Title Page
 Image Creation
 PrimeOCR (TM) Basics
 Preparation: Prime for Prime
 Optical Character Recognition...
 Full Text/SGML
 Prime Post-Processing
 To Do

Title: Prime Recognition (TM) Software in the University of Florida Libraries' Digital Library Center
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00085499/00001
 Material Information
Title: Prime Recognition (TM) Software in the University of Florida Libraries' Digital Library Center
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida. Digital Library Center.
Publisher: Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Publication Date: 2003
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00085499
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Image Creation
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    PrimeOCR (TM) Basics
        Page 5
    Preparation: Prime for Prime
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
        Page 8
    Full Text/SGML
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Prime Post-Processing
        Page 25
    To Do
        Page 26
Full Text

Prime RecognitionTM Software
in the University of Florida Libraries'
Digital Library Center

This document reflects the state of systems current 2003 November.
The current state has changed significantly.


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PrimeOCRTM Basics

OCR engines
1. WordScan
2. TextBridge
3. Recore
4. TypeReader
5. OmniPage
6. FineReader
Application Programming Interface (API): 40 documented calls
Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs)
Configurable Initialization files (INIs)
11 Western Languages
Fault Tolerant Architecture / Automatic Engine Recovery
Image Pre-Processing
S1 to 6 CPU's
PrimeViewm: Image Zoning & Attributes
Job Server:
Batch OCR
Prioritized jobs
Network aware
Job file

* Doc

Prime Recognition Job File

ument Template file

Prime Recognition Document Template

* 16 output format formats including .PRO: metadata on location, confidence, etc., per character.

Preparation: Prime for Prime

* Perl script: Jobber
Prompts user to select output file types from a command line menu

Writes custom templates and job files for Prime's Job Server.
* Application: PrimeViewT
Low accuracy with some columnar information

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Optical Character Recognition (OCR)

Application: Job Server
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Polls Job folder for proper job files.
From the job file it reads the locations of image and template

Prime Recognition Job File

Reads in the TIF file, and outputs in the selected file types: PDF and TXT.
Leaves the original TIF in its folder.
Output location is configurable.
Accuracy and metrics


Perl script slurps all TXT files in a biblD folder into one SGML file:
1. Image QC application's XML file --
Headers with bibliographic data
tags and attributes: file name, sequence number, page number, etc.
2. SGML template created with and validated against the Text Class TEl DTD by XMetaL

Russell Willis: oral history (MC 4)

University of Florida Digital Library Center

Russell Willis: oral history (MC 4)
Russell Willis


This interview is part of the
Samuel Proctor Oral History
in the
Department of History at the
University of Florida. All rights reserved by the Program and/or the

Interview by Mahan f
w/ Russell Willis typist: Wells
M: I'm sitting here with Mr. Russell Willis. And it's
about twenty minutes of twelve of 4 Novemfber. We're
sitting in a part of the principal's office of Central
Choctaw High School. And Mr. Willis, will you just please
say your name?
W:'i My own name?
M: Please.
W: Russell James Willis.
M: Russell James, is it?
W: Uh, huh. Russell James Willis. And I'm married, and I

been born in 1940, October 11. And I'm thirty-two, thirty-
three years old now. And I got two kids, one boy and one,
one girl.
M: Now Mr. Willis, which one of the settlements around
here do you belong to? Like Pearl River or what? Which
one of 'em?
W: I'm, I'm livin' in Red Water community.
M: I see.
W: And there're only about eighty-five families over there,
and probably about ... population, could be about three
hundred. But 'its only eighty -five families over there~ V/ al,
M: Do you mean a place with all three hundred on it?
W: Uh, huh.
M: Has it ever had three hundred in the past?

.'e was doing the sharecrop;-. you know, so we had to move
around, back to Red WAter and back to Standing Pine, and other
side of one grove or lane or something' like that, we had
to move, move arod to wherever there's some of these white
people need a hand or something like that, you know. But
only one fellow I know of where we lived with him for twenty-
one years, that's only one fellow I know of, I guess he was
so kind to us and every Christmas we usually had some kind
of box of oranges or apples or something' like that, you t
know. So I guess there wasJ or something
like that, you know. I guess we loved it, we liked it or
something, you know. So we lived that only one fellow we
lived that place twenty-one years.
ttA k-L i, -.'v.
M: AWhen your daddy was living with him how much acreage was
your dad working ?
W: Fifty acres, and seventy-five acres.
M: Fifty and seventy-five?
W: Um, huh (affirmative).
M: What do you mean, he was farming both of them at the same time?
W: Well, no, they usually, some of these, my daddy was going
to these, that fellow I was talking' about, that fellow I was
talking' of where we lived in there twenty-one years, he only
had sixty-one acres. And finally they cut it down the
cotton crop to about fifty acres, and finally it was going

