Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The discovery of Manhattan
 The settlement
 The Dutch governors
 English control
 The second occupation of the...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Colonial monographs
Title: How the Dutch came to Manhattan
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00085607/00001
 Material Information
Title: How the Dutch came to Manhattan
Series Title: Colonial monographs
Physical Description: 82 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McManus, Blanche, b. 1869
E. R. Herrick & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: E.R. Herrick & Co.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: c1897
Subject: Colonists -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Governors -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- New York (N.Y.) -- Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- New York (State) -- Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1897
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Additional Physical Form: A digital reproduction made from a copy held by Cornell University is available from Cornell University's Making of America Web site.
Statement of Responsibility: penned and pictured by Blanche McManus.
General Note: Title-page illustrated and printed in red and black; and text within an illustrated border.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00085607
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002233615
notis - ALH4024
oclc - 05298074
lccn - 01014330

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Half Title
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The discovery of Manhattan
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The settlement
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The Dutch governors
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    English control
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    The second occupation of the Dutch
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Back Matter
        Back Matter 1
        Back Matter 2
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text



tO IN- :'




Other books in the *. ..
. Series of Colonial Monographs
.'. by Blanch McManus are

Small 4to, with 80 illustrations, $1.25
Small 4to, with 80 illustrations, $1.25
Small to, with 80 illustrations, $1.25







has often been told in scholarly prose, but the
picturesque feature of romantic fact has seldom, if
ever, received the acknowledgment which it seems to
deserve and require.
As a nation of sea-farers and traders, the Dutch
acquired an enviable reputation, and for them to
have so successfully founded a commercial colony
was but to have been expected.
The history of the city of New York has been
ably and exhaustively treated by many notable writers,
and to them, as well as to other prolific sources, we
are indebted for the verification of our facts.
The arrangement herein follows no previously
conceived plan or outline, except that it supplements
the first book of the series, "The Voyage of the
Mayflower," but forms in itself a true chronicle of
the events of the early Dutch occupation of Man-
hattan Island from its beginnings to its final reversion
into English hands.
Personalities have been avoided, except so far as

has seemed necessary and advisable in order to
retain the point and purpose of the text; namely,
that it shall appear pleasing and attractive as well
as truthful and correct; for the same reason general-
ities mostly have been dealt with, and a detailed
statement only expressed where it commemorates
some especially significant event.
Supplementing this, the drawings have been made
with a like regard for fidelity and authenticity, and
idealized only where deemed permissible and ap-
As is true of the other older cities in America,
abundant evidence still exists in New York to
remind one of the early days; the peculiar formation
of the island has made any radical change in the
laying out of the city impossible, hence any his-
torical account must bespeak with praise in reference
to the judgment and foresight of its founders and
"A noble tale well told, of valiant deeds well
done," is an epigram from an ancient tome, which it
is to be hoped will be merited in some measure by
the contents of this book.




has ever been its prestige
in the world of commerce and of "
trade; a metropolis where the
merchants of the world might
find a market for their wares.
Amid these conditions and the
influences acquired at the de-
mands of commerce, a mighty
and glorious city has arisen.
Relatively, it was the same
state of affairs which existed in
the early days when the traffic
with the Netherlands, in the furs
and skins of the Indian trader, ..
made necessary its rise from a
mere trading post to the leading
city of the American continent.
Its dealings with the foreign
world made its aspect truly cos- ,.

S'-:- .-. mopolitan, a condition which
... did not exist in reference to any
of the other colonies then estab-
S-" Jamestown was practically a
farming, home-making settle-
ment, and Plymouth at that
time merely a refuge for a per-
secuted people. Hence it is but
_.-_-- small wonder that a city of trade
_- should be established and prosper
in a location midway between the
two. Geographically Manhattan
Island occupies the natural loca-
tion where such a commercial
venture could but prosper, and
which has since received the
recognition, as was its due-a
fact which, shorn of all its view
of sentiment, is still romantic:


L AIZ-=- -- -- - -- --- --

from the days of Hendrik Hud-
son's venture seeking voyage;
through the occupation of the
various Dutch governors; the
rule of Great Britain ; the sec-
ond tenure of the Dutch;
again to revert to English con-
trol; and, finally, the era of
American independence, under
which the present city of New
York has thriven and advanced.
The island of Manhattan was,
at this time, a mass of wood-
crowned hills and grassy valleys,
extending northward from the
bay through a gently rolling
region of marsh and glade, and
peopled by Indians who, although
savages, were supposed to be of
a superior class to the average


