Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 How animals are classified
 The man-like apes
 The monkeys of the Old World
 New-World monkeys and marmoset...
 Lemurs and lemur-like animals
 Bats and insectivores
 Carnivores. The cat family
 The civet, hyaena, and dog...
 Bears and bear-like carnivores
 Marine carnivora
 Hoffed mammals
 Rodents, or gnawing animals
 Dolphins and whales
 Sloths, anteaters, and armadil...
 Pouched mammals
 Birds. Passerine birds
 Picarian birds and parrots
 Pigeons, fowls, and game birds....
 Wading and swimming birds
 The running birds
 Reptiles and amphibians
 The borderland
 Anthropods. Insects
 Arachnids and crustaceans
 Echinoderms and "worms"
 "Stinging animals" and sponges
 The oldest and simplest animal...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Popular history of animals for young people : : with 13 coloured plates and numerous illustrations in the text.
Title: Popular history of animals for young people
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084132/00001
 Material Information
Title: Popular history of animals for young people with 13 coloured plates and numerous illustrations in the text
Physical Description: 376, 16 p.. 13 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scherren, Henry
Cassell & Company
Publisher: Cassell and Company
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1896
Subject: Zoology -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Insects -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Worms -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1896   ( rbgenr )
Prize books (Provenance) -- 1896   ( rbprov )
Bldn -- 1896
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Prize books (Provenance)   ( rbprov )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
France -- Paris
Australia -- Melbourne
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: "Fifth thousand".--t.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084132
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002237143
notis - ALH7625
oclc - 232334731

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Frontispiece 1
        Frontispiece 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of Illustrations
        Page viii
    How animals are classified
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 16b
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    The man-like apes
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    The monkeys of the Old World
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    New-World monkeys and marmosets
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Lemurs and lemur-like animals
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 64b
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Bats and insectivores
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Carnivores. The cat family
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 96a
        Page 96b
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    The civet, hyaena, and dog families
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Bears and bear-like carnivores
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Marine carnivora
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Hoffed mammals
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Rodents, or gnawing animals
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Dolphins and whales
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    Sloths, anteaters, and armadillos
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Pouched mammals
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Birds. Passerine birds
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 192a
        Page 192b
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
    Picarian birds and parrots
        Page 208
        Page 208a
        Page 208b
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
    Pigeons, fowls, and game birds. Birds of prey
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 240a
        Page 240b
    Wading and swimming birds
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
    The running birds
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
    Reptiles and amphibians
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 272a
        Page 272b
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 304a
        Page 304b
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
    The borderland
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
    Anthropods. Insects
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 328a
        Page 328b
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 336a
        Page 336b
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
    Arachnids and crustaceans
        Page 344
        Page 344a
        Page 344b
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
    Echinoderms and "worms"
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 352a
        Page 352b
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
    "Stinging animals" and sponges
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
    The oldest and simplest animals
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

Pit -.N;l



zv 17

''Y f

I -
Stradbroke House School,

_. ......... o :_ 1^ rtr .. ..... '

t-Lfkhiyq- IAs

The Baldwin Library

_ ~ _I --I --~lle --



PLATE IV. (Frontispiece).
I. Indian Elephant. 2. American Tapir. 3. Indian Rhinoceros.
4. Wild Ass. 5. Zebra. 6. Dromedary. 7. Llama. 8. Reindeer.
9. Giraffe. o1. Duikerbok. II. Chamois. 12. Gnu. 13. European
Bison. 14. Walrus. S1. Seal. 16. Dolphin. 17. Whale.










First Edition 1895; Reprinted 1896.


THE object of this book is to give a short account of the Animal

Kingdom in clear and simple language. The book being intended

chiefly for young people, no formal classification has been given,

and popular names have been used throughout. But the main

divisions of the Animal Kingdom have been plainly indicated;

and modern classification has been practically followed. The

Author's aim has been to write in such fashion that the book may

serve to waken, or quicken, interest in the observation of the habits

of the lower animals, and as an introduction to the study of their

relations to us and to each other.
H. S.



MAN .. ...... 7



























S 129








. 241

. 260
















. 327

S. 344

. 35'






I. ...a..... face page 16
II t ..,, 6

III. ......96

IV. ..... Frontispiece
V. To jace page 192

V. .. .. ... .......... 2C8
VII. .., 24o

VII. ... onispi27

IX. . .304

X. ... ... ..328

XIII. .. 352

For the nin'erous Illustrations in the Text, see INDEX at the end.






N dealing ivth Natural History, the first requisite is a classi-
fication or arrangement of some kind. This need not be
elaborarie; but, to be of real service, it must be based on
right principles.
Resemblance in external form and similarity in habits
were formerly taken as a guide, and led to many wrong conclusions--
such as classing the. hyrax among the Rodents and the kinkajou among
the Lemurs. Nor was the element in which an animal lived a safer
means of judging, for it led Pliny to put the whales, which, Jeremiah*
knew to be Mammals, with the Fishes; and even down to the middle
of the seventeenth century naturalists classed, the Bats with Birds,,
till John Ray taught them better.
The principle now adopted is that of relationship, which teaches
that all forms of life at present existing have arisen from simpler
forms-these, in their turn, being derived from other stillmore simple;
and so back yards, till the period when the only life on iftis planet.
was represented by forms as lowly .sthe Amoeba. ..
Hence, schemes of classification now set north our knowledge, soa"
far as it goes, of the' relationship of animals to each other, and in
many cases take the actual shape of a genealogical tree, in w.hi'ch 'the
principal groups are represented by branches, giving off smaller oness: .
from which branchlets and twigs arise, -representing'the ..divisions of.
the principal groups. ; .,
It was formerly the practice to divide all atlimars irito .'io glrups- -
Vertebrates and Invertebrates-accotding as they did, or-did not, possess
a backbone. And for a long time this division seemed to work'very ;well,
till increase of knowledge made it clear that among the InvertebIates there. .
were some which showed more or less definite .traces of a backbone, .
"Even'the sea monsters draw out the breast, they givd suck to their yopng ones'- .
Lamentations iv. 3. ; "
13 '" ;



or something very much like one; and that in some of the creatures
which had a backbone it was not divided into vertebrae, or joints. In
others, again, as the Shark and the Skate, the spinal column is gristly
in substance, and not bony.
This gives us three groups, instead of two, to deal with:-
.Animals with a backbone (Man, Monkeys, Lions, Elephants,
Whales, Birds, Reptiles, Frogs and Newts, and Fishes).
Animals with. traces of a backbone (the Lancelets, Tunicates,
or Sea-squirts, and Acorn-worms).
Animals without a backbo'ie or traces of one (Cuttle-fish,
Spiders, Insects, Crabs and Lobsters, Starfish and Sea-urchins,
"Worms," Sponges, Stinging Animals, and Primitive Animals,
or Animalcules).
Smaller groups of animals which, though they differ in many respects
from each other, possess some common character not found in the rest,
constitute Classes. Thus, the Beasts of Prey, the Whales, and the Bats
agree in this, that the young are suckled by their mothers. These
animals, and all others whose young are nourished with their; mothers'
milk, constitute the class of Mammals. Eagles, Ostriches, and Pigeons
agree in that they 'are clothed with feathers; and, with all other animals
similarly clad, make up, the class o;f Birds.
Then' amnon? thde Mammals it is easy to distinguish several main
groups. The Cats, D. og~, andt Bears subsist chiefly by preying on animals
of the same Class' Horses, Oxen, *and -Deer have the toes encased
in hoofs; Be.aergs Rabbits, and Ml e ae aethe front teeth adapted for
gnawing, ,and 'so ton-;,. This division gives us the, Orders-Fleshf-eaters
or Beasts of. Prey, Hoofed Mammals, Gnawers or -Rodents, etc. ,
If we consider the structure and habits of the 'Cats' (Lion, Tiger,
Leopard, e:c.), and~-~ e Dogs and \\olves, points of agreement will be
found common to the Tiger .,and [.eipard. and thi'. Domestic Cat,
which do not exist in the Dos. and Wolves* Hence the former are
'placed in the Cat family, ai;d the,latter'in the Dog family. Then
further, in the ,Cat family 'is one form the Cheetah,. br Hunting
Leopard-whose relationship to the rest is more .distant' than that
subsisting between the other members. 'We tnay say that Lrons, Tigers,
Leopards, Pumas and Jaguars, and' thl irmaller Cats, are brothers, while
the Cheetah is only a cousin. This difference of relationship is ex-
pressed by putting the True Cats into the "Cat genus, and the Cheetah
into another genus, and these two constit'ite the Cat family.
The final unit qf classification is the SLi.. This term is difficult


to define, but it may be taken to denote a number of animals so closely
resembling each other that they might be supposed to be the offspring of
the same parents, and in turn giving birth to animals like themselves."

