Rome, 11-29 November 1989
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
CONFERENCE OF FAO
Independent Chairman: Antoine Saintraint
Australia' Brazi[" Cameroon* Canada-" China" Colombia'Congo" Cuba"*
Czechoslovakia" Egypt* EthiopiaFinland' France'
Germany, Federal Republic of'* Ghana-* GreeceGuinea' India* Indonesia" Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq" Italy' Japan" Kenya' Korea, Republic of' Lebanon" Lesotho* Ubya"* MadagascarMalaysia"
Mexico** Morocco" Netherlands"' Nicaragua" Nigeria' Pakistan* Peru'
Philippines* Poland-* Portugal"* Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Thailand" Trinidad and Tobago'" United Kingdom' United States of America~" Venezuela"
* Term of office unt! 31 December 1990. Term of office at conclusion of Tweny-sixh Session of tte Conference, November 1991. "' Term of office until 31 December 1992.
(as from 1 January 1991)
Independent Chairman: Antoine Saintraint
Australia-" Brazil" CameroonCanada"
Cape Verde-' China* Cc!ombia" Ccngo
Ccsta Rica-" Cdte dlvoire-" Cuba" Czechoslovakia' Egypt"' Ethiopia*
Germany, Federal Republic oF Ghana Greece'
Indonesia' Iraq' l.a'y" Japan* Kenya"' Korea, Repub;c of" Lebanon" Ubya" Madagascar" Malaysia* Mexico-
Morocco" Netherlands" Nicaragua' Pakistan"* Phlippines-" Fo!andPortugal'* Saudi Arabia. Kingdom cofSudan"' SwedenTha'and'
Trindad and TobagoUnited Kingdom'Uni:ed States of America" Venezuela' Zanbia'"
' Term of o'fce un! condus:cn of Twery-s'rb Sesscn cf !e Cc''e-e e, I;;emTe- 199I. Term of oice unt 31 December 1992.
"' Term of cffce undl condusocn of ne Tweny-seven"i Sesson of the Confeence, N-vemoer 1993.
(until 31 December 1990)
Rome, 11-29 November 1989
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
CONFERENCE OF FAO
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00 100 Rome, Italy.
(E FAO 1990
- iii -
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sixteenth McDougall Memorial Lecture Presentation of the B.R. Sen Awards for 1988 and 1989 Presentation of the A.H. Boerma Award 1988-89 Tribute to late President Rene Moawad of Lebanon Tribute to late President Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane of Comoros In Memoriam
PROCEDURE OF THE SESSION Election of the Chairman and Vice-Chairmen of the Conference Appointment of the General Committee and the Credentials
Adoption of the Agenda Arrangements for the Session and Allocation of Agenda Items
- Establishment of Commissions and Appointment of their
Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen
- Resolutions Committee of the Conference
- Right of Reply
- Verbatim Records
- Verification of Credentials
- Voting Rights
- Informal Meeting of Observers from International
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) Admission of Observers
- Observer from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
- Liberation Movements
- Intergovernmental and International Non-Governmental
8 and 9
13 34 13 and 14
15 16 17
18 20 21 23 24 25
26 and 27
30 34 30 and 31
33 and 34
- iv -
Paragraphs 35 129
36 63 36 52 53 62
64 84 85 97
110 120 121 129
130 272 130 148 149 184 149 154 155 and 156 157 160 161 167 168 172 173 179 180 184 185 197
MAJOR TRENDS AND POLICIES IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE Statements by Heads of Delegations in the General Discussion World Food and Agriculture Situation
- The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA)
(Resolutions 1/89, 2/89 and 3/89)
- International Agricultural Adjustment: Progress Report
on Guidelines 7, 8 and 12
- World Food Day
Preparations for an International Development Strategy for
the Fourth UN Development Decade FAO's contribution Progress Report on the GATT Multilateral Trade
Negotiations (Uruguay Round) and Implications for FAO
Commission on Plant Genetic Resources and the International
Undertaking: Progress Report (Resolutions 4/89 and 5/89) International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of
Pesticides: Introduction of the "Prior Informed Consent"
Clause (Resolution 6/89 and Appendix E)
Plan of Action for the Integration of Women into Agricultural
and Rural Development (Resolution 7/89)
ACTIVITIES AND PROGRAMMES OF THE ORGANIZATION Review of the Regular Programme 1988-89 Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91 and Medium-Term Objectives
- Programme Budget Process
- Programme Activities
- Financial Framework
- Budget Level (Resolution 8/89 and Appendix F) Review of Field Programmes 1988-89
Conclusions of Review of Certain Aspects of FAOts Goals and
- FAQ's Objectives, Role, Priorities and Strategies
- FAO's Field Operations
- Technical Cooperation Programme (Resolution 9/89)
- Relations with other Institutions
- Resource Implications
- Conclusion (Resolution 10/89)
- FAO Management Review United Nations/FAO World Food Programme
-WFP Proposed Pledging Target (Resolution 11/89) Relations and Consultations with International Organizations
- Recent Developments in the UN System of Interest to FAO
- International Conference on Nutrition
- Relations with Intergovernmental and International
CONSTITUTIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE HATTERS Constitutional and Legal Matters Statutory Report on Status of Conventions and Agreements,
and Amendments thereto
- Multilateral Treaties deposited with the Director-General Procedure for Election of the Chairmen and Members of the
Programme and Finance Committees (Appendix G)
Confirmation of the Agreement between FAO and UNIDO (Appendix HI) FAO's Accession to the Convention on Early Notification of a
Nuclear Accident and to the Convention on Assistance in the
case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency
(Appendices I, and J)
198 241 205 217 218 2Z9 230 and 231 232 and 233 234 238 239 and 240
242 250 242 250 251 272 251 263 264 269 270 272
273 327 273 290
273 276 277 281 282 285
- Vi -
291 327 291 293 294 296 297
298 and 299 300 304 305 307 308 312 313 317 318 and 319
320 321 322
328 332 328 and 329
330 and 331
Administrative and Financial Matters Audited Accounts (Resolution 12/89) Scale of Contributions 1990-91 (Resolution 13/89 and
Return of the Regional Office for the Near East to the Region
Status of Contributions (Appendix L)
Payment of Assessed Contributions (Resolution 15/89) Measures to deal with Problems of Delayed Payment of Assessed
Level of Support Costs from UNDP and Trust Fund Programmes Headquarters Accommodation Personnel Matters
Statistics of Personnel Services
Allowance for the Chairman of the Appeals Committee Staff Commissary Support Cost Reimbursement (Resolution 16/89) Treatment of Profit and Loss on Exchange (Resolution 17/89)
APPOINTMENTS AND ELECTIONS Election of Council Members Appointment of the Independent Chairman of the Council
Appointment of Representatives of the FAD Conference to the
Staff Pension Committee
Date and Place of the Twenty-sixth Session of the Conference
- vii -
A Agenda for the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference B List of Delegates and Observers C List of Documents
D Statement by the Director-General E Revision of Articles 2 and 9 of the International Code of Conduct on the
Distribution and Use of Pesticides and Guidelines on the Operation of
Prior Informed Consent
F Statement of the Computation of Contributions for 1990 and 1991 G Procedure for Election of the Chairmen and Members of the Programme and
Finance Committees (Resolution 11/87)
H Agreement between the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization I Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident J Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological
K Scale of Contributions 1990-91 L Assessed Contributions of Member Nations to the Budget
Sixteenth McDougall Memorial Lecture 1
1. The sixteenth in the series of lectures at regular Conference sessions in memory of Frank Lidgett McDougall, a founding father of the Organization, was delivered by His Excellency Giorgio Ruffolo, Minister for the Environment of the Republic of Italy.
Presentation of the B.R. Sen Awards for 1988 and 1989 2
2. The awards, which honour the name of Mr B.R. Sen, Director-General of FAO from 1956 to 1967, are conferred annually. They are given to the field officer who has made the most outstanding contribution to development in an agricultural sector of the country or countries to which he or she has been assigned.
3. The Award for 1988 was presented to Mr Henry R. Stennett, a citizen of Jamaica, in recognition of his achievements in Nepal in the fields of watershed management and conservation education, and forestry sector development. His professional competence and dedication had contributed decisively to the success of large-scale projects which included assistance in the drafting of soil conservation legislation, in the preparation of watershed development plans at the national level, and in the protection of hydropower facilities and sources of water supply through watershed management.
4. His Majesty's Government of Nepal, in endorsing the selection of Mr Stennett for a Sen Award, confirmed the success of his efforts.
5. The Award for 1989 was presented to Mr Everest Santiago Funes, a citizen of Argentina, for his contribution to communication development in Mexico. It was largely due to his technical ability and initiative that a project on communication and training financed by the World Bank to provide assistance to Mexico's Integrated Rural Development Programme for the Tropical Wetlands had been so successful.
6. The rural communication system developed by Mr Funes had applied a multi-media approach and had made use of traditional media, community radio, video, slidesets and simple illustrated printed materials. A great number of audio-visual programmes had been produced for training at grass-roots level, for situation analysis, and for establishing links between rural communities and national institutions and sectors.
7. The Government of Mexico, in endorsing the selection of Mr Funes for a Sen Award, acknowledged that the communication system had been instrumental to the success of the national rural development programme for the tropical wetlands.
1/ C 89/INF/9; C 89/LIM/1; C 89/PV/3; C 89/PV/19. 2/ C 89/INF/6; C 89/PV/2; C 89/PV/19.
Presentation of the A.H. Boerma Award 1988-89 3
8. The A.H. Boerma Award is presented biennially to a journalist or journalists whose work has helped to focus public attention on important aspects of the world food problem and thereby contributed towards increasing public support for measures leading to its solution.
9. On this, the sixth occasion, the Award for 1988-1989 was presented to Mr Federico Fazzuoli from Italy for his national television programme "Linea Verde". It was pointed out that this programme's in-depth coverage of a wide range of environmental, food and agricultural problems at the national and international level, including topics of particular importance to FAO, had helped to create greater awareness of such issues.
Tribute to Late President Reng Moawad of Lebanon 4
10. The Conference observed one minute of silence in memory of the President of the Republic of Lebanon, Mr Ren6 Moawad, who was assassinated by terrorist actions seventeen days into his Presidency. The Conference praised the courage of Mr Moawad in his many efforts to seek a peaceful solution to the political situation of his country, and asked the Representative of Lebanon to express the deepest condolences of all the Member Nations of FAO to the Lebanese people for Mr Moawad's untimely and unfortunate death. The Representative of Lebanon thanked the Conference for its many expressions of sorrow in this especially trying moment for his country, and noted that the hope for peace in Lebanon would override this treacherous and criminal act.
Tribute to Late President Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane of Comoros 5
11. The Conference observed a minute of silence in memory of His Excellency Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane, President of the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros, who had died on 26 November 1989.
In Memoriam 6
12. The Conference observed one minute of silence in memory of those staff members who had died in the service of the Organization since the Conference had last met.
3/ C 89/INF/7; C 89/PV/2; C 89/PV/19. 4/ C 89/II/PV/13; C 89/PV/16-Rev.1; C 89/III/PV/1; C 89/PV/19. 5/ C 89/PV/18; C 89/PV/21.
6/ C 89/PV/20; C 89/PV/21.
PROCEDURE OF THE SESSION
Election of the Chairman and Vice-Chairmen of the Conference 7
13. The Council nominated and the Conference elected John Charles Kerin (Australia) as Chairman of the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference.
14. The Conference approved the appointment of the three Vice-Chairmen of the Conference recommended by the Nominations Committee, as follows:
Abdel Magid Al Gaoud (Libya)
Charoen Kanthawongs (Thailand)
Gonzalo Bula Hoyos (Colombia)
Appointment of the General Committee and the Credentials Committee 8
15. The Nominations Committee recommended and the Conference approved the following appointments:
Members of the General Committee
China Finland Lesotho
Fiji India Panama
United States of America
Members of the Credentials Committee
Australia El Salvador Netherlands
Canada Greece Uganda
Cyprus Mauritania Yemen Arabic Republic
Adoption of the Agenda 9
16. The Conference adopted its Agenda as amended by the General Committee, and as given in Appendix A to this report.
Arrangements for the Session and Allocation of Agenda Items 10
17. The Conference adopted the arrangements and timetable proposed by the Ninety-sixth Session of the Council, as amended by the General Committee.
Establishment of Commissions and Appointment of their Chairmen
and Vice-Chairmen 11
18. The Conference concurred with the Council's recommendations to establish three Commissions to consider and report upon Parts I, II and III of the Agenda.
7/ C 89/12; C 89/LIM/1; C 89/LIM/2; C 89/PV/1; C 89/PV/19. 8/ C 89/12; C 89/LIM/2; C 89/PV/1; C 89/PV/19. 9/ C 89/1; C 89/LIM/6; C 89/PV/2; C 89/PV/19. 10/ C 89/12; C 89/LIM/1; C 89/LIM/6; C 89/PV/2; C 89/PV/19. 11/ C 89/12; C 89/LIM/6; C 89/LIM/25; C 89/PV/2; C 89/PV/5; C 89/PV/19.
19. In accordance with Rule VII-1 and Rule XXIV-5(b) of the General Rules of the Organization (GRO), the Ninety-sixth Session of the Council had nominated the following Chairmen of the Commissions:
Commission I Commission II Commission III
J.A. de Medicis (Brazil) J. Tchicaya (Congo) R. de Pourtalts (Switzerland)
20. The Conference appointed the foregoing officers and, taking into consideration the proposals of the General Committee, in accordance with Rule XIII-2 GRO, also appointed:
Vice-Chairmen of Commission I: Vice-Chairmen of Commission II: Vice-Chairmen of Commission III:
E. Detraux (Belgium) A. Sulaiman (Iraq)
C.C. Thomsen (Denmark) A.K.M. Fazley Rabbi (Bangladesh)
G. Lamptey (Ghana) G. M. Ahmed (Sudan)
- Resolutions Committee of the Conference 12
21. The Conference endorsed the recommendation of the Ninety-sixth Session of the Council to establish a Resolutions Committee of seven members, one from each FAO region, and appointed the following:
Europe Latin America and
the Caribbean Near East North America Southwest Pacific
: Algeria : India : Germany, Federal Republic of
* United States of America : Australia
22. The Conference agreed to the recommendation of the General Committee that the Resolutions Committee be chaired by the Representative of the Asia region, Mr V.K. Sibal (India).
23. The Conference approved the functions of the Resolutions Committee and the criteria for the formulation of resolutions, as given in document C 89/12, Appendix D.
- Right of Reply
24. The Conference confirmed the decision taken at its eleven previous sessions to the effect that, when a member wished to reply to criticisms of his Government's policy, he should preferably do so on the afternoon of the day on which such criticism had been voiced after all those wishing to participate in the discussion had had an opportunity to speak.
12/ C 89/12, Appendix D; C 89/LIM/6; C 89/PV/2; C 89/PV/19.
- Verbatim Records
25. As provided for in Rule XVIII-1 GRO, Verbatim Records were kept of all Conference Plenary and Commission meetings. The Conference endorsed the recommendation of the General Committee that statements could be inserted in the verbatim records when time did not permit them to be delivered, taking into consideration, however, the conditions laid down by the General Committee.
- Verification of Credentials 13
26. The credentials of delegations of 150 Member Nations were found valid. Seven Member Nations did not send a delegation to the Conference. One Member Nation had not registered.
27. The credentials of the United Nations and other Organizations of the United Nations (UN) System were found in order as prescribed under Rule 111-2 GRO.
- Voting Rights 14
28. The Conference noted that, in accordance with Article 111-4 of the Constitution, 14 Member Nations at the beginning of the session had no right to vote in the Conference, as the amount of their arrears of contributions to the Organization exceeded the amount of the contributions due from them for the two preceding calendar years. Subsequently, four of these Member Nations regularized their position. Information had been received from nine Member Nations indicating that their failure to pay was due to conditions beyond the control of each of these Member Nations. Therefore, the Conference agreed that voting rights should be restored to nine Member Nations (Antigua and Barbuda, Burundi, Comoros, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Guatemala, Romania, Sao Tome and Principe, and Sierra Leone) for the duration of the Twenty-fifth Conference Session. In the case of the other Member Nation (Democratic Kampuchea) it had not registered to attend the Conference and had not responded to correspondence sent to it concerning the payment of arrears, consequently the Conference had no basis on which to restore its right to vote. Furthermore, the Conference emphasized the need for all Member Nations to pay their contributions and any arrears as soon as possible.
- Informal Meeting of Observers from International Non-Governmental
Organizations (NGOs) 15
29. The Ninety-sixth Session of the Council had suggested that, as was the practice at previous sessions of the Conference, an informal meeting of representatives of international non-governmental organizations admitted as observers to the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference should be convened on Tuesday 14 November 1989. The Conference accepted this proposal. The meeting elected Mrs Giuseppina PelA (International Federation of Agricultural Producers) as Chairman, and the report of its deliberations was communicated to the Conference.
13/ C 89/12; C 89/LIM/2; C 89/LIM/6; C 89/LIM/7; C 89/LIM/26; C 89/PV/2;
C 89/PV/3; C 89/PV/13; C 89/PV/19.
14/ C 89/12; C 89/LIM/6; C 89/LIM/28; C 89/LIM/36; C 89/PV/2; C 89/PV/10;
C 89/PV/15; C 89/PV/19.
15/ C 89/12; C 89/LIM/6; C 89/INF/I; C 89/PV/2; C 89/PV/19.
Admission of Observers 16
- Observer from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
30. The Conference confirmed the invitation sent by the Director-General to the Government of the USSR to attend the session in an observer capacity.
31. The Conference expressed its satisfaction at the presence of the USSR as an observer at its session. It further recognized that this was a step forward in the right direction and hoped that the USSR would move from the status of a founding member to becoming a full Member Nation of FAO. The Conference supported the current contacts on this subject with the authorities of that State and requested the Director-General to continue and intensify his efforts.
- Liberation Movements
32. The Conference approved the invitations issued by the Director-General to the Palestine Liberation Organization and those African Liberation Movements (African National Congress of South Africa and Pan Africanist Congress of Azania) recognized by the OAU (Organization of African Unity) to attend the session as observers.
- Intergovernmental and International Non-Governmental Organizations
33. The Conference approved the list of international organizations to which the Director-General had extended a provisional invitation to the Conference session, and invited the representatives of those organizations to participate in the activities of the Conference as observers.
34. The Conference concurred with the recommendation of the General Committee that, in accordance with Rule XVII-3 GRO, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, the International Cooperative Alliance, the International Federation of Agricultural Producers, the International Federation of Plantation, Agricultural and Allied Workers, the World Confederation of Labour and the World Federation of Trade Unions should be granted speaking time to address the Plenary.
16/ C 89/13; C 89/13-Sup.1; C 89/LIM/6; C 89!LIM/28; C 89/PV/2; C 89/PV/10;
MAJOR TRENDS AND POLICIES IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 17
Statements by Heads of Delegations in the General Discussion 17
35. The General Discussion was opened by the Director-General. The
text of his statement is given in Appendix D to this report. Following this, 139 speakers participated in the discussion: the Independent Chairman of the Council; His Excellency Hissene Habre, the President of the Republic of Chad, who spoke in his capacity as current Chairman of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS); the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr Hans Blix; Heads of Delegations, of which 95 were Ministers or Vice-Ministers; the Permanent Observer of the Holy See to FAO; representatives of three UN bodies: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD); the European Economic Community (EEC), the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP); and observers from five international non-governmental organizations which had consultative status with FAO. The statements of five Member Nations were inserted in the records.
World Food and Agriculture Situation
- The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 18
36. The Conference reviewed the world and regional food and agricultural
situations in the light of the Director-General's report, the State of Food and Agriculture 1989 and its supplement, and was broadly in accord with its assessment. The Conference also had before it the Director-General's report, Sustainable Development and Natural Resources Management, as the basis for its discussions towards progressively translating sustainable development into practical and operational policies and programmes, within the context of agricultural and rural development.
37. The Conference welcomed the continued economic growth registered at
the global level in 1988 but noted that growth in 1989 was likely to fall back to the 1985-87 average. It expressed concern that world economic growth was unevenly distributed among the various geographic and economic regions. The industrialized countries had recorded uninterrupted economic growth since their recovery from the recession of 1982. However, economic growth in the developing countries had remained much below the average for earlier decades and had been led by the developing countries in Asia. By contrast, economic growth in the African and Latin America and Caribbean regions remained depressed. Such slow growth and asymmetry in economic progress had
17/ C 89/LIM/6; C 89/PV/4; C 89/PV/5; C 89/PV/6; C 89/PV/7; C 89/PV/8;
C 89/PV/9; C 89/PV/10; C 89/PV/11; C 89/PV/12; C 89/PV/13; C 89/PV/14;
18/ C 89/2; C 89/2-Sup.1; C 89/2-Sup.2; C 89/INF/14; C 89/LIM/34;
C 89/LIM/34-Sup.1; C 89/LIM/44; C 89/LIM/41; C 89/LIM/43; C 89/INF/16;
C 89/LIM/27-Rev.1; C 89/LIM/29; C 89/LIM/29-Sup.l; C 89/I/PV/2;
C 89/I/PV/3; C 89/I/PV/4; C 89/I/PV/5; C 89/I/PV/13; C 89/I/PV/14;
C 89/I/PV/15; C 89/I/PV/16; C 89/I/PV/17; C 89/PV/21.
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repercussions on agriculture by restraining demand for food and agricultural products in domestic markets of economically depressed regions. This situation was exacerbated by rising inflationary pressures on food prices and low rates of agricultural investment.
38. The Conference underlined the continued deleterious effect on growth
prospects for most developing countries of two unresolved issues on the international agenda: namely international debt and trade protectionism. The Conference recognized that international debt and the associated outflow of resources from debtor to creditor countries, remained an oppressive burden for many developing countries despite some initiatives taken on debt relief or restructuring. Although sound macro-economic and pectoral policies had an important role to play in restoring economic growth in debtor countries, implementation was seriously constrained by the magnitude of their debt burden.
39. The Conference also stressed that the inability of debtor countries
to service their external debt was closely linked to the access of their export commodities and products to markets. It agreed that the progressive reduction of trade protectionism was important to the restoration of more broadly based economic growth. The Conference recognized that both developed 'and developing countries could derive significant benefits from the liberalization of agricultural commodity markets and related adjustments in agricultural support measures. In this connection, the Conference stressed the need for special and differential treatment for developing countries, expanded market access for agricultural and tropical products and substantial and progressive reductions in trade-distorting support and protection. It noted that the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations had reached a critical stage with definitive negotiating proposals being tabled. The Conference looked forward to a successful outcome of these negotiations in line with the objectives set out in the Mid-Term Review of the Uruguay Round. However, some Member Nations were of the view that it was primarily up to the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) to take a position on the measures to be taken with a view to improving trade practices with regard to agriculture.
