Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The Celts
 Agil the hunter
 The Britons
 Who the Romans were
 The Romans land in Britain
 What the Romans did in Britain
 The Saxons
 The English
 Alfred and his mother
 England in the olden time
 Children in the olden time
 The Danes
 Alfred the Good
 King Canute
 Canute and Bodge
 Canute teaches his friends...
 The last Saxon king
 William the Norman sails to...
 The fight at Senlac
 England in Saxon times
 William the Norman
 The Red King
 The White Ship
 The English under the Normans
 Richard Lion-Heart
 King John and Arthur
 A great king
 The Black Prince at Crecy
 A good queen and the men of...
 The Black Prince and the French...
 Wat Tiler
 King Henry the Fifth in France
 Joan Darc
 The first English printer
 The princes in the tower
 Columbus finds a new world
 Sir Thomas More
 Lady Jane Grey
 Drake's voyage round the world
 Sir Philip Sidney
 The Armada
 The fight of the Revenge
 England in Tudor times
 Sir Walter Raleigh
 The Pilgram fathers
 Charles the First
 A patriot
 The Civil War
 The escape of Prince Charles
 A hero of the Great Plague
 A young hero
 General Wolfe
 George Washington
 John Howard and John Lawrence
 Lord Nelson
 The Iron Duke
 The Stephensons
 Grace Darling
 The English in India
 General Gordon
 A good queen
 Dates to be remembered
 Back Cover

Group Title: The Century historical readers, no. 1
Title: Simple stories from English history
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084151/00001
 Material Information
Title: Simple stories from English history
Series Title: The Century historical readers
Alternate Title: Longmans' simple stories from English history
Physical Description: 191 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), ports ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Speed, Lancelot, 1860-1931 ( Illustrator )
Paget, H. M ( Henry Marriott ), 1857-1936 ( Illustrator )
Millais, John Everett, 1829-1896 ( Illustrator )
Lucas, Seymour ( Illustrator )
Lodge, George Edward ( Illustrator )
Van Dyck, Anthony, 1599-1641 ( Illustrator )
Turner, J. M. W ( Joseph Mallord William ), 1775-1851 ( Illustrator )
Longmans, Green, and Co ( Publisher )
Spottiswoode & Co ( Printer )
Publisher: Longmans, Green, and Co.
Place of Publication: London ;
New York ;
Manufacturer: Spottiswoode and Co.
Publication Date: 1896
Edition: New ed.
Subject: Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1896
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
India -- Bombay
General Note: Frontispiece and plates printed in color; illustrations by Lancelot Speed, H. M. Paget, Millais, Seymour Lucas, G. E. Lodge, Vandyck and Turner.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084151
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002237539
notis - ALH8027
oclc - 232334727

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
    Half Title
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Title Page
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    List of Illustrations
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The Celts
        Page 9
    Agil the hunter
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The Britons
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Who the Romans were
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The Romans land in Britain
        Page 17
        Page 18
    What the Romans did in Britain
        Page 19
        Page 20
    The Saxons
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The English
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Alfred and his mother
        Page 29
    England in the olden time
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Children in the olden time
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    The Danes
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Alfred the Good
        Page 40
    King Canute
        Page 41
    Canute and Bodge
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Canute teaches his friends a lesson
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    The last Saxon king
        Page 48
    William the Norman sails to England
        Page 49
        Page 50
    The fight at Senlac
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    England in Saxon times
        Page 54
    William the Norman
        Page 55
        Page 56
    The Red King
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    The White Ship
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    The English under the Normans
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Richard Lion-Heart
        Page 66
        Page 67
    King John and Arthur
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 69
        Page 70
    A great king
        Page 71
    The Black Prince at Crecy
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    A good queen and the men of Calais
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 76a
    The Black Prince and the French king
        Page 77
    Wat Tiler
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    King Henry the Fifth in France
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Joan Darc
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    The first English printer
        Page 86
        Page 87
    The princes in the tower
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Columbus finds a new world
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Sir Thomas More
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Lady Jane Grey
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Drake's voyage round the world
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Sir Philip Sidney
        Page 109
        Page 110
    The Armada
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    The fight of the Revenge
        Page 119
        Page 120
    England in Tudor times
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Sir Walter Raleigh
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    The Pilgram fathers
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Charles the First
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    A patriot
        Page 140
        Page 141
    The Civil War
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    The escape of Prince Charles
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    A hero of the Great Plague
        Page 148
        Page 148a
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
    A young hero
        Page 152
        Page 153
    General Wolfe
        Page 154
        Page 155
    George Washington
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    John Howard and John Lawrence
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Lord Nelson
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 166a
    The Iron Duke
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    The Stephensons
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Grace Darling
        Page 176
        Page 177
    The English in India
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    General Gordon
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    A good queen
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Dates to be remembered
        Page 191
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

The Baldwin Library
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All rights reserved


1. The Celts 9
2. Agil the Hunter 10
3. The Britons 13
4. Who the Romans were 15
5. The Romans Land in
Britain 17
6. What the Romans did in
Britain 19
7. The Saxons 21
8. The English 2
9. English Slave Childreni
in Rome 24
10. Bede 26
11. Alfred and his Mother 29
12. England in the Olden
Time (1) 30
13. England in the Olden
Time (2) 33
14. Children in the Olden
Time 34
15. The Danes 37
16. Alfred the Good 40
17. King Canute 41
18. Canute and Bodge 42
19. Canute Teaches his
Friends a Lesson 45
20. The Last Saxon King 48
21. William the Norman Sails
to England. 49

22. The Fight at Senlac 51
23. England in Saxon Times. 54
24. William the Norman .55
25. The Red King. 57
26. The White Ship 60
27. The English under the
Normans 63
28. Richard Lion-Heart .66
29. King John and Arthur 68
30. A Great King 71
31. The Black Prince at Crecy 72
32. A Good Queen and the
Men of Calais 7
33. The Black Prince and the
French King 77
34. Wat Tiler 78
35. King Henry the Fifth in
France. 81
36. Joan Dare 83
37. The First English Printer 86
38. The Princes in the Tower 88
39. Columbus Finds a New
World 91
40. Sir Thomas More 94
41. Lady Jane Grey 100
42. Drake's Voyage round the
World 102
43. Sir Philip Sidney 109
44. The Armada 111


45. The Fight of the Revenge 119
46. EnglandinTudorTimes(1) 121
47. ,, ,, (2) 124
48. ,, ,, ,, (3) 126
49. Sir Walter Raleigh 130
50. The Pilgrim Fathers 133
51. Charles the First 137
52. A Patriot. 140
53. The Civil War 142
54. The Escape of Prince
Charles 145
55. A Hero of the Great
Plague .148

56. A Young Hero
57. General Wolfe
58. George Washington
59. John Howard and John
60. Lord Nelson
61. The Iron Duke
62. The Stephensons
63. Grace Darling .
64. The English in India (1)
65. ,, ,, (2)
66. General Gordon
67. A Good Queen


Columbus Landing in America. (Lancelot Speed) Frontispiece
Gregory and the English Slaves. (Fronm the 'Chro-
nicle of England,' by J. B. Doyle) to face page 25
Richard I. Pardons the Archer who Shot Him. (From
the Chronicle of England,' by J. E. Doyle) ,,,, 68
The Black Prince waiting on King John. (From the
Chronicle of inland,' by J. E. Doyle) ,,,, 77
Prince Charles Escaping after the Battle of Worcester.
(Lancelot Speed) 148
The Death of Nelson. (From thepiotw'e in Greenwich

Hospital by Bejaminl West)

In the Text.
' Don't be afraid, father,' said the boy, 'I will
stand quite still' J
Early British Pottery
Julius Casar
The Landing of the Romans in Britain
Part.of the Roman Wall at Leicester
'Yes, it is ended,' Bede said
' Thus Alfred won his first book '
Old English Map of the World
A Danish Ship of War
Danes Robbing a Monastery
Bodge Running in Front with a Stout Pole in
his Hand .
'Sea, come no further !' .
Normans and Saxons Fighting at the Battle 1
of Hastings
The Red King Shot by an Arrow
' So many leaped into the boat that it sank' .
Keep of Rochester Castle
Partof Durham Cathedral builtin Norman Times
Richard Lion-Heart.
Edward the Black Prince, from his Tomb at
Canterbury: showing the kind of armour
worn in those days .
'What is this, my men 7 Will you shoot your
king ?' J

,, ,, 166

Lancelot Speed 11
Lanwelot I. 18
Lancelot Speed 27
Lancelot Speed 31
H. t. Paget 39
Lancelot Speed 44
Lancelot Speed 47
Lancelot Speed 53

Lancelot Speed 61

H. I. Paget 79

Henry the Fifth 82
Joan Dare Struck by an Arrow Lancelot Speed 85
The Princes in the Tower lis .89
The Tower of London 90
King Henry the Eighth. 95
Sir Thomas More 99
The Great Harry; built for King Henry the
Eighth .103
Sir Francis Drake in his Forty-third Year 105
Queen Elizabeth .107
'Oh no,' said Drake, there is plenty of time
to finish our game and beat the Spaniards .N .. Lucas 113
too .....
The Spanish Armada 115
Wreck of one of the Ships of the Armada Lancelot Speed 117
A Falcon with Hood, &c., ready for'a Flight G. a. Lodge 123
William Shakspere 125
Wollaton Hall, Nottinghamshire; built about
1580-1588 127
A Coach in Tudor Times 128
Sir Walter Raleigh and his Eldest Son Walter,
at the Age of Eight 131
A Puritan. 134
King Charles the First Vandlcyed 137
Happy Days of Charles the First. 139
A Cavalier 143
A Soldier Armed with a Pike (Stuart Times) 144
A Soldier with Musket and Crutch (Stuart
Times) .144
Oliver Cromwell 146
The Sovereign of the Seas; built for the Royal
Navy in 1637 149
General Wolfe 155
Picture of a Battle that was Fought in the
same Year that Wolfe took Quebec 157
Lord Nelson 163
The Battle of Trafalgar neqr 165
The Victory .. 166
The Duke of Wellington 168
An English Soldier who Fought in Spain 171
'Puffing Billy' 175
General Gordon 185
Queen Victoria at her Accession 187



