Report on activities in 1988, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Material Information

Report on activities in 1988, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Series Title:
Report on activities in ...
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Human Resources Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
serial ( sobekcm )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.

Full Text


IN 1988




IN 1988


ROME, 1989




Activities of the Division ..........................

1. Office of the Director (ESHD)...............
World Food Day .............................

2. Rural Development Analysis and Organization
Service (ESHA) ............................

3. Agricultural Education and Extension Service
(ESHE) .....................................

4. Agrarian Reform and Land Settlement Service
(ESHL) .....................................

5. Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service (ESHW) .................

Field Projects .......................................

Publications .........................................



The Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform
Division (ESH) assists Member Governments in the field of human
resources, development institution building and land tenure
improvement. Its activities comprise advice on the formulation of
adequate policies, strategies and programmes for rural development
including the strengthening of institutions through better
organization and management.

The Division plays an important role in the provision of
assistance to advance knowledge, skills and attitudes needed for
improving the living standard of the rural population and for
increasing agricultural production. This is achieved through different
forms of education and training, through fostering the participation
of rural people in the development process and ensuring equitable
access to resources and services. In its programmes for rural
development the Division gives particular attention to the target
groups of the rural poor, the small farmers and the landless, rural
women and youth and other disadvantaged people. The main guide for
the work of the Division continues to be the Programme of Action of
the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD)
which was held in Rome in 1979.

The Division advocates the concept of integrated approaches
to rural development as a means to alleviate rural poverty. It
supports action in the social and institutional sectors of
development, i.e. land tenure and settlement, production structures
and agrarian reform; home economics, population programmes and the
integration of women in development; agricultural education and
extension; training and rural youth; cooperative development;
promotion of people's participation through self-help organizations;
manpower planning and employment particularly of landless farmers; and
administration of rural development. ESH provides technical
assistance to Member Governments to improve institutions and services
which are capable of promoting economic growth with equity and the
participation of the beneficiaries. In order to involve more than in
the past representatives of farmers' organizations and NGOs in
development activities the Division has held consultations on the most
suitable operational arrangements to strengthen its cooperation with
In 1988, the Division had a total budget of US$ 6,798 million
at its disposal. With these funds, ESH carried out the following main

Divisional backstopping for 604 projects,

Formulation of 30 Trust Fund projects and direct
execution of TF projects for an amount of more than US$
1,3 million,

- Processing of 30 consultancies,


Processing of 115 authors' contracts, SSAs and letters of

Organization of 4 meetings with 137 participants, and

Issue of 65 documents and publications including priced,
main, working and informational publications.

The advisory and operational activities of the Division in
1988 can be summarized as follows:

Assistance in agricultural extension and training at the
small producer level and support to programme development
in agricultural education,

Technical assistance in agrarian reform, land tenure
improvement and land settlement, support to monitoring
and evaluation of agrarian reform and rural development

Technical assistance in the design of national
institutional frameworks for rural development, assisting
countries in assessing their professional and technical
manpower needs for rural development,

Support to national efforts towards participation of the
rural poor in development in the establishment and
management of farmers' cooperatives and similar

Promotion of people's participation in rural development
through self-help organizations and cooperation with

Assistance to Governments to bring rural women into the
mainstream of the development process: strengthening
their technical competence in agricultural production and
in managing family food supplies and resources of the
home; strengthening educational systems for rural women's
programmes and conducting studies on problems of rural

Servicing the ACC Task Force on Rural Development as lead
agency, and publishing two ACC Newsletters on Rural

Servicing the Inter-Departmental Committee on Rural
Development and the Inter-Divisional Working Group on
Rural Development,

Servicing the Inter-Departmental Working Group on


Serving as FAO's focal point on the FAO/Unesco/ILO
Inter-Secretariat Working Group on Agricultural
Education, Science and Training,

Organizing national and international meetings,
consultations, and workshops on selected aspects of rural

Serving as FAO's focal point on disablement and

Providing the Secretariat for the coordination of World
Food Day activities, both in Headquarters and at the
country level.

In addition to the Director and four Service Chiefs, the
Division had staff positions for 41 professionals and 43 General
Serice staff, funded by the Regular Programme (41 and 39) by Trust
Funds (4 and 2) and by WFP support (1 and 2). The actual staff
situation at the end of December 1988 is given for each unit in the
text. A total of 143 field experts, consultants and associate
professionals were working for ESH in the field.

During the year Mr. P. Bernheim, Senior Liaison Officer and
Ms S. Osborn-Lucci, Secretary, left the Division on retirement. Ms R.
Finney, Chief, Women in Agricultural and Rural Development Service,

Ms A. Najjar, Women in Development Officer and Ms I. Losseau,
Documentation Officer also left the Division. Mr. B. Mulugetta, Rural
Development Officer was transferred to the ECA/FAO Agriculture
Division, Addis Ababa, while Ms. T. Travani, File Clerk, joined the
Food Policy and Nutrition Division.

Ms N. Forni was promoted to Senior Employment/Manpower
Officer and Ms M. Randriamamonjy to Senior Officer (Women in

The following staff members joined the Division: Ms A.
Spring, Chief, Women in Agriculture and Rural Development Service, Ms
F. Campillo-Correa, Women's Programme Officer, Mr R. Adam, Rural
Development Organization Officer, Ms E. Seki, Women in Food Systems
Officer, Ms M. Vink, Women, Population and Development Officer, Mr. F.
Sponzilli, Programme Assistant, Ms R. Pagano, Secretary and Ms A.
Vilcocq, Bilingual Stenographer, (COPAC).



1. Office of the Director (ESHD)


R. Moreno Director
S. Serani Senior Officer (Programme and Planning) and
Senior Field Liaison Officer a.i.
H. Meliczek Agrarian Reform and Rural Development Officer
L. Ganci Executive Officer
G. Rojas Secretary, Advisory Committee on World Food Day
L.W. Jacobson Human Resources Officer (Disability Matters)

Summary of Activities

The Office of the Director is responsible for the overall
supervision and coordination of the work of the Division. It
coordinates cooperation with other Divisions of FAO and supports the
four Services in planning, programming, implementing and monitoring
programme activities. The Office also coordinates assistance to the
field programme which consists of the identification, formulation and
monitoring of projects as well as backstopping and evaluation.

The Director of the Division continued throughout the year to
hold two offices. In addition to his duties as Director of ESH he was
also Assistant Director General ad interim, Economic and Social Policy

The Director of the Division is Chairman of the United
Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) Task Force on
Rural Development. It is composed of 30 organizations and bodies of
the UN system and coordinates, under FAO's leadership, inter-agency
action in rural development. The Task Force held its 16th Meeting in
May in New York. It discussed joint action at country and regional
levels for the promotion of people's participation, women in
development and issues of monitoring and evaluating rural development

The Director has the important function of. chairing the
Director-General's Advisory Committee on World Food Day and
coordinating related activities through the World Food Day

The Division continued to serve as the secretariat of the
Inter-Departmental Committee on Rural Development which advises the
Director-General, formulates strategies, and reviews and monitors
progress in the field of rural development. It also coordinates
follow-up action to WCARRD. The Committee acts through the
Inter-Divisional Working Group on Rural Development of which the
Director of ESH is the Chairman. The Director continued to be the


Chairman of the Inter-Departmental Working Group on Training and of
the Inter-Divisional Working Group on Women in Development.

The Director participated in and delivered a key note speech
at the Regional Conference on Poverty in Latin America and the
Caribbean, held in Cartagena, Colombia in August.

The Director and his Office participated in discussions and
provided background information to the committee of experts reviewing
the objectives, role and priorities of FAO and its organizational

The Office of the Director was actively involved in promoting
the enactment of a new agrarian reform legislation in the Philippines
and its execution. The Office initiated and backstopped a TCP project
on Assistance to the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Programme. The
Office also provided backstopping to the large scale Italian funded
FAO project "Technical Support to the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
Programme", GCP/PHI/040(ITA).

The Office participated in the 9th Session of the FAO/ECE
Working Party on Agrarian Structure and Farm Rationalization, which
took place in Geneva in September. The Office was also represented at
and participated in the "International Consultation on Environment,
Sustainable Development and the Role of the Small Farmer", which was
organized by IFAD in Rome in October.

The Office of the Director was represented in the
Inter-Departmental Committee on SOFA, the Inter-Departmental Working
Groups on Environment and Energy and on Small Animals, the
Inter-Divisional Working Group on Dry Land Development, the ad hoc
Group on Climatic Change, the Working Group on Sustainable
Development, the Task Force on Biotechnology, the Remote Sensing and
Meteorological Data Users Committee, and the Working Group on Rome

The focal point on disability matters established in the
Office of the Director assisted in promoting rural development
projects aimed at improving the working conditions of disabled people
through rehabilitation programme. The Office participated in the
Inter-Agency Meeting on the UN Decade of Disabled Persons, held in
Vienna in December. Several requests for assistance to disabled
persons have been reviewed and processed.

The Office of the Director is currently responsible for the
preparation of the Bulletin "Land Reform, Land Settlement and
Cooperatives". In 1988 this periodical has been published for an
uninterrupted period of 25 years.

The Divisional Reference Unit collects and disseminates
information on topics of relevance to the work of ESH. The Reference
Unit keeps documents prepared by ESH staff members and supplies them
to interested parties. The Unit also maintains a collection of non-FAO

-.8 -

documents on rural development and related subjects. Access to them is
made easy through the computerized ESH Data Base and ESH Accession

World Food Day

To increase global awareness of the hunger problem and to
stimulate national and international action in the fight to feed
people all over the world, World Food Day (WFD) was established by the
1979 FAO Conference with the unanimous approval of the Member Nations.
The anniversary of the foundation of FAO, i.e. 16 October 1945 was
chosen for the observance of the day. The first World Food Day was
celebrated in 1981.

