Spring, now in the limits of Georgetown, was visited
early in the year, and in November, John McClelland settled
there with his family; in May Joseph Lindsey built a cabin
on Elkhorn, a short distance from Lexington; Elias Tobin
built a cabin and- made a small clearing on Slate creek in
Bath county; Calk built one about a mile from Mount Ster-
ling; William Whitley and wife, with a brother-in-law of his
and seven other persons, located near Crab Orchard in Lin-
coln county; Colonel Calamore raised a crop of corn on Lulbe-
grud creek in Clark county; and John Floyd made surveys in
Bourbon county and elsewhere. Altogether, it was a time of
much activity in exploring and locating homes.
4. Shortly after completing the Boonesborough stockade,
Boone went back to North Carolina for his family. In about
three months he returned to Boonesborough, bringing them
with him. Richard Calloway, William Poague, and John
Stager, with their families, accompanied the Boones. They
arrived September 26th, 1775, and this was the beginning
of domestic life in Kentucky.


5. Soon afterward, a party from North Carolina, led by
Hugh McGary, reached Harrodstown. McGary, Richard
Hogan, and Thomas Denton brought their families, so there
were now two important stations made home-like by women
and children. During the winter following, the fort of Har-
rodstown was begun, on what is now Seminary Hill.
6. Early in the spring of this year George Rogers Clark
came to Harrodstown. He was then less than twenty-three
years old, but had held a commission as captain in Governor
Dunmore's army the year before. During his stay of a few
months he visited the settlements, and made himself familiar
with existing conditions and the needs of the scattered colon-
ists. His agreeable manner, as well as his evident ability and
the lively interest he manifested, soon won him the esteem
and confidence of the people, and he was placed in command
of their militia.
7. In the spring of next year, Clark came again to Ken-
tucky to make it his home. At his suggestion a general
meeting was held at Harrodstown, June 6th, 1776, to take
steps to ascertain whether the territory south and west of the
Kentucky river belonged to Virginia. Noting the confusion
and uncertainty arising from conflicting claims and the grow-
ing dissatisfaction with the Henderson Company, whose title
he did not admit, he had conceived the plan of using the lands
as an inducement to immigrafits and thus establishing an
independent state, provided Virginia would not assert her
claims and aid in protecting the settlements. The meeting
chose him and Gabriel John Jones as agents of the people of
Kentucky to the Virginia Legislature.
8. Accepting the trust they set out on horse-back, but they
soon lost or abandoned their horses; the season was so rainy
as to make travelling on foot unusually laborious and slow, and
at last to afflict them with scald feet; they suffered for food;
and were compelled to rest some days in an abandoned fort


near Cumberland Gap; but at length they reached Williams-
burgh to find the legislature adjourned.
9. Jones went to his old home on the Holston, but Clark
stayed to follow up his purpose. Gov. Patrick Henry was
at home sick; but when Clark got audience with him he
promptly approved of his plan, and gave him a letter to the
Executive Council. To the council he applied for 500 pounds
of powder-an article for which the Kentucky colonists were
now dependent upon the Henderson Company.
10. Though disposed to help their countrymen the council
replied that as the Kentuckians had not been recognized as
citizens and under Virginia's protection they could do nothing
more than lend the powder, and Clark must be responsible for
it and bear expense of moving it. They gave him an order
on the keeper of the public magazine, with these express pro-
visions. After reflection, he resolved to go back to Harrods-
town and move for the erection of Kentucky into an inde-
pendent state, and returned the order, with a letter showing
why he could not accept the loan. He said that a country
which was not worth defending was not worth claiming, and
that his people must look elsewhere for help.
11. This brought a reconsideration, with the result that the
order was made to furnish the powder and have it conveyed
to Pittsburgh or Fort Pitt and delivered to Clark for Ken-
tucky. 'He endeavored to notify the settlers at Harrodstown
to have it carried thither, and remained in Virginia to attend
the autumn session of the legislature. Jones having rejoined
him, they moved that body to assert their claim to all the ter-
ritory now constituting this state and organize it as Kentucky
county. In spite of the efforts of Henderson and his associ-
ates, they were successful. The title of the Transylvania
Company was thus declared null and void; but as compensa-
tion for expenses incurred, and for services rendered to the
settlers, theVirginia Legislature granted the company 200,000
acres of land lying along Ohio river on both sides of the Green.


12. Late in September of this year (1776), Clark learned
that the powder still lay at Fort Pitt, his message having
failed to reach Harrodstown, and he hastened to take charge
of it. Employing seven boatmen, he succeeded in carrying
it safe to the mouth of Limestone creek, though harassed all
the way by Indians. Going up that stream, he hid it along
the bank, and set off on foot, with Jones and probably others,
to Harrodstown for an escort. At Hinkston Station he
learned that John Todd, with a party of surveyors, was in
the neighborhood, and waited some days, intending to ask
their assistance; but as they did not come, he left Jones, and
resumed his journey, two men accompanying him. When
Todd came in and learned what Clark wanted he set out with
ten men, Jones being guide, to find the powder and take it to
Harrodstown; but near Blue Licks Indians attacked them;
Jones and others were killed and the rest captured; but Clark
sent a party, who found the powder and carried it to the set-
tlement. In October, 1776, the Virginia Legislature estab-
lished the county of Kentucky, as a part of that state, and the
settlers were entitled to protection, and to be represented in
that body.
13. I have dwelt at some -length on these transactions
because the result of Clark's mission was a turning point in
the destiny of Kentucky. The authority of Virginia was
established and acknowledged, and the pioneers had indis-
pensable means of defense. Rival claims to the territory and
conflicting pretensions to control were no longer to produce
confusion and prevent concert of action in building up the
new commonwealth. Soon after the Boonesborough conven-
tion, and the establishment of a land office there by the
Henderson Company, the more thoughtful settlers began to
question the legality of that company's claims, and dissatis-
faction increased when the-price of lands and fees of entry
were raised. Eighty-four settlers, as previously stated (some
of whom had been delegates to the Boonesborough con-



