Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 "To the West!"
 The red men of the West
 The paradise of the world
 Captain John Smith
 The Princess Pocahontas
 The Pilgram fathers
 The founder of Pennsylvania
 The pioneer of Kentucky
 The adventures of Peter Willia...
 The great fur land
 An adventure with the Blackfee...
 A romance of Indian friendship
 A race for life
 A free man of the forest
 A brave boy
 Buffalo Bill
 A plucky defence
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Stories of the far West
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084231/00001
 Material Information
Title: Stories of the far West
Physical Description: 159 p. : ill., ports. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mundell, Frank
Sunday School Union (England) ( Publisher )
Morrison and Gibb ( Printer )
Publisher: Sunday School Union
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Morrison and Gibb
Publication Date: [1896?]
Edition: 2nd ed.
Subject: Frontier and pioneer life -- Juvenile literature -- United States   ( lcsh )
Explorers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- United States   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1896
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: by Frank Mundell.
General Note: Date of publication from inscription.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084231
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002234712
notis - ALH5148
oclc - 233022971

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
    List of Illustrations
        Page 9
        Page 10
    "To the West!"
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    The red men of the West
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    The paradise of the world
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Captain John Smith
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    The Princess Pocahontas
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    The Pilgram fathers
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    The founder of Pennsylvania
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    The pioneer of Kentucky
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    The adventures of Peter Williamson
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    The great fur land
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    An adventure with the Blackfeet
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    A romance of Indian friendship
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    A race for life
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    A free man of the forest
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    A brave boy
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Buffalo Bill
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    A plucky defence
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Back Matter
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Back Cover
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
Full Text

W Si T.


The Baldwmi Librar

I -.



See page 122.









THIS book is not intended to be a history of the
discovery and settlement of America. Its purpose
is to present to the reader a series of pictures of life
and scenes in the Far West, and place on record a
few of the more prominent instances of the courage,
perseverance, and daring which have marked the
advance of civilisation from east to west of the great
F. M.

March 1896.


I. "TO TIE WEST!" 11








































Rouse, brothers, rouse I we've far to travel,
Free as the winds we love to roam;
Far through the prairie, far through the forest
Over the mountains, we'll find a home.

We cannot breathe in crowded cities,
Strangers we to the ways of trade;
Longing to feel the grass beneath us,
To wield the hatchet and ply the spade.

Fair elbow-room for men to thrive in,
Wide elbow-room for work or play;
If cities follow, tracing our footsteps,
Ever to westward shall point our way !

Rude though our life, it suits our spirit,
And new-born States in the coming years
Shall own us founders of a nation,
And bless the hardy pioneers.







HO discovered America? This
question has been often asked
and variously answered, especially
during the last few years. No
one grudges the honour given
to Columbus for his discovery,
which at any rate has the
Advantage of being well authenti-
cated, and the date of which is
beyond question. The fact, however, remains, that
the hardy Norsemen landed on the western shores of
the Atlantic five hundred years before the Genoese
captain made his famous voyage towards the setting
sun. Nor must we forget that the Chinese lay


claim to a prior discovery, and this contention has
received some support from the fact that many traces
of civilisation in Peru have been found to resemble
that of the Celestial Empire.
It was not, however, until after Columbus had
made known the existence of the Western continent
to the people of Europe, that the stream of emigration
began to flow from the Old World to the New. It
was indeed a revelation to the inhabitants of the
crowded cities on this side of the Atlantic, to learn
that only three thousand miles away there lay a
mighty country, of marvellous fertility and fabulous
True, the newly-discovered region was not without
inhabitants, but the savage races who claimed the
forest and the prairie as their hunting-grounds, were
unable to turn to account the natural riches with
which they were surrounded. The Indian was
satisfied to follow in the footsteps of his father, and
no progress marked the centuries. The forests
remained unfelled; the marshes were undrained; the
prairies and the plains saw no cities rising out of
their broad expanse; harbours of unsurpassed
capacity were unvisited by ships; and mighty rivers
ran through vast solitudes from their sources to the
sea, carrying on their bosoms no fleets laden with the
produce of a country able to supply the wants of
millions of the human race.
The first visitors from the Old World were very


different from the emigrants who, during the last
two hundred years, have founded a great empire in
the West. They consisted largely of men in search
of gold or glory, who carried their lives in their
hands, and many of whom, failing in their object,
fell victims to their own recklessness, and were
buried in unknown graves. The story of adventure
and exploration, and the marvellous growth of cities
unequalled in any other quarter of the globe, has a
fascination peculiarly its own.
Only a generation ago, Mackay wrote his famous

To the West to the West !
To the land of the free,
Where the mighty Missouri
Rolls down to the sea;
Where a man is a man, if he's willing to toil,
And the humblest may gather the fruits of the soil."

But "To the West" has been the rallying cry of
millions, who found homes and comfort and wealth
on the other side of the Atlantic, which were denied
them on this. The Far West has been for genera-
tions a region of romance to the dwellers in the
overcrowded cities of Europe, and the very name was
sufficient to arouse a desire to enjoy the freedom and
share in the boundless stores of this "land of
The Far West of one generation was not the Far
West of the next; for the history of the American


people is that of an advancing tide of white men,
gradually spreading further and further into the in-
terior, ever on the retreating footsteps of the red
men, and driving them from forest to forest and from
valley to valley, until now they have scarcely a rood
of ground which they can call their own.
Long and bitter was the struggle between the red
men and the invaders of their country. The story
of the Far West is one of progress and bloodshed, of
a continual strife between civilisation and barbarism,
and of daring enterprise carried out in the face of
privation and discomfort, perils and ceaseless toil.



HEN America was discovered by
Europeans, they found that con-
tinent peopled by a dark-skinned
race, to whom they gave the
name of Indians, because they
thought that they had reached
the eastern shores of India. These
natives were tall and stately in
their bearing, with black eyes
and long black hair. Their skin was of a brown or
copper colour, and to distinguish them from the
inhabitants of India they received the name of
Red or American Indians.
A great many tribes of red men wandered over
the vast prairies or grass lands of the New World.
As they seldom remained long in one place, they
did not erect permanent buildings, but dwelt in
tent-like erections called wigwams, consisting simply
of mats, skins, or pieces of bark stretched over poles.
Hunting and fishing formed their chief occupation,


and they supported themselves to a large extent
on the proceeds of the chase. The labour connected
with the family was done by the women, who were
not much better than slaves. Very little of the land
was under cultivation, and only small crops of corn
or beans were raised.
The Indians were a very brave people, and the
different tribes were often at war with one another.
Before going into battle, each tribe assembled at its
own village and held a grand feast, which was
followed by a war dance. A painted post was
driven into the ground, around which the warriors
danced, brandishing their weapons, and yelling in
the most hideous manner. This performance was
kept up during the greater part of the night, and
then in the morning the warriors marched off to
encounter the enemy.
In war they behaved with reckless daring, for
they did not fear death, and they believed that when
a brave man died his spirit went to the happy
hunting-grounds, where he lived for ever in the
unbroken enjoyment of the delights of the chase.
When an Indian brave died his weapons were buried
with him, and his dog was killed and laid at his
feet, ready to attend on his master in the other
Like all savage peoples, both men and women
were very fond of adornment, and decorated them-
selves with beads, which they made from sea-shells.



These were called wampum, and were worn in
strings or worked into belts. Wampum belts were
used by the Indians on all important occasions-
such as making peace or war. They were also the
medium of exchange. The tribes of the interior
sold their goods to those on the coast, who were
wampum makers. Ornaments made of copper, dug
out of the ground in the region of the Great Lakes,
have been found in Virginia and other Southern
States, having passed from tribe to tribe in the
way of trade.
The dress of an Indian chief is thus described
by Longfellow-

He was dressed in shirt of doeskin,
White and soft, and fringed with ermine,
All inwrought with beads of wampum.
He was dressed in deerskin leggings,
Fringed with hedgehog quills and ermine,
And in moccasins of buckskin,
Thick with quills and beads embroidered.
On his head were plumes of swan's down,
On his heels were tails of foxes."

His weapons consisted of a bow and arrows, and
a tomahawk or hatchet. The bow was made from
the branch of an ash tree, and the cord was made
of deerskin. The arrows were cut from the oak;
and the Indian

Made his arrow-heads of sandstone,
Arrow-heads of flint and jasper,
Smoothed and sharpened at the edges,
Hard and polished, keen and costly."