"Rural Youth" was the theme of WFD 1988 chosen by the
Director-General to focus attention on the enormous problems faced by
young people in rural areas and the essential contribution they do and
can make in the struggle for enough food and a better, more meaningful
life for all.

As in previous years, activities to observe WFD were carried
out in more than 140 FAO Member Countries, with the participation of
governments, non-governmental organizations, educational institutions
and individuals of every walk of life. Activities included seminars
and round-table discussions on the theme, field days to FAO projects,
demonstrations, exhibitions, essay/art/photography contests on themes
relating to rural youth, pamphlets and publications for development
education, fund-raising campaigns, production of materials in national
languages, etc. One hundred and eighteen countries established
National Committees involving representatives of governmental as well
as non-governmental organizations to arrange WFD activities at country
level. In 1988, the former FAO Money and Medals Programme was moved to
the WFD Secretariat.

The main international celebration of WFD took place at FAO
headquarters. Representatives of international and regional
organizations, ambassadors and members of the diplomatic corps, and
experts in agriculture and rural development gathered together to
reflect on the global crisis of hunger and poverty and to recommit
themselves to findings ways and means of resolving it. The ceremony
was opened by the Director-General of FAO who presented the problems
confronting rural youth in the Third World and the challenge these
problems pose. President Mario Soares of Portugal was the keynote
speaker. The Italian Premier Ciriaco de Mita and Hon. Tina Anselmi,
President of the Italian Committee for WFD, also addressed the
meeting. A special message from Pope John Paul II was read to the


The Rural Development Analysis and Organization Service


O.A. Sabry
N.J. Newiger

R.J. Clark
N. Forni
L. Montesi
D.M. Beloglavec
0. Monteza
J. Rouse
J.M. Dey
W.J. Polman
G. Giannini
-R. Adam

Service Chief
Senior Officer (Cooperatives and Rural Organiza-
Senior Officer (Rural Development)
Senior Officer (Employment and Manpower Planning)
Rural Development Organization Officer
Rural Organizations Officer
Agricultural Cooperatives Officer
Small Farmers and Rural Organizations Officer
Rural Development Analysis Officer
Institutional Cooperation Officer
Employment and Manpower Planning Officer
Associate Professional Officer (Rural Development

Summary of Service Activities

The Service deals with issues of rural development,
cooperatives and other rural organizations, with the organization of
services for development, with delivery systems for small farmers and
with problems of rural employment. One main activity of ESHA is the
analysis of the causes and incidence of rural poverty.

ESHA provides support to the ACC Task Force on Rural
Development which coordinates under the leadership of FAO the various
activities of the UN system in rural development. The Service prepared
and organized the Sixteenth Meeting of the Task Force which took place
in New York in May and participated in the Meetings of its
subsidiaries, i.e. the Panel on Monitoring and Evaluation and the
Panel on People's Participation, also held in New York. ESHA issued
the ACC Newsletter on Rural Development No. 10, as well as a Special
Issue of the Newsletter.

The Service continued to promote people's participation in
rural development, to assist the rural poor in establishing informal
organizations and to strengthen collaboration with Non-Governmental
Organizations and International Trade Unions. The Service provided
assistance to countries in the development of agricultural services to
small farmers. ESHA also served as the focal point in FAO for
supporting the Joint Committee for the Promotion of Aid to
Cooperatives (COPAC) which has its Secretariat at FAO Headquarters.

The Service is composed of four groups. Their activities can
be summarized as follows:

- 10 -

Rural Development Analysis Group

Provision of secretariat services for the ACC Task Force
on Rural Development, organization and holding of its
Sixteenth Meeting in New York in May, including
preparation of session papers,

Preparation of a Special Issue and No. 10 of "Rural
Development", the Newsletter of the ACC Task Force on
Rural Development,

Backstopping of two research projects on the Organization
and Management of Agricultural Services for Small Farmers
in the Near East (Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia and
Syria) and in Anglophone Africa (Ghana, Malawi, Sierra
Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) for which synthesis
documents are in preparation,

Backstopping of TCP project "Agricultural Infrastructure
Improvement in Islamic Countries" (TCP/RAS/6755(A))
involving five national case studies (Egypt, Indonesia,
Morocco, Senegal and Turkey)., A synthesis document is in
preparation which after finalization in early 1989, will
be submitted by the Indonesian Government to the next
Conference of the Ministers of Agriculture of the
Organization of the Islamic Conference,

Provision of technical staff for several inter-agency
missions (WFP appraisal mission for two projects in China:
Gansu and Qinghai provinces); WFP evaluation mission to
Mexico; UNFPA evaluation mission to Morocco (project

Preparation of a section on poverty for the Latin America
and Caribbean Study and Plan of Action for Food and
Agricultural Development,

Provision of technical support for project formulation
(regional projects on women in Africa, on agricultural
research and extension in Asia, women in development in
Morocco, agro-sylvo-pastoral development in Senegal), and
backstopping several other rural development projects in
Anglophone Africa,

Preparations for a Round Table of Experts on Selected
Issues in Rural Development in the Near East Region to be
held in Amman, Jordan, in May 1989 in commemoration of the
tenth anniversary of WCARRD,

Preparations for mounting an Inter-Agency WCARRD Policy
Review Mission in Laos in 1989.

- 11 -

Cooperatives and Other Rural Organizations Group

Promotion of People's Participation Projects (PPP) by
providing assistance in the formation of small
self-reliant groups of the rural poor which encourage
members to work together on income generating activities,
serve as receiving mechanisms for credit and farm inputs
and provide members with bargaining powers vis-a-vis local

Support to PPP Projects in 11 countries (Ghana, Kenya,
Lesotho, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe in
Africa, and Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Pakistan in
Asia). The People's Participation Programme supports a
network of over 860 small farmers' groups and 28
inter-group associations, serving 10 900 farmers, of whom
40 percent are women. The Programme reaches close to
60 000 rural households worldwide,

Strengthening of specific aspects of PPP projects such as
the development of contractual instruments for delegating
more responsibility to NGOs for project implementation. At
the same time, collaboration with other technical units in
FAO, such as the Credit and Marketing Service, the
Nutrition Programme Service, etc. has been strengthened
with a view to enhancing the efficiency of project

Development of new methods and communication techniques.
Issuance of the PPP Newsletter No. 3 which as the first
two issues serves as a medium through which project field
staff and headquarters staff can better communicate with
each other on issues of general concern. Also, a slide
tape show on the PPP programme in Africa and the Small
Farmer Development Programme in Asia was prepared in order
to reach selected audiences within each region,

Preparation of training materials on specific subjects,
such as the manual prepared on savings and credit
management, as well as case studies and guides on group
enterprise management. Efforts were also undertaken to
introduce a group self-reliance monitoring system in three
PPP countries in Africa,

Preparation of a paper on People's Participation in
Agrarian Reform and Rural Development for presentation and
discussion at the 10th Session of the Committee on
Agriculture in April/May 1989. The purpose of this paper
is to highlight the importance of people's participation
in agricultural and rural development. It briefly reviews
the concept of people's participation, describes general
trends in the practice of people's participation, presents
issues arising from these experiences and recommends
proposals for further action by Governments and FAO,

- 12 -

- Preparation of a document on the Methodology of
Participation in Rural Development to be published on
behalf of the Panel on People's Participation of the- ACC
Task Force on Rural Development,

- Preparation of Operational 'Guidelines for Beneficiary
Participation in Agricultural and Rural Development. The
major purpose is to provide guidance, in particular, to
all those involved in the identification and formulation
of FAO technical assistance projects aimed at beneficiary

- In anticipation of the tenth anniversary of WCARRD, the
Group is reviewing lessons learned over the past decade,
with the implementation of the participatory approach
through the People's Participation Programme. It is
expected that this review will arrive at a forward looking
strategy for the further strengthening of the
participatory approach in rural development activities,

- Advice to governments on improving the operational
efficiency of cooperatives and other producer's
organizations through the introduction of better methods
of business management and better production techniques.
In this context, the Group continued to promote the
programme for the development of appropriate management
systems for small farmers (AMSAC). Several workshops,
seminars and training courses on appropriate management
systems for agricultural cooperatives were organized,
mostly with the collaboration of the German Foundation for
International Development (DSE) in Cape Verde, Senegal and
Togo. Feasibility studies and project documents on
cooperative management were prepared for Burkina Faso,
Senegal and Togo and national AMSAC guides published for
Senegal and Togo. A national guide for Burkina Faso is in
preparation. A Round Table seminar on problems of
cooperative management with special attention to financial
problems was organized in collaboration with DSE in Togo,

- Organization of a Joint International Cooperative
Alliance/FAO/ILO Interagency Mission as recommended by the
Second African Ministerial Cooperative Conference in
Lusaka, Zambia in 1987. It visited Botswana in 1988 and
reviewed cooperative policies, structures and

- Organization of a national workshop on perspective
planning for the agricultural cooperatives sector in the
Philippines. It was organized by the Government and
jointly sponsored by the International Cooperative
Alliance and FAO. The major purpose of this workshop was
to discuss the findings of the joint interagency mission
which reviewed progress towards self-reliance in
cooperative development in 1987,

- 13 -

Preparation and testing of a Guide on Monitoring and
Evaluation of Small Farmers Cooperatives in Asia in
selected countries with a view to adapting this guide to
different socio-economic conditions prevailing in
countries of the Asian and African regions. Similar
efforts are underway in Latin America with emphasis on
people's participation,

Support to rural workers organizations and NG0Os.
Organization in cooperation with RAPA and FODO an
introductory seminar into agro-forestry activities for
Asian Rural Workers organizations which was attended by
representatives from India, the Philippines, Sri Lanka,
Thailand and Vietnam,

Participation in a meeting of the Committee for the
Promotion of Aid to Cooperatives (COPAC) and in the
International Symposium on Food Aid and Cooperatives, held
in Vienna in September.

