for Florida Homes
C. A. CONOVER
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
E. W. McELWEE
FOR FLORIDA HOMES
C. A. Conover and E.
This is a major revision of Extension Service Bulletin No. 95 by
Harold Mowry, dated April 1938 and revised July 1946. Originally
the material was printed in 1933 as Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion Bulletin 261.
LANDSCAPE USES 3
CLIMATE AND TREES 4
PREPARATION OF PLANTING SITE 5
SELECTION OF TREES 12
SPECIES AND VARIETIES 12
PICTORIAL GLOSSARY OF LEAF
AND INFLORESCENCE TERMS 13
VARIETAL LIST -- 16
BEST TREES FOR A SPECIFIC PURPOSE 66
BASIC LIST OF TREES ------ 67
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF BOTANICAL
AND COMMON NAMES 74
SELECTED TREES FOR FLORIDA HOMES
C. A. Conover and E. W. McElwee1
Landscape plantings greatly de-
pend on trees for dimension, scale
and profile and therefore are an in-
dispensable element in landscape
composition. Trees give a home,
street or commercial site individu-
ality and a restful quality. And,
because they are the most perma-
nent plants, trees impart to the
surroundings a sense of perma-
nence and stability.
Because of wide variations in
growing habits, trees are adapted
to many uses in landscape design.
Proper selection and use of trees
is very important, since they form
a large part of the mass of the
Shade trees should have moder-
ate to dense foliage and should not
have large or objectionable fruits,
flowers or seeds. They also should
have the ability to withstand high
winds and be relatively free from
insect and disease pests. They may
include many of the same trees
listed for framing, street and road-
side, specimen, background and
Shade trees fit into two cate-
gories: those with a heavy, dense
foliage that will fully shade the
ground, and those with small or
widely spaced leaves and somewhat
open branching so sunlight reaches
1. Director, Research Center, Apopka; and Orna-
mental Horticulturist, Extension Service.
the soil. Grass, flowers and shrubs
usually grow best under the second
type of tree.
Homeowners may need to select
both deciduous and evergreen trees
to serve as shade trees. Evergreen
trees are useful where shade is
desired year-around, but deciduous
trees should be selected for areas
where shade is desired during
warm months and sun during cool
Framing trees are used to soften
corners and roof lines of the home
and to form patterns against the
sky. Trees used for this purpose
should not be so massive or spec-
tacular that they attract attention
to themselves rather than focus
attention on the home.
Street trees are used between
sidewalks and streets, alopg ave-
nues and boulevards, and in parks.
A prerequisite of street trees is
that they grow, or can be main-
tained, without low branches that
interfere with traffic. They should
be hardy, well adapted to area of
use and should not have objection-
able fruit or flowers that litter
sidewalks, streets or lawn areas.
Specimen and accent trees are
used for striking effects produced
by flowers, foliage, fruit or by their
contrast or location in landscape
plantings. In most instances, a
specimen tree stands alone either
on the lawn or in some other promi-
nent area, of the landscape. An
accent tree is usually incorporated
into the border planting and has
outstanding characteristics when
compared with nearby plants.
Patio trees can be evergreen or
deciduous and should be selected
primarily for small size and for
creating interesting trunk, branch
and leaf shade patterns on the
patio. Evergreen patio trees are
useful in areas where warm tem-
peratures persist throughout most
of the year. In colder areas, decid-
uous trees are a better choice since
sunlight will warm the patio area
during winter months. Patio trees
should not have objectionable or
large fruits, flowers or seeds that
might stain paving material or fall
on people using the patio.
Seaside trees are those recom-
mended for planting in areas sub-
ject to salt water spray, high winds
and in sandy, high-salt-level soils.
Trees for tropical effects, of
course, are those associated with
tropical areas. When planning a
Florida landscape most homeown-
ers like to include some trees that
will give this effect. Trees recom-
mended for this purpose usually
have leaves of striking size or
shape, flowers of unusual shape,
size or vivid color, and trun k
shapes and characteristics not
found in trees of northern and
Climate and Trees
Trees for landscape plantings
must be well adapted to their en-
vironment for vigorous, thrifty
growth. Subtropical, less cold-
hardy trees planted in areas sub-
ject to low temperatures will ulti-
mately prove disappointing as will
many species from cold regions
when planted in subtropical sec-
Relatively few trees are adapted
to all parts of Florida because of
temperature differences between
northern and southern sections
during winter months. E ven
though these low temperature dif-
ferences are not great, the range is
too critical for many subtropical
plants. They may suffer severe
damage or death when exposed for
several hours to below freezing
Many trees of temperate regions
of the United States and northern
Florida are not suitable for central
and southern sections of the state.
They have a chilling requirement
and period of dormancy that can-
not be obtained in central and
southern areas due to warm win-
ters. The primary choice of a tree
for a given locality, therefore,
should be climatic adaptation.
Normal prevailing winter tem-
peratures have caused designation
of northern, central and southern
Florida regions, to which certain
trees are climatically adapted.
These areas are not separated by
distinct or regular lines of demar-
cation because of the influence on
temperature of elevation, large
lakes or proximity to the ocean
and the Gulf Stream. Delineation
of sections or areas according to
a specified seasonal temperature
minimum will fluctuate from year
to year so that boundaries cannot
be sharply defined.
The northern area generally in-
cludes that part of the state lying
north and west of Ocala and is the
area receiving heaviest frosts. The
southern, warmest area extends
from Key West northward along
". 1 '"..... __. --- ,--- ', *1
Fig. 1.-Certain trees are cli- -
matically adapted to particular
areas of Florida. For the pur- N.2
pose of this bulletin, the state has -- a'
been divided into three sections: ---
No. 1 (Southern Area), No. 2
( Central Area), and No. 3
(Northern Area). 7 _
coasts approximately to Fort
ce and Punta Gorda (Fig. 1).
here are some warmer spots
in each area protected by
ation, lakes and other factors
where less hardy plants, not
t d t t a a hol
a ap oW reg on a- ,
may be grown successfully. There
are also cold spots, even in warmer
sections of the state caused by
low elevation, lack of air drainage
and other factors where hardy
plants should be planted. Proxim-
ity to buildings, protection from
northwesterly winds and placement
where air drainage is good may
help homeowners grow a tender
tree in a cold location.
Soils. Most ornamental trees
grown in Florida are well adapted
to a wide range of soil conditions.
However, soil type and soil mois-
ture particularly play an important
role in plant growth. Many trees
naturally adapted to dry sandy soil
grow poorly when planted in low,
poorly drained soils. A similar
problem in reverse is associated
with growing species of trees
naturally adapted to moist soils;
when they are planted in dry sandy
locations, they grow poorly. As a
general rule, transplanting a tree
from a moist location to a drier
one can be done successfully if
sufficient water and fertilizer are
supplied after transplanting.
Preparation of Planting Site.-
Proper soil preparation b e f o r e
planting or transplanting frequent-
ly makes the difference between a
vigorous, healthy tree, and a poor,
unthrifty specimen that fails to
fulfill the intended landscape pur-
pose. Proper soil preparation not
only helps improve appearance of
trees, but reduces the amount of
care necessary to keep them
Florida inland soils mainly are
acid or "sour", while many coastal
soils are alkaline or "sweet". Most
trees grow best when soil acidity
(pH) ranges between 5.5 and 6.0.
Table 1 gives approximate amounts
of liming and acidifying material
necessary to adjust pH in various
Soil pH can be determined by
commercial laboratories or
through local county agricultural
Organic matter, an important
component, is usually low in sandy
soils. Thus it is important to add
organic matter or products with
similar soil amendment character-
istics to the soil.
Organic and some other soil
amendments increase water hold-
ing capacity. This reduces the
watering frequency necessary to
provide uniform supply. Increased
water holding capacity is valuable
for sandy soils and, on clay soils,
organic matter opens the soil to
water and air penetration. Organic
matter also provides absorbent
surfaces to hold certain plant nu-
trients against leaching.
Peat moss, compost, manure,
vermiculite, calcined clay, colloidal
phosphate, sawdust and wood chips
or shavings can be used as soil
amendments. E a c h amendment
mentioned has advantages and dis-
Peat moss is one of the best or-
ganic materials for amending most
Florida soils. Native Florida peat
is generally less satisfactory than
imported peats because of contami-
nation with weed seed and vari-
ability in structure. In addition,
native peats are usually finer than
imported peats and decompose
more rapidly when added to soil.
Imported peats are not always the
best buy, however, when a good
Table 1.-Approximate amount of materials required to change the reaction
of some soils.
A. To lower acidity or pH of an alkaline or "sweet" soil
Present pH Pounds sulfur' per 100 square
feet' to lower pH to 5.2
of the Soil Sandy Soil Loam Soil Muck or Peat
7.0 2 3 6
6.5 1 2 5
6.0 1 2 4
1 Do not use more than 1-11/2 lbs. of sulfur per 100 sq. ft. per application nor more often
than once every 6 weeks. More than one application will be needed to lower a high pH.
B. To raise the pH of an acid soil
Present pH Pounds dolomite per 100 square
feet' to raise pH to 5.2
of the Soil Sandy Soil Loam Soil Muck or Peat
4.5 2 3 7
4.0 4 7 15
3.5 7 10 23
a. For a wheelbarrow of soil (2/2 bu.) add 1/15 of the above amounts.
b. For a square yard of area (9 sq. ft.) add 1/10 of above amounts.
c. For a cubic yard of soil (27 cu. ft.) add 1/2 of above amounts.
source of local peat is available at
Compost and manure are very
satisfactory as organic amend-
ments. Manure must be allowed to
decompose or "weather" so that
it will not burn or injure trees.
Sawdust, wood chips and shav-
ings are inexpensive and readily
available in some sections of the
state. These materials are usually
weed free and have little effect on
soil acidity (pH). Their principal
disadvantage is that, as they de-
compose, nitrogen is temporarily
removed from the soil at the ex-
pense of plants. In decomposition,
soil micro-organisms obtain nitro-
gen from the soil, and if soil nitro-
gen supplies are low, plants may
suffer from nitrogen deficiency. To
avoid this problem, 2 to 3 pounds
of nitrogen must be added to the
soil for each cubic yard of sawdust,
wood shavings or wood chips in-
Organic soil amendments are not
long-lasting in Florida because of
rapid decomposition resulting from
high temperature and moisture
conditions. Inorganic soil amend-
ments with properties similar to
those of organic materials have
been developed and are widely used
for their long-lasting characteris-
Vermiculite is similar to organic
matter in increasing water and nu-
trient holding capacities. This ma-
terial provides a longer lasting
benefit than organic materials, but
initially it is more expensive.
Calcined clay and colloidal phos-
phate improve the fertilizer hold-
ing capacity of soils, but moisture
holding capacity is less than for
the materials just mentioned.
Soil amendments must be thor-
oughly mixed into the soil to prop-
erly serve their purpose. To pre-
pare soil for transplanting trees:
Keep topsoil and subsoil sepa-
rate when digging hole for the
Mix equal parts of organic or
inorganic s o i 1 amendments
with topsoil. Subsoil may be
discarded or used on top of the
the ground to form a watering
To the mixture add 6-6-6 or
8-8-8 (N-PO-IK2O) fertilizer
at the rate of 11/4 ounces per
bushel (11/2 cu. ft.) or 3 ounces
per wheelbarrow (31/2 cu. ft.)
or 11/2 pounds per cubic yard.
Table 2.-Approximate measures of fertilizer materials
Material 1 pint 1 pound 1 ounce
Sulfur 3/4 lb. 1 1/3 pints 3 tablespoons
Iron sulfate 1 lb. 1 pint 2 tablespoons
Planting. Many young trees
produced in Florida nurseries are
grown in containers; however,
some are field-grown and sold as
"bare-root" or "balled and bur-
lapped" plants. Planting bare-root
trees (trees without soil around
roots) has not proved satisfactory
for most Florida gardeners during
dry, hot seasons. Only deciduous
trees should be bought and planted
"bare-root" and then only when
they are dormant. "Balled and bur-
lapped" trees are best transplanted
during cooler months, but con-
tainer-grown trees can be planted
anytime. Trees transplanted when
dormant can withstand transplant-
ing better since they usually will
produce new roots and become
established before new top growth
starts in the spring.
Small c o n t a i n e r-grown and
"balled" trees usually require no
pruning at planting time. Large
trees require pruning to compen-
sate for roots lost and damaged in
digging and transplanting, espe-
cially if moved during late spring
or summer months. Pruning aids
transplanting by reducing water
required by plants. Trees moved
"bare-root" should be pruned heav-
ily to assure success in trans-
Prune trees by thinning limbs,
branches and twigs rather than
heading the top back to stubs.
Some full-length branches should
be left to shade pruning cuts and
form the top framework. Frame-
work branches will continue to
grow and spread and give the tree
a natural shape.
Select young, thrifty trees with
good root systems to obtain best
results. However, large trees can
be transplanted successfully if
given proper post-planting care.
Before planting container-grown
or "balled trees," dig a hole slight-
ly deeper and about twice the
diameter of container or ball of
soil. Mix planting soil as described
previously and plant the tree so
the soil line on the trunk will be
at the same depth it was in the
container or nursery row. This can
be done by setting the container or
balled tree in the hole and adjust-
ing the depth so the surface of the
soil of the container or ball is even
with the ground level. Carefully
remove the tree from the container
without disturbing roots, and set
it in the hole.
Do not remove burlap from balled
trees since this may result in a
broken ball and root injury. How-
ever, burlap should be cut, loosened
or turned back at the top of the
ball so the original planting depth
may be observed. Partially fill in
around the ball with prepared soil,
and water thoroughly. Repeat
this procedure until the hole is
filled, watering after each partial
Before planting bare-root, decid-
uous trees, trim long or broken
roots with pruning shears. Place
tree in the hole at the depth it
grew in the nursery row and spread
roots to their natural position. Par-
tially fill the hole with prepared
soil, shake the tree to settle soil
about roots, then water thoroughly
to further settle soil. Continue
filling and watering until hole is
filled and tree is firmly in place.
Leave a shallow basin around
each tree to facilitate watering.
Trees should be mulched, to con-
serve moisture, increase aeration,
reduce soil temperature and add
organic matter to soil.
It requires several months for
newly transplanted trees to grow
an extensive root system during
which the tree must be watered
frequently especially d u r i n g
drought periods. After a strong
root system has developed, trees
are usually able to grow during
droughts, but for best results do
not allow them to wilt from lack of
water. Thorough watering to root
system depth and below is better
than light frequent watering which
encourages undesirable shallow
Trees that have been growing in
the shade in woods or in nursery
rows and are transplanted to full
sun areas should be protected by
wrapping trunks. Use tree wrap,
paper or Spanish moss for a year
after transplanting to prevent sun-
scald. Remove wrap the following
fall or winter. This protection also
can be provided by leaving twigs
and small branches scattered along
trunks. Transplanted trees should
be staked for at least the first year
to prevent root injury from wind
Fertilization. Trees in land-
scape plantings are usually handi-
capped in securing nutrients from
the soil. This is due, in part, to
proximity of pavements, soil com-
paction, competition with turf, and
the practice of removing leaves
and other litter which would later
have some fertilizing value. Trees
should be fertilized regularly to
make vigorous growth under such
Organic and inorganic forms of
fertilizers are acceptable for use
on ornamental trees. Organic
forms last longer but are more
expensive than inorganic forms.
Fertilizer containing nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium in an
equal ratio (such as 6-6-6 or 8-8-8)
is recommended for trees.