The Indians used to travel by water in their
graceful canoes. These were made from the bark
of the birch tree. Cutting a circle round the
trunk with a sharp knife, just above the roots
and beneath the lowest branches, the canoe-builder
cleft one side of the bark in a straight line from
top to bottom. Then with wooden wedges he
stripped the trunk of its covering without a break.
It was next stretched on a framework of cedar, to
which it was fastened with fibres of larch. Some
of the canoes were very large, and could carry a
dozen men. The Indians were very expert in the
management of these light vessels, and it was no
uncommon thing for them, in sailing down a river,
to "shoot the rapids," to save carrying the canoe
along the banks to. smooth water.
When the white men settled in America, some
of the Indians received the strangers with great
kindness; but the majority were unfriendly, for
they feared that the pale-faces, as they called them,
would deprive them of their lands. Hoping to
drive the intruders out of the country, they attacked
them again and again, killing the men and carrying
the women and children into captivity. The white
settlers, however, continued to come to the land in
ever increasing numbers, and the Indians were
gradually driven westward. Thither the boldest
of the pale-faces followed them, anxious to explore
the country; others came, and soon cities and towns


were erected where the red men and their fore-
fathers had for ages hunted the buffalo and the
As a race the Indians of North America are
gradually dying out. A few years ago the United
States Government allotted to the red men a stretch
of country to the north of Texas, but they do not
care to settle down and adopt the pursuits of
civilised man. Their total extinction as a race is
therefore only a matter of time.1
1 For an interesting article showing what means are being taken
by friends of the Indian to save the race from extinction, and fit
the younger generation to compete with the white man, see. Young
England for March 1896.



NJ EN pounds was the royal reward
which Henry Tudor bestowed on
John Cabot, who in 1497, or
nearly fifteen months before
Columbus touched the mainland
S of the American continent, landed
on the shores of North America.
This sum can scarcely be regarded
as extravagant, even remembering that money had a
greater value in those days than at present, for on
Cabot's discovery was afterwards founded the English
claim to a large portion of the New World.
For a hundred years after this voyage the people
of England paid little attention to western explora-
tion, leaving Spain to reap the fruits of the daring
adventurers and of the unscrupulous governors, who
regarded the life of an Indian as of far less value
than a few grains of gold. The English were more
interested in trying to solve the problem-how to
reach China by sailing along the north coast of


America. They knew something about the rich
products of the East, and were anxious to share in
the wealth of those far-off lands.
In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Sir Humphrey
Gilbert and a few other enterprising Englishmen
awoke to the fact that great possibilities lay much
nearer than China, and they attempted to establish
settlements on the eastern shores of the New World.
The very failures which at first attended their efforts
seemed to act as an impulse, and at length Sir Walter
Raleigh, Gilbert's half-brother, managed to found an
English-speaking colony in North America.
The Queen granted her favourite courtier a patent,
which gave him almost regal power over the lands he
might discover. He was not slow to avail himself
of the royal favour, and the two ships he sent out
reached that part of the American coast now known
as North Carolina, which was taken possession of in
the name of Queen Elizabeth. It was the month of
July, and the rich vegetation of that semi-tropical
region was at the height of its beauty. The ex-
plorers were struck with admiration and wonder,
when they beheld great vines, climbing towards the
tops of high cedars, loaded with grapes. The sweet-
smelling timber trees" filled the air with fragrance,
and the notes of countless birds echoed and re-echoed
through the vast forest, in which no white man had
ever set foot.
To the first Indian they met they gave a hat and


a shirt. He went away evidently pleased with the
present, and returned in a short time with a large
quantity of fish, which he divided between the crews
of the two vessels. Wherever the English went
they were well received by the natives, who were
described as "most gentle, loving, and faithful; void
of all guile and treason, and such as lived after the
manner of the Golden Age."
A few weeks were spent among the green islands
of those glittering seas," and then the explorers
shaped their course for England. On their arrival
they gave a glowing account of their discoveries, and
declared that the part of America they had visited
must be the "Paradise of the World." Elizabeth
caught their enthusiasm, and, anxious to associate
herself with the discovery of such an enchanting
region, she called it Virginia-a name by which for
a considerable time the whole coast of the United
States between Maine and Georgia was known.
Raleigh lost no time in having his claim to the
newly-discovered territory acknowledged, and early
in the following year he sent out another expedition,
consisting of seven ships and a hundred and eight
colonists. Ralph Lane, a man of considerable skill
and experience, was chosen to act as governor. On
Roanoke Island, near to the coast of North Carolina,
they made their settlement, and began without delay
to explore the country, which Lane thus describes :
" It is the goodliest soil under the cope of heaven




the most pleasing territory of the world; the
continent is of a huge and unknown greatness, and
very well peopled and towned, though savagely. The
climate is so wholesome that we have not one sick
since we touched the land. If Virginia had but
horses and kine, and were inhabited with English, no
realm in Christendom were comparable to it."
Three plants, at that time unknown in Europe,
specially attracted the notice of the settlers. These
were maize, tobacco, and the potato. Harriot, the
historian of the voyage, inquired into the cultivation
and use of these productions. He accustomed him-
self to the use of tobacco, and found boiled potatoes
to be very good food. He has also given an interest-
ing account of the inhabitants and their manner of life.
They clothed themselves in mantles and aprons of
deerskin; their weapons consisted of wooden swords
and bows and arrows; and instead of armour they
carried shields of wicker-work. Their houses were
made of bark fastened to stakes, and the largest
town only contained about thirty dwellings. Though
ignorant of the art of war, they displayed great cun-
ning in encountering an enemy, seldom fighting in
the open field, but trusting for victory to ambushes
and sudden attacks.
The Indians regarded the strangers as more than
mortal, and after a time they began to fear that
" more of the English generation would come, to kill
theirs and take their places." It is therefore not


surprising that the natives determined to watch for
an early opportunity of ridding themselves of their
uninvited guests. The cupidity of the settlers soon
furnished them with the means for accomplishing
their object.
Industry maketh rich" is a well-known maxim,
of which Lane and his men seem to have been pro-
foundly forgetful. Instead of planting corn and
devoting themselves to the cultivation of the land,
they spent the greater part of their time in seeking
for gold. The Indians saw this, and, hoping to
separate them into small parties, they excited their
avarice with marvellous tales. They said that at
the source of the river Roanoke, near the Pacific
Ocean, there was an abundance of the precious metal,
and that the tribe which inhabited the region wore
deerskins adorned with gold and precious stones.
Lane believed this story, and set out for this El
Dorado with the greater number of his men. They
had not proceeded further than a point near the
present village of Williamstown, when they were
compelled to return for provisions. In a starving
condition they reached the settlement just in time
to prevent the Indians from killing those who had
been left behind.
The colonists had spent about a year on the island,
when they were seized with a great longing to return
to England. They were disappointed in their search
for gold, and the uncertain temper of the natives


filled their minds with gloomy forebodings. While
they were in this despondent state, they were cheered
by the arrival of Sir Francis Drake, who was on his
way home from the West Indies. He offered to
leave some of his men and a plentiful supply of
provisions, to enable the colonists to carry on their
discoveries. Nothing, however, would satisfy them
but a passage to England. Drake was very un-
willing to see the settlement abandoned, and he used
every means in his power to induce them to remain.
They were, however, thoroughly disheartened, and he
at length allowed them to embark on board his ship.
Thus ended the first actual settlement of the English
in North America.
Though the expedition was not so satisfactory as
had been expected, it was not wholly without result.
Ralph Lane and his companions were the first to
introduce tobacco into England. It was thought to
have a great medicinal virtue, and Raleigh and many
other distinguished persons adopted the use of "the
fragrant weed." They smoked in the Indian fashion,
by drawing the smoke into their mouths and puffing
it out through their nostrils; some of the pipes of
those early days consisted simply of a walnut shell
fixed to a straw. There is an oft-told story, to the
effect that on one occasion Raleigh was smoking
when his servant entered the room. The man not
understanding the use of tobacco, and thinking that
his master was on fire, hastened to "put him out,"


by emptying over his head the contents of a jug he
was carrying.
Raleigh was still as enthusiastic as before in the
cause of colonisation, and he prepared a fleet of
transport ships at his own expense; for "Queen
Elizabeth, the godmother of Virginia, declined to
contribute to its education." He determined to
found a real colony and not merely a settlement of
explorers. The emigrants were therefore allowed to
take with them their wives and families. He also
granted a charter of incorporation that life and pro-
perty might be secure, and established a municipal
government for the "city of Raleigh," which the
colonists were instructed to build. Captain John
White was chosen as governor, and eleven assistants
were appointed to help him in his duties.
On the 27th of April 1587 the colonists set sail,
equipped with an ample supply of necessaries, in-
cluding a number of agricultural implements. When
they arrived at Roanoke Island they found the
dwellings of the former settlers still standing. The
lower rooms were overgrown with melons, among
which the wild deer lay calmly eating the fruit.
Governor White and his followers set to work to
make the houses habitable, and in a short time the
city of Raleigh was established. Here on the 18 th
,of August a baby girl was born. Her mother was
"Mistress Eleanor Dare," the daughter of the
governor, and her father was one of the assistant-


governors. This was the first English child born in
America, and she was named, after the place of her
birth, Virginia Dare.
Shortly afterwards White returned to England
for supplies. When he arrived he found the country
agitated by a threatened Spanish invasion; and it
was no easy matter for him to draw attention to the
needs of the settlers. Two years passed before he
was able to set sail again for the West, and when he
reached Roanoke Island the colony had disappeared.
No trace of it was ever found, and its fate remains to
this day a mystery.



