The Director-General's program of work and budget for 1992-93

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The Director-General's program of work and budget for 1992-93
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C 91/3
July 1991
Twenty-sixth session
9-28 November 1991

The Director-General's






Rome, 1991


DIRECTOR-GENERAL'S INTRODUCTION ......................... i

GUIDE TO THE DOCUMENT .................. ............... 1

STRUCTURE OF THE DOCUMENT .......................... 3
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ............. ........ 13


PROGRAMME FRAMEWORK ................................ 21

General 23
Overview of Major Proposals 24
Global Priorities and Areas of Increased Resources 24
Areas of Reduced Resources 28
Changes in Resources in Substantive Programmes 29

BUDGET FRAMEWORK .................................... 33

Analysis of the Budget by Organizational Unit 35
Posts and Other Means of Action 38
Organizational Change 43
Cost Increases 44

PROGRAMME BUDGET .................................... 61

INTRODUCTION ...........................................65


MAJOR PROGRAMME 1.1: GOVERNING BODIES ................. 70
Programme 1.1.1: Conference and Council 70
Programme 1.1.2: Conference Services 71

Programme 1.2.1: Director-General's Office 73
Programme 1.2.2: Programme Planning, Budgeting and Evaluation 74
Programme 1.2.3: Audit 75

MAJOR PROGRAMME 1.3: LEGAL ........................ 77

MAJOR PROGRAMME 1.4: LIAISON ...................... 80
Programme 1.4.1: External Relations and Coordination 80
Programme 1.4.2: Liaison and Protocol 84


MAJOR PROGRAMME 2.1: AGRICULTURE .................. 88
Programme 2.1.1: Natural Resources 88
Programme 2.1.2: Crops- 99
Programme 2.1.3: Livestock 115
Programme 2.1.4: Research and Technology Development 124
Programme 2.1.5: Rural Development 138
Programme 2.1.6: Nutrition 151
Programme 2.1.7: Food and Agricultural Information and Analysis 160
Programme 2.1.8: Food and Agricultural Policy 168
Programme 2.1.9: Programme Management 177

MAJOR PROGRAMME 2.2: FISHERIES ..................... 179
Programme 2.2.1: Fisheries Information 179
Programme 2.2.2: Fisheries Exploitation and Utilization 183
Programme 2.2.3: Fisheries Policy 191
Programme 2.2.9: Programme Management 198

MAJOR PROGRAMME 2.3: FORESTRY ...................... 199
Programme 2.3.1: Forest Resources and Environment 201
Programme 2.3.2: Forest Products 209
Programme 2.3.3: Forest Investment and Institutions 214
Programme 2.3.9: Programme Management 220


DEVELOPMENT ................ 224

MAJOR PROGRAMME 3.2: INVESTMENT .................... 228

Programme 3.2.1: FAO/World Bank Cooperative Programme (CP) 230
Programme 3.2.2: Investment Support Programme (ISP) 231
Programme 3.2.9: Programme Management 231




CHAPTER 5: SUPPORT SERVICES ......................... 247

DOCUMENTATION ............... 248
Programme 5.1.1: Public Information 248
Programme 5.1.2: Library 250
Programme 5.1.3: Publications 252

Programme 5.2.1: Administrative Services 255
Programme 5.2.2: Financial Services 257
Programme 5.2.3: Computer Services 259
Programme 5.2.4: Personnel Services 260


CHAPTER 6: COMMON SERVICES ........................... 265

CHAPTER 7: CONTINGENCIES ............................ 267



ANNEX I Regional Tables

ANNEX II Summary by Organizational Unit and Budget Component

ANNEX III FAO Salary and Post Adjustment Schedules

ANNEX IV Establishment, Grading-and Codification of Posts

ANNEX V Organigrams

ANNEX VI List of Publications, Main Documents and Major Working Papers

ANNEX VII Scheduled Sessions

ANNEX VIII Miscellaneous Tables


I have the honour to submit to the
Conference my proposals for the
Programme of Work and Budget for