Development Organization Group

Provision of technical support to field projects concerned
with strengthening the organizational and institutional
framework of agricultural and rural development at the
national level in 13 countries (Benin, Burundi, Burkina
Faso, Cape Verde, Comores, Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial
Guinea, Guinea, Madagascar, Niger, Rwanda and Senegal),

Successful conclusion of a training programme for
agricultural development administrators in Somalia,

Termination of case studies on the organization and
management of agricultural services for small farmers in
five Anglophone African countries (OMASA) (Ghana, Malawi,
Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zambia),

Preparation of a national workshop on the present state of
the application of the new agricultural and rural
development policy in Senegal,

Preparation of case studies on the organization and
management of agricultural services for small farmers in
three countries of the Caribbean (Haiti, Jamaica and
Trinidad and Tobago),

Participation in the preparation of project documents for
assistance to governments in strengthening the
organization and management of agricultural services for
small farmers at the national level in Benin, Burundi,
Burkina Faso, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guinea, Niger and
Peru, and at the regional level for Latin America and the

- 14 -

Participation in the preparation of a project document for
an inter-regional programme for Community Participation in
Watershed Management.

Employment and Manpower Planning Group

Conducting country-level studies on rural landlesness in
cooperation with ESHL in Peru and in Sri Lanka. Their
results should provide a basis for meaningful policy
intervention in favour of the landless rural groups,

Analysis of policy implications of country studies on
landlessness in Turkey, Madagascar, Sri Lanka with a view
to preparing a report on the dynamics of landlessness to
be presented for discussion in 1989 in connection with the
tenth anniversary of WCARRD,

Research on the effects of alternative technologies on
employment levels in the agricultural sector, and
preparation of a report on the employment impact of
technical change, with particular reference to African

Preparation for the Round Table on Selected Issues in
Rural Development for the Near East scheduled in Amman,
Jordan, May 1989, in relation to the migration from rural
areas and the impact of mechanization on agricultural

Conducting a study in collaboration with the Somalia
National University on the impact of the drought-induced
migration on land tenure and production in the inter-river
areas of Somalia. A project proposal for carrying out a
field investigation on the socio-economic impact of labour
migration in selected Southern African countries
(Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland) was approved by UNFPA for
funding and initiation in early 1989,

Methodological work on manpower planning for rural
development led to the completion of a technical manual
for assessing manpower requirements in the irrigation
sub-sector and to the preparation of a study on manpower
planning for different livestock production systems.
Assistance was also provided to the Government of Benin
for undertaking a comprehensive review of trained manpower
resources of the rural sector,

Inter-agency Appraisal Mission to Morocco for WFP project
MOR 3107 "Small-scale hillside dams".

- 15 -

ESHA Missions

Inter-agency Evaluation Mission for WFP Project MEXICO
2800 "Food Assistance for the Resettlement of Guatemalan
Refugees in South-eastern Mexico", February,

Inter-agency Appraisal Mission for WFP Projects CHINA 3355
"Agricultural Development through Irrigation, Jintichuan
Command Area, Gansu Province" and CHINA 3557 "Agricultural
Development through Irrigation in Wulan County, Qinghai
Province", March.

Evaluation Mission to Morocco for UNFPA/FAO project
MOR/85/P01 "Education de la population et dv6loppement
des femmes en zones rurales et urbaines pgriph6riques",

Preparation of a Work Programme for the 2nd Phase of
Project GCPS/CVI/012(ITA) in support to cooperatives, Cape
Verde, March,

Follow-up to GACOPEA training courses, Senegal, March,

Technical Backstopping Missions to People's Participation
Projects: Tanzania (GCP/URT/NET) in March, Kenya
(GCP/KEN/053/NET) in March, Lesotho (GCP/LES/029/NET) in
August, Swaziland (GCP/SWA/019/NET) in September;
Pre-Inception Mission to Pakistan PPP project
(GCP/PAK/076/NET), October,

Technical Backstopping Mission for project TCP/TRI/6752,
Trinidad, and participation in TCP Project Identification
Mission Grenada, June,

Technical. Backstopping Mission for project GCP/LES/029-
(NET), August,

Review Mission of project GCP/HON/013(NET) "Training for
incorporating peasant women into the rural production
process, August,

Consultancy Mission to Small Ruminants Project TOG/86/006,
Lama Kara, Togo on creation of farmers' association groups
and livestock work, November,

AMSAC feasibility study and Project Identification Mission
for an integrated cooperative project in Tanzania,

Consultancy Mission to evaluate IFAD-funded IRD project in
Honduras (Western Region Rural Development Project),

- 16 -

Consultancy Mission on participatory rural development,
Guatemala (TCP/GUA/8851(A), February-December,

Consultancy Mission on computerized monitoring and
evaluation of small farmers' groups projects, Guatemala
(TCP/GUA/8851), April-June,

Consultancy Mission on rural development and peasant's
organizations, Colombia (CP/COL/6755(A), May-November,

Technical Backstopping Missions to Guinea and New York for
project GUI/86/004, to Burkina Faso for project
GCP/BKF/031(ITA), to Benin for project BEN/84/006,

FAO/Italy Project Formulation Mission to Brazil, Colombia,
Costa Rica and Peru, April,

Backstopping Missions to Ghana, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and
Tanzania related to the implementation of the OMASA
programme in Anglophone Africa,

Mission to Senegal to prepare a national workshop on
agricultural policy, October,

WFP/FAO Appraisal Mission to the People's Democratic
Republic of Yemen in connection with WFP-assisted project
PDRY 3442 "Soil and Water Conservation", January,

WFP/FAO/ILO Technical Review Mission to Mauritania in
connection with WFP project MAU 2629/0 "Gorgol Noir
Irrigation and Settlement Scheme", October.

Technical Backstopping Mission to Benin to assist the
Ministry of Rural Development in carrying out a rural
manpower survey, July.


Sixteenth meeting of the ACC Task Force on Rural
Development, New York, May,

Meeting of the Working Group on the Impact of
Macro-Econmic Policies on the Rural Poor (ACC Task Force
on Rural Development), Rome, October,

ESH/FODO Regional Training Seminar for Rural Workers
Organizations on Promotion of Agro-Forestry based self-
help activities, Bangkok, December,

COPAC Session and COPAC International Symposium on
Food Aid and Cooperatives, Vienna, September,

- 17 -

- Multicountry Workshop organized by Cooperative Development
Project, on teaching materials for rural youth, Lima,

- ICA/JAPAN Cooperative Training Course to present FAO Guide
on Monitoring and Evaluation of Small Farmers Cooperatives
in Asia and discuss future FAO/ICA collaboration in Poona
and Delhi, India, December,

- Five National Workshops to review respective documents on
the role of agricultural cooperatives in rural development
in Argentina (June), Guatemala and Colombia (July),
Nicaragua (September) and Panama (December),

- FAO/DSE Round Table on GACOPEA, Togo, with emphasis on
credit and loans, December,

- CIRDAFRICA Governing Body Meetings and discussion on joint
ESH/CIRDAFRICA programme activities, November.

- 18 -

3. The Agricultural Education and Extension Service (ESHE)


W.D. Maalouf
H.K.F. Hoffmann
T.E. Contado

A.M. El-Zoobi

W. Lindley

N. Doron
M. Randriamamonjy

J. Jallade

R. Adhikarya

R. Poudevigne
E. Baier

Service Chief
Senior Officer, Agricultural Education
Senior Officer, Agricultural Training and
Agricultural Extension and Training
Agricultural Training and Extension
Officer (Rural Youth)
Agricultural Education Officer
Agricultural Training and Extension
Officer (NTE ESHE 15/12/88)
Agricultural Training and Extension
Agricultural Training and Evaluation
Agricultural Education Officer
Population Education Officer, UNFPA Project
INT/88/P28 (posted at HQ)

Summary of Service Activities

Through the various types of technical assistance rendered to
about 90 countries, the Agricultural Education and Extension Service
(ESHE) has contributed significantly in 1988 to strengthening the
capabilities of agricultural education, extension and training
personnel, which in turn lead to the improvement of skills and
abilities of the agricultural manpower in these countries. ESHE
provided technical backstopping in the areas of education, extension
and training to at least 233 field projects and technically supervised
at least 114 experts and 106 consultants to help execute such
projects. This technical assistance work was complemented and
reinforced by training workshops, seminars, advisory/formulation
missions and through the design, development and protesting of
training and extension support materials. As in the last couple of
years, the emphasis of ESHE in 1988 continued to be on Africa.

At the request of member countries, in 1988, ESHE identified
and developed 55 new proposed projects (compared to 36 in 1987) either
entirely devoted to extension, education and/or training or with
significant components in these fields, with a total value of about
US$ 51.9 million (as compared to US$ 39.6 million in 1987).

