Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 What is community forestry- and...
 Seeing women
 Asking women the right questio...
 Implementing a process to include...
 Annex 1: An example from India
 Annex 2: Planning issues, design...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Women in community forestry : a field guide for project design and implementation.
Title: Women in community forestry
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084646/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in community forestry a field guide for project design and implementation
Physical Description: iv, 45 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Place of Publication: Rome
Publication Date: 1989
Subject: Forests and forestry -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Women in community development   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 44-45).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084646
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 21987106

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    What is community forestry- and why include women?
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Seeing women
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Asking women the right questions
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Implementing a process to include women
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Annex 1: An example from India
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Annex 2: Planning issues, design features, and information needs
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Back Cover
        Page 46
Full Text

s-^?a" "^r

r -^ III

a field guide for project
design and implementation


ROME, 1989

Reprinted, 1991

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechani-
cal, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.
Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the
reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla,
00100 Rome, Italy.
FAO 1989

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this
publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or
area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers
or boundaries.


The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has a long
standing interest in forestry as a resource for rural development. Within the last
decade, industrial exploitation and population pressure have led to the degradation
of large areas of forest land. Rural peoples who rely on these forests and their
outputs have been put at risk. In 1977, FAO started a special action programme,
Forestry for Local Community Development, that sought to address the needs of
rural people. The programme's philosophy was to support rural people who could
benefit from forestry related activities in their efforts to improve their well-being.
Conceptually, policy for forestry was about, for and by the people.'
Rural women are major caretakers and users of forests. Each day they walk
long distances to gather fodder and fuelwood. They seek out fruits, nuts and small
creatures for food for their families. They use bark, roots and herbs for medicines.
Trees provide shade, beauty and environmental protection for their homes. Thus,
trees and forests play a major role in their daily lives. Unfortunately, most forestry
programmes are organized by men who may not understand women's relationship
to forests. Forestry has typically been a man's profession and it is hard for many
foresters to perceive of women as being competent in this field. Moreover
women's needs regarding the forest often differ from those of men.
Rural women confront obstacles that limit their ability to participate in
community development programmes. They frequently lack the self-confidence
or a forum in which to speak up publicly for themselves and for their families. They
often lack access to child care, credit, education and land tenure, which limits them
more than it limits the men of their own families. These obstacles prevent them
from being heard and from achieving a more powerful role in accessing and
making decisions about tree and forest resource management.
In 1986 the FAO Community Forestry Unit developed a publication for
policy makers, Restoring the balance: women and forest resources, that identifies
issues and points out the importance of considering gender when designing
community forestry programmes.2 This field guide translates Restoring the
balance into a manual for those who design and implement forestry projects. It
focuses on practical ways to include women in project design and implementation
and is meant to be a tool to facilitate discussion, offer options and promote action
on behalf of women and forestry. It has been produced by the Community Forestry
Programme as part of the FAO Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in

This field guide was written by Mary Rojas, Associate Director of International
Programmes at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA. It is
one of a series of studies and publications by the FAO Community Forestry
Programme, with support from the FAO/SIDA Forests, Trees and People Pro-
gramme, a trust fund programme coordinated within FAO by Marilyn W. Hoskins,
Community Forestry Officer. Funding for publishing was also provided by the
Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD).



Preface iii

What is community forestry -
and why include women? 1

Seeing women... 5
Through secondary sources 5
Through community observation 6
In local systems 6
Through other disciplines 11

Asking the right questions 15
What do women already know about trees,
their products and management? 15
What problems are women experiencing
in relation to tree resources? 16
What constraints do women face in addressing
tree and forestry problems? 16
How can we find out what women know? 19
How can women organize themselves? 20

Implementing a process to include women 23
The type of project 23
Project benefits 24
The eight steps 26




What is community forestry -

and why include women?

Ideally, community forestry activities are those that:

-recognize the intimate relationship of women, men and the trees that surround
-build upon local knowledge of women and men about management and uses of
forest resources;
-take into consideration the forest and tree resource needs of the various
community members and focus on increasing the benefits from forests for rural
women and men, especially the poor;
- involve rural women and men in project identification, design, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation.

Community forestry has challenged foresters, forest services and forestry
schools to re-think their roles and broaden their concept of forestry to include goals
relating to trees as a resource to satisfy local needs. For many foresters this means
a new perspective; one that enables them to design forestry programmes that are
more relevant to their countries' overall development priorities.
Throughout community forestry, there are two themes:

-community forestry uses a systems approach and draws on many fields such as
anthropology, agriculture, nutrition and law;
-community forestry focuses on the interaction of people with trees and forests.

Left: The long walk home gathering fuelwood in Nepal

The links between trees and economic, cultural and environmental factors of
people's lives are seen in three crucial areas:

-Trees have an impact on rural women and men by providing products which
satisfy basic needs of the family;
- Trees affect the economic lives of rural peoples by providing income and jobs;
-Trees have an important role in protecting and enriching the environment.

The ways trees perform these three functions for people may be different,
depending on the person's socio-economic status, age and socio-cultural environ-
ment. Additionally there are some differences which are largely gender specific.
For example, in some cultures certain tree species are considered men's trees;
others are considered women's. Women and men often have different views of the
importance of various forest resources. A woman's first concern may be to find
enough tree and forest products to satisfy the immediate family needs. Men's first
concern may be for forest products that are primarily sources of cash.
Although many women are also interested in cash, in some areas they may not
be allowed to participate in forest based income generating activities. In fact, even
where both men and women may earn money from forest products, those sold by
men and women often differ. But there is no universal generalization and
information cannot be transferred from one area to another even about which
gender will harvest or sell a specific
Watering seedlings in a Thai nursery product.
In Indonesia, for example, rattan
is harvested in certain areas by women
alone, in some areas by men alone and
in still other areas by men and women
together. A rattan project in any area
would need to confirm the gender of
their specific client. Although women
generally collect domestic fuelwood,
in some areas men are involved in this
task. Studies show, however, that men
generally have a less active role in
collecting wild foods (other than
hunting wild animals) and use tertiary
tree products somewhat less than
women. The point is that, in light of
important differences in men's and

women's use of forest resources
and the general lack of project
input on the part of women, it is
essential that women's needs be
specifically examined.
Women's needs require
special consideration:

-because women are active users
and managers of forest and tree .
resources, but as forestry is con-
sidered a man's field, women's
roles are often invisible to project
designers and to policy makers;
- because women and men often
have differing uses for forest re- Jamaican women have persuaded men to support reforestatio
sources, which influence their
motives for participating in various forestry activities;
-because women may have special cultural constraints in regard to land and
natural resources (beyond those that men have), which may hamper their ability
to participate in decision making and project activities;
-because of simple justice and equity.