As recommended by the Ninety-ninth
Session of the Council, these proposals
build on the Summary Programme of Work
and Budget and the Council's reaction to
it. More generally, they follow on an
intensive process of intergovernmental
consultations, which started in January of
this year with the Joint Meeting of the
Programme and Finance Committees which
considered the Outline Programme of
Work and Budget. The advice of the
technical committees of the Council, i.e.
the Committee on Fisheries and the
Committee on Agriculture, was also sought
at their scheduled 1991 sessions on those
aspects of the proposals in the Summary of
relevance to them. The Summary
Programme of Work and Budget was then
reviewed by the Programme and Finance
Committees in May 1991 and by the
Council in June.

Programme budget process

This is the second time that the biennial
programme budget formulation process is
distinguished by the supplementary step of
an Outline Programme of Work and
Budget. This procedure was introduced by
the Council on an experimental basis for
the preparation of the Programme of Work
and Budget for the 1990-91 bienniwn and
has been continued by the Conference for
the 1992-93 budgetary exercise.

Opinion among Member Nations on the
merits of this additional procedure

continues to be divided. It will be up to
the Conference to take a definitive stand
on the issue. To facilitate the
Conference's consideration of it, I am
submitting to the Programme and Finance
Committees, at their September 1991
sessions, an analysis of the whole-
programme budget process, together with
suggested options for change in the future.
The advice of the Programme and Finance
Committees on the matter will be available
to the Conference, through the Council.

Links with other documents presented to
the Conference

The present budgetary proposals are
submitted along with a Medium-term Plan
for 1992-97, as decided by the Twenty-fifth
Session of the FAO Conference. The
format of the Programme of Work and
Budget document has been revised
accordingly, in order to avoid duplication
between the two documents. This
document concentrates on the activities for
1992-93, which are proposed in the
context of the general policy orientations,
programme priorities and objectives
outlined in the Plan. As in the past, the
Conference will have before it the Reviews
of the Regular and Field Programmes to
assess the Organization's activities in the
preceding biennium. This phalanx of
major complementary documents will
provide a strong basis for assessing this
Programme of Work and Budget.

External context

I shall not refer here to the prospects and
challenges, as well as the many immediate
problems facing world food and


agriculture, and FAO's role in relation to
them. These are fully covered in the
Medium-term Plan.

Rather, I would stress that when the
Summary Programme of Work and Budget
was sent to press a few months ago, the
echoes of war and civil disturbance were
still ringing in our ears. At the time of
writing the present document, while news
headlines continue to jump from one crisis
to another, there are also optimistic
reports on summits aimed at increased
dialogue among countries and concerted
action on matters of major international
interest. Among other things, there is still
hope that the Uruguay Round of
Multilateral Trade Negotiations can have.
a positive outcome. The UN system is
actively engaged on an ever-wider front in
peace-keeping and emergency assistance
operations. We may only hope that these
signs of renewed international cooperation
through the UN system'will bear lasting

This is not to say that the world has
suddenly freed itself from traditional
scourges such as famine looming large in
several African countries; civil strife in
many regions even in what was
considered perhaps too hastily "peaceful
Europe"; and natural disasters -from
cyclones to volcanic eruptions and heavy
floods, causing massive loss of life and
severe damage to agricultural production.
FAO has played, and will continue to play,
its part in assisting affected populations,
within its mandate and the limits of
available resources.

Internal context

I -deeply regret that I cannot as yet
announce to the Conference the end of the
protracted period of financial difficulties
experienced by FAO over almost three
biennia. The financial situation was

reviewed by the Council at its June 1991
session and remains a major

With totally depleted reserves, each month
we await payments of contributions to
assess our cash flow position and eventual
borrowing requirements, in order to
implement the Programme of Work
approved by the Conference. I cannot
stress enough the damage to the
Organization's programmes and staff
Until we return to a normal pattern of
payment of assessed contributions for the
current year and until all arrears due are
cleared by the concerned governments, the
hand-to-mouth existence imposed on this
Organization will continue to have all the
negative implications on the services: it
renders to its Member Nations.


