COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
WILMON NEWELL, Director
USE THEM WISELY AND AVOID NECESSITY
HERE'S HOW TO USE EFFICIENTLY THE FEEDS YOU CAN GET
Nutritive requirements of animals are the same in war-time
as in peace-time. When certain kinds of feeds become scarce
it is necessary to conserve available supplies and to make sub-
stitutions in the ration. The following points, summarizing the
discussion which follows, will help Florida feeders obtain ade-
quate rations for their animals.
1. Feed concentrates to dairy cows in proportion to milk pro-
2. A feed containing 16% protein is satisfactory for heifers
and dry cows; fed with legume hay, it is okay for average pro-
3. An 18% protein feed is satisfactory for 21/2-gallon cows
on good grass pasture or mixed grass and legume roughage.
4. A minimum amount of oilseed meals for winter feeding
keeps the beef breeding herd in efficient productive condition.
5. A minimum of 2 to 21/2 pounds of oilseed meals is needed
daily by cattle in the feed lot.
6. Peanuts, peanut meal, soybean meal and up to 5% of
cottonseed meal can be used to replace fishmeal and tankage
in swine rations.
7. The total protein content of poultry rations should be
maintained by substituting vegetable for animal proteins and
adding more minerals.
Contributors to this circular include A. P. Spencer, H. G. Clayton, W. J.
Sheely, Hamlin L. Brown and Norman R. Mehrhof of the Extension Service
and Dr. R. B. Becker of the Experiment Station.
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
8. Succulent green feed or pasture for chickens is more im-
portant than ever before.
9. Increased feed production and better quality feeds will
contribute to the war effort.
10. NO FEED OF ANY KIND SHOULD BE ALLOWED
TO GO TO WASTE.
FEED CONSERVATION PROGRAM IS APPROVED
Increased production of livestock to meet war demands and
decreased importations of oil meals, combined with considerable
demand for oil meals and certain animal proteins in fertilizers,
have brought about a serious shortage of protein feeds, in spite
of considerably increased production of two oil meal crops-pea-
nuts and soybeans. This scarcity of protein supplements, and
even of other feed ingredients, makes it imperative that limited
supplies be conserved and used to best advantage.
National recommendations with this in mind have been
evolved by the United States Department of Agriculture and
the Feed Industry Council. They limit the amount of animal
proteins in mixed feeds for calves, poultry and swine, supple-
menting them as far as possible with plant proteins. Recently
the industries represented on the Agricultural Committee of
the Florida Defense Council approved the national program in
general, with a few changes to make it fit local conditions. The
poultry and egg committee, representatives of dairy arid live-
stock associations, and the Florida Feed Dealers' Association
concurred in the state recommendations presented by University
of Florida representatives.
The suggestions are embodied in this circular, and it is hoped
that they will help tide the producer of farm animals or animal
products over a difficult situation.
In addition to conserving available protein supplies, it is urged
strongly that every effort be made to increase local production
of high quality pastures, winter feeds, grains, and oil seeds.
WILL HELP MEET FOOD GOALS
Farmers have made large increases in numbers of livestock
and poultry which are needed to aid in the war effort. While
feed production also has been increased, the larger numbers and
better feeding of animals and poultry makes it necessary to con-
serve protein feeds and use the available supply so as to obtain
maximum efficiency. Every farmer should produce as nearly as
possible all the roughage and other feeds needed on his own
farm. The national program designed to conserve protein is a
voluntary one. If it receives full cooperation of livestock pro-
ducers and the feed industry the necessity for
rationing can be avoided and the available sup- F O D
ply can be made to meet fairly well the emer-
gency until the 1943 crops become available.
Florida normally imports a very large pro- \O
portion of the protein feed used. If we con- P 9O
tinue to obtain the supplies we must have it is
essential that this national program operate effectively. Florida
livestock producers and the feed industry have indicated they
will participate wholeheartedly.
The Florida USDA War Board feels the achievement of the
Florida livestock and poultry production goals is to a large de-
gree dependent upon protein conservation on a national basis.
THE FEED SITUATION
In peace-time the United States both imports and exports
quantities of feeds for livestock. Copra from the Pacific islands
provides oil for human and industrial uses, and coconut meal
is a high protein feed for livestock. Some soybeans come from
the Orient. Corn, bran and flax come from Argentina. In turn,
exports from the United States include linseed and cottonseed
cake to northern Europe. During the year before the war Ger-
many imported 10 times more soybeans than in the average of
On the average, domestic production of corn, wheat, barley,
rye and oats generally exceed domestic consumption slightly.
Cottonseed, flax and soybeans are major oilseeds; peanuts are
the major oilseed crop in the Southeastern states.
