Report of the Fifth Session of the Working Party on Women and the Agricultural Family in Rural Development

Material Information

Report of the Fifth Session of the Working Party on Women and the Agricultural Family in Rural Development
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Working Party on Women and the Agricultural Family in Rural Development.
European Commission on Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Food and Agriculture Organization
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 v. (various pagings) ; 30 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Women in agriculture -- Europe
Women in rural development -- Europe


General Note:
At head of title: European Commission on Agriculture.
General Note:

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
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Full Text

2-5 October


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Fifth session

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of the Fifth Session of the



Prague, Czechoslovakia

2 5 October 1990


Rome 1990



INTRODUCTION (paras 1-4) 1

Opening of the Session (paras 5-7) 1

Closure of the Session (para 8) 2


Adoption of the Agenda (para 9) 2

Part 1 The Work of the Working Party 2

Review of Activities 1980-90 (para 11) 2

Future Focus for Activities (para 12) 3

Rural Development Workshops (Tel Aviv) (para 13) 3

Rural Development through Agri-tourism (Vienna)(para 14) 4

World Conference on Agrarian Reform (Varna) (para 15) 4

Development within the ECE & Co-operation with the
Working Party on Women (para 16) 4

FAO's Plan of Action for the Integration of Women
in Development 1989-95 (para 17) 5

Part 2 Social and Economic Factors in Rural Development 6

Topic 1 The Potential of Entrepreneurship to Create
Incomes and New Jobs for rural Women and
Families (para 20) 7

Topic 2 Leadership as a factor in Community Economic
Development (para 31) 9

Topic 3 Future Development in Agricultural Training 11
(para 39)

Topic 4 Future Focus for Rural Development in Eastern
Europe (para 46) 13



COUNTRY REPORTS (para 57) 16

STATEMENTS (para 77) 19

STUDY TOUR (para 82) 20


Annex I

List of Participants

Annex II Speech of Minister

Annex III


Annex IV Outline of calendar of main activities of
Working Party 1980-90

Guidelines for Country Report

Annex V


1. The Working Party on Women and the Agricultural Family in Rural
Development held its 5th Session in Prague from 2-5 October 1990 at the
invitation of the Government of Czechoslovakia. The Session was chaired by
Dr. P. Siiskonen (Finland), Dr. G. Pichler (Austria) and Dr. M. GIlv8lgyi

2. The Session was attended by delegations from 16 countries of the
European Region, as well as representatives from inter-governmental and non-
governmental organizations. The list of participants and FAO staff is
attached in Annex I.

The Session Programme was developed in two parts:

3. Part One reviewed the Activities of the Working Party during the past
decade (i.e. from its inception in 1980). It included an evaluation of the
strategic objectives of the Working Party and the activities of their action
plan. It also reviewed on-going activities and indicated a focus for the
future within FAO's policy. It provided for inputs from Human Resources,
Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division of FAO (ESH) Women in Development
and from UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) on future co-operation
between ECE and the Working Party.

4. Part Two dealt with the theme of the session "SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC
FACTORS IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT". This theme was developed through the
presentation of five papers on four main topics relating to the theme. This
was followed by organised workshop discussions on pertinent issues relating to
each topic. In addition, 12 countries presented country reports on the theme.


5. Mr. M. Zjalic, Assistant Regional Representative for Europe conveyed
the good wishes of the Director-General of FAO to the Working Party and
expressed his gratitude to the Government of the Czech and Slovak Federal
Republic for their kind invitation and for the preparations which had been
made for the Session. He recalled the role of the Working Party within FAO's
programmes in Europe and its contribution to improvements in the socio-economic
position of farm women and to the increased capacity of farm families to cope
with changing situations within the agriculture sector. He stated that this
Session was expected to recommend practical measures which would support
national Rural Development policies and which would assess the potential of
entrepreneurship in order to create income and new jobs for rural women and

He added that changes in agricultural policies in the region and in
agricultural restructuring in a number of countries called for an improved
programme and an increased role for FAO in bringing about further improvements
in Europe.

6. Mr. Miroslav Adamec, Deputy Minister of National Economy, on behalf of
the Government, welcomed the delegations to Prague and wished them a very
successful meeting. In his statement which outlined the changes and reforms
of the agricultural sector in Czechoslovakia, he emphasised the importance of
using the experiences of th6se countries which operate within a free market


economy. He also stressed the need for the exchange of ideas for co-operation
with neighboring countries for future development. He expressed his
appreciation for the co-operation and help received from FAO in the past. He
welcomed further assistance and support in project development from FAO in the
future. An outline of the Minister's statement is attached in Annex II.

7. Mr. Emil Dufala, President of the Agricultural Co-operative Association
of the Czech and Slovak Fedeal Republic, outlined policy proposals in relation
to the restructuring of the Co-operative System which would introduce
political, economic and social changes. He expressed the wish for assistance
from FAO in helping to cope with social and economic problems particularly in
agricultural production, the development of rural areas, the improvement of
the situation for rural women and the development of business and job
opportunities. He also suggested that technical assistance from FAO in
training relating to management, market economy and project development would
be very welcome.


This Report has been adopted by the members of the Working Party. The
board of the Working Party in co-operation with the FAO Secretariat, have
accepted responsibility for implementing, as far as possible, the
recommendations made during the Session. The report will be presented to the
European Commission on Agriculture at its next session. Technical papers,
country statements and a selection of Reports will be published in REUR
Technical Series No. 18.


9. The Agenda and timetable were approved, as proposed, with amendments
concerning presentations on "FAO's Plan of Action for Integrated Women in
Development" and on "A new Approach to Community Development". Agenda and
timetable are attached in Annex III.



10. This part included:

A Review of the Activities of the Working Party during the last
decade and a focus for the future;

A Report on the Main Activities since the 4th Session;

A Report on the Activities of the ECE and Opportunities for future
Co-operation between the Working Party and ECE.

A Report from ESH on FAO's Plan of Action for Integration of Women in

11. Ms. A. Gannon, outgoing chairman, presented a Review of the Activities
of the Working Party during the 10 year period 1980-1990. This includes a
history of its development; purpose; action taken and results.


The Working Party changed focus in 1980 from that of Home Economics to
Socio-Economics. Its strategic objectives as defined by the Working Party in
1980 are:

to improve the status of farm women as co-partners and managers of
the farm business,

to secure the well-being of women and the agricultural family by
helping them cope with their social and economic needs and by
strengthening employment and income generating activities;

to further rural development.