OOD QUEEN BESS, as we now call
her, was as careful of her money
as Henry VII. He regarded ten
pounds as sufficient reward for the
adventurous Cabot, and his grand-
daughter was not disposed to be
more lavish in spending money on
what might after all prove a very
unprofitable speculation. Private
enterprise, unaided by public funds, was not equal
to the task of successfully settling Virginia. Few
people went out, and they were so badly supplied with
the necessaries of life that only disaster could attend
their efforts. Colony after colony was rescued just
in the nick of time, but not until many had
miserably perished of starvation or fallen before the
murderous attacks of their savage foes. When
Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, there was not a
single Englishwoman settled in the country.
During the early years of the reign of James I.,


the attention of many persons of rank and learning
was turned towards Virginia. At length a company
was formed, and an application was made to the king
for permission "to deduce a colony into Virginia."
James had already planted a Scottish settlement
in the north of Ireland, and the venture had proved
successful. He therefore regarded the proposal with
a favourable eye, especially as it afforded a prospect
of increasing his dominions, and he readily set his
seal to the undertaking.
By the charter which he granted to the Virginia
Company, lands from Cape Fear in the south to
Halifax in the north were assigned to the colonists.
The king reserved to himself complete control over
the settlements, and drew up a code of laws. A
superior council was appointed by the king to control
the colonies from England; while a resident council,
thle members of which were elected by the superior
body, was chosen to carry on the work of government.
The religion was to be that of the Church of England.
To the emigrants it was also promised, that they
and their children should continue to be English.
On the 19th of December 1606 the infant colony
set out for "the dear strand of Virginia, earth's only
paradise," in three ships, the largest of which did not
exceed one hundred tons burden. Sailing by way of
the Canaries and West India Islands, they reached
the coast of America in about four months. They
intended to land on Roanoke Island, but a storm


drove them into the magnificent bay of the
Chesapeake. Sailing along the southern extremity

(From an Old Print.)

of this bay, they entered a river, which they named
after King James. They continued up the stream


for about fifty miles, till they came to a peninsula,
where they decided to establish themselves, and
called the settlement Jamestown.
Preparations were at once made to clear the ground
and build houses, but the work did not advance
rapidly. The emigrants consisted for the most part
of the wrong kind of people. Out of their number
-a hundred and five-there were only twelve
labourers and very few mechanics; the remainder
were gentlemen unused to manual labour, and quite
unfit for the hardships which now befell them. The
Indians objected to the presence of the strangers,
and harassed them with frequent sudden attacks.
Provisions ran short, and the want of proper nour-
ishment brought on a deadly epidemic. Sometimes
three or four died in a night, and the survivors were
so weak that they had hardly strength to bury the
bodies of their late companions. Before autumn
one-half of the colony perished. Constant quarrels
among the members of the council had weakened
their authority, and it became evident that unless the
reins of government were taken up by a strong hand,
inevitable ruin would result.
There was among the colonists a man named
Captain John Smith, and he now assumed the
direction of affairs. Though not yet thirty years of
age, long acquaintance with danger had fitted him
for the post. He had fought in the Netherlands,
travelled through France and Italy, and repeatedly


engaged in single combat with Turkish warriors.
Taken prisoner at last by a band of Turks, he had
been sent as a slave to Constantinople, from whence
eventually he made his escape, and returned to
England in time to take. part in the great scheme of
Under Smith's vigorous rule the prospects of the
colony began to look more hopeful. The little town
was strengthened against the attacks of the Indians;
and, to raise the spirits of his men, as well as to
provide supplies, he led parties to explore the
surrounding country. In this way he became
acquainted with many of the native tribes; and, in
exchange for beads, bells, and other trifles, he
obtained provisions to keep the Jamestown people
from starving. In one of these expeditions he was
attacked by the Indians, who killed ten of his men
and made him prisoner.
When taken before the chief, Smith did not lose
his presence of mind. He displayed a small
mariner's compass; "and indeed it was a marvel to
see these poor, ignorant savages gazing with wonder
at the playing of the needle, which they could see so
plainly and yet could not touch, by reason of the
glass which covered it. But when I," continues
Smith in his Narrative, told them, as well as I could
both by signs and in their language, of the roundness
of the earth and of the skies, and of the spheres of
the sun, moon, and stars, and how the sun did chase


the night round the world continually, and many
other such-like matters, they all stood as amazed
with admiration."
When the Indians found that Smith had no more
curiosities to show them, all their natural fury
returned, and, tying him to a tree, they strung their
arrows and prepared to shoot him. The captain
thought that his last moment had come, when the
chief, to whom he had given the compass, stepped
forward and forbade his men to harm the prisoner.
He was then unbound and taken to the nearest
village. Here he had another alarming experience.
Shortly after his arrival, one of the head men sent.
for him to cure his son, who was dangerously ill.
Smith went to the hut, accompanied by two strong
warriors, but the young man was beyond all human
aid, and died in a few minutes. The Indians
believed that, because Smith could kill men by
unknown means, he could also restore them to life.
The chief therefore requested him to give him back
his son, and when he replied that this was beyond
his power, the chief wanted to kill him, and would
have done so, but the guards prevented him.
From one village to another Smith was led in
triumph, till at length he was brought before
Powhatan, the king of the country. He found that
monarch seated before a fire. On either side of him
sat a young girl; along each side of the house were
two rows of men, and behind them a number of


women, all with their heads and shoulders painted
red. Smith was courteously received, and the queen
brought him water to wash his hands, and a bunch
of feathers to use instead of a towel. Then they
feasted him in their best manner, "which," says
Smith rather ungraciously, "after all, was but
Then followed a great conference, at which the
fate of the captain was decided, and preparations
were made for his immediate execution. Two large
stones were brought in, and on these the captive's
head was placed. Two savages with upraised clubs
awaited the word to strike. In another moment
their blows would have fallen, when Pocahontas, the
king's dearest daughter, a child of ten, darted forward,
laid her head on that of the prostrate Englishman,
and thus saved his life. Powhatan was deeply im-
pressed by this simple act of devotion, and at once
set his prisoner at liberty. Two days afterwards, he
was sent back to Jamestown under a picked escort
of twelve warriors.
When he reached the colony he found its numbers
reduced to forty men, the strongest of whom were
preparing to escape. This attempt to break up the
little community was put down by Smith at the risk
of his life, and then at once he set himself to put
matters right. It now appeared that his captivity
among the Indians was a blessing in disguise, for had
not friendly relations with the natives been thus



established, the colonists must have perished for lack
of food.
Shortly afterwards Smith set out with a few com-
panions, in an open boat, to explore Chesapeake Bay.
He sailed along the coast, examining rivers and inlets,
penetrated some distance into the interior, and laid
the foundation of future peaceful dealings with the
native tribes. From this expedition he returned on
the 7th of September 1608, after accomplishing a
voyage of three thousand miles. The greatness of
the discoveries which Smith made, with such slender
resources, is indeed marvellous, and they entitle him
to rank among the great pioneers of the American
Three days after his return, he was elected pre-
sident of the council. He had many formidable
difficulties to contend with, but his energy and pru-
dence enabled him to triumph over private enemies
in the town and hostile Indians without. Order and
industry had just been restored, when all was again
thrown into confusion by the arrival of a fresh party
of emigrants, who, like the original settlers, were quite
unfitted for the severe toils of colonial life. Smith
wrote to the company in London, complaining of the
" fine gentlemen and ruined traders," and said, When
you send again, I entreat you, rather send but thirty
carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, black-
smiths, masons, and diggers up of trees' roots, well
provided, than a thousand such as we have."


With characteristic vigour Smith laid down the
law, and by his authority compelled the men to
work. Six hours in the day were spent in
work, the remainder were given to rest and recrea-
tion. He who would not work, might not eat," and
Jamestown soon assumed the appearance of a regular
place of abode. This result was not, however, achieved
without great toil, and from Smith's Narrative we
learn how he "inured the men to the life they
would have to lead, did they want to make the colony
a success." He taught them how to cut down trees,
make boards, and camp out in the woods. They soon
became experts at the work, and it was their delight
to hear the trees thunder as they fell.
"But the axes so often blistered their tender
fingers," continues Smith, that many a time every
third blow had a loud oath to drown the echo. For
the remedy of which sin, and for the good of their
souls, as the work was benefiting their bodies, I
devised how to have every man's oaths numbered; and
at nighttime, when we had a little pleasant recreation,
the culprit was duly arraigned, and for every oath that
was recorded against him, he did have a can of water
poured down his sleeve. This was the cause of much
merriment, yet somehow those who were punished
liked it not so well as to care ofttimes to have it
repeated, and so became more guarded of his tongue,
and soon it came to pass that a man should scarce
hear an oath in a week."


