Citation
How the Dutch came to Manhattan

Material Information

Title:
How the Dutch came to Manhattan
Series Title:
Colonial monographs
Creator:
McManus, Blanche, b. 1869
E. R. Herrick & Co ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
E.R. Herrick & Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
82 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Colonists -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Governors -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- New York (N.Y.) -- Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775 ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- New York (State) -- Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775 ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1897
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
A digital reproduction made from a copy held by Cornell University is available from Cornell University's Making of America Web site.
General Note:
Title-page illustrated and printed in red and black; and text within an illustrated border.
Statement of Responsibility:
penned and pictured by Blanche McManus.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026859698 ( ALEPH )
ALH4024 ( NOTIS )
05298074 ( OCLC )
01014330 ( LCCN )

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COLONIAL MONOGRAPHS

HOW THE DUTCH
CAME TO MANHATTAN

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Other books in the atta wie
.'. Sertes of Colonial Monographs
.'. by Blanch McManus are .°.

THE VOYAGE OF THE MAYFLOWER
Small 4to, with 80 illustrations, $1.25

THE QUAKER COLONY
Small 4to, with 80 illustrations, $1.25

THREE FRENCH EXPLORERS
Small 4to, with 80 illustrations, $1.25





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WE-R:-HERRICK & CO
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CoPpyRIGHT, 1897,
BY

E. R. HERRICK & Co,



INTRODUCTION.

HE Story or tHe DutcH or New AMSTERDAM

has often been told in scholarly prose, but the

picturesque feature of romantic fact has seldom, if

ever, received the acknowledgment which it seems to
deserve and require. |

As a nation of sea-farers and traders, the Dutch
acquired an enviable reputation, and for them to
have so successfully founded a commercial colony
was but to have been expected.

The history of the city of New York has been
ably and exhaustively treated by many notable writers,
and to them, as well as to other prolific sources, we
are indebted for the verification of our facts.

The arrangement herein follows no_ previously
conceived plan or outline, except that it supplements
the first book of the series, ‘The Voyage of the
Mayflower,” but forms in itself a true chronicle of
the events of the early Dutch occupation of Man-
hattan Island from its beginnings to its final reversion
into English hands.

Personalities have been avoided, except so far as

5



has seemed necessary and advisable in order to
retain the point and purpose of the text; namely,
that it shall appear pleasing and attractive as well
as truthful and correct; for the same reason general-
ities mostly have been dealt with, and a detailed
statement only expressed where it commemorates
some especially significant event.

Supplementing this, the drawings have been made
with a like regard for fidelity and authenticity, and
idealized only where deemed permissible and ap-
propriate.

As is true of the other older cities in America,
abundant evidence still exists in New York to
remind one of the early days; the peculiar formation
of the island has made any radical change in the
laying out of the city impossible, hence any _his-
torical account must bespeak with praise in reference
to the judgment and foresight of its founders and
organizers.

“A noble tale well told, of valiant deeds well
done,” is an epigram from an ancient tome, which it
is to be hoped will be merited in some measure by
the contents of this book,



CONTENTS

PAGE

Tur Discovery OF MANHATTAN 9

THE SETTLEMENT 23
THE DutTcH GOVERNORS 29
ENGLISH CONTROL 65

THE SECOND OCCUPATION OF THE DuTCH 75






THE DISCOVERY
Ole
MANHATTAN

ws




























HE crory or Manuattan ||
has ever been its prestige
in the world of commerce and of
trade ; a metropolis where the }} .
merchants of the world might
find a market for their wares,
Amid these conditions and the |
influences acquired at the de-
mands of commerce, a mighty
and glorious city has arisen.
Relatively, it was the same
state of affairs which existed in
the early days when the traffic
with the Netherlands, in the furs
and skins of the Indian trader,
made necessary its rise from a
mere trading post to the leading
city of the American continent.
Its dealings with the foreign
world made its aspect truly cos-



II


































mopolitan, a condition which
did not exist in reference to any
of the other colonies then estab- ©
lished.

Jamestown was practically a
farming, home-making settle-
ment, and Plymouth at that
time merely a refuge for a per-
secuted people. Hence it is but
small wonder that a city of trade
should be established and prosper
in a location midway between the
two. Geographically Manhattan
Island occupies the natural loca-
tion where such a commercial
venture could but prosper, and
which has since received the
recognition, as was its due—a
fact which, shorn of all its view
of sentiment, is still romantic:





Pe



from the days of Hendrik Hud-
son’s venture-seeking voyage ;
through the occupation of the {[-
various Dutch governors; the || ge a4k
rule of Great Britain; the sec-
ond tenure of the Dutch;
again to revert to English con- |k
trol; and, finally, the era of |feg
American independence, under
which the present city of New
York has thriven and advanced.
The island of Manhattan was,
at this time, a mass of wood-
crowned hills and grassy valleys,
extending northward from the
bay through a gently rolling
region of marsh and glade, and
peopled by Indians who, although
savages, were supposed to be of
a superior class to the average

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red man encountered by the early
settlers.

In the north were to be found
bear, deer, beaver, and innumer-
able wild fowl, which, as with
the Indian, served the Dutch as
edibles of great relish, as well as
proving valuable for the hides
and pelts.

The Indian inhabitants, known
as Manna-hattoes, paid much
attention to their appearance and
dress, which they fashioned from
the skins of the fur-bearing ani-
mals abounding thereabouts, and
decorated with beads and feathers.
Their crowns were shaven, and
moccasins of soft leather covered
4| their feet; thus, with pipe and
| tomahawk and bow and arrows,

14










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was constituted their individual
paraphernalia. They lived com-
monly in huts of a sufficient
size to accommodate comfortably
a half-dozen or more; and, though
clannish to a certain extent, were
possessed of considerable know-
ledge and acquaintance of the
neighboring tribes. They were
great hunters and traders, and
the peltrie secured by all the
tribes in the vicinity, beyond
what was needed for their own
uses, ultimately found its way
into the store-houses of the Man-
hattan Indians, as soon after as
the first Dutch traders made the |B
demand therefore.

The standard of value by which
such transactions were bargained







for was the wampum, the uni-
versal Indian money.

The wampum was made of the
interior of the conch shell, of two
colors, white, and bluish or pur-
plish black, of which the black
equaled in value two of the white ;
three black wampums being about
the value of two cents. The
shells were commonly strung to-
gether in belts of a certain stand-
{| ard width and six feet in length,
| the black being valued at about
five dollars, and the white two
dollars and a half. Thus another
characteristic of the early stamp
of commerce upon the beginnings
of the city is made apparent, and
the seed afterward sown by the
Dutch burgomasters was propa-


























I

16























gated to an almost incalculable ex-
tent through the various transi-
tory periods unto the present day.
The discoverer of Manhattan
Island was undoubtedly Verra- ||
zano, a Florentine, who, under an.
the patronage of the French,
voyaged for the purpose of ex-
ploration and discovery through-
out the North Atlantic, and who,
in 1504, nearly one hundred and
twenty-five years before the
Dutch were finally ensconced as
proprietors, anchored his ship at
the “mouthe of an exceeding
greate streme of water,” landed,
and erected a wooden cross bear-
ing a metal plate inscribed with
the royal arms of France, and
took possession of the land in the jp










ry

ie











name of Francis, most Christian
King of France and Navarre.
Later voyagers passed and re-
passed the site of New Amster-
dam, but none thought it of suf-
ficient importance, or were en-









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(GAN couraged to enter the bay or
WG . : ;

GS) prospect in the immediate neigh-
Lg. borhood, until the advent of

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Hendrik Hudson, a venturesome
navigator descended from ances-
tors high in the circles of English
trade for many generations. Hud-
son was then on a voyage of
discovery for the Dutch East
|| India Company of Amsterdam,
with orders to locate, if possible,
the long-sought-for new route to
the Orient, a problem which has
since even remained unsolved.

SSSR SSE HR) FRE SS

18





















Hudson’s previous experience |f
and acquaintance with other Ls
navigators and explorers seemed | YZ
to augur well for his ability to |f
carry out the plans of his em- |
ployers. The expedition was zi
fitted out in a Dutch galliot, a]JZZgZ7~

clumsy craft of eighty tons bur- Avi ee
Lan 62
eT }





















den, with square-sails on the two |B ys A
forward masts, and a mixed crew |77/7Z Hey] h
of twenty English and Dutch ial 4
. . : . fy
sailors. His instructions were |X [XY y ip
; > Ly SZxeialaley
“to search for nothing but a |BeaSs saw





northwest passage.” If he failed |=
in this, he can hardly be said to
have erred in his final judgment |/ss=
and report to the Company in |=
reference to Mannahatta, which
was, in the tongue of that day:

“This a good land to fall in

Ae

i

19























with, lads, and a pleasant land to
see.”

Meeting with many hardships
and near approach to disaster,
Hudson sought diligently for the
hoped-for channel, but, finally,
after severe buffeting about in
northern waters, he was blown
southward as far as the coast of
Virginia. From here he cruised
northward until was sighted the
hills of Neversink. Here he an-
chored, at the portals of the
‘gateway to New York, on Sep-
tember 2, 1609.

On the following day the ship
was cautiously propelled up into
the lower bay. At some distance
Indians were observed paddling
{| about in canoes; then were the


























first introductions to the original
settlers of Manhattan. The In-
dians soon drew near in their
canoes, and in an attempt at
parley offered tobacco as a peace-
offering.

On the eleventh of September
the craft came up through the
Narrows, and anchored in full
view of Manhattan Island, with
the great river stretching north- Z
ward even beyond the gaze or | Nie
knowledge of the explorers, and
which they believed was the long-
looked-for pathway to Cathay.
The following days were occu-
pied by the voyage up the river,
and on the seventeenth they ar-
rived opposite the present city of
Hudson.














which they reached is a mooted
question, although it is generally
admitted that they got as far as
Castle Island, just below Albany,
and in an open boat proceeded
thence to the head of navigation.

On the twenty-third of the
month the ship dropped down
toward Manhattan Island, and
eleven days later sailed from the
mouth of the great North River
for Holland. Upon his arrival
Hudson reported to the officers
of the Company the results of
his discoveries, which inspired
those worthy officials to further
extend their interests and pro-
vince, and, if possible, to open up
trading relations with the natives.