vention), filed in the Virginia Legislature a written pro-
test against the pretensions of the company, and asked that
body to decide whether Kentucky was a part of that state or
whether it belonged to Great Britain, under which govern-
ment the Transylvania Company claimed to exercise control.
The exertions of the far-seeing and determined Clark had
brought the matter to a happy conclusion.
14. Among the various small settlements made this year
(1776), was one at Leestown, a mile below Frankfort; one
on Stoner creek in Bourbon county; and one, called Sandusky's
Station, on Pleasant Run creek, in Washington county, by
Jacob and James Sandusky.
15. About the middle of July, it was learned that some
time before a large body of Indians had invaded Kentucky
and divided into small parties, to strike all the settlements at
the same time and so prevent their assisting one another. On
the 7th of this month, Elizabeth Calloway who was about
grown, and her sister Frances and Jemima Boone, both
thirteen or fourteen years old, were taken prisoners by
Indians and hurried away. They had incautiously rowed a
canoe too near the north shore of the river, opposite Boones-
borough, suspecting no danger because for more than a year
the whites had been free from molestation. It was late in
the afternoon; the only canoe was on the other side of the
river; and it was not until next morning that the fathers of
the girls, Daniel Boone and Richard Calloway, with John
Floyd and five others could cross over. 'After travelling
altogether about forty miles, delayed by the difficulty of keep-
ing track of the savages, which they had been careful to con-
ceal, the pursuers ca'ne upon them next day as they were
kindling a fire to cook. Four men fired upon the Indians and
all rushed forward. They fled, though two of them were
wounded, and left everything but one shotgun. The girls
were recovered unharmed.


16. About mid-summer the Indians attacked Hinkston and
other settlers along the Licking. They killed several persons,
and forced others to take refuge at Boonesborough, Harrods-
town, and McClelland's Station at the Royal Spring. Robert
Patterson, who had been one of the first to visit the last-named
place the year before and assist in building the fort, started in
October with six others to Pittsburgh to get ammunition and
other supplies. They went by canoe up the Ohio, and on the
12th landed on the north side of the river, where they. built
a fire. Sleeping on their arms that night they were fired upon
by Indians and then attacked with tomahawks. All but one
or two were killed or wounded. Patterson was so badly hurt
that he was for a year under a surgeon's care.
17. On the 29th of December, forty or fifty Mingo Indians
attacked McClelland's Station, which was defended by twenty
men. Their chief, Pluggy, was killed, and after several hours
fighting they were driven off; but John McClelland, the
founder of the station, was mortally wounded, as was one
other man, while two others were badly wounded. The fort
was abandoned for a time, the survivors taking refuge at
18. March 6th, 1777, James and William Ray, with two
other men, were clearing land near Shawnee Spring, four
miles from Harrodstown, when a party of forty-seven Indians
under the chief Blackfish attacked them, killing William Ray
and capturing one man. James Ray, a rapid runner, escaped
to the fort, and the other man saved himself by hiding. The
occupants of the fort strengthened the works and otherwise
prepared for an attack. Next morning, the Indians fired a
cabin east of the town; and a number of the whites in the fort,
having seen nobody, were deceived and rushed out to save the
house. The Indians tried to prevent their return; but they
retreated to a wooded knoll, where the Harrodsburgh court-
house now stands, and took shelter. A fight ensued, in which
one Indian was killed and four white men wounded-one of


them mortally. They succeeded in reaching the fort, and the
Indians soon withdrew.
19. On the 15th of April, about one hundred Indians
attacked Boonesborough, killing one man and wounding four
others. They were quickly driven off, with what loss was
not ascertained.
20. On the 20th of May, a band estimated also at one hun-
dred, concealed themselves near Logan's Fort and fired upon
men who were standing guard outside, where women were
milking. One man was killed and two wounded-one mor-
tally. There were now but twelve fighting men left, but they
succeeded in maintaining themselves until some time in Sep-
tember, when Colonel Bowman, coming from Virginia with a
hundred men, reached the place. His advance was fired upon
from ambush and several killed. When the main body came
up the Indians fled. During this siege the ammunition of the
whites grew so scarce that Logan, with two men, left the fort
by night and went to the Holston, beyond Cumberland Gap
for a supply. The food supply so failed that men had to take
the risk of going out beyond hearing of gunshot at such times
of night as would be most likely to escape observation, to
kill and bring in wild game. Their neighbors at Boones-
borough and Harrodstown could not help them, being com-
pelled to guard themselves. Threatened with starvation;
apprehensive that their supply of powder and ball would
utterly fail; girt about by merciless foes nearly ten times out-
numbering their own riflemen; knowing that to be captured
was to meet horrible death or horrors worse than death;
two-thirds of the little community shut in there being women
and children-how sorely were they all tried!
21. On an other occasion during this year Indians were
gathered at Big Flat Lick, two miles from Logan's Station,
when they were discovered by Logan, who raised a party of
men and attacked them, driving them off with much loss and
without any on his part. Later, when he was on horse-back,


hunting near the same place, they fired upon him from am-
bush. His right arm was broken and he was slightly wounded
in the breast. The savages rushed upon him but he escaped,
though narrowly.
\, 22. In June a party of Indians discovered in the vicinity
of Boonesborough were driven by Major Smith, with seven-
teen men, across the Ohio, and one of them was killed.
Returning, they found on the way about thirty more con-
cealed. One of these, separated at the time from the rest,
was killed, and part of Smith's force fired upon and charged
the main body, dispersing them. On the 4th of July, how-
ever, two hundred Indians appeared before Boonesborough
and began a close and fierce attack. This lasted but two days,
as they found themselves suffering severely in proportion to
the effect produced upon the garrison. The whites lost one
man killed and two wounded, while the Indian loss was known
to be seven killed, and the wounded were probably many
more. On the 25th of this month the force at Boonesborough
was greatly strengthened by the arrival of forty-five men
from North Carolina.
23. After the attack on Harrodstown, of which have
told you, the Indians hung about the settlement to prevent
the raising of corn and to kill or drive off stock at pasture on
the range. Of forty horses, all but one disappeared, and
most of the cattle, and little corn had been raised. While
some of the men were clearing a spot for turnips two hundred
yards from the fort, one of them standing guard discovered
and fired at an Indian. Other indications showed that a band
of them was near. By a stratagem, planned and executed
by Clark, they were discovered in concealment and four of
them killed before they could make resistance, and the rest
fled. While pursuing them, the whites found within four
hundred yards of the fort a deserted camp which seemed to
have been occupied by five or six hundred warriors.