Smith was especially successful in his dealings
with the Indians, and made frequent excursions
among them to obtain provisions for the colony. On
one occasion, accompanied by fifteen men, he was
trading with a chieftain named Opechancanough,
when he found himself surrounded by a body of
seven hundred armed warriors. Suspecting treachery,
he at once seized the Indian chief by the hair of the
head, dragged him into the midst of his people, and,
presenting a pistol to his breast, threatened to shoot
him if his warriors did not at once withdraw. This
bold action produced the desired effect. The
astonished Indians laid down their arms and made
peace with the Englishmen.
The excellence of Smith's rule in Virginia was soon
recognized by the settlers. Their dangerous neigh-
bours the red-skins were reduced to submission, and
they gladly sent regular supplies of food to James-
town; additional ground was brought under cultiva-
tion; the Indians taught the colonists how to grow
maize; better dwellings were built, and guarded by a
strong fort; and other schemes were entered upon
for the improvement and comfort of the settlement.
Meanwhile, however, the company in London
became dissatisfied that no gold had been found, and
decided to send out new officers. When they arrived
Smith refused to resign, and was- supported in his
resistance by the elder settlers, with whom he had
become a great favourite. For some time he con-


tinued as president, till he was so severely injured by
an explosion of gunpowder that he was compelled to
leave Virginia and return to England.
The enterprising spirit of this daring adventurer
had accomplished what others considered as impos-
sible. He never allowed more for himself than for
the men with him. It was his custom to lead, not
to send his men on dangerous missions. He would
rather want than borrow, and starve than not pay.
He was the first to show that the true interest of
England was not to seek for gold and sudden wealth
in Virginia, but by regular and patient industry to
establish a permanent source of riches by commerce.
"Nothing," said he, is to be expected from thence
but by labour."
He afterwards explored the coast north of Cape
Cod, and gave to the .country the name of New
England; but he did not again visit Jamestown.
He died in 1631.



HEN Captain John Smith went
back to England in 1609, there
were nearly five hundred white
people in Virginia. But the
settlers soon got into trouble with
the Indians, who, cn learning
that Smith was no longer at the
head of affairs, refused to have
any dealings with their former
allies, and lay in the woods and killed or took
prisoners all who ventured out. There was, there-
fore, no means of obtaining provisions, and a
dreadful famine followed. Six months after Smith's
departure, only sixty persons remained alive, and
these were in a most wretched condition. At
length a ship arrived from England with fresh
settlers, and the colony was saved from total
During this time Pocahontas had little influence
with her father, and to be out of harm's way she


went to live with a friend named Japazaws in
another part of the country. In 1612 an English
captain named Argall heard of her whereabouts,
and determined if possible to take her prisoner, and
hold her as a hostage till Powhatan restored his
prisoners and agreed to forward a regular supply of
corn to Jamestown. He therefore sailed up the
river to the village, and sent for Japazaws. In a
short time the captain and the chief became very
friendly, and Argall promised the savage a copper
kettle if he would bring Pocahontas on board.
The bribe was too great to be resisted; a plan was
at once arranged, and Japazaws returned home to
put it into execution. Though his wife had seen
many ships, he caused her to pretend that she was
very anxious to go on board. To her request he
at first made a show of refusal, but at length he
told her that she might go if Pocahontas would
accompany her. The princess, fearing no wrong,
agreed to go. Argall received them with great
kindness, and showed them over the ship. Then,
under the pretence that he wished to speak privately
to Japazaws, he led Pocahontas into the gun-room.
After a while he sent for her again, and told her
that she was his prisoner, and that she must go
with him and help to bring about peace between
her father and the colonists.
The treacherous chief and his wife raised a great
outcry at hearing this, and the princess wept


bitterly; but at length the captain told them that
no harm would come to her, and she was pacified.
The chief with his wife and copper kettle were
conveyed ashore, and Pocahontas was taken to
Jamestown. On their arrival a messenger was sent
to Powhatan, telling him that his daughter was a
prisoner, and that if he wanted her again he must
ransom her with the captives and weapons he had
Now," says Smith, "this was but unwelcome
news to Powhatan, because he loved both his
daughter and our commodities well, and it was a
hard matter for him to choose between them."
Three months therefore elapsed before he returned
an answer, and then he sent back seven men and a
number of useless muskets, promising that when his
daughter was restored to him he would give them
a large supply of corn, and "be for ever friends."
To this the colonists replied, that his daughter would
be kept till everything was restored.
Pocahontas was never thus redeemed, "for she
had fallen into a gentler bondage, and yet one that
was harder to break." One of the colonists named
John Rolfe had fallen in love with the Indian
maiden, but he could not marry her, as it was then
considered very wrong for an Englishman to marry
a heathen. This obstacle was, however, eventually
overcome. Pocahontas became a Christian, and was
baptized under the name of Rebecca. Early in


April 1613 she was married. After this there
was peace between the Indians and the settlers for
many years.
On the 12th of June 1616, Rolfe landed at
Plymouth with his Indian wife. She was the first
native of North America who had become a
Christian, the first who was married to an English-
man, and the first who learned to speak .English.
Her arrival, therefore, in the country of her adoption
caused great excitement, and people flocked to see
the princess of whom they had heard so much.
She was taken to court and introduced to the king
and queen by her old friend, Captain John Smith.
The sovereigns received her very graciously, and the
ladies of the court rivalled each other in showing
her kindness and attention.
At length the time came for her to return to
Jamestown, and, in company with her husband and
many new settlers, she embarked at Gravesend, but
a few days before the ship sailed she was taken ill
and died, at the age of twenty-two. Her death
caused great grief, for during her short visit she
had made many friends, who loved her for her
beauty and gentleness no less than for the help she
had given the English in Virginia. She was buried
in the Church of St. George at Gravesend, and her
husband returned alone to Jamestown.



ERSECUTION is often a blessing in
disguise. James, the first Stuart
King of England, declared that he
would make the Puritans conform
to the Church of England or
harry them out of the land. He
kept his word; and to escape from
the dangers which threatened
them, a body of Puritans emigrated to Holland, where
they remained for eleven years. For conscience
sake they had left their native country, but they
had no wish to lose their nationality and become
absorbed among the Dutch. They therefore decided
to found a colony in America, where they could
enjoy religious liberty and retain their English
manners and speech.
One hundred men, women, and children crossed
the Atlantic in the Mayflower in 1620. The voyage
was very stormy, and occupied nearly eight weeks.
The Pilgrims suffered from sickness and want of food


their vessel leaked badly, and on more than one
occasion she was expected to founder. It was there-
fore with feelings of great joy that Cape Cod was
sighted on the 9th of November 1620.
As quickly as possible a party landed to look
about for a suitable place for a settlement. March-
ing some little distance into the interior, they were
struck with the dreary aspect of the country. Low
sand-hills, dotted here and there with withered
bushes, offered no prospect of successful farming.
No natives were met with, and it seemed as if the
region was totally uninhabited. On the following
morning, however, the explorers came to a hut, but
no trace was visible of the inhabitants. While
digging in some sand-heaps near, they found a
quantity of Indian corn, which they carried to the
ship, where it proved a welcome addition to their
scanty stock of provisions.
Another expedition was organised, and set out in
a small boat to explore the coast. The hardships of
this party were greater than any the Pilgrims had
yet endured. It snowed incessantly; the sharp,
frosty wind cut their skins like knives, and froze the
sea-water on their clothes as it fell. Several times
they landed, but, though natives were frequently
seen, they fled in terror at the approach of the white
One night they were disturbed by strange noises
and cries, which they thought came from the wolves.


In the morning, however, shortly after they started,
a shower of arrows and a hideous yell from a neigh-
bouring thicket warned them of the near presence
of Indians. Miles Standish, the leader of the party,
instantly discharged his musket, and the assailants
fled alarmed by the explosion.


The voyage was resumed for fifty miles along the
coast, but no suitable spot was found. Gales came
on, and it was with the utmost difficulty that they
escaped drowning. The violence of the wind broke
the mast, and the sail was carried overboard.


Just when they had abandoned themselves to their
fate, the boat drifted under the shelter of a small
island. Here the night was spent, and on the follow-
ing day they busied themselves in repairing their
damaged boat. The next day was Sunday, but, not-
withstanding the need there was for haste, they
devoted the day to returning thanks to God for their
Early on Monday morning they went to work
and sounded the harbour, which they found well
adapted for shipping. They marched also into the
land and discovered several cornfields, intersected
with little brooks-a place very good for settlement.
So they returned to the ship again with good news
to the rest of their people, which did much comfort
their hearts."
On the 21st of December the Mayflower cast
anchor about a mile from the shore, the tide was out,
and the water was so shallow that she could not
approach nearer. In the ship's boats they landed,
stepping ashore on a boulder of granite, which was
afterwards known as the Pilgrim Rock. There are
few more touching incidents recorded in history than
the landing of this little community-

"Not as the conqueror comes, they, the true-hearted, came;
Not with the roll of stirring drums, and the trumpet that sings
of fame:
Not as the flying come, in silence and in fear,-
They shook the depths of the desert's gloom with their hymns
of lofty cheer.