The Outline Programme of Work and
Budget which I submitted to the Joint
Meeting of the Programme and Finance
Committees in January 1991 contained a
proposed real programme increase of
US$ 2 250 000, i.e. 0.34 percent of the
recosted budget base. This was only a
symbolic increase -far below what I would
have wished to propose as- a recovery
budget for the Organization. Nevertheless,
as it was apparent from the Committees'
discussions that consensus could be
achieved only on the basis of a budget with
no growth, I indicated to them my
readiness to refine the proposals on the
basis of no real programme increase while
respecting the programme priorities which
they had endorsed.

The Committees reached a consensus in
recommending that Iprepare the Summary
Programme of Work and Budget for
1992-93 on the basis of no real
programme increase, and that cost
increases be contained to the maximum

- ii -

extent possible while providing for the
requirements for the implementation of the
Programme of Work approved by the
Conference. The Summary Programme of
Work and Budget submitted to the Ninety-
ninth Session of the Council was prepared
on that basis. The Council was satisfied
that the Summary responded to the
recommendation of the Committees and
invited me to finalize my proposals for the
full Programme of Work and Budget on the
basis of the Summary and its reactions, to

As endorsed by the Council, the major
priorities and areas of increased resources
comprise environment and sustainable
development, agricultural data
development, women-in-development,
policy advice, the Technical Cooperation
Programme, the International Conference
on Nutrition, forestry especially support
to the Tropical Forestry Action
Programme, strengthening of country
representations and enhanced coordination
with other international organizations and
cooperation with NGOs. I am also making
some proposals regarding the process for
the allocation of TCP resources.

In order to remain within the no-growth
constraint, I am proposing areas of
substantially reduced resources, notably
for the Regional Offices, for administrative
and support areas and a range of technical
and economic programmes.

Financial framework

One of the most important financial
aspects of every Programme of Work and
Budget relates to the provision for cost
increases. At the time the Outline and
Summary Programme of Work and Budget
were prepared, the estimate for cost
increases, based on the established
methodology approved by FAO Governing
Bodies, stood at US$ 87 million. This

estimate gave rise to some concerns at the
Council, especially regarding the impact
on the overall budget level and on
resulting levels of assessed contributions
on Member Nations. I am particularly
pleased to report now that in the light of
updated information, we have been able to
trim down this amount to US$ 83 million.

I emphasize that a great part of these cost
increases relate to decisions already taken
or known. Estimates for cost increases ii
past Programmes of Work and Budget
have tended to err on the conservative
side, bringing in their wake enforced
programme cuts to the detriment of the
approved work programme. In -fact,
again, I am taking the deliberate risk of
not requesting necessary provision for the
coverage of a number of items, the cost of
which we know with certainty will have to
be absorbed in the next biennium.

Another important aspect is the Italian
Lira/US Dollar rate of exchange. Clearly,
this rate can move in either direction
between 'the time of writing and the time
the Conference will .vote on the
Appropriations Resolution. Nevertheless,
current rates are above the budget rate of
Italian Lire 1 335 to US$ 1 adopted by the
Conference in November 1989, and should
these rates continue up to November 1991
the exchange rate will have no impact on
the total budget level or could perhaps
even mean a slight reduction.


Approval of the Programme of Work and
Budget is a constitutional prerogative and
one of the most significant decisions of the
Conference. I have done everything in my
power to submit a realistic package of
proposals, bearing in mind the cumulative
guidance received from all concerned
bodies, the restraint which is essential at
a time when many Member Nations have

difficulties in meeting their obligations and
the calls placed on FAO to act now and in
- the future on problems of interest to all
Member Nations.