This document assumes that the reader is familiar with data gathering tools
and project design and does not pretend to be a guide to rapid appraisal or project
formulation. Instead it gives ideas on how those designing and implementing
community forestry projects can enhance their work by more actively considering
If community forestry activities and programmes are to be successful they
have to be designed in a manner sensitive to the range of needs of women in mind.
In order to ensure that projects achieve their immediate purposes and their broader
socio-economic goals, and in order to maximize the economic returns on project
investment, those who design and implement projects will need to:

- see women;
-ask women the right questions;
-implement a process to include women.


r I /

Seeing women...

Women have been called "invisible labourers". Their work is often not counted in
formal labour statistics because:

-women's work is often home-based or within the "informal sector", such as
street vending;
-both women and men may deny that women "work" in some regions, due to
-much work is simply assumed to be done by men, such as farming and forestry,
and women's participation is overlooked.

Secondary sources, community observations, learning about local household
systems and using other disciplines besides forestry can all help make women


As much as possible, consult secondary data which show seasonal labour, resource
availability and support services for women and men.
Many times, however, this information will not be available at all and, if it is,
it is not disaggregated by gender. Recognition of the importance of this data is a
first step toward making it available and a first step in making women, their work
and needs, more visible.

Left: Hut construction in Senegal making use of natural materials


Driving, walking, or riding through an area in a leisurely manner with the outline
of a project in mind and some pertinent questions to consider can yield a great deal
of information.
Simply looking and knowing what to look for can give a project design team
a new view of women's roles within the community.


The first questions are: Who are the people? Who looks prosperous and who less
prosperous? What are women, men and children doing? Also, what institutions -
such as schools, religious buildings, health facilities and markets are visible?
Who works in these institutions men or women? and who uses them?


The project planner should observe: Who are the people? Who are in the fields?
What are the women doing? What natural resources are visible? What trees,
bushes, plants andflowers? And which of them seem to be close to the homestead?


If trees are in fields or around homes, which trees are they and what are their
functions? Were they planted, protected or just left there? If they were planted,
were they planted by seed, cutting, transplanted from elsewhere or seedlings
raised or purchased from a nursery?
Who in the family selected the trees, who planted them and who has the right
to fruit, leaves, branches? Who can cut the trees down? Who in the family has
control over land use decisions?


In designing a community forestry activity, the local systems and the respon-
sibilities and benefits for women and men within those systems will need to be
understood. Only then can one be aware of motives for and constraints to
participation by different community members.
Insights can also be gained regarding the possible effects of participation.

A rural family lives within a system composed of four basic parts:

-the household and its individual members
-the livestock and in some cases wildlife;
-the crops; and
-the natural vegetation including trees and forests.

These parts interact with one another and with the community at large. Asking
certain questions can help clarify each part and its relationship to women and trees.


The planner needs to know who makes up the household: husband, wife and
children? Husband, wives, grandparents and children? A woman and her child?
In many regions, the extended family makes a definition of "household"
difficult. In one area of Africa, the definition became "those people who eat from
the same pot" or "use the same cooking fire". Whatever the definition, it should
be used consistently by planners.
Female heads of household need to be counted. However, in many parts of the
world it is a matter of honour that a man be counted as head of household even
though he may be absent because of death, divorce, migration, or abandonment.
Different forms of living arrangements, monogamy, polyandry, consensual un-
ions and polygamy, have different implications for different family members
depending on age and gender.
A first wife may have privileges
of land tenure that the third wife does The planner needs to know who makes up the household
not have. An older woman often has
more freedom and decision making
power than does a woman of childbear-
ing age. A man may own a tree, but the
women may control its leaves or fruit.

Further questions: what household
tasks are performed for example,
provision of water andfuelwood, cook-
ing, child and health care and by
which members? Are the right persons
being asked for information?
Men, perceived as heads of house-

hold, are often interviewed for projects. In Haiti, many men identified no house-
hold problem in obtaining water or fodder. Only by interviewing their wives was
it learned the women walked five kilometres in search of both. In the hill areas of
Nepal, men are responsible for house and furniture construction that depend on one
species of tree. But women collecting fuelwood for cook stoves and fires depend
on two other species.3
Rural women are mainly responsible for health care and child care and may
depend, during dry seasons or periods of food scarcity, on food found in forests or
bush, or on fallow land.


Key questions here are: What livestock are kept and for what are they used? Are
they large or small animals? And why are they kept:for milk, eggs, dung, religious
reasons, status, bride wealth? Are wild animals used?
Taboos surrounding the use of animals and animal products are frequent. In
many areas, very little meat is eaten, especially by women, and parts of the animal,
even a chicken or fish, is relegated by gender, age and status. Among the Shona
in Zimbabwe, for example, cattle are used for manure, for ploughing, to enhance
male status and as payment to a bride's father. Seldom are cattle used for beef.4
In parts of Sudan, meat comes chiefly from wild game, antelope, elephant,
buffalo, lizards, rabbit and warthogs. Traps, spears, arrows and nets all are made
of tree products in one way or another.5
In parts of West Africa, farmers report earning more family income from
hunting wild rodents and small game
Who in the household has responsibility for livestock? that depend on the forests than from
crops. In Sierra Leone, women who
fish remark that there are fewer fish as
tree cover is removed and streams and
-. _ponds become silted.