In 1980 the new focus of the Working Party was placed on Farm Women,
Farm Families, Farm Business and Farm and Rural Communities with emphasis on a
problem solving approach. A Global Management Approach (GMA) was developed by
the Working Party which enabled the global, systematic and systemic analysis
of problems and situations. From 1982-88 the Working Party programme
concentrated on pluriactivities, extension and GMA development. In 1988 the
Working Party added a new dimension, that is Economic Community Development
through a networking system using GMA.

Training was key to the success of the programme of the Working Party.
From 1982-90 eight immersion type training course were provided for trainers
and leaders from different European countries on the following topics -
Pluriactivity development; the GMA in farm development and family living;
Extension Programme Planning; Integration Rural Development; Rural
Development through Agri-Tourism.

12. Future Focus for Activities of the Working Party

It was indicated that developments for the future should continue to
contribute to the strategic objectives of the Working Party and should focus
on Economic Community Development for Rural Women and Rural Families with the
emphasis on extension training and a global management approach for:

Rural Development and Pluriactivity,
Community Building,
Development of Enterprises and Businesses including Agri-Tourism,
Promoting Entrepreneurial Culture,

Future development in these areas could be gainfully done through the
networking process.

An outline of the calendar of main activities of the Working Party
1980-90 is attached in Annex IV.

Copy of Review of the Activities/Developments of the FAO/ECA Working
Party on Women and the Agricultural Family in Rural Development (ECA/WRD 90/6
Sept 90) 1980/90 is available from the FAO/REUR office.

13. Ms. L. Brakin presented a report on the RURAL DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP (Tel
Aviv 1989). Points of interest which emerged were:


There is a need for simultaneous planning of multipurpose activities
in order to ensure that agricultural changes are paralleled by the
development of secondary and tertiary sector activities.

The improvement of vitality of rural areas through community business
initiatives and the exploitation of agriculture-related industries
should be encouraged.

The development of research for health and biological products is

Research in product and market development in small business and
agri-tourism is essential.

14. Ms. M. Nejez, Austria presented a report on the Summer School on RURAL
DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AGRI-TOURISM, Vienna 1990. This report outlined the
background to the workshop, the objectives, the contents, the methodology,
the process of development of the Workshop, and the recommendation for the
follow up.

Special features of the Workshop were the Global Management Approach
and the group advising approach for situation analysis, problem analysis and
problem solving;

A recommendation from the Workshop indicated that future workshops
should develop through the GMA methodology.

Future development in agri-tourism should consider the ecological,
human and social dimensions.

An agri-tourism net-working system should be set up by FAO for the
interchange of knowledge, case studies, research findings and
developments between the different countries.

A detailed Evaluation Report on the Third International Summer School,
- Rural Development through Agri-tourism (Vienna, 1990) is available from
FAO Regional Office for Europe.

15. Dr. P. Siiskonen (Finland), who represented the Working Party on Women
at the Symposium on the Tenth Anniversary of the WORLD CONFERENCE ON AGRARIAN
REFORM AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (WCARRD) (Varna 1990), presented the report on
the Conference. She outlined the main theme of the Conference, its purpose
and the main changes that took place in Europe on agriculture and rural
development during the previous 10 year period. The recommendations of the
Conference were concerned with ecological equilibrium and the balance between
traditional agriculture and new developments.

16. Mr. R. Plantier, representative of the UN Economic Commission for
Europe (ECE) Geneva, presented a report on Developments within the ECE and
Co-operation with the Working Party on Women. He informed the Working Party of
on-going consultations between governments of European countries which aimed
at promoting closer co-operation and a clearer distribution of activities
between the ECE Committee on Agricultural Problems and the FAO/ECA.


In particular, the ad hoc Working Group on ECE-FAO co-operation
(Berlin, September 1990) proposed that "Rural Society Development" should be
an issue of the competence of ECA, especially the WP on Women. Regarding the
FAO/ECE Working Party on Agrarian Structure (WPAS), its main competence was
recognized for farm economics and the managerial and structural aspects.

On the basis of this distribution of tasks, the co-operation between
the two Working Parties could be as follows:

Regarding content:

The WPW might request, when needed, the WPAS to examine selected
economic or structural aspects in relation to current and future
activities (e.g. on agri-tourism).

reciprocal request from the WPAS to the WPW could be envisaged.

Regarding procedures, various possibilities exist:

Inclusion on a Working Party agenda, specific items on activities
from the other WP;

Participation of chairperson to other WP's session;

Exchange of draft reports in order to get mutual views;

Joint meetings of office holders;

Joint symposia, seminars, workshops; e.g. on land tenure systems and
farm privatization in economies in transition.

(Other proposals should be transmitted by the board of the Working Party on
Women to the secretariat in Geneva.)

17. Dr. A. Spring presented a paper on FAO's Plan of Action for the
Integration of Women in Development 1989-95. It outlined the focus of the
Plan which is to support women in their role as producers and workers in
agriculture, including fisheries and forestry. It identified measures in four
spheres of action, i.e.

The civil status sphere relates to improved legislation on women's
access to land, credit and membership in farmers' organizations and

The economic sphere aims at enhancing women's role in rural economy.

The social sphere aims at improving rural women's access to education,
to modernized agricultural and home economic training, to improve
nutritional status and in population education.

The decision making sphere promotes efforts to improve women's
participation in institutions and to provide leadership and management
training to rural women.


Seven priorities have been selected for the implementation of the Plan during
the current biennium, i.e.

to train FAO staff at Headquarters and in the Regional Offices on
Women in Development (WID) and gender issues.
To provide a policy programme to Member Governments in order to
strengthen (WID) units, in ministries of agriculture, rural
development and planning.
To increase gender considerations and women's participation in FAO
projects and programmes which focus on putting women into mainstream
To update the training of home economics extension workers and
re-orient the curricula in home economics and agricultural training
To prepare WID guidelines and manuals.
to collect data, carry out research studies and initiate a data
base on women in agriculture.
to design population education components that will assist women to
improve their quality of life.

The plan of action complements the work that is being done by the
Working Party on Women and the Agricultural Family in Rural Development and it
provides a framework for the integration of ideas and the transfer of
technology to developing countries.