red man encountered by the early
In the north were to be found
bear, deer, beaver, and innumer-
able wild fowl, which, as with
the Indian, served the Dutch as
edibles of great relish, as well as
proving valuable for the hides
and pelts.
The Indian inhabitants, known
as Manna-hattoes, paid much
attention to their appearance and
dress, which they fashioned from
the skins of the fur-bearing ani-
mals abounding thereabouts, and
decorated with beads and feathers.
Their crowns were shaven, and
moccasins of soft leather covered
their feet; thus, with pipe and
tomahawk and bow and arrows,

i LEK31=YTY]n

------- -------- _--=--- -=----

was constituted their individual
paraphernalia. They lived com-
monly in huts of a sufficient
size to accommodate comfortably
a half-dozen or more; and, though
clannish to a certain extent, were
possessed of considerable know-
ledge and acquaintance of the
neighboring tribes. They were
great hunters and traders, and
the peltrie secured by all the
tribes in the vicinity, beyond
what was needed for their own
uses, ultimately found its way
into the store-houses of the Man-
hattan Indians, as soon after as
the first Dutch traders made the
demand therefore.
The standard of value by which
such transactions were bargained

for was the wampum, the uni-
versal Indian money.
The wampum was made of the
interior of the conch shell, of two
colors, white, and bluish or pur-
plish black, of which the black
equaled in value two of the white;
three black wampums being about
the value of two cents. The
shells were commonly strung to-
gether in belts of a certain stand-
ard width and six feet in length,
the black being valued at about
five dollars, and the white two
dollars and a half. Thus another
characteristic of the early stamp
of commerce upon the beginnings
of the city is made apparent, and
the seed afterward sown by the
Dutch burgomasters was propa-



gated to an almost incalculable ex-
tent through the various transi-
tory periods unto the present day.
The discoverer of Manhattan
Island was undoubtedly Verra- ..
zano, a Florentine, who, under
the patronage of the French,
voyaged for the purpose of ex-
ploration and discovery through-
out the North Atlantic, and who,
in 1504, nearly one hundred and
twenty-five years before the
Dutch were finally ensconced as
proprietors, anchored his ship at
the "mouthe of an exceeding
great streme of water," landed,
and erected a wooden cross bear-
ing a metal plate inscribed with
the royal arms of France, and
took possession of the land in the

fi~Bt~i-its AS,_~

name of Francis, most Christian
King of France and Navarre.
Later voyagers passed and re-
passed the site of New Amster-
dam, but none thought it of suf-
ficient importance, or were en-
couraged to enter the bay or
prospect in the immediate neigh-
borhood, until the advent of
Hendrik Hudson, a venturesome
navigator descended from ances-
tors high in the circles of English
trade for many generations. Hud-
son was then on a voyage of
discovery for the Dutch East
India Company of Amsterdam,
with orders to locate, if possible,
the long-sought-for new route to
the Orient, a problem which has
since even remained unsolved.


Hudson's previous experience
and acquaintance with other
navigators and explorers seemed
to augur well for his ability to
carry out the plans of his em-
ployers. The expedition was
fitted out in a Dutch galliot, a
clumsy craft of eighty tons bur-
den, with square-sails on the two
forward masts, and a mixed crew
of twenty English and Dutch
sailors. His instructions were
"to search for nothing but a
northwest passage." If he failed
in this, he can hardly be said to
have erred in his final judgment
and report to the Company in
reference to Mannahatta, which
was, in the tongue of that day :
This a good land to fall in


with, lads, and a pleasant land to


. _-- Meeting with many hardships
^- and near approach to disaster,
Hudson sought diligently for the
hoped-for channel, but, finally,
after severe buffeting about in
northern waters, he was blown
southward as far as the coast of
Virginia. From here he cruised
northward until was sighted the
hills of Neversink. Here he an-
chored, at the portals of the
gateway to New York, on Sep-
tember 2, 1609.
On the following day the ship
was cautiously propelled up into
the lower bay. At some distance
Indians were observed paddling
about in canoes; then were the

first introductions to the original
settlers of Manhattan. The In-
dians soon drew near in their
canoes, and in an attempt at
parley offered tobacco as a peace-
On the eleventh of September
the craft came up through the
Narrows, and anchored in full
view of Manhattan Island, with
the great river stretching north-
ward even beyond the gaze or
knowledge of the explorers, and
which they believed was the long-
looked-for pathway to Cathay.
The following days were occu-
pied by the voyage up the river,
and on the seventeenth they ar-
rived opposite the present city of
Hudson. The final up-river point

~ ~J~
~ "51





which they reached is a mooted
question, although it is generally
admitted that they got as far as
Castle Island, just below Albany,
and in an open boat proceeded
thence to the head of navigation.
On the twenty-third of the
month the ship dropped down
toward Manhattan Island, and
: eleven days later sailed from the
mouth of the great North River
for Holland. Upon his arrival
Hudson reported to the officers
of the Company the results of
his discoveries, which inspired
those worthy officials to further
extend their interests and pro-
vince, and, if possible, to open up
trading relations with the natives.