Having' thus mapped out the ground over which we are to travel,
our next step will be to gain some idea of the plan of a Vertebrate, or
backboned animal.
Most children possess a strange fancy for covering slates and the
covers of copy-books with "drawings." Many of these are "animal"
subjects, treated" in what artists call a conventional manner : that is, it is
generally understood that such or such a figure represents such or such
an animal-for example, a horse or a lion. A few strokes on the top
of the head give it horns, and make it into a cow or a buffalo. Some-
times a legend is put beneath in clear print hand, "THIS IS A COW,"
to prevent the possibility of mistake.

A Ao

Some of the earliest attempts bear cklse resemblance to the above-
a diagram rather than a picture. Neve-rhelecs, it will serve our purpose
quite as well as, or even better than, the most elaborate anatomical
drawing; for while that, by reason of its correctness, would only serve
for an individual, our diagram, with a little imaginative nodification, will
do duty for the skeleton of a Lamprey, a Fith, an Amphibian, a Reptile,
a Bird, or a Mammal.
The horizontal line represents the backbone, or vertebral column,
which forms the chief internal support of the body, and which is called
the axial skeleton. It is made up of a number of separate bones, as
we may see for ourselves when a hare or rabbit, fowl, or- fish, is sent
up to table. These bones are fitted together, with a gristly pad
between them, .s:, as to allow of free niotio:n; and this arrangement
enables us to': bend our backs and turn our heads. Most of these bones
are perforated bY a hole or cinal, through which runs the spinal cord,
terminating at the front end or top in a big mass-the brain,.enclosed
tor protection in the brain-box, or skull.
The four strokes,; forming- two angles, may well stand for the limbs,
which are never more than four in number in any backboned animal;
though they may be reduced to two, as in some lizards and in the,whales;


they may be altogether absent, as in the slow-worm, snake, and viper of
our copses and plantations; or of the two pairs, one pair may be but
partially developed, as in the so-called wingless birds of New Zealand.
The outstanding portion of the figure 'at the end opposite the head
is,. it is hardly necessary to say, the tail, the bony framework for
which exists at some period of life, though this appendage is not
possessed by Man, some monkeys, Manx cats, and guinea-pigs. The
dog uses his tail to show that he is pleased; horses and cows use the
tail as a fly-flapper; birds and fishes as a rudder, and it also serves
the last-mentioned animals as a natural screw-propeller; while to some
monkeys it is almost as useful as an additional hand would be.
We shall be able to test the truth of these statements by examining
our own bodies, or by handling the family cat, or a pet rabbit. It
will be sufficient to run the hand gently down the back from the
neck to the tail, to assure ourselves of the continuity of the backbone;
and in the same way we may feel that the limbs and skull are con-
nected with it. We must, however, notice that the limbs are turned
away from the main nervous system-running through 'the backbone,
and remember that this arrangement .is universal in Vertebrate Animals.
But though we shall generally find four limbs in a Vertebrate or Back-
boned Animal, they are not always of the same shape, nor are they
always used for the same purpose. The arms of a man correspond to
the forelegs of a horse, a lion, an elephant, a lizard, or a frog; to the
wings of a bird' or- a-,bat,; and t&t:tlie' Ipair of 'fins that are called
pectoral, and generally situated -near ,the head, in j.ishes, just as the
ventral pair correspond to his legs. The linrbs differ also in their use
in the lower Vertebrates: generally they serve for locomotion, to carry
their owner from place to place; but sometimes one pair and sometimes
another are modified into grasping orgains-and ful'fil the purpose of
hands. Everyone has seen a squirrel sit up aid' fiibble a piece of
biscuit which he holds in his forepaws, while 1a .parrot will use its foot
to convey a dainty morsel to its mouth.
In some cases where, as in the Boas, there are no external limbs,
there are internal traces of one pair-foreshadowings of what was to
come; or these traces, as in the Whales and Dolphins, may represent
limbs lost through disuse. This question of loss through disuse is
very important; for it shows that, while movement upward is the
general law of Nature, there may also be degeneration, or movement
backwards and downwards. On this point it is well to read what
Kingsley says in his "Water-Babies" of the Doasyoulikes, who left
the. country of Hardwork for the land of Read3 made, at the foot of
the Happy-go-Lucky Mountains, where flapdoodle grows wild. Of


course, "Water-Babies" is only a fairy tale: the author said so, and
he ought, to know. But it is a fairy tale with a good deal of truth
in it, and some excellent natural history into the bargain.

The importance of Mammals to Man is greater than that of any other
-group of animals, and chief among the class, in this respect; stand the
Ungulates, or Hoofed Mammals, containing the Horses, Oxn,' Sheep,
and Goats. Some of these serve as beasts of draught and burden, others
for food, and when dead their
skin, hair, wool, hoofs, etc., ,a
are all turned to good ac- '
count. '
We shall get a good idea s ,
of the bony framework of a
Mammal from the figure here-
with, which represents the
skeleton of a camel. The ,,
general plan should be com-
pared with'the rough diagram
on page 3, and the bones with
the human skeleton and its
parts on pages 8 to i i.
All MIanmnials have 'warmi -SKELETON OF C.ii.
red blood, and breathe by a, Skul; s, shulder-bade sociall'; 2, arm (humerus);
3, fore-arm (ulna, or cubitusrt; 4, wrist,(carpus): 5,
lungs gills, are iner 'de- etacarpus, corresponding to the human palm 6,
lunev digits, corresponding to the fingers; 7, thigh-bone
veloped. Except in, the (Jemur); 8, leg (tibia); 9, ankle (tarsus), the boie
That stands out behind is the heel; xo, etatarsus,
Duck Mole and Spiny Ant- corresponding to the sole of the human foot; i,
te s, t re t digits, corresponding to the human toes; 2, cervical
eaters, the young arebroug'ht u vertebra ; i3, dorsal vertebra; z4, lumbar vertebra;
f5, sacral vertebra, z6, caudal vertebra,; 17, ribs;
forth alive,. and dl:ing -their iS, pelvis.
growth they doi not undergo
any change or metamorphosis, like that of frogs and -newts: in other
words, there is no larval stage. The young of the Pouiched Mammals
are not fully developed: when they come into the world, and most of
them pass some., tiine:in the -pouc f th e the- m.ther. But the new-born
young of all are' nourished with milk, secreted by the mother, and
from this circumstance the name of the class is derived.
Another characteristic, of this class is the hairy covering of the skin.
This is complete, or nearly so, in most Mammals, but extremely scanty
in the Whales, being limited to a few bristles round the mouth, and even
these disappear When 'the animals become full grown. Hair is often of two
kinds-one long and stiff, that appears on the surface; the other short,


Soft, addowny, and called fur. A very good example of the two kinds
"of, hair is .seen in. the fur seal, so many of which are killed that-'theiry
skins may be made into jackets and mantles for-the ladies'of Europe and
America. In Pigs, the hairs form stiff bristles, and in Hedgehogs and
Porcupines, they are so thick as to
N Afornm spines, those of the latter
animals being popularly 'known as*
"quills." In the Scaly Ant-e;aters,
the ,body is covered with sclle', e
and in the Armadillos with bony'
plates'; ut e between these scales
and *plates true hairs grow more,
H AIR OF FUR SEAL. or'less thickly. Hair, like that of.
s,,Skin; f, fur; A, hairs. the Sheep, which felts," or forms
a compact mass, owing to its
surface being covered with minute scales, is called wool. In Man, the
hairy covering, except on.the head, is generally scanty; but the natural
clothing of the Ainu of Yezo is so thick that they are generall 'spoken 6f
as the "hairy" Ainu. The object of this covering is, of course, warmth ;
Sand its loss in the Whales is made up by a thick layer of fat, called.
"blubber," immediately beneath the skin. In Mammals inhabiting cold
regions, the coat generally becomes much thicker in winter, falling off
again in summer, and there is in mariy cases a change in the colour at
this season. Thus, the Ermine, which yields such valuable fur, is white
in winter'(at which time it is hunted for its skin), and brown in summer.

Concerning the remaining classes of Vertebrates, we have already
seen (page 3) that a common plan of structure runs through them all,
from the highest to' the lowest., What has been said about Mammals,
and comparison of the skeleton of the camel (page 5) with the human
skeleton (page 8), with the short description prefixed to jthe other
Classes and their Orders, will enable us to discover wherein' Birds,
Reptiles, Amphibians, Fishes, 'and Lampreys agree with or differ from
the Mammals. :And this also holds good with respect to the *dwellers
in the Borderland.
With the Invertebrates' it is quite different. This immense group
has no common- type, but comprises a collection of sub-kingdoms
offering a strange diversity of plan. Yet, even through these, relation-
ships can be traced' "more 'Qr less clearly, as will be seen later. on
when dealing with each' 'sub-kingdom.J
** ; -' ? '" '* ,.