A copy of the paper "FAO's Plan of Action for the Integration of Women
in Development" is available from ESH Division, FAO.


18. Part two dealt with the theme of the session ie SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC

This theme was developed through the presentation of five topic papers
which were followed by group discussions on pertinent issues relating to the
topic. Country reports were also presented on the theme.

19. Topics were:

1. The Potential of Entrepreneurship to create Incomes and New Jobs for
Rural Women and Families.

2. Leadership as a Factor in Community Economic Development.

3. Future Development in Extension Training.

4. Future Focus for Rural Development in Eastern Countries.

5. A New Approach to Community Development and Regional Policy.





20. Professor T. Petrin, Yugoslavia, introduced the topic with the
presentation of a key paper. The paper outlined insights into Why and How the
development of entrepreneurship could become an important vehicle for the
creation of new jobs for rural development.

21. The importance of entrepreneurship as a key factor of modern economic
growth and development was emphasised. In many cases it has been responsible
for changing technically depressed areas into fast growing areas. Since
change is the core of the process of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial
development in rural areas is a necessary condition for changing those areas
into faster growing ones. It must be stressed that recent studies show that
entrepreneurship is not necessarily an inborn characteristic but can be
developed through conscious action. Group entrepreneurship as a means of
rural development is now gaining in importance as opposed to the individual

22. In rural areas families and female entrepreneurs can play a significant
role eg

The family represents a natural unit for group entrepreneurship. A
family as a unit can provide a balanced management team and a
psychological support to each member in her, his entrepreneurial

Women present an important source for entrepreneurial development for
the following reasons; formation of a new enterprise does not
involve formal institutional selection; trends towards
service-oriented economy has opened new opportunities to female
employment; women have management predisposition and high
entrepreneurial spirit.

23. Recent changes in global economic conditions have led to a revaluation
of the small scale entrepreneurial firms. The consequence is that many
regions have rebuilt their economies by focusing on performance of their small
and medium enterprises. These, together with entrepreneurial behaviour,
raises many opportunities for small scale rural industrialization in sectors
such as tourism, services and repairs, non-farm production, agricultural
services, processing of agricultural products, retail and wholesale trade.

24. In order to utilize the entrepreneurial potential in rural areas, an
infrastructure required for entrepreneurial development must be created. It
should include the development of 1) an appropriate economic policy and 2) the
development of a system of support institutions.

Economic policy must create an environment conducive to entrepreneur-
ship ie. a system of values, entrepreneurial climate, programme agencies).

Support institutions crucial for entrepreneurial development, ie
training institutions, institutions for supply of investment funds, and
institutions for technical assistance.


25. Two important mechanisms for creating an entrepreneurial climate in a
community or region is networking and business incubators and industrial parks.
Networking is important because it helps to overcome 1) the problem of
isolation of individual entrepreneurs and 2) inefficiencies due to the
limitations of the small size.

26. Business incubators are useful instruments for overcoming the market
failure in regard to creation of new successful firms. They promote
entrepreneurial development by providing entrepreneurs with services and
support that complement and extend their talents and abilities.


27. Participants were divided into groups for discussions on four aspects
of the topic. A summary of discussion findings were submitted at the plenary
session and are as follows:

28. How to develop entrepreneurial opportunities for rural women and

Identification of entrepreneurial opportunities and needs in the
region and the use of comparative advantage through research in
relation to markets, products, services, technology and financial
resources and through meetings with key or influential people.

Developing homogeneous target groups and using the Global Management
Approach for development of an entrepreneurial concept for the
selected rural area.

Developing different training methods to improve the self-esteem and
confidence of women and to improve the management skills.

Exposure to good entrepreneurial examples.

Developing appropriate programmes for training the trainers.

Situation analysis and feasibility studies.

Finding promoters.

Developing and promoting leadership, networking.

Analyzing finance possibilities finding ways to obtain the
financial sources to start up. Training in financial management -
developing awareness on where and how to get money, how to deal with
taxes etc.

29. How to Prevent Factors which Hinder Entrepreneurial Development in
Rural Areas:

Stop using negative terminology.
Engage in Self-Development in the positive sense.
Use "Imitation" and experimental learning.
Use Mass Media to produce a positive image of the Entrepreneur.


Simplify Bureaucracy procedures.
Leaders must come from the people.
Deal with things that are manageable realistic achievable.
Provide special training for potential Entrepreneurs.
Rural development should be brought about by rural people themselves.
Motivation is vital
Laws which are no longer relevant should be replaced by new ones
which relate to the needs of the people today.

30. Factors which Promote Entrepreneurial Development in Rural Areas:

Ensure that an expert in the Global Management Approach can be
Promote training of trainees through a flexible didactic approach.
Develop a methodology geared to the introduction of networking and
determine the role of the extension agent in the system as a whole. -



31. Ms. M. Lally (Ireland) submitted a paper on this topic which indicated
that Leadership, Community and Economic Development are key works which have a
close connection with People, Power and Money. In this context they arouse
interest and beg many questions Are leaders born or made through training?
Are there models that can be learned from? Is there a distinction between
Management and Leadership?

32. Community development is primarily interested in enabling people at the
grass roots to develop their own human potential as free self-determining
persons. It is also concerned with the development of the area, Economically,
Socially and Culturally. In Community based economic development the
Community is the target and also the main beneficiary and the decision-making
body. In other words the overriding motive is Community betterment. Community
based economic development attempts to be highly integrated.

33. It is important to note that Community Groups are at different stages
of preparedness to engage in Economic self-help initiatives. Therefore, local
development groups need help (training) in order to overcome the day to day
difficulties which they may encounter. It is also necessary to be aware that
the focus within any Community is not on the individual as such but on the
Groups as a whole and on the conscious and unconscious processes which arise
within the Group.

34. Essential elements of leadership and community training should include:

Human Relations and Personal development;
Communication Skills Personal Development;
Skills of effective Group participation;
Group development, group maintenance;
Dealing with conflict;
Decision making Programme Planning, action plan;

- 10 -

Leadership and self-development training programmes are vital to
effective Leadership. Such programmes will enable each person to grow in
self-knowledge, with awareness of each other and acceptance of true authority.