40. The Conference noted with concern that global food and agricultural
production had increased at exceptionally low rates in 1987 and 1988. It further noted that despite the marked increase in production in 1989, cereal production would be below consumption for the third consecutive year. As a consequence cereal stocks would be drawn down to a level that FAO considered to be the minimum to maintain world food security. The Conference considered that increased cereal production, where economically sound, would be needed inter alia to restore stocks to safe levels. However, it stressed that great care was needed to ensure adequacy of supplies without generating burdensome stocks.
41. T e Conference agreed that developments in the short-term situation
should be seen in the context of long-term trends. In this connection, it noted with concern the slowdown in the growth of world per caput staple food production and an outright decline in many developing countries, especially in Africa.
42. The Conference expressed concern over the prevailing weakness of
international prices of several agricultural commodities of major export interest to developing countries, particularly the sharp decline in the price of coffee and the continued depressed price of cocoa. It noted, however, that by contrast, prices for several major food commodities had
increased. It agreed that higher cereal prices, although without reaching satisfactory levels, had benefited exporters and should provide an incentive for production in the long term, but had imposed additional burdens on food-deficit countries. The Conference also expressed concern that higher prices had led to significant reductions in food-aid flows in 1988/89. It therefore welcomed statements by some major donors announcing higher commitments of food aid for 1989/90 than had been estimated earlier.
43. The Conference underlined the importance of implementing appropriate
agricultural policies as a key element for agricultural development and for ensuring food security. The transfer of appropriate technology and availability of inputs and markets were also important elements, particularly for developing countries. Underlining that food security should not be equated necessarily with national self-sufficiency in food, the Conference stressed the importance of reducing rural and urban poverty in order to ensure access to food and to attack hunger and malnutrition. It agreed that FAQ had important roles to play in providing technical assistance and policy advice to increase supplies of food and other agricultural, forestry and fishery products, and enhance access to food and raise rural purchasing power.
44. Some Member Nations drew the attention of the Conference to the
deteriorating agricultural situation of the Palestinian people in the occupied territories and its relation to the negative effects on agricultural production and hence the food security of the Palestinian people.
45. The Conference appreciated the forthcoming publication of FAO's
manual on the new methodology for estimating human energy requirements, as it would usefully complement food balance sheets as a basis for sound nutrition policies. The Conference suggested that, in future SOFA documents, cereal utilization estimates be included and that greater attention be given to substitute products. It was also suggested that the ratio of cereal stocks to consumption to ensure a minimum level of world food security, be reviewed in the light of new developments, including changing trade patterns.
46. The Conference welcomed the continued expansion in world fish
production and trade of recent years, an expansion which had been shared by both developed and developing countries. It urged continued support for developing countries, particularly in Africa, which required increased assistance to enable them to derive greater benefits from their marine and inland fishery resources, including the development of aquaculture.
47. The Conference noted the serious concern expressed by some Member
Nations over the increasing use of large-scale pelagic driftnets, particularly in the South Pacific Ocean. It noted that this issue was also being currently considered in the UN General Assembly, which had draft resolutions before it. Some Member Nations stated that already there was sufficient evidence of the negative impact of large-scale high seas driftnets to warrant the international community supporting an immediate ban on their use. They also stressed that this action should not be delayed pending the outcome of any further analysis. However, some other Member Nations were of the view that little scientific evidence was available on this issue to justify a ban on the use of large-scale pelagic driftnets and referred to measures that had already been taken by some countries. The Conference agreed that FAQ was the most appropriate technical organization to study this matter. The Conference noted the steps already taken by FAQ
- 10 -
and agreed that this issue should continue to receive the organization's close attention. The Conference recommended that, as far as it was feasible, and in the light of the outcome of the UN General Assembly's debate on the above-mentioned draft resolutions, FAQ should undertake further action, including analytic scientific work, to improve the information available. The Secretariat should report on progress in this matter to the next session of the Committee on Fisheries.
48. Welcoming FAQ's continued efforts to translate the concept of
sustainable development into operational actions, the Conference urged that FAQ should continue to integrate environmental issues into its programmes and field activities as a contribution to evolving a strategy for sustainable agricultural development. It agreed that limited availability of resources, both technical and economic, in the developing countries and consumerism in the developed countries were the main causes of environmental degradation, and that the reduction of poverty was an essential prerequisite for sustainable development in developing countries. The Conference expressed serious concern over natural resource degradation including soil erosion, deteriorating water quality, loss of genetic resources, deforestation and the threat of global climatic change. It recognized the need for technical and financial assistance to enable developing countries to implement environmentally sound policies consistent with development objectives; An environment of peace and international respect for sovereignty over national natural resources also were essential elements of a global sustainable development strategy.
49. Lamenting the prevailing rapid rates of loss of forests in general
and natural forests in particular as they contained irreplaceable genetic resources, as well as providing regional and global benefits in stabilizing climate and the atmosphere, the Conference was of the view that embargoes on international trade in timber products were not a useful method for slowing deforestation. The formulation and implementation of appropriate national forestry policies were more important and it urged that countries should increasingly adopt the Tropical Forestry Action Plan CTFAP) which was co-sponsored by FAQ, as a means to implement national plans in the forestry sector. It urged that progress made in this area be regularly monitored and evaluated. It further underlined the importance of fully integrating forestry and agricultural production activities wherever feasible.
50. The Conference welcomed FAQ's continued collaboration with other
agencies such as UNEP in preparation for the UN Conference on the Environment and Development in 1992. Recognizing that FAQ was the key agency within the UN System to promote environmentally sound agricultural development, it urged that FAQ take primary responsibility in formulating a World Strategy for Sustainable Agriculture for the 1992 Conference.
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51. The Conference adopted the following Resolutions:
PROVISION OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO THE PALESTINIAN PEOPLE 19 20
Recalling the Economic and Social Council resolution 1989/96 of 26 July 1989,
Recognizing that the policies and practices of the Israeli occupation authorities impede the basic requirements for the development of the economy of the occupied Palestinian territory, including the agricultural sector,
Affirming the importance of supporting the agricultural sector in the occupied Palestinian territory,
Expressing its opposition to the Israeli confiscation of Palestinian land and expropriation of Palestinian water resources:
1. Stresses the need for providing the Palestinian people with the
assistance necessary for their economic development in close
cooperation with the Palestine Liberation Organization;
2. Requests the Director-General to send a mission to study and
evaluate the situation of the agricultural sector in the occupied Palestinian territory, taking into consideration the conditions of
the farmers under the existing occupation policies and practices,
anO. to prepare a report comprising possible technical interventions
to be executed by FAO;
3. Requests the Director-General to organize a symposium on the
Palestinian agricultural sector;
4. Requests the Director-General to include the occupied Palestinian
territory in future FAO programmes and activities, and in line with
the present cooperation and coordination between the Palestine
Liberation Organization and other UN Agencies;
5. Calls for free access of FAO staff and experts to the occupied
6. Requests the Director-General to report to the FAO Council in its
next session and to the FAO Conference in its Twenty-sixth Session
on the progress achieved in the implementation of the present
(Adopted 29 November 1989)
* See footnotes on the next page
19/ The delegation of the United States of America stated that it deplored
the introduction of political resolutions into the technical Specialized
Agency, FAO. It supported provision of technical assistance to the
Palestinian people, including by Agencies like FAO, but could not
support this resolution which served a primarily political purpose. It
regretted that the sponsors of this resolution had rejected several means by which they.could have achieved their purported purpose, in
favour of a resolution had rejected several means by which they could
have achieved their purported purpose, in favour of a resolution which
contained an unbalanced attack upon a Member Nation of FAO, and which
would decrease, rather than increase, the chances for successfully
implementing an FAO programme.
Noting the explanations of vote, the delegation of the United States
of America understood that a majority of those wished simply to urge
technical assistance for the Palestinian people, and that only a small minority wished to politicize FAO by inserting false and inappropriate rhetoric in the resolution. It rejected the notion that the language of this resolution represented the will of FAO as a whole. It called upon
those who insisted on politicization to desist, as it was apparent that
such actions would cause serious harm to this organization.
20/ The Arab Group, which had sponsored this draft resolution, paid tribute
and expressed its appreciation and gratitude to all the Member Nations
who had supported this resolution. It was confident that the support by
the Member Nations of the content and intention of this resolution was testimony to a full understanding of the situation in the agricultural
sector in the occupied Palestinian land.
The Arab Group reiterated once more that the minority who had
introduced this resolution had no intention whatever to politicize the
work of this organization. As was mentioned in Commission I, this Group,
or this minority, which belonged to this Organization and to the UN
System as a whole, was always against any resolution that politicized the Organization and-Specialized Agencies. This was especially true as this organization was a pioneer in the field of agriculture, and there
were millions who were starving and dying every day.
The Arab Group stressed that it did not intend to introduce this
resolution as a politicization of the work of the organization, and it
called upon the organization not to enter into such a politicization,
but to concentrate its efforts towards introducing appropriate
assistance in the Palestinian Arab Territories.
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TROPICAL FORESTRY ACTION PLAN
Noting that as of November 1989, 67 tropical countries were involved in TFAP activities, ranging from a request for TFAP implementation to the preparations for project execution,
Noting that so far eight round tables, marking the end of the planning phase and the beginning of the implementation phase, have been held during which the donor community has committed itself to funding a substantial number of projects,
Noting also that the international community has welcomed the TEAP as the worldwide framework for action to promote the sustainable use and conservation of tropical forests, and to enhance the proper management of forest lands,
Recognizing the lead role of FAO as Coordinating Agency for TFAP and appreciating the efforts that the Organization has made to mobilize human resources and funds in order to facilitate and firmly establish the TFAP,
Recognizing also the efforts of the donor community to provide additional funds for supporting the coordinating role of FAO and appreciating its commitment to the TFAP process,
Recognizing the important contribution that the TFAP could make to sustainable development of the countries concerned and in relation to global issues such as climate change and conservation of biodiversity,
Recognizing the huge world population increase, and the dependence of rural people on tropical forests and the need for sustainable forest development to satisfy their growing requirements,
a) human resources development is critically important in project
preparation and implementation in many tropical countries;
b) project preparation capacity, both in and outside the tropical
countries, is insufficient for the speedy implementation of the
priority projects identified in the National Forestry Action Plans;
c) external factors and the economic environment of the beneficiary
countries constitute serious limitations to the successful
implementation of TFAP;
d) TFAP activities at the country level are the responsibility of the
national authorities and the methods adopted must allow for
self-sustainable follow-up action;
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Confirming that the TFAP Coordinating Unit has a supportive task with
regard to coordinating the collective effort, monitoring the process and
continuously evaluating the impact of TFAP on tropical forestry
development and conservation,
1. Requests donor governments and agencies to provide more means for
the implementation of the TFAP and to strengthen the national
capabilities for the development and conservation of their tropical
2. Invites the Director-General to foster training and extension
courses to develop national capabilities for the formulation and
implementation of programmes and projects within the framework
3. Urges tropical countries and the major development banks and
agencies to increase their project preparation capacity, in order to
reduce the time lapse between the end of the planning phase and the
implementation of the first projects;
4. Recommends to governments, donors and international financial
a) to accord higher priority to the forestry sector by providing
stronger budget support, for strengthening national
institutional capacity, especially in developing countries, to
implement forestry programmes as a basis for sustainable
b) to promote the further integration of forestry with other
disciplines and sectors in the implementation of TFAP;
c) to increase the afforestation efforts through TFAP as a means
not only to control erosion and desertification and to provide
timber and fuelwood, but also to protect the environment and
combat global warming;
5. Requests the Director-General to continue to accord high priority to
the coordination and implementation of the TFAP;
6. Urges all participants in TFAP to provide the means to advance the
implementation of the Plan as rapidly as possible.
(Adopted 29 November 1989)
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FAO ACTIVITIES RELATED TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Recalling the UN General Assembly Resolution 42/186, on the Environmental Perspectives to the Year 2000 and Beyond, and Resolution 42/187, on the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development,
Considering that the above-mentioned resolutions underline that insufficient attention given to the environmental impact of agricultural policies, priorities and practices has been causing extensive environmental damage, such as, inter alia:
soil degradation, deforestation and desertification;
loss of land productivity, soil and water pollution and hazard to
human health caused by excessive and improper use of agricultural
genetic erosion and increased vulnerability of crops to diseases
and pests due in part to over-reliance on the use of high-yielding
Recalling Resolution 9/87 entitled "FAO activities related to the Wo~ld Commission on Environment and Development CWCED)", requesting FAO to give greater attention to sustainable development,
Endorsing the statement by the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme on Sustainable Development adopted by consensus at its Fifteenth Session,
Bearing in mind that in Article 1 of FAO's Constitution, inter alia, states that "the Organization shall promote and, where appropriate, shall recommend national and international action with respect to the conservation of natural resources and the adoption of improved methods of agricultural production",
Considering that FAO is in the process of improving its Global System as a mechanism for the safe conservation, sustainable use and availability of genetic resources, that is fully complementary with sustainable dev elopment,
Agreeing that in order to promote sustainable development, FAO must in all its relevant activities look to the long term as well as the short term, and make sure that the environment and the productive capacity of natural resources are enhanced and conserved, not impaired or destroyed,
Underlining that FAO should play a leading international role as the centre of excellence within the UN System in several subsectors related to environment and sustainable development, and FAO should contribute actively in further international agreements on biological/genetic diversity tropical forestry, fisheries and other environmental matters,
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Agreeing that there is a need to stimulate inter-agency cooperation and coordination and to identify opportunities for synergetic efforts in order to achieve sustainable development, the goal being to create economic and social development and at the same time take environmental considerations fully into account,
Welcomes the proposal of making increased allocations in the Programme of Work and Budget to activities related to sustainable development:
1. the organization shall intensify its inter-disciplinary work to
ensure integration of environmental considerations in all relevant
FAO activities and further priority should be given to activities
associated with sustainable development under the technical and
2. FAO in the future must give higher priority to the prevention of
environmental degradation which affects agriculture, fisheries and forestry, and strive for projects and programmes which have greater
,compatibility with sustainable and environmentally sound
3. FAO should strengthen cooperation with other organizations of the
UN System in pursuing sustainable development, including
conservation and management of biological/genetic diversity, and
increase its efforts in assisting governments in the formulation of
conservation strategies, particularly in developing countries;
4. FAO should further collaborate fully with the Secretary General of
the United Nations in the preparations for the United Nations 1992
Conference on Environment and Development and should respond
affirmatively to the UNEP proposal for a joint FAO/UNEP meeting on
sustainable agriculture as part of the preparation for this
5. the Director-General shall report to the Ninety-eighth Session of
.the FAO Council in November 1990 on the implementation of this
(Adopted 29 November 1989)
52. The Conference was informed that the approved Programme of Work and
Budget for 1990-91 did not include financial provisions for the new activities resulting from the adopted Resolution on "FAO Activities Related to Sustainable Development". The costs for the full implementation of these additional activities to the Organization in the next biennium were estimated at approximately US$ 580 000 and were unlikely to be absorbed within the approved budget. Therefore, FAO required and would do its best to mobilize extra-budgetary resources of this magnitude. Some Member Nations felt that it was too early to make such an assessment.
- International Agricultural Adjustment:
Progress Report on Guidelines 7, 8 and 12 21
53. The Conference reviewed progress in International Agricultural Adjustment under Guidelines 7, 8 and 12 on the basis of the Director-General's Progress Report and was broadly in accord with its assessment. The Conference recalled that it had decided at its Twenty-fourth Session in 1987 that full progress reports on International Agricultural Adjustment would be prepared every four years but that it had decided to review, on an exceptional basis.,, progress under the above three guidelines also at its Twenty-fifth Session.
54. Concerning Guideline 7, the Conference noted that progress to achieve its objectives, notwithstanding some policy reforms undertaken by some countries, had been disappointingly slow. It noted that support and protection measures, particularly in some developed countries, which distorted resource use and international agricultural trade, and impeded market access, had continued at high levels. The Conference recognized that the objectives of Guideline 7 were similar to those of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations as agreed for agriculture in the Mid-Term Review in Geneva in April 1989. It stressed that the Uruguay Round represented a unique opportunity for progress toward a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system and urged all participants to make the utmost efforts for the Negotiations to come to a successful conclusion.
55. Several Member Nations informed the Conference of the proposals which their governments had submitted for negotiation in the Uruguay Round, including both agriculture and tropical products. They stressed the importance for agreement to be reached on all aspects of the Negotiations, including on sanitary and phytosanitary regulations. Several Member Nations provided information on the concessions so far made on tropical products. However, several other Member Nations stressed that much remained to be done to achieve the objectives of the negotiations on tropical products, particularly in their processed and semi-processed forms. A number of Member Nations stressed the need for domestic concerns to be taken into account in the Multilateral Trade Negotiations such as food security, social considerations, environmental factors and special and differential treatment for developing countries. In their view, the scope, extent and country coverage of policy reforms should fully reflect these concerns.
56. In particular, many Member Nations pointed out that most developing countries needed to promote their agricultural and rural sectors, inter alia through infrastructure development and implementation of appropriate incentive policies for farmers. Such factors meant that these countries should not be expected to dismantle crucial policy measures. In this connection, it was also pointed out that input subsidies could, in certain circumstances, also contribute toward production and productivity improvements in developing countries.
57. In relation to recent initiatives to reduce trade barriers within North America and within the European Economic Community, it was suggested that the Secretariat should analyse the implications for trade, particularly for developing countries.
58. On Guideline 8 the Conference agreed with the assessment that recent years had been particularly unfavourable for International Commodity Agreements and that many developing countries had suffered significant losses
21/ C 89/18; C 89/I/PV/5; C 89/IIPV/6; C 89/I/PV/14; C 89/PV/21
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of export revenues due to pronounced price declines for some of their major agricultural exports, most notably coffee and cocoa. Some Member Nations, deploring this situation, urged that increased effo rts be made to revitalize International Commodity Agreements as a means for achieving the objective of greater stability in world markets at prices remunerative to producers and fair to consumers. These Member Nations, however, stressed that the mechanisms used to achieve these aims should be flexible and responsive to changing market conditions, in order to ensure the long-run viability of such agreements. Some other Member Nations, however, questioned the appropriateness and efficiency of International Commodity Agreements with market regulation provisions as a policy instrument to achieve stabilization objectives, and stressed that in their view, trade liberalization was the best approach for achieving greater stability in world markets.
59. The Conference welcomed the coming into force in June 1989 of the Common Fund for Commodities which could make an important contribution to the objectives of Guideline 8. In particular, it stressed the important role that FAO's Intergovernmental Commodity Groups should play in relation to the Second Account activities of the Fund, by drawing up, sponsoring and undertaking follow-up action on commodity development projects.
60. The Conference noted that the relatively tight supply conditions and increased prices in the world cereals markets in 1988/89 posed problems of access to food supplies at accessible prices by importing countries, particularly the low-income ones, as Guideline 8 required. It further noted that cereal import bills had increased, food aid shipments had declined from the relatively high levels of earlier years, and the resource position of the International Emergency Food Reserve (IEFR)'remained difficult. The Conference urged that appropriate action be taken to make progress towards the achievement of this objective of Guideline 8.
61. On Guideline 12, the Conference regretted that total net foreign resource flows to the developing countries had declined in recent years and that the target of the Guideline for external assistance to agriculture remained unfulfilled. In particular, it regretted the fact that there was a significant net outflow of resources from the developing countries on their long-term debt account. The Conference noted that the share of agriculture in total Official Development Finance had been maintained at around one fifth of the total.
62. The Conference drew attention to the inter-relationships between trade, debt and aid. It stressed the need for the declining trend in resource flows to the developing countries to be reversed and urged donors to make all efforts to achieve the Guideline's target of external assistance to agriculture as soon as possible. The Conference noted that preliminary data showed that aid for all purposes from the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) had increased significantly in 1988 from the levels of 1987. Some Member Nations reported that they had increased their foreign aid allocations and continued to give appropriate priority to agriculture in their allocations.
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- World Food Day 22
63. The Conference heard an FAO Secretariat statement regarding World Food Day. The statement announced the decision of the Director-General to have "Food for the Future" as the theme for 1990. It was the firm decision of FAO to continue supporting the worldwide observance of World Food Day, in keeping with resolutions 1/79, 7/81, 5/83 and 2/87 as well as the ideas contained in document C 87/29 "World Food Day Assessment (1981-1987) and Future Directions". The FAO Secretariat wished to encourage Member Governments and, non-governmental organizations to work with FAO in 1990 to help World Food Day become an avenue through which food production systems throughout the world can be directed toward long-term sustainability in the future. The Secretariat also expressed its support for the Global Confederation of World Food Day Non-Governmental Organizations as an important vehicle in strengthening the tripartite collaboration between FAO, Governments and non-governmental organizations.
Preparations for an International Development Strategy for the Fourth UN Development Decade FAO's Contribution 23
64. The Conference discussed the subject of FAO's contribution to the preparation of the International Development Strategy (IDS) for the Fourth UN Development Decade and to the Special Session of the UN General Assembly devoted to International Economic Cooperation, in particular to the Revitalization of Economic Growth and Development of the Developing Countries. It noted that the UN General Assembly was to consider the IDS towards the end of 1990 and that the Special Session was to be held from 23'to 27 April 1990.
65. The Conference noted that the UN General Assembly resolution on the IDS had invited, among others, the specialized agencies of the UN System to include in their agendas during 1989 items regarding their contributions to the preparations of the IDS and had requested their executive heads to contribute effectively to the preparatory process for the Strategy by providing all appropriate inputs, including relevant documentation, using comprehensive analytical studies. It also noted that the UN General Assembly had requested the UN Secretary-General to carry out appropriate high level consultations, including consultations with eminent personalities, for the preparation of his report to the UN General Assembly Preparatory Committee on the Special Session. In this context, FAQ had been consulted and requested to provide appropriate inputs.
66. The Conference noted that the Council had been informed of these matters at its Ninety-fifth Session in June 1989. The Conference endorsed the Council conclusions which emphasized the particular importance of FAO's contribution to the IDS and the Special Session, as the food and agriculture and the rural sector had a vital role to play in revitalizing economic growth and in achieving the objectives in the areas of nutrition, poverty alleviation, development of human resources and the environment.
67. The Conference noted that FAO had already made contributions, both at the Secretariat level through the ACC (Administrative Committee on Co-ordination) and its appropriate subsidiary bodies as well as to the two sessions, June and September 1989, of the UN General Assembly ad hoc Committee of the Whole for the preparation of the IDS.