It is important to discover who in the
household has responsibility for the
livestock. Do women and men have
control over different animals? Who
milks them and collects fodder and
dung? Who builds pens and what type
of material do they use? Who benefits
from the livestock and in what way? If

women are in charge, does the fodder need
to be available close to the household com-
pound? Who hunts, processes and benefits
from large game, small animals, insects
and fish?
Women frequently care for small live-
stock calves, chickens, rabbits while
men care for large animals. One reason is
that women may manage animals that stay
close to home while men may be more
mobile, going greater distances with the
herds for fodder and water. A papaya tree in Indonesia
When projects suggest stall feeding
instead of free ranging animals in order to protect the environment, someone must
add fodder and water collecting as well as stall cleaning to their daily tasks. In many
cases, cattle herding is the work of men or boys but these new chores are in the
woman's domain and must be added other daily chores.
Often in fishing communities men do marine fishing although women may
fish in streams and women smoke fish for sale.


Observe: What crops, both annual and perennial, are raised and how are they
used? Which are for sale and which are for hbme use? How are trees used to
manage soil, water, or wind in support of annual crop production? When trees are
introduced as crops whose land will be used? Will it change food or income
In many rural areas of the world, households have fruit trees -banana, mango,
coconut, jackfruit, breadfruit, papaya, guava, cashew, apples, berries near the
homestead and accessible to the woman.

Who in the household works with the crops? Who plants, who cooks and who
markets? Do men and women work with different crops?
Specific crops are often closely related to gender. In many parts of sub-
Saharan Africa, women are responsible for certain crops and have their own fields.
Often these are subsistence crops, such as cassava, millet, vegetables. Men are
more involved with cash crops, rice, coffee and tea.
However, at times both grow subsistence crops: in parts of Nigeria, for ex-
ample, women grow cassava and men concentrate on yams. If tree growing is

introduced, how will land and labour distribution be affected?
Even when crops are grown by women and men together, the tasks associated
with agriculture may be gender-specific. In Sri Lanka, both men and women are
active in agriculture. Men, however, are primarily responsible for land preparation
and chemical application, whereas women dominate in other tasks seeding,
transplanting, weeding, harvesting and processing.
When a tree plantation is introduced, therefore, women may have responsi-
bility for carrying water. When agroforestry is introduced, women may need to
spend extra time weeding around the trees.6
In one region of Colombia, women have few tasks in the field. However,
decisions on what to grow are often shared by men and women. This is because the
type of bean grown for export does not have the flavour or cooking characteristics
demanded by the farm woman, who is responsible for feeding hired agricultural
labour: if the food is not good, the labour does not come and the crops are not
Many decisions on harvesting or selling family or communal trees are
discussed at home although the men may present the decision in public meetings.
In a case study in Peru women complained that a meeting about selling community
owned trees was held with the men without prior information and warning.
Women felt it unfair that they were unable to take part in the decision making
process by discussing the issues with their husbands. This type of women's
informal participation in decision making is apt to be overlooked by outsiders.8


Questions here are: What areas of natural
vegetation are available and how are they used?
Is there communal land and what are the rules on
its use? Is there any forest reserve land and who
has access to which productsfrom this land? Are
there products that could benefit ruralfamilies if
made available?
Cbuld these areas be managed to provide
more benefits, especially to the poor, without
disadvantaging others? Who in the household
collects and uses these products?
Landless and land poor families everywhere
take advantage of forest and tree resources when
they are available. A study shows that farm

families in Northeast Thailand obtain
60% of their food from nearby forests.9 ,,.
In India, landless women often depend -
on government forests for food, fuel
and fodder for family use and for forest
products they sell.
For example, many women in
Madhya Pradesh generate income only
through forest harvesting of tendu
leaves, which are used in the produc-
tion of low cost cigarettes called bidi.
Previously, middlemen bought permits
to harvest these leaves, and harvesting
was done largely by women, who eared l
very little. A typical home garden in Southeast Asia
In 1988 the Forestry Department
of Madhya Pradesh took control of tendu harvesting and doubled the price paid for
harvesting the leaves. The Department also introduced quality controls that re-
jected broken leaves. The experiment paid off: thanks to the increase in leaf
quality, bidi manufacturers are willing to pay a prime price, which has doubled the
income of the women harvesters and made the Department an unexpected profit.

Further questions: What trees arefound on the farm and in household areas, who
has the rights to them and who actually uses them?
Are they used for fodder, medicines, fuelwood, food or soil, water or wind
management?Are they for household use or income-generation? Are they used to
provide shelter for animals, as building materials or to make household utensils?
A study in a rural area of Java where families have no access to forests -
showed 60% of the family food comes from home gardens (illustrated above) in
which trees play an integral role.10


Those who design forestry projects are accustomed to working within technical
disciplines: for example, forestry, agronomy and animal science. Many times
these disciplines focus on a product, such as timber or a specific crop, while the
interaction of the product and the rural people particularly women who use it
is given only secondary importance.

By involving other disciplines that
focus on this interaction, women can
be made more visible in the process of
S project design.


In Bangladesh, the economic and tech-
Sinical subtleties of a community for-
estry project were designed by an
economist and a forester. The socio-
Slogical issues were dealt with in a cur-
Ssory fashion, through a household
'". ", survey done by male interviewers with
Women must be consulted about forest projects male heads of households. In their
report, the project designers noted that
"the involvement of women in forestry is very limited".
In fact, unknown to the project designers, women's involvement in forestry
was substantial. So many problems resulted from this misunderstanding that the
project's mid-term evaluation team included an anthropologist to discover why
women's participation in forestry activities had not been forthcoming. The evalu-
ation team's report concluded that women should have been consulted during the
project design phase and recommended a series of immediate practical steps to
correct this "oversight"."