The following are brief descriptions of some of ESHE's
activities conducted in 1988, which have generated positive results
and further expansion of such activities are foreseen:

- 19 -

- Institution Building in Agricultural Education

In response to the WCARRD Programme of Action which, among
others, calls for the strengthening and expansion of agricultural
education and extension training, especially at the intermediate
level, ESHE has been actively involved in institutional development of
agricultural schools and colleges. Following the December 1986 Expert
Consultation on Progress of Institutional Development in Agricultural
Schools and Colleges, various follow-up activities have been
initiated, especially in the areas of improvement of curricula,
organizational structure, teaching methodology and materials.

During 1988, progress has been made in implementing a Global
Case Study Programme on Strategies for University-level Agricultural
Education. This programme includes 24 institutions from as many
countries, spread throughout all regions. Its purpose is to study and
document alternative approaches to the role of identified outstanding
institutions, to curriculum development, research orientation,
participation in rural development field action, to resource
availability and use and to the development of suitable institutional
structures and procedures. The ultimate aim is to highlight strategy
options which agricultural universities, faculties and colleges may
wish to consider for the next 10 to 15 years. Depending on the
availability of funds, the results of the programme will be reviewed
by a special informal meeting and will eventually be published by FAO.
The case studies are performed under contract with FAO by selected
authors. By the end of 1988, reports on five institutions had been
received and others are expected to be completed during 1989.

In addition, ESHE provided advisory services on measures for
improving the organization, administration and management of
agricultural education at the intermediate level such as in Bhutan,
Cape Verde, Niger, Angola, Laos, Central African Republic, Rwanda,
Sudan, Ethiopia, Grenada and St. Vincent, and at the higher level in
Tunisia and Bolivia. In Chad and Thailand, ESHE has been involved in
organizing and conducting training on curriculum development, teaching
methodology and the development of teaching materials.

In collaboration with other concerned Divisions/Services of
FAO, ESHE has taken the lead in preparing a comprehensive paper on a
"Strategy for Agricultural Education and Training", which, hopefully,
will lead to the development of a major FAO programme for improving
the quality of agricultural education and training in FAO's member

- Inventory-Analysis of Various Extension Approaches

ESHE has examined and prepared a series of publications on
the various extension approaches, such as the participatory approach,
animation rurale, commodity-based approach, etc. These reports
analyzed in detail the characteristics of each of the extension
approaches, the advantages and disadvantages, and under what

- 20 -

conditions a specific approach seems to be most effective. Lessons
learned from field experiences in the application of the various
extension approaches and strategies have also been drawn. As a result,
a "Guide on Alternative Extension Approaches" was published.

- Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension

As recommended by the Programme Committee in 1987, this
activity is being undertaken as an important component of the 10th
anniversary of WCARRD. The Global Consultation will take place in FAO
HQ, Rome from 2 to 6 October 1989, with around 40 participants from
all over the world. The objectives are as follows:

Re-examine the role of agricultural extension in
agricultural/agrarian and rural development;

Review the world's experiences with agricultural
extension: its achievements and constraints;

Analyze the relative resource priority for extension, the
patterns of resource allocation and their sustainability;

Consider the major alternative approaches and methods of
agricultural extension systems in the world, including
those under NGOs, with particular emphasis on
appropriateness to the extension message, kind of
clientele and cost-effectiveness;

Determine whether significant differences in extension
impact and cost are related to gender consideration due to
special programmes, methods and patterns of extension work
with women farmers; and

Draw up some guidelines on recommendations for action to
improve support and effectiveness of agricultural
extension services in developing countries.

Preparatory activities for the Consultation were well
underway in 1988, and included the collection/review of existing
literature and the design of case study instruments and survey
questionnaires for national agricultural extension systems. The
collection of data on national agricultural extension systems was
initiated in a total of 154 member countries and case studies on
extension approaches and cost-effectiveness were initiated in 24

Promoting Low-Cost and Participatory Extension Campaign

A strategic extension campaign approach based on a
participatory problem identification and solution process on the
causes of farmers' non-adoption of a recommended technology or

- 21 -

innovation has been successfully introduced by ESHE and is being
replicated in many countries in Asia and Africa. The key components
of these 18 months activities include (i) a farmers' Knowledge,
Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey whose results are used for
strategic extension campaign planning inputs and as bench-mark-
/base-line for summative/impact evaluation purposes and (ii) a series
of practical, hands-on workshops to train a cadre of. personnel
including extension specialists, subject-matter specialists,
researchers, communication support staff, as well as farmer leaders on
skills of campaign planning, strategy development, problem-solving
message design and low-cost multi-media materials and materials

Empirical evaluation studies (using information recall and
impact surveys and focus group interviews) of these strategic
extension campaigns conducted in Bangladesh, Malaysia and the
Philippines, for instance, have shown very significant impact in terms
of changes (before and after the campaign) in farmers' level of
knowledge, attitude and practice vis-a-vis the recommended
agricultural technology. ESHE has been replicating the same approach
in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, Tunisia, Liberia, Benin, Zambia and
Burundi, and the topics of the campaign include among others, rat
control, line sowing method of rice cultivation, maize production,
weed control, soil preparation and conservation, pest surveillance
system, use of improved seeds, coconut replanting and rehabilitation,
cocoa cultivation, tick-borne disease control etc. These activities
were carried out in collaboration with the relevant subject matter/
technical units of the Organization.

Furthermore, the dissemination of this strategic extension
campaign (SEC) method has been facilitated through a Technical
Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) arrangement. For
example, some of the Malaysian participants who were trained in this
SEC method have served as trainers and/or resource persons in similar
activities in Thailand and Sri Lanka. Similarly, the person who was
involved in the Philippines' SEC activity was the trainer/resource
person in Malaysia and Thailand, and one of the persons trained in
Liberia has also served as resource person/trainer for similar
activities in Zambia.

Reaching Women Farmers More Effectively through Extension

The Trust. Fund project on "Improving the Level of
Agricultural Extension Service Support for Rural Women" continued to
function in 1988. As a follow up to an earlier multi-country
workshop, held in Harare, Zimbabwe, national level workshops were held
in Malawi and Zambia to review and revise agricultural extension and
training policy and strategy. Policy statements are being reviewed to
ensure that all farmers, both men and women, are considered as the
extension audience. Extension education pre- and in-service curricula
are also being revised so that extension workers will be better
prepared to work with rural women.

- 22 -

Additional funding from the Arab Gulf Fund has allowed the
project expansion into Francophone West Africa.

Work has begun on adapting the case study phase of the
project in Burkina Faso. Since the vast majority of agricultural
extension agents are men in West Africa, as well as all over the
continent, a considerable amount of in-service training and policy
review is anticipated in several countries. Specific follow-up
activities will include a series of in-country workshops on policy
development and training for trainers who will be expected to work
with extension agents at the pre- and in-service levels.

Integration of Population Education into Agricultural
Extension Service

Population education is an important aspect in the process of
agricultural and rural development, and therefore, ESHE has included
programme activities that incorporate population education components
into the agricultural extension system. Since 1987, ESHE has been
operating a UNFPA-funded project on "Strategic Integration of
Population Education into the Agricultural Extension Services".

In this project, activities are being developed to integrate
population education into the routine work programme of the
agricultural extension workers. It was recognized that the extensive
network of the national agricultural extension service could be used
effectively as a vehicle to reach farmers with population education
concepts and information. This "piggy-backing" strategy for
population education in the rural sector was well accepted by many of
the leaders of agricultural extension services because they believed
that by providing information, motivation and training education to
farmers about population related issues, it could contribute to a
better informed rural population who would in turn contribute to more
efficient agricultural productivity, higher per capital income and
improved quality of rural life. So far, country pilot activities
proposals for implementing these activities had been requested by nine
countries in Asia, Africa, Near East and Latin America.

Funds for seven out of nine pilot activity components were
approved in 1988 by UNFPA. The funds for the remaining two country
components are expected to be approved soon. Baseline surveys to
determine the population education needs and relevant messages, which
need to be incorporated into the agricultural extension activities,
have been conducted in these participating countries.

In addition to this inter-regional project, ESHE has also
provided, since 1988, technical assistance to various national
projects which integrate population education into the agricultural
extension service, such as those in Uganda and Kenya.

- 23 -

- Promoting Population Education through Rural Youth Programmes

Continuing in 1988, ESHE has executed and operated a UNFPA
funded project with the objective of integrating population education
into programmes for rural youth and young farmers. Young men and
women in the rural areas of less developed countries need to have
access to appropriate.population education related information. The
effect of rapid population growth on agricultural production, the
environment, the conservation of natural resources, educational and
employment opportunities and nutrition should be well understood.
Young people should be in a position to make informed decisions as
they prepare for adult responsibilities in their communities. The
project has developed a set of leaders' guides and instructional aids
for youth group leaders. Materials content, style and format, as well
as a strategy for implementation, were discussed in a series of
workshops held in Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Swaziland. After field
testing the leaders' guides and instructional materials, it is
anticipated that materials will be introduced in each country through
a series of national level projects. This project has now been
expanded to include Francophone West Africa, Latin America and the Far

Evaluation of Training Activities

ESHE has advocated the need to have built-in evaluation
components in FAO training programmes. In collaboration with a field
project in Indonesia, a comprehensive training evaluation manual on
"Performance Evaluation for Competency-based Training Programmes" was
developed, with ESHE assistance. It was pretested and published in
English and Bahasa Indonesia in mid 1988. Such training evaluation
manuals will then be utilized as prototypes for adaptation and
translation for use in other interested countries or projects.

