COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORE IN
AOIUCULTUO Z AND BHOM ECONOMICS
(As i of Mar sand JMe n114)
Agricultural Zxtel on Service, University of Plorida
Florida State Unversity and
United States Department of Agriculture. Cooperating
M. 0. Watkns. Director
(Prepared in cooperation with workers of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations)
For other currently available publications and further
details on local problems, contact your County Agricul-
tural Agent of the University of Florida Agricultural Ex-
HARVESTED ACREAGE 1955-56
AREA AND STATE TOTALS
Total Fall Winter Spring
North Florida.......... 3,325 1,075 2,250
Central Florida ......... 1,500 1,025 475
Hillsborough-Manatee 1,600 600 1,000
Everglades ........ 23,750 12,750 2,000 9.000
Lower East Coast ........ 26,200 6,800 16,500 2,900
Others ........................ 975 250 500 225
57,350 22,500 19,000 15,850
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AVERAGE YIELDS, COSTS AND RETURNS PER
BUSHEL BY AREA 1950-51 THROUGH 1954-55
(Based on Representative Growers' Records and Estimates)
Bushels per acre............ 94 86 90 114
Production costs........ $0.82 $1.03 $1.73 $1.16
H arvest costs .................. 1.27 1.55 1.25 1.14
Sales F.O.B. ............... 2.66 2.40 2.75 2.28
Net return per bu.........+0.57 -0.18 -0.23 -0.02
FIELD PLANTING DATES MATURITY
North Florida: March-April; August-Sept. 50 to 60
Central Florida: February-March; September
South Florida: September-April
PLANTING DISTANCES PLANTING DEPTH SEED REQUIRED
Between rows 11/2" to 2" Per acre
18" to 30" 45 to 60 pounds
2" to 3"
BLACK VALENTINE.-Oval pods. A standard va-
riety. Has shown extensive blossom drop under hot weather
conditions late in season. Seed black.
PLENTIFUL.-Flat pods. A standard variety. Con-
tinues to be grown extensively in Pompano and Ever-
glades areas. Frequently referred to as black-seeded Bounti-
ful, the variety it usually replaces.
TENDERGREEN.-Round pods. A standard variety
for fresh market and processing. Has shown heavy blos-
som drop under hot weather conditions late in season.
Seed dull black-brown mottled with tan.
IMPROVED TENDERGREEN.-Round pods. Dark
green. Resistant to mosaic. Seed brownish purple.
CONTENDER.-Round to oval pods. Similar to
Black Valentine in pod color and general appearance but
may be longer, slightly heavier and thicker. Very high
yielder. Short bush. Developed to set pods in late plant-
ings. Resistant to common bean mosaic and powdery mil-
dew. Seed buff.
WADE.-Very dark green. Round pods. Tendergreen
type. Resistant to common bean mosaic and powdery mil-
dew. Promising for processing and fresh market. Some
germination and scattered set difficulties. Not recom-
mended in Homestead area. Seed reddish-brown.
SEMINOLE.-Round pods. Tendergreen type. High-
ly productive in trials. Resistant to common bean mosaic,
powdery mildew and certain strains of rust. Promising as
a fresh and processing bean. Seed brownish-purple mottled
Best results are obtained by applying fertilizer be-
fore or at planting time in two bands, each located 2 to
3 inches below and 3 to 4 inches to the side of the plant-
Soil Type Fertilizer per Acre
Marl 6-8-6 750
Muck 0-15-5 300
Peat 0-8-24, 0-12-12, 0-15-5 300
Light sands 6-6-8 750
Dark sands 6-6-8 600
Virgin peat and muck soils have heavy initial require-
ments for copper. Twenty-five pounds of finely ground
copper sulfate (or copper oxide equivalent) applied broad-
cast and disked into the soil six weeks prior to planting
will give maximum response where moisture is optimum;
more than 100 pounds are required when applied just
prior to planting; 25 pounds in a water solution immedi-
ately before planting also will give maximum response.
Because requirements undergo a change as virgin peats
are brought into cultivation, begin with 0-8-24 and prog-
ress through 0-12-12 to 0-15-5 over a period of 3 to 5
On soils pH 6.0 or above, beans showing deficiencies
of manganese or zinc (less prevalent) will respond quick-
ly to nutritional sprays or dusts equivalent to 2 to 3
pounds of MnSO, and 11/2 to 2 pounds ZnSO, per 100
gallons water per acre, or dusts containing 10 pounds
MnSO, and 5 pounds ZnSO, per 100 pounds dust at
30 pounds per acre.
Where copper, zinc or manganese is used at inter-
vals, such as fungicides or on other crops in the rotation,
additional applications are not usually necessary.
Top-dressing is not usually considered necessary for
this crop. However, on sandy soils application of readily
available nitrogen quite often increases yields. In case of
leaching rains, a 10-0-10 or some similar mixture may be
Ounces per 100 Teaspoonfuls per
Pounds Seed Pound Seed
Chloranil (48%) 4 1/2
Thiram (50%) 2 1/4
Spray materials are shown in amounts or equivalent
per 100 gallons water; suggested acre rates should be ad-
justed to insure complete coverage but, in general, 20-35
pounds of dust, 75-150 gallons of spray, and 30-50 pounds
bait are accepted amounts from which adjustments may
DISEASES AND CONTROLS
DISEASE SPRAY DUST
Rust, powdery Sulfur, wp Dusting sulfur,
mildew 10 to 16 lbs. 325 mesh
Application variable with weather conditions. When
diseased fields are near young plants and weather is mild
and humid, make first application a few days after plants
emerge and repeat at 7-day intervals until a few days
In the past, sulfur has been reported to cause the
blossoms to shed before setting the pods, but this is now
considered of minor importance. Sulfur applications have
caused burning of leaves and pods when applied during
periods of high (85-900 F.) temperatures in the Sanford
To be effective for control of rust it is necessary to
apply sulfur before the leaves become infected. When
weather is unfavorable for rust, intervals between appli-
cations can be lengthened.