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AT



THE
SETTLEMENT

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——

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HROUGH the result

some years negotiation a |i
plan for the development of the [fii
trade was finally put into opera-
tion by the Dutch West India
Company, which was formed for
the purpose. One Adrian Block
in 1613 suffered the loss of his
vessel by fire as she was lying off
Manhattan Island loaded with
skins and about to set sail for ||
Holland.

Block and his men were forced,
therefore, to spend the winter on
shore in huts, which they erected
from the timber at hand, sur-
rounding the hamlet bya palisade. |]
He named the settlement New |
Amsterdam, in honor of the first
city of Holland. This is the first




















25







knowledge we have of actual set-
tlement on the island, and which,
it may be said, formed the begin-
nings of the present city.
Hitherto Manhattan Island
had been looked upon merely as
|| a trading post, but now, With a
]| full appreciation of its value and
importance as a settlement and a
province, attention was turned in
that direction, and immigration
=| set in soon after; a charter being
=~|| granted to the Dutch West India
\| Company for purposes of trade
HI}; and colonization, the foundations
\| of the city were laid in earnest.
In 1623 the Mew Netherland,
a ship of two hundred and sixty
tons, brought over thirty Wal-
=| loon families, who were distrib-




















26






















uted at various points along the
Hudson River and the shores of
Long Island Sound, thereby ex-
tending and increasing the Dutch
occupation, under whose direc-
tion and rule they had emigrated.

The following year a treaty |h
alliance was formed between Hol-
land and Great Britain, which en-
couraged Holland to strengthen
her political, commercial, and
social status in the New World |
by sending over still other bands |S
of settlers. i

In this relation it is to be re-
corded, even unto the present
day, the preservation of the
Dutch characteristics of nomen-
clature, manners, and customs
noticeable alike in architecture,





furniture, and dress—in strong
contradistinction to the Eng-
lish influences so marked and
prevalent in the plantations of
Virginia and Plymouth.





Ae
DUTCH
GOVERNORS

Â¥

(CRA ERDITD}

rs
YY


























ITHIN a twelvemonth
Peter Minuit was com-
missioned Director-General of
the province, and was granted |h, By
power to preside over a council 2
of five to be appointed to assist
him in the government thereof.
Minuit arrived off New Am-
sterdam in May, 1626, in the ship
Sea Mew, and immediately upon
setting foot on shore inaugu-
rated what appeared at the time
to be a vigorous administration. |L& [ly
Up to now the Dutch had held Gag
possession of Manhattan by right ||| @aemeaei
of occupation only, but Minuit, jf
with due loyalty and energy,
sought to establish the right be-
yond assail, and accordingly con-
summated a treaty with the

























honorable than that of William
Penn with the Indians from be-
yond the Delaware.

The price paid for the full title
to the twenty-two thousand acres,
comprising Manhattan Island,
was sixty guilders, about twenty-
four dollars, in merchandise, con-
sisting of clothing and trinkets.

The territory acquired, with
the surrounding region already
claimed by the Dutch, was now
created a province and county of
Holland, and granted Armorial.
distinction, that of an Earl or
Count—a beaver enclosed in a
shield and surmounted by an
Earl’s coronet. The provisional
civil government was organized
in 1626, and from this time dates









the actual official recognition and
patronage toward the support of
the colony.

In Minuit’s administration was Kermete
built a stone fort on the site of|| /QYpeiBh,
the present Battery, where the Lined YNZ
wooden palisade and earthwork is
then stood. This fortification oe
was rectangular in form, built of fi ;
earth, and faced with stone hewn ~
from the extensive deposits in the |N
vicinity, and of sufficient size as |py>#
to be capable of harboring the}
entire population in case of need. |i

Occupying such a strategic po-
sition at the confluence of the
North (Hudson’s) and East |@
rivers, the site could hardly have NZ
been improved upon for the pur- N





TAX

















pose. In the waters adjacent |f
thereto was the anchorage for

























4| ships and the general rendezvous
of the Indians and traders from
oe roundabout—the Manna-hattoes
from the north, the Hackensacks
and Raritans from the west, the
Rockaways, Canarsees, Shinne-
gicocks, and Missiqueeges from
Rf Long Island and the eastward.

Ke Around this redoubt grew up
27 the little village, log huts at first,
2 Z and later stone or brick cottages,
which, with the advent of Petrus
Stuyvesant, was incorporated as
New Amsterdam — the name
under which the settlement had
been known since first given it
S| by Adrian Block in 1613-14.

4, The Director also caused to be
built a horse-mill for grinding
All corn, a staple article of food with

ealg| the Indian, and whose value was























beginning to be appreciated by
the settlers. On the second floor
of the mill was a room intended
to be fitted up and set apart for
religious services. A stone build-
ing was also erected with a roof
of thatched straw for use as the |p
company’s store-house. These |@%
were all contained within the[f
walls of the fort, while clustered |i}
beneath outside the walls were |r
the homes of the people. 4 f
During the first year of Min-|_G@*
uit’s régime there were exported IN
to Holland furs to the value of \
nineteen thousand dollars, a state SN ~Y)
of affairs which should have be- |X
tokened well for the future suc- INV@
cess of the Director’s administra- INV
tion.

Rhein

35






















the question of the boundary line
between the Province and New
England, which for a time caused
some official uneasiness and inter-
course between Minuit and Gov-
ernor Bradford, but which, how-
ever, passed off finally without
serious complication, although
@; the question was still left in an
4| undecided and therefore unsettled
state.

In 1632, for cogent reasons and
views held by the home govern-
B{ ment, Minuit’s administration
ul came to an abrupt end; and in
\ 1633, twelve months or more
after he had sailed for Holland,
Wouter Van Twiller arrived in
the ship Salt Mountazn, to con-
tinue the power vested in the title









of Director-General or Governor
of the Province. Van Twiller
arrived in State, accompanied by
a troop of one hundred and four
soldiers, who were to form the
military guard and garrison of
-the fort. He was empowered
with civil and military authority
to proceed with the government
of the Province as he might
deem necessary for its proper ad-
vancement and improvement. || <3
“Wouter Van Twiller,” says Died- |f

rich Knickerbocker, ‘ was five
feet six inches in height and six
feet five inches in circumference.




NAY

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AW Be 4 ann












I ies

Natio

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which rested sans neck on the top
of his backbone. His legs were |
short but sturdy, and his two gray
eyes twinkled in his round face

























J| like stars in the firmament. His
\| habits were as regular as his per-
son was rotund, and his four daily
meals, taken at regular intervals,
occupied exactly one hour each.
He smoked and doubted (he was
not of energetic or active disposi-
tion, be it recalled) in his leath-





Toe Sy

mae Roy)| ern-covered chair for eight hours,

oie) and slept, or was supposed to have
SZ

done so, the remaining twelve.”

A weaker, more vacillating, or
more thoroughly incompetent
governor could hardly have been
found. A former clerk in the
company’s warehouse in Holland,
Van Twiller had no thought
above the gains of trade, and pos-
sessed absolutely no knowledge
or experience of civil or military



ay i
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SM
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law and government. Hence his
control of the affairs of the Pro-
vince could meet with but scant
favor. He secured the post
through grace of family and
political influence, having married
the daughter of one of the
wealthy Patroons, and, being
himself a person of some means,
was doubtless considered a desira-
ble party for that reason as well. .W%m-

With Van Twiller came Ever- |i
ardus Bogardus, a_ clergyman, Malik
and Adam Roelandsen, a school-|Â¥ ge
teacher, the first in the Province, |Â¥ TAG
and desirable members of the]
community they proved to be. |

Van Twiller had still further |B
work done upon the fortifications
started by the former Governor,
and also built within, a barracks

POT

39











for the soldiers, likewise a wooden
church, or rather a separate build-
ing to be used asachurch. This
was located on the East River
shore, and nearby a graveyard
was plotted, and an additional
three windmills built—the ever
useful servant of the Dutch, al-
though stigmatized by the In-
dians as a foul spirit, they being
much afraid of its “long waving
arms and grinding teeth.”

In addition to these varied im-
provements, several other brick
we| and stone buildings were at once

maj erected, producing collectively
gee'@)| evidences of a striking and grati-
.a| fying growth. The houses were
Sy 4\ generally of one type, often of
Z| brick imported from Holland,

Us Us Us as os

40











ria
re es

=<



























and roofed or slated with tiles,
also imported; gable ends, pictur-
esquely notched, as was the fash-
ion, wooden shutters for each
small window, the doors, gener- |E Sif
ally divided into an upper and |B
lower half, as is the custom in :
Holland even at the present day.
The whole surmounted, at the
apex of the gable, by a weather-
cock.

Two principal roadways were |f
laid out, one extending north-
ward from the fort through the
interior of the island, the other
running along the shore to the
ferry landing on the East River.

The ferry to Long Island was
attended by a farmer who lived







PS INE







from his other occupations by
persons desiring to be trans-
ported across the river, by a blast
from a horn which hung from a
tree near at hand, the rate of fare
for foot passengers being three
stivers of wampum.

Here, too, was the “Cage”
and the Whipping-post, where
Van Twiller was wont to practice
his favorite mode of punishment
for mild offenses, that of hanging
the culprit suspended by a girdle
around the waist in mid-air for
as short or long a time as the
offense might seem to warrant.


















y During Van Twiller’s incum-
| bency was inaugurated the system
of Patroons, a sort of manorial
4] grant or privilege, whereby cer-



yp
ay TH Ay «tie
Wht dy Sek
theo Alene sh















tain wealthy persons were al-
lowed to establish colonies inter-
dependent with the provincial
rule, and in consideration of their
being able to influence fifty or
more persons to migrate in a
body and accompany them hither
for purposes of colonization, they
were granted in fee simple the |k
rights to a tract of land sixteen |}
miles in length and eight miles
in width. The title of Patroon, »
or Lord of the Manor, was be- |/Â¥
stowed upon all who could and
would so found colonies. This
attracted many sturdy burghers
from Holland, as well as noble-
men of wealth and social posi-
tion, who gladly welcomed a









still further wealth, dignity, and
power.