down to forty acres. So my daddy decided to move out to
another fellow somewhere. So he finally traded this other
fellow, and that fellow give us seventy-five acres. And so
we finally move out to other fellow.
M: Is your father still living?
W: No, he's dead; he's just dead about three years ago.
M: How about your mother?
W: She's still livin'.
M: But you say your grandfather, you told me, is soAold ?
W: Yeah, um, huh. that's my daddy, I mean that's my mother's
side. He's still livin'.
M: Was Choctaw your native tongue? Mean that's what you, the
language you first spoke, Choctaw?
W: Um, huh (affirmative). Yeah, yeah.
M: And at what. point did you pick up English as a language?
W: What point? All I know I started off all I could say is, 'bout
that time all I could say was a That's all

I was started to begin.
M: When was that in your life?
W: That's when I was 'bout nine or seven years old.
M: Well, did you go off to school then or what?
W: Yeah, I did. I went to the, part-time, see, just like when
we were living the sharecropping I don't hardly go to school
around here; not till I was about eighteen years old. So
about that time I was still, so when I was about twelve,

twelve ye6as old to eighteen I could just speak a little
English back then. But I was not too good then, but anyway,
when I was about eighteen years old and I decided to go out,
out of state somewhere. I then said to myself, "I want to
go to school. Then maybe I can learn more English." And I
just keep on saying it. So I.finally talked to a school-
teacher in that Standing Pines school. And I just asked
him if I go to school somewhere maybe I could learn some
more English and learn some more. So I, school education,
too, you know. So that schoolteacher was agree with me to
talk to somebody, I don't know who, who was a, I mean
education at, the school, or something' like that, I don't
who was he's atlkin' to,rbut they fixed the papers up for
me to go to Sequoyah, Oklahoma and Telaquah. So they
fixed it up for me and I went over there 'bout two years and
stayed over there and that's Xeye I learned some more of
the English.
M: When you went there you couldn't speak much English?
W: No, uh, huh (negative).
M: Well, did they instruct in English?
W: Yeah, they did.
M: How did you get along?
W: I did. Everything was okay. I learned some. Actually there
was a lot of Indians over there, but they were all mixed up,

they got there from ...
M: Every place.
W: Uh, huh (affirmative). So speak English over there. So that's
where I learned English, picked English up. And so then
that's, just like I said, ...that's where I start talk the
M: Did you ever have to take a course that was called "English"?
W: No, uh, huh, I didn't.
M: Never did. You just picked it up by ...? Can you write
English pretty well?
W: -Yeah, not too good, not too good. Just like I said, I
only going up to the ninth grade, you know, and so I'm not
too good at it yet.
M: Do you read it all right?
W: Yeah, I can read it, but if it's a long word or some of those
new words or something like this, .. big word or something
like that, I can't hardly pronounce it but ... took me about
... going to take me about two or three..hours or something
like that. But I even sat down and copied down some, I
just sort of studied that word awhile and I finally pro-
nounced it pretty close and make somebody come along and I
just, "pronounce this word," or something like that and then
somebody, "you mean you was trying to pronounce this word,"
or something like that? I say, "yeah," then they tell me,
said, "education," or something like that, you know ...

W: She just said, "it's like, just cut that word down just
like, could you say, 'ed-u-ca-tion,' something like that."
So I finally catch on then, "education."
M: Can you read Choctaw?
W: No, I didn't. I can't. I can't read no Choctaw. We got that
Choctaw Bible, Testament, but can't, I can't read that.
M: Is your wife Choctaw or did you marry ...?
W: Yeah, um, huh (affirmative)"'
M: You didn't pick up any other Indian languages at Talequah, did
W: No, no, I didn't. I didn't. All I got is Choctaw language
and English so ...
M: Are you a church-goer?
W: Church? Go to church?
M: Go to church?
W: Oh, yeah.
M: A Christian church?
W: Well, I don't, I couldn't say, that church, that could be a
Christian, but now I don't call myself a Christian.
M: You don't? What is your church?
W: Baptist.
M: Well, they call their church, but you don't really consider
, yourself...?
W: No, uh, huh.
M: What do you consider yourself?

W: Well, just like, see, I been ~f-A A. preaching or some-
thing like that on, mention about it, if they call themselves
"Christian," then some of these, they said, just like they're
not a true Christian or something like this and, then they
said, if they was a good Christian, even just like, I know
I run into a few of them myself, and I ain't going to call
their names.... They A.., ', so far as I know of
he was a good Christian" that's what they said. But I hear
they don't want to do harm, ... see, if he was a Christian)
J f U t gCf A goV\ ee if I was a Christian, I could love
anybody like even doesn't matter what kind of man.he is;
colored, white, Choctaw, Mexican, whatever it is. And so,
some of these people they call themselves Christian, but
they're against this Choctaw and colored or white or some-
thing liks this, you know. And so myself I didn't do it
like that, but I just feel my conscience and one of th'Tee
days I .<. call myself a Christian or something like that
and somebody might come along and slap me or something like
that, I might forget the Christian and slap them back, you
know. So that's why ...
M: I meant to ask you earlier while we were talking about what
you do for work and the hospital and so on. Are there any
ehoctaw medicine man still the traditional sense?
W: I don't know what they call this but ...
M: You know, that have native cures and herbs and things?