22/ C 89/I/PV/6; C 89/I/PV/14; C 89/PV/21. 23/ C 89/19; C 89/I/PV/6; C 89/I/PV/7; C 89/I/PV/8; C 89/I/PV/14;
C 89/I/PV/17; C 89/PV/21.
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68. The Conference supported FAQ's active involvement in the preparation of the IDS. It noted that the UN General Assembly had recently adopted a resolution (A/C.2/44/L.11) which recommended to the ad hoc Committee of the Whole for the Preparation of the IDS to adopt an outline annexed to the resolution as a basis for elaboration of the IDS. The outline referred explicitly to the food and agriculture sector and policies in both the chapter on the reactivation and acceleration of broad durable economic growth and in the chapter on priority aspects of development.
69. The Conference reviewed document C 89/19 "Long-term Strategy for the Food and Agriculture Sector" and noted that it was an outline and preview of the contents of the full FAQ Strategy document. It had been prepared by an FAQ-wide Task Force especially set up by the Director-General for this purpose. It also noted that a full FAQ Strategy document would be prepared by the Task Force, taking into account the Conference discussions and recommendations. The full FAO Strategy document was to serve as a basis for making further contributions to the preparatory work in the UN for the Special Session and the IDS as well as to the relevant General Assembly sessions themselves, as appropriate.
70. The Conference welcomed the Director-General's initiative to set up the above-mentioned FAQ-wide Task Force. It agreed that the full FAQ Strategy document should be based, inter alia, on elaboration of the findings and recommendations of existing FAQ global and regional studies ("Agriculture: Toward 2000" and the regional studies on Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Europe) as well as on the existing FAO or FAQ-sponsored sectoral strategies, plans of actions and undertakings. These would include the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD) Programme of Action, the Guidelines and Targets for International Agricultural Adjustment, the TFAP, the Strategy for Fisheries Management and Development, the Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development, the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, and others. The Conference agreed that the full FAQ Strategy document be submitted to the Ninety-eighth Session of the Council in November 1990.
71. The Conference considered that the document under review was analytically sound and sufficiently comprehensive, and expressed its support for the suggestions contained in the document. The Conference considered that the document provided a good basis for further work for the development of the full FAQ Strategy document and that it focused appropriately on the main themes, viz. Economic Growth and Agriculture, Poverty Alleviation and Human Resources Development, and Natural Resources, Environment and Sustainability. Many Member Nations made suggestions for improvements, mainly in terms of the relative emphasis to be placed on the different aspects of the Strategy. Some Member Nations referred to studies and strategies of other organizations which contained useful material that could be drawn upon in preparing the FAQ Strategy, including studies and strategies concerned with ECDC (Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries) and TCDC (Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries).
72. The Conference stressed that the elimination of war and civil strife, the pursuit of peace, and the respect for human rights were essential elements of the IDS and essential preconditions for achieving development objectives.
73. The Conference stressed that the International Development Strategies of the previous UN Development Decades had failed to meet their objectives, while
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the decade of the 1980s had been a period of serious slow down in growth rates for a great many developing countries. It considered that the main reasons for such failure were the inadequate progress, or even outright deterioration, in international economic relations coupled with trade protectionism, growth of debt, high interest rates, weak commodity markets, adverseterms of trade in international markets, decline in overall resource flows to the developing countries, significant negative flows on their long-term debt account, inappropriate domestic policies of both developing and developed countries, and inability of developing countries to adapt their export products to meet the demand in the markets of developed countries.
74. The Conference agreed that the IDS for the 1990s should emphasize the importance of sound domestic economic policies, taking into account country and regional diversities, as well as the need for significant progress towards the creation of a supportive international economic environment, particularly in tackling the debt problem, reversing the negative flow of resources from the developing countries, increasing financial and technical assistance and creating a market-oriented trading system. The Conference recognized that food aid would continue to play a vitally important role, both as a means of resource transfer aimed at promoting development, and improving nutrition as well as for emergency purposes.
75. The Conference agreed that the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations provided a unique opportunity for policy reform in agriculture, particularly in the developed countries, that would lead to a market-oriented agricultural trading system as a major component of the IDS for the 1990s. The Conference recognized that in this context certain domestic concerns including food security needed to be taken into account as well as special and differential treatment of the developing countries.
76. The Conference recommended that the FAO Strategy should focus on a limited number of major issues. The document should be succinct and concentrate on issues on which FAO was particularly qualified to contribute, taking into account the contributions to the IDS of other parts of the UN system.
77. The Conference agreed that the IDS should not contain many and detailed quantitative targets and that whatever targets were included should be realistic as to the prospects for their achievement. In this connection many Member Nations considered that the IDS should include a target for ODA (Official Development Assistance). They urged all countries to intensify their efforts to meet the existing ODA target, as some countries had already done. A few Member Nations stated that their governments could not associate themselves with targets for growth of ODA.
78. The Conference stressed that the FAO Strategy should recognize that revitalization of growth, particularly in agriculture and the rural sector, was inter-dependent with, and often a prerequisite for, progress in the areas of poverty, nutrition and human resources development. At the same time, the existence of trade-offs, both among objectives and intertemporally, should be acknowledged. The Conference noted that elimination of poverty and undernutrition would take longer than one decade to achieve and, therefore, there was all the more reason for the IDS to emphasize the immediate initiation of appropriate policy action. The Conference agreed that policies for agriculture and rural development should emphasize an enhanced role for women, people's participation, and equitable access to productive assets, inputs and services.
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79. The Conference agreed that macro-economic policies should be designed to strengthen rather than counteract the incentives for agricultural development provided by means of sectoral policies. It also agreed that structural adjustment policies for correcting macro-economic disequilibria would need to put greater emphasis on growth-generating aspects by removing constraints and bottlenecks to growth. It emphasized that such policies should be designed, sequenced and implemented in such a way that social costs, in particular adverse effects on nutrition, health and education, were minimized in order to safeguard the human resources potential on which development depended.
80. The Conference agreed that the role of the public sector in economic life needed to be viewed from a pragmatic standpoint, taking into account the widely differing national circumstances, experiences and capabilities. It considered that the FAO Strategy should emphasize both an enhanced role for the private sector, including producers' organizations, and also the need to upgrade the efficiency of public administration which had an important role to play in promoting infrastructure, education and training and research and extension.
81. The Conference agreed that the FAO Strategy should attach high priority to issues of natural resources, environment and sustainable development and agreed with the approach adopted in the document on this subject. It accepted the need for a clear distinction to be made between the strategic approaches required for areas endowed with different natural resources, for example between those of marginal and high potential areas. The Conference emphasized the importance of comprehensive approaches both in the integration of environmental concerns with sectoral policies and in the sub-sectoral integration of crops, livestock, forestry and fisheries.
82. The Conference recommended that the FAO Strategy should have among its top priorities the promotion of agricultural research and development, particularly as regards the intensification of rainfed agriculture through ecologically sound and sustainable technologies and improved utilization of indigenous livestock breeds which were well adapted to adverse agro-ecological conditions.
83. The Conference also underlined several other aspects of the FAO Strategy as deserving particular attention. These included special attention to the needs of Sub-Saharan Africa; food security; agro-forestry; fisheries management, including the development of artisanal fisheries and aquaculture; off-farm rural economic activities, related to agriculture or not, as a key component of rural development efforts; and population policies.
84. The Conference stressed that within the framework of a policy of integrated agricultural and forestry activities, FAO should accord priority in allocating funds to agroforestry projects, which would be one form of salutary action to prevent deforestation and improve fallow land.
Progress Report on the GATT Multilateral Trade Negotiations (Uruguay Round) and Implications for FAO 24
85. The Conference stressed that the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations under the GATT was of fundamental importance for achieving a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system. It therefore welcomed the
24/ C 89/23; C 89/25; C 89/I/PVI1: C 891I/PVI14; C 89/PV/21.
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agreements reached in the Mid-Term Review of the negotiations by the Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC) in April 1989 which enabled the Uruguay Round negotiations to be resumed. In particular, it noted with satisfaction that the agreement on agriculture aimed to achieve substantial and progressive reductions in support and protection, resulting in correcting and preventing restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets. The Conference also noted with satisfaction that the approach adopted by the TNC for the negotiations on agriculture included both long-term elements for the reform of agricultural policies and short-term elements as well as arrangements on sanitary and phytosanitary regulations.
86. The Conference noted in particular that the Mid-Term Review called for harmonization of national regulations on sanitary and phytosanitary regulations and measures as a long-term goal, on the basis of appropriate standards established by relevant international organizations including the FAQ/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). In this connection, the work programme adopted also embodied, inter alia, the objectives of: strengthening GATT Article XX so that measures taken to protect human, animal or plant life or health were consistent with sound scientific evidence and use suitable principles of equivalency; improving notification procedures; improving the multilateral dispute settlement process within the GATT in order to provide the necessary input of scientific expertise and judgement, relying on relevant international organizations; and providing technical assistance to developing countries regarding sanitary and phytosanitary measures.
87. The Conference emphasized the important pivotal role of FAQ in these areas, particularly through the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) and the International Plant Protection Convention. The Conference expressed its appreciation for the long-established and valuable work of the CAC in harmonizing food standards and related rules for international food trade, for FAQ's activities in relation to the IPPC, and for the Organization's technical assistance provided to developing countries on sanitary and phytosanitary measures.
88. The Conference fully endorsed the support provided by FAQ to the Uruguay Round negotiations, including support to the GATT secretariat in relation to agriculture, tropical products and natural resource-based products, technical assistance provided to participating countries, particularly developing countries, and participation in the negotiations, including those on sanitary and phytosanitary regulations. The Conference urged that such support should continue and, where appropriate, should be intensified.
89. The Conference noted that certain strengthening of FAO activities regarding Codex would be needed. It welcomed the plans of the Director-General to create a special unit within the Food Quality and Standards Service to expedite cooperation between Codex and GATT with regard to food standards, additives, veterinary drug and pesticide residues in foods which could constitute sanitary barriers to trade. The Conference emphasized that FAQ had a unique role to play in providing independent advice and assistance to GATT in these areas.
90. The Conference recognized the basic role of the International Plant Protection Convention in the field of plant quarantine and that many of the issues raised in the GATT negotiations were covered in the Convention. It
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noted with satisfaction the actions taken by the Director-General, at the request for technical assistance by the Director-General of GATT, to address harmonization within the field of plant quarantine.
91. The Conference noted the results of the Technical Consultation between the Regional Plant Protection Organizations, convened by the Director-General in September 1989, and considered its recommendations. The Conference agreed on the necessity to establish a secretariat within FAO for the International Plant Protection Convention to address all issues related to harmonization and information exchange in the area of plant quarantine. The Conference carefully considered the proposed programme of work of the secretariat and agreed that it should have, as the main components, the development of harmonized guidelines for pest risk assessment, harmonized plant quarantine principles with which phytosanitary laws and regulations should be consistent, and harmonized plant quarantine procedures. The Conference further agreed that the secretariat for the IPPC should be supported by a panel of experts on harmonization and plant quarantine and be entrusted with the organization of regular Technical Consultations between Regional Plant Protection Organizations.
92. The Conference noted the role that the Asian and Pacific and the Caribbean Plant Protection Commissions, which were FAQ Statutory Bodies, would have in the harmonization at a regional level. It also noted the need to establish a Plant Protection Commission for the Near East region.
93. The Conference discussed the recommendation of the Technical Consultation held in September 1989 regarding the establishment of a technical global body in the field of plant quarantine. It was felt that a decision at present to establish such a global body would be premature and that first experience should be gained of the functioning of the arrangements set out above, as proposed by the Director-General.
94. The Conference called on the FAQ Member Governments that were not yet contracting parties to the IPPC to adhere to the Convention as soon as possible and stressed the necessity for wider acceptance of its amendments so that the amended version of the Convention could enter into force.
95. The Conference stressed the need for providing technical assistance to developing countries to enable them to meet international harmonization rules and procedures for sanitary and phytosanitary measures.
96. The Conference was informed that it would be desirable to begin phasing into FAQ's programme of work with the minimum of delay the additional activities envisaged in relation to the Codex and the IPPO, so as to enable the Organization to respond to possible requests concerning harmonization of regulations and dispute settlement which may arise in the GATT context. In this connection, the Conference noted that the Uruguay Round negotiations would be completed by the end of 1990 and that it was expected that the implementation of the agreed results would begin shortly thereafter.
97. As regards the financing of these additional activities, the Secr etariat informed the Conference that the implementation would be contingent on the Conference's decisions regarding the Programme of Work and Budget for 1990-91, and the timely payment of all contributions, or on the possibilities of raising additional extra-budgetary resources from interested countries.
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Commission on Plant Genetic Resources and the International Undertaking: Progress Report 25
98. The Conference noted with appreciation the spirit of cooperation and
increasing consensus developed during the last years in the FAQ debates on plant genetic resources and expressed its satisfaction with the progress made by the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources and the considerable and growing acceptance of the International Undertaking. The Conference recognized the pioneering work of FAO in developing a unique Global System on Plant Genetic Resources which includes: a framework, the International Undertaking; an intergovernmental forum; the Commission; and a financial mechanism, the International Fund for Plant Genetic Resources.
99. The Conference recognized the role of the Commission as an
intergovernmental forum where discussions took place and consensus was sought for the continuous development of the Global System on Plant Genetic Resources. In this context, it noted with satisfaction some of the new elements that at the request of the Commission and within the framework of the Undertaking are currently being prepared or considered by FAO in cooperation with the appropriate institutions. These included: the periodical publication of a report on the State of the World Plant Genetic Resources, the establishment of a Global Information and an Early Warning System, the establishment of a network of ex situ base collections under the auspices or jurisdiction of FAO, the establishment of a network on in situ protected areas, the development of a Memorandum of Understanding with the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), and the development of a Code of Conduct for international collectors of germplasm and a Code of Conduct on Biotechnology as it affected the conservation and use of plant genetic resources. It also noted that the Commission had requested FAO, in cooperation with relevant organizations, to continue to monitor actively the evolving new biotechnologies, in line with the International Undertaking. The Conference recognized that many of these developments were likely to influence for years to come policies, programmes and activities of FAO and other international organizations.
100. The Conference welcomed information from various Member Nations on plant genetic resources activities undertaken in their country and their willingness to cooperate with FAO on matters of joint interest. In that respect, the need to provide technical assistance to many developing countries was emphasized and the-useful role of the International Fund was underlined. However, several Member Nations expressed the view that the financing of the Fund should continue on a voluntary basis. Other Member Nations felt that it was necessary to plan financing for the Fund.
I01. The Conference stressed that maximum cooperation should be ensured with various regional and international organizations working on plant genetic resources, in particular IBPGR, and encouraged the Secretariat to develop appropriate arrangements for this. It welcomed the progress made on the
25/ C 89/24; C 89/LIM/29; C 89/LIM/37; C 89/I/PV/8; C 89/I/PV/9; C 89/I/PV/14;
C 89/I/PV/15; C 89/I/PV/17; C 89/PV/21.
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development of a Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation with the IBPGR and the active role played in this by the Commission and its Working Group.
102. The Conference drew attention to the importance of biotechnology in this field for agricultural development in developing countries. However, it stressed that most of the research on biotechnology was undertaken in the industrialized countries and was therefore mainly oriented to their needs. The Conference encouraged FAG to initiate and implement appropriate action to ensure that all countries would draw the full benefit of the various research and development activities on this matter. This should include the development of appropriate technologies that fit the needs of agriculture in developing countries. With regard to the application of the new biotechnologies, some Member Nations emphasized that it would be necessary to provide information on a timely basis through FAG's early warning system on plant genetic resources when the use of these new biotechnologies might involve a risk, or have a negative impact, on member countries.
103. The Conference noted the global importance of animal genetic resources and emphasized the importance for FAO also to be actively involved in this. Several Member Nations supported the results of the FAG Expert Consultation held in Rome from 26 to 28 September 1989, in which it was proposed-to set up institutional, legal and financial mechanisms comparable to those existing for plant genetic resources. Others, however, considered that the present arrangements for plant genetic resources provided an adequate framework and should be amended to include animal genetic resources.
104. The Conference noted that the Ninety-fifth Session of the Council had extensively reviewed the report and recommendations made by the Third Session of the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources, held in Rome from 17 to 21 April 1989.
105. The Conference welcomed in particular the text for two complementary draft resolutions aimed to improve the participation of countries in the International Undertaking. The first one, presented by the Delegation of Spain, was based on the text prepared by the Commission for an agreed interpretation of the International Undertaking. The second one was prepared by the Commission and regarded farmers' rights. The draft resolutions, preserving the principle of unrestricted availability of germplasm, recognized the rights of both donors of technologies and donors of germplasm to be compensated for their contributions through the simultaneous recognition of plant breeders' and farmers' rights. The Conference recognized that both resolutions were intended to lay the basis for an equitable and lasting global system for sharing the costs and benefits of the world's plant genetic resources for present and future generations.
106. During the debate on these two resolutions, a few countries made specific proposals for amendments, but it was recognized that such changes needed further detailed review before they could be considered. A number of countries expressed their intention to join the Undertaking or to withdraw their reservations should the resolutions be adopted. The Conference agreed that the proposed amendments should be included in a document to be prepared by the Secretariat to be considered by the next session of the Working Group and the Commission for possible submission to the next Council and Conference Sessions.
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107. The Conference, recognizing that these resolutions were the final result of wide-ranging and intensive discussions and negotiations among many countries, including a non-member of FAO, some non-members of the Commission and some that did not adhere to the Undertaking, expressed its satisfaction with the draft resolutions.
108. The Conference adopted the following two resolutions:
AGREED INTERPRETATION OF
THE INTERNATIONAL UNDERTAKING
plant genetic resources are a common heritage of mankind to be
preserved, and to be freely available for use, for the benefit of
present and future generations,
Further recoqnizing that:
(a) the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources constitutes
a formal framework aimed at ensuring conservation, use and
availability of plant genetic resources,
(b) some countries have not adhered to the Undertaking and others have
adhered with reservation because of possible conflict of certain
provisions of the Undertaking with their international obligations
and existing national regulations,
(c) these reservations and constraints may be overcome through an
agreed interpretation of the Undertaking which recognizes Plant
Breeders' Rights and Farmers' Rights,
Endorses the agreed interpretation set forth hereinafter which is intended to lay the basis for an equitable and therefcre solid and lasting, global system and thereby to facilitate the withdrawal of reservations which countries have made with regard to the International Undertaking, and to secure the adherence of others:
1. Plant Breeders' Rights as provided for under UPOV (International
Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plant) are not
incompatible with the International Undertaking;
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2. a state may impose only such minimum restrictions on the free
exchange of materials covered by Article 2.1 (a) of the
International Undertaking as are necessary for it to conform to its
national and international obligations;
3. states adhering to the Undertaking recognize the enormous
contribution that farmers of all regions have made to the
conservation and development of plant genetic resources, which
constitute the basis of plant production throughout the world, and
which form the basis for the concept of Farmers' Rights;
4. the adhering states consider that the best way to implement the
concept of Farmers' Rights is to ensure the conservation, management
and use of plant genetic resources, for the benefit of present and
future generations Of farmers. This could be achieved through
appropriate means, monitored by the Commission on Plant Genetic
Resources, including in particular the International Fund for Plant
Genetic Resources, already established by FAO. To reflect the
responsibility of those countries which have benefitted most from
the use of germplasm, the Fund would benefit from being supplemented by further contributions from adhering governments, on a basis to be
agreed upon, in order to ensure for the Fund a sound and recurring
basis. The International Fund should be used to support plant genetic conservation, management and utilization programmes, particularly within developing countries, and those which are
important sources of plant genetic material. Special priority should
be placed on intensified educational programmes for biotechnology
specialists, and strengthening the capabilities of developing
countries in genetic resource conservation and management, as well
as the improvement of plant breeding and seed production.
5. It is understood that:
(a) the term "free access" does not mean free of charge, and
(b) the benefits to be derived under the International
Undertaking are part of a reciprocal system, and should be
limited to countries adhering to the International
(Adopted 29 November 1989)
a) plant genetic resources are a common heritage of mankind to be
preserved, and to be freely available for use, for the benefit of
present and future generations,
b) full advantage can be derived from plant genetic resources through
an effective programme of plant breeding, and that, while most such
resources, in the form of wild plants and old landraces, are to be
found in developing countries, training and facilities for plant
survey and identification, and plant breeding, are insufficient, or
.even not available in many of those countries,
c) plan genetc resources are indispensable for the genetic
improvement of cultivated plants, but have been insufficiently
explored, and are in danger of erosion and loss,
a) in the history of mankind, unnumbered generations of farmers have
conserved, improved and made available plant genetic resources,
b) the majority of these plant genetic resources come from developing
countries, the contribution of whose farmers has not been
sufficiently recognized or rewarded,
c) the farmers, especially those in developing countries, should
benefit fully from the improved and increased use of the natural
resources they have preserved,
d) there is a need to continue the conservation (in situ and ex situ),
development and use of the plant genetic resources in all countries, and to strengthen the capabilities of developing countries in these
Endorses the concept of Farmers' Rights (Farmers' Rights mean rights arising from the past, present and future contributions of farmers in conserving, improving, and making available plant genetic resources, particularly those in the International Community, as trustee for present and future generations of farmers, for the purpose of ensuring full benefits to farmers, and supporting the continuation of their contributions, as well as the attainment of the overall purposes of the International Undertaking) in order to:
a) ensure that the need for conservation is globally recognized and
that sufficient funds for these purposes will be available;
b) assist farmers and farming communities, in all regions of the world,
but especially in the areas of origin/diversity of plant genetic
resources, in the protection and conservation of their plant genetic
resources, and of the natural biosphere;
c) allow farmers, their communities, and countries in all regions, to
participate fully in the benefits derived, at present and in the
future, from the improved use of plant genetic resources, through
plant breeding and other scientific methods.
(Adopted 29 November 1989)
109. The Conference also decided that the two resolutions were to be annexed to the International Undertaking.
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International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides: Introduction of the "Prior Informed Consent" Clause 26
110. The Conference reviewed the proposals for the introduction of Prior Informed Consent (PIC) in the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, in response to Resolution 5/87 adopted in its Twenty-fourth Session. It welcomed the actions taken by the Director-General to develop an acceptable modality for PIC and to submit an amended text for Articles 2 and 9 of the Code of Conduct, as well as Guidelines for the implementation of the PIC procedure. It noted with appreciation the financial contribution of one member country and the effective cooperation of various experts in the development of the procedures.
il1. The Conference expressed full satisfaction with the proposals made and with the consensus reached. It noted the effective cooperation between FAO and UNEP which had resulted in compatible and complementary proposals concerning the integration of PIC procedures in the International Code of Conduct and in the London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade. The Conference welcomed the proposed joint programme between FAO and UNEP for the implementation of the PIC procedure and indicated that this was an excellent example of inter-agency cooperation making efficient use of limited resources.