24. Turning to transactions of an earlier date, let us note
that in the midst of dangers and far removed from the parent
state, the settlers were not unmindful of their rights as citi-
zens of the new county of Kentucky. On the 19th of April,
1777, the first general election was held, and John Todd and
Richard Calloway were chosen members of the Virginia Legis-
lature. On the 23rd of May they set out to take their places
in that body.
25. Early in the spring a party was sent by Clark (who
seems to have acted by common consent as a leader in matters
other than those strictly pertaining to his station as com-
mander of the militia) to break some hemp and flax left at
Hinkston's place when the whites were forced to abandon it.
They found Indians encamped there and were driven back,
but without loss.
26. In July, Clark ordered a force of spies and scouts to
be organized, to patrol the Ohio river and some interior
places weekly, by twos, and give notice of Indian movements.
Boonesborough, Harrodstown and Logan's Station appointed
two each, and the plan proved beneficial, though the number
was too small to keep close watch in all quarters and detect
the coming of every small body of savages.
27. Suspecting that the great activity of the Indians this
year was due to British influence, he had sent two spies to the
British posts at Detroit, Vincennes and Kaskaskia, who dis-
covered that his surmises were correct, and further that they
Were endeavoring to influence against Virginians and Kentuck-
: ians the well affected French residents of these outposts.
This information had a most important bearing, as it con-
firmed his impression that a movement against them ought to
be made. October 1st he set out for Virginia, without hav-
ing disclosed his plans, to submit them to the Executive
Council of Virginia; and after settling the accounts of the
Kentucky militia, and studying the disposition of those in
power he laid his scheme (December 10th) before Governor


Henry. The result was that, after due deliberation on the
part of the governor and the able and patriotic gentlemen
whom he took into his confidence, Clark received, January
2nd, 1778, secret instructions to take the British post at Kas-
kaskia, in Illinois, on the Kaskaskia river, seven or eight miles
above its mouth.
28. At Harrodstown, September 2nd, 1777, was held the
first court in the new county. The act establishing it was
passed on the 6th of December preceding. This court was
composed of eight magistrates, who were to meet monthly
for the transaction of business. Levi Todd was chosen clerk
of the court, and besides other matters then attended to,
officers for a regiment of militia were commissioned, John
Bowman being made colonel.
29. This year had proved unfavorable to the pioneers.
Indian hostilities had reduced the settlements to the three
principal ones, Boonesborough, Harrodstown, and Logan's;
but these had so successfully defended themselves that their
permanency was assured.
30. On the 1st of January, 1778, Boone with thirty men
went to the Blue Licks to make salt for the settlements, of
which they were in great want. February 7th, while he was
out hunting game for the salt-makers, he was captured by a
large Indian force (with which were two Frenchmen), as they
were on their way to attack Boonesborough. On the 15th they
brought him to the Blue Licks, where, upon his advice, twenty-
seven of the men surrendered, having been promised good
treatment, and for once the savages kept faith. Three of the
men had been sent home with salt, and so escaped capture.
The Indians returned to Chillicothe with their prisoners, and
in Mach took Boone and ten others to Detroit, where they
delivered the ten to the British, but brought Boone back with
them. Here he was adopted into the tribe, and remained
among them, feigning to be contented till he found that four
hundred and fifty of their warriors were preparing to march


against Boonesborough. He contrived to escape (June 16th),
and made the journey to the stockade (one hundred and sixty
miles) in five days, with but one substantial meal, which he
had hidden in his blanket before starting. Preparation was
made to receive the attack but the Indians did not appear.
31. Some time in August he led a party to attack their
town at Paint creek on the Scioto river, but met thirty of
them on their way to join the large force from Chillicothe,
which was then on the march for Boonesborough. A fight
ensued, with a loss to the Indians of one killed and one or two
wounded. Boone's party received no injury. They took
from the Indians three horses and all their baggage. As-
certaining by spies that their town had been deserted, the
company hastily returned to Boonesborough, where they
arrived before the enemy. Next day they marched up, flying
the British flag, and demanded a surrender. The force, more
than four hundred in number, was commanded by Captain
Duquesne, a Canadian Frenchman, and with him were eleven
of his countrymen. Though Boonesborough had but fifty
fighting men, they refused to surrender. Duquesne proposed
other terms, and Boone with eight men went out to treat with
him, but quickly discovered that they meant treacherously to
violate the rules of warfare, as known and observed even in
those days, whereupon they ran back into the fort. Firing
immediately began, and that of the Kentuckians was so deadly
that the Indians fell back and sought better shelter. Still
suffering loss without being able to inflict any, an attempt was
made to reach the stockade by digging a mine from a con-
cealed point on the river bank and blow it up; but it was soon
found that the inmates had discovered the plan and were
countermining. Duquesne then abandoned the project and
laid regular siege to the place, according to the Indian fashion.
This proved no better, and after having spent nine days with
a loss of thirty-seven killed and many wounded, the Indians
abandoned the attempt, and Boonesborough was never again
disturbed by so great a force.


)-s32. Clark, who had been commissioned colonel, having
received instructions as previously stated, proceeded at once
to raise a sufficient force to execute his orders. This was to
be recruited west of the Alleghanies, and it was some months
before everything was in readiness, but by the 27th of May,
having embarked at Fort Pitt, he reached Corn Island with
three companies, and a considerable number of families. Here
he built a fort and drilled his raw troops. He was joined
meanwhile by volunteers from among the Kentucky settlers
under Capt. Joseph Bowman, and on the 27th of June he
began his voyage down the Ohio with about one hundred and
thirty-five men.
33. Landing on the Illinois side, a little above the mouth
of the Tennessee, he proceeded across the country, northwest,
having fallen in with a party of hunters (who consented to
join them) and found a guide who knew the country. On the
afternoon of July 4th they were within a few miles of Kas-
kaskia, held by a British garrison; and so skillfully did Clark
conduct the affair that the fort was taken and the town in his
possession that night, without bloodshed. The coming of the
invader was unexpected and when his presence became known
it was too late to resist.
34. About sixty miles up the Mississippi was another post,
Cahokia, near which a considerable body of Indians was gath-
ered. A detachment of mounted men under Bowman, which
a number of French citizens of Kaskaskia volunteered to
. accompany, set out for this place, and, on the 6th of July,
took it also by surprise and without resistance. The Indians
fled when they learned that the two places were in possession
of Clark's men, and the inhabitants took the oath of allegiance
to Virginia.
35. Courts were established and a form of government
provided for the towns, the people co-operating; and the civil
control of Virginia was thus established over this far-outlying