Being impressed by the results
attained by the Indians in the
neighborhood in the cultivation
of maize, beans, and such like
truck for food, Van Twiller was
desirous that the community itself
should produce such a sufficiency
of a like product as to be able to
ship it to Holland for home con-
sumption and for export ; accord-
ingly were established a series of
small farms to be known as the
Company’s Gardens or Bouwe-
ries. These gardens were located

ARK “| immediately northward from the
pane CGE Ze~i| settled portion of the Island;
(ye OL Nag four on the Eastern shore and
Besides




















ep

| two on the West shore.
























the cornfields and cabbage gar-
dens, here also bloomed in bright
array the native sun-flowers, bell- |
flowers and yellow lilies, all in true
keeping with the then distinctive,
though now corrupt and incon- |e
gruous, name—‘ The Bowery.” |f
On farm number one was built |[
a dwelling house, barn, brewery, re
and boat-house, the occupancy |)
and use of which the Governor |ft
himself partook of, also purchas-
ing as his own personal property
Nut Island, now Governor's hx
Island, which, it may be stated, \Rypses
has formed a lasting monument |Ng@e
to the memory of the sleek Van |
Twiller and the period of his rule
over the city.
Van Twiller soon became the






ANIA
RE

a ae



45














largest individual land owner in
the Province, acquiring succes-
sively Great Barn and Blackwell's
Islands in the East River, and yet
other tracts on Manhattan Island
and the mainland.

Ere long Dominie Bogardus
proved to be an unruly member
of the settlement, publicly rebuk-
ing the Governor for some appa-
rent laxity, and perhaps justly,
although naturally resented by
Van Twiller, after which the
preacher anathematized him from
the pulpit as ‘‘a child of the
Devil,” resulting in the Govern-
or’s being doubly incensed. It
ws served, however, to rouse the
ee 24) people to a recognition of the
jiexact state of affairs, although,



aoa { J * aa — ba) bs wi ‘s
WS Fi cites adn en as

Say
aw










Ly

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46






















of course, Van Twiller had his
adherents and partisans.

Two factions sprang up, and
the quarrel continued until it
finally culminated in his (Van
Twiller’s) recall to Holland.

In 1638 William Kieft, a man
of far different stamp, although
of far less integrity as well, was
appointed to succeed him. Kieft
came to the post preceded by|k
various rumors to his discredit, |P
and was therefore somewhat cool- | Bay
ly received. He had previously
failed in business in Hull, and, as|f
was the custom, his portrait was
hung upon the gallows in the
public square, an ignominy befit- |B f
ting the offense or default, as the |}
case may have been.









Such an introduction was
hardly likely to inspire a great
amount of confidence at the start,
even should sanguine conjecture
as to the future seem to warrant

f o . .
if AN it. The arrival of the Governor
Ly

in a Dutch man-of-war of two
hundred and eighty tons burden
and twenty guns, accompanied by
a Spanish caravel, captured on the
way from Holland’s old enemy,
was naturally a significant event.

So far as Kieft’s present rela-
tions with the Province were con-
cerned, he stood in every respect
as the superior of Van Twiller.
Small in stature, fussy, and of fiery
disposition and avaricious in tem-

= || perament, he ruled over the peo-



Uy ws my RRR RY

ple with a high hand, regardless



48






































of their remonstrance. He took|g
council with no one, but adminis-|Â¥
tered the law according to his
own interpretation thereof.
There existed in the Province
at this time many rampant abuses
which demanded reform, and to
this purpose Kieft prided himself 3!
on his ability to lay down the
law of remedy and to afterward
uphold its proper observance. Ze
A regulation provided for thell 2
ringing of the town bell announc- y
ing religious services on Sunday 5)
at nine o'clock each evening as
the hour for retiring; in the
morning asa call to labor; and,
as occasion required, as a sum-
mons for witnesses and prisoners |}
to appear before the court. ie







Cm

CRM




It was forbidden to tap beer
during the time in which divine
worship was in progress ; individ-
ual smuggling and trading in
tobacco and furs was forbidden,
and profanity and vice in general
were perceptibly checked in their
career. Powder and guns were
often traded with the Indians, an
undesirable thing to have done,
and which by Kieft’s decree was
made a capital offense. The
standard of value of wampum was
regulated and fixed by law; all of
which, being the first expressions
of the new Governor, produced a
decided improvement in the
views of the majority of the citi-



zens regarding him. The fort,
church, and government build-



50























ings were repaired, and the guns
of the fort brought back to a
state of efficiency from which
they had sadly fallen; repairs
were made upon the Company’s
ships, which were now leaky and |
generally run down.

This general restoration im-
mediately brought the affairs of
the colony up to a high plane of
excellency.

The Stadt Hluys was built in
1642 near the shore of the East
River, in full view of all incom-}}
ing ships as they anchored off the|
fort awaiting government inspec-
tion.

The building was of stone,
about fifty feet square, and, in-
cluding the gables, five stories in

ae

=A
|
i ta





_

Pe a

51











height, following the general
form of Dutch architecture then
in use. The council room was of
imposing aspect and grandeur,
decorated as it was with the
orange, blue, and white of the
West India Company and the
Â¥4| reflection of color from the arms
ss | of New Amsterdam graven upon
the windows, where, as described
&| by Washington Irving, “The
| secretary only kept the minutes of
the meeting in condensed form,
the Dutch not being prone to
producing voluminous reports of
their proceedings.” Here the
council sat and smoked during
their discussions and debates, reg-
Z=Jgi| ulating the time by the pipeful, an
~|jadmirable and exact measure-














if
i






























ment, as the pipe in the mouth of }}
a trueborn Dutchman was never |i
liable to those accidents and
irregularities that are continually =
putting our clocks out of order. |f
In this fashion did the profound jij
council of New Amsterdam
smoke and doze and ponder from
week to week, month to month, }I
and year to year as to what man-
ner they should conduct the in-
fant settlement; meantime the ||
town took care of itself.

A stone church was_ also
erected inside the fort at a cost og
of one thousand dollars, and alf
public surveyor was appointed to |FReA ea
lay out boundary lines at a salary |Ly |
of eighty dollars per annum.

The first recorded sale of land!













was: “Abraham Van Steenwyck
to Anthony Van Fees, a lot
g| thirty feet front by one hundred
| and ten feet deep, for nine dollars






Serermirey ley,’
eee

JS and sixty cents.”
Ys ee An edict was issued forbidding

Ail r || householders to harbor any trav-

ig |eler for more than one meal or a
| sea single night’s lodging without
A) first notifying the Governor.

y The growth‘of the town and the
B54| largely increasing number of trav-
| elers rendered this an inconveni-
ence and made the establishment
H ESI of a public house a necessity.

A tavern was accordingly built
and Philip Gerritson appointed
mine host. In after times many
jj a traveler and trader from afar—
Virginia, New England, or from

rhe

54

nh






























and entertainment therein, and
amid the pleasures of the flowing
bowl of brandy or of port, Dutch
cheeses, ginger-bread, and North
Sea herring, and the solace of the |ifrins
long clay pipe, “the Dutchman’s|#ijiMj
ever-present rest and hope,” was
heard and discussed the latest]|

globe, while lounging on the set-
tle by the door might always bej#
found, in pleasant weather, a lit-}}
tle company of burghers, debating |RaM
the various aspects of their ven-
tures and professions, the advent
of the latest ship to arrive, and
the news of politics, war, and
rumors of war, then a constant
happening, from abroad.






















During Kieft’s administration
troubles with the natives were of
frequent and disastrous occur-
rence. Inarestricted sense, war-
fare itself, may be said to have
existed. Doubtless both sides
were at fault, and the condition,
while it resulted in many fatali-
ties, was more of the nature of a
constant annoyance than any
special fear or apprehension as
to the possibility of the town’s
being sacked or pillaged and the
settlers exterminated.

The last of the royal Dutch
Governors was Petrus Stuyve-
sant, a man of tyrannic and des-













POH Fg EY :
iY BD potic nature, who held the office
— “ete _ 3
wh simul for eighteen years. Born in Hol-
we ts etc:

y oe A
est ‘ 1 1
eke. land in 1602, he early evinced a






























desire for a military career, and jhnant!
accordingly his education was = ms
begun in that direction, t

Previous to his coming to Fe 2
New Amsterdam he had served
as Military Governor of Cura-
cao, where he lost his right leg
in an attack led upon the Portu-
guese at St. Martin.

He was above the medium
height, of fine physique, and
dressed commonly in slashed
hose fastened at the knee with a
knotted scarf, velvet jacket with
slashed sleeves over a full ruffled
shirt, and rosettes on his shoes.

Abrupt in manner, conven-
tional, cold, full of prejudice and||
passion and often unapproach-













and affection to a large degree,
which, coupled with his quick
perception, made the new Gov-
ernor a man to be regarded in
the not too genial light of a
master among men.

His present commission was
dated 28th July, 1646, and

| charged him to attend carefully

to the advancement, promotion,
and preservation of trade, com-

merce, and friendship.

Upon the arrival in the Bay of

/\| the ship which bore the Governor

thither, the people of New Am-

“| sterdam were well nigh delirious

in their joy of welcome, and

“Ai burned nearly all the powder in
a}

We) the city in their noisy endeavors



Bl to duly impress that worthy with

aay



ws

8



















their satisfaction at the new rule
about to be put in force. Stuyve-
sant’s appearance upon landing is |pe,
thus described by that rare chron- |&2*
icler, Diedrich Knickerbocker: |
‘Methinks I behold him again, |M
in my imagination, in regimental
coat of German blue, with large |f
brass buttons extending to the
chin, with voluminous | skirts
turned up at the corners, and
brimstone colored breeches. His
face rendered terrible by a pair
of black mustachios, rat-tailed cue
behind, stock of black leather,
cocked hat, his wooden leg
banded with silver, and his gold- |p
headed cane.”
Stuyvesant replied to their wel- |k
come forthwith, and expressed































his pleasure at having come to
live among them. He promised,
“|| further, to govern as a father,
| which being interpreted to mean
with an iron hand, if in his own
#i2|judgment it might be deemed
oa advisable, somewhat dampened
"¢” || their joyful ardor.
J] The Council was organized on
the 27th of May and a Court of
Justice opened.

The people were induced to
enlarge and improve their dwell-
ing houses; a Market House
was built and plans made for an
annual cattle fair.

Stuyvesant, in the course of
his tenure, had also to deal with
the still open question, the New
England boundary.





AY)





















Frequent complaints as_ to
encroachment came from both
sides. In 1650 the Governor
journeyed to Hartford and ar-
ranged for the permanent recog-
nition of new boundaries yet to |
be laid down.