Designers of forestry projects should confer with women in particular so that their
perception of the food, fuel and fodder trees they depend upon can be used in
selecting species for tree nurseries.
The project should also identify the time of year when local food supplies are
most in deficit, and conduct a survey of local people's preference for food-bearing
trees that produce during that season. This approach could help women improve
the resource base from which they feed their families.'2


In Nepal, staff of a large reforestation project realized that women needed to be
trained as foresters and extension agents in order to provide information to other

rural women who were the primary users of the forests. Women had never been
trained in forestry before and only 5% of the women in Nepal are literate.
Nevertheless, through careful planning by educators and social scientists,
training facilities were revamped to accommodate women, taking into considera-
tion both the physical facilities and the cultural implications of including female


Legal studies can make visible gender differences in rights to use land and trees,
and can highlight the potential impact of proposed legal changes on different
groups. For instance, the Luo women in Kenya lost many of their traditional rights
to land when statutory law gave title only to male heads of households. Neverthe-
less, they retained exclusive rights to the nuts and fruits of trees which they
traditionally used, although not to the land on which the trees grew.14

^. '

* 1.


r. 6

Asking women the right questions

Once women and their roles, and uses of trees, are made visible, there remain some
specific questions to which only local women can give the answers:

- What do women already know about trees, their products and management?
- What problems are women experiencing in relation to trees resources?
- What constraints do women have in addressing these problems and how can the
project help women overcome these constraints?
- How can we find out what women know?
- How can women organize themselves?


Women can explain the uses of trees and the rationale behind traditional tree
management. This local knowledge is essential for designing new activities.
In Sierra Leone, women knew 31 uses of trees on fallow land and in forests
and knew what forest products would be produced in a particular fallow year -
men identified only eight different uses." In Zambia, it was noted that women
made oil from a local tree that foresters had never considered putting in a nursery.
In Thailand, women select different species of wood for cooking different items,
according to their different heating qualities. One type of wood with specific

Left: Where women are heads of households as here in the Andes they must take on
men's jobs as well as their own

burning qualities is considered essential by these women for processing good
quality silk.t6 In Cameroon, women use branches from trees that regenerate to
build animal corrals and fences. When these poles grow they form semi-permanent
"living fences" that are regularly pollarded, the branches being used for building
other fences, house construction or repair, basketry and fuelwood.


When scarcity is felt, women can often describe their problems, make proposals
to address these problems and act upon them, once constraints are removed.
In Burkina Faso, women spoke out against monoculture forestry plantation
projects. Although such plantations provided a source of wood for urban markets,
the women said, they also removed access to "useless bush" for neighboring
families and thus removed important sources of fuelwood, food and plant material.
The women asked for more multi-purpose trees as well as guaranteed access for
local residents.
In many rural areas, older women complain that they can no longer prepare
medicines because medicinal trees that were formerly available have been re-
moved. They can help identify and reintroduce these trees.
In India, halewood used by the lacquer industry is becoming increasingly
scarce, mainly because it is being indiscriminately cut for fuelwood. The forest
service has suggested the use of another species, but female artisans have found
it does not produce as fine a product. They have suggested an alternative solution:
protect the valued species when permits to cut fuelwood are given out."
Finally, in Sierra Leone, women speak of problems caused by heavy cutting
of trees: the loss of predators' high forest habitat has led to an increase in the
number of grain eating rodents, while fishing yields are down due to increased
silting of waterways. The women have called for the introduction of agroforestry
and rat control, rather than the woodlots proposed by project designers.'


A number of constraints are location specific but women can describe them if
asked. Some common constraints are: time, mobility, customs, lack of access to
land and lack of organization.


Being responsible for vari-
ous tasks both within and
outside the home, women
are forced to work a "double

How the work is divided (Africa, % of total labour in hours)
Men Women
5 N feeding family 95
90 hunting i 10
50 domestic stock 50
10 M fuel and water 90
40 marketing 60

Projects must be care- 10 M processing 90
ful that they do not add 20 storing 80
unduly to women's work- 20 M transporting 80
load. Some forestry proj- 40 harvesting 60
ects add to women's work 30 hoeing/weeding 70
50 planting 50
simply because watering planting
70 turning soil 30
and weeding are tradition- trng s
ally women's tasks. Where
women are busy, men may Men clear the land, turn the soil women do most of the rest
be able to plant and tend
trees that women have helped select, and will use and help manage.
In Guinea, women said they wanted projects to be joint efforts, involving both
men and women. They felt that men had more time to contribute and that men
would appreciate women's input more if it was an all-community effort.
Better organization can also reduce women's workloads. In Senegal, women
found that by organizing they were able to share tasks and find time to plant a
woodlot. Unesco has assisted by introducing donkey carts and grain mills.


Women in many societies have limited mobility. Most activities must be located
near the household so that women can carry out their household activities.
Customs also limit women's mobility: it is important to understand these customs
fully so that modifications can be made if necessary.
Women who go for training or work away from home must often travel in
pairs or in a group in order to gain family or community approval. In Nepal, the
election of women to serve on regional resource committees provided the legiti-
macy needed for them to travel.
In Sudan, a project overcame customs that secluded women by using women
extensionists and concentrating initially on activities that could be done inside the
family compound. In this way, women were able to produce seedlings in backyard
nurseries and eventually joined in planting woodlots.19


Customs regarding the use of trees are very location-specific. In an area of Kenya
where trees denote land ownership, women were forbidden to plant or cut trees
because land belonged only to men. A fuelwood project overcame this obstacle by
introducing shrubs and exotic trees not traditionally identified as denoting land
ownership. Thus, women were free to plant and cut these species. A second
approach was to present the issue through amusing plays that provoked village
discussions between men and women on how to solve the fuelwood problem.


Land use and tenure reflect status, inheritance patterns, family and community
structure, and national policy. Women may prize land close to home, but it may
be difficult for them to obtain. They may have only customary rights to land, or
they may be given land use only for dry season gardens. Where men have migrated,
women may be left with land to manage but no rights over changing land use. If
they have no assured land tenure they may not be interested in planting.
Projects must be careful to guard against land
distribution schemes which offer no assurance of
land use to women or take away their traditional
access to land. Some projects help women organ-
ize groups in order to negotiate for land over
which the group will have long-term use rights.