In addition, ESHE was also involved in designing and planning
an evaluation of a programme on Community Extension Training in
Environment Protection and Improvement, as part of the activities of a
field project in Indonesia (TCP/INS/4516). The report of the training
evaluation study was completed in 1988. Various other extension and
training evaluation studies and reports were produced during 1988;
inter alia, the Information Recall and Impact Survey of the Strategic
Extension Campaign activities on Pest Surveillance Systems in

Training Curriculum Design and Instructional Modules

ESHE has undertaken an important training methodology
activity in assisting a regional project (GCP/RAS/101/NET) in Asia to
design prototype training curricula for in-service training of
extension workers in thE area of integrated pest management (IPM).
Starting with a regional workshop held in the Philippines in 1988,

- 24 -

ESHE has provided technical and methodological support to this
activity. So far, five field-based instructional modules have been
developed on different IPM subjects. This three-year activity will
include the pre-testing of the prototype training curricula and
modules, field testing in at least five countries of Asia, training of
trainers in the development and utilization of such training curricula
and modules, and in their institutionalization in extension training
centres as part of their overall training programmes.

The process and methodology of developing this field-based
oriented training curricula and instructional modules will be
documented and used as a model for further replication in other
countries and in other subject matters.

- Other ESHE Activities

a. Joint Action with the UN Specialized Organizations

In 1988, the FAO/Unesco/ILO Inter-Secretariat Working Group
on Agricultural Education, Science and Training (ISWG), held only one
session, due to budgetary constraints. This session, the 51st, was
held at ILO Headquarters, Geneva, in November 1988. Major attention
was devoted to an assessment and evaluation of the work of the Group
and it was agreed that future sessions would include substantive
discussions on issues of common interest to the three Agencies.
Discussions on such issues would result in practical follow-up action,
such as preparation of training manuals, which could be produced by
one of the three Agencies, with technical inputs from the other two,
or, if appropriate, jointly financed by all three. Consultations also
took place on preparations for International Literacy Year (ILY), to
be celebrated during 1990 with Unesco as the Lead Organization for
preparation and observance. ESHE has been designated as Focal Point
within FAO.

b. Collaboration on Rural Youth Work

FAO continued to be an active participant in the UN Inter-
Agency Working Group on Youth, which is being coordinated by the
Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs (CSDHA) with
the participation of Unesco, ILO, WHO, UNICEF and UNV. FAO also
participated in the 14th International Seminar for the Promotion of
Rural Youth work, which is organized on a biennial basis and funded by
the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry of the Federal Republic
of Germany.

c. Inter-Departmental Working Group on Training (IDWGT)

ESHE continues to be responsible as the secretariat of the
IDWGT. Its 23rd meeting was held in May 1988 and discussed among
others, the results of the Review of FAO's Education and Training
Publications and the suggestions for improving such publications. A
"Guide for Developing Educational/Training Materials" will be
developed and published with the assistance of ESHE.

- 25 -

In 1988, ESHE also completed the data collection and
processing on FAO training for the annual report on "Review of FAO
Training Activities" (for 1987) prepared for the IDWGT.

d. ESHE Missions

In 1988, 11 staff members of ESHE undertook various field
missions to provide direct technical assistance to member countries.
During the year, 10 project formulation/programming related missions
were carried out in 9 countries. Eighteen technical backstopping
missions to field projects were conducted in 16 countries. Other
missions were specifically devoted to assistance in the conduct of
workshops, training and technical meetings. There were 27 missions
devoted to this activity in 1988.

e. Publications/Training Materials Development

A significant activity of the ESHE staff was devoted to the
preparation of technical and training materials in the areas of
agricultural education, training and extension in and for developing
countries. A list of the publications and training materials issued
by the Service during 1988 is provided in Chapter IV.

f. Involvement in Conducting Training Activities

The following workshops and seminars were implemented by ESHE in

1. National Workshop on Curriculum Development and Orientation to
Meet the Requirements of Rural Development in the Sudan,
February, Khartoum, Sudan,

2. Workshop on Extension Campaign Management and Workshop on
Extension Materials Development for Weed Management,
(GCP/RAS/101/NET), January-February, Thailand and Malaysia,

3. -National Workshop on Integrating Population Education into
Programmes for Rural Youth, February, Harare, Zimbabwe,

4. Workshop on Extension Training Curriculum Development for
Integrated Pest Control (GCP/RAS/101/NET), April, Philippines,

5. Seminar on Teaching Rural Development at University Level in
Bolivia (TCP/BOL/6756), July-August, Bolivia,

6. National Workshop on Curriculum Reform in Agricultural and Home
Economics Education, October, Bangkok, Thailand,

7. National Workshop on Revision of Agricultural Extension and
Training Policy Statements, with particular reference to women
as extension clientele. October (GCP/RAF/239/DEN), Malawi,

- 26 -

8. Workshop on Strategy Development, Rationale and Objectives of
the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Survey (in the
context of the project TUN/84/020), October, Tunisia,

9. National Workshop on Integrating Population Education into
Programmes for Rural Youth, November, Harare, Zimbabwe,

10. National Workshop on Review and Revision of Extension Policy and
Strategy, with reference to women as extension clientele,
December, Zambia,

11. UNEDBAS/FAO Regional Seminar on Agricultural Extension Methods,
December, Rabat, Morocco,

12. Training Session on Teaching Methodology for Agricultural
Teachers of Technical and Vocational Schools, December, Ba-Illi,

13. Workshop on Strategy Development, Rationale and Objectives of
the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Survey, December,
Cotonou, Benin.

- 27 -

4. The Agrarian Reform and Land Settlement Service (ESBL)


R. Sandoval Service Chief
T.C. Varghese Senior Officer (Land Tenure and Settlement)
J.C. Riddell Senior Officer (Land Tenure and Settlement)
M. Dravi Land Tenure and Settlement Officer
A. Herrera Garibay Land Tenure and Settlement Officer

Summary of Service Activities

ESHL activities are primarily in the field of agrarian
reform, land tenure and settlement and the analysis of production
structures. The activities of 1988 have ranged from studies of the
dynamic changes taking place in "traditional" land tenure systems to
intergovernmental consultations on access to rural resources. In
addition, a major focus has been in identifying and initiating the
background studies for the tenth anniversary of WCARRD to take place
in 1989.

The Service has been instrumental in organizing the agenda
for round tables, regional conferences and intergovernmental
consultations in each region. In this effort the Service has enlisted
the participation of all the Services of ESH and national and
international development agencies. Although much of the fruit of
these efforts will be harvested in 1989, the background work has
involved many hundreds of hours of staff time in the reporting year.

In Africa, the Service has continued its programme to provide
member states with a clearer understanding of the dynamics of
customary land tenure and agrarian systems in the countries. A study
on the dynamics of land tenure and agrarian systems in Malawi has been
completed. It forms part of the series of diagnostic analysis of land
tenure in Africa. It is expected that with the concurrence of and in
collaboration with the Government there will be a nationwide
discussion on the constraints of the present agrarian situation on
rural development and agricultural growth. Discussions will
concentrate on the constraints of the tenure system on access to land,
rural employment, incentive, agricultural production, income and other
economic and social variables.

The Service also completed an in-depth study on landlessness
and peasants' access to land in Madagascar. Under the aegis of the
Malagasy National Academy, acting in conjunction with the Government,
a national symposium was funded by FAO. It was organized in July to
discuss the findings of the study and propose policy actions.
Representatives of the cross-section of the population, including
peasant organizations, academy and NGOs, participated in the

- 28 -

A sub-regional workshop on the establishment of a mechanism
of assistance in agrarian policies in Africa was organized in Lusaka,
Zambia in August. It covered seven Anglophone countries in Southern
and Eastern Africa. Participants laid great emphasis on the need for
training and FAO assistance to national research institutes in the
area of agrarian policies. Another workshop took place in Brazzaville,
Congo, in December for Francophone countries in the Central African

Investigations have been initiated in Swaziland to survey the
present adjustment in tenures in the National Swazi Lands (NSL) and in
Eastern Botswana with a view to designing supportive services
structure for assistance to women in particular.

For the Near East there has been noteworthy progress in
developing a participatory model of rangeland development through a
regional livestock project (RAB/84/025) which ESHL is technical
backstopping on the socio-economic side. This project has pulled
together the expertise of national agencies of six countries into a
joint effort that is actually providing working models on better
management of the range with existing resources in six pilot zones.

ESHL worked with other Services in ESH and the Near East
Regional Office in assisting member states of the Near East region to
establish the Centre for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in the
Near East (CARDNE) and to organize the first governing council
meeting. The Centre is expected to become a regional focal point for
activities in rural development.

In Latin America and the Caribbean, ESHL working jointly with
other agencies, has given emphasis on recession, structural
adjustments and rural poverty. The experience is to be summarized in a
study to be discussed at the fifth Government Consultation on the
Follow-up to WCARRD.

The Service contributed to the preparation of a document on
critical poverty for the Regional Conference in Latin America and the
Caribbean that was held in Cartagena, Colombia.

ESHL participated in a joint UNDP/Government of Italy/-
UNICEF/ILO/FAO mission related to the Andean initiative against
poverty which formulated a programme to combat rural poverty in the
five countries in the sub-region, i.e. Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru and Venezuela. The mission formulated a programme for supporting
and strengthening the peasant economy. This programme will be an
important activity within the Plan of Action of Latin America and the
Caribbean recently approved by the FAO Regional Conference held in
Recife, Brazil.