Fertilizer recommendations are
based on tree size as measured by
trunk diameter 4 feet above
ground level. For trees with a
trunk diameter of less than 6
inches apply 21/ pounds of an 8-
8-8 or 3 pounds of a 6-6-6 per inch
of diameter each year. Trees with
a trunk diameter over 6 inches
should receive 4 pounds of an 8-
8-8 or 5 pounds of a 6-6-6 per inch
of trunk diameter each year.
Apply fertilizer in late fall after
trees are dormant or in early
spring before growth starts. Young
trees should be fertilized more fre-
quently, but yearly rates should
not exceed those listed. The year-
ly amount can be split into 2 or 3
applications made in spring and
fall, or in spring, summer and fall.
Fertilizer should be distributed
evenly under the tree canopy be-
ginning about 1 foot from the
trunk to about the edge of the
Trees growing in lawns may be
fertilized without seriously dis-
turbing grass by making holes
with a crowbar or similar tool be-
neath the drip line of the tree.
Holes should be a foot or more
deep, about 2 inches in diameter,
and spaced as close together as
needed to obtain uniform and ade-
quate distribution. After fertilizer
is placed in them, the holes may be
closed with the heel or filled with
a small amount of soil.
Heavy and frequent fertilizer
application can cause a build-up of
soluble salts in the soil, resulting
in foliage burn. Sodium and other
salts in the soil and irrigation
water may cause similar problems
in some coastal areas. If leaf
scorch occurs from high fertiliza-
tion, reduce fertilization rate and
leach soil with excess water.
Trees may receive adequate
amounts of major plant nutrients,
yet remain chlorotic and unsightly
because of a deficiency of one or
more minor elements. Those minor
elements usually deficient include
iron, zinc and manganese. Trees
growing on alkaline sands of coast-
al areas and calcareous soils of the
Miami-Homestead area are most
frequently affected, although trees
in interior sections of Florida
sometimes exhibit similar malnu-
Either foliage or soil treatments
(or both) can correct minor ele-
ment deficiencies. Soil treatment,
properly done, is the best method
because of easy application and
residual effect. Soil treatment
should be effective where soil is
slightly to moderately acid (pH
5.5 6.5). Where soil is alkaline
(pH 7.0 or higher) soil application
is rarely successful and minor ele-
ments should be supplied in a foliar
It is difficult to identify minor
element deficiencies; therefore, a
minor element mixture is best used
unless experience clearly indicates
lack of a single element. Mixtures
can be used as sprays or added to
the soil. Rates recommended by the
manufacturer should be followed or
injury to trees may result.
Some gardeners use 6-6-6 or
8-8-8 fertilizers containing minor
elements each time they fertilize.
This is not the best policy, since
these elements can become toxic to
trees at relatively low concentra-
tions on some soils. However, such
fertilizers might be used to ad-
vantage as a part of the fertilizer
requirement, or once a year.
Pruning. Most trees require
some pruning to control growth
and adapt them to particular land-
scape uses. Different species have
distinctive growth habits, and
growth should be directed to main-
tain natural symmetry. Pruning
will control branch height, sym-
metry of head and crowding of
main branches, and help eliminate
A limited amount of pruning will
exert a strong influence on ulti-
mate shape of young trees. Limbs
and branches should be removed
close to the trunk so protruding
stubs will not be left to interfere
with proper healing of wound cuts.
Bark or trunk splitting, which
often accompanies removal of large
branches can be avoided by proper
cutting. Three saw cuts are needed
to remove a large limb. Make the
first cut on the lower side of the
limb, 1 to 2 feet farther out from
the trunk than the proposed final
cut. Saw upward about half way
through the limb or until wood
pinches the saw blade. Make the
second cut a few inches farther out
from the trunk and cut downward
until the limb is cut through and
falls. Finally, saw off the remain-
ing stub so that little or no wood
or bark is left to form a ledge.
Protruding stubs of branches
usually die back to the main trunk
and serve as an entrance place for
decay organisms which may
weaken a tree or cause decay. Al-
ways prune with sharp tools so
smooth surfaces remain, and then
cover cut surfaces with a protec-
tive wound dressing. Several
wound dressings are available, but
asphaltum paint containing a fun-
gicide is recommended. The as-
phalt and fungicide combination
seals wounds and prevents en-
trance of decay organisms until
the wound is permanently covered
with callus tissue.
Most pruning cuts can be painted
as soon as made or as soon as
wounds are dry. Asphalt will not
adhere to wounds wet with exu-
date. Keep an unbroken film of
dressing over pruning wounds. In-
spect wounds periodically and ap-
ply additional dressing if coating
is cracked or peeling.
Best time for pruning varies
with species. Generally trees in ac-
tive growth should not be pruned.
Prune deciduous trees late in their
dormant season, preferably just
prior to resumption of active
growth since callus tissue forms
very slowly in some dormant de-
ciduous species. Evergreens may
be pruned anytime when not ac-
tively growing. Ornamental trees
usually are not pruned as severely
as shrubs, so ordinarily pruning
has little effect on flowering and
Remove or prune-
Dead, dying or unsightly
branches and limbs.
Sprouts and suckers grow-
ing at or near the trunk
Interior branches to keep
an open center and allow air
* Crossed branches if they rub
together, since decay caus-
ing fungi can enter through
scarred areas of the bark.
* Crowns to encourage a na-
tural shape. Pruning to a
branch bud toward the out-
side of a tree's crown tends
to induce growth that
broadens the crown; prun-
ing to an inside branch or
bud tends to result in a
narrower more dense top.
However, amount of light a
tree receives, light direction
and nature of the tree will
also affect direction of new
growth. Small branches and
twigs are commonly pruned
just above an outside bud or
at a fork; however, they
may be clipped or sheared
without regard for position
of dormant buds since new
growth normally develops
on small branches and twigs
a short distance below prun-
* Narrow V crotches should
be eliminated when possible
since they split easily. To
avoid leaving a stub when
removing one member of a
V crotch, make the final cut
to a point where both mem-
bers join solidly. On large
limbs or trunks, this point
of solid juncture usually is
lower than it appears to be.
* If several multiple leaders
develop on a tree that nor-
mally has a single stem, re-
move all but the strongest
leader. This procedure re-
stores dominance to the re-
maining stem and allows
Selection of Trees
Nursery-grown trees are easier
to transplant and grow success-
fully than those taken from the
woods, because of better developed,
more compact root systems. In
digging many wild plants, it is
impractical to dig and move more
than a small portion of the root
system and this results in a heavy
loss in transplanting.
Since wide variation exists in
leaf and growth characteristics of
native tree species, careful and
intelligent selection and propaga-
tion of desirable types is impor-
tant. Nurseries are, therefore, log-
ical sources for the best landscape
Some native trees are protected
by law in Florida, including Cor-
nus florida (dogwood) Cercis cana-
densis (redbud), Ilex cassine (da-
hoon holly), Ilex opaca (American
holly) and Magnolia grandiflora
Species and Varieties
Tree selection is mainly a ques-
tion of personal preference of
variety and adaptability, and in
Florida the number of species and
varieties available is so great the
Many of the terms used
location may be unfamiliar
choice is not always simple. Trees
listed here represent the best
choices for home landscaping, and
all have proven suitable for plant-
ing in Florida. No attempt has
been made however, to include all
trees found in Florida. A similar
description of palms is available in
Extension Bulletin 152-A-Native
and Exotic Palms of Florida.
Arrangement of trees in this
list is alphabetical according to
botanical name. Genus and species
are given first, followed in order by
family to which the tree belongs,
common name or names, section in
Florida of best adaptation, whether
deciduous or evergreen, and native
Common names are listed in
order of preference (the first name
listed being the preferred one). All
trees discussed here are cross in-
dexed by botanical and common
name(s) in an alphabetical list
in the back of this publication.
Botanical nomenclature is accord-
ing to L. H. Bailey, Manual of
Cultivated Plants and Hortus II,
except for four plants, Bursera
simaruba, Coccolobis diversifolia,
Concocarpus erectus and Guaiacum
sanctum for which the nomencla-
ture is from "The Native Trees of
Florida," by West and Arnold.
to describe trees in this pub-
to homeowners. Therefore, a
pictorial glossery of leaf and flower inflorescence terms is
given on the following three pages.
1 35 7642
Acacia auriculaeformis. Leguminosae. Ear leaf or Ear Form
Acacia. Southern area. Evergreen. Australia.
Ear leaf is a common ornamental tree found in southern Florida.
Trees are symmetrical with drooping branches and grow to a height
of 20 to 30 feet (Fig. 2). Leaves are simple, thick, nearly sickle-like
in shape, 3 to 6 inches long and 11/2 to 2 inches broad with 5 or 6
large ribs running from base to tip. An abundance of yellow flowers
appears on 2- to 3-inch clustered spikes in early spring and some-
times in the fall. Flat pea-like pods 2 to 4 inches long appear after
flowers and become curved upon themselves at maturity.
A primary reason for popularity of ear leaf is its rapid growth
rate and ability to provide shade in a short period of time. Acacias
are brittle and easily broken in hurricanes, but recover rapidly and
have no other bad faults. Use in the landscape as a framing, shade
or street tree. This acacia is mildly salt tolerant, but must be used
well back from the seacoast. Insect and disease pests are not con-
sidered to be a problem, although trees may sometimes be attacked
by cottony cushion scale.
Fig. 2.-Ear form acacia,
Acer rubrum. Aceraceae. Red Maple, Swamp Maple or Scarlet
Maple. Southern, Central and Northern areas. Deciduous. Native.
Red maple grows to 70 feet, is upright in growth habit, forms
a narrow cylindrical crown and grows well in partial shade. Deciduous
foliage is simple, typically 3- or 5-lobed, usually with red petioles and
turns to bright scarlet and yellow in late fall. Small red flowers and
fruit clusters appear during December and January. Red maple is
one of the first trees to herald the return of spring with its brilliant
display of red flowers.
Use of red maple in landscape plantings is gaining favor; how-
ever, best results will be obtained if planted in moist soils. Best land-
scape uses are as framing, shade, specimen or street trees and in
coastal plantings. Insects and disease pests are not a problem with
this maple in Florida.
Achras zapota. Sapotaceae. Sapodilla or Chewing Gum Tree.
Southern area. Evergreen. Central America.
Sapodilla grows to 60 feet, has a well-rounded, dense, evergreen
crown with simple, stiff, glossy dark-green obovate leaves up to 5
inches long appearing in rosette-clusters. Flowers are small-1/-inch
across cream-colored and solitary in leaf axils. A round to oval
edible fruit, 2 to 4 inches in diameter with a brown sandy surface,
matures throughout the year and contains a sweet, juicy brownish
pulp (Fig. 3). Sapodilla is frequently called "chewing gum tree" since
its resinous milky latex is the source of chicle used in manufacture
of chewing gum.
Many sapodilla trees can be found in landscape plantings in
southern Florida. Qualities that make this tree valuable for orna-
mental plantings include salt spray tolerance, resistance to hurricane
winds and freedom from pests and diseases. Sapodilla serves best
as a shade or street tree and is suggested for seaside use. When
used as street trees they should be planted 30 to 40 feet apart.
Fig. 3.-Leaves and fruit of the Sapodilla, Achras zapota.
Fig. 4.-Leaf and flowers of the Mimosa, Albizzia julibrissin.
Albizzia julibrissin. Leguminosae. Silk-Tree or Mimosa. Central
and Northern areas. Deciduous. Asia.
Mimosa is a medium-sized tree growing to 40 feet in height with
an irregular spreading crown, horizontal to drooping branches and
frequently a leaning trunk. Bipinnately compound leaves are fern-like
and 12 to 14 inches long (Fig. 4). Numerous pink powderpuff flower
clusters with long stamens appear in late spring. Tan to brown pods
4 to 6 inches long appear after flowers and remain on trees until fall.
Silk-tree is a popular tree with homeowners, and its small size
and horizontal branching make it very useful in landscaping. Use as
a framing or patio tree is most satisfactory; however, silk-tree will
also serve as a specimen or shade tree. This tree is tolerant of salt
spray, and therefore is useful near the shore. In recent years, many
trees have been killed by a disease known as mimosa wilt. A "wilt
resistant" variety or strain is being sold, but recent evidence indicates
that no mimosa is wilt resistant. Wilt symptoms usually do not ap-
pear on a tree until it approaches maturity.
Araucaria excelsa. Pinaceae. Norfolk-Island-Pine. Southern area.
Evergreen. Norfolk Islands.
Norfolk-Island-pine is symmetrical and pyramidal in growth
habit (Fig. 5). The central leader is strong and straight with evenly
spaced branches and when viewed from a distance appears tiered.
Trees grow to 160 feet in height in their native habitat, but rarely
exceed 100 feet in Florida. Leaves are simple, needle- or awl-like,
1-inch long, dark green and fine textured.
Norfolk-Island-pine has its greatest landscape use as a strong
single accent. Small trees are popular as potted specimens for terraces,
patios and Florida rooms. This tree will live in the reduced light of
home interiors, but grows best outdoors in full sunlight. Norfolk-
Island-pine does not have any important insect or disease problems
in Florida, and is salt tolerant.
Fig. 5.-Norfolk-Island-Pine, Araucaria excelsa (left) and Fig. 6 the caram-
bola tree, Averrhoa carambola.
Averrhoa carambola. Oxalidaceae. Carambola or Carambola
Plum. Southern area. Evergreen. Asia.
Carambola trees are usually small, growing to 30 feet in height
with a dense symmetrical head (Fig. 6). Leaves are pinnately com-
pound and contain 5 to 13 leafllets which increase in size toward the
leaf tip and vary in shape from elliptic to ovate. Flowers are incon-
spicuous, fragrant, and white marked with purple. They are borne
in clusters in leaf axils, but sometimes are terminal in spring. The
fruit is yellow, fleshy, waxy, 3- to 5-ribbed, edible capsule 3 to 6 inches
Homeowners use carambola as a shade or specimen tree and for
its tropical fruit effect. Dense shade produced by carambola usually
prevents growth of grass beneath; however, because of small size this
is not a great problem. Trees are sometimes subject to attack by
Bauhinia spp. Leguminosae. Orchid-Tree. Southern and warmer
parts of Central area. Semi-evergreen.
At least 35 Bauhinia species have been introduced into Florida,
and the following species have found wide acceptance.
Hong Kong orchid-tree, Bauhinia blakeana, a native of China,
grows to 30 feet. Leaves are simple, large, up to 8 inches long and
wide with two rounded lobes and a cleft extending one-third way into
the leaf. Deep crimson red flowers, borne in racemes containing up
to 40 flowers 6 inches in diameter, appear from October to March.
Leaves shed after the flowering period, just before spring growth
starts. Hong Kong orchid-tree must be propagated by cuttings or
grafting since flowers are sterile.
A summer flowering orchid-tree, Bauhinia monandra, a native of
Burma, attains a height of 20 feet. Leaves are simple, 4 inches long
and wide with two rounded lobes and cleft up to one-half of the leaf.
Flowers are produced from April to October in short axillary clusters.
Opening flowers are pale yellow, but turn pale pink or rose soon after
opening. The tree drops its leaves during dry months. This species
is quite sensitive to cold and should be restricted to the southern-
most parts of Florida.
Bauhinia purpurea, native to Asia, is probably the most popular
orchid-tree in Florida (Fig. 7). Mature trees will attain 30 feet, but
most trees reach a height of 15 to 20 feet. Simple leaves averaging
6 to 8 inches in length, and slightly less in width, are two-lobed and
cleft up to one-half of the leaf. Flowers are large (3 to 5 inches
across), showy, fragrant and appear in terminal or axillary racemes
from September to November while leaves are on the trees. Flower
color is variable, ranging from white with a pink tinge, through shades
of pink, rose-red, violet and deep purple. Trees are partially evergreen
to completely deciduous from February to April.