N Natural History it is usual to give to the separate parts
of all Vertebrate Animals the same names as are applied
to similar parts of the human body. For this reason,
we must examine: the human skeleton on the next page
,rather closely.
This bony framework' is a. very complicated piece dof mechanism,
Sand consists .of more than'206 separate bones. There are two prin-
cipal parts-thie one corresponding to the straight line in ouri rough
diagram (page 3), and called the axial skeletori, because like an axis,
or rod, it runs down between the two halves (right and left) of the
body; the other, corresponding to the A-shaped marks, and called the
Sapendiculaq skeleton, consisting of the appendages of the body-the
arms and legs, generally termed* the limbs. At the top of the axial
skeleton is the brain-box, or skull, forming, with the bones of the face..,
the skeleton of the head. '*
If a perpendicular line be drawn through the skull, backbone, and
pelvis, the skeleton would be divided into a right half and a left half,
the bones on one side corresponding to those of the other,' This is
called bilateral symmetry, and will be found inrall backboned animals.
4 The limbs are not only in pairs-two arms and two legs--but there
is a correipondenrce in the bones of the pectoral pair (the arms) with
those of the pelvic pair (the legs). The arm and the thigh have each
a single bone, while in the fore-arm and leg there are two; the bones
of the wrist correspond broadly with those of the ankle; and the
likeness between our fingers and toes is a master of common knowledge.
These, of course, are five in number on each limb; and this is the
case with most Monkeys, many of the Flesh-eaters, etc. The foot is
planted' flat on the ground; and the great toe (in civilised Man, at
least) is in a line with the other toes, and' is never used as a thumb.
There is a similarity also in the method .by which the pairs of limbs
are joined to the.trunk: the arms are joifited to shoulder-blades, which
are connected with the breast-bone by the collar-bones, and with the
trunk by powerffil mniiscles; the thighs',ar received in sockets on each
' side of the -*pelvis, the bones of which are- fused- together and united
with the sacral vertebrae (see Spinal ,Co'umn, page .9). These means
of attachment are called the shoulder, and hip ,girdle .



., (Sqkull (cranium); s, thorax: 6, breas-bone; c, collarbone
cdavcde): 3, pelvis a, a, haunch-bone; 4, arm (umners);
5 and 6, bones of fore-arm Iulna and radius'; 7, wrist (car-
S. )L; 8, bones o'alm metacarfusrl o, bones of iners
S.. ingeso ; ~^, thieh-bone fonr ur): I. knee-pan'o );
2o and i3; bones of leg (tibiaandftbula);4 ankle(llj u);
S.5,bonesoffoot :metathrus);j, bonesoftoes(lulanie i.

The backbone, or spine, con-
sists of a series of bones placed
one above another, and called
vertebrae, or turning-bones (from the
Latin verto=to turn), because each
can turn a little, as when we bend
the body from side to side. In early
life there' are thirty-three distinct
bones, each made up of separate
pieces, which become united in the
The spine is marked off into five
separate parts or regions (page 9).
1 The'region of the neck has seven
cervicall) vertebra ; the region of
':the back (dorsal) twelve; 'and the
region of the loiis '::(hiiba),'seyen..
These twenty-fouri bonds -c.n all be
separated from eachyother, and on
that account are called true vertebra.
Those of'the sacral and coccygeal
region's (.both of 'which, are fused "
.into distinct" bony masses in .the '
adult) are" called false vertebra;.,"
Thus, in the grown'man the spine'
'consists of' but twenty-six seprarae
bones.: In', the infant this bony
support is, straight, but as we
gr6w ,older it is bent into a
series of curves, corresptiding
to the regions into which it is
These curves are of great use:.
(i) By their means the spine 'can
bear a much greater weight on the
head and shoulders than it otiier-
wise could, the proportion of 'the
strength of this curved column to
one perfectly straight being as 9'.t,o
I. (2) They render the movements'.
of the body, especially when. run-
ning, much more easy. (3) In the
.. fl,


movement of the column this arrangement protects-the spinal cord,
which joins the brain above, and is continued below, giving off nerves on
each side in its course, as far as the lower part of the first vertebra of
th1 loins, below which it dwindles into a'bundle of white thread-like
nerves. The Man-like Apes approach Man most nearly in the curves
of the spine; but even in them the
curve of the loins is not so strongly
marked, and this is due to Man's erect ..
The regions marked in the figure
correspond to those of Mammals '
*generally; and in the neck region,.: '
whether it be long as in the giraffes, '
or short as in the whale or the 'por-' 2 '
poise, the number of ertebr.r is alw\;ys'
seven,,. egxepting. in the three-toed' d
Slo'ths, which' hava nine, the. Scaly "'
Ant-eaters, which' sometirnes have"
eight, and. of a two-toed Sloth and
the Manatee, which have six. The
number of vertebrae in the other regions 3 '
differs greatly in the lower Mamrials. '*a i ,
The last region in the human 'pine
is'often spoken of as the "'cobcygeal"
region; the 'term caudal (or tail)
region being reserved'" for- Mamfi als'
' with a free tail. This is perhaps duie
to the desire to mark off, Man from .. __
the re.t 'of the class. to which, as 5.
an animal, he belongs; or perhaps .' Back view. Left side view.
because "tailed" men are ,not of SPINAL COLUMN.
%.. x, Region of the neck (cervical); 2, region of
'frequent occurrence. A scientific he back (dorsal); 3, region of the loins
(lumlar); 4, region of the haunches (sacral);
..jouiinal, .however, has said that there 5, region of the tail (cocygeualor caua').
are probably alwayss a few men
living, in whom a free tail has been developed; and in his last
book Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes tells us that during the session of
M.the VMedical Congress at Washington, a distinguished London physician '
showedd' him the photograph of a small boy, some three or four years ,
old,' "who had a very respectable little'tail, which would have passed
muster on a pig, and would have made a frog or a toad ashamed of;.
The top, or highest vertebra is called the atlas, because it supports "'
'' '


the head, just as the mythic leader of the Titans was supposed to
support the heavens. The bony groove on each side receives a cor-
responding projection or.pivot on the occipital bone (Human Skull, o).
The vertebra just below is called the axis,
because in front is a strong bony peg, which-
fits into the atlas, and serves to turn the head,
S for when we look round, not only is the head
turned, but the atlas is turned with it. In Birds
and Reptiles there is but a single pivot in the
.. skull, while the Amphibians (Frogs and Newts)
h ave two like the Mammals. The rest of the
'. lower vertebrae do not differ greatly from each"
other, except in point of size, growing larger
SIXTH VERTEBRA and stronger until the last of the twenty-four
OF THE BACK FROM ABOVE. rests on the solid mass of the vertebra of the
.6, Body; .c, spinal canal;
s, spinous process. haunches, which forms the keystone of the
pelvic arch. Each of these vertebra consists
of a front portion, called the body, and behind of a ring of bone,
enclosing the spinal canal, through which runs the spinal cord. The
ring is furnished with various projections of bone, which form joints,
so to speak, with the other vertebrae, and also serve for the attachments
of muscles. These spinous processes may be
easily felt, if one puts his hand between his
f P, shoulders and draws it downwards along the
spine. The prominent bone at the back of the
S neck is the spinous process of the seventh
3 ta (and last) vertebra of that region, which ends
4' in a rounded knob.
The head has twenty-two bones, and its
skeleton is called the skull. Of these, eight
HUMAN SKULL. form the brain-box, ornskull proper, and the
f Frontal bone; f, parietal bone remaining fourteen make up the bones of the
(one on each side) ; t, temporal
bone (one on each side); o, face. Of all these only one is movable-that
occipital bone; s, sphenoid
bone (which forms part of the of the lower jaw, which is employed in masti-
-floor of the skull, and also
rejects on the right side); ,a eating food, and sometimes less usefully in
eft cheek-bone; 2, zygo- talking.
matic arch; 3, bone of the
nose;4,lefthalf of upperjaw; From the figure we shall be able to make
5, lower jaw.
out the principal bones of the skull and face
(the latter are marked with figures). The. ethmoid, or sieve-like bone,
below the frontal bone, and at the back of the face, is hidden. The
bones of the skull are fitted together by uneven edges, somewhat
like the teeth of a saw, and the joining, some of which may be