36. Between Kaskaskia and the Falls of Ohio, two hun-
dred and thirty miles across country, from the former, was
another station, St. Vincent's on the Wabash river, where
Vincennes, Indiana, now stands. Colonel Clark saw the
importance of getting possession of this, and applied to
M. Gibault, priest of Kaskaskia and St. Vincent's, for informa-
tion. This gentleman proved to be a warm friend to Vir-
ginia, and offered to induce the people of St. Vincent's to
throw off British rule and ally themselves with the Americans.
On the 14th of July he set out with one Dr. Lafont and one
of Clark's spies, and by the first of August his mission was
accomplished. The inhabitants took the oath of allegiance to
Virginia, elected a commandant of their own, and hoisted the
American flag. The successful commander now established
garrisons under trusty officers at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, and
sent Capt. Leonard Helm to take command at St. Vincent's.
William Linn, a volunteer from Kentucky, was sent back, with
the men who wished to return, to establish a fort on the
present site of Louisville.
37. Upon the recommendation of Colonel Clark the Vir-
ginia Legislature organized, in October 1778, the territory of
which he now held possession, as Illinois county, and ap-
pointed John Todd its governor. Clark neglected no oppor-
tunity to treat with Indian tribes and to cultivate friendly
relations with the French settlers in the territory, in order
still further to weaken British influence and so protect Ken-
tucky as well as otherwise to aid the patriot army beyond the
Alleghanies in their struggle for liberty.
38. In December, Hamilton, the British commandant at
Detroit, came to St. Vincent's, with a force of four hundred
men. Captain Helm had not been furnished troops to defend
the place, nor was there a local militia, and he with one other
American was compelled tq surrender the fort and town to.
Hamilton, though not until he had made terms, that he and his
one private should have the honors of war.


I. Gen. James Ray.--Ray was evidently one of the most
daring, vigilant, and efficient among the remarkable men
who made the first settlements, and his public services con-
tinued for more than forty years; but historians have spoken
of him in a kind of matter-of-course way and have not
recorded enough to enable us to give a connected and really
satisfactory account of his life. It is nowhere stated how he
acquired the title of general. He came to Harrodstown with
his step-father, McGary, in 1775, when he was but fifteen years
old; was left near the mouth of Gilbert's creek, with two
other boys, when the party became bewildered, in charge of
the horses and cattle, and remained three weeks before the
others found the station and relieved him of his danger and
responsibility; and thereafter bore the part of a man in the
work of the colony, in its defense, in scouting, and in expedi-
tions against the savages. It is gathered here and there that
he was of stalwart frame, erect, broad-shouldered, with keen
black eyes, and active as a cat. In the attack on the little
party (March, 1777), when his brother was killed and Shores
made prisoner he escaped to the fort, four miles off, by out-
running the fleetest of Blackfish's warriors, so astonishing
them that long afterward the chief spoke of "the boy at
Harrodstown" who could outrun his men. When out one day
about two hundred yards from the fort, with one McConnell,
shooting at a mark, and McConnell was shot from ambush, Ray
instantly detected where the shot came from and killed an
Indian, then bounded off amid a shower of balls; but the sav-
ages being close upon him when he came near the gate it could
not be opened without incurring the risk of destruction to the
garrison, and he threw himself on the ground behind a stump
scarcely large enough to screen him from the balls which
struck around him for four hours. At length he was relieved
by a suggestion of his own-a hole was dug under a cabin
wall, and as he was but about twenty feet away he succeeded
in reaching it and getting inside. In 1777, while the Indians
hung continuously round the station to prevent the cultivation
of the fields, and the inhabitants were so reduced to distress
by scarcity of food, he proved to be the most successful of
their hunters in evading the enemy and bringing in supplies


of game. He was then but seventeen years old. Stealing out
before day, he would mount an old horse-the only one of
forty brought to Kentucky by his step-father-and make his
way out of hearing of the besiegers, taking care to break his
trail by riding in the water of Salt river or such other streams
as he struck, and kill his load of game, which he brought back
after nightfall. He thus inspired confidence and rendered him-
self also a great favorite. He was one of the volunteers from
Harrodstown on the unfortunate expedition to old Chillicothe
in 1779; and when Colonel Bowman was afterward censured
for not signaling Colonel Logan as agreed upon, he maintained
that Bowman was not blameworthy because the vigorous
attack of the Indians was made before he got near enough.
Setting forth one morning on a hunt, after he had seen an old
Scotchman start out to plow a field of corn in which the fami-
lies in the fort had a common interest, he apprehended that
the plowman might not be safe, as he had the evening before
seen traces of Indians. Approaching the field he saw a well-
armed Indian about two hundred yards before him, keeping a
tree between him and the Scotchman, advancing on him as the
latter moved toward the other end of the field, and hiding when
he turned to come back. This he did three times, and was at
last within fifty yards of his intended victim, when he attempted
to level his rifle, but Ray shot him dead. The Indian fired as
he fell, but without effect. The Scotchman set off on such a
furious run that he broke through the brush fence by which
the ground was enclosed, and could not be stopped by Ray's
calling to him; and when he got home he maintained that he
had been attacked by a whole band of Indians; but his deliverer
explained and went back after the Indian's scalp, taking some
men along that Lhey might see for themselves. Between 1800
and 1820, General .Ray was ten or twelve times a representative
of his county in the legislature.
II. Significance of Indian Trails, and How a Lost One
Was Found.-The early pioneers soon learned to understand
the meaning of signs made by Indians during their incursions
and in their attempts to escape after committing outrages.
When they wished to be followed they made no effort to conceal
their route; and the abundant signs showed the whites that
they must be on guard against ambuscades. When they really
sought to avoid pursuit it required constant and keen observa-