Of animal proteins the dairy industry provides dried skim-
milk, buttermilk and whey. The meat packing industry supplies
meat scrap, digester tankage, soluble blood flour, and the feeding
grade of bonemeal. The fisheries provide menhaden fishmeal as
a by-product of the fish oil industry, and so-called white fish meal
from the fish canneries. Shellfish yield products somewhat lower
in feeding value. Recently, shark meal is being produced on a
commercial scale in Florida as a by-product of shark liver oil
War-time conditions have changed markedly both imports and
exports of vegetable and animal feedstuffs. Diversion of boats
to other activities, certain fishing restrictions, and the labor sit-
uation have affected the production of fishmeal. Competitive
demands on the dairy industry reduced the milk by-products
available for feeding purposes. There is less feed available but
more animals to be fed.
FLORIDA-GROWN FEEDS WILL ALLEVIATE LOCAL SHORTAGES
Conservation and efficient use of existing stocks of high pro-
tein feeds, animal by-products, and carbohydrate concentrates
are required. Farmers can alleviate the situation
by growing and saving as much feed as possible
locally-legumes in pastures; improving grass pas-
tures; growing some hay crops of all types but par-
ticularly legume hays (cowpeas, soybeans, peanuts
harvested early, and kudzu); silage crops such as
corn and the sorghums; together with grain from corn, oats,
peanuts and velvet beans where these are adapted, and any other
feed crop that can be grown and utilized. Applications of lime
and phosphate on pastures can increase the quantity and quality
of forage and can extend the grazing season without much addi-
tional labor. Fertilization also increases the yield and improves
the quality of silage and hay crops. With favorable winter rain-
fall some of the winter legumes seeded with oats or rye have
provided considerable winter grazing.
When pasture grasses come into seed the pastures should be
mowed. If the clippings are cured into hay and fed to the cows
some seed will be scattered in the droppings. Mowing off the
mature seed heads causes most grasses to revert to vegetative
growth, with an extended grazing period of higher protein
The more home-grown feeds for animals and succulent green
feeds for poultry, the more plentiful human food supplies can
be during the emergency.
Dairy farmers of Florida have a heavy obligation in produc-
ing fluid milk for the armed services and the greatly expanded
civilian population. To meet this obligation, every
effort should be made to produce and use home-
grown feeds and to balance these with such pur-
chased concentrates-either mixed or ingredients
-as will be needed.
Mixed feed (home-mixed or purchased) containing 16% total
crude protein is satisfactory as a dry and fitting feed for cows
and heifers receiving grass pasture, silages, or grass hays. If
green leafy legume hay is available as half or more of all the
roughage a cow can consume, a 16% protein feed could be used
with an average cow in milk.
An 18% protein feed of home-mixed or purchased concentrates
is satisfactory for cows milking less than 20 pounds (21/2 gallons)
daily while on grass pasture or when fed average quality mixed
grass and legume roughages. Efficient milk production requires
"full concentrate feeding" for cows milking above 20 pounds
daily. Since pastures and roughages grown mostly in this region
are non-leguminous and low in protein content, those cows milk-
ing over 20 pounds daily require additional protein in the con-
centrates, either as one of the oilseed meals or as a 32% protein
supplement. Where these non-leguminous roughages and rough-
age substitutes are fed the protein content of home-mixed feeds
should not exceed 24% for high producing cows.
Feeding straight oilseed meals to dairy cows is not efficient use
of those feeds and should not be practiced. For areas near the
oil mills it is recommended that 3 to 4 parts by weight of home-
grown grains or milling by-products be mixed with each 1 part
of the oilseed meal.
Suggested formulas for home-mixed feeds adapted to supple-
ment different classes of roughages are given in Bulletin 82,
Feeding for Milk Production, and Press Bulletin 521, Dried
Citrus Pulp in Dairy Rations.
MEAT ANIMAL PRODUCTION
To insure the production of meats and animal products to
satisfy war-time requirements, maximum production of feed,
forage, and pasture crops along with annual grazing crops is
necessary. The excessive demand for protein feeds (cottonseed,
peanut and soybean meals) and the shortage of animal proteins
increase the importance of home-grown feeds for animal pro-
There is a danger that war hysteria will cause basic feeding
principles-which are the same in war as in peace-to be over-
looked.or ignored in livestock production. Business-like manage-
ment is necessary to produce every pound of meat possible con-
sistent with proven methods of herd management, pasture, feed,
and forage production.
Cattle numbers should be adjusted to the feed and pasture
supply to meet war-time goals and get the maximum of beef
per acre. Overstocking pastures is a bad practice for both cattle
and pasture, and will reduce beef production on a given area.
Efficient pasture management-cutting of weeds, briers, and
bushes, giving the grass a chance and growing tem-
porary pasture and crops during the summer-will
produce the maximum amount of beef from grasses.
For maximum production, winter feeding of the
breeding herd is necessary. The winter rations will be
what the producer can most economically and conven-
iently furnish, consisting mainly of home-grown rough-
ages, silages, and hays with a little grain.
Florida cattlemen recognize the deficiency of pro-
teins in roughage and pasture grasses during the winter. Con-
sequently, they feed limited amounts of protein-rich concentrates
on grass, or supplement non-leguminous hay and silage with
cottonseed meal or cake during winter and early spring. Under
such a system of feeding and management, efficient beef produc-
tion can be maintained.