112. The Conference agreed that the introduction of PIC would enhance the protection of health and environment and also the effectiveness of the Code and re-emphasized full support for its implementation.' It stressed the overall importance of active information exchange and emphasized the need for early action by countries concerned to designate focal points for this. Information exchange, as proposed under PIC, would require the full commitment and cooperation of all exporting and importing countries.
113. There was general agreement that pesticide use would increase in developing countries and that infrastructures and technical capabilities in many countries would require substantial strengthening. The Conference, therefore, stressed the importance of technical assistance to developing countries to enable them to implement the PIC procedure as well as other provisions of the Code. Several Member Nations indicated that they had already begun to provide such assistance.
114. The Conference expressed the view that implementation of biological control and integrated pest management programmes should be further promoted as an effective means to reduce pesticide use.
115. The Conference recognized the problems caused by substantial stocks of outdated pesticides in many developing countries. It noted that assistance would be required from exporting countries and from industries to alleviate this situation.
26/ C 89/20; C 89/I/PV/10; C 89/I/PV/11; C 8911/PVI15; C 89/I/PVI17;
- 31 -
116. Many Member Nations expressed concern about the voluntary non-binding nature of thc present version of the Code and felt that it may not provide an adequate framework for the full realization of all objectives of the Code. It was proposed that the Secretariat should explore the possibility of establishing a legally binding instrument and report on progress through COAG (Committee on Agriculture) and Council to Conference.
117. Many Member Nations proposed to broaden the criteria of the Guidelines to include other pesticides under the PIC procedure. In particular, the following categories of pesticides were proposed for review and possible inclusion and were widely supported:
pesticides in international trade that were never submitted for
pesticides submitted for registration but rejected for reasons of health
or the environment;
pesticides voluntarily withdrawn from registration by manufacturers for
reasons of health or the environment.
118. Furthermore, suggestions were made for additional changes and amendments to Article 9 of the Code and the proposed Guidelines. Proposed additions are underlined in the text below, proposed deletions appear within brackets.
Article 9.1 -The Government of any country that takes action to ban or severely restrict the use or handling of a pesticide in order to protect health or the environment should notify FAO as soon as possible but not later than six months after the action of the action it has taken. FAG will notify the designated national authorities in other countries of the action of the notifying Government.
Article 9.2 The purpose of notification regarding control action is to give competent authorities in other countries the opportunity to assess the risks associated with the pesticides, and to make timely and informed decisions as to the importation and use of the pesticides concerned, after taking into account local, social, public health, economic, environmental and administrative conditions.
Article 9.5 Provision of information regarding exports should take place at the time of the first export following the control action, and shouldrecur in the case of any significant development of new information or condition surrounding the control action. It is the iatention that the information should be provided prior to export or at the time of export at the latest.
Article 9.10.1 Decide (on future acceptability) to accept or ban the importation of that pesticide in their country and advise FAG as soon as that decision has been made.
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Step 3 Notification of Control Actions. 4th paragraph Severely restricted a limited ban means a pesticide for which virtually all registered uses have been prohibited by final Government regulatory action for health or environmental reasons, but specific registered use or uses remain authorized or a pesticide for which Government regulatory action in force permits only specific registered use.
Step 4 Selecting pesticides to be included in the PIC procedure FAO will, in cooperation with UNEP/IRPTC and other relevant organizations, review all notifications to ensure conformity with the definitions. Pesticides will be included in the PIC procedure when FAO is advised by a Government that it has taken final control action consistent with the definition of banned or severely restricted for health or environmental reasons in the Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides or that a manufacturer has voluntarily withdrawn a pesticide. Member countries will notify FAO of any pesticide that is not registered in their country but is still traded.
Additionally, an FAO Expert Panel will consider the problem of acutely hazardous pesticide formulations, i.e. those that pose particular handling problems, to determine if there exists a need for a list of such products to supplement the pesticides already subject to the PIC procedure. This Panel should include national pesticide registrars and representatives from WHO and UNEP. They may call upon expertise as they deem necessary and will review formulations which are included in WHO Class 1(A) and in addition they will keep the issue of acutely hazardous pesticide formulations under continuing review after completion of their initial task. If the Panel concludes that there are acutely hazardous pesticide formulations of concern to developing countries that are not already included in the PIC procedure, a supplemental list of such formulations will be recommended for inclusion.
Step 6 Footnote to paragraph 1. (An import order by a Government designated official authority will be assumed to have the consent of the Government and, thus, to have precedence over the PIC procedure).
Step 6 paragraph 5. National Control on Imports At the time an interim
or final decision to ban importation for health or environmental reasons is made, the national agency responsible for controlling imports will be instructed to take the relevant import control actions. Where it exists, (local) production for domestic use will also be subjected to the control action. Importing countries would take all necessary measures to prohibit importation and (local) production for domestic use.
Step 8 Actions to be taken by exporting countries National authorities of exporting countries would inform 'the appropriate authorities and the pesticide export industry of decisions by importing countries. Governments would (implement) take appropriate (procedures) measures, within their (authorities) authority and legislative competence designed to (help) ensure that exports do not occur contrary to the decision of the participating importing country.
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119. The Conference agreed that it was essential to maintain a consensus on the proposals made for the inclusion of PIC in the Code. The Conference, therefore, decided that additional changes and amendments should not be included in the Code and Guidelines at this stage but should first be considered by the appropriate Panel of Experts and subsequently submitted through COAG and Council to Conference for its review and decision, together with a progress report on the implementation of the Code and PIC.
120. In order to provide for immediate implementation of the PIC procedure, the Conference adopted the following Resolution:
INCLUSION OF PRIOR INFORMED CONSENT IN THE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF CONDUCT ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF PESTICIDES
Considering Resolution 5/87 of the Twenty-fourth Session of the Conference in which it was decided that "in the Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides" the principle of "prior informed consent" should be incorporated within the next biennium,
Taking note of the action taken by the Director-General to implement the Conference decision which included an Expert Consultation and a Government Consultation, which had reached general agreement on the operation of the Prior Informed Consent procedure and of the amendments required for the inclusion of Prior Informed Consent in the Code,
Noting the decisions of the Governing Council of UNEP to amend the "London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade" to include Prior Informed Consent, and the emphasis placed by the Governing Council on the necessity of cooperation between UNEP and FAO on the implementation of Prior Informed Consent,
Considering the recommendations of COAG to Council and the recommendations of the Council to the Conference,
1. Decides to amend Articles 2 and 9 of the Code as indicated in Section A
of Appendix E;
2. Authorizes the Director-General to establish a programme to implement
Prior Informed Consent procedures, as outlined in Section A of
3. Requests the Director-General to seek to establish such a programme
jointly with UNEP.
(Adopted 29 November 1989)
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Plan of Action for the Inteqration of WoTn into Aqricultural and Rural Development
121. The Conference considered the Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development and the Progress Report on its implementation. It recalled that preparation of the Plan ha5abeen requested by the Twenty-fourth Session of the Conference 29and was subsequently approved by the Ninety-fourth Session of the Council which had also requested the Conference to approve the Plan. The Conference also noted that the Progress Report was prepared upon the request of the Ninety-fourth Session of the Council for its Ninety-sixth Session but was forwarded by the Council directly to the Conference for its consideration as it could not discuss it due to lack of time.
122. The Conference noted with satisfaction the approval of the Plan by the Ninety-fourth Session of the Council and endorsed the Plan unanimously. In doing so the Conference observed that the Plan was a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary document designed to guide the Organization and its Member Nations in an area where national and international action was much needed. It agreed that the implementation of the Plan required efforts by both Member Nations and FAO. The Conference requested the Secretariat to monitor the implementation of the Plan and to report, at the departmental and country level, on its progress to the Conference in 1991.
123. The Conference endorsed specifically the objectives and the strategy of the Plan. It confirmed FAO's three basic functions with regard to women in development, namely (1) the general assessment and monitoring of the women in development situations and needs, (2) elaboration and promotion of suitable policies and (3) the preparation, support and implementation of appropriate programmes. It approved the Plan's thrust towards raising women's agricultural productivity and income-producing capacity and emphasized the need for supporting and promoting women's contribution to agricultural and rural development, including forestry and fisheries, and their participation in population programmes.
124. The Conference appreciated the general direction and substantive concerns of the Plan. It recognized the usefulness of the linkages of the Plan to the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies and the UN System Wide Medium-Term Plan. The Conference stressed that legislative action was a precondition of advancement and consequently merited particular attention but recognized that attitudinal changes and the improvement of socio-economic conditions were also required. The Conference emphasized that activities covered by the Plan of Action should particularly aim at strengthening the production and income producing roles of women as an integral part of the family. In this connection it noted the increasing number of women heads of rural households all over the world and underlined the necessity to design special programmes to assist them. It recognized the useful role of sociological and anthropological expertise for adequately assessing the country-specific social and cultural factors.
27/ C 89/14; C 89/14-Sup.1; C 89/LIM/37; C 89/I/PV/1; C 89/I/PV/12;
C 89/I/PV/13; C 89/I/PV/15; C 89/I/PV/17; C 89/PV/21.
28/ C 87/REP, Resolution 3/87.
29/ CL 94/REP, Res6lution 1/94.
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125. As to the approach to be taken in considering issues on women in rural and agricultural development, the Conference underlined the advantages of integrating women in development concerns into FAO's mainstream programmes and projects. The Conference recommended full integration of women in development concerns into the work of the Organization as well as in national activities, while recognizing that positive discrimination -and thus specific projects or project components aimed at women might be needed to achieve certain objectives. The Conference noted that special treatment of women in development concerns could result in their marginalization and agreed therefore that women in development concerns should be systematically integrated in the on-going work of the organization.
126. The Conference stressed the fundamental importance of the active role of governments in implementing the Plan of Action. In this connection it noted several key areas requiring urgent attention, such as, the elaboration of national policies on women in development, and the modification of legislative measures to improve women's access to land, credit, extension, rural services, and improved technology. Special emphasis was placed on training of rural women as a prerequisite for their full participation in development.
127. As regards the Progress Report, the Conference commended the progress achieved since the approval of the Plan of Action by the Council in November 1988. It agreed with the priorities proposed in the Progress Report and noted that, in accordance with the Council recommendation, the highest priority was proposed to be given to training FAQ staff in women in development. other priorities specifically endorsed included policy advice to Member Nations, project development and monitoring, preparation of guidelines and manuals, reorientation of home economics and agricultural curricula, data collection, and population education. The Conference also endorsed the administrative priorities proposed in the Progress Report including the strategy to increase the access of women, especially those from developing and underrepresented countries, to professional posts in FAO with a view to Making progress towards reaching the UN target of 30 percent by 1995, and to encourage the promotion of women within the organization, without affecting the principles of professional quality and equitable geographic distribution. The Conference recognized that the Plan would be implemented by Regular Programme resources, to be complemen Sd by extra-budgetary funds, as indicated in the Progress Report
128. The Conference welcomed the collaboration that FAO had established with other agencies and institutions within the UN System in order to share
experiences in promoting programmes and projects for rural women and to avoid unnecessary duplication. The Conferen--e stressed the importance of involving NGOs in the implementation of the Plan of Action. It emphasized the need to strengthen the participatory approach and to link closely the programmes for women with the FAQ People's Participation Programme.
30/ The Representative of the Director-General stated that the
implementation of the Plan of Action would require the availability of
Regular Programme and extra-budgetary funds. As indicated in the
Progress Report, the estimated requirements for the coordinating unit
to implement the Plan amounted to US$ 2.7 million of Regular Programme
and US$ 780 000 of extra-budgetary resources in the 1990-91 biennium.
The full implementation of the Plan was contingent on and subject to
the availability of these Regular Programme and extra-budgetary funds.
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129. The Conference adopted the following Resolution:
MEASURES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION AND FOLLOW-UP OF THE
PLAN OF ACTION FOR INTEGRATION OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
Recoqnizinq the vital role of women in agricultural production and rural development,
Recalling Conference Resolution 3/87 which, inter alia, requested the Director-General to prepare a Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development,
Recallinq also Council Resolution 1/94 which endorsed the Plan of-Action, defined certain key issues and requested the Director-General to present a Progress Report on implementing it,
Noting with appreciation the information provided in the Progress Report on implementing the Plan of Action,
1. Approves the Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in
Development, as endorsed by the Council;
2. Endorses the priorities and programmes as identified in the Progress
Report for implementing the Plan of Action during 1990-1995;
3. Requests the Director-General to make efforts to maintain the level
of resources allocated for this sub-programme within the Regular
Programme, and to:
(a) continue efforts to integrate women (especially rural women)
into all aspects of FAO's regular programmes and field
(b) carry out the two-year staff training plan, as envisaged in the
(c) make all efforts to achieve significant results in the
execution of the priorities; and
(d) implement the strategy suggested in the Progress Report to
increase the access of women to professional posts at all
levels, without affecting the principles of professional
quality and equitable geographical distribution;
.4. Requests Member Governments to make all efforts to implement the
Plan of Action on Women in Development and to inform periodically on
progress achieved in this field at national level and in the rural
environment, as a part of reporting on WCARRD progress;
5 Urges Member Governments to provide extra-budgetary resources in
order to contribute to the implementation of the Plan of Action as
suggested in the Progress Report;
6. Requests the Director-General to present to the Conference in 1991 a
report on the progress made in implementing the Plan of Action.
(Adopted 29 November 1989)
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ACTIVITIES AND PROGRAMMES OF THE ORGANIZATION
Review of the Regular Programme 1988-89 31
130. The Conference considered the Review of the Regular Programme 1988-89 to be a comprehensive, useful and informative document and welcomed the further improvements made in its format, presentation and content. It was observed that a comparable Review did not exist in other agencies of the United Nations. In particular, the Conference appreciated the consolidated quantitative information on programme implementation (Part I, Chapter Four), the highlighting of successful or innovative activities (Part I, Chapters One, Two and Three) and the coverage of interdisciplinary activities under Major Programme Agriculture. It also noted with regret the adverse effects of budgetary cuts on programme implementation under Major Programmes Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.
131. While the focus of the Review was on Regular Programme activities, the Conference appreciated the inclusion of key achievements of field projects in the performance of Programmes, Sub-programmes and cross-sectoral topics. It recognized that this integrated approach helped underline the organic link between Regular and Field Programme activities, especially in the in-depth reviews of Sub-programmes (Part II) and of special subjects (Part III) in which the thrust of the analysis was on the assessment of effects and impact.
132. In appreciating the informative and analytical content of the Review, the Conference desired that the document be made even more evaluative, with particular emphasis on quality assessment of programme achievements and on the analysis of impact, including the influence of FAO's activities on national programmes, where appropriate. This would facilitate more effective feedback from evaluation to future programming.
133. The Conference noted that Part I of the Review had highlighted key achievements in the implementation of the Major Programmes. It also noted the adverse effects on the implementation of technical programmes resulting from budgetary cuts and programme adjustments. It expressed serious concern about these adverse effects, including the erosion of FAO's technical staff strength, the reductions in training activities, work months used for the technical backstopping of field projects and in the number of meetings and important publications. The Conference agreed that such cuts and adjustments had rendered the orderly implementation of the Regular Programme difficult and had affected FAO's capacity to respond to urgent requests for assistance from member countries.
134. Among the wide range of activities covered in Part I of the Review, the Conference emphasized the importance of plant and animal genetic resources, prevention of food losses, land and water conservation, integrated pest management, locust centre, seed development, role of women in development, TFAP, development of small-scale fisheries and aquaculture, global information and early warning systems, training of national professional and para-professional staff, biotechnology and Codex Alimentarius, and support to the Uruguay Round.
31/ C 89/8; C 89/LIM/17; C 89/II/PV/I; C 89/II/PV/2; C 89/II/PV/3;
C 89/II/PV/16; C 89/PV/20.
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035. The Conference reiterated its support for the TCP (Technical Cooperation Programme). The majority of Member Nations urged an increase in the share of TCP in the overall budget. Some Member Nations considered that the treatment of TCP in the Review was insufficient and urged that future Reviews should include a substantive section on the structure and achievements of the TCP.
136. The Conference considered that the in-depth reviews of the four Sub-programmes included in Part II of the Review were frank and useful, and appreciated that these reviews had raised key issues which indicated the way for further improvements in the planning and implementation of the sub-programmes. It noted the positive achievements of Sub-programme 184.108.40.206 (Food and Agriculture Industries) in improving indigenous processing technologies for grains, fruits and vegetables and in the development of sericulture and apiculture. All these activities were supporting rural development and contributing to rural income generation. The Conference supported the conclusions which emphasized, in particular, the importance of vertical integration and increased cooperation with other UN agencies, especially UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization).
137. The Conference agreed that Sub-programme 220.127.116.11 (Situation and Outlook) performed a unique function consonant with FAO's constitutional mandate and welcomed the qualitative improvements made in the State of Food and Agriculture and the Commodity Review and Outlook. It supported the merger of the World Food Report into SOFA and noted with satisfaction the timely publication of SOFA.
138. The Conference expressed satisfaction with the contributions of Sub-programme 18.104.22.168 (Fisheries Policy and Planning) in strengthening national planning and management capabilities in the sector of fisheries through improved data collection, training of national staff in fisheries planning and management and assistance to recipient countries through multidisciplinary advisory missions. It encouraged FAO to further strengthen this effort, particularly in the socio-economic and environmental aspects of fisheries and in the development of aquaculture, and concentrate research on small fishing boats.
139. The Conference recognized the critical role of Sub-programme 22.214.171.124 (Forestry Training and Institutions) in the development of manpower and institutions serving the forestry sector. It noted that these activities made particularly useful contributions to the work of the Tropical Forestry Action Plan.
140. The Conference welcomed the inclusion of the two special subjects in Part III of the Review. Both subjects, which highlighted cross-sectoral issues, were of great importance for the future orientation of FAO's work in policy analysis and the use of natural resources on a sustainable basis. Consequently, their inclusion in the Review was useful and timely.
141. The Conference considered the chapter on Review of FAO's Policy and Planning Support to Member Countries as a comprehensive coverage of FAO's activities in policy and strategy formulation at global, regional and country level, including the strengthening of national institutions in policy analysis through training and advisory services under field projects.
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142. The Conference noted that FAO's activities in policy analysis and planning were shared among 41 Sub-programmes and the level of expenditures during 1984-89 amounted to some US$ 82 million from the Regular Budget (13 percent of the combined budgets of the three technical Major Programmes). FAO's policy work in terms of advisory missions, meetings and consultations, training, publication of guidelines and the technical backstopping of field projects was considered impressive. The Conference appreciated that 40 percent of field projects in policy and planning were funded by TCP.
143. The Conference urged FAO to further strengthen its capacity in policy analysis and planning with particular focus on sector and sub-sector reviews and sector and structural adjustment work particularly at the level of the countries concerned. In connection with the latter, the Conference agreed that FAO had complementary roles to play in collaboration with other international agencies, such as IMF (International Monetary Fund) and the World Bank, especially in avoiding or mitigating any adverse effects of structural adjustment on food security and rural development concerns. It also emphasized the need for closer working relationships with IMF and the World Bank, especially on country macro-economic frameworks, and with the UNDP. The early involvement of FAO in structural adjustment work was emphasized.
144. The Conference stressed the multidisciplinary nature of work in policy analysis and sector and sub-sector reviews. Some Member Nations considered that this called for a more effective internal working mechanism within FAO, as well as increased technical assistance to developing countries in these crucial areas.
145. The Conference appreciated the inclusion of the chapter on FAO Support to Member Countries in Conservation and Amelioration of the Natural Environment and Introduction of Environmental Considerations in FAO Projects and Programmes. It noted with appreciation FAO's traditional role in the use of natural resources on a sustainable basis. The Conference observed that the subject was complex and encompassed a large number of activities under 19 Subprogrammes. The Conference stressed that in the light of international concern for environmental issues and the rational use of natural resources for sustainable development, there was a strong justification for increased allocation of resources in support of environmental aspects of FAO activities, both from the Regular Programme and extra-budgetary sources.
146. The Conference noted the upgrading of the Inter-Departmental Working Group on Environment and Energy and welcomed the introduction of systematic environmental impact assessment in field projects.
147. The Conference stressed the need for a balanced approach in the use of natural resources. While the concern for preserving the environment was of crucial importance, there must be equal consideration given to the efficient use of natural resources to overcome poverty in the developing countries. The Conferenceconsidered that the twin objectives of protecting the environment and improving the living standard of the rural poor were compatible.
148. The Conference urged the active participation of FAO in the planned 1992 UN World Conference on Environment to the extent that available resources allowed.
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Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91 and Medium-Term Objectives 32
149. The Conference recognized the range of external and inte.al challenges confronting the Organization which had a bearing on the Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91.
150. The Conference agreed that a number of factors, such as the expanding world population especially in developing countries, the pervasive rural poverty and malnutrition in many regions, the environmental threats to the agricultural resource base, the imbalances in the world food and agricultural system and the burden of external debt called for a determined FAO response consistent with its three main roles, and an adequate capacity for FAO to provide the necessary technical assistance and support to needy countries. The Conference underlined the increased responsibilities which the world community expected FAO to shoulder through catalytic, supportive and regulatory actions. These included the facilitation of freer agricultural trade, the safe use of pesticides and the preservation of natural ecosystems and genetic resources.
151. Among internal challenges, the Conference reiterated its concern at the impact of continued financial difficulties due primarily to arrears in the payment of contributions. The Conference expressed regret that successive programme cuts made necessary by income shortfalls, particularly contributions shortfalls in the last two biennia, to some extent had deprived Member Nations of the Organization's valuable outputs and services. It noted that the longerterm implications of these reductions were compounded by the difficulties encountered in the recruitment and retention of qualified staff.
152. The great majority of Member Nations stressed that it was imperative to restore FAO's capacity to meet extensive requirements for assistance from its membership. They urged that some expansion of its programmes was now necessary, in order to meet these expectations and compensate for earlier forced cuts in programmes and activities. Accordingly, additional resources had to be provided. Some other Member Nations recognized the need for FAO to be able to address new situations and adjust its technical capacity accordingly. They considered, however, that this should not necessarily imply additional resources but should be effected primarily through reordering of priorities and redeployment of resources.