Amidst the storm they sang, and the stars heard and the sea;
And the sounding aisles of the dim wood rang to the anthems
of the free:
The ocean-eagle soared from his nest by the white waves' foam,
And the rocking pines of the forest roared,-this was their wel-
come home "

On a piece of rising ground, which afforded a good
view of the surrounding country, they decided to
erect their dwellings. Storms greatly hindered their
work, and they only managed to erect a few small
wooden huts, when sickness broke out. The bad
voyage, insufficient food, want of proper clothing, and
the lack of shelter in a climate of almost polar
severity, had so weakened them that they were un-
able to withstand the disease. In three months
more than half of their number perished, and the
survivors were so worn out that they had hardly
strength to bury the dead. For fear that the
Indians should find out their condition, they levelled
all the graves and planted Indian corn over them.
Early in March the weather moderated, and warm
and fair breezes once more gladdened the hearts of
the Pilgrims. The birds sang in the trees, and work
was again resumed. One day an Indian suddenly
appeared among them, and, to their astonishment,
greeted them with the words, "Welcome, English-
men." He was a chief named Samoset, who had
learned a few English words from fishermen on the
coast of Maine. By him the settlers were informed
that the region which they now occupied had been


lately depopulated by a plague, and in the name of
his people the chief gave them possession of the
Samoset afterwards brought with him another
Indian, who had been carried captive to England
many years before, and then brought back. He now
took up his quarters with the Pilgrims, and taught
them to plant their corn as the Indians did, by
placing a few fish here and there in the ground as
manure. He also acted as their interpreter in their
dealings with the natives, and made himself useful
in a variety of ways.
Food was now plentiful. The rivers and bays
teemed with fish, the forest abounded in deer, and
the crops gave promise of a bountiful harvest.
During the summer several visits were paid to native
chiefs in the neighbourhood, with one of whom,
named Massasoit, an informal treaty of friendship
was made, which remained unbroken for upwards of
fifty years.
To the town which they erected they gave the
name of New Plymouth, after the port in England
from which they had sailed. As a protection against
the Indians, it was surrounded by a palisade, with
gates, which were locked at sunset. In the centre
rose the fort, the lower portion of which was used as
a church, while on the roof were mounted six small
We have an interesting description of the way in


which the Pilgrims attended divine service, written
by one who visited the colony at this time. He
They assemble by beat of drum in front of the
captain's door, each man armed with his musket.
They have their cloaks on, and place themselves in
order, three abreast, and are led by a sergeant.
Behind comes the governor; on one side walks the
preacher with his cloak on, carrying a Bible; on the
other side marches the captain, armed with his
sword and with a small cane in his hand. So they
march in good order, and each sets his arms down
near him. Thus they are constantly on their guard
against the Indians."
Miles Standish, the Puritan captain, was the most
valiant man of the colony. He struck terror into
the hearts of the Indians by the boldness of his on-
set, and the terror of his riflemen. On one occasion
he was hastily summoned to a meeting of the
council. The American poet Longfellow, who was
descended from the early settlers, gives a fine
description of the scene. Entering, Standish saw an
Indian in the centre of the room. On a table near
lay the skin of a rattleshake.-

"Filled, like a quiver, with arrows, a signal and challenge
of warfare;
Brought by the Indian, and speaking with arrowy tongues of

Standish advanced to the table-

" Then from the rattlesnake's skin, with a sudden contemptuous
Jerking the Indian arrows, he filled it with powder and
Full, to the very jaws, and handed it back to the savage,
Saying, in thundering tones, 'Here, take it this is your
answer '
Silently out of the room then glided the glistening savage,
Bearing the serpent's skin, and seeming himself like a serpent,
Winding his sinuous way in the dark to the depths of the
This spirited answer caused the chief to withdraw
his defiance, but shortly afterwards Standish learned
that the Indians were planning to kill all the white
men. With eight of the colonists he set out to
disperse the plotters, and a sharp fight took place.
Some of the red-skins boasted what they would do,
and insulted Standish, on account of his being a small
man. This was more than the fiery captain could
stand, and, seeing four of them in a wigwam, he went
in with three of his men, shut the door, and put their
boasting to the test. He fell on one of the tallest of
the Indians, and after a desperate struggle killed him,
with a knife suspended from his neck. The others
were also slain, and when their comrades attempted
to avenge their death they were put to flight.
Fresh parties of emigrants arrived from time to
time, and formed a welcome addition to the scanty
numbers of the colony; but, being unprovided with
food, they made serious inroads on the stock of
provisions. During the winter months the scarcity
was most severely felt. Men staggered and dropped





down as they walked along, in the faintness of
hunger, and but for the shell-fish on the beach all
must have perished.
This state of things was common during the early
years of the colony, and they had often to support
life without either bread or meat. Their only drink
was "fair spring water."
The chief men wisely concluded that there must
be some flaw in their arrangements, and accordingly
they began an inquiry. Up to this time all the
men had shared everything in common, and the
natural result was, that the idle would not exert
themselves so long as they could live without work,
and the industrious did not use their best endeavours,
when they could not enjoy the full fruits of their
toil. It was therefore agreed, in 1623, that each
settler should support himself. In. a very short
time a great improvement was manifest. Where
formerly they had barely enough to support life, they
now, out of their abundance, supplied the Indians
with corn, receiving in exchange the skins of beaver
and other animals.
The colony had now got over the most trying
period of its infancy, and the energy of the settlers
overcame all further obstacles. Within five years
after they had landed, New Plymouth consisted of
thirty-two dwellings, and though on more than one
occasion the town was nearly destroyed by fire, it
continued to prosper. A manufactory of salt was


shortly afterwards started, and proved so successful,
that a ship loaded with fish cured with this
commodity was sent to England.
The population, however, increased but slowly,
and after the colony had been established for ten

''I I


years it only numbered about three hundred persons.
In 1662 it was united with Massachusetts, of which
State its territory still forms a part.
In Plymouth a statue has been erected to mark
the site of the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, and


a hall in the city, known as Pilgrim Hall, contains
some of the curious old furniture which the
Pilgrims brought with them, including old-fashioned
arm chairs, spinning -wheels, ladles, and other
interesting relics of these early settlers.



NE of the most severely persecuted
religious bodies in England, after
the Restoration, was the Society
of Friends, or Quakers. Their
conscientious objection to oaths
in law courts, to serve as soldiers,
,. or to remove their hats to their
superiors, were at that time
looked upon as very serious offences, and as such were
punished with the utmost rigour of the law. Fines,
imprisonment, and public whippings were their por-
tion; but, notwithstanding this, the Friends increased
in number, and several men of position and influence
joined the persecuted sect. The most notable of
these was William Penn, the son of a brave British
admiral, who had distinguished himself during the
wars with the Dutch.
Wishing to establish a home for his co-religionists
in the distant West, Penn asked Charles II. to
grant him a tract of land in New England. The


king, who owed him large sums of money, was only
too glad to escape payment in this way, and on the
4th of March 1681 granted Penn a charter, making
him absolute proprietor, under the British crown, of
all the land east of the Delaware River, and north of
Maryland. The rent he had to pay the king was
merely nominal, and consisted of two beaver skins
annually, and a fifth of all the gold and silver dis-
Penn proposed to call the territory New Wales,
but the king raised objections to this name. Then
he suggested Sylvania, on account of the forests
which occupied the region. Ultimately this name
was adopted; but the king insisted on the prefix
Penn being added, in honour of the old admiral, and
the territory was named and is still known as Penn-
No time was lost in equipping an expedition and
arranging for the administration of the affairs of the
colony. At the end of the year three ships full of
emigrants were despatched, under the charge of
Colonel Markham, a relative of the proprietor. The
settlers were instructed to open up communication
with the natives, and to make all possible arrange-
ments for establishing the colony on a peaceful basis.
They also carried a letter written in Penn's own hand,
and addressed to the Indians, in which he expressed
a hope that his emigrants might be able to gain
their friendship, by a kind, just, and peaceable life,"


and assured them that "if anything was done to
offend them, they should have a full and speedy
satisfaction for the same, by an equal number of just
men on both sides." This remarkable document
ended thus: Let me desire you to be kind to my
people, and receive the presents and tokens which I
have sent you, as a testimony of my goodwill to you,
and of my resolution to live justly, peaceably, and
friendly with you.-I am, your loving friend, WILLIAM
The three vessels crossed the Atlantic in safety,
and the emigrants, four hundred in number, landed to
take possession of the territory. The Indians soon
showed themselves, and heard with satisfaction their
promises of goodwill. They said, You are our
brothers, and we will live like brothers with you.
There shall be one broad path for you and us to walk
in. This path shall be plain, without a stump in it
to hurt the feet. If an Englishman fall asleep in
this path, the Indian shall pass by him and say, 'He
is an Englishman; he is asleep; let him alone!'"
A price was fixed for the land the emigrants wanted,
and the foundations of the colony were commenced.
On.the 1st of September 1682, Penn set sail from
Deal with about three hundred emigrants, in the ship
Welcome. This voyage, next in historical importance
to that of the Mayflower, was rendered terrible by an
outbreak of small-pox which showed itself soon after
the vessel left England. The disease raged with