LONG, long ago the people who lived in this
land were the Celts. They came from the far
east, and moving to the west, they came at
length to the great sea that stopped them from
going any farther. Some of them came to dwell
in the land in which we-now live.
They could not read or write, and so they
could not leave behind then books to tell us
about them. But at the time in which they
lived, there were men who lived in other lands,
who could both read and write, and these have
left writings that tell us much about the Celts.
From these writings we learn, that the Celts
were tall, strong men, with bright blue eyes, and
long fair hair that hung down their backs.
We know, too, how they talked with each
other, for there are men still living, who speak


in the same way. For what we now call Welsh,
is the same as that spoken by the Celts so long
The Celts who came to live in this land were
called Britons, a word that means 'clothed.'
For the Britons had found out how to make very
many things, and among others, how to spin and
weave woollen cloth.
They had both gold and silver, and out of
them they made many pretty things to wear.
They had also learned the use of copper, lead,
and tin. Their tools, their swords, and their
spears were made of bronze, which is made by
mixing tin and copper. We also use bronze
nowadays, for our pennies are made of it.
The Celts had herds of cattle and pigs. They
were very fond of horses and dogs, which they
kept for hunting. They also made boats for
fishing in the rivers and lakes, but the Celts
were never very fond of sailing on the water.
Write out and Learn
1. Two thousand years ago the Celts lived in the land.
2. They were tall, strong men, with bright blue eyes and long fair
3. They spoke Welsh much as it is spoken nowadays in Wales.
4. The Celts were also called Britons, a word that meant clothed.'
5. They had cattle and pigs, and used gold, silver, and bronze.

There are many stories told of what took
place in far-off times. One of the best of these
tales is about Agil the hunter and his little son.



Agil had done something to make the king
very angry. Soon afterwards some of the king's
men caught him and his little son and took them
to the king. The king was a very cruel man,
and he said: 'I have it in my mind to slay you,
but I should like to see if you can shoot with the
bow as well as folks say. So I will give you a
chance to save your life.'
Then he had the boy placed a little way off,
and put an apple upon his head. 'Now,' said he
to Agil, 'you must shoot at that apple. If you
miss the mark you shall die. But if you hit the
apple, you and your son shall be set free.'
What a cruel thing to tell a father to do!
But Agil was a brave man, and felt sure that he
could hit the apple. lie took up his bow, and
then chose two smooth, straight arrows. One he
put in his belt, and the other he fitted to the
'Don't be afraid, father,' said the boy, 'I will
stand quite still.'
Then Agil shot, and the arrow went so true,
that it cut the apple in two, and the pieces fell
to the ground.
You have saved your son's life and your
own too,' said the king. 'But tell me, why did
you put that arrow into your belt ?'
'Because,' said Agil, 'if I. had missed the
apple and hit my son, I should have shot with
that arrow at you. And I should not have


This made the king very angry, but he kept
his word and let Agil and his son go free.
(Adapted from York Powell's Old Stories from English History.')

We have seen that Britons' is only another
name for the Celts, and it, is by this name that
we must now think of them.
At the time of which we are speaking, that
is, about two thousand years ago, our country
did not look just as it does now.
There were no big towns, for the Britons
lived in small huts. These huts were not built
very close together, but there were wide spaces
between them. They were made of thin branches
of trees woven closely together, and the roofs
were made of straw or of ferns.
Nearly all the land was covered with woods,
but the Britons cut down some of the trees, and
made clearings where they could grow their
crops. Their pigs roamed about in the woods,
and fed on acorns and the roots of plants, while
the cattle and horses grazed in the open spaces.
The people were split up into tribes, and each
tribe had a chief who was over all. The tribes
very often fought each other, and each tribe had
a strong place, where the women, children, and
cattle could be put, so as to be safe in time of
Such a strong place was called a 'dun,' and
was often upon the top of a hill. Round the


dun a high mound of earth was raised, and into
the mound strong wooden stakes were firmly
Outside the mound big trees were placed, so
as to make it a very hard task for a foe to get
into the dun.
The Britons were very fond of fighting, and
they stained their faces with a blue dye to


make themselves look very fierce. They fought
with swords, knives, and axes. When the fight
began, all the men made as much noise as they
could, hoping thereby to frighten their foes.
For hundreds of years the Britons lived in
the land, but in all that time they did not learn
very much. At last some men came from over
the sea to fight the Britons. In our next lesson


we shall see who these men were and whence
they came
Write out and Learn
1. The Britons lived in small huts made of branches of trees.
2. They were split up into many tribes. Each tribe was ruled
over by its own chief.
3. A strong place upon a hill top was called a dun.'
4. Here the women and children were safe in time of war.
5. The Britons were very fierce, and when they went to war they
dyed their faces a blue colour.

Though the Britons knew so little, you must
not think that all the men who lived at that
time were like them. In other lands, there were
men who had found out very many things, and
of these men the best known were the Romans.
Far away to the south, there stood in those
days, as there does now, a fine city called Rome.
This was the chief town in the land where the
Romans lived.
The Romans were very strong men and also
very clever. They knew how to build fine
houses, and bridges, and towns. Some of their
buildings stand even to this day.
They could read and write, and their learned
men wrote many books, some of which are read
in some of our schools. It is from the writings
of a great Roman that we learn nearly all. we
know about the Britons.
You must know that above all things the
Romans were great fighting men. Not only did
they fight the men of other lands near to them,


but they sent their armies to fight people who
lived far away.
At length one of their armies reached the
sea-shore of a country from which could be seen,




sail. We will leave his

over the sea, the cliffs
of the land in which we
The Roman at the
head of this army was a
great man named Julius
Casar. He had fought
for many years, against
many tribes, and had
nearly always won his
fights. So he made up
his, mind that he would
cross the sea to fight'
the Britons.
The Romans had
fine ships which they
had built, and in these
Casar and his men set
fights with the Britons to

the next lesson, but it was he who wrote a book,
from which we learn nearly all we know about
our country in those far-off times.
Write out and Learn
1. The Romans came from a land far away in the south. Their
chief town was Rome.
2. They were very clever and strong men. They could write books.
They were great fighters.
3. A great Roman named Julius Cesar made up his mind to
come and fight the Britons.
4. So he came with an army, sailing in many ships.



The Britons saw the Roman ships sailing
towards their shores, and so they got ready to
fight. They sent men running as fast as they
could to bring all the fighting men they could
find to come and help them.
When the ships came near to the land, the
Romans saw large numbers of fierce-looking
men, with swords, and spears, and war-chariots,
running along the cliffs, and all ready for the
So the Romans sailed along, till they came
to a place where the shore was low, and then
they ran their ships ashore. For these ships
were small, and could be run aground without
hurting them.
And now the fight began. The Britons
loved fighting, and had made up their minds,
that the Romans should not take their country
away from them.
Rushing into the sea, they threw their darts
at the Romans, who had to jump from their
ships, and wade to land through the shallow
water. For some time, it looked as if the
Britons would beat the Romans back. But
at last the Romans drove the Britons to the
cliffs, and in time all were landed. The ships
were then drawn up on the beach.
Though for the time the Britons had to fall
back, they did not lose heart, but were ready

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to fight every step of the way, if the Romans
tried to march into their land. The Romans
saw that they would have a very hard task to
take the country. So, after stopping a very
short time, they sailed back to the land from
which they came.
The next year they came again, but after
much fighting they left the country, and it was
a long time before any other Romans came over
to fight the Britons.
Write out and Learn
1. The Britons saw the Roman ships coming, so they made ready
to fight them.
2. They were armed with swords and spears, and had war-chariots
drawn by small horses.
3. The Romans ran their ships ashore, and the Britons rushed
into the sea to stop them.
4. At last the Romans were all landed. But they did not stay long.

Nearly a hundred years went by, and then
the Romans came again to fight the Britons.
The Britons fought bravely, but it was all of
no use, and after a time they had to give in to
the Romans. For about four hundred years the
Romans were masters of the country. During
that time they taught the Britons very much that
helped to make their lives happier and better.
They cut down many of the trees, and made
open places, where crops were grown. Instead
of poor huts, such as the Britons had lived in,
good stone and brick houses were built.


Instead of the dun' with its mound of earth
and rows of stakes, strong towns sprang up with
high and thick walls all round them. A wall
that was built by the Romans may be seen still
standing around a large part of the town of
Good roads were made, so that men could


pass easily from one part of the land to another.
Even bridges were built across the rivers.
Before the Romans came the Britons were
often fighting each other, but now the land was
at peace, and men had time to learn how to till
the ground, to read and write, and to do many
other things that made them wiser and better.
And best of all, good men came from Rome
to teach the Britons about God. For before


this the Britons knew nothing about God, and
did many cruel and wicked deeds, because they
did not know any better. So in time churches
were built, and the Britons learned how to live
better and nobler lives.
But a bad time was in store for them, for
at last the Romans went away to fight their
foes in their own land, and the Britons were left
to take care of themselves.
Write out and Learn
1, The Romans came again, and stayed for four hundred years.
2. They taught the Britons many things. They built houses of
brick and stone.
3. They also built towns with walls all round them. They made
good roads and built bridges.
4. They kept peace in the country for all that long time, and the
Britons learned about God.
5. But at last the Romans left the country and went home to
fight their foes in their own land.