153. The Conference agreed that the prime basis for the Organization's recovery and effective presence on the international scene lay in the prompt payment of contributions and settlement of arrears. It made a strong appeal for such payments from Member Nations with contributions outstanding for 1989 and for earlier years and stressed the need for effective and timely action to be taken by them.
32/ C 89/3; C 89/3-Sup.1; C 89/3-Sup.2; C 89/3-Sup.3; C 89/3-Sup.4
C 89/LIM/18-Rev.1; C 89/LIM/36; C 89/LIM/46; C 89/II/PV/3;
C 89/II/PV/4; C 89/II/PV/5; C 89/II/PV/6; C 89/II/PV/7; C 89/II/PV/13;
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154. Some Member Nations considered that eventual Conference decisions stemming from the FAO Review would have implications for the programme of work of the Organization in the next biennium. Accordingly, they urged that a final position on the budgetary proposals should not be taken until the budgetary implications of decisions on the Review were known. The majority of Member Nations did not agree with this approach and stressed that approval of the Programme of Work and Budget should not be subordinated to consideration of other issues. They strongly felt that any attempt to link the two outcomes would not be conducive to dispassionate dialogue and constructive decisions by the Conference.
- Programme Budget Process
155. The Conference noted that the Council had agreed, at its Ninety-fourth Session in November 1988, to the introduction, on an experimental basis, of an additional consultative step to FAO's programme budget process, consisting in the submission of an Outline Programme of Work and-Budget to an early joint session of the Programme and Finance Committees. The Conference further noted this development had originated from the FAO Review and that continuation of the procedure, for at least the 1992-93 Programme of Work and Budget, had been recommended by the Special Joint Session which had dealt with the Review.
156. The Conference recognized that views had already been expressed by representatives of Member Nations on the relative merits of this procedure at sessions of the Programme and Finance Committees and the Council. One current of opinion was that this additional step had enhanced dialogue among the membership on budgetary proposals, and that it should be pursued. Another current was that the true test of the value of this procedure could only take place at the time of voting on budgetary appropriations. Some also indicated that if the step of the Outline were to be continued, the elimination of the Summary should be considered. The Conference agreed that it would revert to this issue in the context of.its consideration of the FAO Review.
157. The Conference noted the main features of the Director-General's proposals, which included the allocation of net additional resources only to FAO's technical and economic activities, the provision of a net programme increase of US$ 5.5 million, i.e. 1 percent of the recosted 1988-89 base, the deliberate absorption of some anticipated cost increases amounting to US$ 3 million and the further reduction of 25 established posts. This had resulted in a proposed budget level of US$ 574 million at the budgetary exchange of Italian Lire 1 235 to US$ 1, adopted by the FAO Conference in November 1987 for the present Programme of Work and Budget.
158. The Conference expressed appreciation of the Director-General's efforts, aimed at consensus approval of the Programme of Work and Budget. It recognized that the Director-General had sought to find a compromise between the wish of a great majority of Member Nations to see a level of resources commensurate with requirements and the need to limit the request for assessments in the light of continuing difficulties experienced by many Member Nations to meet their financial obligations to the Organization.
159. The Conference was satisfied that the substantive content of the Programme of Work and Budget duly reflected prior guidance by FAO's Governing and Advisory Bodies. It noted that this substantive content had been enriched by and took into account the comments made by the bodies which had examined the proposals in the form of the Outline and the Summary.
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160. The Conference welcomed the further improvements made by the Secretariat to the format and presentation of the Programme of Work and Budget document, in order to enhance its clarity and transparency. It encouraged the continuation of additional improvements where feasible.
161. The Conference endorsed the nine priority areas under Chapter 2: Technical and Economic Programmes, which were targetted for net additional resources: policy advice; biotechnology; agricultural data development; sustainable development; women in development; crop/weather monitoring; crop protection; aquaculture; and the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. It was recognized that the listing of these areas did not reflect any ranking of priorities.
162. With regard to biotechnology, the Conference underlined the expected contribution of FAO to assisting developing countries in sharing more widely in the benefits from new technologies and to monitoring the impact of developments in such technologies on the world food and agriculture situation.
163. The Conference recalled the key role of FAO in the assembly and dissemination of information regarding food and agriculture. It was particularly pleased to note, in this connection, the planned resumed publication of key FAO magazines such as CERES and UNASYLVA.
164. The Conference reiterated the importance it attached to the close complementarity between the Regular and Field Programmes. Many Member Nations expressed the hope that adequate extra-budgetary resources would be forthcoming to permit continued expansion of field activities. The planned strengthening of country offices under Chapter 3: Development Support Programmes was considered particularly timely in this respect.
165. Some Member Nations expressed the wish to see a clearer definition of links between programme elements and established priorities, thereby facilitating consideration of the programme proposals.
166. In respect of the regional balance, the members of the Latin American and Caribbean Region expressed concern at the relatively low share of both Regular Programme and field activities for the benefit of their region and expressed the hope that this would be redressed in future biennia. In particular, they requested that a formula should be found to avoid closing down the AQUILA (Regional Aquaculture Activities for Latin America and the Caribbean) aquaculture network which, it had been expected, was to continue to be funded by donor countries.
167. Many Member Nations regretted the suppression of certain programme elements intended for Africa. The Conference supported the continued priority given to this region.
- Programme Activities
168. During the discussion, a number of comments were made on selected programme activities to which Member Nations attached importance. In some cases, Member Nations expressed regret at the proposed reduced level of resources for specific activities to which they attached special importance.
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169. With regard to Chapter 2: Technical and Economic Programmes, broad endorsement was given to the substantive thrust and objectives of all component programmes and sub-programmes. However, several Member Nations reiterated their particular support to FAO fisheries and forestry activities and their hope to see these major programmes benefit from higher levels of resources in future biennia.
170. Many Member Nations gave examples of what they considered the main components of FAO's broad action in support of sustainable development: inter alia desertification control, sound management of land and water resources and the catalytic role of the TFAP.
171. The Conference underlined the expected enhanced contribution of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission and the International Plant Protection Convention to furthering the objectives of the Uruguay Round of the GATT and the facilitation of agricultural trade and stressed FAO's supportive role in this regard.
172. The Conference recalled its appreciation of the catalytic role and useful contribution of the Technical Cooperation Programme. The great majority of Member Nations expressed regret at the reduced share of the TCP in total appropriations, especially at a time of greater requirements for TCP assistance and in the light of unsatisfied requests which could not be accommodated. Many Member Nations expressed the hope that the share of the TCP in the total budget could be increased to at least 17 percent in further biennia. A few Member Nations, however, considered that they could not accept the proposed programme increase for the TCP. Some also mentioned their wish to see more transparent information on TCP operations in the future. Most Member Nations, however, expressed their satisfaction with the information available on the TCP's operations.
- Financial framework
173. The Conference addressed the financial aspects of the Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91.
174. In connection with'the estimate for cost increases, a few Member Nations questioned the inclusion at this stage of provision for the costs likely to result, in particular from the decisions of the UN General Assembly to be taken on the recommendations of the International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) regarding conditions of service for professional and higher categories. They referred to the possible use of the Special Reserve Account when the exact financial implications became known. A number of Member Nations could not agree to any actions by the Conference which appeared to prejudge decisions of the UN General Assembly. A few Member Nations noted that the situation in relation to these costs, if approved, would be monitored by the Finance Committee, and expressed the view that to the extent that the funds were not needed for this purpose, they should form part of an eventual cash surplus at the end of the 1990-91 biennium.
175. The great majority of Member Nations, however, stressed that it was essential to protect the implementation of the programme eventually approved by the Conference by including the necessary budgetary provision. They warned against subsequent cuts due to unbudgeted cost increases, as had often happened in past biennia. They saw no basis to question the total estimate which had been calculated according to established methodology and had been subject to the usual detailed review by the Finance Committee.
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176. The Conference noted that the absolute amount of the provision for cost increases would be revised downwards in the light of the Conference decision on the budget rate for 1990-91, if based on prevailing exchange rates.
177. Many Member Nations underlined that the net programme increase, as proposed, had to be considered in the light of the deliberate absorption of cost increases amounting to US$ 3 million. This would result, in their view, in a programme increase of only 0.45 percent. A few Member Nations, however, considered that this link would not be in accordance with established methodology and the correct programme increase was one percent as stated in the document.
178. The Conference addressed the proposal to reduce the lapse factor used for the calculation of cost estimates for established posts, as contained in document C 8913-Sup.4 which was submitted as part of the Director-General's overall budget proposal. Some Member Nations did not consider that any substantive explanation to justify such a change had been put forward and pointed out that the current level had operated without problems for many years. They indicated concern at the additional costs that would arise if this proposal were accepted, amounting to an addition of US$ 9.3 million to the proposed Programme of Work and Budget and at the substantial consequential increase in Member Nations assessed contributions. They also recalled that the Finance Committee could not reach agreement on this proposal. Some other Member Nations, while expressing their approval for the Programme of Work and Budget, specifically supported the proposal to reduce the lapse factor. They found the proposal reasonable, in view of the practice regarding the application of the lapse factor in comparable institutions, and, as it would facilitate the effective and full implementation of the Programme of Work and Budget. They found the proposal timely and realistic in the context of the modest increase in the proposed budget level and the prospects of greater staff stability in the short and medium term. Most Member Nations accepted the Director-General 's budgetary proposals.
179. In conclusion, the Conference agreed to the reduction of the lapse factor to 3 percent.
- Budget level
180. In the light of the above, the following views were expressed on the proposed budget level.
181. A few Member Nations reiterated their support for zero real growth and maximum absorption of non-discretionary cost increases for the organizations of the UN System. A few of them considered that the level for 1990-91 should reflect the resources likely to be available to the Organization and stated that they could not, therefore, join in a consensus on the proposals as formulated. Some others, who upheld the same position of principle, however, felt that an eventual consensus could be reached if the impact of Conference recommendations on the Review could be accommodated within the proposed level. Some other Member Nations reserved their final position until the time of voting on the Programme of Work and Budget.
182. A few Member Nations expressed concern about the impact of the proposed budget level on assessed contributions of developing countries affected among other factors, by the burden of external debt, but supported the Director-General's programme proposals.
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183. The great majority of Member Nations emphasized that they had expected a higher programme increase in order to enable FAO to meet more adequately expressed requirements for its services. They rejected the concepts of zero growth and enforced absorption of cost increases, which they considered were tantamount to stagnation and regression, at a time when the Organization had greatly suffered from exceptional financial difficulties. They supported the Director-General's proposals despite the modest increase. Member Nations shared his wish that the Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91 be approved by consensus, if not unanimously by the Conference.
184. The Conference approved the Programme of Work and Budget and adopted the following Resolution:
BUDGET APPROPRIATIONS 1990-91
Having considered the Director-General's Programme of Work and Budget and the conclusions of its Commissions:
1. Approves the Programme of work proposed by the Director-General for
2. Resolves that for the financial period 1990-91:
(a) Appropriations 33/ are voted for the following purposes:
Chapter 1 General Policy and Direction 40 605 000
Chapter 2 Technical and Economic Programmes 273 869 000 Chapter 3 Development Support Programmes 88 469 000
Chapter 4 Technical Cooperation Programme 67 767 000
Chapter 5 Support Services 79 654 000
Chapter 6 Common Services 17 836 000
Chapter 7 Contingencies 600 000
Total effective working budget 568 800 000
Chapter 8 Transfer to Tax Equalization Fund 69 200 000
Total Appropriations (Gross) 638 000 000
(b) The appropriations (gross) voted in paragraph (a) above, shall be
financed by assessments on Member Nations, after deduction of
Miscellaneous Income in the amount of US$ 12 000 000, thus
resulting in assessments against Member Nations of
US$ 626 000 000.
33/ Calculated at Lit. 1 335 = US$ 1.
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(c) In establishing the actual amounts of contributions to be paid by
individual Member Nations, the assessment of each Member Nation shall be reduced by any amount standing to its credit in the Tax
Equalization Fund provided that the credit of a Member Nation that levies taxes on the salaries, emoluments and indemnities
received from FAO by staff members shall be reduced by the
estimated amounts of such taxes to be reimbursed to the staff
member by FAO.
(d) The contributions due from Member Nations in 1990 and 1991 shall
be paid in accordance with the scale adopted by the Conference at
its Twenty-fifth Session, which contributions, after the
deduction of amounts standing to the credit of Member Nations in
the Tax Equalization Fund, result in net amounts payable
totalling US$ 557 500 000 as set out in Appendix F to this Report.
(Adopted 24 November 1989)
Review of Field Programmes 1988-89 34
185. The Conference expressed its appreciation for the quality of the Review, which it found to be clear, concise and comprehensive. It was noted that the document represented a significant improvement over such documents in the past. Some Member Nations expressed the view that a more analytical and forward-looking approach should be pursued in future, with greater emphasis on complementarity between the Regular and Field Programmes and full account being taken of the comparative advantage of the Organization.
186. The Conference welcomed the fact that the field programmes in terms of current value had continued to expand in the biennium, although it was noted that this was still below the real volume levels achieved in the early part of the decade. It was noted that the main area of expansion was UNDP-funded technical assistance, where renewed emphasis on addressing food and agricultural issues was welcomed. The Conference commended FAO's close cooperation with UNDP, and called for this to be further strengthened in future.
187. The Conference underscored the fact that Trust Fund programmes reflected both donors' and recipients' confidence and trust in FAO to provide high quality assistance to tackle critical challenges in agriculture and rural development. The decline in TCP 1988 expenditures was regretted by many Member Nations which called for a renewed increase in TCP delivery to meet urgent needs for short-term emergency and technical assistance.
188. Many Member Nations regretted the fact that the serious financial liquidity crisis affecting the Regular Programme had strained the Organization's capacities to support its field programmes.
189. Member Nations welcu-ied the focus of field programmes on providing assistance to Africa, which had accounted for 48 percent of all expenditures during the biennium. At the same time, several Member Nations noted with
34/ C 89/4; C 89/LIM/19; C 89/II/PV/7; C 89/1I/PV/8; C 89/II/PV/16;
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concern that assistance to Latin America continued to be under 10 percent of total expenditures. Several others were of the view that field programme attention should, cutting across regions, have a direct and responsive nexus with the magnitude and spread of the problems of underdevelopment. They were of the view that the flow of assistance should have an equitable relationship with the extent and distribution of needs. Satisfaction was expressed that over 50 percent of field activities by value were being undertaken in LDCs (Least Developed Countries).
190,. The Conference noted that applied research and experimentation was an integral part of numerous field projects in FAO's various disciplines. It welcomed the rise in assistance for planning and policy advice to around 10 percent of total expenditures in the biennium. Many viewed this as particularly important in the context of the structural adjustment programmes which many recipient countries were pursuing. Several Member Nations expressed regret at the decline in the share of activities aimed at developing the livestock sector, which was a major part of many developing countries' economies. Particular appreciation was expressed for the Tropical Forestry Action Plan, which involved a wide range of field activities in this high-priority area and could be set as an example to be followed.
191. Progress made in the use of developing country capacities was emphasized, in particular the use of developing country experts and national personnel in field projects, and the placement of fellows in developing country institutions. At the same time, the lack of progress in increasing the use of developing countries' equipment and inputs was noted with regret, along with the continued low share of these countries in sub-contracting activities. The Conference noted that these matters were of system-wide concern, and that FAO was active in inter-agency fora to identify measures to improve the situation.
192. The open and frank examination of the performance of FAO's field projects was welcomed by the Conference, both as reported in surveys by FAO Representatives and as demonstrated by the objective and critical summary of individual project evaluation reports by FAO's Evaluation Service. In particular, appreciation was expressed for the analytical assessment of the special difficulties in performance faced in LDCs, and for the measures identified to overcome these. Satisfaction was expressed with the special assessment of ARPA (Agricultural Rehabilitation Programme for Africa) projects, many of these funded through TCP, which had indicated needs for improvement in this particular type of technical and emergency assistance programme. Some Member Nations called for the further strengthening of project evaluation work, including thematic evaluation, and greater attention to.ensure the maximum feedback from evaluation into the design and operation of future projects. The need for project activities to be cost-effective and efficient was underscored by several Member Nations.
193. The Conference expressed its continued appreciation for the efficient and valuable activities of the FAO Investment Centre, which had generated over US$ 34 000 million in food and agricultural investments in over 100 countries in the past 25 years. The importance of continuing cooperation with the World Bank was emphasized, as was valuable collaboration with IFAD, the. Regional Development Banks, and the UN Capital Development Fund. Some Member Nations called for renewed cooperation with private sector investment sources where appropriate, while recognizing that the activities of the FAO Bankers' Programme had to be suspended due to the Organization's financial crisis.
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194. In particular, the Conference emphasized the importance of links between investment and FAO's technical cooperation activities, and stressed the need to strengthen the pre-investment element in field programmes. Member Nations also underlined the importance of training national personnel in investment preparation. The critical analysis of problems encountered in investment preparation activities was noted with appreciation.
195. The Conference expressed strong support for the various concrete measures taken in field projects to develop human resources and institutional capacities for food and agricultural development. It was noted with satisfaction that FAO's field programmes, counterbalancing to some extent the shortcomings of the Regular Programme in this area, were currently training a record 70 000 persons each year, and utilizing a rapidly expanding number of national project directors and experts. Appreciation was also expressed for rapidly expanding support to government execution in FAO's fields.
196. The spread of TCDC approaches within all FAO's major subject-matter areas was noted, along with efforts to consolidate and reinforce such approaches based on experience to date. In particular, the Conference expressed its support for the efforts of the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean in promoting fruitful TCDC networks, which provided valuable experience which could be usefully applied to other regions.
197. Appreciation was expressed for the expanding involvement of NGOs, including in particular local NGOs, in pursuing 'grass-roots' approaches in FAO's field projects. Member Nations called for the further strengthening of such approaches, and the use of NGOs to undertake specific parts of projects where appropriate, in particular where 'people's participation' was involved. The Conference fully endorsed the increased attention in field programmes to women's active role in food and agriculture development, and emphasized that this important aspect should form a key part of all major field programmes in future.
Conclusions of the Review of Certain Aspects of FAO's Goals and Operations 35
198. The Conference agreed that the report of the Programme and Finance Committees on the Review of FAO's Objectives, Role, Priorities and Strategies and FA0's Field Operations had faithfully fulfilled the provisions of Resolution 6/87 as adopted by the Twenty-fourth Session of the Conference. It expressed its appreciation to members of the Committees for producing a frank, lucid, in-depth and well-structured report and welcomed the comments of the Council on the document.
35/ C 89/21; C 89/21-Sup.1; C 89/LIM/20-Rev.1; C 89/LIM/39; C 89/LIM/40;
C 89/LIM/42; C 89/LIM/45; C 89/LIM/46; C 89/II/PV/9; C 89/II/PV/10;
C 89/II/PV/11; C 89/II/PV/12; C 89/II/PV/13; C 89/II/PV/14; C 89/II/PV/15;
C 89/II/PV/17; C 89/II/PV/18; C 89/PV/16; C 89/PV/20.
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199. The Conference considered the Review as a milestone in the history of FAO. It was a broad and complex exercise which had been conducted objectively and harmoniously. Its conclusions and recommendations were valid, practical and useful to the future work of FAO. The Conference noted that the valuable reports of the independent Experts, agreed unanimously by them, had proved very useful to the Committees and that the Committees had also produced a unanimous report although its contents showed divergences of views on certain points. The Conference thanked the Director-General for the support and assistance given to the Experts and the Committees during the Review process.
200. The Conference expressed appreciation for the comments of the Director-General, in accordance with paragraph 4 of Resolution 6/87, on the conclusions and recommendations reached by the Committees. It was pleased to note that the Director-General was in agreement with most of the recommendations. On some issues, the Director-General had submitted four additional recommendations for consideration by the Conference, namely expanded cooperation with GATT, staff training, creation of a forum for increased consultation among the Rome-based food organizations and the possible elimination of the Summary PWB if the step of the new budget Outline, introduced on an experimental basis, were to be maintained.
201. The Conference noted that while the Council had given its general endorsement to the findings and recommendations of the Committees' report, it had highlighted some issues on which Member Nations of the Council had not reached a common ground. The Conference, accordingly, gave particular attention to those recommendations on which Member Nations had expressed different views at the Council.
202. The Conference recognized that the Review was not an end in itself; that the search for increasing the Organization's efficiency and effectiveness was a continuing concern of Member Nations and FAO's management; but that the Review as a distinct exercise in response to Resolution 6/87 had been concluded. The Conference considered that Member Nations and the Secretariat should now direct their efforts to implement the recommendations of the Review, as decided upon by the Conference.
203. The Conference agreed that for a successful conclusion to a complex exercise of this nature there was a desire on the part of all Member Nations for a consensus, as evidence of their support for the Organization and in order to provide guidance to the Director-General in the task of implementing the decisions of the Conference.
204. The Conference was pleased to endorse the certificate of good health given to FAO in the reports of the Committees and the Experts. The Organization was found to be sound, solid, innovative and dynamic, though there was room for improvement in some aspects of FAO's work. Moreover, the aim and objectives pursued by FAO over the past.four decades had remained valid and consonant with the Preamble to FAO's Constitution and relevant to Article I. The Conference agreed that there was no need for any amendment of FAO's Constitution.
- FAO's Objectives, Role, Priorities and Strategies
205. The Conference endorsed the seven development objectives pursued by FAO and recognized that these objectives, apart from guiding FAO's broad range of activities under the Regular and Field Programmes, were pertinent to the development needs of all Member Nations.
206. The Conference fully endorsed the three major roles of FAQ, namely
(i) centre for collection and analysis of global information on food, agriculture and nutrition, (ii) international forum and source of policy advice, and (iii) promoter and provider of technical assistance. These roles were vital to the needs of Member Nations and essential to FAG's mandate. The, three roles were valid, complementary and, in the view of the great majority of Member Nations, equally important, and their application to programmes and activities deserved high priority in the overall work of the organization.
207. The Conference agreed that, in its information role, FAO was irreplaceable. As to being the forum for policy formulation and action, whereas FAQ did retain leadership, such as for WCARRD and TFAP, it should collaborate more closely with other UN agencies and institutions in relation to activities such as environment and policy work. FAQ's role in technical assistance was of crucial importance to the majority of Member Nations and was the logical outcome of its two other major roles. It also served as the direct link with multilateral and bilateral funding agencies.
208., While Member Nations held different perceptions of the relative importance of each role, the Conference recognized that they were mutually reinforcing, and the general consensus was that the divergences were not of such significance as merit causing friction-among Member Nations. The Conference agreed with the Director-General's view that there was no ready-made solution for achieving an ideal balance among the three major roles and that the share of resources which could be devoted to each role was influenced by the changing pattern of development requirements of different regions and countries.