Sufficient protein for the breeding herd of range livestock re-
sults in increased fertility of the breeding animals, a larger calf
crop, more rapid growth and development of young animals, and
healthy animals that are more resistant to parasite infestation
Many Florida farmers use protein feeds to balance available
grains and roughages for finishing steers in the feed lot.
For wintering and maintenance on pastures or range or where
low grade roughage or silage is fed, cottonseed meal or cake,
peanut meal or soybean meal should be furnished as follows:
Dry cows, 1 pound of high protein supplement per head daily
Bred cows, 1 to 2 pounds per head daily
Cows with calf at foot, 11/2 to 2/2 pounds
Calves and yearlings, 1 pound
Steers to be finished out on grass the following spring,
about 2 pounds.
Steers in the feed lot being finished on hay, silage, and grain
should receive from 2 to 21/2 pounds of high protein feed per
head per day. If good legume hay is used as the only roughage,
the amount of protein supplement may be reduced considerably.
Where the breeding herd is running on winter oats or rye
pasture the protein supplement can be considerably reduced.
An abundant supply of home-grown feeds is essential for hogs.
Florida farmers can produce hogs on the minimum amount of
purchased protein feeds, by growing a succession of pasture and
forage crops such as rape, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, peanuts,
and cowpeas that will provide protein, mineral
Smatter, and vitamins.
Raising healthy pigs on grazing and fattening
crops in the field free of parasites reduces death
loss, increases the number of pigs raised per sow, and produces
maximum pork from feed consumed. Running hogs on grazing
and forage crops reduces the amount of protein supplement
needed. To balance the rations, hogs on grazing crops need.a
small amount of grain, free access to water, minerals, and shade.
It is essential that protein supplement be provided in the ra-
tions of brood sows, weaning and growing pigs, and in fattening
shoats where the feed consists of corn, chufas or sweet potatoes.
This supplement can consist of peanut meal, cottonseed meal
or soybean meal. Cottonseed meal should not comprise more
than 5% of the ration.
FATTENING RATIONS FOR HOGS
The proportion of corn and peanut meal used for fattening
hogs will depend on the prevailing prices of the two feeds. Fol-
lowing are two suggested rations:
Corn ............................ 3 parts Peanut meal ........... 1 part
Peanut meal .............. 1 part Corn ............................ 2 parts
Free access to minerals Free access to minerals
For breeding and suckling sows the following rations are
Corn .............. ............ .... 60 pounds Corn ................................ 90 pounds
Shorts .-........................... 30 pounds Fish meal or tankage.... 3 pounds
Fish meal or tankage.... 3 pounds' Cottonseed meal ........... 3 pounds
Peanut meal .................. 3 pounds Peanut meal .................. 3 pounds
Cottonseed meal ............ 3 pounds
Total protein level of the poultry ration should be maintained.
Since animal proteins are especially scarce, poultrymen are re-
quested to reduce the animal proteins in their feeds
to the absolute minimums, and to make up the dif-
ference with vegetable proteins. It is recommended
that animal and marine proteins constitute not more
than the following percentages of different poultry
Chick starters, 2.00; turkey starters, 2.50; broiler mashes,
2.00; all-mash growing and laying diets (all types), 1.125; grow-
ing and laying mashes of all types (that are to be fed with
grain), 2.25; all-mash breeding diets, 2.25; and breeding mashes
that are to be fed with grain, 4.50%. Poultry supplements and
concentrates: 26% protein, 3.375; 32% protein, 4.50; and 36%
protein, 5.00% animal and marine protein.
Where a poultryman mixes his own feed he could obtain a
mixture with 2% animal protein by using 3.63 pounds of 55%
meat scrap and 96.37 pounds of other materials. If he wanted
a mixture carrying 2.25% animal proteins he might use 3.63
pounds of 55% meat scrap, 2 pounds of 121/2% whey, and 94.37
pounds of other materials to obtain 100 pounds of feed. Bulletin
118, Managing Poultry Under War-Time Conditions, will help.
poultrymen who are mixing their own feeds.
From time to time different poultry feed ingredients become
unavailable on the market, necessitating changes in figuring the
ration. The University of Florida Poultry Division is developing
poultry rations to fit the recommendations by using whatever
feeds are still available. It can supply suggested rations on
In addition to the regular mash and grain rations, poultry
raisers more than ever before should make arrangements to
have succulent green feed for the chicks, growing birds, layers
and breeders. Green feed is essential during these times. Write
for Circular 59, Green Feed for Poultry in Florida. Plan to feed
some succulent green feed daily.
Prevent waste by:
1. Keeping birds healthy.
2. Removing poor layers.
3. Repairing feed hoppers.
4. Protecting feed hoppers.
Utilize poultry pasture to conserve protein and vitamins.
Additional bulletins and information can be obtained from
your County Agent or from Agricultural Extension Service,