At first the Britons were very glad that the
RKomans were gone, for they could now do as
they liked. But they soon found out that it
would have been better for them if the Romans.
had stayed.
Far away in the north, in the land we now
call Scotland, there were fierce tribes of men,
whom the Romans had never been able to
master. To keep them back, strong walls had
been built right across the country, and many
soldiers were always kept upon the walls.
Now that the Roman soldiers were gone,


these wild tribes came in swarms,, to rob and kill
the Britons of the south. The Romans had
never taught the Britons how to fight, and so
they were not able to beat back their foes.
They were in sad trouble, and sent again and
again to the R,,mli m s to beg them to come over
and help them. But it was all of no use, for
the Romans had so many foes near their own
homes, that they could not spare any men to go
to Britain.
The Romans, for a long time before they left
the country, had kept ships always sailing up and
down the coast, to drive back some sea-robbers
who were called Saxons.
When the Britons found that the Romans
could not spare any men, they asked some of
these Saxons to come and help them. The
Saxons were glad of the chance, and in a very
short time drove the fierce men from the north
back to their own homes.
But when the Saxons saw what a good country
this was, they made up their minds to stay here.
So they sent for their friends, who came in
swarms, sailing over the sea in their ships called
keels, and 1brin -.in j e their wives and children and
cattle with them.
The coming of all these people made the
poor Britons worse off than ever.
Write out and Learn
1. At first the Britons were glad that the Romans were gone.
2. But wild tribes from the north began to come south to rob,
burn, and kill.


3. So the Britons sent to ask the Romans to come back to help
4. But the Romans could not come back, and the Britons asked
some sea-robbers called Saxons to help them.
5. The Saxons soon drove the wild tribes back, but seeing how
good a land this was, they made up their minds to try to
take it from the Britons.

Now a cruel time began. For two hundred
years the Saxons fought the Britons, or the
Welsh, as they were now called. Bit by bit, the
Welsh were driven further and further to the
west. They fought bravely, but they had not
been trained to fight as the Saxons had been.
Many of their brave men had gone away to
fight in the Roman armies. Worst of all, they
could not agree among themselves, and they
were beaten many times only because they would
not help each other.
It was a sad time. The Welsh were driven
from their homes. Their towns and houses were
burned down. Their cattle and gold and silver
were taken from them. Their churches were
burned, and many thousands of men, women,
and children were killed by their cruel foes.
Now and then they won a fight, and now and
then a hero rose up among them. A hero, you
know, is a man who is willing to do all he can
for others, even to giving up his own life. One
hero that we read of was King Arthur. It is
said that he won twelve great fights against the
Saxons, but at last he also was killed.


And so in the course of time the Welsh were
either killed, or driven away to the west, into
the land we now call Wales. Nearly all the
best parts of the country, the middle, the east,
and the south, were taken. The many tribes
who had come over became one people, and were
called English; and their land came to be called
But the English had never learned about
God, and so this land was once more in the hands
of men, who cared little for what was good.
Write out and Learn
1. For two hundred years fighting went on. And at the end of that
time all the country but Wales was in the hands of the Saxons
or English, as they were now called.
2. Hence this land came to be called England, or the land of the
3. But the English did not know about God, and so the land was once
more in the hands of men who cared little for what was good.
We know many things about the Eni-hi,
because in their time there were men in Eng-
land who were able to write books.
We learn that they were tall, stout men, and
very strong. Their heads were round, and were
covered with thick light brown hair, which they
wore long. Their eyes were grey or brown, and
most of them had rosy cheeks. Their faces were
pleasing to look upon, and though they were
very fierce and cruel to their foes, or to strangers,
they were kind to their wives and children.
Still they were brave men, and were never

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afraid of hard work. Perhaps the best thing we
know about them is, that they spoke the truth.
For a long time after they came to live in
England, they knew nothing about God. They
had many gods, some of whom they loved and
others they feared. But after a time, some good
and holy men came from far away in the south,
from the city of Rome, to teach them about the
true God.
In those days, rich men had slaves in their
houses and on their farms. These slaves were
bought and sold just as if they were cattle.
In most towns there was a slave market.
One day a good priest named Gregory was walk-
ing through the slave market in Rome. There
he saw for sale some pretty English boys. He
was struck with their white skins, and blue eyes,
and fair hair.
On asking about them, he was told that they
came from England. 'Their faces are like those
of angels,' he said. He thought it was a pity
that such folks as the English should know
nothing of God.
So he tried to get leave to go to teach them
and preach the Gospel to them. But the Roman
people loved him so well, that they would not
let him go. Still Gregory did not forget the
faces of the little slave boys. And years after,
when he became a great man, he sent some good
men to teach the English about God and how to
lead better lives.


It took a long time to make the English give
up their old gods; but at last most of them came
to trust in the true God, and once more churches
were built all over the land.
Write out and Learn
1. The English were tall, strong men. They were fierce and cruel
to strangers, but kind to their friends.
2. They were brave men who always spoke the truth.
3. Some English children were taken to be sold as slaves in the
market in Rome.
4. Here they were seen by a good man named Gregory, who liked
their pretty faces.
5. When he found out where they came from, he wanted to go
to England to teach the people about God.
6. He could not go himself, so he sent good men in his place.
And in time the English gave up their old gods, and churches
were once more built in the land.

10. BEDE
Many good men came to teach the English,
and some of them, whom we speak of as monks,
gave up their lives to the work. These good
men lived in houses by themselves. They spent
their time in writing or copying books, or in
hard work in their fields, or in teaching the
people, or in praying.
They lived hard lives, but they did not mind
so long as they could do good. They took care
of the poor, the sick, and the helpless. They
taught reading and writing, and in time some of
the English began to write books.
Perhaps the best known of all the monks was
Bede. He was a very good man, who spent his
life in doing good to others.




He worked very hard, so that he might leave
i 1 .lk. which iiii -ht be useful to those that came
after him. He lived at Jarrow, and there may
still be seen part of the old church in which he
used to preach and pray, and also an old chair
that is said to have been his.
The last work he did was to turn part of the
Bible into English. The day before he died he
was dl'lii- this. He had a little boy sitting near
him to write down the verses as fast as he
turned them into English.
N, w and again, as the boy wrote, Bede would
say: Get on as quickly as you can, for I do not
know how soon I may be '.,:,,-.'
The next day, as the church bell was rin.iiir-
in the :.-'rin,-. the little boy said to him: 'Dear
master, still there is one verse to be written.'
Then write quickly,' said Bede; and told
him the words to put down.
Now it is ended,' said the boy, as he laid
down his pen.
Yes, it is ended,' Bede said. 'And now lift
n.\- head and hold me up, so that I may turn my
eyes to the church, where I have been used to
And as the boy lifted him up he drew his last
breath, and died with a prayer on his lips.
Write out and Learn
1. Bede was a good monk who lived at Jarrow.
2. H.. .1.. i the people to live good lives, and took care of the
.' ., : ,i poor.
3. The last work he did was to turn part of the Bible into Eiri;-_1L.
so that men might be able to read it.


The English who came over the sea in their
ships and took the land, were not all of the same
tribe. There were men of many tribes, and for
a time each had its own chief or king.
But there was always one chief, who had
more power than the others. In time the tribes
learned that it was best for them to be under one
ruler. And so England came to have kings over
it. -There were many English kings, of whom
the -alit -t iil best was King Alfred.
Wh if hI, w-i q-uite a little boy, he was so
I ;ighit 1aii( fit everyonee was fond of him.
He wa- ;.wv'F ig to learn something new.
He liked to follow the men into the fields, and
see them at their work. And he was fond of
hearing the harper play and sing his strange old
One day, his mother was showing him and
his brothers a very pretty book. In those days
books were all written by hand. The men who
wrote them loved their books, and made them
look as pretty as they could, by painting the first
letter of each page in gay colours.
Seeing how pleased the boys were, their
mother said: 'I will give this pretty book to the
one who can first learn by heart the songs that
are in it.'
Will you really ?' said Alfred. Yes, that I
will,' said his mother.

So Alfred took the book, and ran off with it to
a kind old priest who could read it. The priest
read the songs over and over to him, and so he
soon learned every one of them. Thus Alfred
won his first book, and, as you may think, he
was very proud of it.
Alfred's father was a wise king, who knew
that the only way to be truly great was to have
learning. So he sent Alfred all the way to
Rome to be taught. It was a very long way for
such a small boy to go, for Alfred was then only
about five years old.
There he learned many tlih-;, that helped
him, when it became his turl t :- king, to be
better and wiser than those whi i :ii:i been kings
before him.
Write out and Learn
1. Alfred was the greatest and best of the Saxon kings. He ruled
over the land about a thousand years ago.
2. When quite a boy his father sent him to Rome. There he
learned many things that helped him to rule his people wisely.

Life in England a thousand years ago was not
like what it is now. King Alfred was born, and
spent his early days in a house no larger than a
farmhouse in our days. From old books we can
tell what the house was like.
There was a large yard, shut in by a high
fence, with very strong doors. Inside the yard
stood a group of buildings. One of them was
the church, a small building very much like a




barn. People could tell that it was a church, by
the steeple with its cross on the top of it.
Near by was the hall, and it was in this that
the king and his family lived. Deer's horns
were nailed to the door, and the wooden walls
inside were hung all round with spears, and
swords, and bows.
The windows were very narrow, for glass was
not much used in those days. In the middle of
the floor was a big fire of logs, the smoke from
which rose up to the roof.
There were no lamps, and the room was
lighted by torches, that were stuck into places
on the walls.
If we could have peeped into the hall at
noon, we should have seen that dinner was just
being served. A long table ran down the middle
of the room. At the upper end, which was
raised a little, sat the king and his family. His
friends sat on each side of the long table.
The meat was handed round on sharp bits of
wood called spits. Each man cut off as much as
he wanted with his knife, that always hung at
his belt. Drink, such as wine and beer, was
served in cups that were mostly made of horns.
The king wore a long silk gown, that was
covered with figures of birds and beasts. The
gentle-folk wore gay clothes made of fine cloth.
After dinner the table was cleared, and the
broken bread and meat were given to the
beggars, who were waiting in the great yard.