Another popular orchid-tree native to Asia is Bauhinia variegata,
similar to B. purpurea, except flowers appear from January to April
when few leaves are present. Trees frequently attain 20 feet in
height. Simple leaves are 5 to 6 inches long and wide with two
rounded lobes and cleft up to one-third of the leaf. Flowers are large
(4 to 5 inches across), fragrant, reddish to bluish-purple in color and
borne in short axillary clusters of 1 to 8 flowers. Trees are very showy
when in full flower and almost leafless.
Bauhinia variegata candida is a pure white variety with a few
green veins in the petals.
Orchid-trees are widely used in landscape plantings and serve
well as small framing trees, patio trees, or free standing specimens,
for inclusion in shrubbery borders and for tropical effects.
Several insects chew foliage, but orchid-trees are relatively free
of serious insect and disease problems. Orchid-trees frequently de-
velop marginal leaf scorch and chlorotic foliage symptoms due to both
major and minor element deficiencies.
Fig. 7.-Left: Orchid-tree;
and flowers of the
orchid tree Bau-
Betula nigra. Betulaceae. River Birch. Northern area. Decid-
River birch grows to 50 feet and has a narrow, irregular crown
with alternate, simple, ovate leaves. Leaves change from a pale green
in spring to medium green in summer and to brilliant yellow in the
fall. Trees are distinguished by reddish bark peeling off in film-like
papery curls. Flowers are inconspicuous, borne in catkins, and 2 to 3
inches long. They appear before leaves in the springtime.
River birch is an excellent tree for home landscapes and the peel-
ing bark provides an interesting and unusual landscape feature. Best
landscape use for river birch is for framing, or as a shade or patio
tree. River birch grows well in areas with high water tables; how-
ever, this does not limit its use on other soils if water is provided
during droughts. Insects and diseases are not a problem.
Bixa orellana. Bixaceae. Annatto or Lipstick Tree. Southern
and Central areas. Deciduous. Tropical America.
Annatto is a small tree in Florida, seldom attaining a height
greater than 20 feet (Fig. 8). Leaves are simple, broadly ovate, and
up to 7 inches long with long petioles. Rose-colored, peach-like blos-
soms are borne in terminal clusters during November and December.
Fruits are globose, reddish-brown, spiny capsules resembling chestnut
burs and contain an orange-red pulp around seeds.
In Florida, these trees are grown solely as ornamentals, although
they are best known as the source of a yellow-orange dye which is
extracted from the seeds. Annatto is principally used as a free stand-
ing specimen for its horticultural interest, but may also be included
in shrubbery borders and seaside plantings. Annatto is not reported
to have any serious insect or disease problems.
Brassaia actinophylla. Araliaceae. Schefflera or Queensland Um-
brella Tree. Southern and Central areas. Evergreen. Australia.
Mature Schefflera trees have rounded crowns, somewhat umbrella-
like in shape and may reach a height of 40 feet in Florida; however,
20 to 25 feet is more common (Fig. 9). Leaves are large (2 to 3 feet
including petiole) and palmately compound, with 7 to 16 long elliptic
leaflets radiating from an enlarged disk at the petiole apex. Flowers
are small, bright-red and appear in a spectacular, branching inflo-
rescence arising from the stem apices. The inflorescence is made of
narrow, radiating branches of small flower clusters 2 to 4 feet long.
Schefflera serves well as a framing, patio tree, as a free stand-
ing specimen for tropical effect and as an urn subject for garden,
patio or Florida room. No serious insect or disease problem has been
reported on this tree in Florida.
Fig. 8.-Annatto, Bixa orellana (left) and Fig. 9 schefflera, Brassaia actinophylla.
t- '* .,, 7. -; ,*.JYM .1'
Bucida buceras. Combretaceae. Black Olive or Lucaro. Southern
and warmer parts of Central area. Evergreen. Native.
Black olive is native to the Florida Keys and may have a single
trunk or several heavy stems reaching 40 to 50 feet in height (Fig.
10). Heavy spreading branches form a broadly rounded head.
Leathery, simple, bluish-green leaves are crowded in whorls at the
ends of short branchlets. Leaf shape varies from spatulate to obovate
on branchlets that often terminate in a short spine. Greenish-yellow
flowers, about 1/8-inch long, appear in narrow spikes near ends of
branches during late spring.
Recently black olive has gained favor because of its high salt
tolerance and resistance to wind damage. It is recommended primarily
as a shade or framing tree, but also for seaside plantings, street
and windbreak use. Black olive will grow in calcareous soils and is
relatively free of insect and disease pests.
Bursera simaruba. Burseraceae. Gumbo-Limbo. Southern area.
Gumbo-limbo normally grows to 60 feet and is best distinguished
by its smooth, flaking, red-brown to green bark and its large, crooked,
horizontal branches arising from short thick trunks (Fig. 11). Alter-
nate leaves are pinnately compound with 3 to 7 opposite leaflets 1 to 3
inches long. Inconspicuous, greenish flowers appear in winter and
spring on 2- to 5-inch spikes prior to or with first leaves.
Gumbo-limbo is planted primarily for the curiosity of its distinc-
tive bark, its salt tolerance and its ability to root and grow from
branches stuck into the ground. Limbs up to 4 inches in diameter
will root rapidly if placed where trees are desired. This tree serves
best when utilized as a background or specimen tree and in street
plantings. Various insect larva may chew foliage but no serious
insect or disease organisms are reported.
Callistemon citrinus. Myrtaceae. Bottle-Brush or Citrus-Leaved
Bottle-Brush. Southern and Central areas. Evergreen. Australia.
Confusion exists concerning classification of bottle-brushes since
there are many similar species and hybrids. Callistemon citrinus is
tree-like, growing to 20 feet, with a narrow crown and slender
branches and twigs. Leaves are lanceolate, up to 3 inches long and
smell like citrus if crushed. Red flower spikes, up to 5 inches long
and made up of many red stamens, appear in springtime and look
similar to bristles on a bottle brush (Fig. 12). Ovoid capsules con-
taining seeds surround twigs afer flowering and may remain attached
Another bottle-brush familiar to homeowners is Callistemon vi-
minalis weeping bottle-brush. This variety is distinguished by the
weeping habit of branches and foliage.
Bottle-brush is excellent as a patio subject, free-standing speci-
men or for accent in a green shrubbery border. Insects or diseases
are not reported to be a problem and this tree is moderately salt
Fig. 10.-Black olive, Bucida buceras (left) and Fig. 12 flowers and foliage of
the bottle-brush, Callistemon citrinus.
Fig. 11.-Gumbo limbo, Bursera simaruba, center foreground.
Callitris robusta. Cypressaceae. Cypress-Pine or Callitris. South-
ern, Central and warmer parts of Northern areas. Evergreen.
Cypress-pine reaches heights of 100 feet in Australia, but in
Florida 40 feet is usually maximum. It is a rapidly growing tree of
pyramidal shape, often reaching a height of 10 to 12 feet in 5 years
(Fig. 13). Trees are like red cedar in appearance, but have lighter
green color. Numerous erect branches are crowded, giving the tree
a compact growth that begins at ground level. Leaves are scale-like,
appearing on angled branchlets. Cones 1 inch in diameter appear
solitary or in clusters during late summer.
Many old plantings of cypress-pine exist in central Florida.
Trees are well adapted for use as a windbreak and to a wide range
of soils. This tree may serve as an unusual free standing specimen
or in a screen planting. Cypress-pine is reported to be subject to
mushroom root-rot, but this disease is not usually serious.
Cananga odorata. Annonaceae. Ylang-Ylang or Perfume Tree.
Southern area. Evergreen. Malaysia.
Ylang-ylang is a large tree up to 50 feet in height with a
single, straight trunk and light colored bark. Leaves are simple,
oblong to ovate, commonly reaching 8 inches in length (Fig. 14).
Numerous flowers, yellow to green, about 2 inches long and heavily
scented, appear in early fall, arising singly or in small, dangling
clusters. Flowers consist of narrow petals with a brownish-purple
spot at the base and are the source of a perfume. Small greenish,
Fig. 13.-Callitris robusta, the cypress-pine (left) and Fig. 14 foliage and fruit
of the ylang-ylang, Cananga odorata.
ovoid fruits, about 1 inch long, appear in clusters after flowers dis-
appear and turn black when mature.
Ylang-ylang is not widely used; however, this tree is highly
recommended for its fall flowering habit and scented flowers. A rapid
growth rate is another factor in its favor since shade can be obtained
in a short time. Ylang-ylang is recommended for use as a framing
or shade tree and for its tropical effect.
Carpinus caroliniana. Betulaceae. American Hornbeam or Blue
Beech. Central and Northern areas. Deciduous. Native.
American hornbeam is common in moist hammocks in Northern
and Central Florida. This small tree has a rounded irregular crown
attaining a height of 30 feet with an 8- to 12-inch trunk. Thin, blue-
gray bark forms vertical ridges and channels and easily separates
this species from similar trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, ovate
to oblong, dark green, 2 to 4 inches long with double toothed margins.
Flowers are borne in 11/2-inch pendent, greenish catkins which appear
in early spring just as leaves appear.
American hornbeam is ideally suited to low, moist, shady areas.
Trees can withstand some flooding without injury and serve well in
problem areas where water tables cannot be controlled. In the land-
scape they can be used as framing, patio and shade trees and in
informal gardens. Insects and diseases are not known to be a problem.
Carya illinoensis. Juglandaceae. Pecan. Northern area. Decidu-
ous. United States and Mexico.
Pecan normally attains 75 to 100 feet in height when mature with
large, ascending, symmetrical crowns. Leaves are alternate, pinnately
compound, with 11 to 17 oblong-lanceolate leaflets of a medium green
color. Fruit is the pecan, an edible nut.
An occasional specimen is seen in central and southern Florida,
but there these trees do not fruit regularly. This large, wide-spread-
ing tree is ideal for summer shade and for its nuts. The pecan, where
soils are suitable, is ideally adapted where shade is wanted in summer
but not during winter months. Pecan is difficult to transplant but
grows rapidly once established. Leaves drop early in fall and are late
emerging in spring. Considerable care is required to control several
serious insect and disease pests, and zinc deficiency is also a serious
problem of pecans on many soils.
Cassia spp. Leguminosae. Southern area and warmer parts of
Central area. Semi-evergreen.
Species of the genus Cassia are among the most widely grown
flowering trees in southern Florida. Cassias are small trees with
large pinnate leaves and are prized for their flowers, which are pro-
duced in large masses. Most are tropical, but will withstand tempera-
tures as low as 25F for short periods of time. Diseases and insects
are not a particular problem, although caterpillars may chew foliage.
Golden-shower-tree, Cassia fistula, native of India, is probably
the best known species in Florida (Fig. 15). Trees have an open,
spreading crown rarely exceeding 30 feet in height, and although
considered deciduous are never entirely leafless. Leaves are pinnately
compound, with 8 to 16 ovate leaflets, and larger than those of other
cassias. Fragrant flowers are produced in profusion during June and
July on hanging racemes a foot or more long. Flower color varies
from deep golden-yellow to pale primrose, with variations occurring
among individual flowers. Brown, cylindrical pods up to 12 inches
Fig. 15.-Golden-shower, Cassia fistula (left) and Fig. 16 pink-and-white shower,
long appear after flowers and remain attached for many months.
Golden-shower is recommended for use as a free standing specimen,
framing and patio tree, and in the shrubbery border. Use as a street
tree is also recommended throughout southern Florida.
Pink-shower or horse cassia, Cassia grandis, native to tropical
America, is among the most outstanding pink-flowered cassias. Trees
are spreading and reach a height of 50 feet. Leaves are pinnately
compound, reddish with silvery hairs when young, dark green when
mature and have 16 to 40 oblong leaflets. Seven- to 9-inch racemes of
1 inch flowers are produced in great abundance during early April
before leaves appear. Flowers are a delicate rose-pink and have a
yellow throat after first opening; however, the pink changes to salmon
with age. Large pods 11/ by 18 inches appear after flowers and remain
attached for months. Pink-shower serves well as a specimen tree and
may also be used as a background tree.
Java shower, Cassia javanica, native of Java and Sumatra com-
monly attains a height of 30 feet with an open spreading crown and
long branches topped with large clusters of bright rose-pink flowers
during May and June. Trees remain bare during winter months and
produce new pinnately compound leaves composed of many oval leaf-
lets just prior to flowering. Flowers occur sporadically through the
summer until October. Large pods up to 18 inches long appear after
flowers and remain attached as long as 18 months. Java shower
is recommended as a specimen, street and avenue, patio or background
The pink-and-white shower, Cassia nodosa, native to Malaya, is
distinguished from the Java shower by its scented smaller flowers
which are deep rose pink, and also by its smooth rather than spiny
trunk (Fig. 16). Much confusion exists between Java shower and
pink-and-white shower and some botanists believe they may be ex-
tremes of the same species. Pink-and-white shower is deciduous
during winter months but produces leaves prior to flowering in spring.
This tree is recommended for use in parks and other public areas
as well as for homeowner use as a specimen, patio, border and back-
Calceolaria shower, Cassia spectabilis, a native of tropical Amer-
ica, is noted for its fall bloom. This evergreen tree grows rapidly,
achieving a height of 50 feet. Crowns are dense and spreading above
a trunk which is smooth when young but cracks vertically with age.
Pinnately compound leaves are 6 to 16 inches long and made up of
6 to 15 pairs of lanceolate leaflets. Bright yellow flowers about 11/2
inches across are borne in 8- to 25- inch pyramidal racemes at ends
of upright leafy branches during November and December. This tree
is excellent for use throughout southern Florida for fall color.
Calceolaria shower is recommended as a framing, background or
Casuarina spp. Casuarinaceae. Australian-Pine or Beefwood.
Southern and Central areas. Evergreen. Australia.
Australian-pine is planted extensively in southern Florida for a
multitude of landscape uses. These trees grow on acid and alkaline
soils, sand dunes, calcareous rocky soils, muck and many other soil
types of the lower peninsula. Some areas have passed legislation to
prevent planting of this genus because of the heavy root system and
numerous suckers of some species. The three most widely planted
species in Florida are Cunningham beefwood, horsetail beefwood and
scalybark beefwood; all are called Australian-pine.
Trees of this genus are leafless, except for very minute scales at
nodes of branchlets, and resemble pines since the numerous, wiry,
pendulous branchlets resemble needle-like leaves. Factors limiting
growth of Austalian-pine are low temperatures and mushroom root-
rot, a disease that attacks and kills root systems. In some localized
areas many trees have been killed by mushroom root-rot. Control
methods other than planting in sterilized soil are not available.
The hardiest species is Cunningham beefwood, Casuarina cun-
ninghamiana, which has survived temperatures as low as 16'F for
short periods of time. This tree has a symmetrical, pyramid-like
crown and attains a height of 50 feet. Root suckers are not a serious
problem although some suckers do occur on this species. Recommend-
ed landscape uses include windbreaks, trimmed hedges, roadside trees
and as a soil binder or erosion preventative tree. Although recom-
mended for ditch banks, this must be restricted to fresh water areas
since this species will not withstand salt spray.