209. The Conference welcomed the establishment of the World Agricultural Information Centre (WAICENT). It agreed that the policy advisory role of FAO, especially at the country level, was extremely important and was likely to expand in the coming years and that FAQ should further strengthen its capacities for policy analysis, in keeping with the demand for such assistance. It recognized that policy advice to member countries was a sensitive and delicate undertaking and would lead to more productive results only if initiated at the request of the recipient governments. In this connection, the Conference endorsed the Committees' guidelines for FAQ's involvement in policy-oriented studies. It also favoured FAQ's enhanced participation in the World Bank Consultative Group meetings and UNDP Roundtable processes. As to the modality of country policy work, a few Member Nations emphasized the need for a further geographic focus within the structure of FAQ. The Conference did however endorse the opinion of the Programme and Finance Committees to leave the question to the discretion of the Director-General.
210. The Conference agreed that FAQ's comparative advantage was greatest in sector and sub-sector reviews related to agriculture, forestry and fisheries and recommended that FAQ be recognized as the lead agency and coordinator for these activities. It also welcomed the developments in cooperative arrangements between FAQ, IMF, the World Bank and UNDP in structural adjustment work. The Conference requested member countries to seek FAQ's early involvement in structural adjustment work, and for FAQ to make its views known when it sees scope for improvements in policies which bear on structural adjustment programmes.
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211. The Conference, like the Director-General, was-also in agreement with the Committees' recommendations on: FAO's increased involvement in research and the transfer of technology in cooperation with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), biotechnology for the benefit of developing countries, sustainable development and the protection of the environment, international agricultural trade in conjunction with the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations under the auspices of GATT, TCDC, ECDC, Codex Alimentarius and plant protection, enhancing the role of women and young farmers in agricultural and rural development and the continuation of support to the New International Economic Order (NIEO).
212. The Conference agreed that the current procedure for the preparation of the PWB was satisfactory. However, a range of views were expressed on the budget Outline. It was agreed to continue the procedure for one more biennium. The Conference considered that should the procedure be continued thereafter, it would be justified to study the possibility of eliminating the Summary PWB and to. bring forward the submission of the full PWB.
213. The majority of Member Nations endorsed the reports' conclusion that FAO's current practice of priority-setting was satisfactory, as it allowed for the necessary consultation, in good time, with Member Nations through regional fora and meetings of the technical committees and Governing Bodies. Some Member Nations however thought that there was scope for further inprovements in the priority-setting process. The guidelines on priority-setting proposed in the Committees' report, and agreed to by the Director-General, were endorsed by the Conference.
214. The Conference agreed that a clear-cut ranking of priorities was a difficult task. The majority of Member Nations considered that given the diversity of needs among member countries, any attempt to rank priorities would be arbitrary and would lead to controversy among membership. Some Member Nations, however, did not share this view. They expressed the opinion that, apart from resources being scarce, the ranking of priorities, though a difficult undertaking, was an essential feature of a programming exercise. They, therefore, encouraged the Secretariat to try and pursue an approach to priority ranking, as a measure for improving the impact of the programme.
215. The Conference endorsed the re-introduction of the Medium-Term Plan covering three biennia. A large majority of Member Nations maintained the view that the Medium-Term Plan would be of benefit to the Organization provided Member Nations gave a firm commitment to budget forecasts for the three biennia. Some Member Nations, however, were convinced that even without budgetary commitments, the Medium-Term Plan would assist FAQ in directing programme resources toward high priority activities. Several other Member Nations expressed the view that, in the light of the new provisional procedure regarding the Outline for the approval of the biennial budget, indicative budgets for three biennia would suffice, but it was generally recognized that extra-budgetary forecasts beyond one biennium would be speculative.
216. The Conference noted the efficacy and impact of FAQ's Special Action Programmes and their ability to attract a considerable amount of extra-budgetary resources. It, therefore, endorsed the recommendation of the report to establish a small number of new Special Action Programmes of high priority to Member Nations. In this connection, the Conference noted the proposal of the Director-General to proceed with a possible new Special Action Programme on sustainable development.
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217. The Conference welcomed the Director-General's recommendation for staff training to enable them to keep pace with new technology and approaches to development in different sectors covered by FAO. A few Member Nations were not fully convinced of the justification for this proposal, particularly in the present context of resource constraints, or considered that it should be pursued on a more modest scale.
- FAQ's Field Operations
218. The Conference recognized the catalytic importance of FAO's field operations to Member Nations, recipients and donors alike. In partnership with member countries, the Field Programme had given concrete expression to FAQ's aims and objectives and made its presence and impact felt in developing member countries.
219. The Conference endorsed the conclusion of the report that the Regular and Field Programmes were intertwined both in structure and functions. Through its technical support, the Regular Programme was making its technical and analytical work available to field projects and in turn was receiving data and feedback from the field to strengthen the technical contents of its own activities and to update its information bases.
220. The Conference was informed that in recent years a number of other technical and funding agencies had entered the traditional areas of technical assistance originally handled by FAQ and this development had created problems for the Organization. The majority of Member Nations expressed deep concern about this development as it was harming the lead role of FAQ. Some Member Nations, however, expressed the view that the main factor determining FAQ's share in multilateral technical assistance was the Organization's competitiveness and the quality of work produced.
221. The Conference concurred that FAO was making available to governments its worldwide experience in its field projects and that FAO's performance compared favourably with that of other agencies. However, the limited availability of resources had imposed severe restrictions on the Field Programme and it was important that FAQ's capacity to plan and implement projects be restored.
222. The Conference recognized that the complexity of field operations had increased significantly in recent years. With new modalities for project execution, there had been a marked change in FAO's technical cooperation activities at the country level. A large number of FAQ-executed projects were providing highly specialized short-term services to large size national projects and programmes. While the Organization had tried its best to cope with these new modalities, the burden on FAQ in terms of staff workload and financial cost had been heavy, particularly in the light of constraints on the Regular budget and the declining level of support costs in real terms. In this connection, the Conference noted with regret that the recent financial difficulties had affected the level of Regular Programme support to field projects.
223. The Conference endorsed the view that it was essential to maintain consistency between the character of the Field Programme and FAQ's main objectives and priorities. It agreed that where appropriate and feasible, FAQ's involvement in field projects should inter alia be based on the criterion of comparative advantage.
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224. The Conference stressed the need for a programme approach as far as possible in order to provide a coherent focus to field operations and to avoid a multiplicity of projects with limited impact. While projects should be related as much as possible to FAO's high priority 'areas, as defined by the FAD Governing Bodies, the Conference recognized the need for flexibility to enable the Organization to respond effectively to governments' specific requests on their own merits.
225. The Conference gave special attention to the balance between the scope and size of the Field Programme and the Regular Programme resources available for administrative and technical backstopping. Some Member Nations endorsed the view of the independent Experts that the number of field projects, especially small projects, had increased sharply in recent years and was affecting the quality of their results. They encouraged FAO to be more selective in accepting field projects. The majority of Member Nations, while recognizing that projects should be consistent with the priorities agreed to by FAO's Governing Bodies, considered however that FAO should also be ready to respond adequately to a large diversity of country requirements as determined by their own policies and priorities.
226. The Conference endorsed, without any order of ranking, the recommendations of the report including inter alia:
(a) the systematic review of field operations by the technical
committees and consideration of their findings and recommendations by the Joint Session of the Programme and Finance Committees. The
Council would include in its agenda items related to Field
Programme policies and reorientation, while the current practice
of Field Programme review by the Conference would be retained;
(b) reinforcing FAO's staff responsible for field operations and
(c) strengthening FAO's representation in member countries and greater
decentralization of authority to FAO Representatives for field
(d) securing more Trust Funds, especially in support-of the Special
Action Programmes, and streamlining their procedures while
maintaining their multilateral character;
(e) considering the creation of a special facility for project
formulation and identification;
(f) the development of a computerized management information system
for field operations;
(g) strengthening the monitoring and evaluation of field projects;
(h) enhancing the role of governments in project execution, including
increased use of national staff and facilities;
(i) the training of national staff in project formulation, monitoring
(j) increasing cooperation with NGOs.
- 55 -
227. While differing views were expressed on the recommendation concerning the possible establishment of a Field Inspection Unit, the Conference urged the Director-General to strengthen the process of Field Programme evaluation through the work of the Evaluation Service.
228. The Conference expressed appreciation for the contributions of the Investment Centre in attracting capital for agricultural and rural development in the developing countries, especially LDCs and urged further support for its activities.
229. A number of Member Nations gave support to the Regional Offices and stated that the focus of their work should be on supporting regional groupings. They stressed that both Regional and Country Offices had a valid and effective role. Most Member Nations while recognizing the need to strengthen FAQ representations were of the view that this should not be done at the expense of weakening the developmental role of the regional set-up. Some Member Nations agreed with the experts, who, while recognizing that the Regional Offices were a necessary part of FAQ's structure, had expressed themselves in favour of strengthening the country offices rather than the Regional Offices. They noted that the Committees had generally supported the experts' view, though they too had recognized the importance of the Regional Offices to a majority of Member Nations. A few Member Nations called for a review of the respective roles of the Headquarters, the regional and the country offices. Most Member Nations were, however, of the view that such a review was not called for under Resolution 6/87.
- Technical Cooperation Programme
230. The Conference agreed that the TCP, as a vital element in FAQ's field operations, be maintained in its present form. Most Member Nations stressed that funds allocated to TCP were inadequate to meet requests and that the Programme's share in the Regular budget should be progressively increased. A few Member Nations considered that such an increase was not warranted and that there should be no prejudgment on future budget levels. They felt that the matter should not be pressed in view of the Resolution adopted on the Review of Certain Aspects of FAQ's Goals and Operations. They believed that with better planning by governments, activities now taken up by the TCP could be financed by other means, thereby relieving the pressure of demands on TCP. They also felt that reporting on the TCP should be strengthened. Some Member Nations also supported the increasing use of the TCP for project identification and formulation. The Conference considered that additional funds could be made available to TCP on a voluntary basis and requested the Director-General to contact potential donor countries and other sources for this purpose.
231. The Conference nevertheless adopted the following Resolution:
INCREASE IN ALLOCATION FOR TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAMME IN FORTHCOMING BIENNIA
Recalling the basic mandate given to FAQ in Article 1-3 of its Constitution "to furnish such technical assistance as governments may request",
- 56 -
Noting with satisfaction that the Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) has enabled FAO to respond promptly to the urgent needs of developing countries for technical assistance, policy advice, training, mobilization of investment resources and emergency cases,
Noting with regret that the resources available to TCP have fallen from 14.1 percent of the total budget in 1986-87 to 12.8 percent in 1988-89 and to 11.8 percent in 1990-91,
Considering that in the future significant additional technical assistance will be required due to the greater difficulties of developing countries to meet food production targets to feed ever increasing populations, lacking technology and capital, unable to keep pace with modernization process,
Acknowledging with gratitude the special contribution of the Government of Italy for TCP in the amount of US$ 30 million for the biennium 1988-89:
1. Reaffirms that TCP is an essential operational tool of the
Organization to provide appropriate and rapid technical assistance to
2. Urges all Member Governments to assure adequate financial provision
for this programme including through voluntary contributions;
3. Invites the Director-General to make every effort in order to restore
the resources available to TCP to the former level of 14 percent of the total Regular Programme budget and, if possible, to raise it to
(Adopted 28 November 1989)
- Relations with other Institutions
232. The Conference noted that FAO's interaction with the UN specialized agencies and funding institutions was extensive and on the whole satisfactory. It noted the satisfactory relationships between FAO and ILO, WHO, IFAD, IAEA, GATT and UNCTAD. Its inter-action with the World Bank was good, but there were additional areas for expanding mutual cooperation. Improved coordination was called for to deal with overlapping of work with six UN agencies (UNEP, UNICEF, UNDP, UNIDO, WFC and WFP). The report had made some recommendations on how overlaps with these institutions could be avoided and cooperation enhanced. These recommendations were endorsed by the Conference. The Conference agreed on the need for FAO's full association with the UNDP-sponsored national technical cooperation assessment programmes.
233. The Conference welcomed the Director-General's initiative in submitting a recommendation for the creation of an inter-secretariat consultative mechanism among the Rome-based UN food organizations, to strengthen coordination.
- Resource Implications
234. The Conference noted that the report of the Committees had included 32 recommendations and 4 additional recommendations were submitted by the Director-General. In the judgement of the Director-General, out of the 36 recommendations, only 19 called for additional resources. In this
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connection, the Director-General had outlined priority expenditures under three categories amounting to a tentative figure of US$ 26.75 million: 36/
Category 1: ten recommendations for a total of US$ 12.31 million
from the Regular Programme (one recommendation requiring 50 percent
funding from the Regular Programme);
Category 2: four recommendations for a total of US$ 6.05 million
from the Regular Programme;
Category 3: five recommendations for a total of US$ 8.39 million
from extra-budgetary resources.
The majority of Member Nations were in agreement with the priority listing of recommendations as proposed by the Director-General. Some Member Nations did not endorse this priority listing, including the categories in which some of the priorities had been placed.
235. While the Conference agreed that the implementation of the recommendations could be carried out progressively, differing views were expressed on the level of additional resources required and methods of financing. A few Member Nations considered that there should be no assumed link between reform and funding and stressed that the cost of implementing the recommendations should be met through the reordering of priorities in the PWB 1990-91 and in subsequent biennia and through savings. Some other Member Nations were of the opinion that adjustments in the PWB would be insufficient to absorb all the costs and, therefore, some additional resources from the assessed budget and/or extra-budgetary sources would be necessary.
236. The majority of Member Nations, however, rejected the idea of any linkage between the Review and the PWB. In their opinion FAO was in severe financial difficulties and they were not in favour of adjustments which would damage the approved programme.
237. Many Member Nations suggested that part of the costs, at least during the 1990-91 biennium, could be met through voluntary contributions. The Conference urged Member Nations to make such voluntary contributions known to the Director-General as early as possible.
238. As most of the recommendations required resource commitment on a continuing basis, the majority of the Member Nations considered it would have been justified to provide additional resources under the Regular Programme for the 1990-91 and 1992-93 biennia.
239. Taking account however of consultations undertaken on the initiative of the Chairman of Commission II, the Conference adopted the following Resolution:
36/ C 89/21, page xviii.
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REVIEW OF CERTAIN ASPECTS OF FAQ'S GOALS AND OPERATIONS
Recalling the decision of the Twenty-fourth Session of the Conference in Resolution 6/87 to request the Programme and Finance Committees to carry out, with the assistance of experts, and present to the present Session a review of the role, priorities, objectives and strategies of the organization,
Appreciating the initiative of the Director-General at the same time to commission a review of certain administrative and financial questions through management consultants and to submit their conclusions and his views to the Programme and Finance Committees,
Expressing gratitude to the two Groups of Experts which assisted the ProgramT5 and Finance Committees for the quality of their work and of the reports submitted to the Programme and Finance Committees,
Expressing satisfaction with the efforts of the Programme and Finance Committees in successfully conducting the Review and with their report as submitted ts8the Conference in which a consensus was reached on almost all the issues,
Expressing satisfact in also with the comprehensive and positive views of the Director-General and noting his categorization of the potential expenditures involved in implementation of additional programmes and activities recommended in the Review into three categories, and his conclusions on the reports of the Management Consultants,
Supporting the conclusion of t experts that the Organization "remains a solid and dynamic institution" and their views on the continuing validity, relevance and importance of the objectives, strategies, roles and activities of the organization in dealing with the problems of food and agriculture in the world as a whole and in individual member countries,
Considering that FAO is the Organization within the UN system charged with providing assistance in the area of food and agricultural development and requires progressive strengthening in line with the increasing level of requests from Member Nations while further increasing its effectiveness and efficiency and the impact of its programmes,
Noting in this connection the need on the part of all organizations of the UN system to coordinate their efforts, so as to avoid unnecessary duplication and overlap in the activities within their mandates and to make the best use of the resources available to them,
37/ C 89/21-Sup.1.
38/ C 89/21.
39/ C 89/21.
40/ C 89/21-Sup.1, para. 7.4.
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Welcoming recent international developments towards the fulfilment of universal membership,
Taking into account the views of Member Nations as expressed during i~ debate on this agenda item at the current session of the Conference,
Further taking into account the decisions of the Conference on the Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91: 4
1. Reaffirms the commitment of all Member Nations to the principles and
goals enshrined in the Basic Texts and renews their determination to
continue and strengthen their individual and joint efforts to
2. Reiterates the validity and complementarity of the three major roles
of FAQ assembling and disseminating information; serving as an
international forum and source of policy advice; and providing
technical assistance to Member Nations and the need to obtain and
maintain a reasonable balance between them, and in the programmes
and activities falling respectively thereunder, in the light of the
requirements of Member Nations and available resources;
3. Recognizes also in this connection that in accordance with its
mandates, an integral part of the goals and priorities of the
organization must be the increased awareness and concern of Member
Nations to promote and strengthen efforts for sustainable
development, protection of the environment and the proper management
of natural resources in the interests of future generations, the
removal of trade barriers and protectionism affecting world trade in
food and agricultural products, other impediments to the
agricultural development on a sustainable basis of the developing
countries, and the full involvement of women in the development
4. Recognizes further in this connection the particular importance of
strengthening FAQ's assistance on request to Member Nations and to
institutions in the formulation of country policy advice and
studies, including where requested, structural adjustment
programmes; strengthening technical cooperation, including TCDC and
the TCP, and the links and consistency between the Regular and Field
Programmes, in accordance with national plans and projects, country
programmes or Statements; and building up national institutional
capacities, including transfer of technology and the results of
5. Considers that so as to be better able to meet the expectations and
requests of Member Nations for its advice and assistance, there is
need to strengthen and support the Organization's objectives, roles
and activities, as well as its effectiveness and impact;
6. Decides to introduce a rolling six-year medium-term plan covering
three biennia which would deal with the setting of priority areas
across the spectrum of the Organization's programmes and activities
and would serve as a basis for priority-setting in subsequent
41/ C 89/REP, paras. 198 to 241.
42/ C 89 REP, paras. 149 to 184 and Resolution 8/89.
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biennial Programmes of Work and Budget. It should take into account
the close links between the Regular and Field Programmes and if
possible include a provisional indication of resources by programme;
and requests the Director-General to prepare for the Twenty-sixth
Session of the Conference the first version of such a plan, taking
into account the views of Member Nations in particular those
expressed in Regional Conferences, Council Committees, technical
statutory bodies and in approved Action Plans;
7. Agrees to continue the programme budget process implemented on an
experimental basis for the preparation of the Programme of Work and
Budget 1990-91 for at least another biennium;
8. Requests the Director-General to examine ways and means of
strengthening the effectiveness of FAQ field repres entations in the
light of the resources available and of the views of the Groups of
Experts and the conclusions thereon of the Programme and Finance
Committees and of the Conference;
9. Acknowledges that in the present situation the resources available
under the Regular Programme and from extra-budgetary funds are
likely to be insufficient to meet all the demands on the Regular and Field Programmes of the Organization and that this situation imposes
a considerable constraint on the capacity of the organization to
respond to the extent desirable, thereby requiring the organization
to apply where appropriate and to the extent feasible the criteria inter alia of comparative advantage and greater selectivity in its
10. Appeals to all Member Nations to pay their full assessed
contributions to the Regular Programme promptly in order to
re-establish the financial capacity of the Organization and calls
for particular efforts to implement on a phased basis the
recommendations emanating f rem the review, without impairing the
execution of the other priorities and activities in the Programme of
Work and Budget approved by the Conference;
11. Further appeals to all financing agencies and institutions which are
in a position to do so favourably to consider the provision of
extra-budgetary funds to cover the cost of implementing selected,
12. Approves the conclusions and recommendations contained in the report
of the Programme and Finance Committees on the Review, and taking
into account the additional3 recommendations of the Director-General
in his Views and Comments;
13. Recognizes the need for adequate resources, including the provision
of extra-budgetary funds, to implement the measures proposed in this
Resolution without impairing the execution of other priorities and
programmes in successive Programmes of Work and Budget adopted by the Conference, and requests the Director-General to implement the
recommendations emanating from the Review as approved by the
Conference on a phased basis to the extent that resources foreseen
above are available;
43/ C 89/21, pp. iii-xviii.
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14. Further requests the Director-General to report on implementation to
the Twenty-sixth Session of the conference through the Council and
the Programme and Finance committees in accordance with established
(Adopted 28 November 1989)
240. The Conference recalled that although the Review had been completed, the dialogue which had been established among Member Nations during its session had been constructive, and it expressed the hope that this would continue in order to better support the objectives of the Organization.
- FAO Manaqement Review
241. The Conference noted with appreciation the results of the Management Review Commissioned on the initiative of the Director-General and approved by the Programme and Finance Committees. It noted the agreement reached in the Council that matters arising from it would be pursued in the Finance Committee on the basis of the Conference discussion of the Management Review.
United Nations/FAQ World Food Programme (WFP) 4
- WFP Prooosed Pledging Target 1991-92
242. In introducing the item, the Executive Director drew attention to the need for pledges and contributions to fully reach the target if the present level of activities were to be maintained. The fact that WFP had come to be relied upon as a major source of development and humanitarian assistance meant that the level of resources accorded it had a measurable impact on the world's poorest people. He particularly pointed out the vital role of the Programme in increasing food security and the magnitude of its involvement in environmental activities in developing countries. The Executive Director also referred to WFP's continuing involvement in humanitarian relief to alleviate suffering caused by civil strife and natural calamities.
243. The Executive Director noted, however, that increasing food commodity prices had resulted in declining resources and the Programme was now forced to reduce the level of its assistance. He stressed that food-assisted development projects could not be subjected to variations in resource availability. He was particularly concerned about the reduction in multilateral contributions while bilateral donations through WFP had remained stable. He noted that even emergency relief had been subjected to reductions. Finally, he appealed to donors not to reduce their volume of multilateral food aid through the Programme only because commodity prices had risen and stocks had fallen.
244. The Conference commended the efficient management of the Programme. WFP' s staff were congratulated for their efforts to alleviate human suffering and particular tribute was paid to its field staff for their dedicated service often under very difficult and dangerous circumstances.
44/ C 89/LIM/5; C 89/LIM/30; C 89/II/PV/14; C 89/II/PV/18; C 89/PV/20.
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245. The Conference underlined the importance of WFP as a major source of assistance to developing countries. Referring to the practical benefits derived from WFP-assisted activities, it stressed the vital contribution of food aid to economic and social development directly, and also as a catalyst for attracting other assistance. The Programme's widespread support for projects with environmental aspects such as watershed management, soil conservation and reforestation was particularly welcomed.