Then the harper was told to play and to sing
of the brave deeds of the heroes, who lived long,
long ago.
Write out and Learn
1. In Alfred's time kings lived in houses no bigger than farm-
houses are now.
2. There was a large yard with a fence round it. Inside were the
church, the hall, and other buildings.
3. Houses had no glass windows and there were no lamps.
4. The king and his friends all dined I-, h. i, in the large hall.
5. Drink such as beer and wine was passed round in horn cups.
Meat was passed round on spits and each mnan cut off as
much as he wanted.

Men had to work hard in the olden time, just
as they have to do now.
In the spring the farmers got out their
ploughs, which were drawn by oxen, and broke
up the ground. They sowed barley and oats
chiefly, for many plants that we grow were not
known to them at all. In summer they cut
their hay, and the men who lived near the sea
went out fishing. In autumn they reaped their
crops, and stored them up in their barns for food
in the winter. They drove their pigs into the
woods to feed on the acorns and beech nuts.
Their cattle and sheep always needed to be
looked after. And in the winter, both men and
dogs were ever on the watch, to drive away the
wolves, which at that time came out of the
woods to try to steal the sheep.
In those days there were no shops, where

men could go and buy what they wanted. .S
every family had to make all the things that
were needed for use in the house and for wear.
The women and girls were always busy, after
the work of the house was done, in weaving
cloth, of which clothes were made.
Meat was salted and put into tubs for the
winter. Beer was brewed and put into big
casks. Great stacks of firewood were heaped up
ready for the cold weather. Milk and barley
bread were the chief food. Fresh beef and
mutton were eaten in the summer, and salted
meat in the winter.
In the winter months 1oin .ii'.. was carried
on, and beasts and birds were killed for food.
So we see that, in the olden time, most of the
people had to work ha-ld, and live quietly, just
as men do now.
Write out and Learn
1. In the spring the farmers sowed their crops of oats and barley.
2. In the summer they cut their hay and went r-liii.,,.
3. In the autumn 0i. -.aped their crops, and drove their pigs
into the woods 1ri 1..- on acorns.
4. In the winter 14..' tended their sheep and cattle, and made
all kinds of iI .... for use and wear. Tih. also hunted
beasts and birds.
5 So we see that in the olden time men had to work hard just as
1!' do now.

We do not know very much about what
children did in the olden i;i,, --, for the old books
do not ;iv T ry much about then.

-I i%-Tf LE blh 1-1--: [L.-,


In those days there were some people who
were free, and others who were slaves. (C'iiren
of free people were dressed like their mothers
and fathers. Their hair was nicely combed and
'i..il-dll and left to grow all its length. The
children of slaves had their hair cut short.
They wore strings of glass beads round their
necks. The little girls played with dolls made of
wood and rag, and no doubt they washed them
and dressed them, just as little girls do now.
When they grew older, they were taught how to
sew, and spin, and cook.
The boys played at football and marbles.
They helped to feed the beasts, and when they
grew older they learned how to fish and hunt.
They dared not go far into the woods for fear of
the wolves.
But their time was not all spent in play.
They had to learn lessons too. The master held
the book in his hand, and he read the lesson over
and over again to the children, until they knew
it by heart.
We have some of the old books that they
learned from. Here are some of the things they
had to learn :-
What is snow ?'
'Dried water.'
'I know a thing that flies. It has an iron,
beak; its tail is of feathers, and it carries death
with it. What is it '
An arrow.'


What do you get to eat ?'
Meat and herbs, and fish, and butter, and
cheese, and beans.'
And what to drink ? '

L I:


Here is a map of the world taken from one
of these old books. You will see that it is not
much like the map of the world that we have
now. (Adapteafrom York Powell's Old Storiesfrom English Iistory.')

Write out and Learn
1. Children of free people were dressed like their fathers and mothers,
and wore their hair long.
2. Children of slaves wore their hair short.
3. When young they played as children do now. As they grew.
older they were taught to sew, to spin, and to cook.
4, They also had lessons to learn. The teacher held the book,
and the children had to learn by heart all he told them.



We have read that after the Romans went
away, the Saxons came and took the land from
the Britons.
In the Saxon times, other fierce robbers came
in their ships from over the sea to rob and kill.
These men were called Danes. They were great

S'\ i N I
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sailors, and came from a land that was not so
good to live in as England was. So they used to
come in their ships, and after landing they would
kill the people, and rob their houses, and burn
the churches.
For a long time the Saxons did their best to
drive them away. But in the times when Alfred
was king, so many of them came, that even


Alfred had for a time to run away and hide.
However, he beat them at last in a great fight,
I and made peace with them.
The Danes had good ships. From this pic-
ture of one you will see that it was long and
rn.i'iw. It had only one mast and a great
square sail, that was made of strips of red, and
white, and green cloth, which was very bright
and gay, when the sun shone upon it.
All round the sides of the ship were placed
the shields of the men, who sat behind them,
rowing with the long oars.
The Danes were good sailors and brave
fighters, and though they were often very cruel,
still they were brave men. They would die
rather than give in.
But they had never been taught that it is
wrong to fight except in a good cause. They
did not know that it is a noble thing to help the
weak against the strong. Though they often did
evil deeds, they were true to their friends, and
did their duty as far as they knew it.
Write out and Learn
1. The Danes came to try to take the land away from the English.
2. They were good sailors and came from over the sea.
3. When Alfred was king so many Danes came that he had to
go into hiding.
4. At last he beat them in a great fight and made peace with
5. The Danes had good ships that were painted very gaily.
6. They were cruel men, but they did their duty as far as they
knew it.

/N R M






Alfred is often called 'the great; but per-
haps it would be better to call him the good.'
For he spent his life in teaching his people, and
in helping them to live better lives.
He was wise enough to see, how learning
and the love of good books can make men better.
And so he sent to other lands for good men to
come and teach his people. He set up schools,
and sometimes went and taught the children
The fame of all this spread abroad, and wise
and learned men came to England, for they
heard that Alfred was sure to be glad to see
them. He was so kind to them, that many
stayed with him to help him in his good work.
He also wrote books. And he turned other
books into English, so that his people might be
able to read them.
Alfred also built churches, and houses in
which he put good men and women, so that they
might work, and read, and pray in peace.
After he had beaten the Danes in a great
fight, he set to work to build a fleet of ships.
These ships were always sailing along the coasts,
so as to be ready to meet the Danish ships and
drive them away.
It would take a long time to tell of all the
good that Alfred did. In one of his books he
says, 'As long -as I have lived, I have striven to

live worthily,' and the best men can do no more
than that.
He died after ruling for thirty years, and for
a long time he was spoken of as 'Alfred the
Truth-teller,' and 'Alfred the Darling of his
people.' And though it is a thousand years
since he lived, we still love him, as a king who
did nobly, and always loved that which was
Write out and Learn
1. Alfred was King of England about a thousand years ago.
2. He was a wise and good man. He spent his time in ruling
and teaching his people.
3. He set up schools and built churches. He wrote some books
and turned others into English, so' that his people might
read them.
4. He built many ships to beat back the Danes. After he died
he was spoken of as 'Alfred the Truth-teller.

After Alfred's d-:ith,. the Danes came again,
and tried to take part of the land for themselves.
Fighting went on for about a hundred years, and
at last a Dane was chosen to be King of all
This was Canute, one of the wisest of our
kings. He said he would always do his best to
take care of his people, and try to make them
happy. He kept his word, and so all men
learned to trust him and to love him.
He built many churches, most of which were
built of stone. Up to this time churches had
been built of wood.


He also loved singing, and at times he made
verses for his men'to sing.
There was a great church and a home where
good monks lived in the town of Ely. At that
time the town stood on an island, and one day, as
Canute and his queen were being rowed in their
boat, they heard the monks singing.
They could not make out the words that were
being sung, though they could hear the sweet
sounds. And so the king made this verse for his
men to sing:-
The Ely monks sang merrily
As King Canute was rowing by;
Row, men, to the land more near,
That we the good monks' song may hear.
Canute was very good to the monks of Ely,
and gave fine gifts to their church, where he
often went to hear them sing.
We have had handed down to us, in old
books, some good stories of Canute, and two of
these we will next read about.
Write out and Learn
1. Canute the Dane became King of England about a hundred
years after the death of Alfred the Good.'
2. He was a very good king.
3. He built many churches and ruled his people justly.
4. He loved singing, and sometimes made verses for his men to
One morning in the winter, Canute wanted
to go from the place where he was staying to the
island of Ely.

In those days, most of that part of the
country was under water, and was called the
Fens. Small islands were dotted about here and
there. In summer, men went from place to
place in boats. In winter, they could cross on
the ice.
It had been very cold for some time, and so
the water was frozen all over. The ice was too
thick for a boat to be forced through it, but
Canute and his men thought it was too thin to
bear the weight of a horse and sledge.
So they did not know what to do. The king
wanted to go very badly, but he knew that he
and his friends might be drowned if the ice broke
under him.
Now there was quite a crowd of people look-
ing on, and among them was a poor man who
was called Bodge. This name had been given to
him because he was so very big and stout.
Seeing that the king was afraid that the ice
was too thin, Bodge stood forth and said: Sir,
may I lead the way ? I am so heavy, that if the
ice will bear me, it will bear any weight.'
This was very brave of him, and all the
people said: Well done, Bodge.'
The king was much pleased, and said:
'Thank you, my brave fellow. I shall be very
glad for you to run in front and find a safe
So off they went, the brave Bodge running
in front with a stout pole in his hand. Bodge

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knew the best way across the ice, and so they
soon reached Ely in safety.
Then the king called Bodge to him, and
when he knew that Bodge was a slave, he at
once set him free, and gave him some land for
ills own. (Adapted from York Powell's Old Storiesfrom E lnlish History.')
Write out and Learn
1. This is a story about Canute.
2. He wanted to cross the ice with his horses and sledge, but
was not sure that the ice was strong enough to bear them.
3. A brave man named Bodge said he would run in front.
4. He was so big and heavy that if the ice would bear him it
would bear any weight.
,. So he went in front, and the king crossed safely. Canute was
so pleased that he made Bodge a free man.