--i-~ -- -- 4
T HROUGH the result of
some years negotiation a n'
plan for the development of the
trade was finally put into opera-
tion by the Dutch West India
Company, which was formed for
the purpose. One Adrian Block
in 1613 suffered the loss of his
vessel by fire as she was lying off
Manhattan Island loaded with
skins and about to set sail for
Block and his men were forced, .
therefore, to spend the winter on
shore in huts, which they erected
from the timber at hand, sur-
rounding the hamlet by a palisade. __
He named the settlement New i-
Amsterdam, in honor of the first
city of Holland. This is the first


knowledge we have of actual set-
tlement on the island, and which,
it may be said, formed the begin-
nings of the present city.
Hitherto Manhattan Island
had been looked upon merely as
a trading post, but now, with a
full appreciation of its value and
importance as a settlement and a
province, attention was turned in
S that direction, and immigration
set in soon after; a charter being
granted to the Dutch West India
Company for purposes of trade
and colonization, the foundations
of the city were laid in earnest.
In 1623 the New Netherland,
a ship of two hundred and sixty
tons, brought over thirty Wal-
loon families, who were distrib-

uted at various points along the
Hudson River and the shores of
Long Island Sound, thereby ex-
tending and increasing the Dutch
occupation, under whose direc-
tion and rule they had emigrated.
The following year a treaty
alliance was formed between Hol-
land and Great Britain, which en-
couraged Holland to strengthen
her political, commercial, and
social status in the New World
by sending over still other bands
of settlers.
In this relation it is to be re-
corded, even unto the present
day, the preservation of the
Dutch characteristics of nomen-
clature, manners, and customs
noticeable alike in architecture,

furniture, and dress-in strong
contradistinction to the Eng-
lish influences so marked and
prevalent in the plantations of
Virginia and Plymouth.



1 Ih



W ITHIN a twelvemonth
Peter Minuit was com-
missioned Director-General of-- -
the province, and was granted --
power to preside over a council
of five to be appointed to assist -
him in the government thereof.
Minuit arrived off New Am-
sterdam in May, 1626, in the ship
Sea Mew, and immediately upon -
setting foot on shore inaugu-
rated what appeared at the time
to be a vigorous administration.
Up to now the Dutch had held
possession of Manhattan by right
of occupation only, but Minuit,
with due loyalty and energy,
sought to establish the right be-
yond assail, and accordingly con-
summated a treaty with the
Indians no less noteworthy or ,...



honorable than that of William
Penn with the Indians from be-
yond the Delaware.
The price paid for the full title
to the twenty-two thousand acres,
comprising Manhattan Island,
was sixty guilders, about twenty-
four dollars, in merchandise, con-
sisting of clothing and trinkets.
The territory acquired, with
the surrounding region already
claimed by the Dutch, was now
created a province and county of
Holland, and granted Armorial
distinction, that of an Earl or
Count-a beaver enclosed in a
shield and surmounted by an
Earl's coronet. The provisional
civil government was organized
in 1626, and from this time dates


the actual official recognition and
patronage toward the support of
the colony.
In Minuit's administration was
built a stone fort on the site of
the present Battery, where the
wooden palisade and earthwork
then stood. This fortification
was rectangular in form, built of
earth, and faced with stone hewn
from the extensive deposits in the
vicinity, and of sufficient size as
to be capable of harboring the
entire population in case of need.
Occupying such a strategic po-
sition at the confluence of the
North (Hudson's) and East
rivers, the site could hardly have
been improved upon for the pur-
pose. In the waters adjacent
thereto was the anchorage for

Ships and the general rendezvous
of the Indians and traders from
roundabout-the Manna-hattoes
from the north, the Hackensacks
and Raritans from the west, the
Rockaways, Canarsees, Shinne-
cocks, and Missiqueeges from
Long Island and the eastward.
Around this redoubt grew up
the little village, log huts at first,
and later stone or brick cottages,
which, with the advent of Petrus
Stuyvesant, was incorporated as
New Amsterdam the name
under which the settlement had
been known since first given it
by Adrian Block in 1613-14.
The Director also caused to be
built a horse-mill for grinding
corn, a staple article of food with
the Indian, and whose value was


beginning to be appreciated by
the settlers. On the second floor
of the mill was a room intended ll
to be fitted up and set apart for
religious services. A stone build-
ing was also erected with a roof
of thatched straw for use as the
company's store-house. These
were all contained within the
walls of the fort, while clustered
beneath outside the walls were
the homes of the people.
During the first year of Min-
uit's regime there were exported
to Holland furs to the value of
nineteen thousand dollars, a state
of affairs which should have be-
tokened well for the future suc-
cess of the Director's administra-
The following year brought up

the question of the boundary line
between the Province and New
England, which for a time caused
some official uneasiness and inter-
course between Minuit and Gov-
ernor Bradford, but which, how-
ever, passed off finally without
serious complication, although
the question was still left in an
undecided and therefore unsettled
In 1632, for cogent reasons and
views held by the home govern-
ment, Minuit's administration
came to an abrupt end; and in
1633, twelve months or more
after he had sailed for Holland,
Wouter Van Twiller arrived in
the ship Salt Mountain, to con-
tinue the power vested in the title