FAO needs the renewed expression of
unanimous support from its membership.

I venture to hope that the proposals for the
1992-93 biennium will receive the
consensus approval which all Member
Nations desire as I do.

Edouard Saouma

- iv -


13. The proposals for the 1992-93 biennium are to be seen in conjunction with and in
the context of the overall perspective provided in the Medium-term Plan (MTP). The
selection of major actions and detailed activities listed in the Programme of Work and Budget
document is fully consistent with the proposed priorities exposed in the MTP.

14. These actions and detailed activities respond to the directives and guidance from
FAO's Governing and Advisory Bodies, at their past and most recent sessions. They are also
responsive, to the extent feasible at times of budgetary restraint, to the external calls from
other intergovernmental bodies.

15. The proposals have been formulated on the basis of the guidelines on priority-setting
endorsed by the Conference, namely:

articulation and justification of the problem to be addressed by FAO;

evidence of FAO's comparative advantage in the problem/sector to which
priority is given;

benefit of the priority activity to a broad segment of FAO's membership;

compatibility of the priority activity with the recognized roles of FAO; and

complementarity with other priorities.

16. Accordingly, the proposals formulated by all FAO units have been sifted through
an intensive process of internal review and appraisal, from the level of respective units to
organization-wide senior management meetings convened by the Director-General.

17. These proposals have been subsequently refined in the light of:

updated programme contexts or evolving situations, i.e. emergencies and
new requests for assistance;

the guidance provided by the Committee on Fisheries, the Committee on
Agriculture, the Programme and Finance Committees and Council where the
latter bodies considered them in summary form; and

such operational and practical considerations as the likely availability of
extra-budgetary support, indications of firm commitment from governmental
authorities where required, for example, in hosting meetings, or renewed
assessments of the capacity of existing staff resources to cope with ever-
expanding workloads.

Page 23

18. This process is greatly facilitated by progress in computerization, which permits
quantification of resources in relation to planned outputs and more accurate identification of
needed shifts.

Overview of Major Proposals

19. As mentioned in the Director-General's Introduction, the proposals in this
Programme of Work and Budget do not involve any overall real growth. They are the result
of hard choices and rigorous selection among a greater number of possible actions. Overall
budgetary restraint does not permit the funding of even favoured programme priorities at
optimal levels and entails the curtailment of several activities which are otherwise well-
supported by Member Nations.

20. The proposals are, therefore, very much the reflection of a zero-sum game, whereby
pluses need to be compensated by minuses elsewhere. The eventually increased or decreased
budgetary allocations, coupled with the details of planned activities, are given in the
Programme Budget. However, it must be emphasized that the figures of net changes at
various levels, i.e. Chapters, Major Programmes, Programmes, Sub-programmes and
Programme Elements, are only the budgetary reflection of more complex programming and
managerial effort.

21. In order to facilitate its consideration by the Conference, the main policy choices
embodied in this Programme of Work and Budget are summarized below.

Global Priorities and Areas of Increased Resources

* Environment and Sustainable Development

22. The priority to be given to environment and sustainable development was specifically
highlighted in the instructions issued by the Director-General to programme managers for the
preparation of their submissions to the Outline Programme of Work and Budget. Meetings
of the Interdepartmental Working Group and the Steering Committee were specifically held
to examine Programme of Work and Budget proposals. The need for FAO not only to
participate fully in the preparatory process to the United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development (UNCED) but also to ensure adequate follow-up to this crucial event, will
be of paramount importance during the 1992-93 biennium. The proposals in this area involve
on the one hand strengthening the coordinating unit dealing with these subjects under the
authority of the Special Adviser to the Director-General, and on the other, expanded support
to pertinent cross-sectoral activities throughout FAO. These actions require a net increase
of US$ 1.5 million. Part of the increase is to support cross-sectoral actions particularly in
the-following areas:

integration of environment and sustainability in FAO's policy advice and
planning assistance;
biological diversity;
climate change;

Page 24

combatting desertification;
integrated coastal zone management; and

23. In addition, a number of units are planning to strengthen their activities related to
sustainable development: e.g. the Land and Water Development Division through the
proposed Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural Development Sub-
programme; the Human Resources Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division
through work on environmental education and training Sub-programme; the
Policy Analysis Division through increased attention to sustainability concerns in policy
advice and continued work on environmental accounting; the Statistics Division through
expanded coverage of environmental data and statistics.