This was mutually agreed upon
by the representatives of each
colony there assembled, and a
contract of perpetual peace as-
sented to, i

Upon the Governor’s return to [f
New Amsterdam he found that |f
public opinion was decidedly
against his procedure and the re-
sults of his agreement. This was |f
manifestly expressed by a public |/ J «i
declaration to the effect that the |, Shey
Governor had ceded away enough || s=< |







territory to found fifty colonies—
| fifty miles square—somewhat of
an exaggeration, to be sure, but
so incensed were the people that
they spared no pains to impress
his Excellency with the spirit of
their disapproval, whereupon the
=| Governor grew haughty and diffi-
4, dent and threatened to dissolve
his Council.

In 1665 Stuyvesant journeyed
to the Delaware with three ships
$e | and seven hundred men, and at-
SS | tacked and subdued the Swedish
S| colony which had settled there

junder the leadership of the dis-
Fe : ernie’ Minuit, who, when re-
oe ~——|| nounced by the Dutch, went over
aes to the Swedish powers with glow-
ing accounts of the desirability of

Cie a COIS

6





























a settlement in the vicinity of
Manhattan.

The expedition proving suc-
cessful, the Governor returned
crowned with the glory of tri-
umph and victory.

Soon after this a new plan for
the municipal government of IN
New Amsterdam was arrived at, |&
in Holland, and the City of New
Amsterdam was then first offi-
cially recognized (2d February,
1653). Cee fa

Upon the receipt of this news |e
by Stuyvesant he made a public
speech in which he intimated that
his power was not in the slightest
degree abridged or abrogated.
Soon after, however, he was re-{F
called to Holland by the home

ESSE) SEY HR aR sae

63












government, a suggestive fact,
which caused many to question
the extent of his present power,
and assured them that the law of
the tyrant might perhaps not be
absolute, and doubtless urged
| them to further remonstrate as
future developments came forth.
The order of his recall was re-
voked upon the declaration of
5 | war between England and Hol-
"| land, and great preparation was
‘ instituted towards strengthening
the fortifications of the city. Ad-
ditional breastworks and strong-










je holds were run up, and a sort of
barricade, beneath the surface of
the water, was extended across
the North River.





ENGLISH
CONTROL

w














Lo

———>—

N March, 1664, Charles II.

granted to his brother James,
then Duke of York, ‘the terri-
tory comprehending Long Island
and the islands in the neighbor-
hood, and all the lands and rivers |
from the west side of the Con-|ffll
necticut River to the eastern
shore of Delaware Bay.”

The English equipped four}
vessels, with 450 men, under |g
Colonel Richard Niccolls, to lf" "A
take possession of the Province. |ftmeaws

Niccolls with his ‘ red-coats” x \ ay
arrived off the Fort on 30th off
August, and to the consternation
and dismay of the inhabitants as-
sembled on the Bowling Green,
as well as to Stuyvesant himself, =
immediately sent ashore a sum- |,

a

67




L



























mons to surrender, promising life,
liberty and estate to all who
4| would peacefully accept of its
wl| Conditions.
aij} The Governor read the letter
“i 1} to the Council, and fearing assent
by the people should the tenor
i} of it become known, he tore it
| into shreds and crushed it be-
a| neath his feet.
os; Meanwhile the people them-
Kai} Selves, in anticipation of some de-
~\ cisive move, had assembled out-
|| side the building and were shout-
ing clamorously for information
as to the contents of the letter.
Returning to the Council
chamber, Stuyvesant gathered
2yq| up the torn fragments and gave
them to the Burgomasters in ses-
















sion to do with as they pleased, at
the same time, of his own accord
sending a defiant answer to Nic-
colls, and ordering the garrison of
the Fort to prepare for an attack.
In an unguarded moment the |EeaiWl
warring Governor yielded to the bl
wiser counsel and entreaty of |
popular sentiment, not to shed in- || j
nocent blood in what could prove
but a vain attempt at defense, \Wags
and withheld immediate action.
After some days, although it
galled him bitterly to consent,
Stuyvesant signed the treaty at
his Bouwerie house, and within a {5 ey
few hours a legion of British
soldiery marched into the Fort
and formally took possession of
the city, the name being changed |\@are..;












“WA y
GES KC
ae

See
ee








69



















to New York in compliment to
its Royal Patron.


















Hy

on



A After the surrender Stuyvesant
Be eAN = was, by order of the State’s Gen-

eral, recalled to Holland to tender
a report of his administration in
person. He arrived at The
Hague in October, 1667, where
| || he remained until his return to
pi; America a year later.

Here the supplanted Governor
settled on his Bouwerie, and until
|| his. death proved to be an alto-
gether more valuable citizen and
pleasing a neighbor than was
V-] thought to be at all likely from
‘his previous reputation, He in-
MA\K || terested himself amiably in

$94 church and municipal affairs,
but succumbed in a few years to

Pa a

7O

















the ravages of time and advanc- |[f
ing age in an attack of cholera |/Â¥
morbus, -Thus, as the chroniclers
have said, “ died a loyal, upright,
and honest man.”

His funeral was conducted |f
with a grandeur hitherto un-|P&
known in the New World, and
his body entombed in his private |g
chapel, which stood on the site of ||
the present Saint Mark’s Church, |
and where the following record
of his burial may yet be seen :



=

los
eaten
2








So
SIN




va

A Ti
am
(|
iS









/ : 1A
In this vault lies buried Wr 5
PETRUS STUYVESANT, yaNs\

Late Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief
of New Amsterdam,

| In New Netherland, now called New York,
and the
Dutch West India Islands, Died A.D. 1673,
Aged 80 years.

Sows















ONG Ge we
(|Get
Uh Ven ALS
eh O Ria
Ds AK C--

USSU







7I





4| Another memorial, which up
alto a generation ago had proved
| equally lasting, was the so-called
@| Stuyvesant Pear Tree, which
"| stood surrounded by an_ iron
fence at Thirteenth street and
Third avenue.

Governor Niccolls immedi-
ately set about reconstructing
the civil government of the city,
replacing the former Burgo-
masters and Schepens by a
Mayor, Aldermen and Sheriffs,
Was was the English form.

The administration was peace-
| fully conducted in the main, Nic-
Hi colls meeting with but little oppo-
sition from the Dutch residents,
who seemed ready to fall in with
the affairs of the new régime.




































out anew between England and
Holland, and bethinking some
attempt might be made by the
Dutch to reclaim the city, the
Governor made vigorous prepa- row
rations for its defense. The = Oy e
Dutch fleet, however, failed to]l-
put in an appearance, and the
serene period of Governor Nic-
colls’ rule continued until 1668,
when at his own request he was
recalled to England. His suc-
cessor was Colonel Francis Love-
lace, who held the office until
1673, when the truce between the
two countries again suffered dis-
rupture, the city reverting finally |
to the Dutch.






THE SECOND
OCCUPATION
OF WHE
DUTCH

ws












|
|

|

eA HL i ity










N a2gth July, 1673, two
Dutch vessels sailed into
the harbor, and the commander ae
of the expedition presented the L
following message to the Eng-
lish Governor: ip e
“Sir—The force of war now ps i.
. . . . ° We =
lying within your sight is sent by Wh = ZEN
the High and Mighty States and Ey LT HL ° } 4








if















his Serene Highness, the Prince |g Be
of Orange, for the purpose of
destroying their enemies. Welt
have sent you, therefore, this let-
ter, together with our trumpeter, |
to the end that upon sight thereof
you surrender unto us the fort
called James, promising good
quarter, or by refusal, we shall be
obliged to proceed both by land
and by water in such manner as















we shall find most advantageous
for the High and Mighty States.”
Dated: The Ship Swanen-
burgh, anchored betwixt Staaten
and Longe Islands, gth August
CZ (30th July, O. S.), 1673.
ff Signed :
* CoRNELIS EVERTSEN,
* Jacos BENCKES.

No immediate reply being
forthcoming, a cannonading was
begun, killing and wounding
many men, and resulting in the
final capitulation of the city,
which was surrendered upon two
conditions:

“J, That Officers and Soldiers






nee - with their arms, colors flying and

a a ae ae

78







drums beating, without hindrance
or molestation.

“TI. Thereupon the Fort
would be delivered with all mili-
tary arms and ammunition re-|
maining therein.”

These terms being quickly ac- |Agay
ceded to, the Dutch once more |@ZiCX
found themselves in possession. [247%

Public opinion was divided in|#y'E®
its sympathies, but all naturally Pp
obeyed the mandate, and the ie)
Orange insignia again flew above 9
the fort. The city had mean-
while improved greatly in appear-
ance, increased in value, and more
than doubled in population.

The name New York was now|*, =
changed to New Orange, or at | We
least so it was known to the loyal NN







































Dutch, although the English
nomenclature may be said never
to have been separated from its
memory since first given in 1664.

The Dutch only enjoyed their
PeMfea| Second period of rule for a few
x months, as on the goth February
] in the following year (1674) a
SS] new Treaty of Peace was signed
283] which restored to Great Britain
the territory wrested from her the
YAei| year before, and on the roth No.
vember the new English Gov-
Nj ernor, Sir Edmund Andros,
entered upon the scene.

So passed away the Dutch do-
minion in North America, step
by step, from the early establish-
ment of the customs of Hol-
land, its system of township and

SS wae

°
















municipal government, the trans- |fA ;
planting of the Old World names |['Uj
and terms, the beginnings and
growth of commerce, the friend |f
and enemy, the Indian, and the |
progress of foreign encroach- |B
ment, which culminated in the
ascendency and final supremacy |
of an alien power. The annals.
of New York are surpassed by
no other city in America in topics |
of varied character, romantic in- |
cident, general interest, instruct-
ive lesson, or dignified distinc- [Fs
tion. The pioneers left their j]. —
deep impress on the face and
depth alike of the natural attri-
butes of the Empire City.

The settlers who first planted
the flag of Holland in the empire Sam

Us. Us Us Us th Us as



Lt
ee





as
a

AW Tee




Wy
i
eT












as
























of the Indian were plain-spoken,
earnest men, who left their native
land to extend and enrich her
|| power and possession, and bind
another province in a new quar-
ter of the globe to the United
wa! Netherland. Traders, chiefly, al-

| though they never ignored the
principles of religion, education
and good government, and the
early accounts published by some
of their historians, and the ad-
mirably written records and cor-
respondence left by the Stuy-
vesants, Beekmans, and Van
Rensselaers. attest fully as to
their erudition and scholarship.