A summary of discussion findings is as follows:

35. Why training is important for leadership in order to facilitate group
development and group interaction?

The importance of training for leadership is unquestionable.
It helps rural women develop self confidence to become future leaders.
It trains them to become moderators and understand the group process.
It is an instrument to help people help themselves and to understand
It is recommended that FAO should organise workshops for leadership
training and for training in strategic planning for women.

36. Identification of factors which hinder leadership and group development.

Those relating to organizations:

People's reluctance to change in the group.
Different levels of education in a group.
Traditional training of leaders.
Appointed leadership power no constructive behaviour.
Lack of co-operation within organizations.

Those relating to rural people:

Fear from competition.
Inadequate knowledge.
Negative effects of state subsidies.

It is recommended:

that seminars for leadership and group development be organised at
local level with the involvement of foreign experts.
that grants, funds, foundations, etc. be provided to encourage and
promote young people/women of indigeous or local organizations to
undertake leadership.
that social movements be supported in order to encourage/stimulate
local leaders/women to take much more responsibility for rural

37. How can groups of people solve problems by working together?

This requires training for the group and group leaders, particularly
in group dynamics and working techniques. Thus training should be
promoted at all school levels.
Encourage mixed groups at local level.
Organise the exchange of experience at local level.
Encourage group interaction by adapting the rules to meet new
requirements. (This applies particularly to countries whose
economies are in a state of transition).

- 11 -

38. Contributing factors to the low self-image of women and their
reluctance to engage in discussion or working groups.

Education level, men acknowledged for the leading positions in
society and difference in remuneration for work of same value.
Women engaged in the responsibility for their families and for the
education of their children.
Double employment for women eg. at home and work.
Lack of training in psychology at all school levels.

Recommendations are:

Introduction of psychology training within the total school system.
Training of women in management and project development use
"outside" expertise if necessary.
Improve conditions for possibilities for enterprises for women eg.
services, transportation, telecommunications, information services,
household services etc.



39. Dr. J. Knoll, (Italy), introduced this topic by looking at new trends
and changes and at how they can be serviced by extension services.

He defined advisory/extension work as a comprehensive and mental mobilization
of all forces, both domestic and agricultural, to cope with problems and to
reach the intended targets. But the results are not always so effective or
efficient as required. How often are problems only solved superficially,
decisions not made at all or always being put off and so becoming permanent
worries? How much time is therefore spent or even wasted?

40. Solving problems efficiently and meeting decisions has become more
difficult, but at the same time more important; whereas tolerance for errors
has narrowed.

Whoever wants to innovate something in an enterprise must often involve
other people, become dependent on them and win their support. A wide variety
of information, points of view and intentions quickly emerge. This can be
controlled and managed only by someone who tackles such problems with a stable
systematic approach.

Experience naturally develops in the course of time, together with the
ability to successfully master difficult management situations. However,
there will always be situations with new forms of complex problems and
decisions which will only be helped by a well-founded and methodical approach.

41. The social, political and working conditions set by agrarian policy has
created new demands on the skills of the extension agent. The new focus is on
a counselling role in relation to problem identification and problem solving,
particularly in areas such as marketing, technology, progress, ecology and
interfarm co-operation.

- 12 -

42. The paper also dealt with the future essentials of counselling, the
direction for restructuring resources, the resource gap shown and how it
arises, the ways to assess and facilitate the functions of a counsellor and
how to solve problems by learning together. Demands and professional
workloads of extension agents as well as the ways and means of dealing with
the bottlenecks encountered in the extension service of today were highlighted.


Findings from the Group Discussion are as follows:

43. What external and internal influences should be considered by
agriculture policies within the Extension Service training

Extension service should define the real needs at local and village
level and should present them to government level.
Budget and financial constraints. This should be reconsidered and
staff reductions discontinued.
Many extension services should change to more effective priorities.
Programme decisions should be made at local level.

That FAO give training support to extension agents to help them cope
with new demands and situations.

44. How can farm families and farm women be integrated into the decision
making process?

Training in the process of decision-making.
Reinforce the value of decision-making.
Adopt a holistic approach.
Inservice training from extension service.
Extension service need to be visible and accepted.
Adopt a model of extension that is more than just agriculture it
should also have a community economic development dimension.

45. Involvement of Farm and Rural Women in the decision-making process for
rural development

Take steps to ensure recognition of the personal status of women
Encourage women's participation in professional organizations and
rural women and women farmers' participation in decision-making at
all levels.
Facilitate "town-country" exchange.
Use positive experiences where changes of attitude and mentality
further development.

- 13 -



46. For this topic the Czechoslovakian situation was used as an example of
a country in a stage of transition from a model of central directive
management to a market-based economy through privatization.

Ms. V. Lipova presented the paper which discussed the changes and
political events of 1989 and how they influenced agriculture. New laws
relating to organisational structure and systems deprive co-operatives of
administrative and directive state influence and provide farms with
independence in all spheres of production, economy, entrepreneurship and
import and export possibilities.

47. Changes realized within the framework of the new economic policy
recognizes agricultural co-operatives as an important component of the
agro-food production complex in the future. Transition to a market economy
requires co-operatives to reorientate with new conditions, ie:

- set up a framework for development of land ownership,
- provide the framework for denationalization of land and restructuring of
- co-operatives to respond to market requirements, subvention policies, tax
system, efficiency of production, competition of imported products,
ecological aspects, employment and social requirements.

48. The basic strategic targets of the agro-food processing are as follows;

- high quality, variety and health safety of food products,
- reduction of subsidies for production and distribution costs,
- provision of social security for the agriculture sector,
- optimisation of regional structures of social and economic development of
handicapped areas,
- significant improvement of environmental protection of the landscape.

49. To develop the rural regions it will be necessary -

- for the state to help establish people in these regions,
- promote privatization of agricultural production,
- establish private and family farms,
- reallocate agricultural entreprises to smaller units,
- develop the processing industry,
- develop services and create the pre-requisites of employment in these
- utilize recreational facilities for agri-tourism,

50. Changes in the Czechoslovak society will influence many spheres,
particularly the development of rural regions where the contribution of women
can be very substantial. There will be a tendency in the future to find jobs
outside agriculture and seek other job possibilities in services, small
processing productions, and in other non-agricultural activities in private
production units. This process, however, requires training and retraining
programmes, changes in curriculum in secondary schools and universities and
the establishment of apprentice training centres in the promotion of education

- 14 -

in taxes, financial policy, economy, marketing, law, environment protection,
etc. Requalification of workers will be provided through national committees
and some enterprises. In connection with partial privatization and
establishment of private and family farms, the organizations of winter schools
on economic subjects with an orientation to a higher employment rate for women
is to be considered. For the implementation of the solutions outlined,
assistance from FAO and other agencies will be required.