* Agricultural Data Development

24. Action in 1992-93 will build primarily on the WAICENT (World Agricultural
Information Centre) project, after the considerable investment in conceptual and technical
design work which has already taken place in the past and present biennia. WAICENT is
an organization-wide undertaking which involves virtually all the FAO units which assemble,
process or generate data including the Fisheries and Forestry Departments although the bulk
of the needed additional resources, US$ 1.4 million, is proposed to be provided through the
Statistics Division (ESS). Moreover, there are other actions planned-in 1992-93 to enhance
FAO's role of world assembler and disseminator of information, e.g: strengthened work on
aquaculture statistics Sub-programme, environmental data.(as mentioned above),
enhanced in-house capacity for crop assessment in the Global Information and Early Warning
System (GIEWS) Sub-programme, as well as expanding applications of Geographic
Information Systems (GIS), for instance in land use planning, coastal area management and
fisheries management, forest management, etc..


25. The focus is on the implementation of FAO's Plan of Action for the Integration of
Women in Agricultural and Rural Development, through further activities on training, policy
and planning advice, project development, etc.. A limited increase is proposed for the
.relevant unit in the Economic and Social Policy Department Sub-programme, which
is matched by higher allocations, where required, in other concerned "sectoral" units, e.g.
in the Fisheries Department Sub-programme

Policy Advice

26. The provision of policy advisory services to Member Nations involves a number of
units, especially the Policy Analysis Division; It is proposed to build on a number of actions
which are being implemented in the 1990-91 biennium, to strengthen FAO's capacity to
provide policy advice to Member Nations. This includes set-up of coordinating committees,
establishment of supportive information systems, etc. Additional resources and staff are
proposed for the ESP Division, with due attention to its geographical focus. Sub-sectoral
policy advice (fisheries, forestry, use of inputs, etc.) will continue to be provided by the
concerned units within a more integrated framework.

Page 25

* Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP)

27. Conference Resolution 9/89 on Increase in Allocation for the Technical Cooperation
Programme in forthcoming biennia: "invites the Director-General to make every effort in
order to restore the resources available to TCP to the former level of 14 percent of the total
Regular Programme budget and, if possible, to raise it to 17 percent."

28. Beneficiary countries are deeply attached to the prompt and effective assistance TCP
projects provide them. All Member Nations recognize TCP's value and special role in
FAO's developmental action. However, differing perceptions continue to surface during
intergovernmental discussions on the desirable level of the TCP appropriation in relation to
the overall budget.

29. It is thus proposed to meet, in a limited way, the expectations embodied in
Conference Resolution 9/89, through a net programme increase for the TCP of US$ 4 mill-
ion. The percentage of the TCP appropriation to the total approved budget for the biennium
1990-91 is 11.9 percent and the proposed programme increase of US$ 4 million would take
this up to 12.6 percent. However, following the-addition of cost increases, which are less
severe on TCP versus other categories (e.g. Rome salaries), the percentage of the TCP
appropriation to the proposed Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93 will remain at
11.9 percent. This percentage may be affected by the budget rate adopted by the Conference
in November 1991.