23hRZe!











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Ya

ZILLI TE LE DL LTTEM LL Ye

i




COLONIAL MONOGRAPHS

HOW THE DUTCH
CAME TO MANHATTAN

ws
Other books in the atta wie
.'. Sertes of Colonial Monographs
.'. by Blanch McManus are .°.

THE VOYAGE OF THE MAYFLOWER
Small 4to, with 80 illustrations, $1.25

THE QUAKER COLONY
Small 4to, with 80 illustrations, $1.25

THREE FRENCH EXPLORERS
Small 4to, with 80 illustrations, $1.25


YE, New York
WE-R:-HERRICK & CO
Fifth Avenue

Lan 40

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CoPpyRIGHT, 1897,
BY

E. R. HERRICK & Co,
INTRODUCTION.

HE Story or tHe DutcH or New AMSTERDAM

has often been told in scholarly prose, but the

picturesque feature of romantic fact has seldom, if

ever, received the acknowledgment which it seems to
deserve and require. |

As a nation of sea-farers and traders, the Dutch
acquired an enviable reputation, and for them to
have so successfully founded a commercial colony
was but to have been expected.

The history of the city of New York has been
ably and exhaustively treated by many notable writers,
and to them, as well as to other prolific sources, we
are indebted for the verification of our facts.

The arrangement herein follows no_ previously
conceived plan or outline, except that it supplements
the first book of the series, ‘The Voyage of the
Mayflower,” but forms in itself a true chronicle of
the events of the early Dutch occupation of Man-
hattan Island from its beginnings to its final reversion
into English hands.

Personalities have been avoided, except so far as

5
has seemed necessary and advisable in order to
retain the point and purpose of the text; namely,
that it shall appear pleasing and attractive as well
as truthful and correct; for the same reason general-
ities mostly have been dealt with, and a detailed
statement only expressed where it commemorates
some especially significant event.

Supplementing this, the drawings have been made
with a like regard for fidelity and authenticity, and
idealized only where deemed permissible and ap-
propriate.

As is true of the other older cities in America,
abundant evidence still exists in New York to
remind one of the early days; the peculiar formation
of the island has made any radical change in the
laying out of the city impossible, hence any _his-
torical account must bespeak with praise in reference
to the judgment and foresight of its founders and
organizers.

“A noble tale well told, of valiant deeds well
done,” is an epigram from an ancient tome, which it
is to be hoped will be merited in some measure by
the contents of this book,
CONTENTS

PAGE

Tur Discovery OF MANHATTAN 9

THE SETTLEMENT 23
THE DutTcH GOVERNORS 29
ENGLISH CONTROL 65

THE SECOND OCCUPATION OF THE DuTCH 75
THE DISCOVERY
Ole
MANHATTAN

ws






















HE crory or Manuattan ||
has ever been its prestige
in the world of commerce and of
trade ; a metropolis where the }} .
merchants of the world might
find a market for their wares,
Amid these conditions and the |
influences acquired at the de-
mands of commerce, a mighty
and glorious city has arisen.
Relatively, it was the same
state of affairs which existed in
the early days when the traffic
with the Netherlands, in the furs
and skins of the Indian trader,
made necessary its rise from a
mere trading post to the leading
city of the American continent.
Its dealings with the foreign
world made its aspect truly cos-



II































mopolitan, a condition which
did not exist in reference to any
of the other colonies then estab- ©
lished.

Jamestown was practically a
farming, home-making settle-
ment, and Plymouth at that
time merely a refuge for a per-
secuted people. Hence it is but
small wonder that a city of trade
should be established and prosper
in a location midway between the
two. Geographically Manhattan
Island occupies the natural loca-
tion where such a commercial
venture could but prosper, and
which has since received the
recognition, as was its due—a
fact which, shorn of all its view
of sentiment, is still romantic:


Pe



from the days of Hendrik Hud-
son’s venture-seeking voyage ;
through the occupation of the {[-
various Dutch governors; the || ge a4k
rule of Great Britain; the sec-
ond tenure of the Dutch;
again to revert to English con- |k
trol; and, finally, the era of |feg
American independence, under
which the present city of New
York has thriven and advanced.
The island of Manhattan was,
at this time, a mass of wood-
crowned hills and grassy valleys,
extending northward from the
bay through a gently rolling
region of marsh and glade, and
peopled by Indians who, although
savages, were supposed to be of
a superior class to the average

CTR Ry

3



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AES

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fies



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syed
Waa


















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'




red man encountered by the early
settlers.

In the north were to be found
bear, deer, beaver, and innumer-
able wild fowl, which, as with
the Indian, served the Dutch as
edibles of great relish, as well as
proving valuable for the hides
and pelts.

The Indian inhabitants, known
as Manna-hattoes, paid much
attention to their appearance and
dress, which they fashioned from
the skins of the fur-bearing ani-
mals abounding thereabouts, and
decorated with beads and feathers.
Their crowns were shaven, and
moccasins of soft leather covered
4| their feet; thus, with pipe and
| tomahawk and bow and arrows,

14










ee








=











Aye aN lag

Ca

























was constituted their individual
paraphernalia. They lived com-
monly in huts of a sufficient
size to accommodate comfortably
a half-dozen or more; and, though
clannish to a certain extent, were
possessed of considerable know-
ledge and acquaintance of the
neighboring tribes. They were
great hunters and traders, and
the peltrie secured by all the
tribes in the vicinity, beyond
what was needed for their own
uses, ultimately found its way
into the store-houses of the Man-
hattan Indians, as soon after as
the first Dutch traders made the |B
demand therefore.

The standard of value by which
such transactions were bargained




for was the wampum, the uni-
versal Indian money.

The wampum was made of the
interior of the conch shell, of two
colors, white, and bluish or pur-
plish black, of which the black
equaled in value two of the white ;
three black wampums being about
the value of two cents. The
shells were commonly strung to-
gether in belts of a certain stand-
{| ard width and six feet in length,
| the black being valued at about
five dollars, and the white two
dollars and a half. Thus another
characteristic of the early stamp
of commerce upon the beginnings
of the city is made apparent, and
the seed afterward sown by the
Dutch burgomasters was propa-


























I

16




















gated to an almost incalculable ex-
tent through the various transi-
tory periods unto the present day.
The discoverer of Manhattan
Island was undoubtedly Verra- ||
zano, a Florentine, who, under an.
the patronage of the French,
voyaged for the purpose of ex-
ploration and discovery through-
out the North Atlantic, and who,
in 1504, nearly one hundred and
twenty-five years before the
Dutch were finally ensconced as
proprietors, anchored his ship at
the “mouthe of an exceeding
greate streme of water,” landed,
and erected a wooden cross bear-
ing a metal plate inscribed with
the royal arms of France, and
took possession of the land in the jp










ry

ie








name of Francis, most Christian
King of France and Navarre.
Later voyagers passed and re-
passed the site of New Amster-
dam, but none thought it of suf-
ficient importance, or were en-









LY

“ey

SEES
: P Ts
ESS
sp

L
Le

yr










LF





SS
sy







(GAN couraged to enter the bay or
WG . : ;

GS) prospect in the immediate neigh-
Lg. borhood, until the advent of

i

nt



Hendrik Hudson, a venturesome
navigator descended from ances-
tors high in the circles of English
trade for many generations. Hud-
son was then on a voyage of
discovery for the Dutch East
|| India Company of Amsterdam,
with orders to locate, if possible,
the long-sought-for new route to
the Orient, a problem which has
since even remained unsolved.

SSSR SSE HR) FRE SS

18


















Hudson’s previous experience |f
and acquaintance with other Ls
navigators and explorers seemed | YZ
to augur well for his ability to |f
carry out the plans of his em- |
ployers. The expedition was zi
fitted out in a Dutch galliot, a]JZZgZ7~

clumsy craft of eighty tons bur- Avi ee
Lan 62
eT }





















den, with square-sails on the two |B ys A
forward masts, and a mixed crew |77/7Z Hey] h
of twenty English and Dutch ial 4
. . : . fy
sailors. His instructions were |X [XY y ip
; > Ly SZxeialaley
“to search for nothing but a |BeaSs saw





northwest passage.” If he failed |=
in this, he can hardly be said to
have erred in his final judgment |/ss=
and report to the Company in |=
reference to Mannahatta, which
was, in the tongue of that day:

“This a good land to fall in

Ae

i

19




















with, lads, and a pleasant land to
see.”

Meeting with many hardships
and near approach to disaster,
Hudson sought diligently for the
hoped-for channel, but, finally,
after severe buffeting about in
northern waters, he was blown
southward as far as the coast of
Virginia. From here he cruised
northward until was sighted the
hills of Neversink. Here he an-
chored, at the portals of the
‘gateway to New York, on Sep-
tember 2, 1609.

On the following day the ship
was cautiously propelled up into
the lower bay. At some distance
Indians were observed paddling
{| about in canoes; then were the























first introductions to the original
settlers of Manhattan. The In-
dians soon drew near in their
canoes, and in an attempt at
parley offered tobacco as a peace-
offering.

On the eleventh of September
the craft came up through the
Narrows, and anchored in full
view of Manhattan Island, with
the great river stretching north- Z
ward even beyond the gaze or | Nie
knowledge of the explorers, and
which they believed was the long-
looked-for pathway to Cathay.
The following days were occu-
pied by the voyage up the river,
and on the seventeenth they ar-
rived opposite the present city of
Hudson.











which they reached is a mooted
question, although it is generally
admitted that they got as far as
Castle Island, just below Albany,
and in an open boat proceeded
thence to the head of navigation.

On the twenty-third of the
month the ship dropped down
toward Manhattan Island, and
eleven days later sailed from the
mouth of the great North River
for Holland. Upon his arrival
Hudson reported to the officers
of the Company the results of
his discoveries, which inspired
those worthy officials to further
extend their interests and pro-
vince, and, if possible, to open up
trading relations with the natives.








(Gs

DG




J

AT
THE
SETTLEMENT

te



——

SSS


w
HROUGH the result

some years negotiation a |i
plan for the development of the [fii
trade was finally put into opera-
tion by the Dutch West India
Company, which was formed for
the purpose. One Adrian Block
in 1613 suffered the loss of his
vessel by fire as she was lying off
Manhattan Island loaded with
skins and about to set sail for ||
Holland.

