Estimated Capital Requirements for the Cow-and-Calf Plan
(Assuming pasture requirements have already
been met as outlined on Page 1)
For Purchase of Breeding Stock-
20 Mature Cows
20 12 15 Mo. Heifers
10 Each of the Above
1 High-quality Beef Bull
Total Cost $2,000 $2,500
First Year's Supply of Protein and Mineral Supplement
In the above sample year's operations, it was as-
sumed that the calves would sell for $17 per hundred-
weight. If the price should decline in the years ahead
to $12 per hundredweight while costs remained at the
present level, the return for labor and home-grown
feeds would decline to $502.50.
This is a suggested outline for you to try. With ex-
perience on your owp farm you will find many ways to
make this cow-and-calf plan more profitable.
For suggestions and advice, see your County Agent.
Circular 95 July, 1950
FARM ENTERPRISES FOR FLORIDA
I. Increase Your Farm Income With Beef Calves
2% Tons Cottonseed Meal
Minerals, Salt, and Bone Meal
2 Tons Good Quality Hay (for emergency)
Estimated Total Advance Feed Cost*
Estimated Total Capital Needed
These Good Beef Calves Are Out of Dairy Cows Bred to a
Good Beef Bull.
A COW-and-CALF PLAN
A Sample Year's Costs and Returns for Labor and Home-
Feed and Supplement Costs $250.00
Interest on Purchase of Breeding Stock @ 5% 112.50
Pasture Upkeep 50 acres
Prepared by F. W. PARVIN
(Adapted from a plan being used in Kentucky)
Miscellaneous Costs medicine, supplies, etc. 25.00
Total Operating Costs (not including labor
and home-grown feed costs)
Sale of 19 Calves 500 lbs. each @$17
per cwt. $1,615.00
Returns for Labor (and home-grown feeds) $977.50
*Feed costs can easily double this amount if you cannot
furnish plenty of home-grown feeds.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE
AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
And United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director
This plan is designed to sell heavy calves from
poor-to-fair cows of dairy breeding and a high-quality
beef bull. The cows would be bred to calve in the early
spring and the calves would be sold at weaning time -
in the fall. At that time, from good pasture and plenty
of milk, these calves should weigh from 400 to 500
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Using the Cow-and-Calf Plan On Your Farm
Before you can set up an enterprise of this kind you
1. 40 acres or more of good to excellent pasture, or
2. Good fences around and across this pasture-to
3. A continuous supply of good, clean fresh water.
4. Small handling pens and a loading chute.
After you have the facilities outlined above, you
should follow these steps in setting up an enterprise of
1. Choose healthy, thrifty heifers or poor-to-fair cows
of dairy breed. These should be capable of produc-
ing an abundant supply of milk for the calf for 7 to
9 months. Better cows are too expensive and are
not necessary. Beef cows which will produce an
abundance of milk will be satisfactory. If pastures
or finances are limited, it may be best to start with
10 cows the first year. A minimum of 20 cows and
heifers should be secured as soon as possible for
economic use of a good bull. The size of the herd
can be increased to 50 before another bull will be
needed. It may be possible to work out an arrange-
ment with a neighbor for the cooperative use of a
2. Use only high-quality beef bulls. This is highly im-
portant, so the calves will have beefy character-
3. Breed cows in April, May and June so that calves
will be dropped between January and March, or
about 30 days before the grass begins to grow.
Calves born this early will be heavier and in better
flesh at market time. If cows don't settle promptly
so as to drop early calves-sell them and replace
them with ones that will.
4. Breed heifers at 20 to 24 months of age, depending
upon their development and the season of the year
always to drop calves between January and
You Must Have a Good Beef Bull to Get Beefy Calves
from Cows of Dairy Breeding.
5. Be with the cow at calving so as to insure a good
start. A little care and attention at this time pays
6. When the calves are one month old, castrate the
7. Provide plenty of high-grade pasture for as long
as possible. This is your main source of feed and
the most economical.
Use winter grazing crops where adapted and where
Most of the Feed Must Come from Good Pasture.
8. If quality and quantity of pasture falls below th(
level needed to produce enough milk to keep th(
calves growing, feed a supplemental ration. Remem
ber that heavy calves at weaning time are your enc
product. It takes plenty of good forage for th(
cows and plenty of milk for the calves to accom
9. Supply red salt or a complete mineral mixture
steamed bone meal, fresh water and shade at al
10. Sell all the calves at weaning time. Don't carr3
calves over until the next season. After they hav(
been weaned, calves of half-dairy breeding decline
in quality rapidly. "Off-the-teat" they are high.
quality heavy calves; off-the-grass they are jusi
another "poor yearling."
11. Be extremely cautious about saving heifers for her(
replacement. Remember-they are only half dair,
breeding and may not supply the needed amount o:
12. Buy breeding herd replacements 12 to 15 month
old. You can usually get them cheaper at this ag
and can avoid buying cull cows from others.
13. Inspect all herd replacements carefully for lice
mange and other parasites, and test for T. B. an<
brucellosis (Bang's disease). Brucellosis must b
kept out if the enterprise is to pay. Spray regular]
to control hornflies-every 28 days.
14. Winter the dry cows on home-grown roughage, pas
ture and a good protein supplement. Heifers wi
need a little grain or citrus pulp and a protein sup
plement just before calving and until spring growth]
starts on pasture. Unless good winter pasture cai
be provided, legume hay or protein supplement wil
be needed by the brood cows.
The success of this enterprise will depend upon typ
of cow, quality of the bull, proportion of the total fee<
requirements you produce on the farm, and your ability
to manage cattle.
If most of the feed cannot be grown on the farr
this type of enterprise would probably fail. DON'