A study is being conducted on the development of indigenous
populations in Latin America and the Caribbean with the collaboration
of the Inter-American Indian Institute, Mexico. The Service is also
engaged in studies of key issues of rural development in the five

- 29 -

Central American countries. In Guatemala the issue being studied is
the problem of the indigenous populations; in El Salvador, land
distribution and land tenure; in Honduras, rural poverty; in
Nicaragua, organization for production and participation, and in Costa
Rica, distribution of land and human settlements. In addition, the
problem of rural employment is being studied on a sub-regional basis.
These studies are being undertaken with the collaboration of ILO and

The Service has maintained its tradition of a very active
Asian focus. A Regional Workshop on setting up a monitoring and
evaluation mechanism for agrarian reform and rural development in Asia
and the Pacific was held in the Philippines with the participation of
nine member countries. The workshop came out with specific
recommendations for follow-up action at the national and regional
levels. It was also decided that the Centre on Integrated Rural
Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP) would serve as a liaison
body for regional exchange for monitoring and evaluation activities.
Accordingly, FAO has entrusted CIRDAP with follow-up action, the most
important of which will be the organization of consultations/workshops
at the national level.

The draft of the guidelines on socio-economic indicators was
finalized and sent out to the members of the ACC Task Force on Rural
Development. The comments of a large number of the UN Agencies have
been received, which will be taken into account in the finalization of
the guidelines.

Arrangements are being finalized with a view to carry out
pilot studies in three African countries to test the adaptation of the
FAO instruments on data collection on monitoring and evaluation. These
studies will be followed by a Regional Expert Consultation which will
be organized in collaboration with the Centre for Integrated Rural
Development for Africa (CIRDAFRICA). In addition, two proposals have
been formulated to assist two agrarian institutions in Latin America
and strengthen their monitoring and evaluation system on agrarian

In the Near East, the Service focused its assistance on
post-drought adjustment in countries suffering from population
dislocation, with special emphasis on Somalia, Djibouti and
Mauritania. Sudan is also a major concern but the internal problems
have made progress difficult. The effort involves national researchers
who prepare empirical studies to be used as background papers for a
future workshop on the policy framework for rural development needs.

Adjustment to drought in the settlement and type of land
tenure will continue to be a major policy problem for certain member
states in the Near East Region. As a consequence the Service has
initiated four studies on this topic which are jointly prepared by

Liberalization of land tenure policies will continue to be a
major policy front for the near and middle-term future. ESHL will

- 30 -

continue to develop its capacity to provide guidance on matters
dealing with registration, cadastering and protection and conversion
of traditional forms of land and resource tenure. Many of these
traditional forms of tenure are the result of a long term adjustment
to harsh climatic realities. ESHL will attempt to help member states to
develop land tenure and settlement policies conducive to rural

With regard to the liberalization of land policy in the Near
East ESHL has been assisting member countries develop new land
policies for rural populations through assistance in land
registration. The Service has initiated a land registration project
in the Yemen Arab Republic. Assistance was backstopped in Turkey for
efforts to computerize land consolidation efforts in irrigation.
Mauritania was assisted through first a national seminar on land
tenure reform and later by contracting a special ESHL study on the
current land registration system.

Following two TCP projects on assistance to agrarian reform
in Zimbabwe an important UNDP funded project is operational with
continued FAO technical assistance on the reorganization of communal
lands and general agrarian reform policy.

A detailed study on landlessness in Sri Lanka has been
completed. A TCP project on the assessment of the household
responsibilities system in China has brought out significant findings
related to the agrarian structure and off-farm employment in the rural

In the Philippines, concerted efforts were made to implement
the new Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Programme. An Italian funded
project entitled "Technical Support to Agrarian Reform and Rural
Devleopment" has been approved for funding and is in the process of
implementation. In Sri Lanka considerable assistance has been extended
to the planning and training in land settlement.

The Service has backstopped a total of 53 projects, 19 of
which were located in Latin America, 14 in the Near East, 12 in Africa
and 8 in Asia and the Pacific.

- 31 -

5. Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development
Service (ESHW)


A. Spring Service Chief
S. Erozer Senior Officer (Women in Food Systems)
M.J. Mermillod Senior Officer (Home Economics)
M. Randriamamonjy Senior Officer (Women in Development)
F. Campillo-Correa Women's Programme Officer
M. Vink Associate Professional Officer (Women Population,
and Development)
E. Seki Associate Professional Officer (Women in Food

Summary of Service Activities

The Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development
Service (ESHW) as the Organization's principal unit addressing women's
issues, gives emphasis on the following activities:

Policy formulation at international, regional and country
levels, including the preparation of FAO inputs on "Women
in Development" to international meetings and assistance
to national-level units responsible for women's issues;

Development and implementation of technical agricultural
field projects benefitting women;

Reorientation of home economics training programmes for
women to focus on women's economic and production
activities; and

Promotion of population education in order to integrate
demographic issues in agricultural and rural development
planning and programmes for women.

The double-pronged approach, one through projects directed
exclusively at women, and the other through specific women's
components within larger projects has been maintained. But more effort
has been devoted to the second approach in order to integrate women in
the mainstream development.

Progress has been made in the following fields: a) greater
knowledge and awareness of the contribution and importance of rural
women in agriculture, forestry and fishery, and food security; b)
increase in the number of projects and amount of resources oriented
towards rural women; c) development of conceptual approaches and
operational alternatives, particularly with regard to: food security,
technology, women and drought, credit and extension services to rural
women; d) improvement of guidelines and checklists and their
application at regional and national levels; and e) strengthening
level institutions and women's organizations.

- 32 -

One of phe-main achievements of the Service was the
preparation of the FAO Plan of Action for Integration of Women in
Development as requested by the FAO Conference in 1987. It was
presented to the Council in November and approved unanimously. This
document is intended to outline FAO's activities for the period
1990-95, as an application of the principles of the Nairobi Forward
Looking Strategies to the sector of agriculture, food and rural

The major objectives and commitments of the Service are the

1. To review and monitor the main events on women in
development in order to have an overview of global issues
and a vision for future orientation,

2. To work on women in development policies and to promote
them at national and international levels and

3. To identify research needs at global level and to orient
national programmes to mobilize resources on behalf of

In the area of monitoring and. evaluation, ESHW has
established a coding system to identify the extent to which the
activities of the Regular Programme of FAO are oriented towards women.
Efforts are under way to establish a computer-based system for
monitoring all field projects in this regard. In addition, a number of
relevant indicators relating to women in development have been
included in the list of socio-economic indicators recommended to
countries for the monitoring and evaluation of the WCARRD Programme of

ESHW has been promoting a close relationship with several UN
agencies/organizations, mainly UNICEF, WFP, IFAD, UNIFEM, CIRDAP,
UNFPA, INSTRAW and the Branch for the Advancement of Women (BAW), UN
Division. It has also developed close contacts with some donor
agencies, in particular with the Governments of the Netherlands and

Population Activities Related to Rural Women

The FAO/UNFPA interregional project INT/86/P05 entitled
"Pre-Project, Population, Women and Rural/Agricultural Development"
continued in 1988, with particular emphasis on the identification of
linkages between women's food production oriented activities,
income/welfare of families, demographic size of the families and farm
resources and their impact on production factors. The project aims at
establishing a frame which will enable FAO to integrate population
components into ongoing and pipeline projects on women in food systems
and agricultural development. It aims at providing information on the
relationship between development issues and demographic factors and
will assist governments in the formulation of their population and
development strategies.

- 33 -

In this respect, a Technical Consultation was organized in
Rome for the participating countries of Africa. The overall objective
of the meeting was to exchange experiences concerning the project
among FAO field staff and national counterparts, to discuss its
research components and to formulate ideas for a possible follow-up
inter-country action programme. The consultation was attended by
project field staff (national and international), officials from
liaison and counterpart ministries and institutions from Lesotho,
Malawi, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

While country case studies in the participating African
countries are currently under implementation preparation activities
for similar types of studies and technical consultation meetings have
been initiated for Latin America and Asia and the Pacific.

Other technical backstopping and advisory services regarding
population activities were provided to the RAPA Population Officers
and concerned population, women and agricultural development projects
in China, Nepal, the Philipines, Vietnam. In Africa three countries
were covered, i.e.: Zambia, Uganda and Morocco. Assistance was
provided either during the formulation phase, the implementation
of newly formulated projects or during the reformulation of ongoing

Integration of Women in Development

Regarding inter-agency work, the Service was actively
involved in the preparation of the Chapter VI "Women, Food Systems and
Agriculture" of the update of the World Survey of Women in
Development. The chapter was prepared following the outline proposed
by the UN General Assembly in its 42nd Session in September 1987, and
was based on information received from various Services and Divisions,
as well as from other UN agencies.

During 1988, FAO has continued to report on activities
carried out and to provide the Branch for the Advancement of Women, UN
Office in Vienna with inputs for various reports to the UN
Secretary-General especially on the "Implementation of the Nairobi
Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women" to be
submitted to the General Assembly.

An Expert Consultation on the "Experiences of Institutional
Changes Concerning Women in Development" was held at FAO Headquarters
in September. The agenda focused on the integration of gender issues
in rural development programmes and on models for staff training on
Women in Development (WID). As a concrete application of the
recommendations of this meeting, a team of trainers started in
December a first appraisal of FAO staff training needs on women's
issues in order to establish a training programme to be implemented in

In 1988, ESHW continued to act as Secretariat for the
Interdivisional Working Group on Women in Development, and received

- 34 -

funds from Norway for creating greater involvement of technical
divisions in WID affairs.

ESHW participated in the activities of several IDWGs,
especially on Energy and Nutrition. On the latter, FAO's Nutrition
Division has addressed the need for gender specific information in the
preparation of nutrition country profiles which aims at strengthening
national food and nutrition policy formulation through contacts with
national institutes of member countries.