Block and his men were forced,
therefore, to spend the winter on
shore in huts, which they erected
from the timber at hand, sur-
rounding the hamlet bya palisade. |]
He named the settlement New |
Amsterdam, in honor of the first
city of Holland. This is the first




















25




knowledge we have of actual set-
tlement on the island, and which,
it may be said, formed the begin-
nings of the present city.
Hitherto Manhattan Island
had been looked upon merely as
|| a trading post, but now, With a
]| full appreciation of its value and
importance as a settlement and a
province, attention was turned in
that direction, and immigration
=| set in soon after; a charter being
=~|| granted to the Dutch West India
\| Company for purposes of trade
HI}; and colonization, the foundations
\| of the city were laid in earnest.
In 1623 the Mew Netherland,
a ship of two hundred and sixty
tons, brought over thirty Wal-
=| loon families, who were distrib-




















26



















uted at various points along the
Hudson River and the shores of
Long Island Sound, thereby ex-
tending and increasing the Dutch
occupation, under whose direc-
tion and rule they had emigrated.

The following year a treaty |h
alliance was formed between Hol-
land and Great Britain, which en-
couraged Holland to strengthen
her political, commercial, and
social status in the New World |
by sending over still other bands |S
of settlers. i

In this relation it is to be re-
corded, even unto the present
day, the preservation of the
Dutch characteristics of nomen-
clature, manners, and customs
noticeable alike in architecture,


furniture, and dress—in strong
contradistinction to the Eng-
lish influences so marked and
prevalent in the plantations of
Virginia and Plymouth.


Ae
DUTCH
GOVERNORS

Â¥

(CRA ERDITD}

rs
YY




















ITHIN a twelvemonth
Peter Minuit was com-
missioned Director-General of
the province, and was granted |h, By
power to preside over a council 2
of five to be appointed to assist
him in the government thereof.
Minuit arrived off New Am-
sterdam in May, 1626, in the ship
Sea Mew, and immediately upon
setting foot on shore inaugu-
rated what appeared at the time
to be a vigorous administration. |L& [ly
Up to now the Dutch had held Gag
possession of Manhattan by right ||| @aemeaei
of occupation only, but Minuit, jf
with due loyalty and energy,
sought to establish the right be-
yond assail, and accordingly con-
summated a treaty with the






















honorable than that of William
Penn with the Indians from be-
yond the Delaware.

The price paid for the full title
to the twenty-two thousand acres,
comprising Manhattan Island,
was sixty guilders, about twenty-
four dollars, in merchandise, con-
sisting of clothing and trinkets.

The territory acquired, with
the surrounding region already
claimed by the Dutch, was now
created a province and county of
Holland, and granted Armorial.
distinction, that of an Earl or
Count—a beaver enclosed in a
shield and surmounted by an
Earl’s coronet. The provisional
civil government was organized
in 1626, and from this time dates






the actual official recognition and
patronage toward the support of
the colony.

In Minuit’s administration was Kermete
built a stone fort on the site of|| /QYpeiBh,
the present Battery, where the Lined YNZ
wooden palisade and earthwork is
then stood. This fortification oe
was rectangular in form, built of fi ;
earth, and faced with stone hewn ~
from the extensive deposits in the |N
vicinity, and of sufficient size as |py>#
to be capable of harboring the}
entire population in case of need. |i

Occupying such a strategic po-
sition at the confluence of the
North (Hudson’s) and East |@
rivers, the site could hardly have NZ
been improved upon for the pur- N





TAX

















pose. In the waters adjacent |f
thereto was the anchorage for






















4| ships and the general rendezvous
of the Indians and traders from
oe roundabout—the Manna-hattoes
from the north, the Hackensacks
and Raritans from the west, the
Rockaways, Canarsees, Shinne-
gicocks, and Missiqueeges from
Rf Long Island and the eastward.

Ke Around this redoubt grew up
27 the little village, log huts at first,
2 Z and later stone or brick cottages,
which, with the advent of Petrus
Stuyvesant, was incorporated as
New Amsterdam — the name
under which the settlement had
been known since first given it
S| by Adrian Block in 1613-14.

4, The Director also caused to be
built a horse-mill for grinding
All corn, a staple article of food with

ealg| the Indian, and whose value was




















beginning to be appreciated by
the settlers. On the second floor
of the mill was a room intended
to be fitted up and set apart for
religious services. A stone build-
ing was also erected with a roof
of thatched straw for use as the |p
company’s store-house. These |@%
were all contained within the[f
walls of the fort, while clustered |i}
beneath outside the walls were |r
the homes of the people. 4 f
During the first year of Min-|_G@*
uit’s régime there were exported IN
to Holland furs to the value of \
nineteen thousand dollars, a state SN ~Y)
of affairs which should have be- |X
tokened well for the future suc- INV@
cess of the Director’s administra- INV
tion.

Rhein

35



















the question of the boundary line
between the Province and New
England, which for a time caused
some official uneasiness and inter-
course between Minuit and Gov-
ernor Bradford, but which, how-
ever, passed off finally without
serious complication, although
@; the question was still left in an
4| undecided and therefore unsettled
state.

In 1632, for cogent reasons and
views held by the home govern-
B{ ment, Minuit’s administration
ul came to an abrupt end; and in
\ 1633, twelve months or more
after he had sailed for Holland,
Wouter Van Twiller arrived in
the ship Salt Mountazn, to con-
tinue the power vested in the title






of Director-General or Governor
of the Province. Van Twiller
arrived in State, accompanied by
a troop of one hundred and four
soldiers, who were to form the
military guard and garrison of
-the fort. He was empowered
with civil and military authority
to proceed with the government
of the Province as he might
deem necessary for its proper ad-
vancement and improvement. || <3
“Wouter Van Twiller,” says Died- |f

rich Knickerbocker, ‘ was five
feet six inches in height and six
feet five inches in circumference.




NAY

We
Sy

y

AW Be 4 ann












I ies

Natio

ss










which rested sans neck on the top
of his backbone. His legs were |
short but sturdy, and his two gray
eyes twinkled in his round face






















J| like stars in the firmament. His
\| habits were as regular as his per-
son was rotund, and his four daily
meals, taken at regular intervals,
occupied exactly one hour each.
He smoked and doubted (he was
not of energetic or active disposi-
tion, be it recalled) in his leath-





Toe Sy

mae Roy)| ern-covered chair for eight hours,

oie) and slept, or was supposed to have
SZ

done so, the remaining twelve.”

A weaker, more vacillating, or
more thoroughly incompetent
governor could hardly have been
found. A former clerk in the
company’s warehouse in Holland,
Van Twiller had no thought
above the gains of trade, and pos-
sessed absolutely no knowledge
or experience of civil or military



ay i
S Sopra i. »
SM
z























law and government. Hence his
control of the affairs of the Pro-
vince could meet with but scant
favor. He secured the post
through grace of family and
political influence, having married
the daughter of one of the
wealthy Patroons, and, being
himself a person of some means,
was doubtless considered a desira-
ble party for that reason as well. .W%m-

With Van Twiller came Ever- |i
ardus Bogardus, a_ clergyman, Malik
and Adam Roelandsen, a school-|Â¥ ge
teacher, the first in the Province, |Â¥ TAG
and desirable members of the]
community they proved to be. |

Van Twiller had still further |B
work done upon the fortifications
started by the former Governor,
and also built within, a barracks

POT

39








for the soldiers, likewise a wooden
church, or rather a separate build-
ing to be used asachurch. This
was located on the East River
shore, and nearby a graveyard
was plotted, and an additional
three windmills built—the ever
useful servant of the Dutch, al-
though stigmatized by the In-
dians as a foul spirit, they being
much afraid of its “long waving
arms and grinding teeth.”

In addition to these varied im-
provements, several other brick
we| and stone buildings were at once

maj erected, producing collectively
gee'@)| evidences of a striking and grati-
.a| fying growth. The houses were
Sy 4\ generally of one type, often of
Z| brick imported from Holland,

Us Us Us as os

40











ria
re es

=<
























and roofed or slated with tiles,
also imported; gable ends, pictur-
esquely notched, as was the fash-
ion, wooden shutters for each
small window, the doors, gener- |E Sif
ally divided into an upper and |B
lower half, as is the custom in :
Holland even at the present day.
The whole surmounted, at the
apex of the gable, by a weather-
cock.

Two principal roadways were |f
laid out, one extending north-
ward from the fort through the
interior of the island, the other
running along the shore to the
ferry landing on the East River.

The ferry to Long Island was
attended by a farmer who lived







PS INE




from his other occupations by
persons desiring to be trans-
ported across the river, by a blast
from a horn which hung from a
tree near at hand, the rate of fare
for foot passengers being three
stivers of wampum.

Here, too, was the “Cage”
and the Whipping-post, where
Van Twiller was wont to practice
his favorite mode of punishment
for mild offenses, that of hanging
the culprit suspended by a girdle
around the waist in mid-air for
as short or long a time as the
offense might seem to warrant.


















y During Van Twiller’s incum-
| bency was inaugurated the system
of Patroons, a sort of manorial
4] grant or privilege, whereby cer-



yp
ay TH Ay «tie
Wht dy Sek
theo Alene sh












tain wealthy persons were al-
lowed to establish colonies inter-
dependent with the provincial
rule, and in consideration of their
being able to influence fifty or
more persons to migrate in a
body and accompany them hither
for purposes of colonization, they
were granted in fee simple the |k
rights to a tract of land sixteen |}
miles in length and eight miles
in width. The title of Patroon, »
or Lord of the Manor, was be- |/Â¥
stowed upon all who could and
would so found colonies. This
attracted many sturdy burghers
from Holland, as well as noble-
men of wealth and social posi-
tion, who gladly welcomed a






still further wealth, dignity, and
power.