W: We got, let's see, they call one, no two medi--, they call
they been called medicine men; let's see, I was going to
call his name, too, but he been dead about six years now.

Willie Johnson. He used to, they call him their medicine
man. And I seen him, too. Some of those, you know, they
feel around like this and I don't know how they, I don't
know how that they tell what was hurting)though; they just
get this little glass or something like that and cut it.
They use to suck the blood out and burn them and they
usually did that. I ., seen that or and
one of -'- fellow was 'bout fifty miles north from here
... Wallace,l believe it was, last name was, Campell Wal-
lace. And he used to do that, but now, they're both dead
M: You don't know of any that are ...?
W: No, no, I don't.
M: ... practicing this any longer?
W: No, sure don't. But one thing, lot of these people was mentioned
about it, but I never met it yet; he's from Oklahoma. somewhere.
And he sort of'- Cl around in this community, but I
never had mee;im yet. And I don't know what he look like
and what he do. Lot of people was talking 'bout there's a good,;
a good ... make the medicine or something like that.
M: Hmmm.

17 A '\j '
W: Out of grass roots or something like that,':and then make a
medicine out of that and give them a drink or something
like that. But I don't ... ae-tr I just don't
know what they look like.
M: Have you ever gone back to visit the Oklahoma ~C Oc4tJS -
W: No, I don't.
M: They weren't around Talequah ere they?
W: There was a few of them.
M: Choctaws?
W: Uh, huh.
W: Few of them over there, but I never did go back over there;
M: Is there much association back and forth between the Oklahoma
Choctaws and the Mississippi Choctaws that you know of?
W: &'Im sure, my mother, I mean my daddy's side was livin' over
there, but .. after I come back f he school and I went
off to other state, went to Chicago, you know, and 'bout
91x>> Ale J'c-,-i-'
that time, my daddy was planning to help ... kinfolks over
there. They been p oT 0';i but I never i. met them
either. ... Just like I said, one of these doctors from
Oklahoma f they could be my kinfolks, but I never met any,
I just don't know what they look like.
M: Are you a full-blooded Choctaw so far as you know?
W: Yeah, uh, huh.
M: Have you got an Indian name or is ...?

W: No, I don't. It's English.
M: "Willis" is the only name you got?
W: Uh, huh (affirmative). That's all ...
M: And you said, "Russell James."
W: Russell James Willis. And I '! don't know what I got the
"James" in my middle name. I guess somebody just put it
M: How many brothers and sisters do you have?
W: I've got three brothers and four sisters?
M: Oh, that's a big gamily. Are they still living?

W: Yeah, all of them still'living. All of them still living.
One of my brothers got car run-over 'bout seven years ago. I~
.-Jtr laying in a bed.
M: Oh, you told me that, I think. He was paralyzed, wasn't he?
W: Yeah.
M: What's the biggest Choctaw family you ever heard of? I
meant to ask that to one of the fellows I talked earlier to
'cause he ... how mannwhat's the largest number of children
you ever knew of in a family?
W: The largest children?
M: Number of children, yes.
W: That's only ...
M: You've got seven, I guess, or eight in your family.
W: Yeah, I'm .r ..Sg to tell you right now. One of the Choctaws
in the Standing Pine community, they got, altogether, but

one of them, some of them they lost kids though. But al-
together there's twenty-one kids out of one family.
M: By the same wife?
W: Uh, huh.
M: One wife?
W: One man and one woman. Twenty-one kids.
M: Good gosh!
W: That's the largest family as I know of.
M: Have.. Choctaws generally had pretty good size families?
W: Those the only one I know of, and that's a pretty good
size. That's the largest family.
M: Yeah, certainly is. 4-X-
W: And one more, but it be the next one, .. same family from
this man ... this Lewis family. And this is the twenty-
one kids' father was brother to it. He was ...two families
... brother and ... this other man, they gotnsixteen children.
So that's all I know of. And that's the largest ones I
know of.
M: inoing back to your grandfather, your wife's grandfather or
no, your mother's mother?
W: Mother's mother.
M: You've talked to him quite a bit?
W: Um, huh.
M: And he talked to you about the past?
W: MO;

W: Well, let's see, yeah, I believe there was, but since I
started working with this, they call it, Cd community
heple CC. 6, you know, I've been like keep
the list since I started, and I been keep the list and,
and that's where I had it, and there's only three hundred
and fifty-six, three hundred and fifty-six family in that
community. I mean three hundred population, three hundred
fifty-six population in that community. And one family,
eighty-five families in that community.
M: Well, now I was just talking to Mr. Wilson and he's from
your community, too, Red Water, and he's in Family Edu-
cation, is, is this the same thing as you are?
W: No, he, he's Family Education, and myself, ... Health,
Health Education.
M: What is it you do specifically, I mean I don't understand
your job. Tell me.