6~II~IDA. 441IKI~


- I

of Director-General or Governor
of the Province. Van Twiller
arrived in State, accompanied by
a troop of one hundred and four
soldiers, who were to form the
military guard and garrison of
the fort. He was empowered
with civil and military authority
to proceed with the government
of the Province as he might
deem necessary for its proper ad-
vancement and improvement.
"Wouter Van Twiller," says Died-
rich Knickerbocker, "was five
feet six inches in height and six
feet five inches in circumference.
His head was a perfect sphere,
which rested sans neck on the top
of his backbone. His legs were
short but sturdy, and his two gray
eyes twinkled in his round face

mkm ___

- -- -

like stars in the firmament. His
habits were as regular as his per-
son was rotund, and his four daily
meals, taken at regular intervals,
occupied exactly one hour each.
He smoked and doubted (he was
not of energetic or active disposi-
tion, be it recalled) in his leath-
ern-covered chair for eight hours,
and slept, or was supposed to have
done so, the remaining twelve."
A weaker, more vacillating, or
more thoroughly incompetent
governor could hardly have been
found. A former clerk in the
company's warehouse in Holland,
Van Twiller had no thought
above the gains of trade, and pos-
sessed absolutely no knowledge
or experience of civil or military





law and government. Hence his
control of the affairs of the Pro-
vince could meet with but scant
favor. He secured the post
through grace of family and
political influence, having married
the daughter of one of the
wealthy Patroons, and, being
himself a person of some means,
was doubtless considered a desira-
ble party for that reason as well.
With Van Twiller came Ever-
ardus Bogardus, a clergyman,
and Adam Roelandsen, a school-
teacher, the first in the Province,
and desirable members of the
community they proved to be.
Van Twiller had still further
work done upon the fortifications
started by the former Governor,
and also built within, a barracks -



for the soldiers, likewise a wooden
church, or rather a separate build-
ing to be used as a church. This
was located on the East River
shore, and nearby a graveyard
was plotted, and an additional
three windmills built-the ever
useful servant of the Dutch, al-
though stigmatized by the In-
dians as a foul spirit, they being
much afraid of its "long waving
arms and grinding teeth."
In addition to these varied im-
provements, several other brick
and stone buildings were at once
erected, producing collectively
evidences of a striking and grati-
fying growth. The houses were
generally of one type, often of
brick imported from Holland,



and roofed or slated with tiles,
also imported; gable ends, pictur-
esquely notched, as was the fash-
ion, wooden shutters for each
small window, the doors, gener-
ally divided into an upper and
lower half, as is the custom in
Holland even at the present day.
The whole surmounted, at the
apex of the gable, by a weather-
Two principal roadways were
laid out, one extending north-
ward from the fort through the
interior of the island, the other
running along the shore to the
ferry landing on the East River.
The ferry to Long Island was
attended by a farmer who lived
near by, and who might be called

from his other occupations by
persons desiring to be trans-
ported across the river, by a blast
from a horn which hung from a
tree near at hand, the rate of fare
for foot passengers being three
stivers of wampum.
Here, too, was the "Cage"
and the Whipping-post, where
Van Twiller was wont to practice
his favorite mode of punishment
for mild offenses, that of hanging
the culprit suspended by a girdle
around the waist in mid-air for
as short or long a time as the
offense might seem to warrant.
During Van Twiller's incum-
bency was inaugurated the system
of Patroons, a sort of manorial
grant or privilege, whereby cer-

tain wealthy persons were al-
lowed to establish colonies inter-
dependent with the provincial _-
rule, and in consideration of their
being able to influence fifty or
more persons to migrate in a
body and accompany them hither
for purposes of colonization, they
were granted in fee simple the
rights to a tract of land sixteen
miles in length and eight miles *
in width. The title of Patroon,
or Lord of the Manor, was be-
stowed upon all who could and
would so found colonies. This
attracted many sturdy burghers
from Holland, as well as noble-
men of wealth and social posi-
tion, who gladly welcomed a
plan whereby they might acquire

rt5- II ~LS~I~S

still further wealth, dignity, and
Being impressed by the results
attained by the Indians in the
neighborhood in the cultivation
of maize, beans, and such like
truck for food, Van Twiller was
,[ desirous that the community itself
J. should produce such a sufficiency
of a like product as to be able to
ship it to Holland for home con-
*^ sumption and for export; accord-
ingly were established a series of
small farms to be known as the
Company's Gardens or Bouwe-
ries. These gardens were located
immediately northward from the
settled portion of the Island;
four on the Eastern shore and
fi two on the West shore. Besides