Being impressed by the results
attained by the Indians in the
neighborhood in the cultivation
of maize, beans, and such like
truck for food, Van Twiller was
desirous that the community itself
should produce such a sufficiency
of a like product as to be able to
ship it to Holland for home con-
sumption and for export ; accord-
ingly were established a series of
small farms to be known as the
Company’s Gardens or Bouwe-
ries. These gardens were located

ARK “| immediately northward from the
pane CGE Ze~i| settled portion of the Island;
(ye OL Nag four on the Eastern shore and
Besides




















ep

| two on the West shore.





















the cornfields and cabbage gar-
dens, here also bloomed in bright
array the native sun-flowers, bell- |
flowers and yellow lilies, all in true
keeping with the then distinctive,
though now corrupt and incon- |e
gruous, name—‘ The Bowery.” |f
On farm number one was built |[
a dwelling house, barn, brewery, re
and boat-house, the occupancy |)
and use of which the Governor |ft
himself partook of, also purchas-
ing as his own personal property
Nut Island, now Governor's hx
Island, which, it may be stated, \Rypses
has formed a lasting monument |Ng@e
to the memory of the sleek Van |
Twiller and the period of his rule
over the city.
Van Twiller soon became the






ANIA
RE

a ae



45











largest individual land owner in
the Province, acquiring succes-
sively Great Barn and Blackwell's
Islands in the East River, and yet
other tracts on Manhattan Island
and the mainland.

Ere long Dominie Bogardus
proved to be an unruly member
of the settlement, publicly rebuk-
ing the Governor for some appa-
rent laxity, and perhaps justly,
although naturally resented by
Van Twiller, after which the
preacher anathematized him from
the pulpit as ‘‘a child of the
Devil,” resulting in the Govern-
or’s being doubly incensed. It
ws served, however, to rouse the
ee 24) people to a recognition of the
jiexact state of affairs, although,



aoa { J * aa — ba) bs wi ‘s
WS Fi cites adn en as

Say
aw










Ly

nnn



46



















of course, Van Twiller had his
adherents and partisans.

Two factions sprang up, and
the quarrel continued until it
finally culminated in his (Van
Twiller’s) recall to Holland.

In 1638 William Kieft, a man
of far different stamp, although
of far less integrity as well, was
appointed to succeed him. Kieft
came to the post preceded by|k
various rumors to his discredit, |P
and was therefore somewhat cool- | Bay
ly received. He had previously
failed in business in Hull, and, as|f
was the custom, his portrait was
hung upon the gallows in the
public square, an ignominy befit- |B f
ting the offense or default, as the |}
case may have been.






Such an introduction was
hardly likely to inspire a great
amount of confidence at the start,
even should sanguine conjecture
as to the future seem to warrant

f o . .
if AN it. The arrival of the Governor
Ly

in a Dutch man-of-war of two
hundred and eighty tons burden
and twenty guns, accompanied by
a Spanish caravel, captured on the
way from Holland’s old enemy,
was naturally a significant event.

So far as Kieft’s present rela-
tions with the Province were con-
cerned, he stood in every respect
as the superior of Van Twiller.
Small in stature, fussy, and of fiery
disposition and avaricious in tem-

= || perament, he ruled over the peo-



Uy ws my RRR RY

ple with a high hand, regardless



48



































of their remonstrance. He took|g
council with no one, but adminis-|Â¥
tered the law according to his
own interpretation thereof.
There existed in the Province
at this time many rampant abuses
which demanded reform, and to
this purpose Kieft prided himself 3!
on his ability to lay down the
law of remedy and to afterward
uphold its proper observance. Ze
A regulation provided for thell 2
ringing of the town bell announc- y
ing religious services on Sunday 5)
at nine o'clock each evening as
the hour for retiring; in the
morning asa call to labor; and,
as occasion required, as a sum-
mons for witnesses and prisoners |}
to appear before the court. ie




Cm

CRM




It was forbidden to tap beer
during the time in which divine
worship was in progress ; individ-
ual smuggling and trading in
tobacco and furs was forbidden,
and profanity and vice in general
were perceptibly checked in their
career. Powder and guns were
often traded with the Indians, an
undesirable thing to have done,
and which by Kieft’s decree was
made a capital offense. The
standard of value of wampum was
regulated and fixed by law; all of
which, being the first expressions
of the new Governor, produced a
decided improvement in the
views of the majority of the citi-



zens regarding him. The fort,
church, and government build-



50




















ings were repaired, and the guns
of the fort brought back to a
state of efficiency from which
they had sadly fallen; repairs
were made upon the Company’s
ships, which were now leaky and |
generally run down.

This general restoration im-
mediately brought the affairs of
the colony up to a high plane of
excellency.

The Stadt Hluys was built in
1642 near the shore of the East
River, in full view of all incom-}}
ing ships as they anchored off the|
fort awaiting government inspec-
tion.

The building was of stone,
about fifty feet square, and, in-
cluding the gables, five stories in

ae

=A
|
i ta





_

Pe a

51








height, following the general
form of Dutch architecture then
in use. The council room was of
imposing aspect and grandeur,
decorated as it was with the
orange, blue, and white of the
West India Company and the
Â¥4| reflection of color from the arms
ss | of New Amsterdam graven upon
the windows, where, as described
&| by Washington Irving, “The
| secretary only kept the minutes of
the meeting in condensed form,
the Dutch not being prone to
producing voluminous reports of
their proceedings.” Here the
council sat and smoked during
their discussions and debates, reg-
Z=Jgi| ulating the time by the pipeful, an
~|jadmirable and exact measure-














if
i



























ment, as the pipe in the mouth of }}
a trueborn Dutchman was never |i
liable to those accidents and
irregularities that are continually =
putting our clocks out of order. |f
In this fashion did the profound jij
council of New Amsterdam
smoke and doze and ponder from
week to week, month to month, }I
and year to year as to what man-
ner they should conduct the in-
fant settlement; meantime the ||
town took care of itself.

A stone church was_ also
erected inside the fort at a cost og
of one thousand dollars, and alf
public surveyor was appointed to |FReA ea
lay out boundary lines at a salary |Ly |
of eighty dollars per annum.

The first recorded sale of land!










was: “Abraham Van Steenwyck
to Anthony Van Fees, a lot
g| thirty feet front by one hundred
| and ten feet deep, for nine dollars






Serermirey ley,’
eee

JS and sixty cents.”
Ys ee An edict was issued forbidding

Ail r || householders to harbor any trav-

ig |eler for more than one meal or a
| sea single night’s lodging without
A) first notifying the Governor.

y The growth‘of the town and the
B54| largely increasing number of trav-
| elers rendered this an inconveni-
ence and made the establishment
H ESI of a public house a necessity.

A tavern was accordingly built
and Philip Gerritson appointed
mine host. In after times many
jj a traveler and trader from afar—
Virginia, New England, or from

rhe

54

nh



























and entertainment therein, and
amid the pleasures of the flowing
bowl of brandy or of port, Dutch
cheeses, ginger-bread, and North
Sea herring, and the solace of the |ifrins
long clay pipe, “the Dutchman’s|#ijiMj
ever-present rest and hope,” was
heard and discussed the latest]|

globe, while lounging on the set-
tle by the door might always bej#
found, in pleasant weather, a lit-}}
tle company of burghers, debating |RaM
the various aspects of their ven-
tures and professions, the advent
of the latest ship to arrive, and
the news of politics, war, and
rumors of war, then a constant
happening, from abroad.



















During Kieft’s administration
troubles with the natives were of
frequent and disastrous occur-
rence. Inarestricted sense, war-
fare itself, may be said to have
existed. Doubtless both sides
were at fault, and the condition,
while it resulted in many fatali-
ties, was more of the nature of a
constant annoyance than any
special fear or apprehension as
to the possibility of the town’s
being sacked or pillaged and the
settlers exterminated.

The last of the royal Dutch
Governors was Petrus Stuyve-
sant, a man of tyrannic and des-













POH Fg EY :
iY BD potic nature, who held the office
— “ete _ 3
wh simul for eighteen years. Born in Hol-
we ts etc:

y oe A
est ‘ 1 1
eke. land in 1602, he early evinced a



























desire for a military career, and jhnant!
accordingly his education was = ms
begun in that direction, t

Previous to his coming to Fe 2
New Amsterdam he had served
as Military Governor of Cura-
cao, where he lost his right leg
in an attack led upon the Portu-
guese at St. Martin.

He was above the medium
height, of fine physique, and
dressed commonly in slashed
hose fastened at the knee with a
knotted scarf, velvet jacket with
slashed sleeves over a full ruffled
shirt, and rosettes on his shoes.

Abrupt in manner, conven-
tional, cold, full of prejudice and||
passion and often unapproach-










and affection to a large degree,
which, coupled with his quick
perception, made the new Gov-
ernor a man to be regarded in
the not too genial light of a
master among men.

His present commission was
dated 28th July, 1646, and

| charged him to attend carefully

to the advancement, promotion,
and preservation of trade, com-

merce, and friendship.

Upon the arrival in the Bay of

/\| the ship which bore the Governor

thither, the people of New Am-

“| sterdam were well nigh delirious

in their joy of welcome, and

“Ai burned nearly all the powder in
a}

We) the city in their noisy endeavors



Bl to duly impress that worthy with

aay



ws

8
















their satisfaction at the new rule
about to be put in force. Stuyve-
sant’s appearance upon landing is |pe,
thus described by that rare chron- |&2*
icler, Diedrich Knickerbocker: |
‘Methinks I behold him again, |M
in my imagination, in regimental
coat of German blue, with large |f
brass buttons extending to the
chin, with voluminous | skirts
turned up at the corners, and
brimstone colored breeches. His
face rendered terrible by a pair
of black mustachios, rat-tailed cue
behind, stock of black leather,
cocked hat, his wooden leg
banded with silver, and his gold- |p
headed cane.”
Stuyvesant replied to their wel- |k
come forthwith, and expressed




























his pleasure at having come to
live among them. He promised,
“|| further, to govern as a father,
| which being interpreted to mean
with an iron hand, if in his own
#i2|judgment it might be deemed
oa advisable, somewhat dampened
"¢” || their joyful ardor.
J] The Council was organized on
the 27th of May and a Court of
Justice opened.

The people were induced to
enlarge and improve their dwell-
ing houses; a Market House
was built and plans made for an
annual cattle fair.

Stuyvesant, in the course of
his tenure, had also to deal with
the still open question, the New
England boundary.


AY)





















Frequent complaints as_ to
encroachment came from both
sides. In 1650 the Governor
journeyed to Hartford and ar-
ranged for the permanent recog-
nition of new boundaries yet to |
be laid down.