raced on the figure, are. called sutures. The bony arch binds the face
bones to those of the skull, and serves for the attachment of muscles.
In many Mammals the bones of the upper jaw are four instead
of two, the parts carrying the cutting-teeth being distinct from the
parts carrying the other teeth. In Man, and some Monkeys these
bones form a single one on each side. The two branches of the
lower jaw in man are united to form a single horseshoe-shaped bone,
but in some Mammals they are bound together by ligaments. On the
lower jaw on each side is a projecting part, or pivot, which fits loosely
into a hole in the temporal bone, thus giving great freedom of motion.
The human jaw can be moved directly up and down as in the Flesh-
eating Mammals, backwards and forwards as in the Gnawing Animals,
or Rodents, and it has also the circular
motion so noticeable in sheep and M MN
cattle when they are chewing the cud. P c
Man has two sets of teeth.. The 87.7 9
first, called the milk set, consists or .
twenty teeth, and is replaced in later
life. by the permanent set, in which c c
there are thirty-two. These teeth are u t. f R]1-8 A
of three kinds-cutting, or incisor
teeth; tearing, or canine teeth-so THE UPPER JAW; A, IN CHILDHOOD;
called from their being of great size in B, IN MANHOOD.
I, Incisor teeth; c, canine teeth; P, pre-
the Dogs; and the grinding teeth, or molars; m, molars.
molars. In early childhood we have
but two grinders, replaced by five in later life. The two neafst the
canine teeth are called premolars, and the three behind them molars,
or "true" molars. The figures on the teeth in the diagram denote
the age (in years above and in months below) at which 'the teeth'
generally appear. With the teeth of Man those' of most other Mam-
mals may be compared, and the same names are used for the teeth
of the lower animals. Gnawing Animals, or Rodents, have no canines;
and the sharp-pointed molars of the Flesh-eaters differ greatly in shape
from those of the Hoofed Mammals, which live on vegetable food.
The chest, or thorax, is formed behind by the vertebrae of the back,
and in front by the" breast-bone, while the ribs connect these two.
columns. Of the twelve pairs of ribs, seven, called the true ribs, are
united to the breast-bone by gristly bands (called the costal cartilages).
Of the remaining five pairs, called false ribs, three pairs are joined by
similar bands to the ribs immediately above, and the two lowest pairs,
which are quite free in front, are also called floating ribs. To the top
of the breast-bone, the clavicles are attached at one end, the other


being connected with the shoulder-blade, the whole forming the shoulder
girdle, which serves to connect the fore (or pectoral) limbs with the body.
The office of the chest is to contain the heart and lungs, two of the
chief centres of life-the former the engine which sends the blood
circulating through the body, and the latter the organs of breathing or
respiration. In the latter process the chest has important work to do,
the front and side walls moving regularly up and down-that is,
becoming expanded and contracted as air passes into and out of the
nostrils and mouth.
The pelvis (so-called from its basin-like shape) serves to support the
trunk, and to give attachment to the lower limbs. The haunch-bones
are united in front, and between them, behind, the bony mass of the
five sacral vertebra is wedged in like the keystone of an arch. The
name "pelvis" is given not only to the cavity, but to the bones which
bound it, the latter being also called the pelvic arch or pelvic girdle.
This arch or girdle is universally present, though in different degrees of
completeness, in Mammals, and in the Whales and Manatees is repre-
sented by two small bones. In the Pouched Mammals, Duck Mole,
and Spiny Ant-eaters, two small bones project from the front part of
the pelvis, and in the females generally give support to a pouch.
Man belongs to the Order Primates, which also contains the Man-
like Apes, the Monkeys, and the Lemurs. The great characteristic of
the other members of the order is their more or less close resemblance
in shape to Man. There are usually five fingers and five toes, but the
thumb may be small or altogether wanting. The great toe generally
bears a flat nail, and may very often be used as a thumb, so that the
foot becomes a grasping organ. It was formerly the fashion to mark
Man off in a separate order, named Bimana, or animals with two hands,
as distinct from the Man-like Apes, Monkeys, and Lemurs, which were
called Quadrumana, or animals with four hands; but this distinction
is now abandoned. The foot of a child is, to some extent, a grasping
organ, as it is also among adults of some of the lower races. The
Australian savage can pick up his spear with his toes; and Indian
workmen use the foot in hand-like fashion to hold their work. Euro-
peans, who have the feet covered, have lost the power of thus em-
ploying the foot; but very little practice will enable a boy of not more
than average patience to pick up a pencil from the floor with his
naked toes. There are three kinds of teeth, except in the Aye-Aye,
which has no canines.
Science tells us in pretty plain terms the animal origin of Man, but
she is silent as to how and when he made his appearance on this
earth. Two theories have been put forward: one, that all men have


descended from common ancestors; the other, that each ot the
different races of man developed, independent of the others, in its own
region. The first is that now generally held. All races, from the most
highly civilised to the lowest barbarians, resemble each other, not only
in general form and bodily structure, but in the working of their
minds, as is shown to some extent by the existence of similar beliefs
and folk-stories among widely different peoples-these being, in many
cases, the independent efforts of men in a low stage of civilisation to
account for natural phenomena-the rising and setting of the sun, the
succession of day and night, thunder and lightning, etc. In addition
to this, people of the most dissimilar races intermarry freely, and the

(From the Cave of La Madelein4 France.)

fact that offspring result from such marriages is another indication of
descent from a common ancestor.
We know what Man of the nineteenth century is like; but early Man
we know only by his flint weapons, the remains of his refuse heaps,
some artistic scratching like the above, and a few bones. The early
home of Man is unknown, but the oldest remains known have been
found in Europe; though this may be due to the fact thaf the other
continents have not been searched so thoroughly. A French author
makes Asia the birthplace of the human race; but Dr. Brinton, when
lecturing on. "The Earliest Men," before the American Association for
the Advancement of Science, in 1893, placed the first home of Man in
Southern Europe or Northern Africa, or on the continuation of these
latitudes in Western or Central Southern Asia. He does not think that
the upward course was gradual, but that Man was suddenly evolved
from the highest Man-like animal in the glacial, or possibly just
before the glacial epoch, giving an antiquity of 50,000 to 100oo,ooo
years. In his opinion the earliest men walked erect, had full foreheads,
red hair, and blue or grey eyes, were about of the sale size and


general appearance as now, perhaps were not even hairy, were kind to
each other, social and artistic, had some sort of language, and knew
how to make fire._
Man, as an animal, is chiefly distinguished from the family next
below him by possessing a larger brain and a larger brain-case, or
skull, as compared with the bones of the face; by the fact that his
body is fitted for an upright position; by the small size of the canine
teeth, and by the absence of a space in the opposite jaw for their
reception. Occasionally one meets people in whom these teeth are
large and prominent. 'This is probably a throwing back to the condition


when our ancestors had these teeth largely developed, for use as
weapons, as they still are in the Man-like Apes.
Man is generally considered to consist of a single species, the
different races being taken as so many varieties; and from time to
time many systems have been adopted for classifying them. Perhaps
the best is that put forward by Sir William Flower, who groups all
existing races round-
I. The White, or Caucasian type.
II. The Yellow, or Mongolian type.
III. The Black, or African type.

In these types there is considerable difference in the shape of
the skull (and consequently of the head), and in the position of the
jaws with respect to the bones of the nose. In looking at Fig. A,
it is evident that an upright line might be drawn to touch both
the bones of the nose and the chin. In Fig. B, a vertical line


touching the chin will be at some distance from the nasal bones.
The first skull is said to be straight-jawed, or orthognathous, while the
second is forward-jawed, or prognathous-a term which, Professor
Huxley says, "has been rendered with more force than elegance by
the Saxon equivalent-snouty."
I. The people of the Caucasian type with whom we are best
acquainted-the people of the British Isles, Europe, and the United
States-form the highest branches of the human genealogical tree,
though many of the races ranged under this type hold by no means
such a lofty position. Professor Huxley divided the peoples.of this
type into (i) Fair Whites and (2) Dark Whites; or, as one may say,
Blondes and Brunettes. Of the first, a fair-haired Englishman is a
good example; of the second, a Frenchman from,Marseilles.
(i) The Fair Whites generally have white skin, ruddy complexion,
fine flaxen, brown, -or auburn hair, and blue or brown eyes. They
are above the average height, the majority' being from 5 ft. 6 in. to
5 ft. io in. and 6 ft.; though, of course, many individuals are shorter
than 5 ft. 6 in., and some few taller than 6 ft. In Scotland, Norway
and Sweden, and Denmark, and the North of Germany, the Fair
Whites predominate. Many live in England-as, indeed, do many Dark
Whites; and every intermediate grade may be met with, often during
a morning's walk, if one keeps one's eyes open. They occur also in
North Africa and Afghanistan, and from the intermarriage of Fair
Whites with Mongols have sprung the Finns and Lapps of Europe
and some tribes of Asiatic Russia. It is to this branch of the
Caucasian type that America, Africa, and Australia owe the greater
part of their white population.
(2) In the Dark Whites the skin may be white, olive, or shades of
brown, sometimes so dark as to be scarcely distinguishable from that
of the Negro. The hair is generally brown or black, usually straight,
but sometimes curly, and the eyes are black and sparkling. In height,
they are below the Fair Whites, ranging from little more than 5 ft. to
about 5 ft. 6 in., a man above that stature being considered tall. To
this branch belong the people of Southern Europe generally, of South
West Asia and the North of Africa (in Plate I., No. i represents a
Caucasian from Georgia, No. 2 an Arab, and No. 3 a native of the
Soudan). The intermarriages of this branch have left their mark on
some of the Indo-Chinese tribes; and to marriages with some of the
lower Dark Whites the Australian natives probably owe the peculiar
character of their hair. From a mixture of Dark White with Negro
blood spring the Copts and fellaheen of Egypt, some tribes on the west
of the Red Sea, and some other tribes farther south. Among the lowest