----L- ---'I-
the cornfields and cabbage gar-
dens, here also bloomed in bright
array the native sun-flowers, bell-
flowers and yellow lilies, all in true I,' -
keeping with the then distinctive, ,' !
though now corrupt and incon- B
gruous, name-" The Bowery."
On farm number one was built
a dwelling house, barn, brewery, ;
and boat-house, the occupancy
and use of which the Governor ..il
himself partook of, also purchas-
ing as his own personal property
Nut Island, now Governor's
Island, which, it may be stated,
has formed a lasting monument
to the memory of the sleek Van -- -
Twiller and the period of his rule .
over the city.
Van Twiller soon became the

Ic Is

,- ~

__ ___ JI



largest individual land owner in
the Province, acquiring succes-
sively Great Barn and Blackwell's
Islands in the East River, and yet
other tracts on Manhattan Island
and the mainland.
Ere long Dominie Bogardus
proved to be an unruly member
of the settlement, publicly rebuk-
ing the Governor for some appa-
rent laxity, and perhaps justly,
although naturally resented by
Van Twiller, after which the
preacher anathematized him from
the pulpit as "a child of the
Devil," resulting in the Govern-
or's being doubly incensed. It
served, however, to rouse the
people to a recognition of the
exact state of affairs, although,


U-.- -- -N _--
of course, Van Twiller had his
adherents and partisans.
Two factions sprang up, and
the quarrel continued until it
finally culminated in his (Van
Twiller's) recall to Holland.
In 1638 William Kieft, a man
of far different stamp, although
of far less integrity as well, was
appointed to succeed him. Kieft
came to the post preceded by
various rumors to his discredit,
and was therefore somewhat cool-
ly received. He had previously
failed in business in Hull, and, as
was the custom, his portrait was
hung upon the gallows in the
public square, an ignominy befit-
ting the offense or default, as the
case may have been.

: .~1=4 i:





Such an introduction was
hardly likely to inspire a great
amount of confidence at the start,
even should sanguine conjecture
as to the future seem to warrant
it. The arrival of the Governor
in a Dutch man-of-war of two
S hundred and eighty tons burden
and twenty guns, accompanied by
a Spanish caravel, captured on the
way from Holland's old enemy,
was naturally a significant event.
So far as Kieft's present rela-
tions with the Province were con-
Scerned, he stood in every respect
as the superior of Van Twiller.
Small in stature, fussy, and of fiery
disposition and avaricious in tem-
perament, he ruled over the peo-
Sple with a high hand, regardless


of their remonstrance. He took
council with no one, but adminis-
tered the law according to his
own interpretation thereof. U
There existed in the Province
at this time many rampant abuses
which demanded reform, and to
this purpose Kieft prided himself
on his ability to lay down the
law of remedy and to afterward
uphold its proper observance.
A regulation provided for the
ringing of the town bell announc-
ing religious services on Sunday ;
at nine o'clock each evening as
the hour for retiring; in the
morning as a call to labor; and,
as occasion required, as a sum-
mons for witnesses and prisoners
to appear before the court. N.

It was forbidden to tap beer
during the time in which divine
worshipwas in progress; individ-
ual smuggling and trading in
tobacco and furs was forbidden,
and profanity and vice in general
were perceptibly checked in their
career. Powder and guns were
often traded with the Indians, an
undesirable thing to have done,
and which by Kieft's decree was
made a capital offense. The
standard of value of wampum was
regulated and fixed by law; all of
which, being the first expressions
of the new Governor, produced a
decided improvement in the
views of the majority of the citi-
zens regarding him. The fort,
church, and government build-

III- its I ail it

ings were repaired, and the guns
of the fort brought back to a
state of efficiency from which
they had sadly fallen; repairs
were made upon the Company's e t
ships, which were now leaky and
generally run down.
This general restoration im-
mediately brought the affairs of )
the colony up to a high plane of
The Stadt Huys was built in-
1642 near the shore of the East
River, in full view of all incom-
ing ships as they anchored off the
fort awaiting government inspec-
The building was of stone,
about fifty feet square, and, in-
cluding the gables, five stories in- -=z -

height, following the general
form of Dutch architecture then
in use. The council room was of
imposing aspect and grandeur,
decorated as it was with the
orange, blue, and white of the
West India Company and the
reflection of color from the arms
of New Amsterdam graven upon
the windows, where, as described
by Washington Irving, "The
secretary only kept the minutes of
the meeting in condensed form,
the Dutch not being prone to
producing voluminous reports of
their proceedings." Here the
council sat and smoked during
their discussions and debates, reg-
ulating the time by the pipeful, an
admirable and exact measure-

ment, as the pipe in the mouth of
a trueborn Dutchman was never
liable to those accidents and
irregularities that are continually
putting our clocks out of order.
In this fashion did the profound
council of New Amsterdam
smoke and doze and ponder from
week to week, month to month,
and year to year as to what man-
ner they should conduct the in-
fant settlement; meantime the
town took care of itself.
A stone church was also
erected inside the fort at a cost
of one thousand dollars, and a
public surveyor was appointed to
lay out boundary lines at a salary
of eighty dollars per annum.
The first recorded sale of land