Canute was a wise and good man. Though
he was such a great king, he was not proud.
When he was away in Rome, he wrote a long
letter to his people. In the letter he said that
he had Imade up his mind to try to rule them
better than before. We can see by this letter,
how Canute wished to serve God in all things,
and how much he'wished his people to be good.
Now Canute had some men about him, who
tried to win his favour by praising him.
He was too wise to believe all the fine things
they said about him, and one day he made up
his mind to teach them a lesson. They were all
down by the sea-shore, and some of them began

to say how wise Canute was, and that he was the
greatest king that had ever lived.
'Bring my chair,' said he, 'and place it close
to the water's edge, where the tide will soon
begin to flow.'
Seating himself in his chair, he raised his
hand in command nd shouted: 'Sea, come no
further. Thou art under my rule as much as
the land. I forbid thee to flow over my land or
to wet my feet.'
But the sea crept nearer and nearer. Soon
the little waves beat around his chair and wetted
his feet and clothes.
Then, turning to his men, he said: 'See how
weak is the power of an earthly king. God
alone has power over all, and can make the tide
to ebb and flow. He only is worthy of the name
of King.
Honour then -God and serve Him, for Him
do all things obey.'
It is said that from that day Canute never
wore his crown. He hung it up in a church, so
that all men might see how little he thought of
earthly power.
Write out and Learn
1. Though he was a great king, Canute was not proud.
2. Some of his friends tried to win his favour by praising him.
3. So he had his chair set by the sea-shore. Then he stood up
and told the waves to come no further.
4. When the water began to flow round his chair he pointed out
the weakness of the power of an earthly king. 'God alone
is worthy to be called a King,' he said.

4 .Y.

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A -- z ~-;

-J -' 9~ i





For nearly two hundred years after the death
of the great King Alfred, Saxon kings ruled in
England. But in that time there were also three
Danish kings.
The last Saxon king but one was a very good
man, named Edward. He spent most of his time
in reading and praying.
He built many churches and was very good
to the poor. But he had one very bad fault.
He liked the men who lived in a land not far
from En1uirl, better than he liked his own
people. These men were the Normans, and they
were ruled over by a brave man named William,
who was cousin to the English king.
It was said that Edward had told William
that he should be King of England. And when
at last Edward lay dying, his friends came to
him, and begged that he would say who should
be king after him.
Lifting his head he said: 'I should like my
cousin William to be king, and I think some of
you have bound yourselves to him.'
But his friends said: 'Sir, if we have any
king but Harold, we shall have no peace.'
'Then choose whom you will,' said the dying
He died soon afterwards, and was buried in a
fine church, where his tomb stands to this day,


And so Harold, the last of the Saxon kings,
came to rule over England.
William the Norman thought he had a better
right to be king than Harold. But Harold was
chosen king by the people, and thus he was the
only man who had any real right.
Harold was a strong and brave man, and was
loved by his people. But he did not rule over
them long, for William the Norman made up his
mind that he would turn Harold off the throne,
and be king in his place.
Write out and Learn
1. For nearly two hundred years after the death of Alfred the
Good there were Saxon kings in England. But in that time
there were also three Danish kings.
2. Edward was the last but one of the Saxon kings.
3. He wanted William the Norman to be king after him.
4. But the people chose Harold, and he was the last of the Saxon
5. Harold was strong and brave, and was loved by his people.
But William the Norman was angry, and said he would turn
Harold off the throne.

William the Norman lived in a land just over
the sea to the south of England.
It is said that when he was born, an old
nurse laid him down upon a bed of straw. The
baby put out his little hand, and when his nurse
came to pick hih up, she saw that each hand
was full of straw.
'You will be a great lord some day,' said she,


' and win lands and riches, since you begin to
take hold of things so early.'
When he grew up to be a man, he ruled his
people firmly and wisely. Men dared not do
wrong for fear William should hear of it.
When he heard that the people of England
had made Harold king, he was very angry. He
called his great men about him, and told them
how he ought to have been made king. Then
he said that he had made up his mind to go and
fight Harold.
He asked them if they would go with him to
help him. At first they did not want to go, but
after a time William talked them all over. He
told his friends that, if they would help him to
take England, he would give them fine lands and
houses and slaves.
Then they began to get ready, and men were
soon busy in every town making swords and
spears. Large stores of food were got ready,
and ships were built in every port.
At last they set sail. There was quite a
large army, and as ships in those days were very
small, it took many hundreds of them to carry
the army across.
William had a fine new ship, that was a gift
to him from his wife. The sails were red and
white, and at the top of the mast was a big
lamp to show the way to the other ships at
And so the Normans came over to England,


They landed on the south coast, and then waited
for Harold and his men to come and fight them.
Write out and Learn
1. William the Norman lived in a land that lies over the sea to
the south of England.
2. When he heard that Harold was made king he was very angry,
and said he would go over and fight him.
3. His men said they would go with him. So they set sail in
many ships.
4. They landed on the south coast, and waited for Harold and his
men to come and fight them.

The English took up their post upon the top
and side of a hill. They dug a ditch in front of
them, and inside the ditch they put up a fence
of strong stakes.
The English fought on foot, and each man
was armed with a sword and a big axe, that was
held by both hands.
Harold planted his great flag on the top of
the hill, and there he stood with his best friends
about him, ready for the fight. He told his men
to stand firmly close to each other. 'For,' said
he, 'if we break our line, the Normans will beat
us; but if we stand steady, we must win the
The Normans fought on horseback, and
many of them could shoot with the bow.
The fight began in the morning, and lasted
for many hours without either side getting the
better of the other.


Once a cry was raised that William was slain.
But, jumping up, he shouted to his men: I am
here, safe and sound, and mean to win the day.'
As long as the English kept close to each
other at the top of the hill the Normans could
not beat them. But in the afternoon some of
the English forgot the king's order, and rushed
down the hill after some Normans who were
running away. Thus the English line was
Then William told his archers to shoot their
arrows high into the air, so that they might fall
upon the heads of the English. As the sun was
setting an arrow struck Harold in the eye. At
the same time the Normans made a fierce charge
upon the Saxons, and Harold and two of his
brothers were slain, and his flag was beaten to
the ground.
And so ended the great fight at Senlac, and
so died the last of the Saxon kings.
At night, by the light of the bonfires, good
men and women went over the battle-field, tend-
ing those who were hurt, and burying the dead.
Write out and Learn
1. The English were posted on a hill. Here Harold planted his flag.
2. The English fought on foot. Most of the Normans were on
3. The English were beaten, and Harold was killed.
4. This great fight is called the Battle of Hastings' (1066).
5. William the Norman became king.
6. In time all the land came into the hands of the Normans



For about five hundred years the English
had lived in the land, and for more than two
hundred years their own kings had ruled over
them. During this long time the English had
learned very many things that helped to make
them wiser and better.
After William the Norman had beaten the
English, he wanted to find out all about the land
he had taken.
So he had a big book made, in which was put
down all that could be learned about the country.
This book was called the Domesday Book. In
it were set down the names of the towns, and
the people who lived in them; the size and
shape of the farm lands; what was grown upon
them; and the number of sheep, cattle, and
From it we learn, that the greater part of the
land was still covered with woods. But many
clearings had been made, in which corn and
other crops were grown.
Towns had sprung up in many places, and
London had become the chief sea-port. There
were more people living in the south and east,
than in the other parts of the country. Large
flocks of sheep were fed on the downs just as
they are to this day.
Churches were built in the towns and villages,
and men learned to know the true God.


The English had many ships, and traded with
people who lived over the sea. They sent away
slaves and wool, which they sold for such things
as wine, silk, and glass, or for gold and silver.
A large part of these times was filled up
with cruel wars. But there were always the
wise and good monks who were ever teaching
the people how to do what was right. And
there were always the hard-working farmers who
raised crops, and kept cattle and sheep.
During the Saxon times the English, instead
of being split up into many tribes, each with its
own chief, grew up to be one nation, ruled over
by its king.
Write out and Learn
1. The English lived in the land for about six hundred years before
William the Norman became king.
2. We learn much about England in those days from the
'Domesday Book.' This was made h-- William.the Norman.
3. Much of the land was still forest. 'I.- ..-. had sprung up in
many places. London had become the chief sea-port.
4. The English had learned to trade, and sent their ships to other
5. They had learned about God, and had become one nation,
ruled over by their own king.

William was made King of England on
Christmas Day, in the year 1066. He wished to
please the English, and said that he would rule
over them as well as any king had done before
Then he went to his home for a time. But
he soon had to come back again. For the Eng-


lish began to think that they had given in too
easily, and so they tried to get their lands back
from the Normans.
For five long years William had no rest.
First the people in the West rose against him.
When he was away fighting them, the men of
the North rose up, and killed many of his
At last William became very angry, and did
many cruel tli;',. In the North, he drove all
the poor people out of their homes, and burnt
their houses, and laid- all the land waste.
Then for a time there was peace in the land.
The king kept up the good old English laws, and
wicked men dared not do wrong, because they
feared the king.
But there was not much peace for William.
Robert, the eldest of his sons, was both lazy and
careless. IHe wanted his father to give him a
large part of his lands to rule over. 'No,' said
William, 'it is not my way to take off my
clothes before I go to bed.'
Then the wicked young man made war upon
his father. Having hurt his father in battle he
was very sorry, and l1,:- <.-,l for pardon. At first
the king was very angry, but at last he forgave
his son, and so peace was made.
When William lay upon his deathbed, he
sent for his three sons, and told them the story
of his life.
He said: When I think of my sins, I am


sore afraid. I have been a man of war from my
youth up. I won a crown by force of arms, not
by right.
But I have tried to rule rightly over the
land which I won by wrong.
'And now, I pray you, my sons, follow me
so far as I have done rightly, but shun the faults
into which I have fallen.'
Then he blessed his three sons. He gave
orders for some of his money to be given to the
poor, and the rest to the Church. And soon
after he died.
Write out and Learn
1. William was made King ..i' E,1... .1 on Christmas Day, 1066.
2. The English soon rose .- .i-1 I I. Normans, and it took five
more years before the land was at peace.
3. William kIept up the good old English laws, and ruled justly.
4. When he died he left money to be given to the poor and
money also to the Church.