tion to detect any sign at all, and only a practiced eye would
note accidental displacement of stones, a dim moccasin track,
a broken twig, a bruised plant, a hair or feather, and other
little indications that the most circumspect savage band on a
hasty march would leave in spite of their painstaking. When
it was necessary for white men to follow an uncertain trail in
rapid pursuit, one man was put on it at the outset and the
others took their places in line to his right and left, at inter-
vals that kept each within easy speaking distance of one on
each hand, and the march began at a quick step or a run, as
agreed upon. If the man who had the clue at the start lost it
he spoke loud enough for those nearest him to hear, "trail
lost!" and this was passed along the line. The march was
kept up, every man watching eagerly for signs, and when
these were found he called to his companions right and left,
"trail found!" This was repeated till all were advised, and in
this way loss of time was prevented and rapid progress made.
III. Betsy Calloway's Bravery and Thoughtfulness.-
While the Indians who captured the Misses Calloway and
Boone were dragging them from the canoe, Betsy Calloway
fought with her paddle and gashed the head of one of them;
and when the three were ordered to take off their shoes and
put on moccasins she refused, though the younger ones com-
plied, so that she could make the impress of her shoe-heels
on the ground where it was not too hard, thus leaving a sign
for pursuers. Occasionally she stealthily broke off twigs,
but this was discovered and an Indian with uplifted tomahawk
threatened her life. Then she tore off bits of her dress when
she could do so without detection, and dropped them. Their
captors adopted every precaution to throw the white men off
the trail; but the forethought and courage of Miss Galloway
in providing these clues aided her friends materially in keep-
ing the course. Her black hair and black eyes, with a some-
what dark complexion, rendered more so by exposure to the
sun, caused one of the rescuers to mistake her in the excite-
ment of attack for an Indian and raise his empty gun to kill
her with the heavy breech. She was sitting by a tree, with a
large bandana handkerchief around her neck, while the heads
of the other two girls lay in her lap. One of the men recog-
nized her in time to arrest the blow. The pursuing party
consisted of Daniel Boone, Maj. Wm. B. Smith, Col. John


Floyd, Bartlett Searcy, Catlett Jones, Samuel Henderson,
Capt. John Holder, and Flanders Calloway. Henderson
afterward married Betsy Calloway, Holder married Fannie,
and Calloway married.Jemima Boone.
IV. The First MArriage in Kentucky.-This was that
of Samuel Henderson (younger brother of Judge Richard
Henderson) and Elizabeth (or Betsy) Calloway, the oldest
daughter of Col. Richard Calloway. It occurred at Boones-
borough, August 7th, 1776, less than a month after the
young lady with her sister Fannie and Jemima Boone, had
been rescued from the Indians. The ceremony was per-
formed by Squire Boone, who was a Baptist preacher. Fannie
Henderson, their first child, born May 29th, 1777, was the
first white child born of parents who had been married in
Kentucky, and the fifth one born in the state.


1. About the last of January, 1779, Colonel Clark received
notice of Hamilton's having occupied St. Vincent's, and he
made immediate preparations to retake it. He began his
march February 7th, with one hundred and seventy men.
This expedition was one of the most remarkable on record,
because of difficulties that the British now in possession of St.
Vincent's did not believe it possible for Clark and his men to
overcome. By the evening of February 23rd, the little force
was before the town, and next day fire was opened on the
fort. On the 25th Governor Hamilton surrendered; the
American flag again floated over the strongest British post in
the northeast; and a grand campaign, which Hamilton had
planned, to destroy all the infant settlements in Kentucky and
elsewhere west of the Alleghanies, was prevented.
2. The year 1779 was remarkable for a great increase of
settlements in Kentucky. On the 17th of April, Robert Pat-
terson began building a block-house or fort on the present site
of Lexington. He was joined by a number of others, among
them Mrs. John Morrison, who was the first woman to settle
here, and a town was laid off. During the year Bryan's Sta-
tion, about five miles northeast of Lexington, was established
by four brothers from North Carolina, of whom the leader
was William Bryan, who had been a captain in the Continental
army. For his services during the revolution he had a grant
of land which he located in Kentucky. His wife was Mary, a
sister of Daniel Boone's. He was killed by Indians, May
21st, 1781, near the mouth of Cave Run, while hunting with a
number of other men from the station.


3. Martin's Station, about three miles below Paris, on
Stoner creek, heretofore noticed as having been abandoned,
was reoccupied and strengthened; Isaac Ruddle rebuilt Hink-
ston's; Pitman's Station, about five miles west of Greens-
burgh, near the mouth of Pitman's creek, was established.
Squire Boone and family, with a number of gentlemen, some
of whom had families, settled at Painted Stone, on Clear
creek, near where Shelbyville now stands; George Boone


founded one about six miles from Richmond, on the present
Lexington turnpike; James Estill settled on Little Muddy
creek, in Madison county, and -his place soon became an
important station; Stephen Hancock, David Crews, and John
Tanner established stations in the same section of country;
and the McAfee brothers came back to their old survey on
Salt river, bringing their families, and built cabins and a



4. In May, Colonel Bowman, commander of the militia,
ordered the enlistment of a force to invade the Indian country
and strike such a blow as would deter them from infesting
-the settlements in small bodies and killing and destroying
wherever they found men off guard or property exposed.
Over two hundred men, under experienced and able officers,
met near the mouth of the Licking, and marched to Old Chilli-
cothe without giving the alarm. Dispositions were made to
approach the town in the night, in two divisions, one under
Bowman, the other under Benjamin Logan, and begin a
simultaneous attack at daylight; but from some cause, Logan
did not receive a promised signal from Bowman before the
presence of the Kentuckians was discovered. Logan with
his detachment fought gallantly until he received an order from
the commander to retreat. They were pursued by the Indians,
and confusion ensued; but Logan and his officers at length
succeeded in restoring order, and when matters seemed to be
desperate they selected the boldest and best-mounted men
and checked pursuit by charging upon the Indians and cut-
ting them down as they drove them from cover. One chief,
Blackfish, was killed when the retreat began; their new chief
who assumed command, Red Hawk, was killed in the charge,
and they fled. Part of Old Chillicothe was burned, and the
Kentuckians brought away about one hunderd and sixty
horses and some other property; but they had lost nine men
and several wounded, and though the Indians lost heavily in
comparison the expedition failed of that great success which
at one time seemed assured.
5. In October of this year, David Rogers, who had been
sent some months previously to New Orleans to procure mili-
tary supplies for Fort Pitt, with Robert Benham, was ascend-
ing the Ohio with two keel boats, manned by about one hun-
dred men and loaded with the supplies. One of these boats
was under his command, the other under Benham's. When
opposite the mouth of the Licking, they discovered Indians