51. The following is a summary of discussions and findings on the topic:

The Promotion of Rural Development Entrepreneural Development in
Eastern Europe

Existing capabilities and skills should be used for the renewal and
development of entrepreneurship through:

establishing family farms for agricultural production;

developing joint ventures with agricultural co-operatives and private

processing of agricultural products through private enterprise eg.
fruit and vegetable processing eg the fruit and vegetable juices
and wine and drying of these products; processing of forest products
and herbs medicinal; processing of meat, milk and flour and the
production of special food of high quality;

developing entrepreneurship in the "service" areas eg restaurants,
hair dressing trade, dressmaker shops, repairs, handicrafts eg. the
production of baskets, ceramics, leather processing, wood production,
local traditional crafts eg. embroidering, hand weaving, jewellery,

responding to the needs of the information and computer market:

developing an extension service for rural families;

promoting the developing of a social infrastructure and the renewal
of villages through trade and small business and enterprise

At present there is a lack of legislative and judicial framework for
this development and there is also a lack of small enterprise

52. Forms of Support from Western Countries which could help development of
Eastern Countries in a State of Transition.

To use the knowledge and experience of western experts about:

policy on the higher level;
exposure to living examples;

Selectivity in bringing new ideas to the eastern country;

FAO should give support/organise workshops/meetings/study tours for
these purposes.

- 15 -


That findings from the workshop groups of the Session be used by
National Governments with assistance for their execution (where
necessary) from FAO using, as far as possible, the expertise of the
Working Party.

That an agri-tourism networking system should be set up by FAO for the
interchange of knowledge, case studies research findings and
developments between countries.

That international workshops should be set up by FAO on:

Training in Leadership and community building,

Training in Entrepreneurial skills and culture.

That Regional Policy for Rural Development must consider environment,
pollution and the human dimension.

The representative from OECD suggested close co-operation between OECD
and FAO in rural development and agri-tourism development.

That future activities of the Working Party would also look at women's
involvement in community and regional development and also from the
cultural and technology point of view.


The delegation from Czechoslovakia requested assistance from FAO and
the Working Party in the following:

preparation and implementation of projects on training of women
leaders in farm management under conditions of market economy;

preparation of development projects for specific reforms within
difficult natural conditions;

preparation and implementation of programmes to qualify women for new
jobs in connection with consequences of structural changes in
agriculture and food industry;

implementation of positive experience from other countries in seeking
efficient forms of privatization in agriculture.

Requests for technical assistance were also indicated by Hungary,
Poland and Yugoslavia, particularly in the setting up of projects and the
provision of training.

55. Replying to requests for technical assistance, Mr. M. Zjalic, on behalf
of the FAO Secretariat, informed the session of the Organization's policy
regarding assistance to member countries with economies in transition.
Following the recommendation of the Seventeenth FAO Regional Conference for
Europe, FAO had improved its information base on the agricultural sector and
overall economy of countries concerned. The Regional Conference document

- 16 -

on changes in agricultural policies in the Region had been up-dated to cover
inter alia recent developments in these countries and would be submitted to
the next session of the FAO Council. FAO regional programmes and activities,
as well as those of the UN Economic Commission for Europe, had been adjusted
to reflect more accurately the interests and needs of economies in transition.

56. The Commission on Agriculture, at its next session in 1991, would
discuss the problems of marketing agricultural products. FAO/ECE Joint
Working Party on Agrarian Structure would monitor the process of privatization
and changes in ownership structure. Cooperative research networks would pay
more attention to issues relevant to agriculture in transition. FAO field
programmes in countries concerned had been adjusted in accordance with new
priorities. FAO had also played an active role in mobilizing additional
resources for development projects in some of these countries. On the subject
of specific requests put forward by the delegation of the host country, he
stated that they clearly fell within the FAO mandate and technical competence
and that modalities for implementation would be developed through regular
contact between FAO and representatives of the Government. He expressed the
hope that members of this Working Party and their respective governments would
give all the assistance necessary for the success of on-going changes in the
countries concerned.

Following guidelines sent by FAO to member countries, twelve countries
presented reports (copy of guidelines is attached in Annex 5).

A summary of key points from reports is as follows:

57. Due to the changing economic conditions technological advances in the
70's and shifts in demand from mass produced standardized products the
policy of rural development should be aimed at promoting the entrepreneurial
behaviour of farmers, ie creativity and flexibility in small farming
situations. Therefore, it is important to redefine the existing approaches to
rural development so as to include training programmes for the entrepreneurial
and small scale industry development in rural areas. It was strongly felt
that training programmes must focus on teaching farmers how to acquire
entrepreneurial behaviour and a farming system based on creativity and
flexibility. It is important to train farmers in problem solving methods as
well as in personal development and in a marketing approach to farming.

58. In order to increase female entrepreneurship an educational system
which responds to the needs of women of different age and skill levels is
extremely important (entrepreneurial courses, individually tailored
seminars the "build up" system approach etc.) utilizing various
institutional mechanisms including scholarship schemes.

59. The development of counselling and education programmes for multiple
activities for income maintenance proved to be an important mechanism for
rural development. This could be oriented to the development of the following
activities: holidays on the farm, direct marketing, new brand-name
development for agricultural products etc.

60. The importance of training programmes to increase self-esteem, self-
confidence of women was stressed in order to overcome the negative impact of
gender issue in rural development.

- 17 -

61. Although women and families are an important source of entrepreneurial
mobilization in rural areas, the development of macro-economic, regional
and/or communal policies for creation of supportive environment and
infrastructure for rural development should not be neglected.

62. Diversification of rural policies tailored to the specific needs of
specific rural areas should be pursued. There is a need for a diversified
approach to rural development which includes the development of traditional
agricultural activities and also the activities which were traditionally
viewed as industrial. Therefore, reorientation from sectoral to
inter-sectoral development strategies is needed since the development of rural
areas concerns all sectors.