30. Leaving aside the issue of "percentage", the proposals mean that the greatest net
increase is assigned to the TCP.

International Conference on Nutrition

31. This Conference, convened under the joint auspices of FAO and WHO, is due to
be held at the end of 1992. Substantial costs will.need to be borne by the two co-sponsoring
organizations for the preparations, organization and follow-up to the Conference. Calls have
been made to donor governments to provide significant extra-budgetary contributions,
particularly for country-level activities. To the maximum extent possible, some of the
additional costs linked to the Conference will be absorbed within existing allocations,
especially of the Nutrition Division, as explained in the narratives under Programme 2.1.6.
SHowever, this division needs to cater for other well-established priorities such as work on
food standards, advice on food control, etc., which cannot be compressed and, in some
cases, even deserve further strengthening. It is, therefore, necessary to provide a net
increase of US$ 1 million.


32. Consistent and pressing calls have been made-on the Organization to give "positive"
discrimination to its forestry activities. This was the case, not only within the Committee
on Forestry at its last sessions, but also at recent meetings of the Programme Committee and
the Council. A net programme increase of some US$ 436 000 is proposed for the Forestry
Department. This is, inter alia, to meet increased backstopping requirements for the
implementation of the Tropical Forestry Action Programme and other priority areas of the

Page 26

Forestry Department, such as work on forest protection, forest sector analysis and the
coverage of forestry aspects in any eventual legal instruments with implications for forestry.
Some reduced provisions in the Regional Offices result in a net increase of US$ 125 000
under Major Programme 2.3, Forestry.

33. The priority given to the TFAP should not be seen only in terms of these, by any
measure, modest figures. An overview of what the overall priority on TFAP effectively
entails in terms of commitments of staff time and other resources, which extend far beyond
the Regular Budget is provided at the beginning of the narrative for Major Programme 2.3,

9 Country Representations

34. The further strengthening of FAO's country representations (FAORs) is proposed.
As underlined during and at the conclusion of the Review of FAO, the FAORs provide the
most direct and effective link between FAO and its developing Member Nations and ensure
that FAO's developmental actions achieve maximum impact. FAO's presence in Member
Nations takes added significance in a context-of growing national execution and in the light
of requirements for more versatile and sophisticated assistance and advisory services from
Specialized Agencies like FAO. The consolidation and modernization of the FAORs was,
therefore, one of the key recommendations stemming from the FAO Review. In order to
build on past and ongoing progress, a net increase of US$ 2.7 million is proposed for
1992-93, without adding to the number of offices so far authorized by the FAO Conference.

Enhanced Coordination with Other International
Organizations and Cooperation with NGOs

35. As emphasized in the Medium-term Plan, the problems the UN system has to
address are increasingly of a global and intersectoral nature and thus require sustained
coordination efforts. Coordination with other organizations is also assuming greater
importance as a number of key regional intergovernmental organizations -develop their
programmes. International non-governmental organizations are, in many instances, becoming
active protagonists on the development scene. The Office for Inter-Agency Affairs (IAA)
has been the focal point for relations and policy coordination with such external bodies. It
needs to strengthen its capacity to maintain close contacts with a vast array of institutions and
follow their activities.

36. Hitherto, responsibility for liaison and collaboration with the non-governmental
(NGO) sector has been spread among several units, including IAA and the Freedom from
Hunger Campaign/Action for Development unit, formerly DDA. There is a need to establish
a consolidated focal point within the Organization with responsibility for coordinating and
encouraging further cooperative activities with the NGO sector and maintaining contacts at
the policy level. FAO was a pioneer in the UN system in recognizing the importance of
NGOs from the early sixties, when the Freedofn from Hunger Campaign was established,
and has a wealth of experience on which to expand cooperative links with NGOs, both
national and international from the North and the South.

Page 27

37. It is, therefore, proposed to merge the former IAA and DDA units into a
consolidated Office for External Relations (OER), and increase its staff strength to cope.with
an expanding volume of representational, substantive and information-gathering activities.