After William the Norman was dead, his son
William ruled in his stead. This son is often
called the Red King.' He began his reign
well, and did what his father had told him. He
was very brave and proud. Once, when he was
about to set sail, the master of the ship said the
sea was too rough, and that they might all be

'Set sail! said the Red King; 'I never
heard of a king being drowned.'
His father had been very fond of hunting


the deer, and had made many great Deer Parks.
To make one of them, he had driven hundreds of
poor people out of their homes, and turned all
their lands into a big hunting ground. This was
called the New Forest. It has been kept as a
forest unto this day, and still has the same name.
It was said, that William the Norman loved
the deer better than he loved his people. And
he had no mercy on men who killed the deer.
One day, the Red King started with some
friends to hunt the deer in the New Forest. As
he was mounting his horse, a man came up and
gave him six fine new arrows.
The king was very pleased, and, picking out
two of them, he handed them to a friend, at the
same time saying: 'Here, Walter, take these
two arrows; I know you will make the best use
of them.'
Then they rode off in search of the deer.
Soon a fine stag came rushing past them. The
king shot with his bow but missed him.
So he shouted to his friend: 'Shoot! Walter !
Shoot You will not miss him.'
Walter shot with all his might, but the arrow
glanced off a tree and struck the king, who fell
dead from his horse. Seeing that the king was
dead, Walter turned and fled.
At sunset some poor men came by, and find-
ing the dead king they put him into a cart, and
took him away to a great church at Winchester,
where he was buried.




Thus we see, that the Red King was killed
in the same forest that his father had driven so
many poor people away from.
Write out and Learn
1. The Red King was very brave and proud. He was very fond
of hunting in the New Forest, which his father William the
Norman had made.
2. In order to make this forest, many poor people had been driven
from their homes.
3. One day, when hunting in the New Forest, the Red King was
shot by an arrow, and there died.
4. Some poor men coming by, saw the dead body of the king.
They put it into a cart and took it to Winchester, and in the
great church there the Red King was buried.

The next king was Henry the Scholar.
Once, as he was about to set sail from France to
England, a man came to him and said:
'Sir, my father served your father all his life
upon the sea. I have here a fine vessel called
the White Ship; I pray you come on board, and
let me carry you to England.'
'I am sorry, friend,' said the king,' that I
cannot sail with the son of the man who served
my father. But my son and his friends shall go
with you.'
So the young prince set sail in the White
Ship. It was a fine night, and the prince and
his friends sat up on the deck, and talked, and
laughed, and sang. He was so pleased with the
ship, that he did a very foolish thing. He gave
the sailors a great deal of wine to drink, and this
made them unfit to take care of the ship.





All at once the ship struck on a rock and
began to sink.
The captain got out a boat, and the prince
and a few of his friends stepped into it. 'Push
off,' said the c;.p if-!, 'and row to the land. It
is not far, and the sea is smooth. The rest of us
must die.'
But as they rowed away, the prince heard
the voice of his sister calling for help.
Row back,' he cried, 'row back. I cannot
bear to leave her.'
They rowed I,.:k, and as the prince held out
his arms for his sister, so many leaped into the
boat that it sank, and all were drowned.
Of all the people in the ship only one man
was saved, and he was a poor butcher, who kept
himself afloat in his big sheep-skin coat until he
was picked up.
For a time no one dared to tell the king. But
at last the king's friends sent a little child, who,
with tears in his eyes, told him that the White
Ship was lost. It is said that, when he heard
the sad news, the king fell to the ground like a
dead man, and was never seen to smile again.
Write out and Learn
1. Henry the Scholar' was the next king.
2. Once, when he was about to sail back to England, a man
hp.p rl that he would go with him in the White Ship.
3. T I. !..!! could not go himself, so he said that his son should
sail in it.
4. But the White Ship' struck on a rock, and the prince was
5. It is said that the king never smiled again.



When the Normans took the
times fell upon the poor English.
of the kings tried to see that the

country, evil
Though most
English were

rl ;I..


well treated, they were not always strong enough
to make their great nobles do that which was
right and just.
The lands, and houses, and cattle of many of

" -

the rich English were taken away from them,
and given to the men who had helped William
the Norman in his great fight with Harold. The
poor people were made to work hard for their
Norman masters, and were little better than
There were not nearly so many people in the
land as there are now. London has three times
as many as there then were in all England.
The Normans were fond of living in big
castles, which they built in all parts of the
country. The ruins of some of them may be
seen to this day, and so we are able to see the
kind of houses in which the rich Normans lived.
They also built many grand churches. The
picture on the next page shows us what one of
them was like.
Most of the houses, even in the towns, were
still built of wood, and were covered with thatch.
The Normans brought many new ways into
the country. They were very fond of- gay clothes,
and also of good cooking. The English soon
learnt to do as the Normans did, but they never
gave up their own speech, and in time the Nor-
mans also learnt to speak English.
Write out and Learn
1. Much of the land, and houses, and cattle of the English was
taken by the Normans.
2. The poor English people were made to work hard for their
Norman masters.
3. The Normans built many strong castles, and also some fine
churches, some of which stand to this day.
4. In time the Normans learned to speak English.


I Al
~ii II~ i IjI_ : I'-

I ;-;ii



.This was a very brave king, and so men
called him the Lion-Heart.'
He was very fond of music and singing. But
he was not a good king, for he went away for
many years to fight in other lands.
While he was away, bad men were cruel to'
the poor, and did many wicked things, because
there was no strong king to keep them in order.
Richard was very brave, no doubt, and many
tales are told of the great deeds he did, when
fighting in the Holy Land.
On his way home he fell into the hands of a
man who hated him, and shut him up in a strong
For a time no one in England knew where
Richard was. An old story tells us how one of
his friends, a man who had many a time sung
and played to the king, started off to find him.
He went from castle to castle, and stood below
the walls, and sang some songs which he knew
that Richard loved.
One day as he -.-.i,, he heard a voice that
came from some room high up in the c-itl.-,
singing the same -:.i,. and he knew that the
singer must be his king.
When it became known where Richard was,
a large sum of money was paid to set him free.
Even when he came back to England, he did
not rule as justly as he ought.


He built a strong castle in France which he
called the 'Saucy Castle.' But he did not live
long after it was done.


When fighting outside the walls of a castle
that he was trying to take, he was struck by an
arrow and soon lay dying. The man who fired


the shot was brought before him. 'What have
I done to thee,' asked Richard, that thou
shouldest slay me ?'
Thou hast slain my father and two of my
brothers with thy own hand,' said the man.
On hearing this, and seeing how brave he
was, Richard forgave him, and said that he was
to go free. But his friends kept the man till the
king was dead, and then put him to death.
Write out and Learn
1. Richard Lion-Heart was a very brave man, but was not a very
good king.
2. He spent some of his time fighting in the Holy Land. On
his way home he was taken and shut up in a strong castle.
3. A large sum of money had to be paid to set him free.
4. When he lay dying he was noble enough to forgive the man
who shot the arrow that killed him.

John was not a good king. He was so cruel
to his people, and ruled so unjustly, that they
were very unhappy, and rose up against him.
They soon had a large army, and John found
that, if he wished to be king any longer, he must
be willing to rule better than he had done before.
So he said he would do as they wished, and
that he would be just to all men. All the good
things he told his men he would do, were written
down on a paper, that was called the 'Great
And ever since that day, England has been a
better land for men to live in than ever it was


pp r

But the worst of all John's wicked deeds was
his treatment of his brother's son Arthur.
He shut him up in a prison in France, far
away from his home. Poor Arthur was very sad
and lonely at first, but he soon made friends with
a man named Hubert, who was put in charge of
One day Arthur saw that Hubert had a very
sad face. 'What is the matter, Hubert ?' he
said. Why do you look so grave ?
It is only I that should be sad. If I were
out of prison and kept sheep, I should be merry
as the day is long.
'Are you sick, Hubert ? You look so pale
to-day. I wish you were a little sick, that I
might sit all night and watch with you.
I am sure I love you more than you do me.'
But Hubert only shook his head, and did not
speak. For in his hand he held a letter from
King John, telling him to put out both poor
Arthur's eyes.
Hubert had not the heart to tell the boy
what a cruel thing he had to do. So he gave
the letter to Arthur for him to read.
As he read it his face grew pale, and big
tears rolled down his cheeks.
'What, Hubert! Must you with hot irons
burn out both my eyes ? '
'My boy, I must, or the king will take my
Oh, Hubert, have you the heart to do such


a cruel deed ? Have I not always loved you as
a son
'When you have been sick, have I not
nursed you? And will you put out my eyes,
that never did, nor ever shall, so much as frown
upon you ?'
And Hubert's heart grew soft Nwithin him, as
he heard the cry of the boy he loved so well.
He felt that he could not do such a cruel deed,
and so for the time Arthur's life was safe.
But John was afraid that his men would
turn him off the throne and make little Arthur
king in his stead.
So he kept Arthur in prison, and soon after
it was said that he was dead. How he died no
one knows, but there is no doubt that John was
the cause of his death.
AU -,-T this, people hated John more than ever.
They rose up against him, and made him do what
they wished. He lost much of his land, and
when he died all his people were glad that such
a bad king no longer ruled over them.
Write out and Learn
1. John was a bad king, and did many evil deeds. His people
rose against him, and made him sign a paper saying he would
rule them better. This paper is called the Great Charter (1215).
2. He shut Arthur up in a strong castle. He was afraid his
people might make Arthur king.
3. At last poor Arthur was killed, and his wicked uncle was the
cause of his death.
4. When King John died his people were glad.