Horsetail beefwood, Casuarina equisetifolia, was the first Aus-
tralian-pine to be used extensively in southern Florida. This species
cannot withstand temperatures much below freezing, but grows
rapidly where temperature is not a factor. Horsetail beefwood com-
monly attains a height of 75 to 100 feet and is less desirable for
ornamental use than other species since branches are at nearly 45'
angles to the trunk and widely spaced, resulting in an open, straggly
crown (Fig. 17). Foliage is also much less dense than on other spe-
cies. This tree will withstand brackish soil and salt spray without
apparent injury and is planted extensively on the seacoast. Trees
do not sucker, but numerous seedlings sprout and grow in the vicinity
of parent trees. Horsetail beefwood is recommended for seacoast
planting, as clipped hedges, trimmed specimens, windbreaks and as
The most attractive Australian-pine, scalybark beefwood, Casua-
rina lepidophloia attains a height of 70 feet (Fig. 18). Trees are
upright with a dense crown of dark green; however, the species suck-
ers so badly it is an undesirable pest. Foliage of this tree is very
dense; for this reason scalybark beefwood is more widely used as a
windbreak than other species. Scalybark beefwood will withstand
wet soils, but will not tolerate brackish or salty water or salt spray.
This tree is not recommended for landscape use, except in areas where
root suckers would not be a problem.
Because of the desirable characteristics of the top of scalybark
beefwood, and the non-sprouting or suckering characteristics of horse-
tail beefwood, the two species are often grafted to secure plants with
Fig. 17.-Horsetail-beefwood, Casarina equisetifolia (left) and Fig. 18 scalybark
beefwood, Casuarina lepidophloia.
desirable characteristics of both species. In this process, a scion from
scalybark beefwood which produces a dense, upright, dark green top
is grafted to the non-sprouting root system of a seedling horsetail
beefwood. Resulting trees are highly recommended for home land-
scape use as background or framing trees, sheared specimens or as a
Cedrus deodara. Pinaceae. Deodar Cedar. Northern part of the
Central and Northern area. Evergreen. Himalayas.
Deodar cedar is a large tree up to 50 feet in height with a regular
pyramidal outline (Fig. 19). Branches are pendulous or slightly droop-
ing in habit with rigid, needle-like, 4-angled, clustered leaves of a deep
bluish-green. This tree resembles blue spruce grown in northern
states in shape and color but is finer in texture. Cones up to 5 inches
long appear during summer months.
Deodar cedar serves as a substitute for the blue spruce, which
will not grow satisfactorily in Florida, and does best on heavy soils
of northern Florida. Recommended use of this conifer is restricted
to free-standing specimens; they may be positioned so use may be
made of the tree during the Christmas season. This tree is subject
to attack by borers, Deodar weevil, spider mites, scales and various
Cercis canadensis. Leguminosae. Redbud or Judas-Tree. Central
and Northern areas. Deciduous. Native.
This small tree rarely grows taller than 30 feet and is identified
easily during spring when clusters of small, rose-colored, pea-like
flowers are produced in profusion on old and new wood before leaves
appear. Leaves are simple, cordate, wider than long and heart shaped
in outline. Redbud can be found in wooded areas from northern
Florida as far south as Orlando.
Redbud is one of the best and favorite small flowering trees
available for central and northern Florida. It can be used as a fram-
ing tree for small homes, as a specimen tree or included in shrubbery
borders and also as a residential street tree. When used as a street
tree, plants should be spaced 25 to 35 feet apart. This tree is fre-
quently attacked by borers and several fungi that enter open wounds
and cause decay.
Chionanthus virginica. Oleaceae. Fringe-Tree or Old Man's Beard.
Central and Northern areas. Deciduous. Native.
Although often classed as a large shrub, fringe tree will reach
a height of 25 to 30 feet in northern Florida (Fig. 20). Crowns vary
from round and dense to narrow and open with spreading or erect
branches arising from a short trunk. Leaves are usually opposite,
simple, oblong to obovate-oblong, deep green, leathery, from 4 to 8
inches long and turn clear yellow in the fall. Greenish-white flowers
are borne in loose panicles 5 to 8 inches long in spring about the same
time leaves appear. Loose clusters of oblong, blue to purple fruits,
about an inch long, ripen in early fall.
Fringe tree is not widely planted, perhaps because of its slow
growth and deciduous character. It has been a favorite in older gar-
dens and is desirable since it is one of the latest spring flowering
Fig. 19.-The deodar cedar, Cedrus deodra (left) and Fig. 20 fringe-tree, Chio-
trees and has unusual flowers. Fringe tree serves well as a free-
standing specimen and may also be included in shrubbery borders.
Insects and disease are not known to be a problem.
Chrysophyllum oliviforme. Sapotaceae. Satin-Leaf. Southern
area. Evergreen. Native.
This small tree grows to 30 feet in height with a narrow, upright
crown composed of small branches arising from slender, reddish brown
trunks. Large, simple, evergreen leaves 4 to 8 inches long, bright
green above and burnished copper beneath, are the most attractive
part of the tree. Small white flowers are followed by smooth, dark
purple fruits 3/-inch long that ripen throughout the year.
Satin-leaf has met such wide homeowner acceptance that almost
all native stands have disappeared. Glistening, coppery undersurfaces
of leaves always attract attention, especially when a breeze is blowing.
This tree is salt tolerant, and can be recommended for seaside use.
Satin-leaf serves well as a framing tree, patio and free-standing speci-
men and may be planted in shrubbery borders. Caterpillars chew
foliage in native stands, but this pest may be controlled by home-
Cinnamomum camphora. Lauraceae. Camphor-Tree. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Evergreen. China and Japan.
Camphor-tree is easily identified by the camphor-like odor of
leaves and stems. Crowns are low-branched, broad spreading and
form a round-headed tree growing to a height of 50 feet and a spread
of 40 feet (Fig. 21). Leaves are simple, ovate-elliptic, light green,
Fig. 21.-Camphor-tree, Cinnamomum camphora.
shiny, aromatic when crushed and persist except for a few weeks in
early spring. Small yellow flowers in short panicles appear in spring;
and many shiny, black, berry-like fruits, 8/a-inch in diameter, are
produced in abundance in early fall.
Although this tree grows best in northern Florida, it is injured
in extreme northern Florida during severe winters. Camphor-tree is
tolerant of most soil types and is moderately salt tolerant, but fre-
quently develops symptoms of manganese deficiency in sandy and
alkaline soils. This tree casts such a heavy shade that it is difficult
to grow a lawn, flowers or other ornamental plants beneath its
branches. Principal pests are red spider and Florida red scale. Cam-
phor-tree makes an excellent park tree and may be used for street
plantings if lower limbs are removed. Trees may be used for dense
shade, as a semi-formal specimen tree and as a large sheared hedge.
Citrus spp. Rutaceae. Citrus Trees. Southern, Central and
Northern areas. Evergreen. Eastern Asia.
Citrus species available include sweet and sour orange, grape-
fruit, lime, lemon, kumquat, calamondin and limequat. Most citrus
trees can be identified by their dense, much-branched rounded crowns
and rounded orange or yellow fruits. Fragrant white blossoms appear
in springtime in great profusion.
Citrus trees should be widely used in landscape developments
within their climatic ranges for shade, framing, and specimen trees
and for their fragrant flowers, edible fruits and tropical effect. Citrus
trees are tolerant of varying soil types, but usually do poorly if water
tables are too high. Some problems include trace element deficiencies,
scales, mites, caterpillars, virus and fungus diseases. In central and
southern sections many species may be grown in most locations, but in
northern areas selection is restricted to hardy types like the Satsuma
orange and calamondin.
Additional information on citrus is available in Florida Agricul-
tural Extension Service Bulletin 166C, "Citrus Fruit for the Door-
Clusia rosea. Guttiferae. Monkey-Apple or Pitch-Apple. Southern
area. Evergreen. West Indies, Tropical America and Native.
Monkey-apple is a small tree growing to 30 feet in height.
Crowns are wide-spreading, irregular and made up of many hori-
zontal branches. Simple, obovate, stiff, leathery to fleshy, evergreen
leaves 8 inches long and 4 inches wide appear oppositely on horizontal
branches. Attractive pink or white flowers 5 inches in diameter ap-
pear in summer followed by a rounded fruit of the same size with
a pinkish calyx at the stem end. Fruit splits at maturity to display
brownish seeds surrounded by a scarlet pulp. (Fig. 22).
With increased emphasis on tropical plantings in southern Flor-
ida, monkey-apple has found wide usage. It is salt tolerant and
grows well on varying soil types. Trees may start as epiphytes on
Fig. 22.-Fruit of the monkey-apple, Clusia rosea.
other trees, as is common with the native strangler fig, and on some
monkey-apple trees numerous aerial roots hang from branches. Mon-
key-apple is recommended as a specimen tree in tropical plantings
and for planting in seacoast locations where it also may serve as a
background or framing tree.
Coccolobis diversifolia. Polygonaceae. Pigeon-Plum or Dove
Plum. Southern area and southern part of Central area. Evergreen.
Pigeon-plum can grow to 60 feet in Florida, but specimens taller
than 50 feet are rare. Crowns are small, dense, round-topped, with
spreading branches arising from straight trunks. Bright green, simple,
oblong, leathery, evergreen leaves appear on slender reddish twigs.
Flowers are greenish and inconspicuous, appearing in spring on 2- to
3-inch spikes. Dark red fruits ripening in winter and early spring are
1/3-inch long, rounded at the top and narrowed at the base.
Throughout the Florida Keys, pigeon-plum comprises a large part
of the native vegetation and can be found growing as far north as
Brevard County. It is highly recommended for use wherever salt
spray is a problem since it is highly tolerant of salt. Trees are also
tolerant of varying soil types and free of insect and disease problems.
Recommended landscape uses are as framing, shade, specimen, back-
ground and street or avenue trees.
Coccolobis uvifera. Polygonaceae. Sea-Grape. Southern area and
southern part of Central area. Evergreen. Native.
A small tree (up to 20 feet in height), sea-grape is stoutly
branched with a broadly spreading crown (Fig. 23). Thick, simple,
leathery, evergreen leaves are orbicular to nearly circular in outline,
8 inches across, and dark green and shining above, with prominent
red veins on both sides. Purple flowers appearing during summer are
inconspicuous, borne on thick-stemmed spikes 6 to 14 inches long at
ends of twigs and axils of leaves. A greenish-white fruit, about 3/4-
inch long, appears at the end of a narrowed stalk following flowers.
Sea-grape is found growing in coastal hammocks, dunes and
along beaches from Brevard and Manatee counties southward. This
tree is highly recommended for areas where salt spray is a problem.
Throughout the southern area, sea-grape is useful as a large informal
hedge, patio or framing tree. Its distinctive leaves make it useful
in tropical plantings. Insect and disease pests are not known to be
Conocarpus erectus. Combretaceae. Button-Mangrove or Button-
wood. Southern area. Evergreen. Native.
Button-mangrove has a narrow, regular crown composed of short
branches, and commonly attains a height of 40 to 60 feet. Leaves are
alternate, simple elliptic, leathery, green, and 2 to 4 inches long with
wavy margins. The most desirable variety is distinguished by pale
silky down on leaves, which gives it a silvery appearance. Flowers
are small, greenish to purplish globose heads, appearing in narrow
clusters 6 to 8 inches long throughout the year. Red-brown, globular,
button-like fruit, 1/2-inch in diameter matures all year.
Trees tolerant of salt are much in demand in southern coastal
areas and button-mangrove is one of the most salt tolerant. Button-
mangrove is one of a group of trees considered to be shore-builders,
and therefore, is recommended for planting along river and ocean
front locations. Trees are recommended for framing and specimen
use and as screens if kept pruned to small size. Insect and disease
pests are not known to be a problem.
Fig. 23.-Sea-grape, Coccolobis uvifera (left) and Fig. 24 foliage and flowers of
the dogwood, Cornus florida.
Cordia sebestena. Boraginaceae. Geiger-Tree. Southern area.
Geiger-tree is a small, slender trunked, round-topped tree with
stout branches that normally attains a height of 25 feet in southern
Florida. The large, 4- to 6-inch deep green leaves are alternate, simple,
ovate, downy above and smooth beneath. Orange flowers 11 inches
in diameter and borne in flat-topped, terminal clusters, are in evidence
most of the year. A smooth, white ovate fruit matures throughout
In home landscapes, geiger-tree can be used as a framing or
patio tree, or a free-standing specimen, and may also be included in
shrubbery borders. It serves well as a street tree if lower branches
are removed. Geiger-tree is recommended for seaside use since it is
tolerant of salt spray and brackish soil. Trees will also tolerate light,
sandy alkaline soils and rock and marl. Insect and disease pests are
not known to be a problem.
Cornus florida. Cornaceae. Dogwood or Flowering Dogwood.
Central and Northern areas. Deciduous. Native.
Dogwood rarely grows more than 40 feet tall and usually much
less. Its branches are more or less in whorls and extend at right
angles from the trunk. Leaves are simple, opposite, ovate, up to 6
inches long, dull green in color except during fall months when they
turn yellow or red. The true flowers are inconspicuous, but are sub-
tended by 4 white bracts which form a corolla-like cup 3 to 4 inches
across (Fig. 24). Flowering season is during February and March.
Small l/-inch long scarlet fruits in tight clusters appear during fall
months and remain attached during most of the winter.
Flowering dogwood grows as far south as Orange County; how-
ever, in areas south of Gainesville it flowers sparingly except following
cold winters. Red-flowered and pink-flowered varieties grow poorly
and rarely bloom in Florida, even in northern sections. Dogwood is
highly recommended for landscape use throughout its adapted area.
Best usage is as a framing tree, free-standing specimen in formal
or informal gardens, patio tree, or for inclusion in the shrubbery
border where it serves as a background plant for flower effect. Dog-
wood also serves well as a street tree and for use in park plantings.
A number of insect pests attack dogwood, including borers, club-gall,
midge and scales. Diseases found on dogwood include powdery mildew,
various leaf and flower spots and decay organisms.
Cupressus spp. Pinaceae. Cypress. Northern area. Evergreen.
A large number of Cupressus species can be found in the United
States, but the only 3 which find limited use in Florida are Arizona
cypress, Portuguese cypress and Italian cypress. All are evergreens,
cultivated for their graceful habit and dark green or glaucous foliage.
Arizona cypress, Cupressus arizonica, native to Western United
States, is a large tree growing to 50 feet, with horizontal branches,
Fig. 25.-Arizona cypress. Cupressus arizonica (left) and Fig. 26 leaf and seed
pods of the sissoo, Dalbergia sissoo.
forming a narrow, pyramidal or broad open crown (Fig. 25). Leaves
are short, needle-like, thickened at the apex and bluish-green in color.
Small cones %- to 1-inch in diameter appear on the branches during
fall. Arizona cypress is useful as a windbreak and as a free-standing
specimen. Interest has been generated in recent years for its use as
a Christmas tree. Trees are tolerant of salt spray and may be planted
on the seacoast.
Portuguese cypress, Cupressus lusitanica, native to Mexico, is in-
frequently seen in northern areas of the state. This tree grows to
50 feet, has a dense, compact crown composed of spreading branches
and more or less pendulous branchlets. Clones with blue to bluish-
green foliage are the most beautiful and desired for landscape pur-
poses. Trees serve well as free-standing specimens. Portuguese
cypress is rare because it is difficult to produce desired blue clones
Italian cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, a native of southern
Europe, grows to 80 feet and has a strict upright crown composed
of short erect branches. Leaves are short, juniper-like, and dark
green in color. Spread of the branches rarely exceeds 6 to 8 feet,
and therefore use of this tree is limited to structures where a very
strong accent is needed. Italian cypress is not suited to homes being
Dalbergia sissoo. Leguminosae. Sissoo or Rosewood. Southern
and Central areas. Deciduous. India.