who had come down the Miami river on boats and rafts, and
were entering the Licking. Rogers ordered the two crews to
land and attack, hoping to take them at a disadvantage by
marching through willows covering a sand-bar; but they soon
found themselves surrounded by nearly five times their num-
ber. Rogers and all the men except nine or ten were killed.
One of the boats with two men escaped to the Falls, while the
few other survivors reached their friends at different times.
6. The winter of 1779-80 was for three months, from the
middle of November, so intensely cold that the settlers seemed
to be in the grasp of a more pitiless and terrible enemy than
the savage red man. Navigable rivers were so frozen over
as to arrest the boats of immigrants and compel them to
debark and await in camp the return of milder weather;
while the smaller streams were frozen solid. The supply of
food. in the hands of those who had been here during the
cropping and hunting seasons was not sufficient to meet fully
their own demands, and sharing it with those but newly come
increased the difficulty with the passing weeks. Game starved
and froze in the forests and domestic animals around the
camps and cabins. From fifty to one hundred and seventy-
five dollars of the depreciated continental currency was the
price of a bushel, of corn. The extremity was dreadful and
could not be wholly relieved until spring and summer and
autumn came with their respective products of garden, field
and forest.
7. With the breaking of winter, however, the tide of
immigration rose beyond precedent. By this time there were
already six stations on Beargrass creek; with a population of
six hundred, and early in the spring three hundred large
family boats arrived at the Falls, bringing, as is estimated,
three thousand persons.
8. In June (1780) six hundred Canadians and Indians,
under command of Colonel Byrd, an officer of the British
army, with six pieces of artillery, came down the Miami and


up the Licking to where Falmouth now stands. He marched
thence to Ruddle's Station, arriving on the 22nd. The people
were taken by surprise, and even if time had been given for
preparation the stockade would not have been proof against
artillery. When an unconditional surrender was demanded,
Ruddle asked the one condition that the prisoners should not
be delivered to the Indians but kept under the protection of
the English. This was promised; but when the gates were
opened, the Indians rushed in and each claimed whatever
prisoner he seized. They were subjected to shocking bar-
barities, which Byrd claimed he was unable to prevent. They
next went to Martin's Station, five miles farther, but not until
Byrd had exacted from the chief a promise that the Indians
should have only the property while the prisoners should be
under his control. The place surrendered and the agreement
was carried put. The Indians urged the commander to press
on to Bryan's Station and Lexington, but he refused to go
further, alleging various reasons, and the invaders returned
to the forks of the Licking. Re-embarking, they left the
9. Colonel Clark, on hearing of these attacks, came promptly
from St. Vincent's to Louisville, and soon had about a thou-
sand men, ably officered, assembled at the mouth of the Lick-
ing. Building a block-house, in which to leave stores, on the
present site of Cincinnati, he proceeded to Old. Chillicothe,
surprised the Indians, who hastily fled, burned the town, and
destroyed the crops. At Pickaway the Indians made a stand
and Clark lost seventeen men killed and some wounded, but
the place was taken 'and everything was destroyed or taken
into possession, as at Chillicothe. Detachments were sent to
other villages, and these also were laid waste. With such
property as could be carried away, including horses and cattle,
the victorious Kentuckians returned home, and the expedition
had proved so disastrous to the Indians that for nearly two
years no considerable body of them invaded the state.

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10. During this year (1780) the Virginia Legislature passed
an act to establish Louisville. Trustees were appointed to lay
off the town on a tract of one thousand acres, formerly the
property of a British subject.
11. Early in the summer, under orders from Thomas Jef-
ferson, then governor of Virginia, Colonel Clark built a fort
and some block-houses on the Mississippi, five miles below the
mouth of the Ohio, and mounted cannon which had been
sent him. He named the place Fort Jefferson.
12. About the first of November the Virginia Legislature
divided Kentucky into three counties of Jefferson, Fayette,
and Lincoln.
13. Fort Jefferson was held by Captain George, with about
thirty men, in the summer of 1781, when the Chickasaw and
Choctaw Indians, on whose land it had been built without
their consent, besieged it in great force. The garrison, not
anticipating attack, was ill-provided with food, and two-thirds
of the men were sick; but Captain George held out for five
days. On the sixth he met the leader of the savages, a white
man named Colbert, under a flag of truce, to consider terms of
capitulation; but they could. not agree. As Colbert was
retiring he received a wound from some Indians, friendly to
the Kentuckians and then in one of the block-houses. This
treacherous act, though not perpetrated by the whites, exas-
perated the besiegers; and at night they collected all their
force to storm the works. Capt. George Owen, who was
then commanding one of the block-houses, had loaded his
swivels or small cannon with musket balls, and when the
Indians, in crowded column, came near the walls, he dis-
charged them with such dreadful effect that they were dis-
persed with great slaughter. General Clark, then stationed
at Kaskaskia, having been sent for, now arrived with supplies
and reinforcements, and the enemy left the place. The
fort was. so remote from other Kentucky settlements, and