The Service commissioned a study on Women and Rural
Development in Brazil. In compliance with the recommendations of the
19th Regional Conference for Latin America, case studies were carried
out in Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru and the Dominican
Republic on the situation of rural women in the field of access to
land, migration, legislation and political implications. Moreover,
project documents were formulated for technical assistance in the
Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Peru. ESHW gave some
inputs to the terminal report on the "Plan of Action on Rural and
Agricultural Development in Latin America and the Caribbean". In the
same region four field projects are ongoing (Honduras, El Salvador,
Argentina and Regional) while others are in the pipeline (Peru,
Nicaraua, Mexico, Guatemala and Colombia).

Women in Food Systems

The Women in Food Systems (WIFS) Group continued to provide
technical backstopping on the ongoing field projects in 1988. This has
been done in the form of reviewing the progress of projects, expert
servicing and participation in technical and tripartite review
missions. New country projects funded by UNDP started in the Arab
Republic of Yemen, Kenya and Malawi.

With the funding support of UNDP, the preparatory phase of a
regional project for Africa entitled "Improving African Women Farmers'
Access to Appropriate Technologies" was completed. It intends to cover
the following countries during the implementation of its first
phase: Burkina Faso, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zambia and
Zimbabwe. The major objective of this project is to increase the
agricultural productivity through identification, dissemination and
institutionalization of improved agricultural technology transfer
which will benefit women farmers and thus enable them to be integrated
effectively into the mainstream of agricultural and rural development

Country studies on "Women in Irrigated Agriculture" have been
designed and put into effect, in collaboration with AGL Division in
1988. The objective of the studies is to identify successful
mechanisms among the participating countries for assisting women
farmers to better benefit from irrigation development and management.
Selected national researchers will conduct case studies on two ongoing
irrigation projects in each of the three countries: Botswana, Malawi
and Madagascar. A quantitative and qualitative profile of the
communities, households and women concerned is to be provided through

- 35 -

participatory observation, indepth dialogues with key informants, as
well as structured interviews and data gathering. The studies will be
reviewed at an inter-country workshop which will be organized in 1989,
with the purpose of exchanging information and experience as well as
developing a future follow-up action programme.

A Tripartite Review Mission was carried out on the WIFS
project in Egypt. The second phase of the Sierra Leone project was
approved in 1988, while the projects in the Sudan and Jamaica came to
an end during the period under review.

In order to -co-ordinate field programme activities and to
share the experience gained in the implementation of field projects, a
consultation was carried out with other system agencies. In this
regard an FAO staff member attended the Inter-Agency Project
Co-ordination Meeting in Banjul, Gambia, organized by UNDP, New York.
The FAO Representative also participated in the Africa Regional
Project Steering Committee Meeting, which took place in Washington
D.C. and was hosted by the World Bank.

ESHL completed the study on "Analysis of Credit Schemes
Benefiting Rural Women in Selected African Countries" and published it
in 1988. The aim of this study, which was carried out in five African
countries Kenya, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Zambia and Zimbabwe was to
review credit projects in order to identify factors contributing to
the success of those that have prospered and the limitations of those
that have been less effective. The ultimate objective is to develop
suitable approaches and techniques for providing credit for women
farmers. The study revealed that the success of a credit project,
while considerably dependent upon its own administration, is equally
reliant on other factors that are not necessarily within the control
of the credit delivery mechanism. In agricultural credit, for
instance, access to proven packages of technology supported by timely
delivery of inputs, extension, satisfactory marketing arrangements and
primarily, the political will to enforce recoveries, are also
important for increased production and the development of credit
institutions and schemes that are sustainable. The useful approaches
identified as a result of this study are being used successfully in
country projects like Sierra Leone and Zimbabwe.

The role of women in agriculture and rural development is
increasingly being recognized in Southeast Asia. Consequently, there
is an urgent need to redefine policy direction, approaches and
assumptions through a better understanding of women's food production
roles and specific training and input needs in order to integrate
rural women's concern into the mainstream of rural development

In this regard, the Thai Development Research Institute
(TDRI) and ESHW have jointly developed the plan for an inter-country
workshop in Southeast Asia. The country papers are being initiated in
Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines.

- 36 -

The objective of the workshop is to review the role of key
departments and organizations engaged in planning for effective
integration of women's concern and their coordination. As an output of
the workshop which was designed in 1988, a synthesis report will be
produced identifying mechanisms for strengthening co-operation among
countries in the region.

Home Economics in Rural Development

Specific attention has been given to the re-orientation and
strengthening of the curricula of training programmes for home
economics. The publication on curriculum guidelines entitled "Rural
Households, Resource Allocation and Management" is available in a
provisional version. It has been distributed to selected institutions
in Africa and Asia. University and college level educators and those
involved in programme planning, research and field practice related to
agriculture and rural development are expected to use these guidelines
in teaching extension and research. Two seminars will be hdld in
Africa (Malawi and Nigeria) to test these guidelines and one seminar
will be organized in Thailand in order to adapt them to the specific
Asian context.

ESHW sponsored with ESHE a National Workshop on Curriculum
Reform in Agricultural and Home Economics Education in Thailand. Job
opportunities and respective requirements in terms of knowledge,
skills and attitudes, desirable curricula structures and subject
matter emphasis were discussed.

To illustrate the methodologies adopted in projects to reach
women's groups, a case study was prepared on the basis of experience
gained in Senegal. Support to women's groups to promote income
generating activities is one of the main areas of emphasis. Beside
technical training given in horticulture or animal production,
specific efforts are being made to train women in managerial skills.

In collaboration with the Farm Management and Production
Economics Service a paper is being prepared on the impact of
irrigation on women in Asia. The paper will synthesize the dominant
patterns of change in farming systems and labour requirements as a
result of the introduction of irrigation. The main findings will be
used in project formulation and implementation.

Based on field experience in Benin a document has been
prepared on the "Improvement of Traditional Technology in Food
Processing". This document illustrates the introduction of locally
made equipment which not only improves the quality of the produce but
also decreases human labour and energy consumption.

- 37 -

Field Projects

Field programme assistance to rural development and related
subjects has been provided in 1988 through 604 projects funded by

Out of 604 projects, 248 have been funded by UNDP, 153 by
Trust Fund, 100 by TCP and 103 by WFP (see Table 1).

The bulk of the UNDP and TF projects (53 percent) were
backstopped by ESHE (see Table 2). This Service also backstopped half
of all TCP projects in the Division (see Table 3).

During 1988 the Division assessed and evaluated the curricula
vitae of 123 experts and 219 consultants. These led to the recruitment
of 33 experts and 95 consultants as well as to the extension of 24
positions in projects backstopped by ESH.

The initial number of staff assigned to field projects and
backstopped by ESH as of 1.1.1988 was of 180. With recruitments,
extensions and completion of assignments during the year the number of
field experts amounted on 31.12.1988 to 143, 93 of whom were experts
and 50 consultants.

- 38 -

Table 1. Ongoing/Completed UNDP/TF/TCP/WFP

Projects Backstopped by ESH

Region UNDP TF TCP* WFP Total

Africa 121 85 49 45 300
N. East 36 24 10 .13 83
Latin America 30 15 19 18 82
Asia 61 29 22 27 139

Total 248 153 100 103 604

* Including 63 projects operated by ESH.

Table 2. Ongoing/Completed UNDP/TF Projects Backstopped by ESH Services
(as of 31.12.88)

Service Africa Asia Near East Latin Am. Int. Total

ESHE 107 55 38 13 213
ESHA 42 16 6 9 1 74
ESHL 17 9 8 12 46
ESHW 23 5 3 6 37
Not classified 14 5 5 4 1 31

Total 205 90 60 44 2 401

Table 3. Ongoing/Completed TCP Projects Backstopped by ESH Services
(as of 30.11.88)*

Service Africa Asia Near East Latin America Total

ESHE 25 12 4 9 50
ESHA 10 5 4 8 27
ESHL 5 5 1 11
ESHW 7 1 8
Not classified 2 1 1 4

Total 49 22 10 19 100

* Including 63 projects operated by ESH.

- 39 -

Table 4. Number of Experts/Consultants Assigned to Projects
Backstopped by ESH Services
(as of 31.12.88)

Service Africa Asia Near East Latin America Total

ESHE 34 7 8 11 60
ESHA 21 4 1 4 30
ESHL 2 9 3 16 30
ESHW 14 1 8 23

Total 71 20 13 39 143

Table 5. Field Projects Backstopped by ESH 1982-88

Year UNDP TF Reg. Pr. TCP WFP Total

1982 225 127 57 106 515
1983 243 164 44 101 552
1984 233 199 70 71 573
1985 203 157 110 75 545
1986 225 146 37 159 79 646
1987 304 177 137 76 694
1988 248 153 100 103 604

- 40 -



The dynamics of agrarian structures in Europe, 156 p.

Historical and comparative analysis of land tenure in Latin America,
by F. Campillo. Paper presented at the IILA Symposium on Rural
Development Problems in Latin America: a European Perspective, Rome,
29-30 Jan 1988, 34 p. (En/Sp)

The impact of development strategies on the rural poor (second
progress report on WCARRD Programme of Action), 147 p. (En/Fr/Sp)

Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives, 1988, no. 1/2, 138 p.