Sissoo grows to 60 feet, is upright in growth habit and has a
compact crown composed of spreading branches. Leaves are pinnately
compound with 3 to 5 orbicular leaflets appearing alternately along
a zigzag rachis (Fig. 26). In general appearance, the tree and foliage
is somewhat like a poplar. Flowers are small and yellowish-white,
appearing in short axillary panicles during summer.
Sissoo is tolerant of widely varying soils, and is able to withstand
severe droughts and flooding for considerable periods without damage.
Trees are partially tolerant of salt spray, but must be planted some
distance from the seacoast. Sissoo serves well as a framing, back-
ground or street tree and as a free-standing specimen.
Delonix regia. Leguminosae. Royal Poinciana or Flamboyant.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Deciduous. Mada-
Trees attain a height of about 40 feet with an equal spread.
Bipinnately compound leaves are fern-like, attaining a maximum
length of nearly 2 feet, and shed for a short period in spring. Fruits
are large, heavy, strap-like pods, nearly 2 inches wide and up to 24
inches long. Royal poinciana blooms during the early summer, pro-
ducing a mass of scarlet overtopping the broad-spreading crown of
deep green foliage (Fig. 27). Individual flowers are 2 to 3 inches
Fig. 27.-The royal poinciana, Delonix regia.
across and borne in large racemes. Petals are orange or scarlet,
except for the upper one which is tinged with white and yellow.
Royal poinciana is one of Florida's most spectacular flowering
trees. This tree grows rapidly and is adapted to a wide range of soil
conditions. Because of its flower and shape, royal poinciana is useful
as an accent specimen in the background of border plantings, and
for creating tropical effects.
Eriobotrya japonica. Rosaceae. Loquat or Japanese Plum. South-
ern, Central and Northern areas. Evergreen. China.
Loquat is a small tree, up to 25 feet in Florida, with a dense,
upright, rounded crown. Alternate, simple, obovate, evergreen leaves
are large, 8 to 12 inches long, and coarsely toothed. Leaves are dark
green in color with sunken veins extending to toothed margins.
White, fragrant flowers, 1/2-inch wide appear in rusty pubescent
terminal panicles in late fall. An edible, pear-shaped, yellow fruit
about 11./ inches long ripens during late winter or early spring.
Many homeowners plant loquat for the excellent fruit of agree-
able acid flavor. Varieties that bear large fruits with pleasant flavor
must be propagated by grafting since seedling trees will not always
produce satisfactory fruit.
Small size, evergreen foliage, complete hardiness, fragrant blos-
soms and edible fruit all combine to make loquat one of Florida's
best small trees. Recommended landscape applications include use as
a patio tree, free-standing specimen and for inclusion in a shrubbery
border. Insect pests that pose problems include scales and caterpillars,
and disease problems include fire-blight and mushroom root-rot.
Eucalyptus spp. Myrtaceae. Eucalypts. Southern and Central
At least 100 different species of Eucalyptus have been introduced
to Florida, but few can be recommended for landscape use since most
are not adapted to the state and others are too large for home plant-
ings. Listed eucalyptus species have small inconspicuous flowers and
fruits and are, therefore, used primarily for shade purposes where
shade is desired in a short period of time. No serious insect or disease
problems have been reported on these trees in Florida.
White gum, Eucalyptus alba, was introduced from Java. In Flor-
ida trees are known to attain 60 feet in height with a 30 foot spread.
Crowns are medium-dense with scaffold limbs ascending to almost
full height. Smaller secondary branches descend in weeping fashion
from scaffold limbs. Leaves are obovate-oblong to broadly lanceolate,
pale green and glaucous. Bark is white and smooth, peeling periodi-
cally in long narrow strips. White gum serves well as a shade or
background tree and for use in public areas.
One of the most attractive eucalypts is the silver dollar tree,
Eucalyptus cinerea. In Florida this tree attains a height of 25 feet
with an irregular crown. Leaves are simple, opposite, blue-gray in
color and rounded, and clasp the stem. In general, leaves have the
size and appearance of a silver dollar. Silver dollar tree serves well
in the landscape as a patio tree or as an accent or specimen. Foliage
is excellent in cut arrangements. This tree is subject to secondary
root-rot organisms, and rapid decline may follow root injury.
Narrow-leaved ironbark, Eucalyptus crebra, reaches a height of
30 feet with a spread of 15 feet. Crowns are medium-dense; scaffold
limbs are almost vertical and terminated by long, slender, pendulous
branches. Bark is persistent, hard, with narrow, deep, longitudinal
furrows. Leaves are narrow, lanceolate, with almost parallel veins
widely diverging from the midrib. Narrow-leaved ironbark is recom-
mended as a framing, background and shade tree.
Swamp mahogany, Eucalyptus robusta, is a symmetrically
branched tree to 60 feet in height. Leaves are alternate, simple,
narrowly lanceolate, 3 to 7 inches long, and dark green with veins
spreading at almost right angles from the midrib. Swamp mahogany
is subject to wind damage since wood is brittle and foliage thick.
Best landscape use is as a shade or background tree or where a salt
tolerant tree is needed.
Eucalyptus tanelliana, common name not known, attains a height
of 20 feet with a spread of 14 feet. Crowns are dense, rounded and
composed of many upright branches. Leaves are ovate, simple, alter-
nate, tomentose and light green in color. Bark peels in small linear
plates. This tree can be used to good advantage in group plantings
as an individual specimen and serves well as a framing or background
tree and as a patio subject.
Ficus spp. Moraceae. Fig or Rubber Tree. Southern and Central
Nearly all trees in the genus Ficus are vigorous growers with
attractive foliage. Fertile soils are not essential to thrifty growth,
but several species grow better in well-drained locations. All fig
trees will tolerate some salt spray, and are useful in coastal plantings.
Fig. 28.-Benjamin fig, Ficus benjamin.
Fig. 29.-Ficus elastica, the Indian rubber-tree.
Trees are subject to attack by fungus disease and many types of
scale, but these do not limit their use.
Among Ficus species, there is a wide variation in size, shape
and texture of leaves. Fruits also vary widely and are typical figs
ranging from pea size to the size of cultivated figs, and in color from
yellow to purplish to bright red. Fruits of most species are not edible.
The Benjamin fig or weeping laurel, Ficus benjamin, is native
to India. Trees are large, up to 50 feet high and wide, with drooping
branches and small, shining, simple, oval to elliptic leaves (Fig. 28).
Benjamin fig does not form aerial roots readily and is easily kept to
medium height by pruning. Older trees are especially attractive when
branches are covered with red fruit or "figs". This tree is well adapted
to street or park plantings and as a large framing tree.
The India rubber-tree, Ficus elastica, native to India and Malaya,
is a large vigorous growing, heavily buttressed tree that grows to
100 feet tall (Fig 29). Leaves are glossy, smooth, leathery, oblong
or elliptic and 5 to 12 inches long. Fruit is yellowish and up to 1-inch
long. This tree is the "rubber plant" commonly grown indoors as a
house plant. Owing to its immense size and habit of forming many
"trunks" from aerial roots, it is not suited to street planting or small
lawn areas. There are many varieties including variegata with yel-
lowish or creamy white irregularly colored leaf margins, Doescheri
with yellow marbled leaves and Decora with broad reddish leaves
which are highly-colored when young.
Fiddle-leaf-fig, Ficus lyrata, native to tropical Africa, derives its
common name from the large 10- to 15-inch, leathery, deep green,
fiddle-shaped leaves. Trees grow to 40 feet in height, usually with a
Fig. 30.-Fiddle-leaf-fig, Ficus lyrata.
well-rounded head (Fig. 30). However, a slow growth rate makes
this tree well adapted for use as a specimen for indoor, patio and
terrace decoration. Fiddle-leaf-fig makes an excellent lawn specimen
where it can be protected from frost.
Indian laurel or Cuban laurel, Ficus retusa, from India and Ma-
laya, is very popular as a street or lawn tree in southern Florida.
Indian laurel is an upright tree, rapidly growing to 50 feet tall and
wide, with dense foliage and ovate, small, glossy green laurel-like
leaves 2 to 4 inches long. Indian laurel is resistant to wind damage,
but is subject to damage by thrips which causes leaves to become
curled and deformed. This tree is frequently used as a sheared speci-
men and as a large clipped hedge.
Gordonia lasianthus. Theaceae. Loblolly Bay. Central and North-
ern areas. Evergreen. Native.
Loblolly bay is a large upright tree with a cylindrical head, some-
imes attaining 60 feet in height. Leaves are simple, lanceolate to
blong, leathery, lustrous, 4 to 5 inches long, green on top and silvery
underneath. Some shedding of leaves occurs irregularly, and before
dropping they change color from green to deep scarlet. White flowers,
p to 31/, inches in diameter, appear during summer on long stalks
-om leaf axils of new growth.
Loblolly bay is valued because of attractive foliage and large
ragrant white blossoms that appear for 2 or 3 months during early
ummer. Silvery undersides of leaves present a pleasing contrast
vhen stirred by a breeze. This well-adapted tree is useful as a speci-
nen in naturalistic and woodland plantings, as a street tree or for
order plantings and for wet or boggy situations. It is generally
free from insect and disease pests.
Grevillea robusta. Proteaceae. Silk-Oak. Southern and Central
areas. Evergreen. Australia.
Silk-oak is a tall (up to 100 feet), rapid-growing, evergreen tree
of upright habit. Leaves of this tree are feathery and silky in appear-
ance, being bipinnately compound with 11 to 21 pinnae; secondary
lobes are usually about an inch long, entire or again lobed (Fig. 31).
Leaves are 6 to 8 inches long and almost as broad, silky white on
lower surfaces and deep green above. Large, golden yellow or orange
colored racemes of flowers, up to 4 inches long, are borne in profusion
for several weeks, beginning usually in April and May.
Silk-oak is especially well adapted to well-drained sandy soils of
central Florida and for coastal plantings. However, trees are subject
to wind damage and easily uprooted during hurricanes. Silk-oak is
useful as a street, roadside and specimen tree and in situations re-
quiring drought resistance. This tree is subject to mushroom root-
rot and infrequent attack by caterpillars.
Guaiacum sanctum. Zygophyllaceae. Lignum Vitae or Holywood
Lignumvitae. Southern area. Partially deciduous. Native.
Lignum vitae, is a dense, oval-headed small tree that grows to
Fig. 31.-Leaf and flowers of the silk-oak, Grevillea robusta.
25 feet in height. It is valuable for its crooked multiple trunks,
lavender-blue flowers and yellow to orange fruit. Leaves are pinnately
compound with 4 to 6 leaflets in pairs along a deeply-grooved rachis.
Side veins form a loop near the leaf margin.
This excellent small tree has been limited in landscape plantings
in Florida because of its slow growth rate. However, lignum vitae
withstands severe winds and salt spray and is well adapted for sea-
side planting. Trees are also useful as specimens for small lawn areas
and as street trees for narrow streets with restricted planting strips.
No insect or disease problems have been reported for this species.
Hibiscus spp. Malvaceae. Mahoe. Southern area. Evergreen.
The mahoe, Hibiscus tiliaceus, is a native of Old World Tropics
and native or escaped to the Keys and southern Florida. Trees grow
fast, attaining a height of about 35 feet. Leaves are orbicular and
leathery, 4 to 7 inches wide and long. Hibiscus-like flowers are pale
yellow with petals 2 to 21/2 inches long (Fig. 32). Mahoe thrives near
the seacoast and evidently will tolerate brackish water.
Mahoe reaches maximum size rapidly. Where shade is needed
within a short period of time and growth of grass or flowers beneath
is not important, this tree can be recommended.
Mountain mahoe, Hibiscus elatus, origin unknown, is a species
with red flowers that appear in profusion in winter and sparingly
during summer. It is more erect in growing habit than the above,
Fig. 32.-Foliage and flowers of the mahoe, Hibiscus tiliaceus (left) and Fig. 33
foliage and fruit of the dahoon holly. Ilex cassine.
grows to a height of 80 feet and is found in the southern area.
Both mahoes frequently show minor element deficiency symptoms
of the foliage. Scale insects may also attack this tree, but usually
do not cause serious problems.
Ilex spp. Aquifoliaceae. Holly. Southern, Central and Northern
areas. Evergreen. Native.
Among Florida's 13 native Ilex species, 6 attain sufficient size to
rank as trees. Of these 6, only 2, American and dahoon holly, are used
extensively in ornamental plantings. These species seem best adapted
to northern sections of Florida although dahoon holly is found in
extreme south Florida.
Holly is used for Christmas decorations, and this has threatened
destruction of American holly in some areas.
Male and female hollies are necessary to have fruiting plants;
however, only female trees bear fruit. Normally, in Florida, female
hollies in ornamental plantings are close enough to native male plants
to be pollinated. Male flowers have short pistils and prominent, well-
developed stamens and anthers, while female flowers have prominent
pistils or stigmas, but short stamens, and anthers are absent or not
American holly, Ilex opaca, is largest of the species and reaches
a height of 50 feet or more. Leaves are leathery, deep green on upper
surfaces, varying from elliptic to obovate-oblong in shape, 2 to 4
inches long and have spiny margins. Older leaves drop in the spring
as new foliage appears. Fruits, dull red and about 1/4-inch in diameter,
are borne profusely on female trees and persist for several months.
Dahoon holly, Ilex cassine, is a small tree growing to 40 feet in
height and commonly found in rich, moist soils. Leaves are leathery,
2 to 4 inches long, oblong to oblanceolate and without spines. Red
fruits, mostly 1/4-inch in diameter, are produced in profusion (Fig. 33).
From a landscape standpoint, hollies are widely used as accent
and specimen plants in formal areas and for screen plantings, because
of their showy winter fruiting habit. These hollies will also serve as
framing and street trees. Both American and dahoon holly are moder-
ately salt tolerant, with the latter being the most tolerant of the two
listed. They are considered low maintenance trees as they are rela-
tively free of insect and disease pests. However, new terminal growth
may be attacked by an insect known as a spittlebug, and older foliage
may be attacked by scale.
Jacaranda acutifolia. Bignoniaceae. Jacaranda. Southern and
warmer parts of Central areas. Semi-evergreen. Brazil.
Jacaranda is a large, fast-growing, spreading tree, attaining a
height of 40 to 50 feet in sandy, well-drained soil. Leaves are bipin-
nately compound and 6 to 18 inches long, each having 16 or more
Fig. 34.-Leaves and flowers of the jarcaranda, Jarcaranda acutifolia (left) and
Fig. 35 eastern red-cedar, Juniperus virginiana. (right)
pairs of leaflets about 1!z-inch long (Fig. 34). Loose panicles of large,
lavender-blue flowers, 2 inches long and almost as wide, are borne
in profusion from April until June. For a short time prior to bloom-
ing, trees are partially or wholly without foliage. Fruits are flat,
discoid pods about 11/2 inches in diameter, and seeds are small and
Jacaranda is useful as a framing or foreground tree where a
broad-spreading, fine-textured tree is needed, and in tropical plantings.
This tree is a desirable shade tree for lawn or patio where a light
shade is desirable, and may be used as a street tree in residential
areas. Although it is sometimes attacked by mushroom root-rot, no
serious insect or disease problems are associated with this tree.
Juniperus spp. Pinaceae. Juniper or Red-Cedar. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Evergreen. Native.
Two junipers, southern red-cedar and eastern red-cedar, are
commonly utilized for ornamental planting in Florida (the latter
only in the northern section).
Southern red-cedar, Juniperus silicicola, is found on limestone
soils as far south as Sarasota County. This tree is broadly-pyramidal
in shape when young, but forms a picturesque flat-topped specimen as
an old tree and grows to a height of 50 feet. Leaves are scale-like,
overlapping and light green.