Information, training and education must be made
available to women at convenient times.
Women may not be able to attend meetings
during the day. Extension agents must therefore
hold sessions when women are free, perhaps after
the evening meal. It is also essential that the infor-
mation given is appropriate to the real conditions
they face. Women can often identify what they
want to learn and how.
In southern Burkina Faso, for instance,
women were asked at a formal meeting how they
wished to be involved in the management of a

previously closed forest reserve.
When they did not answer, they
were chided and told if they did not
speak up they would lose access to
all potential forest products. At this
point one woman rose and said,
"We are not familiar with what the
forest currently contains. We do
not know what your project has to
offer. We do not know the costs or
the benefits of participation. Once
we know these things, we tell you
what we wish to do."
In the informal discussions that Extension advice for Zambian women
followed, the women asked to go
into the reserve accompanied by the project staff to identify forest products
available for collecting or harvesting. They asked if the project could provide them
with market information on medical plants, fruits and nuts, and if they could learn
about machines for extracting honey.
In India, a project recommended that women adopt a particular silkworm that
produces a large quantity of silk. However, the women objected, saying that "it is
better to have a baby than to let these silkworms into your house"- the worms
needed to be fed every three hours both day and night.
As in all extension, messages from outside must be extremely carefully
tailored to the audience. A puppet show in Sudan that highlighted the advantages
of raising trees inspired women to ask for a piece of land from a rich landholder
and to request assistance in planting a multipurpose stand. In a village less than 10
km away the same puppet show caused only frustration: the villagers said that since
they were landless they could only plant trees if the project could provide land for
food crops as well as trees.


Project designers or implementors, particularly when they are solely men, may
have difficulty learning from village women. When questions are asked in public
meetings, men may respond even when the questions are addressed to women. It
is often inappropriate for a male outsider to talk alone with women.
There are a number of ways to help strengthen communications with local

women. Often older women can speak freely with men from outside the commu-
nity. Sometimes wives of school teachers or women social or health workers can
act as intermediaries between the project staff and shy women.
In taking a survey in Niger, young women and men worked in pairs and spoke
separately to the male and female family members at the same time so as to assure
that women were able to answer questions freely.
In Nepal, a female project designer insisted on having local women gather
data, despite warnings that they would never be able to work in villages away from
home. It proved much less difficult than expected to find women assistants once
it became apparent that this was essential to the work that had to be done. It was
found that the women were perfectly willing to speak with men from outside the
community, once they saw that the subject was of interest.20


Women frequently lack political power to ensure continuing services and access
to land, credit, decision making processes and the benefits of development. Fre-
quently, this power can be obtained only through organization.
Explore existing women's
groups and leadership, or NGOs
that work at the village level and
include women in their activities.
This may help identify existing
structures that can support com-
munity forestry.
In India, for example, a group
of landless women belonging to
the Self-Employed Women's Or-
ganization formed a milk coop-
erative and sought permission to
grow fodder trees on "wasteland".
Because it was supported by a
well-organized group, the coop-
erative was able to win access to

Protests by members of the Chipko
movement in India (at left) led to a 10-
year ban on tree felling in Uttar
SL 3 Pradesh state

the land and resisted attempts to expropriate the trees once they began to grow.
In central Nepal a village forest committee formed by women, successfully
modified legislation that sought to delegate forest management to the panchayat,
an administrative unit that includes many villages. The organized women argued
that management should have been in the hands of a sub-unit of the panchayat as
had been the tradition. This smaller unit was closer to the women and would allow
women to participate more fully.2'
Organized women in Kenya have raised funds to support large scale tree
planting and nursery development, while in India groups of women have helped
change legislation on forest harvesting by "hugging" trees, thereby drawing public
attention to economic and environmental problems caused by overexploitation.




Implementing a process

to include women

Once women's roles are visible and their knowledge about and dependence on tree
and forest products recognized, ways to design and implement community forestry
projects which include women become more apparent.


Generally, projects work best when they include women as an integral part of their
family or community group, while remaining sensitive to women's special needs
and resources. However, occasionally "women only" activities are needed. Ruth
Dixon has developed a list to help designers evaluate when a "women-only"
project may be required:22

-when there are strong taboos against unrelated males and females working
- where the effects of past discrimination need to be overcome;
-where many or most households are headed by women;
-where women specialize in tasks that could be made more productive with
outside help;
-where women request a measure of self-reliance to avoid conflict or competi-
tion with men.

Left: A reforestation project in China. Between 1949 and 1978, China's forested area
expanded from 5 to 12.7 percent of total land area

However, planning "women-only" activities may tend to isolate women and
threaten their access to resources that men control. "Women-only" activities and
projects can also be poorly funded and out of the mainstream of development
activities. Some forestry projects that have a great impact on the productive
resource base upon which women depend, deal only with men.
In some cases a component such as improved fuelwood stoves is added for
the sake of "including women". Care should always be taken to ensure that
additional activities that are seen as being of interest to women do enter their
priority areas of concern and do not exclude them from being considered in the
project's main activities.


The main goal of including women in project design, implementation, monitoring
and evaluation is to assure that they have access to benefits that they value and that
they are able to manage the resource base in a sustainable manner. It is of central
importance that any project ensures that those involved will, in fact, benefit.
Project designers have tended to believe that if the project benefits men,
then women will see it as a benefit to themselves through a "trickle over" effect.
This has frequently proven a faulty assumption. Women are short on time, land,
and money.
Participation in a commu-
nity forestry project may contrib-
Vw. ute to their burdens. Therefore,
the benefits they will reap must
be made very clear to them. Per-
ceived equitable distribution of
project benefits cannot be over-
estimated in analyzing participa-
tion and activity sustainability. It
is especially important to con-
sider needs of the women who
are in the poorest segment of the
villages, for whom forest re-
sources can be crucial. Two ques-

Women in Lesotho planting out sap-
__ .lings in a reforestation programme

tions need to be answered: What is the potential
impact of the project on women, and how can
benefits for women be encouraged? '-


Project planners and local women must com-
municate in a two-way process before the intro-
duction of a new technology, whether it be a
new tree species or a forest management plan.
Women will have important insights as to how
the technology may affect them.
The more clearly women's circumstances Sorti sli i Tl
are understood and reflected in the project's
design, and the more women are involved in the design process, the more positive
the impact of the project can be.
Gender analysis, by its very nature, demands interaction of the researcher,
women and men at the local level. Their interaction helps to strengthen the project
planning process and ensure that any planned activity is appropriate given local


Women, as well as men, respond to incentives larger production from annual
crops, multi-purpose trees providing needed products, a market for produce such
as fruit or wood poles, and potential for local employment. The incentive must,
however, reflect women's financial realities. For example, seed may be more cost
effective than seedlings.
Knowing about the control and use of cash within the family is crucial to
understanding who will benefit from project income. In some households, women
control their own money; in others, men control household funds. When the latter
is the case, women may want to pool funds or set up cooperatives in order to retain
control of income from their activities.
Women without legal rights to land have no collateral to offer to obtain loans
for equipment, seed, or fertilizer. When loans are necessary and women have no
collateral, other means for women to obtain credit must be found.