This was mutually agreed upon
by the representatives of each
colony there assembled, and a
contract of perpetual peace as-
sented to, i

Upon the Governor’s return to [f
New Amsterdam he found that |f
public opinion was decidedly
against his procedure and the re-
sults of his agreement. This was |f
manifestly expressed by a public |/ J «i
declaration to the effect that the |, Shey
Governor had ceded away enough || s=< |




territory to found fifty colonies—
| fifty miles square—somewhat of
an exaggeration, to be sure, but
so incensed were the people that
they spared no pains to impress
his Excellency with the spirit of
their disapproval, whereupon the
=| Governor grew haughty and diffi-
4, dent and threatened to dissolve
his Council.

In 1665 Stuyvesant journeyed
to the Delaware with three ships
$e | and seven hundred men, and at-
SS | tacked and subdued the Swedish
S| colony which had settled there

junder the leadership of the dis-
Fe : ernie’ Minuit, who, when re-
oe ~——|| nounced by the Dutch, went over
aes to the Swedish powers with glow-
ing accounts of the desirability of

Cie a COIS

6


























a settlement in the vicinity of
Manhattan.

The expedition proving suc-
cessful, the Governor returned
crowned with the glory of tri-
umph and victory.

Soon after this a new plan for
the municipal government of IN
New Amsterdam was arrived at, |&
in Holland, and the City of New
Amsterdam was then first offi-
cially recognized (2d February,
1653). Cee fa

Upon the receipt of this news |e
by Stuyvesant he made a public
speech in which he intimated that
his power was not in the slightest
degree abridged or abrogated.
Soon after, however, he was re-{F
called to Holland by the home

ESSE) SEY HR aR sae

63









government, a suggestive fact,
which caused many to question
the extent of his present power,
and assured them that the law of
the tyrant might perhaps not be
absolute, and doubtless urged
| them to further remonstrate as
future developments came forth.
The order of his recall was re-
voked upon the declaration of
5 | war between England and Hol-
"| land, and great preparation was
‘ instituted towards strengthening
the fortifications of the city. Ad-
ditional breastworks and strong-










je holds were run up, and a sort of
barricade, beneath the surface of
the water, was extended across
the North River.


ENGLISH
CONTROL

w








Lo

———>—

N March, 1664, Charles II.

granted to his brother James,
then Duke of York, ‘the terri-
tory comprehending Long Island
and the islands in the neighbor-
hood, and all the lands and rivers |
from the west side of the Con-|ffll
necticut River to the eastern
shore of Delaware Bay.”

The English equipped four}
vessels, with 450 men, under |g
Colonel Richard Niccolls, to lf" "A
take possession of the Province. |ftmeaws

Niccolls with his ‘ red-coats” x \ ay
arrived off the Fort on 30th off
August, and to the consternation
and dismay of the inhabitants as-
sembled on the Bowling Green,
as well as to Stuyvesant himself, =
immediately sent ashore a sum- |,

a

67




L
























mons to surrender, promising life,
liberty and estate to all who
4| would peacefully accept of its
wl| Conditions.
aij} The Governor read the letter
“i 1} to the Council, and fearing assent
by the people should the tenor
i} of it become known, he tore it
| into shreds and crushed it be-
a| neath his feet.
os; Meanwhile the people them-
Kai} Selves, in anticipation of some de-
~\ cisive move, had assembled out-
|| side the building and were shout-
ing clamorously for information
as to the contents of the letter.
Returning to the Council
chamber, Stuyvesant gathered
2yq| up the torn fragments and gave
them to the Burgomasters in ses-













sion to do with as they pleased, at
the same time, of his own accord
sending a defiant answer to Nic-
colls, and ordering the garrison of
the Fort to prepare for an attack.
In an unguarded moment the |EeaiWl
warring Governor yielded to the bl
wiser counsel and entreaty of |
popular sentiment, not to shed in- || j
nocent blood in what could prove
but a vain attempt at defense, \Wags
and withheld immediate action.
After some days, although it
galled him bitterly to consent,
Stuyvesant signed the treaty at
his Bouwerie house, and within a {5 ey
few hours a legion of British
soldiery marched into the Fort
and formally took possession of
the city, the name being changed |\@are..;












“WA y
GES KC
ae

See
ee








69
















to New York in compliment to
its Royal Patron.


















Hy

on



A After the surrender Stuyvesant
Be eAN = was, by order of the State’s Gen-

eral, recalled to Holland to tender
a report of his administration in
person. He arrived at The
Hague in October, 1667, where
| || he remained until his return to
pi; America a year later.

Here the supplanted Governor
settled on his Bouwerie, and until
|| his. death proved to be an alto-
gether more valuable citizen and
pleasing a neighbor than was
V-] thought to be at all likely from
‘his previous reputation, He in-
MA\K || terested himself amiably in

$94 church and municipal affairs,
but succumbed in a few years to

Pa a

7O














the ravages of time and advanc- |[f
ing age in an attack of cholera |/Â¥
morbus, -Thus, as the chroniclers
have said, “ died a loyal, upright,
and honest man.”

His funeral was conducted |f
with a grandeur hitherto un-|P&
known in the New World, and
his body entombed in his private |g
chapel, which stood on the site of ||
the present Saint Mark’s Church, |
and where the following record
of his burial may yet be seen :



=

los
eaten
2








So
SIN




va

A Ti
am
(|
iS









/ : 1A
In this vault lies buried Wr 5
PETRUS STUYVESANT, yaNs\

Late Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief
of New Amsterdam,

| In New Netherland, now called New York,
and the
Dutch West India Islands, Died A.D. 1673,
Aged 80 years.

Sows















ONG Ge we
(|Get
Uh Ven ALS
eh O Ria
Ds AK C--

USSU







7I


4| Another memorial, which up
alto a generation ago had proved
| equally lasting, was the so-called
@| Stuyvesant Pear Tree, which
"| stood surrounded by an_ iron
fence at Thirteenth street and
Third avenue.

Governor Niccolls immedi-
ately set about reconstructing
the civil government of the city,
replacing the former Burgo-
masters and Schepens by a
Mayor, Aldermen and Sheriffs,
Was was the English form.

The administration was peace-
| fully conducted in the main, Nic-
Hi colls meeting with but little oppo-
sition from the Dutch residents,
who seemed ready to fall in with
the affairs of the new régime.

































out anew between England and
Holland, and bethinking some
attempt might be made by the
Dutch to reclaim the city, the
Governor made vigorous prepa- row
rations for its defense. The = Oy e
Dutch fleet, however, failed to]l-
put in an appearance, and the
serene period of Governor Nic-
colls’ rule continued until 1668,
when at his own request he was
recalled to England. His suc-
cessor was Colonel Francis Love-
lace, who held the office until
1673, when the truce between the
two countries again suffered dis-
rupture, the city reverting finally |
to the Dutch.
THE SECOND
OCCUPATION
OF WHE
DUTCH

ws






|
|

|

eA HL i ity










N a2gth July, 1673, two
Dutch vessels sailed into
the harbor, and the commander ae
of the expedition presented the L
following message to the Eng-
lish Governor: ip e
“Sir—The force of war now ps i.
. . . . ° We =
lying within your sight is sent by Wh = ZEN
the High and Mighty States and Ey LT HL ° } 4








if















his Serene Highness, the Prince |g Be
of Orange, for the purpose of
destroying their enemies. Welt
have sent you, therefore, this let-
ter, together with our trumpeter, |
to the end that upon sight thereof
you surrender unto us the fort
called James, promising good
quarter, or by refusal, we shall be
obliged to proceed both by land
and by water in such manner as












we shall find most advantageous
for the High and Mighty States.”
Dated: The Ship Swanen-
burgh, anchored betwixt Staaten
and Longe Islands, gth August
CZ (30th July, O. S.), 1673.
ff Signed :
* CoRNELIS EVERTSEN,
* Jacos BENCKES.

No immediate reply being
forthcoming, a cannonading was
begun, killing and wounding
many men, and resulting in the
final capitulation of the city,
which was surrendered upon two
conditions:

“J, That Officers and Soldiers






nee - with their arms, colors flying and

a a ae ae

78




drums beating, without hindrance
or molestation.

“TI. Thereupon the Fort
would be delivered with all mili-
tary arms and ammunition re-|
maining therein.”

These terms being quickly ac- |Agay
ceded to, the Dutch once more |@ZiCX
found themselves in possession. [247%

Public opinion was divided in|#y'E®
its sympathies, but all naturally Pp
obeyed the mandate, and the ie)
Orange insignia again flew above 9
the fort. The city had mean-
while improved greatly in appear-
ance, increased in value, and more
than doubled in population.

The name New York was now|*, =
changed to New Orange, or at | We
least so it was known to the loyal NN




































Dutch, although the English
nomenclature may be said never
to have been separated from its
memory since first given in 1664.

The Dutch only enjoyed their
PeMfea| Second period of rule for a few
x months, as on the goth February
] in the following year (1674) a
SS] new Treaty of Peace was signed
283] which restored to Great Britain
the territory wrested from her the
YAei| year before, and on the roth No.
vember the new English Gov-
Nj ernor, Sir Edmund Andros,
entered upon the scene.

So passed away the Dutch do-
minion in North America, step
by step, from the early establish-
ment of the customs of Hol-
land, its system of township and

SS wae

°













municipal government, the trans- |fA ;
planting of the Old World names |['Uj
and terms, the beginnings and
growth of commerce, the friend |f
and enemy, the Indian, and the |
progress of foreign encroach- |B
ment, which culminated in the
ascendency and final supremacy |
of an alien power. The annals.
of New York are surpassed by
no other city in America in topics |
of varied character, romantic in- |
cident, general interest, instruct-
ive lesson, or dignified distinc- [Fs
tion. The pioneers left their j]. —
deep impress on the face and
depth alike of the natural attri-
butes of the Empire City.

The settlers who first planted
the flag of Holland in the empire Sam

Us. Us Us Us th Us as



Lt
ee





as
a

AW Tee




Wy
i
eT












as





















of the Indian were plain-spoken,
earnest men, who left their native
land to extend and enrich her
|| power and possession, and bind
another province in a new quar-
ter of the globe to the United
wa! Netherland. Traders, chiefly, al-

| though they never ignored the
principles of religion, education
and good government, and the
early accounts published by some
of their historians, and the ad-
mirably written records and cor-
respondence left by the Stuy-
vesants, Beekmans, and Van
Rensselaers. attest fully as to
their erudition and scholarship.
23hRZe!


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