Eastern red-cedar, Juniperus virginiana, is a narrow, columnar,
symmetrical tree that grows to 100 feet high (Fig. 35). Leaves are
scale-like and overlapping, or needle-like and spreading, and range
from light to dark green. There are several selected varieties with
different and useful characteristics; glauca has gray-green foliage,
Burki is a narrow upright form with bluish-white foliage, Hilli is a
dense, narrow-pyramidal form with needle-like green leaves, and
Canaerti is an irregular pyramidal form which provides an abundance
of bluish-white berries.
Southern and eastern red-cedars are subject to attack by juniper
blight, a fungus disease that browns and kills interior leaves, twigs
and branches of affected trees. Spider mites also attack both species,
causing leaves to turn rusty-brown. Mite damage is most serious
during hot, dry weather. Red-cedars are difficult to transplant, and
balled and burlapped or container-grown specimens are recommended
for best results.
Cedars thrive on limestone, sandy and well-drained soils and grow
best in full sunlight, but will tolerate light shade. They are useful
as windbreaks, specimen, accent and street trees, in woodland and
naturalistic plantings, formal areas and as large clipped hedges. Both
species are moderately to highly salt tolerant and are recommended
for seaside use.
Koelreuteria formosana. Sapindaceae. Goldenrain-Tree. South-
ern, Central and Northern areas. Deciduous. Formosa.
Trees grow rapidly, reaching a height of 40 feet with an irregular
Fig. 36.-Leaf of the goldenrain-tree. Koelreuteria formosana (left) and Fig. 37
flowers and foliage of the crape myrtle. Lagerstroemia indicia. (right)
spreading crown. Leaves of goldenrain-tree are up to 18 inches long
and bipinnately compound with numerous small ovate lanceolate,
shallow-toothed leaflets (Fig. 36). Small yellow flowers appear in
early September and October in terminal panicles, followed by bright
pinkish-red, papery capsules containing black, shot-like seeds. Seed
capsules borne after yellow flowers resemble bougainvillea bracts.
Goldenrain-tree is an excellent shade tree for small homes and
is useful as a flowering and specimen tree and for creating oriental
effects. This tree may also be used in border plantings and as a
street tree. Goldenrain-tree tolerates most soil types and grows better
than most trees in dry and alkaline soils. It is resistant to high winds.
Principle pests of this tree are scales and mushroom root-rot. Seed-
lings may become a problem under and around fruiting trees.
Lagerstroemia spp. Lythraceae. Crape-Myrtle. Southern, Central
and Northern areas. Deciduous.
Crape-myrtle, Lagerstroemia indica, a native of China, is an up-
right-spreading large shrub or small tree that grows to a height of
30 feet with a 15 foot spread. Crape-myrtle usually forms a clump
of several trunks with smooth tan or cinnamon-colored bark. Leaves
are simple, smooth, elliptic to oblong, up to 2 inches in length, with
short petioles borne alternately on winged twigs. Crape-myrtle pro-
duces large panicles of purple, red, pink or white flowers 11/2 inches
across during May to July (Fig. 37). This tree is adapted to central
and northern Florida.
Queen crape-myrtle, Lagerstroemia speciosa, native to India and
Australia is a showy tree that grows to 60 feet in height. Leaves are
oblong to ovate, leathery and up to 12 inches long. Flowers up to
3 inches in diameter are produced in large terminal panicles during
early summer in tones of mauve and pink. This tree is adapted to
Crape-myrtle grows best in full sunlight, but will tolerate light
shade and is moderately tolerant of salt spray. Trees are relatively
easy to transplant and grow; however, they are attacked by powdery
mildew, sooty mold, mushroom root-rot and aphids. Crape-myrtle
is useful as a flowering specimen plant, patio tree, in background of
border plantings, as a roadside tree and as a framing tree.
Ligustrum lucidum. Oleaceae. Glossy Privet. Central and North-
ern areas. Evergreen. China, Korea and Japan.
Ligustrum lucidum and Ligustrum japonicum have been confused
and their correct names transposed. Wax privet, so widely planted
as a large shrub is Japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum).
Glossy privet attains a height of 25 feet. Leaves are simple,
pointed, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, with 6 to 8 pairs of secondary veins,
and up to 6 inches long. Small, white flowers are produced in compact
terminal panicles in spring, followed by purple to blue-black fruits in
fall and winter (Fig. 38).
Fig. 38.-Glossy privet, Ligustrum lucidum (left) and Fig. 39 sweet gum, Liquid-
Several varieties or selections of glossy privet are available from
nurseries, including: Excelsum superbum, leaves mottled with yellow;
Aureo-marginata, leaves mottled yellow along margins; Tricolor,
leaves marbled with cream and pink; and 'Blackleaf' with deep dark
Glossy privet is useful as a tall, clipped or unclipped hedge for
screen plantings, as a base plant for tall buildings, as a street tree
for narrow streets and as a small framing tree. This tree can also
be used for planting near the seacoast, since it is moderately salt
tolerant. Trees are sometimes subject to attack by scales, white fly
and sooty mold.
Liquidambar styraciflua. Hamamelidaceae. Sweet Gum. South-
ern, Central and Northern area. Deciduous. Native.
Sweet gum is found throughout most of Florida except for the
extreme southern part. This tree is a vigorous grower, pyramidal in
shape when young, irregular at maturity to 100 feet in height (Fig.
39). Foliage is dense and leaves are palmately 5-lobed, 4 inches long
and wide, star-shaped in appearance, and turn red, yellow and purple
in late fall. A winged, corky growth is conspicuous on branches of
some trees. Fruit is a spiny globe about 1 inch in diameter.
Sweet gum grows best in moist, rich soil but also tolerates dry,
sandy soils. Trees are well suited for park, streets, highway and
informal plantings. Sweet gum is relatively free of insect and disease
problems. Leaves appear early in spring and remain attached until
late in fall. This tree is not too widely used since wood is brittle and
sharp pointed burs drop in the fall.
Liriodendron tulipifera Magnoliaceae. Tulip-Tree, Yellow Poplar
or Tulip Poplar. Central and Northern area. Deciduous. Native.
Tulip-tree may reach a height of 100 feet in Florida at maturity,
with a broad spreading crown and straight trunk devoid of branches
to great heights. Young trees are pyramidal. Leaves are alternate,
6- to 8-lobed, 3 to 7 inches wide and about the same length (Fig. 40).
Flowers are 2 inches long, tulip-like with greenish-white petals orange
colored at the base. Tulip-trees occur naturally along streams as far
south as Orange County and, although they do best on moist soils,
can thrive on drier lands.
Tulip-tree is excellent as a fast-growing shade tree and should
also be used in naturalistic, park, woodland and lakeside plantings.
Fig. 40.-Tulip tree (left) and flower and foliage of the tulip-tree, Liriodendron
Fig. 41.-Foliage and fruit of the queensland nut, Macadamia terni-
Fungus diseases may cause leaf spotting, but neither these nor insects
limit use of this tree.
Macadamia ternifolia. Proteaceae. Queensland Nut. Southern
area and warmer parts of Central area. Evergreen. Australia.
In Florida, queensland nut is usually low branching with more
than one trunk, and a dense foliaged, round-headed crown up to 35
feet. The dark green, glabrous, stiff brittle leaves, in whorls of 3 or 4,
are oblong or lanceolate, from a few inches to a foot long with un-
dulate margins ranging from smooth to serrate (Fig. 41). Small
cream-colored flowers are borne in racemes about as long as the
leaves. Edible seeds or nuts are globular, about an inch in diameter
and hard-shelled. Queensland nut is relatively slow growing and does
not fruit until about 7 years old.
This tree is generally used as a lawn specimen, patio tree, in
border plantings for cream-colored flower effect and in hedge plant-
ings. Insects and disease pests are not known to be a problem to this
tree in Florida.
Magnolia grandiflora. Magnoliaceae. Southern Magnolia or Bull
Bay. Central and Northern areas. Evergreen. Native.
This tree is pyramidal or upright-spreading and often grows to
a height of 100 feet with a spread of 50 feet. Stiff, leathery leaves
are simple, oval-oblong, 5 to 8 inches long, deep shining green above
and green to rusty brown beneath. New foliage appears in early
spring, coincidental with shedding of the old. In April, May and June
there is a succession of creamy white, strongly scented flowers up
to 8 inches in diameter (Fig. 42). Scarlet seeds are borne in 4-inch
cone-like receptacles and mature in late summer to early fall. Southern
Fig. 42.-Flower of the southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora.
magnolia thrives under a wide range of soil conditions but does best
in moist, well-drained soils. Although slow growing and somewhat
difficult to transplant, southern magnolia is long-lived and once
established requires little care.
Southern magnolia produces a dense shade, and, therefore, it is
difficult to grow grass, flowers and other plants beneath its spread.
Large canoe-like leaves often create a problem in mowing lawns and
hold water which may cause a mosquito problem. This tree is useful
as a lawn specimen, framing tree, background tree for tropical effect
and in old fashioned plantings. Sometimes southern magnolia is used
as a residential street tree, but it is not entirely satisfactory for this
purpose. Southern magnolia tolerates salt spray and is well adapted
for seaside planting. No serious disease pests occur on this tree, but
magnolia scale and blackscale may sometimes be a problem.
Malus angustifolia. Rosaceae. Southern Crab-Apple. Northern
area. Deciduous. Native.
Southern crab-apple trees attain a maximum height of about 25
feet and have a wide-spreading, open crown (Fig. 43). Pink, fragrant
blossoms, one inch across, are borne in profusion in early spring prior
to leafing. Small edible, yellow-green apples are produced during the
summer. Alternate, simple leaves are elliptical, slightly lobed, 1 to 2
inches long, dull green above and light green beneath.
This tree is best adapted to a fertile, well-drained soil and full
sunlight. Crab-apple is useful as a lawn and patio specimen, in back-
grounds of border plantings, as a small framing tree and in natural-
istic, woodland and highway plantings. Insects and diseases affecting
this tree include mites, tent caterpillars and the cedar-apple rust
Mangifera indica. Anacardiaceae. Mango. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central area. Evergreen. Asia.
Mango grows to 50 feet in height and will develop a round top
with a spread equal to or exceeding its height. Leaves are simple,
deep green, stiff, lanceolate and may reach 16 inches in length. In
new flushes of growth foliage is reddish colored until leaves mature.
Pinkish-white flowers appear on hairy, branched, terminal clusters up
to 20 inches long from December to April. Numerous edible varieties
of mango are available which give considerable variation in general
tree shape, foliage and fruiting habits.
Although mango has a distinct ornamental value, it is mainly
planted for its tropical fruit with various color combinations of green,
yellow, orange and red. In a limited way trees are used as specimen
and shade trees. White flies and scale insects can become serious on
mangos, as can an anthracnose disease of blossoms.
Melaleuca leucodendra. Myrtaceae. Cajeput-Tree or Punk-Tree.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Evergreen. Aus-
Cajeput-tree grows to 80 feet high with slender, sometimes pen-
dulous branches, narrow leaves, and a conspicuous yellowish-gray,
thick, soft bark that peels off in thin layers (Fig. 44). Leaves are
Fig. 43.-Southern crab-apple, Malus angustifolia (left) and Fig. 44 the cajeput-
tree, Melaleuca leucodendra.
Fig. 45.-Foliage of the Jerusalem-thorn, Parkinsonia aculeata.
simple, elliptic, 2 to 4 inches long, usually with 7 basal veins. 2 of
which form the leaf edge. Small white to yellowish flowers are borne
during winter in clusters around twigs, an arrangement similar to
In a few areas trees have spread naturally from cultivation since
they are not injured by grass fires and tolerate poor drainage. Al-
though flowers are favored by honey bees, beekeepers object to this
tree since the nectar makes an inferior grade of honey.
Cajeput-trees are attractive as accent and specimen trees for
shade, flowers and striking effects of shedding and peeling bark. This
tree is also used as a background or framing tree for small homes.
Since Cajeput is moderately tolerant of salt spray, it can be used in
plantings near the seashore. Cajeput is adapted for use as a street
tree, base planting for tall buildings and as a plant for a tall hedge
on large properties. Insect or disease pests are not known to be a
Parkinsonia aculeata. Leguminosae. Jerusalem-Thorn. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Deciduous. Tropical America.
Jerusalem-thorn has thin, wiry pendulous foliage, drooping
growth habit, and green bark. Trees attain a maximum height of
30 feet, and branches and twigs are armed with short, sharp spines.
Leaves are bipinnately compound, usually over a foot in length with
numerous small leaflets (Fig. 45). Numerous, small, bright yellow
flowers in loose racemes, 3 to 6 inches long, appear in early spring
and are evident in smaller numbers for several months. Jerusalem-
thorn tolerates salt spray and grows well in poor, dry or sandy soil.
Jerusalem-thorn has little value for shade because of the nature
of its foliage, but is valuable as an ornamental because of its free-
flowering habit and unusual leafage. It is useful as a specimen where
thorns will not be objectionable, in background of border plantings,
and as a base plant for pattern effects on buildings. Trees are some-
times attacked by scales and a disease called mushroom root-rot.
Persea americana. Lauraceae. Avocado or Alligator Pear. South-
ern area and warmer parts of Central area. Evergreen. Tropical
At maturity, avocado is a round-headed tree, growing to a height
of 60 feet. Evergreen, elliptical, asymmetrical leaves are arranged
in 5 spiral rows clustered and drooping from tips of twigs. Leaves
are about 6 inches long and a third to half as wide, and covered with
oil or macilage glands. Flowers are small, greenish and appear in
close terminal panicles.
Avocado is planted mainly for its dark green or purplish edible
tropical fruit, but is also useful as an ornamental for its glossy light
to medium green foliage. A well-drained, fertile soil is essential for
satisfactory growth. This tree is used mainly as a fruiting specimen
on the home grounds and for its tropical effect. Primary pests are
white fly, scales and a number of fruit and leaf-spotting fungus
Pinus spp. Pinaceae. Pine. Southern, Central and Northern
areas. Evergreen. Native.
Florida has 7 native pine species that are utilized extensively on
new building sites where they may already be growing. Large trees
are difficult to transplant but seedlings may be moved with little loss.
Many nurseries carry container-grown pines which can be easily
transplanted. Since there are few or no satisfactory substitutes for
pines, they are well worth considering in many types of plantings and
particularly where older standing trees may be preserved. There are
4 species of pine worthy of landscape use in Florida.
Slash pine, Pinus elliotti, is a fast growing pine that reaches a
height of 90 feet. Old trees form a branched, irregular, conical to
round crown. There are 2 to 3 needles, 7 to 12 inches long, grouped
in a sheath, and buds or new shoots are slender, glossy golden brown
with white-fringed scales.
The second most common large pine is longleaf, Pinus palustris.
This pine grows to a height of 120 feet, and old trees have tall clean
trunks and open, irregular tops with a few stout branches. There are
3 needles, 8 to 15 inches long per sheath, and buds or new shoots are
heavy, thick and silvery-white. Longleaf pine grows from Lake
Spruce pine, Pinus glabra, also called cedar pine, grows to 100
feet tall. This pine is found growing in rich hammocks and swamps
from Alachua County, north and westward. There are 2 soft, slender,
dark green needles, 2 to 3 inches long, per sheath. Spruce pine bears
horizontal branches which form a narrow, cylindrical open crown
resembling the white pine of North America.