peoples of the branch are the Todas ot the Neilgherry Hills, the
Veddahs of Ceylon, and the Ainu of Yezo, recently visited by Mr.
A. H. S. Landor, wh co.nsideis them to be "the farthest behind in the
great race df human development." So that in the Caucasian type we
. have the cultured European and American, ranking highest, and the
hairy Ainu; ranking (perhaps) lowest, among the peoples of the world.
So little is known' about the Ainu that we give a few particulars
from Mr. Landor's book (" Alone With the Hairy Ainu "). The skin is
light reddish, and they are very hairy. :One he describes as resembling
an orang rather than a human being; and the Ainu themselves told
him that the country, was. formerly much colder, and asked, "Why
should we be as, hairy aS bears if it were not to, keep out the cold?"
"The skin is greasy," Mr. Landor tells us, "the'natural result of many
years of an unwashed existence; and this gives to the hairy people a
peculiar and strong odour, much resembling that of monkeys. Many are
familiar with the peculiar od'ur 'Of an uncleaned monkey's cage, and the
same, intensified a thousand times, :characterises an Ainu village."
When actively angry the Ainu "sneer and snarl at one another,
frowning ferociously and showing all their front teeth, but specially
uncovering their fangs or dog-teeth." The author tells us that "their
toes are supplementary fingers, and they often hold things between
the big toe and the next. . Then, again, the toes are often used
to pick up small objects out of the reach of the hands, and also to
scratch the lower extremities." It is remarkable that the Japanese have
a legend that, long ago, the.Ainu women suckled young bears, which
gradually developed into men.
II. In peoples of the Yellow or Mongolian type, the skin varies in
colour from a sallow hue, such as is often seen in our own countrymen,
to lighter or darker shades of brown. The hair is black, coarse, and
straight, and among the North American Indians, very long. The face
is broad and flat, the cheek-bones are prominent, the eyes almond-
shaped and set obliquely. The jaws project more than they do in
peoples of the Caucasian, but less than in those of the Black type.
The upper lip is hairy, but the beard is scanty. In height they range
from a little less to a little more than 5 ft. 6 in., but the variation
is not great either way. Some of the North American Indians,
however, are very tall, while the Tibetans and Bolivians are short
and squat in figure.
Of these Yellow People we may count five subdivisions or
branches, the first of which is made up of the native inhabitants of
Northern and Central Asia, the Chinese (Plate I., No. 4) and Japanese,
and the people of Tibet, Burma, and Siam. The central tableland


I. Georgian. 2. Arab. 3. Nubiau. 4. Chinese. 5. Negro.
6. Australian. 7. North American Indian. 8. Malay.
9. Polynesian.




of Asia was the home of the Mongolian races that have again and
again moved westward to attack and ravage Europe. And from
those who settled, in the parts where their arms were viLtCrious,
have sprung the Laplanders, 'fhe Finns, the Hungarians, and the
The second branch is made up of the Malays, whose home is in
the Malay Peninsula (Plate I., No. 8) and the islands of the Archipelago
lying to the south and south-east of Siam. 'The third branch consists
of the natives of Polynesia (Plate I., No. 9), New Zealand being included
in this term. In some respects many of the peoples of this branch
resemble the Caucasian type; but their fine bodily frame is probably
due to intermarriage with the Negroes, and white settlers have no
doubt contributed to the same result. To the fourth branch beloiig
the descendants of the races that were native in North and Soith
America (excluding Greenland) before the conquest and colonisation ,of
the New World by Europeans. Here are included tribes differing
greatly from each other in stature, customs, mode of life, and in the
stages of culture to which they have attained. Best known to us-it
may be through Fenimore Cooper and Mayne Reid-are the so-called
Red Indians (Plate I., No. 7). The "noble savage," however, is rapidly
vanishing from, the earth. The Indian wars of the United States have
utterly exterminated some tribes, while others have been driven away
from their hunting-grounds, which have been appropriated by the white
man., On page 19 is represented one of the native Americans of the
coast of Brazil. They are seldom more than 4 ft. high, and are at a very
low stage of civilisation. The name of the tribe (Botocudos) is derived
from the Portuguese botoque, which means a bung or a plug, and refers
to the pieces of wood worn in the ears and lower lip. To this
branch also belong the well-developed Patagonians and the stunted
Fuegians. The fifth branch consists of the Eskimo, probably Mongol
immigrants, who, having been hemmed in, as it were, by the ice on
the north and by the Indian population on the south, have to a great
extent preserved their peculiar characters, for between them and the
tribes to the south of them there has been but little intermarriage.
In the east of Greenland the Danes have brought many of the Eskimo
to some extent under the influence of civilisation.
The Chinese and Japanese stand highest among the peoples of
this type. The civilisation of the former is of very ancient date, while
the latter, who have quite recently adopted European habits and
customs, bid fair to equal,, if they do not outstrip, their teachers.
Japanese namnes will be found, among the list of writers in many of
the scientific iournals of Euiifoe, and to them are due the solution of



several vexed questions. It was a Japanese, trained in a European
college, who showed the error of supposing that a hydra, if turned
inside out, could make his skin do duty for a stomach (see Stinging
Animals). One scarcely knows which is the lowest race of this type.
Some of them are very low indeed.
III. In the peoples of the Black or Negro type, the cheek-bones are
prominent, the eyes large, round, and black, and th'e ornea-what we
call "the white"-has a yellowish tinge. The nos& is broad and flat,
and the thick lips are turned outwards in a peculiar way. This cannot
be imitated by pouting; we must put the fingers at the corners of the
mouth and push the lips up and down so as to show the red skin
inside. The hair is black and short, generally frizzly, or, to borrow a
term from the American Negroes, "woolly." The skin is generally
black, cool and soft to the touch, and with a peculiar smell. In
stature they are for the most part above the average, ranging from
5 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft. in height, though some do not much exceed 4 ft.
The first branch of this type consists of the African Negroes (Plate I.,
No. 5), some of whom we have all seen in the streets. They live in
the central part of Africa, ranging from sea to sea; but many tribes
have sprung up from intermarriages with Dark Whites. The Kaffirs of
South Africa are somewhat lighter in colour,' than the tribes to the
north of them; their jaws do not project so much, and their teeth
are smaller. Next come the Negrillos-among whom are Stanley's
"dwarfs"-with yellowish skin, and skull of the ,round-headed form,
who dwell in the forests of Central Western Equatorial Africa,
and are the smallest of the human race, the average height
being little .more than 4 ft. To the third belong, the Bushmen of
South Africa, with yellow skin, eyes that resemble those of the
Chinese, and very short hair,, much more frizzly than that of the
ordinary Negro, so that it looks as if the head were covered with a
number of tiny balls. From a mixture of this race with the true
Negroes came the Hottentots. The fourth and last branch-the
Melanesians, or Black People of the Islands-includes the Papuans
of New Guinea, with hair that grows into enormous mops-and the
natives of most of the islands of the South Pacific and (perhaps) of
Australia (Plate I., No. 6), though the proper place of these last is not
settled. They may be Negroes altered by an infusion of Dark White
blood from the South of India, or, as Sir William Flower suggests, "the
direct descendants from a very primitive human type, of which the
frizzly-haired Negroes may be an offset." Their skins are, of a dark
coffee-colour; in the form of the skull and the projecting jaws they
resemble Negroes; but the nose is wide and not flat, and the curly


hair is very different from the "wool" of the true Negro. Here also
belonged the extinct natives of Tasmania.
We have now run over the different types of Man, briefly
noticing some of the races that compose them. Lest we should be
unduly lifted up by our mental and material, superiority over what we


are pleased to call the "lower" races, it may be well to quote
some testimony showing that all the advantage is not on our side.
In a paper read before the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1882,
Mr. Frazer says of the aborigines, "who were regarded as among the
most degraded of the races of men":--"They have or had virtues
which we might profitably imitate; they are faithful and affectionate to
those who treat them kindly." And he quotes the language of a friend
who says, "Naturally they are an affectionate, peaceful people, and
c 2


considering that they have never been taught to know right from wrong,
their behaviour is wonderful. I leave my house open, with their camp
close by, and feel the greatest confidence in them."
Yet one more witness. Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace, in the closing
chapter of "The Malay Archipelago," after giving the notions of the best
thinkers as to a perfect social state, says: "I have lived with com-
munities of savages in South America and in the East, who have
no laws or law courts but the public opinion of the village freely
expressed. Each man scrupulously respects the rights of his fellow.
In such a community, all are nearly equal. There are none of those
wide distinctions, of education and ignorance, wealth and poverty,
master and servant, which are the product of our civilisation; there
is none of that widespread division of labour, which, while it increases
wealth, produces also conflicting interests; there is none of that severe
competition and struggle for existence, or for wealth, which the dense
population of civilised countries inevitably creates. All incitements to
great crimes are thus wanting, and petty ones are repressed, partly by
the influence of public opinion, but chiefly by that natural sense of
justice and of his neighbour's right which seems to be, in some degree,
inherent in every race of man." He goes on to warn us that it is not
good to labour for intellectual and material advancement to the neglect
of the moral qualities of our nature; and that, if we do so labour "we
shall never, as regards the whole community, attain to any real or
important superiority. over the better class of savages." It is remarkable
that much modern legislation is based on similar lines, and is intended
to secure a more equal distribution of this world's goods, and so prevent
the rich growing richer, while the poor grow poorer and poorer.