W: Well, This job 5_, this, we give these old people,
such as some of 'em don't understand, and they can't, don't
a doctor or nurse or something like that. And
we have to stand by with a, this Indian and, just sort of
between the doctor and whatever, the nurse, or something
like that. And, and to take care of __ whatever
..~ get the permission for get the medicine or something
like that. And we just talk through our language to tell
him what... what supposed /be doin'that medicine. And
sometime they got a diabetic and, uh, TB, or something
like that and then we talk to ...';

M: I imagine you go and see him and hopefully get him to talk.
W: Oh, yeah, I will.
M: Does he talk English or Choctaw?
W: No, I have to talk Choctaw.
M: Well, that'll be interesting. Can you remember any legends
or things he's told you or anything going back into his
W: Well, ...
M: Do you remember anything that you'd call Choctaw history
that he told you or that of his life that's a different era?
W: Well, see, JI sl_ "'t I sort of interested about
this, and he usually tell me,.. when he was a little boy. ) t{.-
peimfie lostAparents, both his mother and dad, you know. He
raised with white fellow ... Conoway, CMnw-', Mississippi
somewhere. So he was up ... while he was about four ye
old, I believe it was. I'm not sure. I know he tellin'
me about it, but he was four years old, and/lost parents
Oo ... this white fellow that they been known' hi parents
awhile, you know. So he was going to take up with. them
and he was going to try to raise him. But I guess my
grandfather.Lwas, I guess, don't underst.~;' this white
fellow -C Sf. -L > yl change it or something -
like that. I guess he just don't like it or something,
I don't know. But he never told me about it, but he was
going to stay with them but he just walked away from them

and ... going out A. stay with other Choctaws. So I told
him about it, if they was stay with those white fellow, you
know, they could learn English, not go to school or something
like that, you know. And so I, he just made bad mistake to
walk away from them; he didn't learn nothing' to stay with
those other Choctaws. But that time they don't have any
school or anything, you know, so .... But if he'd
stayed with this white fellow / could learn some English to
where they could talk. I guess there was mis--, I guess don't
want to stay or something.J 1-don't-know.
M: Does your grandfather understand English?
W: Just some of 'em. Just like I said while ago, you know, when
I was a little boy all I could say gas "yeah," and "no,"
something like that. That's all I said.
M: How about him? I mean your grandfather.
W: No, he's about, I guess he could do better now Ija .

M: Would he understand it? I mean, maybe he couldn't speak it
but would he understand English pretty well?
W: Yeah, I'm sure they can. I'm sure they can. But he just
can't, he wanted to, but he can't say it back to the English.
I'm sure they could understand what you said, but ...
M: Yeah. Well, what kind of life, what did your grandfather
.;: do for a living? Do you have any idea?
W: Farming, as far as I know of. And he had, before the government

give house and a piece of land, and I'm suA he was a farmlirt.

W: ... These Indians over here they just had to make a livin'
with the sharecrop before the tribe, I mean the government
bought land and give this up, you know. All the had to do
was doin' the sharecrop. Some of these, they just didn't
pay enough either, you know. Just paid about fifty cents a
day, quarter a day, or something like that. All that time
I guess everything was low 'bout that time though, but they
just give them twenty-give cents a day.
M: I-Out there at Talequah or any place else did you ever, did they
ever offer anything that you'd call a course in Choctaw
W: No, it didn't.
M: Have you ever..
W: 'Bout that time ... I don't know what can I say, I don't
know. 'Bout that time I don't know what they got over there.
I just don't know what can I learn. All I wanted to learn,
English and writing and reading. That's what I was sort of
after then.
M: Yeah.
W: Then I got little bit of time, but now I got kids and I told
them, you need to learn everything, but I know thft ain't
going to learn everything, you know. So they needed something
to, where they could prepare/just writing and reading and
spelling was very important. As long as they could learn that
and I'm sure they could learn besides I'm sure they could
and I'm sure they could learn besidesA I'm sure they could

pick this up, lot of this stuff, on the way up, you know.
That's what I told them. All they need is just / those
English and reading and spelling or something like that.
M: Just for curiosity, I'm not asking you any of these questions
to embarrass you, but do you remember anything about Choctaw
history? I mean is any coming down through your family? Did
anybody ever tell you anything- about what has happened
to the Choctaw tribe?
W: No Sir.
M: Is there any of that stands out? Do you know the names of
any distinguished Choctaw chiefs out of the past, for in-
W: No, I don't, I don't. I don't, but this is only thing I know
of. I don't want to tell it, but ...
M: You don'twant to tell it.
W: I guess ...
M: Well, don't if you don't want to.
W: But you going to put these things in a safe place anyway so