therefore difficult to maintain, that it was soon permanently
14. During the year 1781 the Indians were exceedingly
troublesome in Jefferson and Shelby counties. In March
several parties of them came over into Jefferson and killed
William Linn and Captains Tipton and Chapman. Captain
Aquilla Whittaker, with fifteen men, traced them to the foot
of the Falls and embarked in canoes to cross over and follow
them; but they were still on the Kentucky side and fired on
the men in the canoes, killing and wounding nine of them.
Those who were unhurt, and the wounded who were still able
to fight, rowed back and defeated the Indians, killing and
wounding a number much in excess of their own.
15. In September, 1781, Squire Boone set out with his and
other families from his station at Painted Stone to find on
the Beargrass a place of greater safety. The moving party
was attacked near Long Run by a large body of Indians and
suffered considerable loss, Boone himself being among the
wounded. As soon as Col. John Floyd heard of the affair
he set out from his station with thirty-seven men to follow
the Indians. Though he divided his force, placing one
detachment under Captain Holder, and all moved with much
caution, they were ambushed by about two hundred savages,
whose fire killed and wounded sixteen. The white men held
their ground until the Indians, who had lost nine or ten men
killed, rushed upon them with their tomahawks and compelled
them to retreat.
16. The station at Painted Stone was reoccupied about
Christmas of that year; but a year or two afterward Squire
Boone transferred it to Colonel Lynch, and it was from that
time known as Lynch's Station.
17. That Indians had been in the neighborhood of Estill's .
Station, about fifteen miles south of Boonesborough, was dis-
covered March 19th, 1782; and Capt. James Estill, with
twenty-five men, set out to find them. About daylight on


the morning of the 20th, while the party was still absent,
Indians killed and scalped Miss Jennie Gass who was outside
but near the station, milking. Monk, a slave of Estill's, who
had gone with her, was captured. When questioned as to the
force inside the stockade he represented it as considerably
greater than that of the Indians, and that they were preparing
to defend themselves. Besides the women and children there
were only four men; but the savages were deceived, and, after
killing the cattle, retreated across the river. The intelligent
and faithful slave had thus, probably, prevented a massacre.
18. Two boys, Samuel South and Peter Hackett, were sent
to notify Captain Estill. Finding the party below the mouth
of Red river, they told them what had occurred, and immedi-
ate pursuit was begun. At Little Mountain, near what is
now Mount Sterling, they discovered twenty-five Wyandottes,
and Captain Estill promptly led his men to the attack. The
forces were equal, and a fierce and bloody conflict began.
The Indians were apparently taken by surprise, as at the first
fire of the whites they began a retreat; but their chief,
though mortally wounded, called to them to stand, and they
rallied and took position with somewhat the advantage of
ground. Captain Estill had halted and .disposed his men in
line, every one covering himself as well as possible, as the
Indians did, by a tree. Hinkston creek, a branch of the
Licking river, lay between them; and across this, about sixty
yards apart, the two lines engaged in one of the most
remarkable combats of pioneer times.
19. For more than an hour the firing was kept up with
such deliberation that it was deadly in spite of the shelter
afforded by tree-trunks, and more than a fourth of the
men on each side had fallen. When it appeared to Captain
SEstill that to continue in this way would lead to the exter-
mination of his little force, as quickly as to that of the enemy,
'and that the Indians were trying to extend their line with a
view to turning his flank with part of their force, he ordered


six of his men under command of a lieutenant to proceed by
a route which he pointed out-a valley running from the
creek to the rear of the enemy-and come up on that flank or
behind their line. The officer in charge did not execute the
order, but ran away with his detachment. The Indians, dis-
covering how Estill had weakened his line, rushed across the
shallow stream and a hand-to-hand fight followed. Estill,
already wounded, grappled with a powerful savage, but in the
struggle, his arm, which had been broken by a shot from an
Indian three months before, gave way, and his enemy plunged
a knife to his heart. Nine of the whites were left dead upon
the field, and four of those who escaped were wounded. The
Indian loss was never certainly known; but reports from their
towns indicated that about half of them were killed and all
the others except one were wounded.
20. The affair, though generally referred to as "Estill's
Defeat," was more deadly to the savages than to the whites,
and drove the survivors, and others who were elsewhere in
that part of the country, back across the border.
21. In August, 1782, a party of Indians captured two boys
near Hoy's Station, five miles south of Richmond, and recrossed
the Kentucky river. They were pursued by Captain John
Holder, with seventeen men, and overtaken, August 12th, at
Upper Blue Licks. Holder attacked, but was defeated, with
a loss of four men, and compelled to retreat; but the Indians
did not follow.
22. Bryan's Station contained at this time a force of fight-
ing men which has been variously estimated at from forty to
sixty. On the night of August 14th, the men were engaged
in preparing for an expedition against the Indians who had
repulsed Holder at Blue Licks. When the gate was thrown
open next morning and the men started out, they were driven
back by a heavy fire from the woods in their front. A force
of six hundred Indians, led by the infamous Simon Girty aiid
a British officer, had reached the place during the night and


taken position within rifle-shot. The whites were taken by
surprise; and as no attack in force had been anticipated, they
were poorly prepared to defend themselves against great odds.
The palisades were out of repair, and their only source of
water supply was a spring outside, about eighty yards from
one of the gates.
23. Two mounted messengers broke through the Indian
lines to warn the neighboring stations and ask aid; and the
walls were hastily repaired. To be destitute of water, how-
ever, was to be subjected to other dangers than the shots and
assaults of the foe. It was impossible to withstand without it
a siege of any considerable duration; and it was to be appre-
hended that the besiegers would endeavor to fire the stockades
or the roofs of the cabins by burning arrows (which, indeed
was repeatedly done during the day), when water would be
needed. with which to quench incipient flames.
24. In this emergency, Capt. Elijah Craig, in command
of the station, called the women together and asked them to
undertake to bring in a supply. It was rightly conjectured
that a strong body of the Indians lay concealed near the
spring; but he reasoned that as they knew it to be customary
for the women to go for water daily, and without a guard
when no enemy was supposed to be near, they would consider
their doing so now as evidence that their ambuscade had n/ot
been discovered, and that their plans of attack could be carried
out. These wives and mothers and daughters realized the
peril in which all were placed; they listened to the represen-
tations and entreaties of the brave men who would gladly have
shielded them from every danger had it been in their power;
they took the fearful risk and brought in the needful supply
from under hundreds of guns in the hands of merciless foes
-an act of heroism which requires no high-sounding descrip-
tion, no labored panegyric, to impress it upon a generous
mind: it speaks for itself.