< was: "Abraham Van Steenwyck
to Anthony Van Fees, a lot
Thirty feet front by one hundred
and ten feet deep, for nine dollars
and sixty cents."
An edict was issued forbidding
householders to harbor any trav-
.eler for more than one meal or a
single night's lodging without
S first notifying the Governor.
The growth'of the town and the
largely increasing number of trav-
elers rendered this an inconveni-
ence and made the establishment
of a public house a necessity.
A tavern was accordingly built
and Philip Gerritson appointed
mine host. In after times many
a traveler and trader from afar-
Virginia, New England, or from

across the seas found shelter
and entertainment therein, and
amid the pleasures of the flowing
bowl of brandy or of port, Dutch
cheeses, ginger-bread, and North
Sea herring, and the solace of the
long clay pipe, "the Dutchman's
ever-present rest and hope," was
heard and discussed the latest
news from all quarters of the
globe, while lounging on the set-
tle by the door might always be
found, in pleasant weather, a lit-
tle company of burghers, debating
the various aspects of their ven-
tures and professions, the advent
of the latest ship to arrive, and
the news of politics, war, and
rumors of war, then a constant
happening, from abroad.

During Kieft's administration
Troubles with the natives were of
frequent and disastrous occur-
rence. In a restricted sense, war-
< fare itself, may be said to have
existed. Doubtless both sides
/ were at fault, and the condition,
while it resulted in many fatali-
1 ties, was more of the nature of a
constant annoyance than any
special fear or apprehension as
to the possibility of the town's
Being sacked or pillaged and the
settlers exterminated.
The last of the royal Dutch
Governors was Petrus Stuyve-
sant, a man of tyrannic and des-
Spotic nature, who held the office
for eighteen years. Born in Hol-
S' land in I602, he early evinced a

F? 3? mm SI

desire for a military career, and
accordingly his education was
begun in that direction.
Previous to his coming to
New Amsterdam he had served
as Military Governor of Cura-
cao, where he lost his right leg
in an attack led upon the Portu-
guese at St. Martin.
He was above the medium
height, of fine physique, and
dressed commonly in slashed
hose fastened at the knee with a
knotted scarf, velvet jacket with
slashed sleeves over a full ruffled
shirt, and rosettes on his shoes.
Abrupt in manner, conven-
tional, cold, full of prejudice and
passion and often unapproach-
able, he still possessed sympathy


and affection to a large degree,
which, coupled with his quick
perception, made the new Gov-
ernor a man to be regarded in
the not too genial light of a
master among men.
His present commission was
dated 28th July, 1646, and
charged him to attend carefully
to the advancement, promotion,
and preservation of trade, com-
merce, and friendship.
Upon the arrival in the Bay of
the ship which bore the Governor
thither, the people of New Am-
sterdam were well nigh delirious
in their joy of welcome, and
burned nearly all the powder in
the city in their noisy endeavors
to duly impress that worthy with

I,-- ---- -
their satisfaction at the new rule
about to be put in force. Stuyve-
sant's appearance upon landing is
thus described by that rare chron-
icler, Diedrich Knickerbocker:
Methinks I behold him again,
in my imagination, in regimental
coat of German blue, with large
brass buttons extending to the
chin, with voluminous skirts
turned up at the corners, and
brimstone colored breeches. His
face rendered terrible by a pair
of black mustachios, rat-tailed cue
behind, stock of black leather,
cocked hat, his wooden leg
banded with silver, and his gold-
headed cane."
Stuyvesant replied to their wel-
come forthwith, and expressed


-~I"=:^-~-~-- =~~~~-~-^
his pleasure at having come to
live among them. He promised,
further, to govern as a father,
which being interpreted to mean
with an iron hand, if in his own
judgment it might be deemed
1 advisable, somewhat dampened
their joyful ardor.
The Council was organized on
the 27th of May and a Court of
Justice opened.
The people were induced to
enlarge and improve their dwell-
ing houses; a Market House
was built and plans made for an
annual cattle fair.
Stuyvesant, in the course of
his tenure, had also to deal with
the still open question, the New
~ England boundary.