1?t Xlv


such violence that thirty of the passengers died.
The remainder arrived safely in the Delaware River
about the middle of October. Penn informed the
settlers that he intended to do that which is extra-
ordinary-to leave myself and my successors no
power of doing mischief, that the will of one man
may not hinder the good of a whole country."
Shortly after his arrival, he arranged to meet the
Indian chiefs at a grand conference on the banks of
the Delaware. The natives came to the place of
meeting in large numbers, and all fully armed. Penn
and his friends were unarmed. The only mark of
distinction which the leader of the settlers presented
was a sash of blue silk network, and the parchment
roll which he held in his hand, and which contained
the conditions of the treaty he hoped to conclude
with the chiefs. On his approach the Indians threw
down their arms, and, seating themselves on the
ground, showed that they were ready to listen to
We meet," said Penn, on the broad pathway of
good faith and good will, so that no advantage shall
be taken on either side, but all shall be openness and
brotherhood. I will not call you children, for parents
sometimes chide their children too severely, nor
brothers only, for brothers differ. I will not com-
pare the friendship between you and me to a chain,
for that might be rusted by the rain; or a falling
tree might break it. But let us feel the same as if


one man's body were to live in two separate parts;
for we are one in mankind ; we are all one flesh and
He then read to them clause by clause the


treaty which he wished them to agree to. Among
other things, it declared that they were not to be
molested by the settlers even in the territory they
had sold, for it was to be common ground to them.


and to the English. If any disputes should arise,
they were to be settled by a jury consisting of six
settlers and six natives. He then paid them for
the land, and gave them many presents. After that
he laid the roll of parchment on the ground, saying
again that the land should be common to both races.
Taking it up later, he handed it to the leading chief,
and desired him to keep it for his companions for
three generations, that their children might know
what had passed between them, just as if he had
remained with them to repeat it.
The Indians replied in long speeches, in which
they pledged themselves "to live in love with
William Penn and his children, so long as sun and
moon should endure."
It has been remarked as a striking fact, that the
treaty then concluded was the only one made
between savages and Christians that was not ratified
by oaths, and the only one that never was broken.
The great elm tree under which the meeting took
place, stood for more than a hundred years after,
an object of veneration to the settlers and their
Penn now chose a site for a town on a neck of
land situated between two navigable rivers, the
Delaware and the Schuylkill, with quarries of good
building stone in the neighbourhood. A surveyor,
who accompanied the expedition, laid out the long
wide streets, running at right angles to one another.


In the centre there was a square about ten acres
in extent, round which the public offices were to be
erected. To this skeleton town, not one building
of which had been erected, Penn gave the name of
Philadelphia, or the City of Brotherly Love.
The progress of the city was very rapid. Two
years after its foundation the population numbered
upwards of two thousand, and included English,
Scots, Irish, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, and Germans.
It contained about six hundred houses, all regularly
built after the prescribed plan. Hardly a month
passed that did not bring shiploads of emigrants.
They were for the most part sober and industrious
men and women, who were attracted to the new
town by the extraordinary humanity" with which
Penn treated the Indians, and who wished to live a
quiet and peaceable life undisturbed by persecution.
Troubles at home caused Penn to set sail for
England in August 1684, and fifteen years elapsed
before he was again in a position to return to
America. Meanwhile Pennsylvania became a thriv-
ing colony. As people began to spread, and to
improve their lands, the country became more
fruitful, and the colonists were able to raise more
produce than they required for their own wants.
A small export trade was therefore begun; vessels
were built and a wharf was erected at the side of
the river, where vessels of five hundred tons burden
could discharge their cargoes.


When Penn returned to Philadelphia in 1699,
two questions claimed his attention-the condition
of the negroes, and the civilisation of the Indians.
At that time there were great numbers of negroes
who had been imported from Africa, and were
employed by the settlers in the various American
colonies as slaves. Shortly before Penn's arrival,
many of the Quakers had come to the conclusion
that the buying, selling, and holding men in slavery
was inconsistent with the tenets of the Christian
religion," and he as governor was looked to for a
final verdict on the question. He went into the
matter with his usual enthusiasm, and, after careful
consideration, confirmed the conclusion already come
to. He went further, and, though he could not put
a stop to the importation of negroes, he did all in
his power to lessen the hardships of their situation,
by providing them with facilities for religious in-
structions, and granting them many of the privileges
of free men. These endeavours bore fruit in after
years, and it became a law among the Quakers that
no Friend should hold slaves.
With Indians, Penn was very successful. He
went among them, and by his example and influence
established and maintained friendly relations between
them and the colonists. "Whatever advances in
the arts of civilised life were made in the early part
of the eighteenth century by the Indian tribes in
the north west, were due originally to William


Penn." For more than fifty years after his death
his memory was respected among them as that of a
"true and good man."
Penn lived long enough to see the prosperity
of his colony assured: He died in England in
1718, leaving Pennsylvania to his family, in whose
hands it remained till the American Revolution.
Philadelphia is still the chief town in the State,
and now ranks as the first manufacturing city in
the Union.



S the settlements gradually spread
back from the Atlantic coast to-
wards the Alleghany Mountains,
and became more thickly peopled,
many of the old colonists, who dis-
liked the idea of having neighbours
too near them, left the land in
which they had lived for years, to
seek new homes beyond the mountains, where they
would not be crowded. These hardy pioneers formed
a race of men such as the world had never before
known, and they did more to open up the interior
to colonisation than all the State expeditions of
France and Spain.
About that time there lived in Yadkin Valley, in
North Carolina, a settler named Daniel Boone. He
was a born hunter, and, trained from his youth in all
the mysteries of woodcraft, he could go to his own
dwelling, in a straight line, from any point to which
his wanderings might carry him. Fatigue, hunger,


and exposure, he could bear like an Indian. Strong
and active, but cautious and silent, he was the very
man to act the part of pioneer.
Having heard of a great land to the north-west,
where the buffaloes swarmed like flies in summer,"
he felt a strong desire to visit the region. For a
year he thought about it, and talked to his wife about
it, and then one morning he put a new edge on his
hunting-knife, shouldered his rifle, bade his little
family good-bye, and with five companions started of-
to explore the great lone land beyond the mountains.
For five weeks the little band toiled on over hill
and plain, till at length they came to the Red River,
a tributary of the Kentucky. Here they built a hut,
and for seven months they hunted and fished with
success. Then Boone and one of his companions
were captured by the Indians, and carried off to their
encampment. On the seventh night of their captivity,
the Indians made a great feast, during which the two
hunters managed to make their escape. When, after
a weary tramp, they reached the hut, they found it
deserted. Boone searched everywhere for traces of
his companions, but he was unable to find any clue;
nor did he ever learn what became of them.
Determined to persevere, the two men built another
hut, in a more secluded part of the forest. Here
they were shortly afterwards joined by two friends
from Carolina, who had come to share the perils of
this wild life. A few months later, their numbers


were again reduced by the death of one man and
the desertion of another. Then their ammunition
ran short, and the other man was compelled to return
to the settlements for a fresh supply, thus leaving
Boone alone in that vast region, without even a dog
for company.
It is impossible for us to realise the danger and
loneliness of such a situation. Many hundreds of
miles separated him from all to whom he could look
for aid. In a boundless wood filled with fierce bears,
and still fiercer Indians, he was dependent for food
on his gun, yet he had but a scanty store of powder
and shot. Every day he changed his dwelling, and
every night his sleeping-place. Constantly in danger,
he was forced always to be watchful, but the freedom of
the life and the excitement of peril appear to have made
up for all the hardships he endured, for he afterwards
declared that this was the happiest period of his life.
One circumstance, to which he probably owed his
security, in a region infested by roving bands of
savages, also illustrates the keen powers of ob-
servation which made Boone the prince of back-
woodsmen. The forests were filled with a kind of
nettle, which, when once trodden on, retained for a
long time the impression of the foot. This weed
the Indians took no care to avoid, while the solitary
hunter never touched it. Thus it became to him
the means of knowing the number and position of
the red-skins, without betraying his own whereabouts.