25.. Captain Craig next resorted to a stratagem which drew
the Indians from ambush and exposed them to effective fire.
Thirteen young men were sent out to attack some Indians who
had appeared on the opposite side of the fort, with orders to
fire rapidly and keep up so much noise as to lead the con-
cealed enemy to suppose that the whole garrison had gone
against the few Indians sent there to draw them out. They
were to fall back through the gate as soon as firing began in
the fort. The enemy's object was to arouse the whole force
in the stockade to rush out after those who appeared on the
farther side, so that the main body in ambush could assault
on the side adjacent to the spring and carry the place before
the defenders could return. When the firing showed that the
detachment had gone some distance, several hundred Indians
sprang from cover and rushed upon the wall which they
believed to be undefended. About forty rifles poured a vol-
ley into them and beat them back with great loss. The
party that had been sent out returned promptly on hearing
the fusillade and were admitted through the opposite gate.
26. The messengers who had been sent for re-enforce-
ments met the men of the Lexington garrison on their way to
Blue Licks, expecting to join those of Bryan's Station in the
proposed expedition. As they hurried now to the latter, in
response to the summons, part mounted and part on foot, they
fell into an ambuscade which Girty had prepared for them
near Bryan's, on a narrow road bordered on one side by a field
of high corn, on the other by a dense wood. .The horsemen
fell into the trap, but dashed through the storm of bullets
and gained the fort without loss. The men on foot, who
were trying to reach the station by creeping through the corn,
ran to the rescue of the horsemen, but were met by the over-
whelming odds and forced to retreat, with a loss of six killed.
27. At night, Girty, concealed behind a stump within
speaking distance of the garrison, demanded a surrender, with
lies about expected re-enforcements and artillery, and with


threats of massacre in case of refusal; but he was defied,- and
next morning the Indian camps were found deserted. The
boastful and confident besiegers had retreated apparently a
short time before daylight.
28. Neighboring stations had been preparing to join in the
expedition to the Blue Licks which was interrupted by the
movement against Bryan's; and within a few hours after
the Indians had disappeared a sufficient number of men had
arrived to increase the force to one hundred and sixty (some
accounts say one hundred and eighty-two). It was known
that Col. Ben Logan was marching with three hundred
others to join them; but, fearing that the savages would
escape across the river, and notwithstanding some of the
more prudent advised delay, that Logan might come up, they
set off in pursuit.
29. Col. John Todd, at that time commandant of Illi-
nois county, was at Bryan's Station on a visit to his wife, and
was placed in command. Late in the morning of August
19th, they came in sight of the Indians, who were on the
opposite side of the Licking, near the Lower Blue Licks, and
halted for council. Boone, Todd and others insisted that the
attack should not be made till Logan had arrived. The odds
against the pioneers was believed to be more than three to
one, and the savages had the protection of timber, while an
assault in front would probably be met while they were cross-
ing the river and moving up a naked slope beyond. Major
Hugh McGary, however, precipitated the fight by crying out,
"Let all who are not cowards follow me!" and spurring his
horse into the stream. The whole party, horse and foot,
dashed into the river, and reached the opposite shore in such
confusion that it was with difficulty that Todd, Boone and
other experienced men, could restore any degree of order.
As it proved, the Indians had fallen back about a mile.
S30. Pushing on up the rising ground, without regular for-
mation and without ordinary caution they came to brushy


ravines on each hand and were met by a destructive fire, which
brought them to a stand. Then for some time they fought
the heavy odds heroically, and with such effect, notwithstand-
ing some advantage of shelter which the Indians had, that the
Indian loss was believed to be about as great in number as
that of the whites.
31. When it became evident that the Indians were making
a movement to surround them, they retreated in confusion,
and were fiercely pursued. Most of the mounted men suc-
ceeded in re-crossing the river; but those on foot, pressing
together towards the shallow ford, were overtaken and many
were tomahawked.
32. The Indian flankers crossed above and below the ford
and sought to surround them, so that it was with difficulty
that the survivors escaped. They were pursued for several
miles, but without further loss.
33. Between sixty and seventy of the whites were killed,
twelve were wounded, and seven captured-a loss of nearly
half of all engaged. Among them were several leading men.
Colonels Todd and Trigg, Majors Harlan and Bulger, Captains
McBride, Gordon, Kincaid and Overton, and Lieutenants
Givens, Kennedy, Lindsey, and Rogers, were killed. About
one-tenth of the fighting men in central Kentucky had lost
their lives through the unpardonable rashness of McGary. The
unhappy affair not only brought grief to many a pioneer
home, but was depressing and discouraging to the settlements
in general.
34. Colonel Logan reached the field with three hundred
men on the 20th or 21st and buried the dead and mangled
remains of his countrymen; but the Indian force had returned
to their homes across the Ohio and were beyond the reach of
present punishment.
35. Samuel Daveiss, who had located at Gilmer's Lick, six
or seven miles from Whitley's Station in Lincoln county, was
surprised early one morning in August, 1782, by Indians, one


of whom sprang, with uplifted tomahawk, between him and
his cabin door as he walked out unarmed. When he ran round
the house with a view to leading the Indian in pursuit and
getting back first to the door, he found the room already
occupied by savages. He then ran five miles to the station of
his brother James, where there were five men. They gave
him a spare rifle, and all, well armed, went at once to his
house. The Indians had carried away his wife and children,
and so concealed their trail that the pursuers were compelled
to go for awhile at haphazard; but it was soon discovered.
Shortly afterward they came upon the Indians, and rescued
the family with no loss of life. The oldest boy was knocked
down and scalped when the firing began, but he was not
seriously injured.
36. About the 1st of September, 1782, a band of Indians,
coming up from the west, surprised Kincheloe's Station, on
Simpson creek, in Spencer county, and killed and captured
nearly all the men, women, and children of the six or seven
families there, though the men fought desperately and killed a
number of the savages. Some of the women and children who
were carried off returned home the next year, having been
liberated after the treaty of peace which terminated the
revolutionary war.
37. These Indian raids and outrages determined Col. George
Rogers Clark to avenge them by invading the Indian country.
His call for volunteers met with a prompt response; and in
November more than a thousand men in two divisions, led
respectively by Col. John Floyd and Col. Ben Logan, united
at the mouth of the Licking river. Crossing into the Ohio,
Clark marched rapidly with this force about one hundred
and thirty miles up the Miami, and on the 10th of November
destroyed the principal Shawnee towns, Chillicothe, Pickaway,
Willstown, and others, and sent out detachments to continue
the devastation by burning villages and destroying fields of
corn, Comparatively few Indians were killed, as they fled on

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