A pine well adapted for infertile sands of central and southern
Florida is the sand or scrub pine, Pinus clausa. Sand pine has 2 slen-
der flexible needles 2 to 3 inches long per sheath. This pine is rapid
growing, grows to 70 feet tall and usually has a crooked trunk and
a much-branched cylindrical to conical top. Sand pine is found grow-
ing as far south as Dade and Lee Counties, but is most common along
the East Coast and in the central portions of the state.
Pines listed are useful for coastal areas, lawn and park shade,
naturalistic and woodland plantings, roadside and background trees
and street trees along suburban streets that have wide planting strips.
Borers may attack pines, but this usually occurs only after injury
to root systems or tops.
Platanus occidentalis. Platanaceae. Sycamore, Plane-Tree or
Buttonwood. Central and Northern areas. Deciduous. Native.
This fast-growing tree reaches heights over 100 feet with heavy
and spreading branches forming a broad, irregular to round head.
Leaves are simple, 4 to 6 inches wide, 3- to 5-lobed and broadly
ovate, and fruit is a solitary pendent ball about an inch in diameter.
Sycamore is planted extensively as an ornamental, probably be-
cause the creamy-white to greenish peeling trunk is very attractive.
Fig. 46.-Frangipani, Plumeria rubra.
The foliage prematurely turns brown in fall from injury by lacebugs
and mites; however, no other serious insect or disease pest is noted
in Florida. Sycamore will withstand smoke and dust, but shows leaf
scorch when used near extensive paving. Best landscape uses are as
a street tree for wide residential streets, shade in large areas, accent
tree in woodland and naturalistic plantings and highway plantings.
Plumeria spp. Apocynaceae. Frangipani or Temple Tree. South-
ern area. Deciduous. Tropical America.
Frangipanis are short, spreading, stocky trees up to 35 feet in
height with thick branches, milky sap and very fragrant flowers.
The nosegay frangipani, Plumeria rubra, has elliptic to oblong
leaves up to 16 inches long and 4 inches wide, and pink, red or purple
flowers (Fig. 46).
White frangipani, Plumeria alba, has white flowers and very
narrow leaves up to 10 inches long and 1/2-inch wide.
Frangipanis flower several months in the year, beginning in the
summer, which makes them desirable as a small flowering tree. This
tree is sensitive to cold and should be planted in a site protected
from strong or cold winds. Frangipani does best in a sunny location
and well-drained soil, and will not thrive in a poorly-drained soil or
over a hardpan. In landscape plantings this tree is recommended for
use as a specimen tree, for use in border plantings for its tropical
effect and for coastal plantings since it is salt tolerant. Trees may
sometimes be attacked by scales and caterpillars, but use is not
restricted by these pests.
Podocarpus spp. Podocarpaceae. Yew or Podocarpus. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Evergreen. China, Africa and Japan.
Trees in this group are well adapted to Florida planting. They
are salt tolerant and thrive in shady locations.
Fern podocarpus, Podocarpus elongata, from Africa, is a bushy
tree growing to 70 feet in height with dense, simple, light green
foliage and drooping branches. Leaves are linear-lanceolate, up to 3
inches long, thin and pointed without a conspicuous midrib.
Yew podocarpus, Podocarpus macrophylla, a native of China, is
represented predominately by the variety maki and is found through-
out the state. This species is shrubby and not usually planted as a
tree; however, it ultimately attains a height of 50 feet. Leaves are
willow-like, lanceolate and up to 4 inches long. Fruits are small, borne
on a large fleshy receptacle that is a deep purple color.
Nagi, Podocarpus nagi, of Japanese origin, is one of the most
beautiful trees of the genus and attains a height of 60 feet. Wood
has a fetid odor and nearly egg-shaped fruits are a deep purple color.
Fig. 47.-The pongam, Pongamia pinnata.
Leaves are lanceolate to ovate, up to 3 inches long and about 1 inch
Podocarpus trees are relatively free of insect and disease pests
and are useful as accent and specimen plants for clipped and un-
clipped hedges, as barrier plantings, in borders, for creating tropical
effects and as base plants for large buildings.
Pongamia pinnata. Leguminosae. Pongam or Poonga-Oil Tree.
Southern area. Evergreen. Tropical Asia and Australia.
Pongam is a quick-growing, dense, spreading tree usually grow-
ing to 45 feet high but sometimes reaching 75 feet with a spread of 40
feet (Fig. 47). Glossy green compound leaves are odd-pinnate with
either 5 or 7 broadly ovate leaflets about 3 inches long. White, pink
or lavender pea-like flowers are produced in hanging clusters up to
5 inches long. Fruits are short, flat, thick pods with an incurving
point, and contain a single seed.
Trees are resistant to damage from heavy winds and well suited
to street or windbreak planting. Pongam is also moderately tolerant
of salt spray and is suitable for seaside planting. Insect and disease
pests are not a problem with this tree in Florida.
Prunus caroliniana. Rosaceae. Cherry-Laurel, Mock Orange or
Wild-Orange. Central and Northern areas. Evergreen. Native.
This tree reaches a maximum height of about 35 feet, forms a
dense round-headed top and thrives on well-drained, fertile soils.
Leaves are glossy green, oblong-lanceolate and 2 to 4 inches long.
Leaves, wood and fruit have a bitter taste from a content of prussic
acid and are poisonous when taken internally. Very small white
flowers borne in racemes 1 to 3 inches long appear in early spring
and are followed by small oblong black fruits which ripen in late fall.
The dense shade produced by cherry-laurel and its extensive root
system make it difficult to grow flowers and shrubs beneath its
spread. This tree is used extensively as a hedge, a shade tree for
lawn and park, a street tree for narrow streets, for border and screen
planting, a base plant for large buildings and for naturalistic, wood-
land and highway planting. This tree is mildly tolerant of salt spray
and is free of serious insect and disease pests except for a fungus
that may cause decay where the tree is damaged.
Quercus spp. Fagaceae. Oak. Southern, Central and Northern
Native oaks are used for specimen, park, street and roadside
plantings to a greater extent than any other native or introduced tree.
They are well adapted to climate and soils, are relatively free of
attack by insects or diseases, are firm wooded and, because of their
size and growth habit, are admirably suited for ornamental planting.
Within the range of 30 native species are found evergreen and decid-
uous types as well as a wide diversity in mature size, ranging from
small, shrubby specimens to immense trees.
For general planting evergreen species are chosen almost without
exception. Those most widely planted are live oak, twin live oak and
laurel oak. The water oak is deciduous and is less widely used. Live
and twin live oak are longer-lived than other oaks and are given pref-
erence in landscape plantings. The first 3 oaks listed are found in
nearly all areas other than the extreme south, so they may be properly
selected for planting anywhere except on the Keys.
The evergreen live oak, Quercus virginiana, is a valued and pic-
turesque shade tree in Florida (Fig. 48). Leaves are simple, entire,
thick, elliptical to oblong, up to 5 inches long, shiny above and tomen-
tose beneath with revolute margins. Live oak has a dense, wide-
spreading crown on a short trunk terminating in large drooping
branches. This oak tolerates a wide range of soil conditions but grows
best on a sandy, well-drained soil. Trees transplant readily, tolerate
salt spray and high winds, are easy to maintain and relatively free
of insect and disease problems. Since live oaks are slow-growing and
- .. ~4$Y.: *~''
Fig. 48.-Live oak, Quercus virgin-
iana (above) and Fig. 49
laurel oak, Quercus lauri-
idmikfi~ -- .-' ---t. -. .-
may attain a height of 60 feet and a spread of 100 feet, they are best
used in large areas or on wide residential streets where they should
be 80 to 90 feet apart. Trees are useful in seaside and naturalistic
plantings, in parks as a cover for picnic areas and in large formal
Sand or twin live oak, Quercus virginiana maritimaa' is a smaller
growing variety of the live oak, distinguished by a small trunk,
branches and paired acorns borne on long stalks or peduncles. When
available the twin live oak is recommended as a framing, background
or shade tree.
Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia, is a semi-evergreen oak that loses
about one-third of its leaves in the fall and the remainder just before
new leaves comes out in spring (Fig. 49). Laurel oak has simple, thin
oblong leaves up to 6 inches long, shiny above, and somewhat paler
beneath. The laurel oak is a fast-growing tree that produces a sym-
metrical oval to round crown to 100 feet in height. This oak tolerates
most soil types except extremely wet ones, but is subject to mushroom
root-rot and heart rot. This tree is useful as a lawn and park shade
tree, for framing in naturalistic roadside and seaside plantings and
as a street tree for streets of medium width. As street trees, they
should be spaced 50 to 70 feet apart.
The water oak, Quercus nigra, is deciduous, but holds its leaves
until the first heavy frost or cold weather and breaks dormancy early
in the spring. Leaves are obovate, 3-lobed at the tip and 1 to 3 inches
long. This rapid-growing tree produces a conical to round crown and
grows to a height of 80 feet with a diameter of 50 feet. Water oak
is relatively easy to transplant and maintain and is adapted to a wide
range of soil conditions. Trees are useful as lawn shade trees,
framing, naturalistic and roadside plantings and as street trees for
streets of medium width if planted 50 to 60 feet apart.
Schinus terebinthifolius. Anacardiaceae. Brazilian Pepper-Tree,
Florida Holly or Christmas Berry Tree. Southern and Central areas.
Brazilian pepper-tree is a small, bushy spreading tree that grows
to 30 feet. It is often used as a large shrub. Compound leaves are
4 to 8 inches long, odd-pinnate, with 5 to 9 leaflets (Fig. 50). During
winter months, this tree produces numerous clusters of small, bright
red fruits, hence the names "Florida Holly" and "Christmas berry
tree." The plant is dioecious-male and female flowers are produced
on separate plants, and female plants should be selected for fruiting.
When clusters of red fruit and leaves are cut, they soon dry, and when
used in Christmas decorations should be coated with a wax emulsion
to prevent drying and shriveling.
Brazilian pepper-tree grows best in a well-drained soil, and needs
full sun for best fruiting, although trees will tolerate partial shade.
This tree is widely used as a barrier planting for large properties,
Fig. 50.-Leaf and fruit cluster of the Brazilian pepper-tree, Schinus terebinthi-
folius (left) and Fig. 51 leaf of the African tulip-tree, Spathodea
screen plantings, as a base plant for large buildings, as a single accent
plant and as a shade tree for patios. The tree is subject to attack
from scale and white fly.
Spathodea campanulata. Bignoniaceae. African Tulip-Tree or
Fountain Tree. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.
Evergreen. Tropical Africa.
African tulip-tree is a tall, erect-growing tree attaining a height
of 70 feet. Large, compound, odd-pinnate leaves are borne opposite
and may attain a length of nearly 2 feet with leaflets, varying in
number but averaging about 9 to 15, which are acuminate and to
4 or 5 inches long (Fig. 51). Blossoms of the African tulip-tree are
among the most showy of the flowering trees. They are 4 inches in
diameter, scarlet, and are produced in large numbers in short terminal
racemes which crown the tree with vivid color for several weeks dur-
ing the winter flowering season. Broadly winged seeds are borne in
long canoe-like thick flattened capsules 6 to 9 inches long.
Because of its rapid growth, adaptability on a wide range of soils
and ornamental value of its flowers the tree is popular in those areas
not subjected to severe frosts. African tulip-tree tolerates neglect
and is useful as a fast-growing background, shade or street tree.
Insect and disease pests are not known to be a problem.
Swietenia mahogani. Meliaceae. Mahogany or Madeira Redwood.
Southern area. Evergreen. Native.
In Florida, mahogany ordinarily does not exceed a height of 50
feet, but with adequate room, develops a rounded, dense top (Fig. 52).
This tree may be considered an evergreen but does lose its foliage for
a short time in late spring. The rather thick, pinnately compound
leaves, with 3 or 4 pairs of ovate-lanceolate leaflets, are 4 to 6 inches
long. Small white flowers are followed by a 4-inch long woody capsule
that splits at maturity.
Mahogany does not make a dense shade and is useful as a lawn,
framing and street tree. It is markedly resistant to salt spray and
high winds. This tree does not have any serious disease pests, but
caterpillars and beetles may cause defoliation.
Tabebuia spp. Bignoniaceae. Trumpet-Tree or Tabebuia. South-
ern area. Deciduous.
The pink trumpet-tree, Tabebuia pallida, native to the West
Indies and Central America, is reported to attain a height of 60 feet
in its native habitat, but it is doubtful that any in Florida have
reached half that height (Fig. 53). Long-petioled leaves are digitately
compound with 3 or 5 leaflets which may be 6 inches long. Pink
flowers, 21/2 to 3 inches long, are borne in large terminal panicles in
late winter or early spring months, a short time after leaves fall.
Fruits are long, cylindrical pods containing numerous winged seeds.
Fig. 52.-Mahogany, Swietenia mahogani (left) and Fig. 53 the trumpet-tree,
Young trees seem unable to maintain an upright position without
support, but overcome this apparent weakness with age. The bark
is light-colored and irregularly furrowed.
The silver-trumpet-tree, Tabebuia argentea, a native of Para-
guay, is a smaller tree, seldom reaching 40 feet, with leaves having
5 to 7 leaflets which are silvery on both sides. Yellow flowers, to
21/2 inches long, are borne on terminal panicles in late winter.
Trumpet-trees are adapted to dry locations. They are used as
accent and specimen lawn trees for flower effect and in patio and road-
side plantings. Trees are subject to attack by scales, mites and cater-
pillars, but this does not restrict their use.
Tamarindus indica. Leguminosae. Tamarind. Southern area.
Evergreen. Asia and Northern Africa.
Tamarind is slow-growing, large, round-topped and spreading,
usually low branching, and has a heavy trunk. It grows to a height
of 80 feet (Fig. 54). Leaves are pinnately compound with numerous
leaflets producing a fine feathery texture and there is no season when
the tree is entirely without foliage. Flowers are pale yellow, 1 inch
across, appearing in racemes during summer months. Fruit is a pod
with a hard, brittle, suede-like shell containing an edible pulp around
the seeds that is acid but has pleasing flavor.
Throughout extreme southern Florida, tamarind thrives in fertile
soils and is desirable where a large tree is wanted. It also grows well
on the rocky soils of the Miami-Homestead area. Tamarind is wind-
resistant and useful as a background or shade tree. It looks good in
naturalistic plantings. No serious insect or disease problems are
known to affect this tree.
Fig. 54.-Tamarind, Tamarindus indica.
Taxodium distichum. Taxodiaceae. Bald Cypress or Cypress.
Southern. Central and Northern areas. Deciduous. Native.
This well-known native tree grows in and along lakes and streams
from the Everglades northward. Cypress usually grows to a height
of 80 feet, but may grow to 125 feet if conditions are favorable.
Young trees are pyramidal in shape, older trees flat-topped and spread-
ing. Branches are graceful and pendulous with fine feathery foliage,
and deciduous leaves are pinnately-compound with very small leaflets.
Bald cypress prefers a moist, organic soil but grows well on high,
well-drained soil, in either full sun or shade. This tree is useful in
wet situations, for lakeside plantings and for
naturalistic and woodland plantings.
Pond cypress, Taxodium, ascendens, is
not as tall as the bald cypress and grows
more upright with ascending branches. The
bark is quite rough in this species. No seri-
ous insect or disease pests are reported in
Ulmus pumila. Ulmaceae. Siberian Elm
or Dwarf Asiatic Elm. Central and Northern
areas. Deciduous. China.
Siberian elm is well adapted to Florida
and exceptionally fast growing. Trees attain
a height of about 45 feet and have a spread-
ing or rounded top at maturity. Leaves are
thin, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 3 inches
long and mostly sharp pointed (Fig. 55).