Areas of Reduced Resources

G Regional Offices

38. Although the FAO Country and Regional Offices perform truly complementary roles
in a coherent policy of decentralization, overall budgetary constraints make it necessary to
reduce the allocations for the Regional Offices. This is proposed with great reluctance as
Member Nations strongly appreciate the-essential contribution of FAO's Regional Offices to
facilitate inter-country cooperation in FAO's fields of competence, particularly at a time
when there is sustained and even exponential growth of regional and sub-regional integration
and collaboration initiatives. As pointed out during the Ninety-ninth Session of the Council,
in the specific case of REUR/JEUR, this means a net loss of sources of support and contact
for the region as a whole,.since this region is essentially unaffected by country offices.- The
net reductions in the provisions for Regional Offices will regrettably involve a reduced
capacity from these offices to carry out their traditional activities of support to technical
cooperation networks, servicing of regional meetings, assistance to regional projects and
initiatives and other substantive outputs- of regional or sub-regional interest.

Administrative and Support Areas

39. FAO is able to benefit from the generous offer of the Host Government to cover the
rent of those premises which the Organization is still forced to obtain from the commercial
market; hence the proposed reduction under Chapter 6, Common Services. However, it is
not possible to reduce the provision by the total amount of the rent, in view of the need to
meet the cost of some necessary maintenance and renovation work, which has been delayed
over several biennia in view of FAO's financial situation, but which cannot be postponed any
longer. The Headquarters premises and some key installations thereof, have indeed reached
the stage of potential breakdown or unacceptable standards, as well as the need to incur
excessive maintenance costs if not renovated.

40. In addition, it- has proved possible to eliminate a number of posts in the
Administrative Services Division and the Publications Division. Furthermore, real savings
in the cost of producing publications are anticipated as a result of a long-term programme
of modernization which is starting to take effect.

Selected Technical and Economic Programmes

41. For the sake of freeing resources to other areas, the proposals also include several
deliberate actions to reduce existing resource levels. Prominent examples are: reduction in
the provision for the Andr6 Mayer Fellowships Sub-programme; suspension of the
Professional Training for Agricultural Development Programme, hitherto used to provide
training in agricultural development at FAO Headquarters for a small number of officials
from Member Nations on short secondment periods Programme 5.2.4; reduction in the

Page 28

provision for FAO's Investment Centre, stemming inter alia from the merger of the present
three services of the Investment Support Programme (ISP) into two Major Programme 3.2;
reduction of the Regular Programme support to the FIAC (Fertilizer Industry Advisory
Committee) which is proposed to be met from extra-budgetary contributions Sub-
programme; etc..

42. Many technical and economic programmes are, therefore, subject- to reduced
resources, as evidenced by a number of reductions at the levels of individual programmes,
sub-programmes and programme elements. The self-evident limitations to future action as
a result of reduced resource levels in these areas cannot be negated. They will entail less
substantive outputs and services from FAO and, therefore, unmet demands in Member
Nations. Nevertheless, efforts have been made to preserve the impact of the most valued

Changes in Resources in Substantive Programmes

43. The following table gives consolidated statistical information on resource shifts and
changes within programme elements under Chapter 2.

Page 29

People's Participation. Contacts will be expanded with NGOs, rural workers organizations
and potential donors. National and sub-regional training activities and round tables for policy
formulation and programme development for people's participation and rural organizations
will be held in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Near East. Assistance to individual
countries will also be provided, in combination with the production of guidelines and
manuals. Two main documents will be produced: FAO's experience in group-based rural
development; and successful rural cooperative development. Working documents will deal
with: guidelines for group enterprise management; cooperatives in rural development; rural
youth in cooperatives and rural organizations for sustainable development.

372. As a follow-up to studies completed in several countries of the four developing
regions, the element on Organization and Administration for Rural Development will
concentrate on policy advice, research and training related to institution building. Joint work
with other agencies, especially the World Bank and UNDP, will continue for the
restructuring of national institutions in support of rural development at different levels.
National seminars for high- and medium-level professionals, as well as for policy makers,
will be held, and reports of such meetings, including recommendations to governments, will
be produced. Close links will be maintained with the Field Programme. Requests for direct
assistance are expected to remain high.