Reform in socialist agrarian systems, by T. Bergmann, p. 3-24

Post-revolutionary land distribution in Iran, by A. Lahsaeizadeh,
p. 25-38

Dynamics of land tenure and spontaneous changes in African
agrarian systems, by J.C. Riddell, p. 39-52

Farm size distribution and land tenurial pattern in India (a case
study of Punjab), by I.S. Chatha and J. Singh, p. 53-62

Land reform in Bangladesh, by M.A. Kashem, p. 63-68

Cooperative extension: the missing ingredient in Nigeria's
cooperative development, by M.F. Otu, p. 69-78.

Review and analysis of agrarian reform and rural development. Report
presented to the UN Economic and Social Council at its Second Regular
Session of 1988, 29 p.

- 41 -


Agricultural extension: a reference manual, by B.E. Swanson (ed.),
262 p. (En: 1984, Fr/Sp: 1988)
ISBN 92-5-101504 (En); 92-5-201504 (Fr); 92-5-301504 (Sp)

Agricultural extension and rural development, paper presented at the
closing session of the 24th International Course on Rural Extension,
International Agricultural Centre, Wageningen, Netherlands, 7-9 Jul
1988, by M. Randriamamonjy, 4 p.

Amenagement et mise en function du Centre de formation de Sao Jorge,
Cap-Vert; conclusions et recommendations du project, 23 p.

Assistance A l'Ecole des cadres de 1'Elevage, Niger; conclusions et
recommendations du project, 34 p.

Educational approaches in agricultural extension programmes and their
applicability to environmental management for vector control, paper
presented at the 8th Annual Meeting of the WHO/FAO/UNEP Panel of
Experts on Environmental Management and Vector Control, Nairobi,
Kenya, 5-9 Sep 1988, by A. El-Zoobi, 39 p.

FAO's involvement and experience in agricultural education and
training in Africa, paper presented at the 2nd meeting of the Working
Group on Education and Training of the World Bank Special Programme
for African Agricultural Research (SPAAR), 22-23 June 1988, by
W.D. Maalouf, 10 p.

Guide on alternative extension approaches, by George Axinn, 148 p.

How to assist women in agriculture Keynote address at the opening of
the Course on Women, Extension Workers and Agriculture, at the
International Agricultural College of Deventer, Netherlands,
4-6 Oct 1988, by M. Randriamamonjy, 12 p.

Integration of population education into programmes for rural youth in
low-income countries: a leaders' guide composed of introduction and
10 self-contained booklets on basic concepts of population education
and accompanying instructional aids.

Manual de procedimentos do Departamento de Quadros, Republica Popular
de Angola, 123 p.

Participation A la reforme et A l'extension de l'Institut pratique de
developpement rural de Kolo, Niger; conclusions et recommendations du
project, 60 p.

- 42 -

Reflexions sur les tendances generales des systames de vulgarisation
agricole. Etude de cas dans quelques pays d'Afrique francophone,
67 p.

Report of Workshop: Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Services
in Reaching Rural Women in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 5-9 October 1987,
vol. 1, 53 p.; vol. 2 (Papers presented), 210 p. (En; Sp summary)
v.I:M/S6944, v.2:M/S8023

Rwanda formation agricole: etude des possibilities de creation d'un
Institute Superieur d'Agriculture et d'Elevage, par F. Tchala-Abina,
79 p.

Strategies for dealing with training needs of agricultural and rural
development in the Sudan, paper presented at the Workshop in
Curriculum Development and Orientation for Rural Development,
17-20 Jan 1988, Khartoum, Sudan, by A. El-Zoobi, 16 p.

Views on strategies for higher agricultural education in support of
agricultural and rural development, paper presented at the USAID
Conference on the Future Role of the Agricultural University,
Washington, D.C., 2-8 Oct 1988, by W.D. Maalouf, 16 p.

Vocational education in support of agricultural and rural development,
presented to the European Conference on Vocational Education, 28 Nov
to 2 Dec 1988, Valencia, Spain, by H.K.F. Hoffmann, 8 p.

Workshop Report on the Integration of Population Education into
programmes for rural youth in Sierra Leone, Bo, Sierra Leone,
10-12 Nov 1987, 96 p.

Workshop Report on the Integration of Population Education into
programmes for rural youth in Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland,
14-16 Oct 1987, 169 p.

Workshop Report on the Integration of Population Education into
programmes for rural youth in Zimbabwe, Kadoma, Zimbabwe,
9-12 Feb 1988, 104 p.

Youthworks: an information note on rural youth and young farmers.
(En/Fr/Sp). (Two issues in 1988)

- 43 -

RURAL DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AND ORGANIZATION faisabilit6 de project sur application du systame de gestion
appropriee des cooperatives de petits exploitants agricoles (GACOPEA)
au niveau de dix groupements agricoles villageois au Togo, par
R. Basse, 141 p.

Guide national de gestion approprie dans les cooperatives de petits
exploitants agricoles (GACOPEA) (Burkina Faso), 121 p.

Guide to monitoring and evaluation of small farmers' cooperatives in
Asia, 118 p.

Manpower planning for irrigation, by R. Carter, D. Mason and M. Kay,
85 p.

The monitoring and evaluation of participation in rural development,
by P. Oakley, 61 p.

People's participation: information note on FAO's People's
Participation Programme. (Three issues in 1988)

Programme du project "Gestion approprie des cooperatives de petits
exploitants agricoles" (GACOPEA) (R&publique du Sen6gal). Phase VI:
projects tests.

Enforcement des actions de developpement rural et d'amelioration de
la production agricole dans 1'ORD (Organismes Provinciaux de
Developpement Rural) du Sahel, Burkina Faso. Rapport interimaire,
38 p.

Report of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development on its Sixteenth
Meeting, New York, 11-13 May 1988, 49 p.

Papers presented:

Progress in rural development, by members of the ACC Task Force on
Rural Development, 144 p.

Work accomplished during 1987, 22 p.

Review of programme of work of the Task Force on implementation of
the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies toward the year 2000 for
rural women, 24 p.

Rural Development Newsletter (special issue on progress made in
agrarian reform and rural development in the 1980s) February 1988,
16 p. (En/Fr/Sp)

Rural Development Newsletter No. 10 (Special feature on Latin
America). (En/Fr/Sp)

Rural poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean, 106 p. (En/Sp)

- 44 -


Analysis of credit schemes benefiting rural women in selected African
countries, 52 p.

El desarrollo de la producci6n ovina en los poblados de Africa
occidental. El 6xito de una empresa en la que han intervenido grupos
de mujeres. Manual de capacitaci6n para extensionistas, 90 p.

Expert Consultation on Experiences of Institutional Changes Concerning
Women in Development, Rome, Italy, 21-23 Sep 1988

Documents presented:

Successful experiences in the integration of women's issues in the
planning process (Brazil), by J. Pitanguy, 36 p.

Case study of Japan, by N. Takahashi, 15 p.

Application of various monitoring and evaluation techniques on
women's projects in Jordan, by A.A. Sabbagh, 16 p.

Effective models and mechanisms for training staff in women in
development (Togo), by A.V.E. Quacoe, 8 p.

National development planning for women the Philippine
experience, by R.I. Rikken, 21 p.

A model for staff training to support women in agriculture
(India), by A. Bagchee, 10 p.

The peasant women: her situation regarding legislation and
guidelines and her training, by M.S. Alvear Valenzuela, 16 p.

Planning and training in the Mexican rural women's programme, by
M. Velazquez Gutierrez, 14 p.

Integrating gender issues in the process of planning (activities,
programmes, projects) of institutions that work for agriculture
and rural development (Tanzania), by G.I. Mongella, 11 p.

FAO mandates and policy on women in agricultural and rural
development, by A. Spring, 12 p.

FAO Plan of Action for integration of women in development. Paper
presented at the Ninety-Fourth Session of the FAO Council, 15-25 Nov
1988, 32 p.
CL 94/13

- 45 -

Report of the Informal Technical Consultation/Briefing "Population,
Women and Rural/Agricultural Development" Action Programme Africa,
Rome, Italy, 28 Jun 1 Jul 1988, 41 p.

Documents presented:

Report on the research guidelines on population, women and
agricultural/rural development, by T. Gbokgbl-Kline, 20 p.

UNFPA-Funded project on women, population and rural/agricultural
development (conceptual framework and implementation plan), by
C. Safilios-Rothschild, 25 p.

UNFPA-funded project on women, population and rural/agricultural
development applied research proposal, by M. Vink, 53 p.

The possible impact of agricultural development on the roles of
women and children and the implication for rural women's fertility
behaviour, by E. Mulhoff, 32 p.

Report of the Workshop on Curriculum Reorientation in Home Economics
for Rural Development in Selected Countries in Africa, Nairobi, Kenya,
13-19 Apr 1986, 49 p.

Rural households, resource allocation and management an ecosystems
perspective (provisional version), by L. Engberg, 162 p.

Village mill institution programmes: what governs their success in
rural areas of the Sahel? by V. Altarelli Herzog, 95 p. (Fr: 1986,
En: 1988)

Women's participation in agriculture in the villages of Erzurum,
Turkey, by Y. Erturk, 104 p.

- 46 -


Fighting Hunger. Information bulletin of the WFD Secretariat. No. 3,
12 p. (En/Fr/Sp/Ar)

A reminder, an opportunity, a stimulus: 16 October World Food Day,
12 p. (En/Fr/Sp/Ar)

Rural youth, 4 p. (En/Fr/Sp)

WFD Features (for use of information media)

no. 1 A precious resource, 2 p. (En/Fr/Sp)

no. 2 The invisible partners, 4 p. (En/Fr/Sp)

no. 3 A search for opportunities, 3 p. (En/Fr/Sp)