Siberian elm does not give a dense shade and
holds its foliage well into the winter.
Although this elm tolerates adverse
conditions, it is easily damaged by winds.
Landscape uses include use as a street tree
for medium streets and as a framing or lawn
shade tree for small homes.
A less desirable species, often planted in
Florida, is the Chinese elm, Ulmus parviflora.
This elm grows rapidly, forms an irregular,
open top and is not as hardy as Siberian elm.
No serious insect or disease pests attack elm .
Fig. 55.-Foliage of the Siberian elm, Ulmus
So many trees are available for
landscaping Florida homes that
selection of trees for specific pur-
poses is sometimes a problem. The
Trees with Showy or Unusual Fruit
Trees with Foliage Color Change
Trees for Coastal Planting
* N=Northern; C=Central; S=Southern
following list contains some of the
best trees available for the listed
Trees for Coastal Planting
C-S Red maple
Trees for Windbreaks
Trees Grown with Minimum Maintenance
Black olive S
Brazilian pepper-tree C-S
Dahoon holly N-C-S
Flonwring donwood N-C
Fast Growing Trees
C-S Siberian elm
BASIC LIST OF TREES
Abbreviations, Designations and Terms Used in Table
1. Name: Scientific name and most widely used common name.
2. Adaptability in Florida
a. N-Northern area-Pensacola to Jacksonville and south to Ocala.
b. C-Central area-Ocala south to Punta Gorda and Fort Pierce.
c. S-Southern area-Fort Pierce to Punta Gorda and south to Key West.
d. NCS-Entire state.
3. Type of Tree
a. BLEV-Broad Leaved Evergreen, in leaf year-around.
b. Semi-Ev-Semi-Evergreen, leafless or partially leafless for only a short period.
c. Decid.-Deciduous, without leaves during part of year.
d. Conifer-Evergreen, but narrow leaved.
4. Height-Average maximum height in Florida.
5. Flower Color and Season Color of flowers and season tree blooms in Florida.
6. Soil adaptability-Soil type desirable for best growth.
a. Avg.-Average; Fert.-Fertile; and Well-dr.-Well-drained
7. Salt Spray Tolerance:
a. H-Highly salt tolerant, may be used in exposed situations near shore line.
b. M-Moderately salt tolerant, may be used near shore line if protected by other
plants, a fence, a building or by other means.
c. L-Low salt tolerance, must be used in well-protected areas back from the shore
d. No salt tolerance or salt tolerance unknown.
8. Recommended Landscape Usage
IN OF P COLOR & ADAPT-
FLORIDA TREE M SEASON ABILITY
O 4I H
0 4, 0
CT & CL| 12
1. Acacia auriculaeformis
2. Acer rubrum
3. Achras zapota
4. Albizzia julibrissin
5. Araucaria excelsa
6. Averrhoa carambola
7. Bauhinia spp.
8. Betula nigra
9. Bixa orellana
10. Brassaia actinophylla
S BLEV 30' Yellow
NCS Decid. 70' Red
S BLEV 60' Cream
NC Decid. 40' Pink
S Conifer 100' Incon-
S BLEV 30' Purple
CS Semi- 20-30' Purple
N Decid. 50' Incon-
CS Decid. 20' Rose
CS BLEV 40' Red
Grows rapidly but not
Does not grow well on
Very wind resistant
Survives total neglect
Useful as a tub specimen
Fruit very interesting
Different species bloom
at different seasons
Peeling bark is very
Fruit very attractive
Good urn subject for use
11. Bucida buceras S
12. Bursera simaruba S
13. Callistemon citrinus CS
14. Callitris robusta NCS
15. Cananga odorata S
16. Carpinus caroliniana NC
17. Carya illinoensis N
18. Cassia spp. S
19. Casuarina spp. CS
20. Cedrus deodara NC
21. Cercis canadensis NC
22. Chionan'thus virginica NC
23. Chrysophyllum oliviforme S
24. Cinnamomum camphora NCS
BLEV 40-50' Greenish- Any
Decid. 60' Greenish Moist to
BLEV 20' Red Avg.
Conifer 40' Incon- Any
BLEV 50' Yellow- Avg.
Decid. 30' Incon- Moist to
Decid. 100' Incon- Fert
Semi- 30-50' Many Avg.
Conifer 50-100' Incon- Moist to
Conifer 50' Incon- Avg.
Decid. 30' Rose Avg.
Decid. 30' Greenish- Avg.
BLEV 30' White Avg.
BLEV 50' Yellow Avg. to
M X X
X X X I X X
X Xi X
X IX Ix
Very wind resistant
Will grow from a limb
stuck in the ground
Widely used as a specimen
Good for a windbreak
Noted for its perfume-like
Good tree where there are
high water tables
Selection of different spe-
cies will give steady bloom
High salt tolerance only
Resembles a blue spruce
Should be used more
widely in north Florida
Leaves flash copper color
ABILITY TYPE 2 FLOWER SOIL
IN OF w COLOR & ADAPT-
FLORIDA TREE Z SEASON ABILITY
M a M 9
U~~~ 0 Ci)
25. Citrus spp. NCS
Calamondin, orange, etc.
26. Clusia rosea S
27. Coccolobis diversifolia CS
0 28. Coccolobis uvifera S
29. Conocarpus erectus S
30. Cordia sebestena S
31. Cornus florida NC
32. Cupressus spp.
33. Dalbergia sissoo
34. Delonix regia
BLEV variable White Fert
10-40' Spring Well-dr
BLEV 30' Pink or Any
BLEV 60' Greenish Any
BLEV 20' Purple Any
BLEV 60' Greenish Moist
BLEV 25' Orange Avg.
Decid. 40' White Well-dr
Conifer 50-80' Incon- Avg.
Decid. 60' Yellowish- Avg.
Decid. 40' Scarlet Any
High fertilizer require-
Sometimes called the
Excellent native tree
Silver leaved specimens
should be selected
Attractive to birds; pink
flowered forms not adapt-
ed to Florida
35. Eriobotrya japonica
36. Eucalyptus spp.
37. Ficus spp.
38. Gordonia lasianthus
39. Grevillea robusta
40. Guaiacum sanctum
41. Hibiscus spp.
42. Ilex spp.
43. Jacaranda acutifolia
44. Juniperus spp.
45. Koelreuteria formosana
46. Lagerstroemia spp.
47. Ligustrum lucidum
NCS BLEV 25' White
48. Liquidambar styraciflua NCS
30-60' Variable Avg. to
Spring & Fert
Yellow & Dry,
Yellow Avg. to
or red sandy
Lavender Avg. to
Yellow Any, alk.
Decid. 100' Incon-
Excellent edible fruit
Rapid growing only
Eucalyptus robusta is
highly salt tolerant
Most species provide
Subject to wind damage
Recovers rapidly from
Attractive to birds;
tolerates neglect; difficult
Drought resistant, wind
Sometimes confused with
Difficult to transplant
S FLOWER SOIL
W COLOR & ADAPT-
W SEASON ABILITY
W H E- P1 z
tx C. ,1 .0 E
<0 CU 0 K << 0
ci2E- *<1 ma Ctr p
49. Liriodendron tulipifera
50. Macadamia ternifolia
tO 51. Magnolia grandiflora
52. Malus angustifolia
53. Mangifera indica
54. Melaleuca leucodendra
55. Parkinsonia aculeata
56. Persea americana
57. Pinus app.
58. Platanus occidentalis
NC Decid. 100' Greenish- Avg.
S BLEV 35' White Fert
NC BLEV 100' White Moist
N Decid. 25' Pink Well-dr
S BLEV 50' Cream Fert
to red Well-dr
CS BLEV 80' White Any
NCS Decid. 30' Yellow Any
CS BLEV 60' Greenish Fert
NCS Conifer 70-120' Incon- Any
NCS Decid. 100' Incon- Any
Difficult to transplant;
New foliage wine-colored
Tolerates neglect; wind
Tolerates neglect; diffi-
cult to transplant
59. Plumeria spp.
60. Podocarpus spp.
61. Pongamia pinnata
62. Prunus caroliniana
63. Quercus spp.
64. Schinus terebinthifolius
65. Spathodea campanulata
66. Swietenia mahoga'ni
67. Tabebuia spp.
68. Tamarindus indica
69. Taxodium distichum
70. Ulmus pumila
S Decid. 35' Pink- Well-dr
NCS Conifer 50-70' White Fert
S BLEV 45-75' White to Avg.
NC BLEV 35' White Fert to
NCS BLEV 60-100' Incon- Well-dr
CS BLEV 30' Incon- Any
S BLEV 70' Scarlet Any
S BLEV 50' Greenish Avg.
S Decid. 40' Pink- Avg.
S Ever- 80' Yellow Avg.
green Summer Fert
NCS Decid. 125' Incon- Wet,
NC Decid. 45' Incon- Avg.
X IX X
X X X
Usually not intentionally
planted as a tree
Attractive to birds
Only Live Oaks salt
Excellent flowering tree
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF BOTANICAL AND COMMON NAMES
African tulip-tree ---.
Alligator pear -.--.
Annatto -- -------
Bald cypress --------
Bauhinia ---- -- ----
Bauhinia variegata 'candida'
Benjamin fig --------
Black birch ----------
Black olive --------
Blue beech ---------
Brazilian pepper-tree ----
Bull bay ---------
Bursera simaruba -----
Callitris --..--.- .
Callitris robusta ---- ---
Cananga odorata --- --
Carambola ------------ -.-
Carambola plum --.------ -....-
Cassia ..---.. ...----
Cassia fistula ---.
Cassia nodosa ---.
- ---- --------- 27
Casuarina cunninghamiana .---
Cedar pine --------
Cedrus deodara -----
Cercis canadensis --
Chewing gum tree ---
Chinese elm ------..
Chionanthus virginica --
Christmas berry tree
Cinnamomum camphora -
Clusia rosea ------..
Conocarpus erectus --
Cordia sebestena ----
Cornus florida ---------
Cuban laurel -----
36 & 65
Dahoon holly -------.. ..-------------45
Dalbergia sissoo ..---------------- 37
Delonix regia ------------- 38
Deodar cedar .----. ---- 30
Dogwood ...----------- 36
Dove plum -..-----. --------34
Dwarf Asiatic elm -- --------65
Ear form acacia -
Ear leaf ....---------
Eastern red-cedar __
Eucalyptus alba --
Eucalyptus crebra -.
Evergreen live oak
Ficus benjamin _
Ficus elastica ---
Ficus retusa .---
Florida holly ---
Glossy privet --...--
-- ------- 16
Gumbo-limbo .... ..-----------.......... 23
Hibiscus --------- ------ --- 44
Hibiscus elatus ..--------...----------...................... 44
Hibiscus tiliaceus ....... ..-............. 44
H olly ----..-------...................................... 45
Holywood lignumvitae ------..-------........43
Hong Kong orchid-tree -------.... 20
Horse cassia ... ------- ---... ...... 27
Horsetail beefwood --............... 29
Ilex cassine -----
Ilex opaca --- --
India rubber-tree -
--59 Jacaranda --------------45
Jacaranda acutifolia --------- 45
Japanese plum ---------------39
--57 Japanese privet --------------- 48
--40 Java shower -------------28
--41 Jerusalem-thorn ----------- 54
-- 41 Judas-tree --------------31
.--41 Juniper ....------------ -- 46
.--42 Juniperus 46
--41 Juniperus silicicola ---------- 46
.. 40 Juniperus virginiana ----------46
Koelreuteria formosana 47
Kumquat .........----------------------- 33
Lagerstroemia --.-------------- 48
Lagerstroemia indica -------------- 48
-- -- 36 Lagerstroemia speciosa ------------48
..------- 48 Laurel oak ------..----------------61
---- 27 Lemon .....------ -------- 33
.-- -- 47 Lignum-vitae ------..-------------- 43
42 Ligustrum japonicum -------------- 48
----- 33 Ligustrum lucidum ---------- 48
43 Lime ..-------- ------ --.. 33
43 Limequat ------------. ------- 33
Lipstick tree ...--- ------ --
Liquidambar styraciflua ...---
Live oak ------------
Loblolly bay --- -------
Longleaf pine ---------
Macadamia ternifolia --
Madeira redwood ----
Magnolia grandiflora --
Malus angustifolia ---
Mangifera indica --.-
Mango --- ------
Mock orange -------.
Mountain mahoe -----
Oak --..... .
Parkinsonia aculeata .-
Pecan -- --------
--- -- 19
Persea americana -------- --55
Pigeon-plum ------- 34
Pinus --------------.--- 55
Pinus clausa 56
Pinus elliotti ------55
Pinus glabra -------------- 55
Pinus palustris ----------- 55
Pink-shower .......----------- 27
Pink trumpet-tree 63
Pink-and-white shower -----28
Plane-tree ... ----------------56
Platanus occidentalis ----------56
Plumeria ..--...--------------- 57
Plumeria alba ..------------ 57
Plumeria rubra ---------..--57
Podocarpus ------ -----------57
Podocarpus elongata -------- 57
Podocarpus macrophylla -----------57
Podocarpus nagi -----------------57
Poinciana ------ -------- 38
Pond cypress --.- .--.---- 65
Pongam ...... ------------------ 58
Pongamia pinnata --- ------ 58
Poonga-oil tree --- 58
Portuguese cypress -37
Prunus caroliniana 59
Punk-tree --------- -----53
Queensland nut -------
Queensland umbrella tree
Quercus ------- .---
Quercus virginiana -
Quercus virginiana maritimaa'
Redbud - -----.--- 31
Red-cedar .---------- ----- 46
Red maple 16
River birch 21
Rosewood -- --37
Royal poinciana ----------- 38
Rubber tree -----..--..----- 40
Sand pine ----.
Scarlet maple ---..
----- .... -56
Schefflera ------- ------22
Schinus terebinthifolius ----- ..61
Scrub pine .......---------------------56
Siberian elm --------- -- 65
Silk-oak ...-----....------.. 43
Silk-tree --...-- --------------------18
Silver buttonwood --...--------------35
Silver dollar tree ...------..... -- 39
Silver-trumpet-tree --........--------- 64
Sissoo ......-------------- 37
Slash pine .... ..---------------55
Southern crab-apple ....-------52
Southern magnolia -------- 51
Southern red-cedar ---------46
Spathodea campanulata ------------62
Spruce pine ---------------------55
Swamp mahogany ----------40
Swamp maple ......------------- 16
Sweet gum .....-------------49
Swietenia mahogani ...---------63
Tabebuia pallida --.
Taxodium ascendens -
Tulip poplar -----
Twin live oak ----
Ulmus parvifolia --
Ulmus pumila ----
Water oak ------
Weeping laurel ---
White gum -----
Yellow poplar -.
Yew podocarpus .
-- ---- .. 65
--. ---- 57
LET THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA TRAIN YOU
The University of Florida College of Agriculture
is equipped and staffed to give you the best possi-
ble training as a
Opportunities are unlimited in this rapidly ex-
panding field due to a widespread interest in
living plants and flowers. You can profitably
take advantage of this interest in providing well-
landscaped homes, office buildings, public buildings
and recreational areas.
The Department of Ornamental Horticulture
can train you in the identification and production
of high-quality ornamental plants and how to plan
for their proper use and maintenance in land-
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE DEAN CHARLES B. BROWNING
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
This public document was promulgated at an annual cost
of $5,665.86, or 37.8 cents per copy to provide Florida citi-
zens with the descriptions and usage of the most common
. 111 'tF*8mmiAgi~1*mw
University of Florida
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS,
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida and United States
Department of Agriculture, Cooperating, Joe N. Busby, Dean