HESE animals, which closely resemble Man in bodily
structure, and more or less in outward appearance, are
confined to certain tropical regions of the Old World.
There is less difference between their bodily structure
Sand that of Man, than there is between them and the
lowest monkeys. This resemblance is much more striking when
young forms of both families (Man and the Man-like Apes) are com-
pared. The teeth are the same in both.
There are four genera:-(I) The Chimpanzees; (2) the Gorilla;
(3) the Mias, or Orang-utan; and (4) the Gibbons. The first two are
African, the third and fourth Asiatic.
The Chimpanzee approaches Man in the characters of its skull and
teeth, and in the proportional size of the arms. The Gorilla is more
Man-like in the proportions of the legs to the body, of the foot to the
hand, in the size of the heel, the curvature of the spine, and in the
capacity of the skull. The Orangs come nearest to Man in the number
of the ribs, and in the form of the hemispheres of the brain; but they
differ from him much more widely in other respects, and especially in
the limbs, than do the Chimpanzee and Gorilla. The Gibbons are
most remote from Man on the whole, though there is much resemblance
in the form of the chest.
The highest of the Man-like Apes are the Chimpanzees. If a line
be drawn on the map of Africa from the mouth of the River Gambia
as far inland as 28 E. long., and another from the Portuguese
town of Benguela to the same meridian, the space enclosed will show
the, home of these animals. There are probably two species-the
Common and the Bald Chimpanzee. Both are now fairly well known,
for specimens of each kind have lived a considerable time in confine-
ment, and their habits have been closely watched by skilled observers.
The Common Chimpanzee does not exceed five feet in height, and the
Bald Chimpanzee is said to be somewhat shorter. But the measure-
ments of young specimens of these two forms, probably about the same
age, living in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, in 1889, were
nearly equal. In the Common Chimpanzee, the forehead, cheeks, and
the whole of the body are covered with long, harsh, black hair; the
upper part of the face, the brows, nose, and muzzle are of a dirty


flesh-colour. The hands and feet are of a brownish clay colour, much
the same as the general tone of.the skin of the Bald Chimpanzee, which
animal is thinly covered with dark hair, has a scanty crop of short
blackish hair on the top of the head, and large naked ears standing
out nearly at right angles.
The Chimpanzees live in the forest, and pass much of their time
among the branches of trees, feeding on fruit and tender shoots
and buds; but this diet is probably sometimes varied by young birds
and small mammals. They live in separate families, or in small groups
of families. When upright, the gait is weak; they go generally on all
fours, supporting themselves with the back of the closed fingers rather
than on the palm of the hand. In their native forests, Chimpanzees
seem to romp and play as heartily as they do in confinement; and
Dr. Savage, an American missionary, tells how a hollow tree is used
as a drum to call the young ones to play, while the old ones sit round
in a ring to watch them. Garner confirms the account of the drum-
signal, but thinks that the "drum" is a spot of sonorous earth laid
upon a soil resembling peat. So human are the ways of the Chim-
panzees that the natives believe that they have been degraded from
Man's estate; and similar hazy ideas as to the connection between
Man and his poor relations" are current elsewhere. The natives of
India have a tradition-versified by Rudyard Kipling-that the
ancestors of the monkeys came down to the cornland to teach the
farmers to play. But the farmers requited good with evil. They set
their visitors to work, and cut off their tails; and the wild monkeys of
the forest were afraid to speak to the unfortunate prisoners, lest they
also should become the captives of the farmers, and be set to plough
and sow. English sailors sometimes say that monkeys can talk, but
are afraid to do so lest they should be made to work.
It seems that Chimpanzees are fond of human society. Mr.
Garner, who went to Africa to study what he calls the "speech"
of Monkeys, writes thus in Maclure's Magazine (September, 1893):--
"It is not at all rare to find tame Chimpanzees on this coast, going
about the premises at large and quite as much at home as any resident.
With this short preface, I desire to introduce my own young friend,
who lives with me in my forest home. I call him Moses, because he
was taken out of a papyrus swamp of the Ogowe. He is devoted to
me, and cries after me like a spoiled baby, and follows me like a pet
dog When I leave my cage I usually take him with me, and
when he sees me take my rifle he begins to fret, until I let him mount
my back, which he does with great skill, and hangs on to me like the
ivy to a church wall. A few days since we were returning from a


short tour, I saw a young Chimpanzee crossing the path about thirty
yards from us, and I tried to induce Moses to call his little cousin;
but he declined to do so, and I accused him of being.proud because
he was mounted, and the other was afoot, and hence he would not
speak to him. I am trying to teach Moses to speak English, but
up to this time he has not succeeded. However, he has only been
in school a very short term, and I think he will learn by-and-by .. .
When he sees or hears anything strange, he always tells me in a low

tone, unless it comes too
near, and then he an-
nounces it with a yell.
At times I refuse to pay
any attention to him, and
he will fall down, scream
and sulk like a very naughty
child. He is extremely
jealous, and does not want
any one to come near me.
I have made him a neat
little house, with hammock
and mosquito bar, and at
night I tuck him up, when
he sleeps quietly until late
in the morning. Then he
crawls out, -rubbing his
eyes, and wants his break-
fast. He wants to try
everything he sees me eat."
Unfortunately, Moses died
before Mr. Garner leftAfrica.
Many animals of this


species have been- brought to Europe, and

have lived for some' time in confinement; but the change of climate
has generally caused disorders of the chest, and in many cases they
have fallen:victims. to- consumption. One that died from this complaint
in the Dresden -Zoological Gardens, in her last moments put her arms
round the director's neck when he came to visit her, looked at him
placidly, kissed him three times, stretched out her hand to him, and
expired. So that, even in death, there seems something strangely
human about these creatures. A somewhat similar story is told on
good authority of the death of "Joey," in the Zoological Gardens,
Regent's Park.
'* Sally," the female Chimpanzee which lived in the Regent's Park


Gardens for over eight years, was quite a celebrity. Crowds of visitors'
thronged the Sloth's House, where she lived, to see her performances,"*
and learned papers have been written about her mental faculties. She
was not only friendly with her keepers, but recognized acquaintances
who visited her from time to time. She fed herself with a spoon from
a tin cup, a feat which has been taught to other Man-like Apes. The late
Professor Romanes describes her as somewhat capricious in disposition,
though on the whole good-humoured, fond of her keepers, and apparently
never tired of a kind of bantering play, which off and on they kept
up with her continually. They used to invite her to play by an
imitation of her own note, and then "she shoots out her lips into a
kind of tube, while at the same time she sings a strange, howling note,
interrupted at regular intervals; these, however, rapidly become shorter
and shorter, while her utterances become louder and louder, winding
up to a climax of shrieks and yells, often accompanied with a drum-
ming of the feet, and a vigorous shaking of the network that forms
the front of her cage. The whole performances ended with a few
grunts." .,
He was of opinion that "Sally" understood spoken language in a
higher degree than that shown by any other brute. She tried, but not
very successfully, to reply to what was said to her, for her "language"
consisted of three peculiar grunting noises-one that evidently meant
" yes "; another (very closely resembling the first) that meant "no ";
and a third (quite different from the other two) that meant "thank
But the great achievement was teaching "Sally to count, though the
experiment would probably have been more successful could the animal
have been kept as a domestic pet, for the constant coming and going of
visitors distracted her attention, just as visitors to a schoolroom will
distract the attention of pupils.
Professor Romanes arranged that the keepers should ask "Sally"
repeatedly for one straw, two straws, or three straws. These she was to
pick up and hand out from among the litter in her cage. No constant
order was observed in these requests, but when she gave a number not
asked for, her offer was refused; while if she gave the right number, she
was rewarded with a piece of fruit. When she had learnt to count,
without mistake, as far as three, her education was extended from three
to four, and from four to five, with favourable results. At this point
Professor Romanes allowed the matter to drop; but one of the keepers
then went on with the work of teaching on his own account, and tried:
to carry Sally's powers of counting up to ten. The result was not a
success and to the end of her days she can only be said to have had


knowledge of numbers up to six, or perhaps seven, with some vague
perception beyond. She knew, however, that the words seven," eight,"
"nine," "ten," stood for numbers above six. This was shown by the
fact that, when asked for any number above six, she handed out more'
than six, and less than ten, straws.
An attempt was made to teach her the names of colours by means
of white, black, red,
green, and blue
straws; but though U.
she quickly learnt "d
to distinguish be-
tween white straws i
and those of any
other colour, she ,
could go no farther.
From these experi-
ments Professor Ro-
manes concluded I
that her failure to
distinguish between
black, red, green, and
blue was, not from
want of intelligence,
but because she was,
in some sort, colour-