Edward the First was one of our greatest
kings. He was a strong and wise man, who
made all men obey the laws. He made many
wise laws, and in his days, men were able to do
their work and live in peace.
In an earlier lesson, we read that when the
English came and took this land for themselves,
the Welsh were driven into Wales.
There they had lived since that time. They
had their own kings, and never had an English
king to rule over them. The Welsh were brave
men. They were very fond of poetry and
singing, and played on the harp with great
King Edward made up his mind, that he
would rule over the Welsh. So he went to war
With them, and in the end the Welsh king was
killed. Then his people gave in. And since
that time Wales has been ruled by the King of
In order to please the Welsh, the king said
that his eldest son should be Prince of Wales.
And ever since that time, the eldest son of the
king has been called by that name.
Not only did Edward beat the Welsh, but he
also tried to make the Scotch king and people
take him for their over-lord-that is, their
At first Edward got his own way, but the


Scotch king soon grew tired of having him as
lord, and rose up against him.
For a time, Edward was able to make nearly
all the country give in to him, and he put the
Scotch king in prison.
But as soon as he left to go to England, other
brave men took up the fight, and Edward had to
begin his work all over again. The bravest of
these men were Wallace and Bruce. And it was
when Edward was an old man, and was on his
way to fight Bruce, that he was taken ill and
Edward was a good man, and a wise and
hard-working king. It was said of him, that he
was always truthful and kept faith.'

Write out and Learn
1. Edward the First was a great and wise king. He made many
good laws.
2. He made the Welsh take him for their king, and his son was
the first Prince of Wales.
3. He tried to make the Scotch take him for their king. He spent
much of his time in fighting the Scotch, who were led by
Wallace and Bruce.
4. But the Scotch won in the end.
5. It was said of him that he was always truthful and 'kept

Edward the Third ruled over England for
fifty years. He was very fond of fighting, and
made up his mind to try to be king of France, as
well as of England.

So he set sail with "
a big army and soon
reached France. His '
men were very brave,
and were ready to go
anywhere their king >'t
might lead them.
The French came to
meet him with a larger
army, hoping to beat
the English, and send ..,
them back to their own
country again. At last "
the two armies met, .
and a great fight took ..
place. This was the
battle of Crecy.
M. .,-, of the English
had been taught how
to shoot with bows and
arrows. Their bows were
very strong, and their
arrows were very sharp.
And the English were
such strong men, that
they could shoot their
arrows a very long way. --
They shot them so
thick and fast, that the / .
French could not stand EDWAD THE BLACK PINCE, FROM


Now the king had with him his eldest son,
who was- then quite a boy. At one time during
the fight, the Prince was hard pressed by the
French, and some of his friends were afraid that
he might be killed.
So they sent to the king for help. The king
asked: 'Is my son dead, or hurt, or felled to the
ground ?'
No, Sir, but he is hard pressed.'
'Then,' said the king, 'go back to those who
sent you, and tell them to send no more for help,
as long as my son is alive. I wish the glory of
winning the fight to be his.'
So they kept on with the fight, until many of
the French were killed and the rest ran away.
When the fight was over the king came
down to the field of battle and said to his son :
'Sweet son, God grant that you may go on
as you have this day begun; and you will be
worthy to be a king.'
But the prince bowed and gave all the glory
to his father. And this was the first great fight
won by the Black Prince, as he came to be
Write out and Learn
1. Edward the Third ruled over England for fifty years.
2. I-Ie tried to make the French take him for their king. So he
went to France with his army.
3. The English won a great fight at Crecy. This was the first battle
won by his son the Black Prince, as he came to be called.


After the great fight at Crecy, the English
made up their minds to take the town of Calais,
so that they might always have a safe place in
France for their ships.
They made a strong camp all round the town,
so that no one could go either in or out.
The French, who were inside the town, were
very brave men. They said they would rather
die for want of food, than give up their town.
The Eng,!iih would not let any food go in,
and in time the people were starving. But still
they held out. MIany months passed like this,
and King Edward was very angry. He sent to
say that he knew they must give in, for want of
But,' he said, if six of the chief men of the
town will come to me with chains round their
necks, and the keys of the town in their hands,
then I will forgive all the rest.'
The people were very sad when they heard
this. At last a brave man rose up and said: It
would be a great pity to let so many people die
for lack of food. I have such faith in God's
goodness to me, that I am willing to give up my
life to save my friends.'
Then five others said they would go with
him. And so these six brave men were brought
before the king.


They fell upon their knees, and begged him
to have pity upon them. But he only looked
angrily at them, and ordered that their heads
should be cut off.
Now the queen, who had crossed over to
France to see the king, was so sorry for the poor
men, that she fell upon her knees, and with
tears in her eyes, she said:
Ah, gentle Sir, since I have crossed the sea,
I have not asked you one favour. Now I most
humbly beg, for the sake of the love you have
for me, that you will spare the lives of these
poor men.'
The king looked at her for some time without
speaking. Then he said: 'Dear lady, you have
asked in such a way that I cannot say nay.
Take the men and do as you will with them.'
Then everyone was glad. And the good
queen took them, and having fed them, sent
them back happy to their homes.
Write out and Learn
1. After the great fight at Crecy, Edward tried to take the town of
2. He would not let any food be taken into the town, and so in time
the people were starving.
3. At last he said he would forgive the rest if six of the chief men
would come to him with the keys of the town in their hands
and chains round their necks.
4. Six brave men said they would go, so that the rest might be
5. The king was very angry, and gave orders that their heads
should be cut off. But his good queen begged for their lives,
and so they were set free.

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The Black Prince spent nearly all his life in
fighting in France.
He was a noble prince, and it seems a pity
that his life should have been spent in this way.
But those were cruel times, and the most a good
man could do was to do his duty as far as he
knew it.
Though the Black Prince did many cruel
deeds, he also did many kind ones.
In one great battle that he won against the
French, he was able to take the King of France.
Some men. would have been harsh and unkind to
the French king. But the Black Prince knew
that it was far nobler to treat him well, now that
he had him in his camp.
So he served him at table with his own
hands, and when he came back to London, he
made the king ride side by side with him
through the streets.
In this way he taught all men the lesson
that it is noble to be kind to fallen foes.
The French king showed that he could act as
nobly as the Black Prince. He was sent back to
France to try to raise a large sum of money to
pay the Black Prince to set him free.
And when he found that he could not get the
money, he kept his word, and came back again
to London, where he spent the rest of his life.


The Black Prince never became king of
England, for he died a year before his father.
But we are proud of him, for he was a brave
man, who tried to do his duty.
Write out and Learn
1. The Black Prince spent nearly all his life in Hh.-lih.: 11i.- French.
2. After one great battle that the Black Prince won, the King of
France gave himself up to him.
3. The Black Prince was kind to his fallen foe, and waited upon
him with his own hands.
4. He never became D.,_; of England, as he died the year before
his father.

The long wars with IPi:.-, had made food
very dear in England. Poor people were often
very hungry, and they began to think that the
king and the rich men did not treat them fairly,
and did not care what became of them.
At last, large numbers of the people made up
their minds that they would go to the king, and
tell him of their troubles. So they marched to
London under a leader whose name was AVf
The king was quite a boy. His name was
Richard, and he was a son of the Black Prince.
HeI was sorry for the poor people, and so,
with some of his friends about him, he rode
forth to meet Wat Tiler and his men. He was
a brave young king to be willing to go to meet
such a number of angry men.
Seeing the king ciuing, Wat Tiler rode up
!o t \




to him, and begged him to be just to the poor,
and to let all men be free to kill wild beasts and
game in the woods.
As they talked, one of the king's friends
became angry, and, drawing his sword, he struck
Wat Tiler to the ground.
When the men saw their leader fall they
shouted: 'Let us stand by each other. We will
die with our leader. Shoot lads, shoot !'
In another moment a dreadful fight would
have begun, but the young king rode to them as
quickly as he could, and called out: What is
this, my men ? Will you shoot your king? I
will be your leader, and will give you what you
ask for!'
Seeing the boldness of the king, they turned
and went with him out of the city. This was
the end of the rising. Most of the men went
back to their homes, but many were taken by
the king's friends and killed.
For the king could not do for them as he said
he would. And so for the time the poor people
were no better off than they were before.
Write out and Learn
1. The next king was Richard, son of the Black Prince. He was
quite a boy when he became king.
2. These were bad times for poor people, and many of them went
to London to ask help of the king.
3. Their leader was Wat Tiler. One of the king's friends killed
Wat Tiler, and the king rode up to the angry men and
shouted: 'I will be your leader, and will give you what you
ask for.'
4. So the men went home again. But the king did not help them.


And now we come to another king, who
wanted to be king of France, as well as king of
England. This was King' Henry the Fifth. He
was wild and thoughtless when he was young,
but as soon as he became king, he showed him-
self to be just towards all men.
He was slow to promise, but he alw.vvs kept
his word.
He was tall and strong, and so st\'t of foot
that he is said to have once run a hare, down in
a park.
He sailed to France with a fleet of ships, that
carried a big army of men. They soon landed,
and as they marched across the country, they
came to a place where the French army was
drawn up ready toermeet them.
Many of Henry's men had been killed, and
many had died of sickness. So there were not
many left to fight the French. But though they
saw such :I large army in front of them, none
wished to turn back.
The next day was Sunday, and, after prayers,
the English were drawn up in a field of fresh-cut
corn face to face with the Frencli host.
What time is it now ?' the king asked.
'The bells are ringing for church,' someone
told him.
Now is good time,' said he. 'Our friends at


home are praying for us, so let us be of good
Then the fight began. The king fought with
his own hands like one of his men.
After a time the French gave way. Many


thousands of them were killed, and great treasure
fell into the hands of the En glish.
You may think how glad the people of
England were when they heard of the great fight
at Agincourt.
Though Henry won a large part of France,
he did not live long to enjoy it.