246. The Conference further noted with appreciation the extensive involvement of WFP in emergency relief both for natural calamities and man-made disasters.
247. The Conference noted with regret that commodity price increases had led to a reduction in commodity availabilities which in turn would result in a scaling down of the Programme's activities at a time when many developing countries faced a precarious economic situation. It appealed to donors to adopt measures whereby the phenomenon could be avoided.
248. The Conference noted with satisfaction the high volume of the Programme's food purchases in developing countries, both for use in local WFP-assisted projects and to assist other developing countries.
249. The-Conference considered that the pledging target of US$ 1 500 million for WFP's regular resources for the biennium 1991-92 was realistic and endorsed it unanimously. It appealed to traditional as well as potential donors to make every effort to fulfil the target. It particularly stressed the importance of providing one-third of the total contribution in the form of cash pledges in order to give the Programme necessary operational flexibility.
250. The Conference unanimously adopted the following Resolution:
TARGET FOR WFP PLEDGES FOR THE PERIOD 1991-92
Recalling the provisions of its Resolution 9/65 that the World Food Programme is to be reviewed before each pledging conference,
Recalling the provisions of operative paragraph 4 of its Resolution 8/87 of 26 November 1987 that, subject to the review mentioned above, the next pledging conference should be convened at the latest early in 1990, at which time governments and appropriate donor organizations should be invited to pledge contributions for 1991 and 1992, with a view to reaching such a target as may be then recommended by the UN General Assembly and the Conference of the Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations,
Noting that the review of the Programme was undertaken by the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes of the World Food Programme at its Twenty-seventh Session and by the FAO Council at its Ninety-fifth Session,
Having considered Resolution 1/95 of the FAO Council as well as the recommendations of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes,
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Recognizing the value of multilateral food aid as implemented by WFP since its inception and the necessity for continuing its action both as a form of capital investment and for meeting emergency food needs,
1. Establishes for the next two years 1991 and 1992 a target for
voluntary contributions of US$1 500 million, of which not less than
one-third should be in cash and/or services in aggregate, andexpresses the hope that such resources will be augmented by substantial additional contributions from other sources in
recognition of the prospective volume of sound project requests and
the capacity of the Programme to operate at a higher level.
2. Urges State Members of the United Nations and Members and Associate
Members of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations, and appropriate donor organizations, to make every effort
to ensure the full attainment of the target.
3. Requests the Secretary-General, in cooperation with the
Director-General of FAQ, to convene a pledging conference for this
purpose at United Nations Headquarters early in 1990.
(Adopted 28 November 1989)
Relations and Consultations with International Organizations
- Recent Developments in the UN System of Interest to FAQ 4
251. The Conference noted that the document C 89/9 provided useful information on the system-wide context in which FAQ activities were undertaken. It underlined that the document should, inter alia, serve the purpose of highlighting activities undertaken by other UN organizations which could have an impact on or implications for the work of the organization.
252. The Conference expressed considerable interest in the triennial policy review of the UN system's operational activities for development. It noted that the UN Director-General for Development and International Economic Cooperation had now completed preparation of documents for the triennial policy review and the matter was under consideration by the Forty-fourth session of the UN General Assembly. It further noted that FAQ was participating actively in the discussion on this subject at the General Assembly. The conference expressed the view that FAQ should continue to cooperate closely with the other organizations of the UN System on matters relating to operational activities for development.
253. The Conference underlined the importance of the "successor" UNDP support cost reimbursement arrangements to the system-wide operational activities for development. It noted in this connection that FAQ had actively cooperated with the expert group appointed by UNDP, which had considered not only financial arrangements but also the basic collaborative relationships and division of labour between UNDP and the specialized agencies. It was indicated that the "successor" arrangements should be
45/ C 89/9; C 89/LIM/23; C 89/II/PV/14; C 89/II/PV/18; C 89/PV/20.
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concluded expeditiously. In view of the fact that the report of the expert group was not expected before December 1989, note was taken of the recent ACC (Administrative Committee on Coordination) decision to bring the issue of the time-table to the attention of the UNDP Governing Council with a view to allowing governing bodies of the executing agencies to deal with any possible budgetary and organizational implications of the proposals advanced by the expert group.
254. The Conference noted that the Common Fund for Commodities formally entered into force on 19 June 1989. It took note of the outcome of the first annual meeting of the Governing Council of the Common Fund held in July 1989, in particular of the election of the Managing Director of the Fund and its executive directors, and the selection of Amsterdam as the site for its Headquarters.
255. The Conference recognized that developments concerning the common Fund for commodities were of direct interest to FAO. The Conference agreed that FAO should develop cooperative arrangements between its Intergovernmental Commodity Groups and the Second Account of the Fund. In particular, the Conference endorsed the proposals made by the various Intergovernmental Commodity Groups and the Sub-Committee on Fish Trade, and supported by the Council, to encourage the Director-General to approach the Common Fund, when it became operational, requesting it to designate these FAO bodies as eligible International Commodity Bodies (ICBs) for sponsoring and following up, for their respective commodities, projects which might be financed from the Second Account of the Common Fund. The Conference noted that the final decisions on the designation of ICBs rested with the Executive Board of the Common Fund.
256. The Conference underlined the importance it attached to the Second UN Conference on Least Developed Countries to be held in September 1990 and to be hosted by France. It urged the international community to demonstrate its commitment to LDCs in a concrete manner. It encouraged FAO to contribute to the preparations for the Conference.
257. The Conference took note of the report contained in document C 89/9 on the Fifteenth Ministerial Session of the World Food Council held in Cairo, Egypt, from 22 to 25 May 1989. It also noted with interest the conclusions and recommendations adopted by the Ministerial Session as the Cairo Declaration.
258. The Conference noted with interest the initiatives taken by the ACC Task Force on Rural Development, in particular, the mechanism by which member agencies exchanged advance information on their future activities in the field of rural development, gender-specific reporting and the proposals of the Task Force Panel on Monitoring and Evaluation to introduce monitoring and evaluation methodologies in training activities of member agencies.
259. The Conference was informed in document C 69/LIM/23 of a convention and recommendation on "Safety in the use of chemicals at work" being prepared by the International Labour Organisation. The document compared these two instruments to the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides adopted by FAO Member Governments in 1985, and indicated that there was a considerable area of overlap and duplication between the instruments of the two organizations. The Conference was also informed that it was the intention of the Director-General to bring to the notice of the ILO and the International Labour Conference the dangers of duplication of instruments in the area of the distribution and use of
- 65 -
pesticides, and the need to ensure the consistency of the two sets of instruments and preferably the restriction of the ILO instruments, in so far as pesticides were concerned, to the production and handling of pesticides "up to the factory gate". It was notV that the Conference discussed this question under Item 10 of the Agenda
260. The Conference, noting UNEP Governing Council decision 15/34 "Preparation of an international legal instrument on the biological diversity of the planet", which might possibly take the form of a convention and might be submitted to the proposed 1992 conference on environment and development, urged that FAQ play a key role in the formulation and negotiations of any eventual legal instrument in this regard. It was pointed out that FAQ was well-qualified to assume this role in view of its long-standing work on plant, animal, forestry and fishery genetic resources. Reference was made in particular to the work undertaken within the framework of the International Undertaking and the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources which had sought to ensure that socio-economic development concerns related to the conservation and equitable use of these resources were taken fully into account.
261. In this context, the Director-General was requested to examine the possibility of transforming the present International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources into an international convention and to ensure that the important work already accomplished would not be duplicated or ignored, thereby facilitating the use of existing structures for implementation of an eventual legal instrument on biological diversity.
262. The Conference agreed, in light of UNEP Governing Council decision 15/1, that the Bureau of the Fifteenth Session of the UNEP Governing Council, its chairman or one of its members, could meet with the Independent Chairman of the Council or with the Chairman of the Programme Committee, with a view to develop a more positive and collaborative relationship.
263. The Conference expressed its satisfaction at the investment support provided by the FAQ Investment Centre to the agriculture sector of the developing countries. In this connection it noted the close working relations between FAO and the various multilateral financing institutions lending for agriculture.
- International Conference on Nutrition 47
264. The Conference considered the proposal of the Director-General to hold an International Conference on Nutrition under the Joint sponsorship of FAQ and WHO. It noted that the Administrative Committee on Coordination at its Session in Qctober 1989 had welcomed the joint initiative of FAQ and WHO to convene the Nutrition Conference. A few Member Nations were of the view that the case for an intergovernmental level meeting had not been established. However, the majority did not share this view and the Conference considered that an international conference on nutrition would be an important step towards obtaining national and international commitments
46/ See paras 110 to 120.
47/ C 89/27; C 89/LIM/21; C 89/II/PV/14; C 89/II/PV/18; C 89/PV/20.
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to implement strategies and actions. The ACC had also invited concerned agencies and organizations as well as non-governmental organizations to work in close cooperation with FAO and WHO in this respect, using the mechanism of the ACC/SCN whenever appropriate.
265. The Conference agreed with the Director-General's proposal to convene the International Conference on Nutrition in the first half of 1993. It noted that nutrition problems were widespread in both developed and developing countries and in some areas they were even worsening. It emphasized that concerted national and international efforts were needed to tackle the problems of under-nutrition, and specific nutrition-related diseases and conditions. It noted that although nutrition programmes were often successful in narrow technical terms, they had not been effective, sustainable or widely reproducible at acceptable cost. The Conference therefore stressed the need for multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary approaches that would link food production and supply mechanisms to food consumption and improved nutrition and health. In this context it welcomed the fact that the International Conference on Nutrition was proposed to be jointly organized by FAO and WHO, in cooperation with other interested agencies and institutions of the UN System.
266. The Conference recognized that the International Conference on Nutrition would be the first intergovernmental meeting on nutrition on a global basis. It noted that while adequate scientific and technical knowledge was available concerning specific nutrition problems and the ways to overcome them, there was a need for increasing the awareness of policy-makers so that nutrition objectives and programmes could be integrated in regional and national development strategies. The Conference stressed that the International Conference on Nutrition should be oriented towards developing realistic and cost-effective strategies and action programmes with a view to mobilize adequate resources to achieve nutrition objectives. It suggested that the objectives of the International Conference on Nutrition should reflect these aspects.
267. The Conference suggested that in view of the different nature of nutrition problems in different regions, the International Conference on Nutrition should have a regional focus in devising strategies and action proposals. In this context the Conference noted with satisfaction that specific nutrition problems and possible measures to overcome them in different regions would be considered by the forthcoming FAO Regional Conferences and regional meetings of WHO during 1990. The conclusions and recommendations of these meetings would provide useful regional inputs for the International Conference and Nutrition.
268. The Conference agreed that the International Conference on Nutrition would need to be prepared carefully and thoroughly with the involvement of all interested UN agencies, other international organizations, regional bodies and interested non-governmental organizations. The Conference agreed that the preparatory work should be undertaken utilizing the Administrative Committee on Coordination Sub-Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN), and with the assistance of experts and of interested member countries. several Member Nations expressed their readiness to take part in preparatory activities, including the provision of experts to assist in the Conference preparations. Some Member Nations expressed concern that the preparations for the International Conference on Nutrition in 1993 could strain the resources of both the Secretariat and of governments in view of the need for the preparations for the International Conference on Environment and Development scheduled to be held in 1992.
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269. The Conference agreed with the proposals for the organization of the International Conference on Nutrition contained in document C 89/27. It decided that the Conference should be convened under the joint sponsorship of FAO and WHO in Rome during the first half of 1993. It requested the Director-General to keep the governing bodies fully advised of the progress in the preparation for the Conference.
- Relations with Interqovernment and International
270. The Conference was informed of some of the more significant developments concerning cooperation with intergovernmental and international non-governmental organizations, during the period under review.
271. The Conference was also informed of the Informal Meeting of Representatives of Non-governmental Organizations attending the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference. The meeting had as its central theme: "People's Participation as a key element in development strategy and the contribution of INGOs through their rural organizations" which considered ways and means for increased involvement of the INGOs in FAO's work on people's participation and the role of women in development.
272. The Conference expected close collaboration with NGOs and INGOs to continue and that this would provide mutually beneficial results.
48/ C 89/17; C 89/INF/l; C 89/II/PV/14; C 89/II/PV/18; C 89/PV/20.
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CONSTITUTIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS
Constitutional and Legal Matters
Statutory Report on Status of Conventions and Agreements, and Amendments thereto
- Multilateral Treaties deposited with the Director-General49
273. Pursuant to Rule XXI of the General Rules of the Organization, and in accordance with established practice, the Director-General submitted to the Conference the biennial Statutory Report reflecting the status of multilateral treaties concluded within the framework of FAO and deposited with him; the status of other multilateral treaties concluded outside the framework of FAO in respect of which the Director-General acts as depositary; and the status of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies as applied to FAO. The Conference noted that the Statutory Report followed the same pattern as earlier reports.
274. The Conference took note of the status of the multilateral treaties concerned, contained in documents C 89/10 and C 89/10-Sup.l.
275. With respect to the International Plant Protection Convention, mentioned in paragraphs 19-24 of the Statutory Report, the Conference recalled that, when approving the amendments to the Convention at its Twentieth Session (1979) by Resolution 14/79, it had urged the parties to the Convention to accept the revised text at the earliest possible time. The Conference noted, however, that 15 acceptances were still required in order to reach the two-thirds majority of contracting parties (i.e. 63), which was necessary for the entry into force of the revised text. In view of the importance of the Convention in strengthening international action against the spread of pests of plants and plant products in the context of international trade, the Conference reiterated its apDeal to contracting parties that had not yet accepted the revised text of the Convention to deposit an instrument of acceptance as soon as possible.
276. The Conference further urged that Member Nations concerned accept the amendments to paragraph (a), Article 1 of the Plant Protection Agreement for the Asia and Pacific region, relating to the definition of the region, approved by the Council in November 1983, in order to bring these amendments into force as soon as possible.
Procedure for Election of Chairm!U and Members of the Programme and Finance Committees277. The Conference noted that the matter submitted to it for information had been considered by the Council at its Ninety-fifth Session (June 1989) and that the Committee on Constitutional and Legal Matters (CCLM) had previously examined the question. The CCLM had explored three possible
49/ C 89/10; C 89/10-Sup.1; C 89/III/PV/1; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
50/ C 89/LIM/8; C 89/III/PV/l; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
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orientations which could be adopted with a view to ensuring conformity with Resolution 11/87 on the Procedure for the Election of the Chairmen and Members of the Programme and Finance Committees, in particular with the following criteria set out therein:
(a) The need for just and equitable representation of the various
regions on the Programme Committee and the Finance Committee;
(b) that the essential element of such representation was that
all regions that so wish are in fact represented on the
(c) that members of the Council should bear the above in mind, as
well as the importance of securing equitable rotation among
the countries constituting each region, when electing the
Chairmen and members of the two Committees in accordance with
Rules XXVI.3 and XXVII.3 respectively.
278. The Conference noted that the three orientations considered by the CCLM focussed on the possibility of introducing greater degrees of formality into the procedures for reaching regional understandings amongst and within the regions.
279. The Conference also noted that the great majority of members of the Council had not favoured the introduction of measures or amendments which would formalize the procedures for reaching regional understanding. They had considered that the present provisions, combined with Resolution 11/87, were both satisfactory and sufficient. They had underlined that the problems which had arisen in 1985 and in 1987 were exceptional and that the present system had been working quite satisfactorily for many years. Each region should resolve any problems which might arise for it in the manner which it deemed best.
280. Some Member Nations suggested that a study should be undertaken with a view to establishing more appropriate regional groupings based on those used generally in the UN System. Many countries opposed this suggestion on the grounds that the present regional groupings within FAO were more appropriate in the context of the specific objectives and functions of the organization.
281. In conclusion, therefore, the Conference agreed that it would be preferable to maintain the flexibility inherent in the present system and not to introduce any modification hereto. In so doing, it recalled the necessity of ensuring sufficient consultation and coordination both within and between regions in order to respect the criteria set forth in Resolution 11/87, the text of which is given in Appendix G to this Report. The Conference expressed the hope that in the forthcoming elections to be held at the next session of the Council this would result in the just and equitable representation called for in Resolution 11/87. At that time, it could be seen whether further action would be required.
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Confirmation of the Agreement between FAO and UNIDO51
282. The Conference noted that, at its Ninety-fifth Session, in June 1989, the Council had expressed itself in favour of the conclusion of a formal relationship agreement between FAO and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and that the Conference had already expressed itself in the same sense in 1987.
283. The Conference further noted that working relations had existed between FAO and UNIDO since 1969, following the conclusion of an agreement setting out Guidelines for Cooperation between FAO and UNIDO in the Field of Industrial Development. The proposal to conclude a relationship agreement with UNIDO had been occasioned by the fact that UNIDO had become a UN Specialized Agency in 1985. The agreement itself was a formal relationship agreement which dealt only in general terms with the division of responsibilities between FAO and UNIDO. Detailed provisions on this matter were set out in the 1969 agreement between the Director-General and the Executive Director of UNIDO, the provisions of which would continue in force under the new agreement.
284. Several members underlined the interest of concluding an agreement between FAO and UNIDO with a view to ensuring proper coordination in fields of activity which they shared and of studying the possibility of establishing a joint division as had been done with the International Atomic Energy Agency.
285. In conclusion the Conference confirmed the decision of the Council to enter into the agreement with UNIDO and expressed the desire that cooperation between the two organizations be reinforced, for example, by the creation of a joint division. The text of the agreement is set out in Appendix H to this report.
FAO's Accession to the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and to the Convention on Assistan: in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency
286. The Conference noted that the matter had been considered by the Council at its Ninety-Sixth Session and that the two Conventions before it had both been adopted by the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency in September 1986 in the wake of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. This accident had dramatically underlined the global significance of the release of radioactive contaminants into the environment and the importance of international cooperation at the level of the UN System. The Conventions had entered into force in 1986 and 1987 respectively. Both Conventions were open for accession by international organizations and, in fact, the World Health Organization had acceded to them in August 1988.
287. The Conference noted further that the Committee on Constitutional and Legal Matters had concluded that the subject matter of the Conventions would fall within the competence and constitutional mandate of FAO and that it would be legally in order for the Council to approve, and the Conference
51/ C 89/LIM/9; C 89/III/PV/l; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
52/ C 89/LIM/24; C 89/III/PV/l; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
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to authorize, FAQ's becoming a party thereto. FAQ's accession to the Conventions would be a symbolic act, above all, confirming its readiness to cooperate actively with States and other organizations in taking measures within its field of competence in the case of nuclear accidents.
288. One Member Nation, while not opposed to the accession of FAO to the two Conventions, considered that this was neither necessary nor useful.
289. The Conference noted that therewas no intention to duplicate efforts; accession by FAQ to the two Conventions would signify the willingness of FAQ to become part of the overall information exchange and assistance system set up by the Conventions. The costs resulting from accession would be minimal.
290. In conclusion the Conference noted the Council's approval of FAQ's accession to the two Conventions and decided to authorize FAO to become a party thereto. The text of the Conventions is given in Appendices I and J to this report.
Administrative and Financial Matters
291. The Conference welcomed the Auditor's report and comments regarding FAO personnel policies and feedback and monitoring of evaluation findings, and noted with satisfaction the action taken thus far by the Director-General.
292. The Conference considered the Report of the Ninety-fourth Session of the Council regarding the certification of the 1986-87 WFP accounts, and noted that the Council had agreed that it was in the interest of all, but especially of the poorest countries, that the difficulties which had arisen between the Organization and the Programme be resolved with respect for relevant statutes and standards. The Conference was also advised in this connection that the reports of the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ) and the Finance Committee had been transmitted to the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes (CFA) for consideration at its Twenty-eighth Session commencing 11 December 1989.
293. The Conference adopted the following Resolution:
53/ C 89/5, C 89/5-Corr.i; C 89/6; C 89/7; C 89/7-Corr.i (English only); C 89/LIM/3; C 89/LIM/31; C 89/III/PV/l; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
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Resolution 12/89 AUDITED ACCOUNTS THE CONFERENCE, Having considered the Report of the Ninety-fourth Session of the Council, Having examined the following audited accounts and the External Auditor's Reports thereon:
Regular Programme 1986-87
United Nations Development
World Food Programme 1986-87
Adopts the above audited accounts.
Scale of Contributions 1990-91
294. The Conference the methodology of the take into account the Member Nation.
C 89/5, C 89/5-Corr.l
C 89/7, C 89/7-Corr.1
(Adopted 28 November 1989)
noted with concern the impact of the timing used in UN Committee on Contributions which might not always most recent changes in economic conditions of each
295. The Conference also took note that the Finance Committee and the Council had agreed that the FAQ proposed Scale of Contributions for 1990-91 be derived again directly 94om the UN Scale of Assessments in force for the three-year period 1989-91.
296. The Conference accordingly adopted the following Resolution:
SCALE OF CONTRIBUTIONS 1990-91
Having noted the recommendations of the Ninety-sixth Session of the Council,
Confirming that as in the past FAO will continue to follow the UN Scale of Assessments subject to adaptation for the different membership of FAO,
1. Decides that the FAQ Scale of Contributions for 1990-91 should be
derived directly from the UN Scale of Assessments in force during
2. Adopts for use in 1990 and 1991 the Scale as set out in Appendix K
of this Report.
(Adopted 28 November 1989)
54/ The Islamic Republic of Iran gave its approval to the Scale of
Contributions subject to the final decision of the Fifth Committee of
the United Nations where the matter was still under consideration.