In summary, implementing a process to include women in project design includes
the following eight steps. In Restoring the balance: women and forest resources,
these steps were outlined for consideration in developing community forestry
programs. These should be reviewed by project designers as well as project
implementors to be sure their work will also help restore the balance.2

1. Explore gender issues through two-way communication with rural
women, recognizing that the needs of women and men may not be the same
and that the impact of projects on them may therefore be different.
2. Investigate customs, taboos and time constraints that women face:
knowledge and common sense can go a long way to overcoming these
3. Promote the role that women do and can play in forestry activities at
each level, and analyze the ways in which projects either include or exclude
4. Exchange information with individuals at every level, with local
women on forestry activities, with practitioners on involving women in
forestry, with policy makers on women's roles in forestry.
5. Support women's groups and encourage the formation of new ones that
help women gain access to decision making and the political process, and
strengthen women's support for one another.
6. Work together to provide access to land and trees recognizing custom-
ary and traditional women's holdings, ensuring women are included where
land is privatized, and seeking creative solutions for landless women.
7. Consult with women before introducing new technologies or species
ensuring that women's needs have been considered, and the impact of new
techniques or trees on women's lives have been evaluated.
8. Collaborate to make credit and income available to women either in-
dividually, or through women's groups.


The ideas presented here were developed by the People's Education and Develop-
ment Organisation (PEDO) in 1988. They were reported in an unpublished paper
by M. Sarin, C. Sharma, R. Khanna, I. Pathak and T. Vijayendra.24

Gaining the support of women...

There are many reasons why women do not participate: lack of time, lack of self-
confidence, lack of information, resistance by families, misunderstanding of project
goals. In a project in India, several ideas for increasing participation came from the
women themselves:

-Using folk or prayer songs and role plays to increase women's awareness about en-
vironmental problems make meetings more interesting.
-Organizing visits by groups of local women to successful environmental programs
to expose them to what can be done.
Ensuring that the timings fixed for meetings are convenient for women.
-Using only the local language in village meetings.
-Organizing leadership training programs for local women so that they can motivate
and mobilize other women.
-Organizing awareness generation camps for local women so that they can under-
stand the multiple impacts of environmental degradation on their lives.
-Providing information about forest laws and people's rights to reduce fear and
Assisting women in building their own organizations and understand the strengths
of collective action.
-Providing equal access to information as men and educating them about their rights.
Providing local women training in managing nurseries and raising plants in baskets.
-Training women in soil and water conservation techniques.

hM:~ 1

...and gaining the support of men

Men are often apprehensive about women's participation in forestry projects and
women find this apprehension an obstacle to their participation. In many of the areas
of the world, women have had few opportunities to participate in local affairs. In
programs and projects aimed at increasing women's participation in community
forestry one major obstacle can be the opposition of men. This same group of women
in Northern India suggested the following ways to reduce this opposition.

-Keep the men informed about the objectives of holding separate meetings with
women to reduce their apprehensions and to check the spread of wild rumours.
- Motivate men to support increased participation by women.
-Motivate men to share women's work burden so that they have more time to
participate in the program.
- Male staff members of the organization should set an example for the above by
sharing the work of women in their families.
-Ensure participation of both male and female staff members in village meetings.
-In each village meeting, discuss the reasons why women's participation in all group
work is so important.
-Repeatedly emphasize that no development is possible without equal participation
by men and women.
-Emphasize the fact that women face some special problems for which separate
meetings with women are necessary.

By considering selection and distribution of project benefits, how women can best
participate, and how to gain the support of men, the chances are increased for projects
to be successful. By giving women chances to gain confidence projects can increase
the future effectiveness of women's participation.
The increase in confidence was clear in this Indian project designed to reduce
fuelwood consumption through fuel efficient cook stoves called Chulhas. With the
confidence built through this project the women have moved from a project focusing
solely on stoves to one planning cooperative tree resource improvement and manage-
ment as well as disseminating stoves.
The evolution of this project was possible because the field workers, and the local
women themselves, gained the confidence of others and built self-confidence through
the leadership role they were given. This is described very clearly in the following
summary statement:
"The women who were trained as leaders had practically no opportunity to earn
income before they joined the Chulha program. Most of them were shy and apprehen-
sive about their ability to learn a new skill. But most of them needed an income
desperately and found the courage to step out of their secluded lives. All of them have
displayed improved levels of confidence, and the transformation in some of them has
been truly remarkable."


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The following charts are adapted from Annex IV of the World Bank Working
Paper Women andforestry: operational issues, by A,Molnar and G. Shreiber. The
charts identify planning issues, possible design features and information needs for
projects that include the following activities:

- private tree planting/farm forestry/agroforestry
- community woodlots/plantations
- watershed improvement/wasteland management
- forestry extension
- improved wood-burning devices

Women and forestry: operational issues is available free of charge from:
The Women in Development Division
Population and Human Resources Department, Room S9-127
The World Bank
1818 H Street NW

1. Private tree planting
Farm forestry

Planning issues to consider

Are women or men responsible for decisions on financial and labour investments
in, and management and utilization of, trees and family livestock? Are women or
men responsible for family fuel supply, for livestock fodder, for grazing animals?

Are women expected to water and tend seedlings that men raise in private nurseries
and trees that men have planted? Are women convinced of the utility of these
species, of their labour input into this work, and of the programme as a whole? Are
women's workloads likely to increase or are other women's tasks likely to be
curtailed or abandoned due to increased time needed for forestry work?

Do women want to plant different species (and at different locations) than men?
Do they have the right to decide what to plant and where (especially around the

Do seedlings of the species women want (e.g. fodder, fuel and fruit species) cost
more to produce than those men want?