63. The role of the family as a natural entrepreneurial unit was stressed.
It was felt that, due to the personal relationships developed in farm
families, families present a more realistic unit for entrepreneurship

64. Due to the past characteristics of socialist economies and due to the
transition process, the east European countries in order to overcome the
existing structural imbalances expressed high interest in international
involvement: in this process.

Highlights from individual Country Reports

65. Austria

An outline of biofood production illustrates success in a
mountainous area of small farms. Through their
endeavours a "Mountain Herb Co-operative" has developed
into the biggest European supplier of biologically
cultivated herbs. Currently there are 130 farming
enterprises in a re-orientation group in the area of
Muhlviertal who benefit from this new venture.

The biofood production has been developed
Re-orientation groups who were trained in
cultivation, pricing and marketing of the


66. Czechoslovakia The transition to a market economy gives rise to problems
emerging from the very nature of entrepreneurship and
from the obvious dependence of income and further social
advantages on real results. Important changes have to
take place, particularly structural changes must be
introduced in economic activities as well as in
production. It is necessary to work out a programme of
development for regions.

67. Finland States that agricultural policy has failed to keep the
countryside inhabited. Rural policy now faces the same
problem. The question is what are the future prospects
of the countryside and can it survive?

Emphasis is put on education, particularly for rural
youth, who are a key group of the new countryside and for
them a "purpose built" education is required.

- 18 -

68. Germany




72. Norway

The general thinking of people in rural areas is rather
more traditional than orientated to creativity and
flexibility. People were not educated to think in this
way. The main policies until now related to Production
and Price. These main policies made farmers think that
politicians etc. were responsible for the problems of the
farmers and so many farmers were not trained to take
control of their own destiny. Farmers have to be trained
to think; to be creative and to be flexible; to be able
to solve problems and to think in marketing terms instead
of getting concrete proposals for production or recipes
for possibilities to earn additional money.

Has developed a co-operative system 46 women
co-operatives for the organisation of collective
enterprises, eg agri-tourism, handicrafts, production and
marketing of home products such as food, traditional
dishes in family restaurants, clothes and other
businesses that contribute to rural development.

The report referred to the agricultural policy of the
Hungarian Government which has the objective to change
the economic system from planned to market economy on
private ownership. The importance of the agriculture
sector in the national economy is illustrated by the fact
that food contributes to 25% of GNP and 22% of the active
population is engaged in agriculture. The share of
agriculture in convertible exports is 30%.

Transition to a market economy is expected to be more
beneficial to the individual and to the community.

Major changes are taking place in the agriculture
situation in Israel. Local markets cannot absorb further
production and export is limited due to EC Regulations.
Part time farming now absorbs 2/3 of the population.
Alternative occupation is very diversified eg.
professional careers, small family industries, eg.
clothing factories, art printing, hiring, catering,
entertainment, small scale home food produce and tourism.

The report states that the country is on the threshold of
big changes which were not preplanned but are being
driven by the dynamo of urgent needs.

The strategy for rural development focuses on (1) Human
Resources (2) Natural Resources. The development strategy
must be based on the co-ordinated use of policy know-how,
research development and education of the work force.
These become the engine for working together with
investments and capital. To create stable jobs for women
in and related to agriculture, government grants are
available which partially cover the cost of developing an
idea into a reliable project. Approximately 25 project
ideas which have been funded are listed in the report.

- 19 -

73. Poland

74. Spain

75. Sweden

The report discussed the change in ideology which caused
a change in attitude and behaviour of the society. It
outlined the transition process which will lead to
socio-economic development. It also indicated the need
for external assistance to service this development.

The employment situation in rural areas is complex and
very varied and its most marked characteristics in recent
years have been the shortage of jobs in the industrial
and services sector and the sharp reduction in jobs
available in the agrarian sector which are almost
exclusively on family farms.

Has initiated a system of "Entrepreneural grants" in
order to stimulate ideas and new industries in rural
areas. Women with ideas for starting new industries as a
complement to farming, forestry and horticulture are
eligible for entrepreneurial grants. An appendix to the
country report indicated 100 ideas which were grant-aided
under this sheme.

76. Yugoslavia The report stated that there was a great need for the
development of the mountainous and less favoured areas.
Such development demanded a long-term plan and consistent
implementation of developmental commitments. There is a
real need and possibility to harmonise the economic and
social development of industry, small scale rural
entreprise, agriculture, tourism and economic and
communal infrastructure and to provide an education
programme in relation to professional skills and also
management and leadership training.
(Country Reports are published in REUR Technical Series No.18)


77. Mr. C. Huillet, Chief of OECD's programme for the Administration of
rural public funds, in his contribution, recalled the Organisation's work in
formulating and implementing rural economy management programmes in Member
Countries since 1981. The countryside had changed considerably and could no
longer be perceived in the same light as before. The "countryside" was an area
or territory where people lived not only where they made their living.

78. Migratory movements had altered population patterns and rural economies
had diversified. At the same time, agriculture, one of the components of a
rural economy, had seen its share in the economies of Member Countries
continue to fall and it is currently going through a critical period.

79. In order to come to grips with this new situation, the OECD Council,
meeting at Ministerial level, had asked the Organisation to implement a
programme of work geared to rural development. This programme, in which only
OECD was involved, would have to look into ways of interweaving social,
economic, agricultural and environmental policies at both micro- and macro-
economic levels, determining how an integrated rural development approach
could contribute to the agricultural reform process and how the problems of
isolated zones and communities could be solved.

- 20 -

80. With a view to the Organisation's future relations with the Eastern
European countries, provision had been made to enable the programme to deal
with the problems of rural sector adjustment similar to those encountered in
OECD member countries. These problems could worsen as these countries
focused greater attention on market mechanisms. The question of cooperation
with FAO and the European Commission on Agriculture on rural development
matters could be examined under this programme.

81. Dr. J. Pele representative of IFAP, expressed appreciation for the work
of the Working Party on Women which responds to the needs of the farm families
in a changing world. There was a clear message from the Session for an
effective and strong consultation with the rural population in planning the
development of programmes. This would be of particular importance for
projects in developing countries.


82. A Study Tour to a co-operative farm and to a private home was organised
for the participants of the session. Here the elements of co-operative
farming were explained and the future focus for co-operatives was discussed.

Election of the Board of the Working Party

83. Dr. G. Pichler, Austria, was elected as the new Chairperson of the
board and Ms. M. Lally, Ireland, as the new board member.