I might as well just tell it and one of these days they might,
just like I told my boy -^--avs ...
MY Might be significant history, you know.
W: Uh, huh. so this the only thing I know and this not, I mean
this not very important to me, but I believe it though, I
U/ f....

believe this was before the white mens come over this land
...and and when Indians lived on this land. They had a lot of
things to eat, but whenever the white mans come over here, .'-
the buffalo is gone, the deer is gone, and the rabbit is
just faded away now. They can't hardly find a rabbit now.
... 'Bout that time before white man come, they need to eat
whatever,they need wild meat or something like that they
usually just go on out the woods and kill 'em and eat 'em.
But this time they have to buy a license to kill that
wild meat or something like this, you know. So all these
Indians, especially the young Indian something like this, they
just don't want to do a lot of thing. They just ... they
just said they're going to wait 'till up to sixteen years
old to get their hunting license now so 'just .. I don't
know what they're going to .e, but I guess we just, if, as
long as we just follow that white fellowes steps, you know,
I guess we're just going hungry to death. That's what
my daddy's uncle S Lj) \ r M told me about this, you
know, and so if I do, if I sat down with them and they could
tell me a lot 'more 'bout it, but, you know, he's dead
though. But I been thinking' about it all this time and
... as far as I know ... just like I sort of track him down
sort of and think about it, you know, and everything is, looks
like it's true to me. Everything sort of shot these Indians

down, you know, ... but another twenty more years or some-
thing like that and these Indians they might not have some-
thing to eat. And even fishing' now ... just like this year
...'bout three years ago, 'bout three years ago somebody was
agree with them the Indian, they don't need no fishing license
to go fishing And now last summer they turned, the law
turned around to selling' anybody, even the kids. Sell the
fishing' license to go fishing Even now just sitting' on top
of the bank or ridin' a boat they got to have a fishing
license to fish ... I mean to catch the fish now. So now, so
I've been thinking' aboutA just like my daddy uncles- was
tellin' me about it and ... so some of these young peoples
just like my boy age, they usually get a fishing' pole or
something like that, go on down /J_'_ fishing and now
they can't do it now. They got to have a fishing' license to
go fishing .
M: Would you say, you don't have to answer this if you don't
want:to, that there's a deep-seated and suppressed, is the
word "suppressed" meaningful_ to you, is there a deep-seated
bitterness among your people toward the way they've been
treated by the whites?
W: Well, ...
M: Dyoou detect that or do you feel it yourself ?, olnn't say
it' ~tou don't have to answer this if you don't want to.

M: Of course, you don't have to answer anything if you don't want
W: Okay, then I'm sorry, but I believe I'm just going to hold
M: yeah, you'd rather not say it. In another direction in
talking jstu casually I notice that the people, Indians
generally are, well, not very complimentary about the BIA,
the Bureau of Indian Affairs. How do you feel about itpor
do you prefer not to comment on that? That's all right
if you don't want to. I just get it in little asides. No-
body ever comes out and tells you this.
W: That's another thing I just ...
M: Rather not.
W: Uh, just rather not. As a matter of fact I don't know much
about that BIA anyway.
M: Yeah.
W: So I'd just rather not ...
M: Your job's not connected with them at all, is it?
W: No, they don't. No, they don't.
M: Well now, in the course of your life have you ever had any
military service where you ...?
W: No, I don't.myself.
M: Never did, um, huh. Well, before you got into this Choctaw
health business what were you doing?
W: Before I got in this job?

M: Yeah.
W: I was working over at that Western Auto store eight years.
M: Where, in Philadelphia?
W: In Carthage.
M: In Carthage.
W: Um, huh, Carthage, Mississippi. And then I worked with them
eight years and I had, so far I got, -myself I got good
friends. Just like I said, I try to be a good guy, you know,
for anybody so I had good friends so far as I know4 And I
been working' over there 'bout eight years and I finally got,
lifted all those heavy stuff, deep freezers and stoves and
refrigerators, something like this. AndAfinally got almost,
get on my back-almost. And doctor pulled me off about a
week and after that I went back to work but I still worked
doing the same thing, lifting those things. So I finally
talked to my boss about it and I had the same problem like
that. I don't want it to happen to me again. So I decided
to find me another job. So I did. I went to Wilcox funeral
home and ...
M: what'd you do there?
W: I was just hauling just box and equipment and stuff, you know.
Just driving flowers and something like that, hauling flowers
to the cemetery or something like that.
M: Where did you learn to drive a car? An automobile. Where and
how? You didn't learn that in school, did you?