"I I

Frequent complaints as to _
encroachment came from both
sides. In 1650 the Governor
journeyed to Hartford and ar-
ranged for the permanent recog-
nition of new boundaries yet to
be laid down.
This was mutually agreed upon
by the representatives of each
colony there assembled, and a 3
contract of perpetual peace as-
sented to.
Upon the Governor's return to
New Amsterdam he found that
public opinion was decidedly
against his procedure and the re-
sults of his agreement. This was
manifestly expressed by a public
declaration to the effect that the
Governor had ceded away enough

territory to found fifty colonies-
fifty miles square-somewhat of
an exaggeration, to be sure, but
so incensed were the people that
they spared no pains to impress
his Excellency with the spirit of
their disapproval, whereupon the
Governor grew haughty and diffi-
dent and threatened to dissolve
his Council.
In 1665 Stuyvesant journeyed
to the Delaware with three ships
and seven hundred men, and at-
tacked and subdued the Swedish
colony which had settled there
under the leadership of the dis-
gruntled Minuit, who, when re-
nounced by the Dutch, went over
to the Swedish powers with glow-
ing accounts of the desirability of

Ti-- I nL S S>^*^

a settlement in the vicinity of .
The expedition proving suc- ,
cessful, the Governor returned a
crowned with the glory of tri-
umph and victory.
Soon after this a new plan for
the municipal government of
New Amsterdam was arrived at,
in Holland, and the City of New
Amsterdam was then first offi-
cially recognized (2d February,J
Upon the receipt of this news
by Stuyvesant he made a public
speech in which he intimated that
his power was not in the slightest
degree abridged or abrogated.
Soon after, however, he was re-
called to Holland by the home


government, a suggestive fact,
, which caused many to question
" the extent of his present power,
and assured them that the law of
the tyrant might perhaps not be
absolute, and doubtless urged
them to further remonstrate as
future developments came forth.
The order of his recall was re-
voked upon the declaration of
Swear between England and Hol-
land, and great preparation was
instituted towards strengthening
the fortifications of the city. Ad-
ditional breastworks and strong-
holds were run up, and a sort of
Barricade, beneath the surface of
the water, was extended across
the North River.

LE_= 11


N March, 1664, Charles II.
granted to his brother James,
then Duke of York, "the terri-
tory comprehending Long Island
and the islands in the neighbor- -
hood, and all the lands and rivers ---
from the west side of the Con-.
necticut River to the eastern
shore of Delaware Bay."
The English equipped four
vessels, with 450 men, under
Colonel Richard Niccolls, to
take possession of the Province.
Niccolls with his "red-coats"
arrived off the Fort on 3oth of
August, and to the consternation
and dismay of the inhabitants as-
sembled on the Bowling Green,
as well as to Stuyvesant himself, -
immediately sent ashore a sum-



mons to surrender, promising life,
liberty and estate to all who
would peacefully accept of its
The Governor read the letter
to the Council, and fearing assent
by the people should the tenor
of it become known, he tore it
into shreds and crushed it be-
neath his feet.
Meanwhile the people them-
selves, in anticipation of some de-
cisive move, had assembled out-
side the building and were shout-
ing clamorously for information
as to the contents of the letter.
Returning to the Council
chamber, Stuyvesant gathered
up the torn fragments and gave
them to the Burgomasters in ses-

Ib: i ts. IM


sion to do with as they pleased, at
the same time, of his own accord
sending a defiant answer to Nic-
colls, and ordering the garrison of
the Fort to prepare for an attack.
In an unguarded moment the
warring Governor yielded to the
wiser counsel and entreaty of
popular sentiment, not to shed in-
nocent blood in what could prove
but a vain attempt at defense,
and withheld immediate action.
After some days, although it
galled him bitterly to consent,
Stuyvesant signed the treaty at
his Bouwerie house, and within a
few hours a legion of British
soldiery marched into the Fort
and formally took possession of
the city, the name being changed



S_ _- L~--1- J
to New York in compliment to
its Royal Patron.
After the surrender Stuyvesant
was, by order of the State's Gen-
eral, recalled to Holland to tender
Sa report of his administration in
person. He arrived at The
S Hague in October, 1667, where
he remained until his return to
America a year later.
Here the supplanted Governor
settled on his Bouwerie, and until
his death proved to be an alto-
S gether more valuable citizen and
S pleasing a neighbor than was
Thought to be at all likely from
his previous reputation. He in-
terested himself amiably in
Church and municipal affairs,
but succumbed in a few years to

*'ssss____________*' __

the ravages of time and advanc-
ing age in an attack of cholera
morbus. Thus, as the chroniclers
have said, died a loyal, upright,
and honest man."
His funeral was conducted
with a grandeur hitherto un-
known in the New World, and
his body entombed in his private
chapel, which stood on the site of
the present Saint Mark's Church,
and where the following record
of his burial may yet be seen :

In this vault lies buried
Late Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief
of New Amsterdam,
In New Netherland, now called New York,
and the
Dutch West India Islands, Died A.D. 167j,
Aged 80 years.