Write out and Learn
1. Henry the Fifth tried to make the French take him for their
king, just as Edward the Third had done.
2.. He was a very strong man. He was slow to promise, but he
always kept his word.
8. He sailed to France with an army of men. He won a great
fight over the French, who then said that Henry should be
king when their king was dead.
4. Having won a large part of France, he died soon after.

For some years after Henry's death the
English leaders were able to beat the French.
But at last the French began to be able to beat
the English, and this is how it came about.
The English had for a long time been .try-
ing to take a town that had high walls all
round it.
The people inside the town were starving, and
made up their minds that, if help did not come
very soon, they would have to give in and open
the gates to the English.
There was at that time a young girl named
Joan Dare living in a small village in France.
She was about seventeen years old, and spent her
time in minding her father's cattle and in sewing
and spinning.
She was very good and kind, and had often
felt her heart full of pity for the poor soldiers,
who came home hurt from the wars.
She was also very sorry for the young king
of France, who was bravely fighting against the


She thought so much about these things,
that at last she fancied she could see bright
angels, who bade her go and try to save her
So she went to the French king and told him
all about it. He thought so much of what she
said that he let her go to try to put hope into the
hearts of his men.
Mounted upon a white horse, she led the
soldiers against the English. Full of new hope
and spirit, the French fought so well, that
they were able to force their way into the
And so the English gave up trying to take
the town and marched away.
Though she was only a poor girl, Joan Dare
had done for the French what neither the king
nor his nobles had been able to do.
She had filled the minds of the soldiers with
hope. From this time they fought as if they
thought they should win, and after a time they
drove the English from all parts of the country
except one small town.
But before this took place Joan Dare was
After the first fight she wished to go home
again. She thought her work was done. But
the king begged her to stay longer. So she kept
with the army and led the men, who would follow
her anywhere.
But at last she was taken by some Frenchmen

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who were not friendly with their king, and given
up to the English.
The English were very a, i,_- y with her. They
were very cruel in those days, and they now did
a very cruel thing. They thought that Joan
Dare was a witch, and so they made up their
minds to burn her alive.
As the flames leapt about her she cried out:
'God sent me to help my countrymen. I am no
witch, and great evil shall fall upon you .for the
cruel deed you are doing this day.'
As she said this great fear fell upon all who
stood near.
'We are undone,' they said, for this woman
whom we have put to death was a saint indeed.'
But Joan's work was done. She had given
her life to save her country. And so we love and
honour her name, and are sad at the thought
that they were Englishmen who put her to such
a cruel death.
Write out and Learn
1. Joan Dare was a poor girl. She was very sorry to see the
English winning so many fights against the French.
2. At last she made up her mind to go and help the French soldiers.
3. Mounted on a white horse, she led them against the English,
and they soon began to win. They took back nearly all that
the English had won.
4. But Joan Dare fell into the hands of the English. They thought
she was a witch, and burned her to death.

Instead of talking about wars and cruel deeds we
will now read about one of the greatest arts of peace.
Up to about four hundred years ago, all books


were written by hand. \1.-r were written by
the monks, who loved to make their books look
as nice as they counI
But there were very few books in those d;r .-,
and only very rich men could afford to have them.
At last a clever man found out how to print
books from wooden letters, that he could move
about as he wished. In this way, after putting
letters together to form words, he was able to
print the same book many times.
So, instead of there being only one copy of a
new book, many copies could be made.
The first English printer was a man named
Caxton, who set up a printing-press in London.
The fame of his work soon spread about, and
the king and his nobles went to see Caxton at
his work.
He printed many books after this. He was a
good and kindly man, and was always grateful to
God for letting him be the first to print books in
this country. It was not till books were printed,
that poor people learned how to read and write.
There is now more printing done in London
in one day, than there was all over the world in
a year in Caxton's time.
Caxton's is a name that we must love and
honour, for reading good books is one of the best
things in life.
Write out and Learn
1. Up to about four hundred years ago all books in England were
written by hand.


2. Then a good and clever man named Caxton set up a printing-
press in London.
3. Before that time only the rich could learn to read and have
books. Since then books have become cheaper and cheaper.
Now both rich and poor can learn to read and write.

The Tower of London still stands as it has
done for many hundreds of years.
Many sad scenes and evil deeds have taken
place within its walls, but perhaps the worst deed
of all was the murder of the two young princes,
Edward and Richard.
They were but boys, who loved each other,
and were good and kind to all about them.
But they had a very wicked uncle, who had
been made king of England, though the eldest of
the two boys should have been king. So he put
the two boys into the Tower of London, and there
he kept them fast for a time. -'
At length he made up his mind that they
should be killed. So in the dead of night he sent
two wicked men to the Tower.
They found the two princes sleeping soundly
in their bed, and they killed the poor boys where
they lay.
Their bodies were buried in a secret place in
the Tower, and it was long before the exact spot
became known. When men heard what had
been done, they were very angry. Many of
them rose up against the wicked king.



They got an army together, and at last they
won a great fight, in which the wicked king was
This took place not very long after the death
of the poor little princes.
If ever you go to see the Tower of London,
yon will think of the sad fate of the two princes,


and be glad that we live in times when such
deeds are not done.
Write out and Learn
1. Richard the Third was a wicked king. There were two young
princes named Edward and Richard who had a better right to
be king.
2. So he put the two poor boys into the Tower of London.
3. And one night he sent wicked men to kill them.
4. This made the people very -.. They rose up against the
king, and he was killed in a battle.



Four hundred years ago, men who lived in
Europe did not know that there was another
continent far away across the western seas.
They had heard of India, and they had seen
in shops some of the lovely things that were
made there. A few men had set out, mostly
on foot, to the far East, and had brought back
strange stories of the people who lived there.
Fine silks and lovely shawls, and many pretty
things, had been brought to Europe, and wonder-
ful tales were told of the gold and silver and
precious stones that were seen by travellers.
But it was a long and toilsome way to go, and
for many years men had wanted to find a shorter
and easier road to these wonderful lands.
In those days, men knew very little about
the sea. They sailed in the waters that washed
their coasts, but were afraid to go far from land.
Their ships were small, and they had no good
maps and charts as sailors have now. It was
thought that the nearest way to India would be
found by sailing away to the West.
At length a brave sailor named Columbus
became sure in his own mind that he could
find the way. So he went to see the King of
Spain, and told him what he thought he could
The king was so pleased with Columbus that


he gave him some ships. And what small ships
they were The largest was no bigger than the
small craft that sail only from port to port around
our coasts. Other brave men said they would
go with him, and after spending some time in
getting the ships ready, Columbus and his men
set sail.
Their friends were very sad at seeing them
start, for very few thought that they would ever
come back again.
The weather was fine and the wind was fair,
and for some days the ships sailed gaily away to
the west. At length they left the last land
behind, and the hearts of some of the men began
to fail them. Rough sailors might have been
seen on their knees, with the tears running down
their cheeks.
But Columbus cheered them by telling
them of the wonderful lands which they were
going to find. He told them of the gold and
silver and precious stones that were to be had,
and so with better spirits they kept on their
As day after day passed without any sign of
land, the sailors began to think they had lost
their way in the boundless sea, and that they
would never find the land they had set out to
seek. In spite of all their grumblings, Colum-
bus kept on his way. And at last, just as he
had begun to think of giving up the search, land
was seen not very far away.


Now all was joy on board the ships. The
anchors were dropped. Columbus put on his
gayest clothes and was rowed ashore.
On landing, he and his men fell on their
knees and thanked God for having brought them
safely so far across the seas.
At first the men who lived there were very
much afraid. They had never seen either white
men or ships before. They thought the latter
must be big birds that had come down from the
Columbus gave them some pretty things as
gifts, and when they found that no harm was
meant to them, they got over their fears and
became very friendly.
After spending a few days in this island, for
so it proved to be, Columbus set sail in search of
other lands. There was no grumbling now on
the part of the sailors. They were happy in the
thought that they had found the land they came
to seek, and that they might soon return to their
homes in Spain.
But it was not India that they had found. It
was part of a New World, and it was not till
some years after that it was found what a strange
error they had fallen into.
After staying for a few months, Columbus
set sail for home. He wanted to tell the King
of Spain of the new lands he had found. He
took with him some of the natives, as well as
pretty birds and fine fruits., and many other


things. But, above all, he thought most of the
gold and silver that he brought back with him.
After meeting with many storms, he at
length reached Spain, where he had long been
given up for lost. Great was the joy on his
return. The church bells were rung, guns were
fired, and the people rushed to the harbour to
see the ships come sailing in. The king was so
pleased, that he gave rich gifts to Columbus and
his men.
The news of finding new lands in the West
soon spread all through Europe. Many other
ships started out, and in a few years a large part
of the land which we now call South America
was taken for the King of Spain.

Write out and Learn
1. About four hundred years ago Columbus set sail from Spain to
try to find a ne' ,- to India.
2. He did not find I.! -, but he found the New World that we now
call America.
3. He took these new lands for the King of Spain, who in time
became master of nearly all South America.


It is by reading about the lives of good men
that we learn how to be good.
One, of the best and noblest men that ever
lived was Sir Thomas More. He lived at a time
when great changes were taking place in Eng-
land. Henry the Eighth was king in those days.


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