W: No, I didn't. I didn't.
M: How did you learn that?
W: My daddy got old I believe it was a '29 Model Ford that looks

like a coupe.
M: Yeah, I remember.
W: My daddy was, they ain't got- no license 'bout that time,
laughed at
and sometime I thinking' about it and myself, too,
you know. My daddy's ain't go"'t no license, they had to
go to town. So he just left that car to, in front of our
house and so he just walked to town, 'bout thirty-five miles
away. So / that afternoon, my daddy usually hauled
the woodythat little, old car. And so it was before the
sundown and I decided to just like my daddy's doin', trying
to haul that wood to bring it in at nighttime. So all
my sisters and brothers was pushing those little jalopy or
whatever it is, you know. I cranked those up and jumpin'
through the little ditch and everything, and I had a lot of
bumps on my head. Anyway I guess that's a good lesson and
M: You didn't wreck the car?
W: No, no, I didn't. But I run into the ditch though. I just
jump over the ditch! So that's where I learned it. That's
the way I learned was, and I finally put it back. 7- X -Ii '.!
M: You drove it back.yourself?
W: Yeah, umm, huh.

M: So after that you could drive pretty much?
W: Well, I got my butt sore ... after my daddy's coming' home.
I was too small then to fool with that car and even, "don't
touch that steering wheel, too0,' you know. But I an ,"' a-
but I'm not any feel: .' guilty about that. And my daddy was,
he's right. If I, I could kill my own brother or sisters
on that when they had to load up and jump over the ditch,
you know and ...
M: Get out of your way and so on.
W: Yeah.
M: Well, your children learn to drive in school now I think.
W: Yeah, uh, huh, theedo now.
M: When I first learned to drive there wasn't any such thing as
a driver's license in the state where I grew upthey didn't
have any. Somebody gave you a car and taught you how to do
it. You got out on the road and did it. Sort of like your
talking about hunting licenses. So I was pretty young
when I learned.
W: I believe I was about nine or eight years old a that time and
I, anyway, I learned it and I got good bit on my butt then.
But anyway ...
M: Do you know how to take a car a part and can you fix your
own car or not?
W: No, I don't.
M: I mean the engine.

R. Willis
refer to, go to see the doctor. And some, just, you know,
they got clinic goin'/each community, too, you know,
they need to get a check-up or something like that and
sometimes they have ... they call on us for some, maybe
after work hours, something like that. They want to know
what seem to be the trouble, why did you have the headache
all the time, or something like that. And they usually

sort of set up with them talk to them,, how, how long
have you had this ... dizzy, or something like that
you know, and after we find out what seems to be troubles,
we just go ,ahead to the doctor, tell him -fo" ',
check-up for some kind of high blood pressure or something
like that, you know. And ... we're doing a different thing
tJ6 s c6 r for all of 'em, and sometime
we just ... we have to go on in to a welfare office or
something, to help this family for, help these peoples
on/welfare ... line or something, you know, get their
check or something like that,
M: Where do the doctors come from?
W: Well, the doctors from IHS Indian Hospital, and they come in
... they got the clinic on each community, and they come
in .. twice a week. And sometime, especially in my com-
munity they come in, you know, Monday and Thursday.
M: The Indian Hospital down in Philadelphia?
W: Uh, huh, uh, huh.
M: How long's it been there ?

W: No, I don't.
M: Not trained in it?
W: No, I don't, but some of ... I'm sure, we got a new high
school now Inot too long ago we just built this up, too,
you know.... It was about 1950, no, about '49 or something.
About that time, and about '53 or '54 or something they
had this high school started up. So they got little shops
going on, so I'm sure they give little mechanics' training
'V 'AJ 1-3 K it 1 A <.' \ o kL
]a'.a I'm sure they give one of them now.
M: That seems like a good thing to me to do.
W: Uh, huh. One of my brother went to Idaho to get the training
for the mechanic.
M: What goes on, w re in Idaho would he have gone?
W: Oh, ...
M: Is that some Indian school or ... ?
W: Yeah, some of those training schools. ... That's all I re-
member. There was a, that's about three or, 'bout four
years ago I believe it was.
M: Now when you went to Talequah you lived in a boarding
school, didn't you?
W: Um, huh, yeah.
M: You lived there?
W: Uh, huh.
M: How did you feel about that experience?
W: Well, I don't know, but I was lonely. Something over there,

too, Some of those mans over there ... Some one, I don't
know, I never been in the military or anything, I don't know
much about it, but some of them said, it looks like military.
So 'bout four o'clock somebody come along, blow the whistle.
down the hall and wake up everybody, you know.... But myself
I liked that.... wake me up ...