Another memorial, which up
to a generation ago had proved
equally lasting, was the so-called
Stuyvesant Pear Tree, which
stood surrounded by an iron
fence at Thirteenth street and
Third avenue.
Governor Niccolls immedi-
ately set about reconstructing
the civil government of the city,
replacing the former Burgo-
masters and Schepens by a
Mayor, Aldermen and Sheriffs,
as was the English form.
The administration was peace-
fully conducted in the main, Nic-
colls meeting with but little oppo-
S sition from the Dutch residents,
who seemed ready to fall in with
*} the affairs of the new regime.
[IrHtnm > V in'c' *|

The following year war broke
out anew between England and
Holland, and bethinking some
attempt might be made by the
Dutch to reclaim the city, the
Governor made vigorous prepa-
rations for its defense. The
Dutch fleet, however, failed to
put in an appearance, and the
serene period of Governor Nic-
colls' rule continued until 1668,
when at his own request he was
recalled to England. His suc-
cessor was Colonel Francis Love-
lace, who held the office until.
1673, when the truce between the
two countries again suffered dis-
rupture, the city reverting finally
to the Dutch.







I---~_~---~~ ''-- ^ 1;--lt- *---,,, *,_IL
O N 29th July, 1673, two
Dutch vessels sailed into
the harbor, and the commander
of the expedition presented the 1 -
following message to the Eng-
lish Governor:
"Sir-The force of war now
lying within your sight is sent by
the High and Mighty States and
his Serene Highness, the Prince
of Orange, for the purpose of
destroying their enemies. We
have sent you, therefore, this let-
ter, together with our trumpeter,
to the end that upon sight thereof
you surrender unto us the fort
called James, promising good
quarter, or by refusal, we shall be
obliged to proceed both by land
and by water in such manner as -s

---- -^------^-^-^-- ---- -^^--- ---^---- --- ----Yk _^^-- --- --- ^---

C( we shall find most advantageous
for the High and Mighty States."
Dated: The Ship Swanen-
burgh, anchored betwixt Staaten
S and Longe Islands, 9th August
(3oth July, O. S.), 1673.

No immediate reply being
forthcoming, a cannonading was
begun, killing and wounding
many men, and resulting in the
final capitulation of the city,
which was surrendered upon two
I. That Officers and Soldiers
should march out of the Fort
With their arms, colors flying and

drums beating, without hindrance
or molestation.
II. Thereupon the Fort
would be delivered with all mili-
tary arms and ammunition re-
maining therein."
These terms being quickly ac-
ceded to, the Dutch once more
found themselves in possession.
Public opinion was divided in
its sympathies, but all naturally
obeyed the mandate, and the
Orange insignia again flew above
the fort. The city had mean-
while improved greatly in appear-
ance, increased in value, and more
than doubled in population.
The name New York was now
changed to New Orange, or at
least so it was known to the loyal




Dutch, although the English
nomenclature may be said never
to have been separated from its
memory since first given in 1664.
The Dutch only enjoyed their
second period of rule for a few
months, as on the 9th February
in the following year (1674) a
new Treaty of Peace was signed
which restored to Great Britain
the territory wrested from her the
year before, and on the ioth No-
vember the new English Gov-
ernor, Sir Edmund Andros,
entered upon the scene.
So passed away the Dutch do-
minion in North America, step
by step, from the early establish-
ment of the customs of Hol-
land, its system of township and

lit Is Is un

municipal government, the trans-
planting of the Old World names i
and terms, the beginnings and
growth of commerce, the friend -s t
and enemy, the Indian, and the a
progress of foreign encroach-
ment, which culminated in the
ascendency and final supremacy
of an alien power. The annals
of New York are surpassed by
no other city in America in topics
of varied character, romantic in- --
cident, general interest, instruct-
ive lesson, or dignified distinc- -_--
tion. The pioneers left their-
deep impress on the face and
depth alike of the natural attri-
butes of the Empire City.
The settlers who first planted
the flag of Holland in the empire

of the Indian were plain-spoken,
S earnest men, who left their native
Island to extend and enrich her
Power and possession, and bind
S another province in a new quar-
ti .. ter of the globe to the United
SS Netherland. Traders, chiefly, al-
though they never ignored the
principles of religion, education
and good government, and the
early accounts published by some
of their historians, and the ad-
mirably written records and cor-
respondence left by the Stuy-
vesants, Beekmans, and Van
Rensselaers attest fully as to
I their erudition and scholarship.

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