BACTERIAL BLIGHT.-(no fungicidal control).
Halo blight and common bacterial blight are carried
in and on the seed (also in soil). Seed treatment is not
beneficial. Sprays in the field usually not effective. Se-
cure blight-free seed from Western areas where proper
production precautions have been taken. Rotate crops.
ROOT ROTS.-Root rots caused by Rhizoctonia and
Pythium have been partially controlled by certain chemical
treatments but data collected to date indicate no consistent
economic benefit. Soil management, such as preparing
seedbeds 5-10 days ahead of planting, has proven prac-
tical; green cover crops should be plowed under 3-4
weeks before planting.
SCLEROTINIA.-Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks
during summer months may be effective in killing sclerotia
in the soil.
On marl soils of Homestead area apply 500 to 700
pounds of cyanamid per acre; broadcast and disk in prior
to planting; no waiting period necessary on marl soils.
Cyanamid not necessary if land is flooded 3 weeks or more
INSECTS AND CONTROLS
INSECT SPRAY DUST
Armyworms Toxaphene wp, Toxaphene 10%
(Pall, Southern, 21/7 Ibs. 40%
Yellow-Striped), DDT wp, DDT 5%
Corn Earworm 2 Ibs. 50%
Chlordane wp, Chlordane 50%
21V, lbs. 40%
Apply when armyworms appear, continue at 7-day
intervals until control is complete. Do not apply chlordane
after blooms appear. Armyworms often migrate into field,
or moths lay eggs and young develop on grass. When
grass is destroyed worms migrate to beans. Sulfur may
be used as all, or a part, of the diluent in dusts for beans.
See sulfur bur comments under disease control.
INSECT SPRAY DUST
Bean leaf-hopper DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50% DDT 5%
Apply at first leaf-hoppers, 1 to 3 applications at
10-day intervals last treatment just before blooming. Under
conditions of severe infestations the time interval be-
tween applications may need to be reduced. See remarks
above relative to using sulfur as a diluent.
In Everglades and Lower East Coast areas leaf-hop-
pers most severe in spring during warm day periods; in
Central and Northern Florida most prevalent in the fall.
Young plants suffer most.
Apply insecticides as needed for leaf-rollers. Dust
borders of large fields with airplane. It may not be neces-
sary to treat whole field unless small or infestation severe.
INSECT SPRAY DUST
Cucumber beetles DDT wp, 2 Ibs. 50%o DDT 5%
12-spoited and Chlordane wp, Chlordane 5%/
banded 212 lbs. 40%O
Apply when insects or damage is evident. Do not
apply chlordane after blooms appear. Regular applications
of DDT for control of other pests will reduce damage
from cucumber beetles. DDT is the most effective insecti-
cide in the Homestead area. Parathion has given good kill
of these insects in the Everglades area.
INSECT SPRAY DUST BAIT
Cutworms Toxaphene wp, Toxaphene Toxaphene
21/2 lbs. 40% 10% 21/2%
Chlordane wp, Chlordane Chlordane
21/2 lbs. 40% 5% 2%
Endrin em, 21/2 pts.
(1.6 lbs. per gal.)
Apply toxaphene or chlordane before planting if
worms are present or at first signs of worm damage to
young plants. Check field carefully for worms before
seeding; if worms are found use bait. Watch young plants
for injury and bait or dust immediately. Note.-Apply
endrin to the soil before planting or before plants emerge.
Endrin not recommended in West Coast area. Do not use
chlordane spray or dust after blooms appear.
A home-made bait can be prepared by thoroughly
mixing 4 to 5 pounds of 40% wettable chlordaneor toxa-
phene with 100 pounds of wheat bran. Moisten bait
slightly just prior to applying. Best to apply bait in late
3 lbs. 155
21/2 Ibs. 5%
2 to 4 Ibs. 50%
4 lbs. 25%
Apply when insects are noticed or damage becor
evident. Spot control may be effective if infestation
found early. Mexican bean beetles are a problem in ..
North and West Florida areas and recommendations :
control are based on USDA research. Grower observatit
in the Gainesville area indicate that lower dosages
parathion give satisfactory control except when infestatir
are very heavy.
1 lb. 15%
Apply before infestations seem general; I to 2 ap]
cations at 7-day intervals should be sufficient. In 1
Everglades area it is noted that toxaphene used for 1
control of other insects may reduce the serpentine I'
1 lb. 15%
DDT em, 1 qt. 25%
DDT wp, 2 lbs. 50%
Toxaphene wp, Toxaphene 10'
21/2 lbs. 40%
Thrips feeding on leaves and pods do most inji
where they are in great abundance (12-20 per flower:
Repeat with 1 to 3 applications at 7-day intervals. Attenrm..
thorough coverage just before blooming.
INSECT SPRAY DUST
Stinkbugs Toxaphene wp, Toxaphene 10
21/2 lbs. 40%
Parathion wp, Parathion 1
1 lb. 15%
Apply when insects appear. Especially important
insure low population when pods begin to set.
No residue problem is anticipated with Florida sn'
bean pesticide recommendations above where minim-.
days last application to harvest are: toxaphene, 7-14 da;
DDT, 5 days; parathion, 3 days, methoxychlor, 7 da
(USDA); malathion, 3 days. Except for methoxychlor, the
have been established by Florida Agricultural Experime
Station residue research. Sulfur and rotenone are exem,
from requirements of a tolerance. Read the label.