Other Business

84. On 2 October 1990, to mark the reunification of Greater Germany, the
Working Party extended their congratulations and good wishes to the German

85. The programme of the next meeting of the Working Party will be
developed at the next meeting of the Board.

86. The delegate of Finland extended an invitation to the Working Party to
hold its next Summer School in Finland in 1991.

Adoption of the Report

87. The draft report was adopted. The final form was to be completed by
the Secretariat.



Dr G Pichler
Office of the Extension Service
Ministry of Agriculture

V. Petrova Hafusova (Mrs)
Farm Cooperativ v. Qudeche

V. Becvarov5 (Mrs)
Head of Delegation
President of Research Inst. for Economic
Agriculture & Food

P. Kolhrov9 (Mrs)
President Co-operative Farm

A. Lipova (Mrs)
Agricultural Co-operative Association
Economic-Social Department

B. Najerovg (Mrs)
ICA Women's Committee
Pisnice, Prague

0. MurgasovA (Mrs)
President Co-operative Farm
Zborov nad Bystricou

V. Trnkov5 (Mrs)
Chief of Department
Research Institute for

Economy of Agriculture & Food

P. Siiskonen (Mrs)
Institute of Rural Research & Training
Helsinki University

M. Karhunen (Miss)
Home Economics Officer
Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry





I 2

Germany Dr H. Potthoff (Mrs)
Chief of Department
Ministry of Agriculture

Dr H. Vogel (Mr)
Professor/Chief Executive
Economic Affairs/Domestic Affairs

Dr. Lohmdller (Mr)
Geschaftsfuehrer of the Organisation for Rural Training
Training Centre
Bonn, R6ttgen

Greece S. Arfanis (Mrs)
Head of Delegation
Director, Home Economics Extension Service
Ministry of Agriculture

Hungary M. Gilvl6gyi (Mrs)
Head of Delegation
Secretary General
Ministry of Agriculture

D. Kovics (Mr)
Centre for Regional Studies
Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Ireland M. Lally (Miss)
Rural Development Officer
TEAGASC Council for Development in Agriculture
Castlebar, Co.Mayo

Israel L. Brakin (Mrs)
Director of Intern. Relations
Moshav Movement
Kfar Jehezkel

Netherlands A.M. Burger (Mrs)
Head of Delegation
Ministry of Agriculture, Nature & Fisheries
Den Haag

S- 3



M. Burnier (Mrs)
Inspectrice Fed6rale
Office F6dgral de l'industrie des
Arts & M6tiers et du Travail

L. Vasic (Ms)
Head of Delegation
Secretary of the Federation of
Novi Sad

M. Logar (Ms)
Adviser to Head of Delegation

M. Mesl (Mrs)
Adviser to Head of Delegation
Slovenia-Ravne na Kor

M. Markes (Mrs)
Deputy Minister
Ministry of Agriculture

Cooperatives of Vojvodina

G.D. Aarnes (Mrs)
Head of Delegation
Project Leader
Ministry of Agriculture

S. Bruem (Mrs)
Project Leader
Ministry of Agriculture

M. Halamska (Mrs)
Ministry of Agriculture

M. Segovia (Mrs)
Head of Delegation
Jefe Secci6n de Economig y Bienestar Familiar
Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentaci6n

B. Wiberg (Mrs)
Administrative Officer
National Board of Agriculture





S- 4


Organisation de Cooperation et de Developpement Economique (OECD)

C. Huillet (Mr.)
Chef du Programme, Gestion Publique Rurale
Paris, France

Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)

R. Plantier (Mr.)
Chief a.i.
ECE/FAO Agriculture & Timber Division
Geneva, Switzerland


American Farm School

R. Warner (Mrs.)
International Training Programme Co-ordinator
Thessaloniki, Greece

International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP)

G. Pela (Mrs.)
Permanent Representative to FAO
Rome, Italy

Union Internationale des Organisms Familiaux (UIOF)

M.T. Pig6 (Miss)
Responsable Service Formation A
1'Union des Maison Familiales Rurales
Paris, France



M. Zjalic
Assistant Regional Representative for Europe

A. Gannon (Ms.)
Secretary of the Session
Regional Officer for Europe

A. Spring (Ms.)
Chief, Women in Agricultural Production
and Rural Development Service


J. Knoll

- Italy

M. N6jez (Mrs.) Austria

T. Petrin (Mrs.) Yugoslavia




Madam Chairman,

Mr. Vice-Chairman,

Ladies and Gentlemen

Two weeks from now, we shall be celebrating World Food Day and the 45th
anniversary to the founding of FAO, the largest United Nations agency. Even
though this international, inter-governmental forum has been in existence for
almost half a century, its admirable aims have lost none of their relevance.
FAO statistical data showing rising numbers of hungry and malnourished are
horrifying. If one fifth of the world's inhabitants is suffering from hunger
and under-nutrition, then each of the world's democratic governments must do
its utmost to solve the problem. Given its new political orientation,
Czechoslovakia, one of the founders of the United Nations Food and Agriculture
Organisation, will promote every initiative geared to the development of fair
and democratic political and economic relations throughout the world.

I have seen the agenda for your working party's Fifth Session and Topic
4, which is down for discussion on Thursday afternoon, is the subject on which
I-am working day and night. It is not easy to find a lust solution to the
problem of agricultural reform in Czechoslovakia. However, Mrs. Becvarova,
head of the Czechoslovak delegation, will deal more fully with these matters.
It is our hope that our European neighbours will share their own experiences
with us and help us take the necessary steps. We have already debated and
passed a number of basic laws on the subject of agriculture and agricultural
co-operatives and are preparing to debate, in the near future, new land laws
and ways of applying market mechanisms to food and agriculture. The plan for
economic reform in Czechoslovakia has been ratified by both the Government and

Many problems have already been solved, but many still await a suitable
solution. We have great respect for FAO's professional ability, and the
Czechoslovak Government's invitation to the Organisation to hold the
eighteenth session of its Regional Conference for Europe in Prague in 1992 is
evidence of this. I am convinced that meetings of agricultural experts, such
as the one that is about to take place here within the framework of FAO's
European office, are extremely useful and meaningful activities.

Madam: Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, on behalf of the Federal Government of
Czechoslovakia, I would like to take this opportunity to welcome you and wish
you all success in your discussions and a pleasant stay in Prague.