Sub-programme Women in Agriculture and Rural Development

\ -- 1990-91 Programme 1992-93 % of Sub-
ProgrammeElement _-. /' Budget Change Budget Programme
01 'rTraining on Women in Development 632 114 746 24 %
02 Pro-jc-rDevelopment.and-Mboiitoring- 457 (111) 346 11 %
03. Policy and Planning on Women in Development +- 499 (17) 482 15 %
04 Population and Rural Development 89 39 128 4 %
05 Home Economics and Related Training 301 19 320 10 %
06 Assistance to Member Governments on Women .- 433 83 516 16 %
in Development
07 Documentation and Data Collection 309 98 407 13 %
08 General Support 394 (169) 225 7 %
Total at 1990-91 cost levels 3 114 56 3 170 100 %
Cost Increases 438
1992-93 Budget including cost increases 3 608

373. In line with the Implementation of the Plan of Action for the Integration of Women
in Development (WID), and upon completion of general training of FAO staff, the element
on Training on Women in Development is being reinforced in order to undertake training at
regional level, training of some national staff from key institutions and on selected
disciplines, as well as staff from selected projects and new FAO staff.

374. The element on Project Development and Monitoring will imply close collaboration
with other units during the formulation and implementation phases. Coding of FAO field
activities in terms of their potential for WID components, the inclusion of WID concerns in

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project documentation, and the extent of women participants and beneficiaries, will be carried
out. Work will continue on the elaboration of guidelines and manuals, as practical tools to
assist decision makers, policy advisors and technical assistance staff in integrating WID
concerns in the various stages of project development. The relevant publication costs are
included under programme element 07.

375. The element on Policy and Planning on Women in Development will cover support
to countries in reorienting agricultural and rural development programmes to benefit rural
men and women equally. This will be achieved by sensitizing planners and other officials
in mainline ministries; by conducting national and sub-regional meetings on methods to
reach rural women; and by encouraging integration of WID issues into mainstream".
programmes and projects.

376. The programme element on Population and Rural Development will seek to develop
innovative approaches to integrate population concerns in key technical areas in order to
improve the status and the quality of life of rural women and families. This implies further
collection of information on the relationship between rural activities and demographic factors.
This element will have a catalytic function in support of extra-budgetary activities related to
population issues.

377. Under programme element 05, emphasis will be given to the reorientation of home
economics curricula in training institutions, to reflect new technical aspects:and the effective
needs of women and men in rural societies. Training activities, including courses, seminars
and workshops based on these updated curricula, will be held with both female and male
participants. Assistance: to universities and home economics institutes will also be provided
for reorienting extension servicesto include WID concerns.

378. The element on Assistance to Member Governments on Women in Development is
to be reinforced. Missions will be fielded upon. request for identification, formulation,
implementation and evaluation of WID-related programmes and projects.

379. In view of the necessity to further improve the knowledge base on WID, the element
on Documentation and Data Collection is to be reinforced. In collaboration with the
Statistics Division (ESS) and with other UN agencies, the element will support development
of related databases and more accurate statistical information. Assistance will be provided
to countries in the form of disaggregated and updated statistical indicators on the roles of
women and men in agriculture. Planned publications and working documents will cover:
a conceptual framework for agricultural statistics and WID; impact of structural adjustment
on women in the agricultural sector; gender disaggregated database on human resources;
sub-national statistics at national and international levels; women's contribution to and
participation in the informal agricultural sector; rural households resource allocation and
management; and women and legislation in African countries.

380. The element, General Support, includes collaboration with other FAO programmes
as well as with other agencies of the UN system on general matters related to the role and
participation of women in rural development.

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