Next below the
Chimpanzee stands
the Gorilla (P1. II., ._
No. 2), the largest
and fiercest of the
group, though there SALLY."
is every reason to be-
lieve that the stories formerly told of its ferocity were exaggerated. Gorillas
live, in families, in Western Equatorial Africa. The height of an adult
male is about 5 ft. 6 in.-somnething less than the stature of an average
Englishman; but they are much more strongly built than Man is.
Their legs are short, and their arms disproportionately long, for, when
half-erect, they can lay the palms flat on the surface of the ground,
though Mr. Garner says they do not do so in walking, but use the backs
of the fingers from the second joints as a support for the fore part of


the body. The skin is black, and.covered with long hair, varying in
hue from a dusky red to dull black.
From classic times down to about the middle of this century strange
stories were told of large man-like apes that dwelt in the forests of
Western Africa, and were able to vanquish elephants; but very little
was known of these creatures. Now we know that these large man-like
apes do exist, for young specimens have been brought alive to Europe
and to London, and specimens of full-grown ones-male and female-
are to be seen in the Natural History Museum at South Kensington;
but we also knc w that some of the strange stories told of them
were greatly exaggerated. These apes live more on the ground than
the Chimpanzees, but at night they climb up among the branches of
trees to sleep. It is generally said that the old male sleeps on the
ground, leaning against the trunk of the tree, so as to protect his
family from danger. Mr. Garner doubts this, and remarks that the
old male, or "king," as the natives call him, "looks after his own
comfort and safety first, and lets his family do as they can." The
same writer says that "every instinct of the Gorillla -.ems to be averse
from human society; he delights in a life of seclusion in the most
remote and desolate parts of the jungle; and I have never heard of
but one gorilla that became even tolerant to man, much less attached
to him; and this one was a mere infant. I have seen a few in captivity,
but all of them are vicious, and devoid of any sense of gratitude
The stories of gorillas attacking man are to be doubted. When
unmolested they seem to avoid the encounter; but if attacked, their
great strength makes them terrible foes. Koppenfels says that when
scared by man, the gorilla sends forth a kind of howl or furious yelp,
stands up like an enraged bear, and advances with clumsy gait in this
position to attack his enemy. At the same time the hair on his head
and the nape of his neck stands erect,- his teeth are displayed, and his
eyes flash with savage fury. If no further provocation is given, and
his opponent retreats, the animal does not return to the attack.' In
other cases he parries the blows directed against him with the
skill of a practised fighter; he grasps his opponent by the arm and
crunches it, or else throws him down, and rends him with his terrible
One that lived in the Berlin Aquarium from July, 1876, to November,
1877, is thus described by Dr. Falkenstein, who brought it to Europe,
Sand in whose charge it had lived for some two years before: "In the
course of a few weeks he became so accustomed to his surroundings,
and to the people whom he knew, that he was allowed to run about at


^ft.^1. _
-* -*-t"-)


liberty without fear that he would make any attempt to escape. He
was never chained, nor confined to a cage, and was watched only in the
way that little children are watched when they are at play. He was so
conscious of his own helplessness that he clung to human companionship,
and displayed in this manner a wonderful dependence and trustfulness.
He showed no trace of mischievous, malicious, or savage qualities, but
was sometimes self-willed. He expressed the ideas which occurred to
him by different sounds, one of which was the characterist'& tone of
importunate petition, whilst others expressed fright or horror, ':and in
rare instances a sullen and defiant growl might be heard."
We are told that when he was anxious to obtain anything, no child
could express its wishes in a more urgent or caressing manner. If in spite
of this he did not obtain what he wanted, he had recourse to cunning,
and looked anxiously about to see if he was watched. If, for example,
he was kept prisoner in a room, he would, after several unsuccessful
attempts to get his own way, apparently submit to his fate, and lie
down near the door with assumed indifference. But he soon raised
his head to ascertain if luck favoured him, edging himself gradually nearer
and nearer, and then, looking carefully round, he twisted himself about
until he reached the threshold; then he got up, peered cautiously round,
and with one bound galloped off so quickly that it was difficult to
follow him.
Dr. Hartmann gives us the results of .his own observations on the
animal at Berlin: "The creature generally slept in the bed of his keeper,
and ate at the man's table, of plain but nourishing food cooked by the
keeper's wife. He sometimes ate fruit, and bananas were occasionally
provided for him. He was generally good-tempered, fond of play,
but rather mischievous; but he would snatch roughly, and occasionally
try the sharpness of his teeth. Sometimes he tried to seize from visitors
things which attracted his curiosity, such as the trimmings of ladies'
bonnets, lace veils, and the like. But on the whole he behaved with
propriety, playfulness, and good temper, and there was much that re-
sembled man in his look and bearing." This gorilla died in 1877 of
a galloping consumption.
Since then another specimen was obtained for the Berlin Aquarium,
and in 1887 a young specimen, the first acquired by the Society, was
exhibited in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park.
It is curious that the first gorilla brought alive to England was
exhibited as a chimpanzee in Wombwell's Menagerie. It lived but a
few months; and when it died, in i860, Mr. Waterton, who bought the
body, discovered what it really was. A likeness of this animal was
published in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1877, and the


original drawing now hangs in the Society's meeting room in Hanover

The Orangs (Plate II., No. i) are large red-haired apes, from the islands
of Borneo and Sumatra.. There is probably but one species, though the
orang of Sumatra was formerly considered distinct. There is, however,
a dark race, which the natives call Mias pappan, and a light race, which
they cali' 'JL',;a rambi. The males of the dark race have the skin of
the f.ie broadened out into folds or ridges on each side, while those of
the light race are without these outgrowths of .the skin. A smaller
:variety, also with a fairly smooth face, is called Mias kassir. Mias
is the native name for all these apes; and the term orang utan, by
.which they are known to us, appears to belong to. a savage people
dwelling,in the woods. A young specimen of this last variety, captured
near SarAwak, was presented to the Zoological Society in 1891. Unfor-
tunately, it lived but a short time in the Gardens at Regent's Park.
"George" was on excellent terms with his keepers, and enjoyed a mild
game of play quite as much as did the more celebrated "Sally."
Wallace, who had good opportunities for studying the habits of this
great ape, and who brought home, more skins and skeletons than any
other collector, tells us that these animals are chiefly confined to the low,
swampy forests of Borneo, and he believes that a large stretch of unbroken
virgin forest is necessary to their existence. They roam among the tree
tops with as much ease as the Indian on the prairie, or the Arab on the
desert, and without being obliged to descend to the ground. They live
principally on fruit; and the small mountains which rise like islands out
of the swamps serve as plantations, where grow the trees yielding the
fruit on which the Mias feeds.
With regard to the way in which Orangs travel through this region,
he says:-" It is a singular and very interesting sight to watch a Mias
making his way leisurely through the forest. He walks deliberately along
some of the larger branches in the semi-erect attitude which the great
length of his arms and the shortness of his legs cause him naturally to
assume; and the disproportion between these limbs is increased by his
walking on his knuckles, not on the palm of the hand, as we should do.
He seems always to choose those branches which intermingle with an
adjoining tree, on approaching which he stretches out his long arms, and
seizing the opposing boughs, grasps them together with both hands, seems
to try their strength, and then deliberately swings himself across to the
next branch, on which he walks along as before. He never jumps or
springs, or even appears to hurry himself, and yet manages to get along
almost as quickly as, a person can run through the forest beneath. The