There is a story told of Boone, which gives a
striking idea of the life he was leading at this time.
On one occasion he entered a wood from the western
side, and another hunter entered from the east.
Before long each became aware of the presence of
another human being in the neighbourhood. Then
each commenced dodging about among the trees, to
learn who the other was, without showing himself.
Such was their skill in baffling one another, that
forty-eight hours passed before either could satisfy
himself that the other was not an Indian and a
About the end of June 1770 he was joined by his
brother, and they hunted together till the ensuing
March, when they returned home, in order to lead a
party of settlers into Kentucky. In the autumn,
Boone started with five families besides his own, and
forty men. Suddenly, and without warning, a number
of Indians swooped down upon the emigrants. In an
instant all was confusion. Women shrieked, cattle
broke loose, and horses reared and plunged. A few
moments decided the skirmish in favour of the white
men; but the victory was dearly purchased by the
lives of six of the party, one of whom was Boone's
eldest son. This so discouraged the remainder that
they retreated to the settlements, and no further
attempt to colonise Kentucky was made for several
years. It was indeed, as its name signified, "dark
and bloody ground."


In the summer of 1775, Boone led another party
of pioneers across the mountains. He made a treaty
with the Cherokee Indians, by which they agreed to
leave him in undisturbed possession of certain lands
between the rivers Kentucky and Cumberland. Here,
though he had to fight for the ground with other
tribes, he succeeded in erecting a palisaded fort-
the pioneers working with an axe in one hand and
a rifle in the other. Leaving Boonesborough, as the
new settlement was called, in charge of his com-
panions, Boone returned to his family, which with
three others he brought safely to their new home in
September. The four women of this party deserve
special honour for their heroism, in thus braving the
perils of frontier life, at a time when Indian hostility
had been aroused to its highest pitch by the de-
termined inroads of the white men. The names of the
" mothers of the West" are Mrs. Boone, Mrs. M'Gary,
Mrs. IDenton, and Mrs. Hogan.
In the early days of the settlement the inhabitants
had to be constantly on the watch, to repel the
determined attacks of the red men. But they soon
learned that they could not catch Boone napping.
No matter when they made their onset, whether
at midday or at midnight, or how silently they
advanced through the forest, the keen eyes of the
old backwoodsman detected them; and for a time
Boonesborough was left in comparative peace.
One day his daughter and two other girls were


amusing themselves in a skiff on the Kentucky
river. Suddenly they-felt the boat was being borne
towards the opposite shore. A lurking Indian
swimming out to them, under water, had caught hold
of it, and the terrified children quickly found them-
selves prisoners amongst a band- who had posted
themselves in a thicket near the river. The screams
of the girls alarmed the settlers, who rushed down to
the bank in time to see them bound and carried off.
It was some time before Boone and a party of his
friends could cross the river in pursuit, so that the
Indians got a start of several miles.
Darkness put an end to the search, but with the
first signs of day the settlers were ready to take up
the trail. They followed it to a thick wood, where
they lost all trace of the fugitives. Life and death,
freedom and captivity, hung upon the right use of
every moment, so Boone decided not to waste time
in examining the wood. Guessing the probable
direction of the route taken by the Indians, he turned
to the southward, with his companions, and went
boldly forward for about thirty miles. Then, turning
to the north, he resumed his search for a trail.
It was a bold move to make, but it was fully
justified by the results, for, after going a few miles,
they came upon the footsteps of the Indians in one
of the great buffalo paths. With fresh courage they
pushed forward, quietly and on the alert, lest they
should come unexpectedly on the red-skins. At the


end of ten miles they caught sight of the natives, as
they were leisurely preparing their dinner.
Cautious as Boone and his companions had been
in their movements, the quick-eyed Indians saw them
as soon as they themselves were discovered. Fearing
that the girls would be put to death the moment a
rescue was attempted, Boone dashed hastily forward,
not to give them time to do any mischief. The
unexpected onset struck terror into the hearts of the
savages, and they fled, leaving all their weapons and
goods behind them, and the three terrified girls were
recovered unhurt.
After this Boonesborough was besieged by the
Indians for some weeks. The settlers ran short of
ammunition, and it seemed as if they would be forced
to surrender. With only two companions, Boone set
out on a journey of over two hundred miles, to
procure a fresh supply. Over a wild and mountain-
ous country he made his way to the nearest settlement,
obtained a stock of powder and shot, and ten days
afterwards he was once more within the fort. This
timely help enabled the settlers to beat off the
The most serious misfortune which befell- the
hardy pioneer happened in 1778, which was also the
most trying year of the "borough" which he had
founded. He had gone with thirty men to the salt-
licks to prepare salt for his people, and had almost
finished his work, when he was surprised by a party


of Indians. He fled, but was pursued, taken prisoner,
and carried to their encampment. The chief of the
tribe, named Black Fish, had for a long time admired
Boone for his fearlessness and skill, and he determined
to adopt him into his tribe. The pioneer had more
sense than to refuse the intended honour, and for
some months he lived the life of a Shawanese Indian.
He took his part in the games, and shot as near the
centre of the target as he judged prudent, so as not
to arouse the enmity of the warriors. We can
imagine the humorous twinkle that came into his
quiet eye, as he witnessed the joy of the savage
marksman at having done better than the best of the
Long Knives.
One day he saw a band of five hundred warriors
in all the splendour of war-paint and feathers, and
he wondered what their object could be; a few words
accidentally dropped by the Indians informed him
that their destination was Boonesborough. Could he
do nothing to save his family and friends ? There
were a hundred and sixty miles of wild country
between him and the fort, yet he made up his mind
to the attempt. Early one morning in June he stole
away, and for four successive days he sped over hill
and valley, covering forty miles a day. During this
time he had only one meal, for he was afraid to light
a fire, as it would have shown his whereabouts.
When he reached Boonesborough, his wife did not,
as was her wont, come out to meet him, and when



he anxiously asked what had become of her, one of
the men replied, Bless you, man, she put into the
settlements long ago. She thought you was dead,
Dan'l, and packed up and was off to Carolina, to the
old man's." There was no time to indulge in vain
regrets with the Indian so near at hand; but days
passed, and the expected host did not appear. It
was then found out by scouts that Boone's dis-
appearance had brought them to a standstill, for they
rightly concluded that he must have given warning
of their approach, and they abandoned their intention
of attacking the fort. Thinking that the country
was clear, the settlers returned to their usual
One morning, shortly after this, when Boone was
in the forest, he saw a body of red-skins proceeding
towards the fort. Thinking that this was but the
vanguard of a larger party, he returned with all
haste to prepare for the worst.
It was well he did so, for on the following
morning the Indian army swarmed round Boones-
borough, under the command of a British officer.
The war of American Independence was then
raging, and the British hoped to gain some advan-
tage by rousing the Indians to attack the outlying
settlements. The force which was now encamped
in front of the fort outnumbered the garrison by
ten to one, and when the officer summoned Boone
to surrender, he was at a loss to know what to do.


The cattle were all out in the wood, which made
resistance for a lengthened period impossible; and
to surrender meant being handed over to Black Fish
and his men, who would punish him severely for
his flight.
At length he concluded to ask two days in
which to consider the matter. This request was
granted, and the first thing he did was to drive
in the cows. Then he busied himself in making
everything as strong as possible. When the two
days expired, he felt that he was in a position
to make a successful resistance, so he politely
thanked the representative of His Gracious Majesty
for giving him time to prepare a reception fitting
his rank, and said that he had decided to fight."
The officer offered to leave them in peace, if the
settlers would send a few of their men to a con-
ference with him and some of the chiefs, outside the
fort. To this he consented, taking care to select
the strongest of his men, and to post the rest on
the walls ready to fire on the slightest show of
treachery. As expected, the red-skins seized them
and tried to drag them to the ground. The whites
drew back struggling; the rifle balls of those
posted on the walls struck down the foremost of
the assailants, and amid the fire of friends and foes
Boone and his men made their way into the fort
The treaty trick having thus failed, there began


one of the fiercest battles ever fought in Kentucky.
For ten days the firing went on. The Indians,
led by a white officer, were confident of success;
but the settlers were not to be beaten, and they
at length succeeded in compelling the enemy to
retreat, never again to disturb the peace of Boones-
borough. After their departure Boone picked up
a hundred and twenty-five pounds of their bullets
from the ground.
Amid such scenes the foundation of Kentucky
was laid by a mere handful of rough but high-
spirited men. Boone survived all his perils, and
died at the age of eighty-three, having lived to see
populous States founded where he had explored
pathless forests.