R. Willis

W: That Indian Hospital ... I don't, don't know much about
it, but this _-, this ... I been working with these In-
dian tribes and I'm just beginning to understand.Ba.e4 these
are all about and ... and I don'tknow much about how long
we been here at this, but I noticed, somebody was mention-
ing about it, it was about 1939 or '40, somewhere that
they was,;...; theystart this Indian Hospital.
M: How many doctors are connected with it?
W: These doctors connected with it, four doctors is in that
hospital now.
M: Are any of 'em Indians?
W: Nah, they didn't .J4, d.-
M: Have you ever, have the Choctaws ever produced a medical doc-
W: No, we don't, we don't. But I got now7 'tA,'..
ic '!<*x,:<>; but I ... just like this, I been
going on in everymeeting like this and I been talked to it at
to my boy now, and he's only nine years old but he
said he was going to be a doctor or something I don't know
how it's gonna be, but we never had no doc--, Indian
doctor in our hospital.
M: That'd be quite a triumph to get one trained and take, tend
for his own people.
W: Yeah, that's right. At least, the least that they could un-
know a
derstand each other, you /I Illndian and ... if we
had that Indian doctor, you know, they could understand

what some of these, then we have no CHR or something like that
to understand ... I mean to work this space, you know, and
just like this, if we had an Indian doctor or something like
M: Now this job you're in from listening to it I take it that
you must do a little diagnostical work almost...
W: Yeah, um, huh.
Mr You listen to what they say and decide sort of what's the
matter with them. Have you developed a little skill in thisr i g /*r
W: Well, sometimes. After we got into training we went to
Tucson, Arizona to get the training done for a month. And
so ... we see each other at the training at Tucson, Arizona.
M: How long did they train you?
W: One month.
M: I see.
W: They trained us __'c'- for the health, you know.
M: Who was it trained you?
W: Our chief itaff was Morris, Grant Morris. He's our chief
director down there.
M: Is he an Indian? i,-.
W: Nah, he's a white,tbut they been good to us-though, and they
gave us a little training and they started off. They got all
this here travel 'bout eight of us and ...
M: From here?

W: Nah, yeah, all the community, we got seven community, you
know, and all this seven community got to see a talk.
M: How long have you been at this work?
W: This job I it's going to be a year and eight months.
M: Would you say that the health of Choctaw people is generally
pretty good?

W: Yeah. So far as I know of. So far as I know of.
M: Are there any ailments they're particularly liable to? Do
any of them have more problems with, how about teeth? Very
good teeth?
W: Oh, yeah, some of them. Some of them. Not these, just like
I said, see, this is the new/education, health education or
something like this, not too long ago, you know. It just
recently started, you know. So all this, I'll say about '--
1956 or something like that, that's when they got these, even
the school kids that's where they get this, they gave it to
all these kids that are finish)high school now, you know. So
and everything sort of changed up, and just as long as we got
this new family education anealth educations like this we
headed on now we can talk to these peoples and they need help
or whatever theys need help or something we just ask them
what kind of problems they have and we just try and talk to
them. And if they need to go to a dentist or something like
that we just contact dentist and the doc--, imean dentist

we -' 'i-'e the dentist or something like that. And dentist
examines and everything and they give us the appointment with
it to bring the next time. ...Whether they need a fix then
they fix, then if they don't need no fix they need to pull
them out or something like that they just pull them teeth
M: Who is your employer?
W: You mean ...?
M: Whose payroll are you on?
W: The tribe.
M: The tribe.
W: The tribe.
M: Are there two of you in your type of job down at Red Water?
W: Umm, on CHR?
M: Or just you?
W: Well, mostly there are two of us on that. Oh yeah, one of us
on at the Red Water. I live in Red Water but I'm working
.at the other community.
M: Oh. What other community are you working in?
W: 5Anrt.
M: Oh, I see.
W: That's where I'm working and, but anyway, that's where in
my community rsome othe CHR was living over there, too.

And then health educations were over there and two e /_f
education over there, and OL- rt Cfti C over there-
that's four of us over there in the community and that's why
I guess they transfer me over there to the Standing Pine
M: But you live back in Red Water?
W: Uh, huh(affirmative).
M: How much of a commute is it? How much of a trip?
W: That'about twelve miles away from south Red Water.
M: Any problem with gasoline now?

W: Well, I believe -'- going to be now. I believe it's going to
be now. So especially with i', ~ J but anyway
if we could, see, my wife's working, she's a Head Start
teacher and we both, we take our two kids to the school over
there, too, and we're both working over there.
M: You're both working in Standing Pine?
W: Uh, huh.
M: So the whole family goes every morning.
W: Yeah, the whole family is going over there every morning,
even and so we come back to the home every y night. That's
all we're doing.
,I ..' ..- t -i,- '
M: Well. now,tyou've got a house that's yours?
W: Yeah, I've got my own.
M: Did you build it or did the tribe build it or who built it?
W: No, they didn't. These/already building I bought my own /.?