Tuesday 2 October 1990




10.30 12.30 hours

- Registration
- Opening of the Session
- Election of Officers
- Adoption of Provisional Agenda & Timetable (WRD/90/1)
- Report on Activities of the Working Party
Rural Development Workshop (Tel Aviv)
Agri-Tourism International Summer School (Vienna)
World Conference on Agrarian Reform (Varna)


14.00 15.00 hours

15.00 15.30 hours

15.30 17.00 hours

S The Potential of Entrepreneurship to Create Income
and New Jobs for Rural Women and Farm Families

- Country Reports/Case Studies on Rural Development

S Working Groups: TOPIC 1 Discussion on Issues for
Future Developments


Wednesday 3 October 1990

09.00 10.00 hours

10.00 10.30 hours

10.30 12.30 hours

- Leadership as a Factor in Community Economic
Development (WRD/90/3)

- Country Reports/Case Studies on Rural Development

Working Groups: TOPIC 2 Discussion on Issues for
Future Developments


14.00 15.00 hours

15.00 17.00 hours

- Training Implications for Community Economic
Development (WRD/90/4)

- Plenary Session:
Report/Recommendations from Working Groups
Report/Recommendations from Working Groups


Thursday 4 October 1990

09.00 10.00 hours

10.00 10.30 hours

10.30 12.00 hours

12.00 12.30 hours

- Country Reports/Case Studies on Rural Development

Report on Activities/Development within the Economic
Commission for Europe of the United Nations (ECE) -
Opportunities for Cooperation with the Working Party

Working Groups: TOPIC 3 Discussion on Issues for
Future Developments

S Plenary Session:
Report/Recommendations from Working Groups


13.30 14.30 hours

14.30 15.30 hours

15.30 16.00 hours

16.00 17.00 hours

- Future Focus for Rural Development in Eastern Europe
the Role of Women and Rural Families (WRD/90/5)

- Working Groups: TOPIC 4 Discussion on Issues for
Future Developments

- Plenary Session:
Report/Recommendations from Working Groups

S Election of the Board
Other Business
Date and place of the Sixth Session
Adoption of the Report
Closing of the Session

Friday 5 October 1990

Study Tour

Annex IV



1980 5th Session of the Working Party on Home Economics (Innsbruck, Austria)

Decision to change focus


1981 Survey of all European countries in relation to priority needs of
Women in Agriculture. Basis for Strategic Planning for the Working
Party Programme

1982 First Session of the Working Party on Women and the Agricultural
Family in Rural Development (Brest, France)


1983 International Technical Consultation/Workshop on WOMEN IN RURAL
PLURIACTIVITY (Ljubljana, Yugoslavia)

Initiation of a Pluriactive Project (Trebjne, Yugoslavia)

Survey of all European countries in relation to training and
education needs of Women in Agriculture and rural Development

1984 Second session of the Working Party on Women and the Agricultural
Family in Rural Development (Sofia, Bulgaria)


Compilation of Roster of European Experts (for E.S.H.) for transfer
of Technology to Developing Countries

1985 International Management Training Symposium (Montpelier, France) -

Management training symposium for extension agents organisedd
nationally by ACCT, Dublin, with international participation)

1985-86 Workshop on Global Management Approach. Training of farmers for
the development of a rural area (Trebjne project, Yugoslavia)

1986 International Management Training Seminar on APPLICATION OF THE
Ministry of Agriculture of the Federal Republic of Germany in
co-operation with FAO Goslar)

IV 2

International Summer School Workshop on Extension Programme
Planning and Delivery methods (Vienna, Austria)

Third Session of the Working Party (Santa Coloma de Farners, Spain)


1986-87 Testing of the draft guidelines on the Global Management Approach
(G.M.A.) in Farm and Farm Family Extension (Ireland)

Workshop Global Management training for the development of a
rural area Farm families Trebjne project (on-going)


1988 Follow up from International Summer School Review of Extension in
Poland: Training of Polish Extension Agents in Ireland. Training
of Extension Agents in Poland (on-going)

1988 Guidelines on Global Management Approach submitted'to FAO

1987-88 On-going development in Integrated Rural Development Project -
(Trebjne, Yugoslavia)

1988 Meeting in Hungary re development of GMA on co-operative farms

1988 4th Session of the Working Party, (Rome, Italy)


Bibliography on People's participation in decision-making

1989 International Workshop on INTEGRATED RURAL DEVELOPMENT, (Israel)

Production of Technical Series No. 8 WOMEN IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Official Meeting of the Board of the Working Party (Vienna, Austria)

1990 International Summer School on RURAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH

1990 Fifth Session of the Working Party (Prague, Czechoslovakia)


1990 Production of Technical Series No. 14 Rural Development Through

Production of Technical Series No.15 A Global Management

Approach to Farm Development and Family Living



It is requested that participating countries present reports on Rural
Development issues in their respective countries during the Fifth Session of
the Working Party (see attached agenda). Such reports should, as far as
possible, indicate participation/commitment of community, local and central
government to rural development projects and should outline development
strategies for:

Rural development programmes (successful models, case studies);
Village renewal (revitalization of village infrastructures, living
conditions, services, trade, etc.);
- Development of retail trade (promotion of small family businesses);
- Leadership and community development (at local level);
- Entrepreneurship and pluriactivities/alternative employment;
- Training programmes for rural development.

In relation to entrepreneurship, it would be important to indicate:

(1) The type of business enterprise that contributes to rural development
(e.g. agri-industry; food related; fibre (textile, wood) related;
pottery and crafts; tourism; services; metal and other hard
industries, etc.

(2) The growth potential for such business/enterprises.

(3) The potential for development of endogenous enterprises.

(4) The perceived problems of new or existing enterprises, i.e.
start up (e.g. training, credit, difficulties in financial planning
ongoing (cash flow, business training, marketing, etc.)

(5) Business infrastructure, e.g. enterprise incubators, networks

(6) Strengths, weaknesses and opportunities from the entrepreneurial point
of view.

(7) Research relating to the potential for rural entrepreneurial development.

Your co-operation would be appreciated in supplying as much information
as possible on this topic. It is hoped to use the information for the
promotion of rural development with entrepreneurial culture as a factor of

The report should be no more than 8-10 pages.

MU2292E n2.250