URING the early years of the
American settlements the colonists
were in great want of labourers
and servants, and to supply the
need it became a common practice
to kidnap people in this country
for the colonies. Many thousands
of men, women, and even children, were seized in
the streets and sent over to America, where they
were sold to the highest bidder. Fortunately, their
bondage was not for life, but only for an arranged
number of years. During the time of their service,
however, they could be bought and sold like slaves.
The best-known case of this kind on record is
that of Peter Williamson, who about the year 1736
was carried off from Aberdeen and sold for a slave
in Philadelphia. Peter was at this time only ten
years of age. He was bought by a fellow-country-
man named Wilson, who had himself been kidnapped
from Perth as a child. He was a humane man,


and treated his slave with great kindness, giving
him only the lightest kind of work, and allowing
him to learn to read and write. When he died, a
few years afterwards, he left Peter a legacy of
one hundred and fifty pounds, his best horse, saddle,
and wearing apparel, as a reward for the faithful
manner in which he had served him.
Peter was at this time seventeen years of age,
and for the next seven years he worked diligently
at various employment, and considerably increased
his capital. He then thought it time to settle,
and, as a preliminary step, married the daughter of
a neighboring planter. His father-in-law bestowed
on the young couple a tract of well-cleared land on
the frontiers of Pennsylvania, where they lived very
happily till the autumn of 1754, when the Indians
began a series of raids, accompanied by the most
horrible barbarities. Scarcely a day passed but
some unhappy family fell victims, and at last the
blow fell on Peter Williamson.
On the 2nd of October his wife left home to
visit some of her relations about six miles away.
Night came on and she did not return, so he
decided to go to bed. He had just made everything
secure, when he was alarmed by the dismal war-
whoop of the savages. Rushing to the window, he
saw that his house was surrounded. One of the
Indians came forward and offered him his life, on
condition that he made no resistance, adding, how-


ever, that if he would not surrender himself a
prisoner, they would burn him alive. He chose
what seemed to him at the time the lesser of two
evils, and gave himself up. His captors tied him
to a tree, and then proceeded to plunder the house.
Not satisfied with this, they set it on fire and
burned it to the ground.
Williamson soon learned why his life had been
spared, for the savages loaded him with plunder,
and threatened him with the worst of deaths if he
did not go quietly with them. All night the poor
fellow trudged along under his burden. At day-
break a halt was made, and the prisoner was bound
to a tree. His captors then made a fire near, and
danced round him, brandishing their weapons, and
yelling and screaming in the most frightful manner.
They next took sticks flaming with fire at the ends,
and held them to different parts of his body, at
the same time threatening to roast him to death if
he cried out. Tortured thus, we do not wonder
that tears of anguish began rolling down the face
of the unfortunate man. This did not escape the
notice of the savages, who, telling him that his
face was wet and that they would dry it for him,
took fresh sticks from the fire, and put them near
his eyes. How I underwent these tortures," he
says, has been a matter of wonder to me, but God
enabled me to wait with more than common patience
the deliverance I daily prayed for."



At nightfall they again set out on their march,
Williamson being loaded as before. In the darkness
they attacked the house of a settler, and, having
murdered him and his family, they plundered the
dwelling and set it on fire. Only one life was
spared, that of a young manservant, whom the
savages thought would be of service in assisting to
carry the plunder. He was compelled to suffer
cruel treatment, and, unable to endure it with the
same heroic fortitude as Williamson, the wretched
youth gave vent to his misery in groans and tears.
In vain did his companion encourage him with the
hope of escape, for he kept on crying. One of the
Indians seeing this came up behind him, and with
his tomahawk felled him to the ground.
We could not, even did our space permit, tell of
all the horrors which Williamson was compelled to
witness. Family after family was tortured and
murdered, as much out of "fiendish pleasure in such
acts as for their property." A heavy fall of snow
at length compelled the band to go into their winter
quarters, lest their tracks should betray them to the
enraged white men. They remained in hiding for
nearly two months. As the severity of the cold
increased, they stripped the captive of his clothes
for their own use, giving him in return a piece of
blanket, a pair of moccasins, and a strip of coarse
cloth to serve instead of trousers.
At length, being joined by many other Indians,


they set out on a fresh expedition. Marching
towards the settlements, they divided into small
Parties; but, fearing to take Williamson with them,
they left him behind under a guard of ten men.
Now the long-wished-for chance of escape had come.
He knew the country well, and he eagerly waited
for an opportunity to regain his liberty. One night,
while his guards, wearied with a severe day's hunt-
ing, slept more soundly than usual, he determined to
escape or perish in the attempt. Naked and defence-
less, he set out; but he had not gone more than a
few hundred yards when the cries of the Indians
told him that his flight had been discovered.
Terror lent him speed, and he rushed forward
through the woods. Many a time he fell completely
exhausted, but the thought of all he had suffered
nerved him to struggle on. Daylight found him
faint and bruised, and he crept into a hollow tree
to wait till darkness made it possible for him to
continue his journey towards the settlements. Worn
out with exertion and hunger, he fell asleep. In a
few hours he was awakened by the voices of the
savages near the place where he lay, saying what
they would do to him when they caught him.
At night he left his hiding-place and continued
his flight. Travelling by night and resting by day,
he encountered no dangers, though in a constant
state of apprehension. On the fourth night he came
suddenly on a party of Indians lying round their




fire. The rustling he made in the leaves alarmed
them, and, seizing their arms, they ran towards the
spot from which the noise proceeded. The fugitive
did not know whether to run or to stand still, when,
to his surprise and joy, a herd of swine appeared
between him and the Indians, who, thinking they
had discovered the cause of the alarm, returned to
the fire and shortly afterwards went to sleep.
On the following afternoon he reached the house
of John Bell, an old acquaintance. In answer to his
knock, the settler's wife came to the door, and, on
seeing this naked and haggard figure, rushed scream-
ing into the house. This brought her husband to
the door, gun in hand. He was about to shoot the
wanderer, when he called out that he was his old
friend Peter Williamson. At once Bell threw down
his rifle and heartily welcomed him into his house,
providing him with food and clothing. Here he
remained for some days to recover his strength.
Then, having borrowed a horse from his host, he
started for his father-in-law's house, about a hundred
and forty miles distant.
When he arrived the family could scarcely believe
their eyes, for there was no one who did not suppose
that he had been put to death when his house was
burned. They welcomed him gladly, and he asked,
"Where is my wife ? I was told she returned to you."
She did," replied the old man, "but her griefs
killed her in less than a week."


Determined "to be revenged on the authors of
his ruin," Williamson went to Boston, and enlisted in
a regiment which was being raised to guard the
western frontier of the settlement. During this
campaign his knowledge of the Indian customs and
mode of warfare were of great use to the command-
ing officer, who made him a lieutenant. He after-
wards took part in several expeditions against the
French, and was severely wounded.
Williamson returned to his native town in June
1758, where he turned his misfortunes to good
account by exhibiting himself in the costume of a
North American Indian, and giving representations
of the Indians' gestures and war-whoops." The story
of his life and adventures, which he published, roused
the wrath of the magistrates of the Granite City,"
whom he charged with conniving at the trade of
kidnapping. He was convicted of "having issued a
scurrilous and infamous libel," imprisoned, and finally
banished from the city, while his book was publicly
burned by the hangman.
He went to Edinburgh and brought an action
against the Aberdeen Corporation, and obtained
damages to the extent of 100. With this money
he opened a coffee-house. He died in 1799, at the
age of seventy-three.



ENRY HUDSON, an English sailor
in the employment of the Dutch,
discovered, in 1610, the great
bay which bears his name. The
waters of this vast inland sea
teemed with fish, and the French,
who at that time were masters of
Canada, were not slow to avail
themselves of this inexhaustible source of wealth.
Among those who visited the bay was a bold and
enterprising Frenchman, named Grosseliez. He saw
the advantages which would follow the possession
of the ports and harbours of this region, and,
wishing to secure it for his own country, he set
out for France and laid the matter before the
king. His proposals were, however, regarded as
visionary, and his scheme of settlement was rejected.
Mr. Montague, the English minister at Paris, saw
further than the French monarch, and, anxious to
hear more of the matter, sent for Grosseliez, and


asked him to explain his views. The boundless
possibilities of the region appealed strongly to
Montague, and he gave the Frenchman a letter of
introduction to Prince Rupert in England. Crossing
the channel, Grosseliez was received with every mark
of honour; his proposals were listened to with respect;
and he was engaged to go out to Hudson's Bay in
one of the King's ships, and form a settlement. A
vessel was therefore equipped, and in 1668 the
expedition set sail, under the command of Captain
Gillam. After the fashion of the time, an attempt
was first made to find a way to China, but, failing
in this, the explorers entered Rupert's River, where
they spent the winter. Here Captain Gillam laid
the foundation of the first English settlement in
Canada, by building a small stone fort, which he
named Fort Charles in honour of the King.
On the return of the explorers, Prince Rupert
formed a company of seventeen noblemen and
gentlemen, and in 1670 obtained from King Charles
II. a charter, granting to him "all the lands
and territories in Hudson's Bay, with all the trade
thereof in furs, minerals, and other considerable
commodities." Over this boundless region, to which
the name of Rupert's Land was given, roamed great
herds of buffalo and deer, besides countless numbers
of bears, beavers, foxes, and other smaller fur-bearing
animals. The Company lost no time in erecting
forts and factories to trade with the Indians, from







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