W: ... and so ...
M: You don't live on the reservation?
W: No, uh, huh.
Ig: Oh, I see.
W: See, this education we had, I had a hard time. I didn't, be-
sides this, you knowand ... my daddy was doin' the share-
crop for the white man, and I been working' so hard. But
anyway I been, every time I work the field with my daddy and
pullin' them (it ... and pickin' the cotton or something'
like that and I been thinking' all my life. And before I
got married I said to myself this time if I do get married,
and if I have my own family I said to myself I'm going to be
a good husband,\ndf if I had a kid or something' like that
I'm going to be a good father and if I had a family I'm going
,to try to be leader, good leader for my family. And I __
if I do, if I do get married I'm going to have my own, my
house and my land. And so I was trying' to follow my future,
you know. So I got half acre land with thehlouse and water
pump and everything; so far so good, you know. So every-
thing's just like I planned it before I married. I got two
kids, one wife and that's so far ofcQ [o4a [,i I Aim $
M: Were you born down there at Red Water?
W: Well, I born in that Indian hospital, you know, and I raised
in Standing Pine community. But my daddy was, just like I says,

3. Place name tagging from standard geographic references
earl Hid WMOM Crossing, for the site at which the Florida Souwh was
completed froalatka to Gaisesville in 188 co e eleninsular Railroad. families of
Calvin Waits and James Hawthorn. A diverse economy stimulated the
development of Hawthorne. The addition of an "e" to the town's name Aiii
ston rialry existed between did not become official until 1946.1. Wafts-Baker
House (606 Sid Martin Highway, U.S. 301) The original log house on this site,
which was occupied in the nineteenth century by Hawthorne founder Calvin
Waits and his family, had a sepa- rate kitchen and dining room to minimize the
possibility of fire. Members of the Baker family have lived in it since 1909
when farmer and rural mail carrier R. B. Baker moved into the house with his
new bride. 2. Hawthorne State Bank (2 N. Johnson St.) This building housed
Hawthorne's first bank, which was organized in 1911 and not long after
advertised that it had assets of $15,000. Francis J. Hammond, leading
merchant and grandson of town founder James M. Hawthorn, donated the
land, and A. L. Webb, proprietor of a successful gen- eral store in Hawthorne,
served as first presi- dent of the institution. 3. Moore House (207 W. Lake
Ave.) This q house, which was built in 1911, still looks much as it did not long
after Glen D. Moore purchased the house in 1913. A sleeping porch, casement
windows, and a bathroom were added by Moore, whose father, William
Shepard Moore, had arrived in Hawthorne from Tennessee in 1882. 4. Mahin
House (301 W. Lake Ave.) The broad porch on three sides of this tum-of-the-
century dwelling provided a perfect place for occu- pants to sit and catch the
breezes. Lottie Mahin, widow of a businessman influen- tial in the town during
the second decade of the twentieth century, lived in the house I in the 1920s
and rented part of it as apart- ments. 5. State Historical Marker (On the
church grounds, comer N. Johnson St. and N.W. 3rd Ave.) A brief history of the
town of A Hawthorne is provided. 6. First Baptist Church (Comer N. Johnson
St. and N.W. 2nd Ave.) The First Baptist Church in Hawthorne was organized in
1853. This building was erected in 1900. Gothic style windows punctuate the
white horizontal clapboard siding that covers the exterior. 7. Webb House -
(108 N. Johnson St.) This house was built about 1908 and originally had A a
wide covered porch which wrapped around the east and south sides. Before
construction was completed, A. L. Webb, president of Hawthorne's first bank,
bought the house from its original owner, businessman Marion Hulme. iB 8.
Moore's Hotel (N. Johnson St., across from library) The center building of
what is now called the Hawthorne Apartments was pur- 2 chased by William
Shepard Moore in 1882 and converted to a hotel for sportsmen I who came to
hunt and fish in the area. The east section of the north wing, which was built in
the 1870s and originally housed a two-room school and the Masonic Lodge,
was moved by Moore to its present site; and the south wing is an addition
Moore had built in 1900. 9. Hammond House (103 N. Johnson Street) This
imposing house was built about 1880 for Francis J. Hammond, a leading mer-
chant in Hawthorne for a period spanning more than twenty five years from
the 1880s to the first decade of the twentieth century. Both E J. Hammond and
Thomas B J. Hammond, who later purchased the house from his brother, were
grandsons of the man for whom the town is named. 10. City Hall (N. Johnson
St. and N.W. I st Ave.) This building was a Works Progress: Administration
project in 1939 and was built to replace an earlier wood frame structure that
burned to the ground with all the city records. Workers received $1.00 an hour
and worked ten-hour days to complete the building during the depths of this
country's worst economic depression.
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