Do women have rights to certain products, in certain quantities, and at certain times
from multi-purpose species, where men prefer other products?

Are there trade-offs in selecting products to be obtained from species planted, and
are some products more desired by men than by women and vice-versa?

Are there women's groups in the project area that could be utilized as facilitators?

Are there traditional women's work groups or women's labour pooling/sharing
arrangements in the targeted communities?

Are there female nursery workers?--

Do women have access to land for establishing private/cooperative nurseries?

Do women have access to water for operating private/cooperative nurseries?


1. Private tree planting
Farm forestry

Information needs and possible design features

Collect data on men's, women's, boys' and girls' time allocation in the household
and on the farm.

SEnsure targeted extension for women, and advise them how to reallocate their time.

Collect information on men's and women's species preference and on their tree/
forest product uses by species and season, and consult with men and women about
> the species to be raised for distribution/planting.

Can project nurseries produce sufficient quantities of the species wanted by men
and women?

If species wanted by women in large numbers have high production costs, not
enough of these are likely to be raised in nurseries for free or subsidized distribu-
Stion. Therefore, seedlings should be priced to cover production costs, or private
nurseries should be set up to produce the desired species.

Investigate women's rights to tree products.

SResearch tree management and harvesting practices that maximize yields of
different products from multi-purpose species.

Investigate the economics of species mixtures to accommodate men's and women's
needs, design extension messages accordingly, employ female motivators/exten-
sion staff, and train male extension staff regarding women's roles, needs and
potential contributions.

SInvolve women's groups in organizing planting and nursery establishment, seedling
distribution, extension and credit programmes.

> Utilize women's work groups for cooperative planting efforts so that women can
share the labour burden.

) Can they be provided with access to land, water, training and inputs to establish
and operate private/cooperative nurseries?

> If yes, can they be trained in nursery work/management and supported in setting up
private/cooperative nurseries? If no, can the project arrange to lease land?

> If not, can the project provide or arrange for a reliable source of water?

2. Community woodlots
Community forest plantations

Planning issues to consider

Do women collect products that are important to them (nuts, fruits, fuel shrubs,
fibres for local industries, grass) from the common property land that is to be
cleared and/or planted, and will they lose access to it?

Do women rely on this land as an important foraging area for their animals?

Will women have to spend more time on fodder collection for stall-feeding or on i
grazing their livestock at more distant locations?

Are women expected to switch to stall-feeding with fodder raised in initial
plantation years?

Will children have to help their mothers cope with a work load increased by having
to switch to stall-feeding of livestock and will this affect their attendance at school?

Do women and men differ on species to be grown in community plantations?

Are women likely to be the main labourers in plantation establishment?
What tools are comfortable and efficient for use by women? -

What is women's time availability over the seasons?
Does tree planting conflict with women's time requirements for other
essential activities?

Are women's groups active in the area?

Do women/women's groups express strong interest in first obtaining other critical
services/facilities (e.g. drinking water) before providing their labour or otherwise
cooperating in project operations?

S2. Community woodlots
Community forest plantations

Information needs and possible design features

SAscertain which products women collect, in what quantities and when. What are
these products used for? What income is generated? Which women depend on
these products?

Plan for management systems that yield benefits regularly (e.g. annual harvesting,
understory shrubs or legumes that can be cut more often; wider spacing of trees).

Two years before plantation establishment, plant live hedge fences that women can
lop for fodder and fuelwood.

P lant and harvest the area in blocks so women retain access to some of the area at
any given time.

H Provide targeted extension advice explaining the advantages of the new planting
and management system, so that women do not refuse to cooperate because they
perceive it to be too labour-intensive and/or impractical.

Introduce labour-saving devices for other household activities that ease demand for
children's labour.

H > Include a range of species that will meet the requirements of both men and women.

Plan for tools for pitting/land preparation work that can be used by women.

SAdjust planting techniques and schedules to meet labour constraints or choose
models that most easily fit these constraints.

SMobilize such groups to take an active role in community management decision
/ making.

Can project resources be allocated for providing such services/facilities in return
for obtaining the community's or women groups' voluntary labour and coopera-

S3. Watershed improvement
Wasteland management

Planning issues to consider

Are significant numbers of households without adult males (permanently or

Are there nomadic grazing groups where women are responsible for field and tree
crops since the men spend more time in herding?

Do women control specific aspects of the farming system (land-use patterns, cash/
subsistence crops, fodder crops, field boundary utilization, homestead planting,
small or large livestock, trees on homesteads/field boundaries)?

Do women and men collect/use different products from forests and grasslands
within the watershed?

Does the project plan to introduce stall-feeding or other improved, but for women
more time-consuming, land resource management practices?

Do different socio-economic groups use the same land areas?

Do women traditionally pool/share labour resources among households for work on
individual holdings?

Are there women's groups in the target area that could be used as facilitators?


3. Watershed improvement
Wasteland management

Information needs and possible design features

Evaluate if women are less able to take up land improvement activities due to
--_ labour constraints, lack of capital/credit, exclusion of desired species from pro-
L gramme.

Include women in training programmes regarding new practices.

See that women as well as men have access to inputs, extension advice and credit

Include women in training programmes regarding new practices.
Provide women with extension advice covering all aspects of the farming system
that they control.
SInterview women to ascertain how their preferences for types of trees, fodder,
legumes and grasses differ from those of men for various aspects of the local
farming system.
Discuss with women possible trade-offs between alternative strategies and credit
needs or incentives.

-- Evaluate collection patterns; identify existence of traditional conservation practices
(e.g. rotation) and/or harvesting techniques that are intended to preserve supply
over time.

Assess likely changes in family labour allocations. Is it possible to promote dairy
S development(market linkages?) to increase returns from improved livestock man-
agement in case women lose time available for other productive/income-generating

Assess variations in women's roles in these groups.

Investigate if women can be mobilized in groups to pool their labour for land
improvement activities on individual holdings.

Involve women's groups in facilitating extension and credit programmes for

4. Forestry extension

Planning issues to consider
Do the executing agencies have an interest in, or awareness of, women's issues?
Does the project provide for additional staff, and does the executing agency have
budgetary resources for this?