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Return of the Regional Office for the Near East to the Region 5
297. The Conference considered documents C 89/26 and C 89/LIM/31 on the "Return of the Regional Office for the Near East to the Region". It approved the return of the Regional Office 5 or the Near East to Cairo, Egypt, and adopted the following Resolution:
RETURN OF THE REGIONAL OFFICE FOR THE NEAR EAST TO CAIRO, EGYPT
Recalling Resolution 20/79 on the Regional Office for the Near East,
Noting with appreciation that since the closure of the Regional Office in Cairo, the FAO regional programmes and activities have been carried out in an effective manner through the requisite coordination and cooperation between the Regional Office and the technical and administrative units at Headquarters,
Concurring with the view of Member Nations of the Near East Region, endorsed by the Council at its Ninety-fourth Session, that while programmes for the Region have been implemented effectively from Headquarters during the past ten years, the quality of implementation and the impact of the programmes would be significantly enhanced if the office were to operate once again in the Region,
Noting that the cost to the organization of relocating the Office in the Region could be covered from the provisions for the Regional Office for the Near East in the proposed Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91,
Welcoming the generous offer made by the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt to resume the provision of host facilities for the office, and its agreement to bear the cost of rehabilitation the old premises in Cairo, as confirmed by the recent Memorandum of Understanding,
1. Decides that the headquarters of the Regional Office for the Near
East be re-opened in its old premises in Cairo, Egypt, as soon as
possible and no later than 1 September 1990;
2. Requests the Director-General to take all necessary measures for the
implementation of this Resolution and conclude negotiations with the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt to ensure that complete and
adequate rehabilitation work of the premises of the office is
carried out according to a mutually agreed timetable so as to permit
the re-installation of the office to commence no later than
1 June 1990;
3. Authorizes the Director-General, in order to implement these
measures, to make the necessary adjustments in the approved 1990-91 Programme of Work and Budget, in connection with the relocation of
the Office in Cairo;
55/ C 89/26; C 89/LIM/31; C 8911111PV/2; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
56/ One Member Nation expressed the view that it was premature to consider
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4. Calls upon all Member Nations, especially those within the Near East
Region, to provide their full cooperation to the Director-General
and the staff of the Organization, and to the Member Nations
concerned, to ensure the smooth and effective implementation of this
(Adopted 28 November 1989)
Status of Contributions 57
298. The Conference noted the status of contributions from Member Nations to the Budget of the Organization at 22 November 1989 (Appendix L). The Conference was advised that 28 Member Nations had made no cash payment at all in 1989, while 46 Member Nations still had arrears outstanding. A total of US$ 91 636 591.14 of arrears was still outstanding, of which US$ 78 million was due from the largest contributor.
299. The Conference also noted that the total outstanding current contributions and arrears at 22 November 1989 was the largest at this date in the history of the Organization, with an expected tendency to end the current year without substantial changes in the figures.
Payment of Assessed Contributions
300. The Conference considered the report of the Council as presented in document C 89/LIM/12 on the subject of the financial situation of the Organization. In this respect the Conference noted that notwithstanding the Council's calls for Member Nations to honour their obligations, the rate of receipt of contributions was still highly unsatisfactory.
301. The Conference noted with concern the information regarding the cash flow situation which, although it had stabilized over the last few weeks, could soon become critical again if no significant additional contributions were received before year-end. In that regard, the Conference was reminded that the Director-General could be led to use the authorization to borrow, since no further cash would be available once the Working Capital Fund and the Special Reserve Account resources were exhausted, for payment of mandatory expenditure.
302. The Conference concurred with the views of the Council in expressing its high regard for the managerial ability of the Director-General who, under difficult financial circumstances, had ensured that the objectives embodied in the Programme of Work and Budget were met to the maximum extent possible.
303. The Conference regretted that the Council's appeals had not resulted in the payment of current contributions and arrears.
57! C 89/LIM/il; C 89/LIM/12; C 89/LIM/32; C 89/III/PV/2; C 89/III/PV/3;
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304. The Conference consequently adopted the following Resolution:
PAYMENT OF ASSESSED CONTRIBUTIONS
Recalling that, in accordance with Financial Regulations 5.5, assessed contributions to the budget of the Organization by all Member Nations were due and payable in full within 30 days of the receipt of the communication of the Director-General, or as of the first day of the calendar year to which they relate, whichever is the later,
Noting that the requests of the Director-General to Member Nations to remit all contributions and advances due were sent on 1 December 1988 and that payments were therefore due as from I January 1989,
Noting that by 7 November 1989 only 66.8 percent of the total 1989 assessment had been collected and that the cumulative total of 1989 contributions outstanding and of the prior years' arrears amounted to US$ 174.7 million, which represents 72.4 percent of 1989 assessed contributions,
Regretting that in spite of repeated reminders by the Director-General and appeals by the Council, the level of unpaid contributions and arrears has dramatically increased over the last four years,
Being seriously concerned that the amount of unpaid contributions and arrears due to the Organization is the highest ever experienced by the Organization at this time of the biennium,
Recognizing the principle of non-discrimination among Member Nations concerning arrears and unpaid contributions, but at the same time being aware that the impact on the Organization's finances of non-payment varies -With the considerable differences of the rates of contribution ranging from the minimum to the maximum rates of assessment, so that non-payment by a few of the largest contributors is far more serious than in the case of several at the lower levels of contribution,
Recalling that the Director-General had been obliged to cut programmes and costs during 1987 and 1988 amounting to some US$ 45 million, and that during 1989 an additional US$ 23 million in unanticipated costs related to staff had had to be absorbed with additional damage to approved programmes, so reducing further the capacity of the Organization to respond to the requirements of Member Nations,
Noting that Council Resolution 2/80 authorizing the Director-General, in case of need, to borrow monies to the extent necessary had not so far been used:
1. Addresses a solemn request to all Member Nations with current
contributions outstanding and contributions in arrears urgently to
honour their commitments to both the Organization and the other Member
Nations which have contributed in a timely way, so as to ensure implementation of the Programme of Work and Budget voted by the
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2. Requests all Member Nations to provide information to the Organization
early each year as to the amount and timing of expected payments;
3. Requests the Council and the Finance Committee to study in depth the
subject of contributions outstanding and in arrears and to submit
recommendations with a view to proposing possible courses of action
and to assess requirements in terms of the legal and other instruments that would assist the Director-General in his mandatory responsibility
to ensure the implementation of the approved Programme of Work and
Budget in similar adverse financial conditions.
(Adopted 28 November 1989)
Measures to Deal with Problems of Delayed Payment of Assessed Contributions 58
305. The Conference recalled Resolution 18/87 adopted at the Twenty-third Session. In this resolution the Conference had decided that the interest element of any Cash Surplus would be allocated to Member Nations on a weighted basis, in accordance with the amount and the timing of payment of their contributions during the financial period.
306. The Conference recalled also that it had requested the DirectorGeneral to report to the Council, and then to the next Conference, on the adoption of measures, as from the 1990-91 biennium, to comply with the resolution.
307. The Conference noted that since there was no possibility of a Cash Surplus for the 1988-89 biennium, there would be no distribution of the interest income portion of surplus in the 1990-91 biennium and therefore there were no measures required for adoption at this time.
Level of Support Costs from UNDP and Trust Fund Programmes 59
308. The Conference welcomed FAO's active role in cooperating with the UNDP expert team, and in inter-agency mechanisms, aimed at the development of new UNDP support cost "successor arrangements", to come into effect in 1992 at the beginning of UNDP's Fifth Country Programming Cycle. This matter was considered very important in view of FAO's extensive field programmes, including those financed from Trust Funds, for which support cost reimbursement arrangements might also be influenced by the new UNDP "successor arrangements".
309. The Conference noted that, according to the latest FAO statistics, the present established support cost reimbursement rate, at 13 percent, was insufficient to cover the real costs incurred by the Organization in supporting and servicing field projects, and thus there was a subsidy involved in costs incurred under the Organization's Regular Programme budget.
58/ C 89/III/PV/2; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
59/ C 89/LIM/13; C 89/III/PV/2; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
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310. In underlining that the issues involved in determining the most appropriate UNDP support cost "successor arrangements" had important system-wide implications, the Conference welcomed the recent ACC decision (1989/29) calling attention to the timetable for the implementation of the "successor arrangements". This was important in view of the delay, until early December, in the preparation of the report and recommendations on this subject by the UNDP expert team.
311. It was noted that the ACC decision stressed in particular the need for this timetable to allow for appropriate review of the implications of proposed new "successor arrangements" by the governing bodies of the executing agencies. The Conference thus urged that, as implied in the ACC decision, no premature decision by the UNDP Governing Council should be taken on the support cost "successor arrangements".
312. The Conference noted that a detailed and full review of UNDP support cost "successor arrangements" by FAO's governing bodies should be undertaken no later than the Ninety-eighth Session of the Council, in November 1990. It was emphasized that such a review should be preceded by a full discussion of the subject by the Programme and Finance Committees at their sessions in May and September 1990. A few Member Nations noted, however, that it was the intention of the UNDP Governing Council to decide upon such arrangements at its June 1990 Session in the context of preparation for the fifth programming cycle and considered it important to adhere to this timetable. It was pointed out that this schedule of decision-making might require consultation between the FAO Secretariat and Member Nations in the Programme and Finance Committees so as to ensure that the interests of the Organization should be adequately reflected in the decisions to be taken in the UNDP Governing Council.
Headquarters Accommodation 60
313. The Conference was informed of progress made in the three scheduled phases of the building construction project.
314. Delay with respect to Phase I, the construction of the three-level parking building, was reported.
315. Progress on Phase II was ahead of schedule and the work schedule of Phase III was respected.
316 The Conference took note of the reports and expressed its appreciation
to all parties concerned, as well as its hope that the authorities of the Host Government would find a solution to the specific problems of Phase I.
317. The Conference once more expressed its thanks to the Host Government for its generous contribution and its progressive actions to improve Headquarters accommodation.
Personnel Matters 61
318. The Conference noted the developments in conditions of service of the staff, which had been reviewed by the Council at its Ninety-sixth Session. With regard to the post adjustment level for Rome, the data showed that in May
60/ C 89/LIM/14; C 89/III/PV/2; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
61/ C 89/LIM/15; C 89/III/PV/2; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
1989 there had been a slight increase due to cost-of-living movements subsequent to the resumption of the normal operation of the post adjustment system. The Conference also noted that an increase in the salaries for the General Service category had been granted, in accordance with the current methodology which maintained General Service staff salaries in line with salaries paid by leading employers on the local market.
319. The Conference took note of the recent developments in the activities of the Consultative Committee on Administrative Questions (CCAQ), the International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) and the UN Joint Staff Pension Board, and in particular the information in respect to the comprehensive review of the conditions of service of the Professional and Higher categories, and the proposed measures to reduce the actuarial imbalance of the Pension Fund. It noted that if the recommendations of the ICSC on the comprehensive review were to be approved by the UN General Assembly with effect 1 January 1990, the estimated cost for the entire UN System would amount to US$ 90 million per annum, US$ 48 million of which would be charged to regular budgets, and that costs to FAO's Regular Programme would be approximately US$ 8 million for the coming biennium. The Conference further noted that the recommendations of both the ICSC and the Pension Board would be reviewed by the UN General Assembly at its current Forty-fourth Session, and that the decisions of the Assembly would be reported to the Finance Committee at its Spring session in 1990.
- Statistics of Personnel Services
320. The Conference noted that the Council had reviewed in detail the statistics of Personnel Services which had been prepared for the first time using the automated personnel computer system, PERSYS (Personnel Management System), and that the accuracy of the data had been consequently increased. The Conference also noted the Council's request that efforts be continued for further improvements in future presentations of personnel statistics.
-Allowance for the Chairman of the Appeals Committee
321. The Conference noted the Council's approval of the Director-General's proposal to increase the allowance of the Chairman of the Appeals Committee from US$ 3 500 to US$ 5 000 per annum effective 1 January 1989.
Staff Commissary Support Cost Reimbursement 62
322. The Conference, having noted the recommendation of the Council with respect to the Staff Commissary support cost reimbursement, adopted the following Resolution:
62/ C 89/LIM/lO; C 89/III/PV/2; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
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STAFF COMMISSARY SUPPORT COST REIMBURSEMENT
Having noted that for 1988, in accordance with Resolution 29/71, the Staff Commissary transferred an amount of Lit. 53 315 000, equivalent to US$ 39 500,
*to the Organization in payment for indirect services and facilities made available to it during the year,
Recognizing that the level of such reimbursement as established under Resolution 29/71 is not adequate to cover actual related costs incurred by the Organization,
Decides that with effect from 1 Janua ry 1988
1. all actual indirect services rendered, and facilities made available,
by the Organization to the Staff Commissary shall be estimated and
charged as expenses of the Commissary operation; and
2. the equivalent of 0.5 percent of the total sales and any net profits
of the Commissary shall continue to be transferred to the Staff
Welfare Fund as heretofore, for use in accordance with policies and
procedures to be developed jointly by the Director-General and the
(Adopted 28 November 1989)
Treatment of Profit and Loss on Exchange 63
323. The Conference reviewed the proposal of the Director-General regarding the treatment of profit and loss on exchange which had been endorsed by the Finance Committee at its Sixty-sixth Session and approved by the Council at its Ninety-sixth Session.
324. The Conference noted that such profit and loss on exchange resulting from purchases and from re-evaluation of holdings of non-US Dollar currencies were charged to Chapter 5 of the Budget. It also noted that in the last four years the Organization had suffered considerable losses on exchange due to the fall in value and instability of the US Dollar.
325. The Conference recalled its Resolution 13/81 authorizing the
Director-General to use funds in the Special Reserve Account to finance unbudgeted extra costs due to movements of currency exchange rates. It therefore considered that the Director-General's proposal to transfer to the Special Reserve Account the profit and loss on exchange which had previously been charged to Chapter 5, was consistent with the thrust of Resolution 13/81.
326. The Conference recognized that such a measure would improve the protection and the conditions of implementation of the Programme of Work and Budget against uncertainties of exchange rates.
63/ C 89/LIM/16; C 89/III/PV/2; C 89/III/PV/3; C 89/PV/19.
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327. The Conference consequently adopted the following Resolution:
TREATMENT OF PROFIT AND LOSS ON EXCHANGE
Recalling its Resolution 13/81 on the Special Reserve Account,
Recognizing that the above-mentioned Resolution directs the Director-General to credit to the Special Reserve Account any savings on staff costs arising from favourable differences between the Lira exchange rate used in caculating the budget and the effective UN rate,
Further recognizing that the above-mentioned Resolution authorizes the Director-General to use the funds in the Special Reserve Account inter alia, to finance unbudgeted extra costs due to movements of currency exchange _rates,
Noting that profits and losses on exchange, arising from the purchase of non-UN Dollar currencies and from the revaluation of such currencies as a result of changes in the UN operational rate of exchange, are charged to Chapter 5 of the Budget,
Recognizing that these profits or losses on exchange can reach substantial amounts and can either jeopardize the implementation of the Programme of Work and Budget and/or need to be subjected to an improved budgetary and accounting process:
1. Decides to deal with profits/losses on exchange under the Special
2. Directs the Director-General to credit such profits and debit such
losses on exchange to the Special Reserve Account;
3. Decides that the measure shall be applied to the Regular Programme
Accounts for 1988-89 and in future biennia.
(Adopted 28 November 1989)
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APPOINTMENTS AND ELECTIONS
Election of Council Members
328. The Conference elected Nigeria to the Council seat that was vacant in the Africa Region for the period November 1989 to 31 December 1990. -
329. The Conference also elected the of the Council:
Period: November 1989
Africa (5) Asia
following Member Nations as members
- 31 December 1992
Cameroon Gabon Ghana Madagascar Morocco
Netherlands Poland Portugal
Latin America and the Caribbean (5)
Near East (2)
Brazil Colombia Cuba Mexico Trinidad and Tobago
United States of America
North America (2) Southwest Pacific
64/ C 89/11; C 89/LIM/6; C 89/LIM/22; C 89/LIM/35-Rev.l; C 89/PV/18;
C 89/PV/19; C 89/PV/21.
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Period: 1 January 1991 to
Cape Verde C6te d'Ivoire Kenya Zambia
India Pakistan Philippines
France Italy Sweden United Kingdom
Latin America and the Caribbean (1)
Near East (3)
Egypt Saudi Arabia (Kingdom of) Sudan
Southwest Pacific (1)
Anpointment of the Independent Chairman of
the Council 65
330. The Conference had before it two nominations for the office of Independent Chairman of the Council.
331. The Conference, after a secret ballot, appointed Mr Antoine Saintraint, to the office of Independent Chairman of the Council for a period of two years up to the end of the regular session of the Conference to be held in 1991, and adopted the following Resolution:
APPOINTMENT OF THE INDEPENDENT CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL
Having proceeded to a secret ballot, in accordance with the provisions of Rule XII of the General Rules of the Organization:
1. Declares that Mr Antoine Saintraint is appointed Independent
Chairman of the Council for a period of two years, that is until the
end of the regular session of the Conference to be held in 1991;
65/ C 89/15; C 89/LIM/36; C 89/PV/19; C 89/PV/21.
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2. Decides that the conditions of appointment, including the allowances
attached to the office of the Independent Chairman of the Council,
shall be as follows:
(a) An annual allowance of the equivalent of US$ 10 000 to cover the
representation expenses and secretarial assistance in the
Chairman's home station, on the understanding that the
Director-General will provide secretarial assistance when the
Chairman attends sessions of the Council or Conference; one-half
of the allowance shall be payable in US dollars, the balance
being payable, in whole or in part, in the currency of the home
country of the Chairman, or in Italian lire, according to his
(b) A per diem allowance at a rate equivalent to that for the Deputy
Director-General, while the Chairman is absent from his home station on Council business, the allowance being reduced to
US$ 20 per diem while the Chairman is in travel status on board a
common carrier other than by sea;
(c) Travel expenses, including the above per diem allowance, shall
be defrayed by the Organization, in conformity with its
regulations and existing practice, when the Chairman attends
sessions of the Council, of the Programme and Finance
Committees, of the Conference, or when he is invited by the
Council or by the Director-General to travel for other purposes.
(Adopted 29 November 1989)
Appointment of Representatives of the FAO Conference to the Staff Pension Committee
332. In accordance with Article 6(c) of the Regulations of the UN Joint Staff Pension Fund, the Conference appointed three Members and three Alternate Members to the Staff Pension Committee for the period
1 January 1990 to 31 December 1991 as follows:
(b) Alternate Members
Astrid Bergquist Counsellor (Agricultural Affairs) Permanent Representative of Sweden to FAQ
Waleed A. El Khereiji Alternate Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to FAQ
Antonio Garrido Acufla First Secretary Alternate Permanent Representative of Chile to FAO
John P. Lungu First Secretary Alternate Permanent Representative of Zambia to FAO
Bahar Munip Agricultural Attach6 Alternate Permanent Representative of Malaysia to FAO
Steven D. Hill First Secretary Alternate Permanent Representative of the United States of America to FAO
66/ C 89/16-Rev.l; C 89/PV/20; C 89/PV/21.
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Date and Place of the Twenty-sixth Session of the Conference 67 333. The Conference decided that its Twenty-sixth Session should be held in Rome from 9 to 28 November 1991.
67/ C 89/PV/20; C 89/PV/21.
INTRODUCTION PROCEDURE OF THE SESSION
1. Election of Chairman and Vice-Chairmen
2. Appointment of General Committee and Credentials Committee
3. Adoption of Agenda
4. Arrangements for the Session and Allocation of Agenda Items
5. Admission of Observers
PART I MAJOR TRENDS AND POLICIES IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
6. World Food and Agriculture Situation
6.1 State of Food and Agriculture
6.2 International Agricultural Adjustment: Progress Report on
Guidelines 7, 8 and 12
7. Preparations for an International Development Strategy for the
Fourth UN Development Decade FAO's contribution
8. Progress Report on the GATT Multilateral Trade Negotiations
(Uruguay Round) and Implications for FAO
9. Commission on Plant Genetic Resources and the International
Undertaking: Progress Report
10. International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of
Pesticides: Introduction of the "Prior Informed Consent" Clause 11. Plan of Action for the Integration of Women into Agricultural and
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PART II ACTIVITIES AND PROGRAMMES OF THE ORGANIZATION 12. Review of Regular Programme 1988-89 13. Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91 and Medium-Term Objectives 14. Review of Field Programmes 1988-89 15. Conclusions of Review of Certain Aspects of FAO's Goals and
16. United Nations/FAO/World Food Programme 17. Relations and Consultations with International Organizations
17.1 Recent Developments in the UN System of Interest to FAO
(including the International Conference on Nutrition)
17.2 Relations with Intergovernmental and International
PART III CONSTITUTIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS A. Constitutional and Legal Matters 18. Statutory Report on Status of Conventions and Agreements, and
19. Other Constitutional and Legal Matters
19.1 Procedure for the Election of the Chairmen and Members of
the Programme Committee and Finance Committee
19.2 Confirmation of the Agreement between the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations and the United Nations
Industrial Development Organization
19.3 Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or
Radiological Emergency: Accession by FAO B. Administrative and Financial Matters 20. Audited Accounts
21. Scale of Contributions 1990-91 22. Return of the Regional Office for the Near East to the Region
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23.1 23.2 23.3
23.4 23.5 23.6
PART 24. 25. 6.
PART 27. 28.
Administrative and Financial Matters Status of Contributions Report on Measures Adopted to Distribute Cash Surplus Level of Support Costs from UNDP and Trust Fund Programmes Headquarters Accommodation Personnel Matters Other Matters
IV APPOINTMENTS AND ELECTIONS Applications for Membership in the Organization 1 Election of Council Members Appointments
26.1 Appointment of the Independent Chairman of the Council 26.2 Appointment of Representatives of the FAO Conference to
the Staff Pension Committee V OTHER MATTERS Date and Plate of the Twenty-sixth Conference Session Any Other Matters
1/ No applications received.
APPENDIX B ANNEXE B APENDICE B
LIST OF DELEGATES AND OBSERVERS LISTE DES DELEGUES ET OBSERVATEURS LISTA DE DELEGADOS Y OBSERVADORES
Chairman President Presidente
: J.C. Kerin (Australia)
A.M. Al Gaoud (Libya)
( ) Jdjj lJI .Jp -Jj : C. Kanthawongs (Thailand)
G. Bula Hoyos (Colombia)
MEMBER NATIONS ETATS MEMBRES ESTADOS MIEMBROS
Minister of Agriculture and Land
Sayed Mozafaruddin HASHIMI
President of Planning Department Ministry of Agriculture and Land
Embassy of Afghanistan
Ministbre de l'Agriculture
Repr4sentant permanent aupr~s
de la FAO
Ingdnieur en chef
Direction G4ndrale des forts et
Ministbre de l'Agriculture
Ambassade de la R4publique Pop.
ALGERIA ALGERIE ARGELIA Jt. J
Repr~sentant permanent auprbs de,
Ministbre de l'Agriculture
GJs~* -LC rk ~r
- B2 -
Charge de mission
Cabinet du Premier Ministre
JLL JL_L s-,j
Conseiller du Ministre
Ministbre de l'Agriculture
i .J I
Mme Amina BOUDJELTI
Reprdsentant permanent adjoint
auprbs de la FAO
Ministbre de 1'Agriculture
Mustafa CHABOUR Directeur de l'Elevage Ministre de l'Agriculture Alger
1 7.1 j.
Sid-Ahmed CHENTOUF Directeur de la planification Ministbre de l'Agriculture Alger
Sadek MOATI ALLA Directeur production des plantes Ministbre de l'Agriculture Alger
Mlle Faouzia BOUMAIZA Premier secretaire Reprdsentant Permanent adjoint auprbs de la FAO Rome
T J.l I JJ