Is there a willingness to make a concerted effort to involve women, but there are no
women in upper levels of management?

Are project staff interested in, and experienced with, involving women?

Is women's mobility limited/constrained in the societies included in the project?

Are there differences in the public fora that men and women can attend, and differ-
ences in their leisure time?

Are there women's groups in the project area?


4. Forestry extension

Information needs and possible design features

SCarry out a study of women's roles in the prevailing household and farming
economy, of the time and labour contribution of each family member, and of
gender roles in forestry activities.

Use this study as basis for training courses for male and female extension staff on
ways to address women's needs, mobilize female resources, and include women's
perspectives in planning.

If the project includes training camps for farmers, hold special training camps for
N groups of women.
Recruit a cadre of female motivators and design a concrete programme of specific
messages they are expected to convey.

Recruit women at professional levels in the implementing agency and the extension
service to help design programmes and supervise other female staff.

Recruit/employ female extension staff at all field levels.

Give female motivators appropriate transport facilities (or travel funds) to cover
N their extension area as effectively as male staff.
Deploy female extension staff in pairs if socially necessary.
Assign to female staff working areas that they can realistically cover, given their
degree of mobility.

Ensure that extension activities film showings, group discussions, etc. are held
at times women can attend and in fora where it is socially acceptable for women to
come (local markets are one possibility).

Involve women's groups in extension delivery.

5. Improved wood-burning devices

40 [ ....
Planning issues to consider

How often do women cook and for what periods of time during day and evening?

What other activities do women undertake at the same time?

What fuels are used? What mixtures of fuels? How are these prepared?

Are stoves used for heating, for cooking, or for heating and cooking?

What kinds of food are prepared, and what are the cooking conditions required for
their preparation?

Do women perceive cooking fuel to have a "cost" in terms of labour and cash and
do they, therefore, perceive a value in the "savings" from improved stoves?

Is the time required to cook with the new device acceptable to women users?

Are there artisans or entrepreneurs in the project who could reproduce the model

What variation is there in the quality of raw materials (clay, mud, bricks, etc.) used
to make the new devices?

I5. Improved wood-burning devices

Information needs and possible design features

SMake sure improved models are adapted to local use and maintenance capabilities.

SMake sure stove size, height and capacity are appropriate to women's cooking
patterns and other activities that are carried out at the same time.

Evaluate the cost efficiency of the improved device under local conditions, with
women cooking normal types of meals and for different sizes of household, using
available fuels in normal mixtures.

SBudget for adequate training and follow-up, including the required number of
trained promoters.

Prepare to modify designs if project monitoring reveals unexpected problems.

Make sure the stove can be easily cleaned by women if this is necessary.

SInvestigate cooking pattern changes that lead to fuel saving without disrupting
women's schedules.

Make sure the programme maintains a supply line for the devices, including re-
placement parts and adequate raw materials (if the device is low-cost and of local
materials it may have a short lifespan).

Develop plans at the outset to make the intervention sustainable. Provide extension
and training to potential private producers and marketers of the device.
Evaluate the marketability of the device.

Obtaining information

Available data

Quick surveys

Special studies


Private tree planting
Farm forestry,

* types of trees preferred
and raised, locations, tree/
forest products desired by
household members
* access of men and women
to extension media/services

* relative decision making
roles and responsibilities in
farm/household activities
* sources of household cash
income, and spending pat-
terns of men's andwomen's
* mens/women's knowl-
edge of, skills in tree and
fodder growing and collec-

* Mens/womens/children's
relative time allocation in
household/farm activities
* number/percentage of
households without adult
males in the project area
* fuel/fodder collection
patterns and impact on for-
est and rangeland resources
* sources of cash income of
households with different
socio-economic character-
istics in project area, and
spending patterns of mens/
women's cash incomes
* gender-specific differ-
ences in existing land rights

Community woodlots
Community plantations

* reports/monitoring data
from other projects in the
area may describe women's
current roles
* survey data on family farm/
household division of labour
and school enrolment rates
by age/ gender

* visit local NGOs and re-
search institutions that fo-
cus on these issues
* interview female planta-
tion and nursery workers
about their household re-
sponsibilities and practices
and time/labour allocation
* After a community meet-
ing, talk to a group of women
about their activities
* interview women commu-
nity "leaders" at home

* monitor project benefits to
women, to facilitate design
* study forestry sector and
women, forest-based indus-
tries, rural energy, livestock
management, and issues
where information is scarce
and a problem may exist

Obtaining information

Watershed improvement
Wasteland management

* reports/monitoring data
from other projects in the
area may describe women's
current roles
* survey dataon family farm/
household division of labour
and school enrolment rates
by age/ gender

* labour availability (male
and female separately) in
households of different so-
cio-economic status, includ-
ing specifically female-
headed households and
migrant households, with
special regard to labour re-
quired for recommended
land management practices

Forestry extension

* documents in country or
project areas (e.g. M&E
reports, studies)
* ethnographic studies of
project area to identify
kinds of women with influ-
ence/ mobility and gender
roles in decision making

* local women leaders and
members of local women's
organizations, political fora
for women
* NGOs in the project area
with experience working
with women

Improved wood-
burning devices

* experience with other
stove programmes
* studies on the experience
of other programmes in the
project area
* government agencies or
NGOs with experience in
these areas

* cost efficiency of the im-
proved stoves under local
conditions with women
preparing their usual meals
with commonly available
and used fuels for differ-
ent socio-economic groups
* time required to cook tra-
ditional meals with the new

* economics of land use in-
terventions from farmer's
perspective, with site-spe-
cific economic analysis of
farmers' perceived opportu-
nity cost of labour, under-
employment and farmers'
perceptions of returns
* prevailing uses of private/
common land for grazing,
fuel/fodder supply, supply
of minor forest products,
exercising areaforcattle, etc.
* access to credit facilities
and capital for men and
women of different socio-
economic status

* review informal women's
work groups or organiz-
ations that could be
mobilized in the project

* research on better kitchen
management techniques
* research on fuel savings
using different (including
traditional as well as newly
recommended) mixtures/
combinations of various
traditionally and newly
available fuels

--- 43


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