long and powerful arms are of the greatest use to the animal, enabling it
to climb easily up the loftiest trees, to seize fruits and young leaves from
slender boughs which will not bear its weight, and to gather leaves and
branches with which to form its nest."
This nest is simply a lot of small green boughs and twigs broken
off by the animal, and piled loosely in the fork of a tree. The mass is
about 3 ft. across, -and on it the orang lies on his back and sleeps.
It seems a very rude affair for such a man-like creature to mnike. But
Professor Hartmann reminds us that several of the lower races of men,
in the construction of .their huts, do not show much advance beyond
the man-like apes. The former, however, build some kind of "shelter ";
the latter seem only to make a "resting-place "; and it is doubtful if
there is any truth, in the stories that the Orang shelters itself from rain
with palm leaves and large ferns.
Hornaday, the author of "Two Years in the Jungle," thus describes
an old male which he shot. "His bacla was as broad, and his chest as
deep, as a prize fighter's, while his huge hands and feet seemed made
with but one end in view-to grasp and hold on. His arms were re-
markably long and sinewy, but his legs were disproportionately short' and
thick. His body was large and heavy, with a chest both broad and full;
his eyes were villainously small, and his canine teeth were as large as
those of a small bear. His arms and legs were covered with long, coarse
brick-red hair, which grew also on his abdomen and sides, but the skin
which covered his breast hung in a loose, baggy fold. The face was
bare, .except. for a thin growth of hair on the jaws and chin, which in
pictures is usually magnified to a luxuriant beard. His skin was of a
shiny brownish-black colour, darkest on the face and throat."
Wallace doubts the existence of Orangs more than 4 ft, 2 in. in
height. Sir William Flower, writing since Wallace, puts the greatest height
at 4 ft. 4 in., but Mr. Hornaday, who was collecting for an American
Museum, claims to have shot one an inch and a half taller than that.
Hornaday notices the difference in the disposition of these animals.
Of a young one, about six months old, or eight at the most, he says that
it had the temper of a tiger, and made such persistent efforts to pull
his hands up to its mouth to bite them, that he tied-its elbows behind
its back, fastened its feet together, and then bound the creature to the
side of the boat. Even then the orang managed to roll over, and bit
his captor severely in the calf of the leg. "I gave him," writes Mr.
Hornaday, "a sounding slap on the side of the head, which caused him
to let me go; but for many days after I carried a large black-and-blue
mark in memory of him." He had another specimen which was not
only savage, but sullenly refused food; while a third was quite peaceable,



" not even once attempting to bite, but whined softly when I approached
him, and rolled up his big brown eyes appealingly. His petition was
not to be refused. I cut the bark that bound his hands and feet, and
placed a pile of soft straw in the verandah for him, into the middle of
which he immediately crawled and curled himself up. And thus began
a great friendship between ape and man."
In the foregoing paragraph there are two remarkable statements.
The first is that there existed a great difference in the dispositions of
the two orangs kept by Mr, Hornaday. People generally are far too
apt to forget that animals are individuals. No two men were ever alike
in all points; and the same may be said of what we are pleased to
call the lower animals. The boy who keeps rabbits or white mice will
soon learn this by experience. The second statement to be borne in
mind is that about one orang's habit, when angry, of seizing its master's
hand, and trying to pull it up to its mouth so as to bite. One is
reminded of some lines of Lucretius, which may be rendered thus-
"At first men's weapons were their fists and nails
And teeth; then stones, and branches torn from trees."

Sometimes one sees an angry child act in a fashion somewhat like that
of Mr. Hornaday's orang. Why should it so act? The answer to this
question may be read in the lines quoted above.
Hornaday closes his account of the Orang by advising any one who
doubted the close relationship between Man and the higher Apes to go
to Borneo. Let him there watch from day to day this strangely human
form in all its various phases of existence. Let him see the orang walk,
build its nest, eat, drink, and fight like a human rough. Let him see the
female suckle her young, and carry it astride her hip, precisely as do the
coolie women of-Hindostan. Let him witness the human-like emotions
of affection, satisfaction, pain and rage, and he will feel how much more
powerful is this lesson than all he has read on the subject."

The Gibbons, or Long-armed Apes, are somewhat like dwarfish old
men, of slender build, and their arms are so long that some of them
can touch the ground as they walk. The head shows none of the coarse-
ness which is so marked in the Gorilla and Orang, but though they are
so man-like in appearance and walk upright, or nearly so, when on the
ground, their relationship to the lower monkeys is shown by the fact
that they possess seat-pads-thickened patches of hairless skin, which
seem to act as natural cushions when these creatures sit down. These
seat-pads are absent in the Chimpanzee, the Gorilla, and the Orang.
The Gibbons are natives of South-eastern Asia, and are most abundant


in the islands of the Malay Archipelago. They live chiefly apiong trees,
swinging themselves from bough to bough by means of their long arms,
and feeding on fruit, young shoots and buds, insects, birds' eggs,
and probably any birds that are luckless enough to come within reach


of their long arms. They all have a powerful voice, and the name of
more than one species is taken from its cry.
The largest species, the Siamang, is a native of Sumatra. Its
height is about 3 ft., and its extended arms measure nearly twice as
much. Its hair is jet-black, and it is distinguished from all other
.Gibbons by having the second and third toes united by skin as far as
the first joint. Mr. H. O. Forbes often met with troops of them,
"some of them hanging by one arm to a dead branch of a high-fruiting
tree, with eighty unobstructed feet between them and the ground, making


the woods resound with their loud barking howls." Its singular cry is
produced by inflating a large sac below the skin of the throat, and ex-
tending to the lips and cheeks, and then suddenly expelling the air, so as
to produce the modulations of the voice. In his Naturalist's Wanderings,"
he tells us how his hunter once shot a Siamang, and when the ape
fell to the ground a young one was discovered clasped in its embrace.
The hunter brought both to Mr. Forbes's hut, when the latter found
that the young one was only stunned.
In a very short time," he says, "it tamed down, and became a.
most delightful companion. Its expression of countenance was most
intelligent, and at times almost human; but in captivity it often wore a
sad and dejected aspect, which quite disappeared in its excited moods.
With what elegance and gentleness it used to take what was offered
with its delicate taper fingers, which, like its head, are more man-like
(except for their hairiness) than any other ape's. It would never put
its lips to a vessel to drink, but invariably lifted the water to its mouth
by dipping in its half-closed hand, and awkwardly licking the drops from
its knuckles. The gentle and caressing way in which it would clasp
me round the neck with its long arms, laying its head on my chest,
uttering a satisfied crooning sound, was most engaging. Every evening
Sit used to make with me a tour round the village square, with its hand
on my arm, apparently enjoying the walk as much as I did. It was a
most curious and ludicrous sight to see it'erect on its somewhat bandy
legs, hurrying along in the most frantic haste, as if to keep its head
from outrunning its feet, with its long free arm see-sawing in a most
odd way over its head to balance itself."
Mr. Forbes doubts if these Gibbons can clear the great distances
they are said to do at a jump. He saw a colony of Siamangs, when a
forest was being' cleared, scampering up and down a tree in abject
terror; even when the tree was falling they did not attempt to
jump to the ground, but came down with it and perished among its
The other Gibbons are subject to great variations, individuals often
differing greatly from each other in their colouring.
The White-handed Gibbon is found throughout the Malay Peninsula,
ranging as far north as Tenasserim, where it frequents the wooded hills
up to a height of from 3,000 ft. to 3,500 ft. above sea-level. Adult
males are about 30 in. high, and the females are a little less. 'The
general colour of the fur may vary from black to yellowish-white, and
the back is often variegated. But the hands and feet are always of a
pale tint, generally white or yellowish-white above. The naked skin
of the face is black, and across the forehead is a white band which


sometimes comes down on both sides and meets on the chin, so as
to form whiskers and a beard.
When this Gibbon drinks it scoops up the water in its hand. In
passing from bough to bough, the feet are seldom, if ever, used, but
are left free to pick up any plunder met with by the way; and a troop
of them has been seen making off, with their feet loaded with fruit
stolen from the
gardens of the
The Hoo- s
lock, or White-
browed Gib-
bon, is said to
take its native
name from its
cry. It is found
in North-east
India and Bur-
mah, and is
said to range 7
as far to the
south as Upper
The average
height is about
32 in., and the
colour is gener-
ally black, with
a white or grey
band across the -
eyebrows; the HOOLOCKS.
females are
sometimes of a lighter colour than the males. This Gibbon is good
tempered and easily tamed. It is probably no exception to the general
rule that when an animal is kept in confinement and does not become
tame, part of the fault lies with the keeper or owner.
Mr. Sterndale, the author of "The Mammalia of India," says of his
pet Hoolock: "Nothing contented him so much as being allowed to sit
by my side, with his arm linked through mine, and he would resist any
attempt I made to go away." The pet fell sick-for Gibbons are of
delicate constitution-and he was carefully attended by the author's
brother, "who had a bed made for him, and the doctor came daily to
D 2


see the little patient, who gratefully acknowledged their attentions; but
to their disappointment he died." Mr. Sterndale says. there is but one
objection to these monkeys as pets, and that is "their power of whooping
a piercing whoop-poo whoop-poo! whoop-poo! for several minutes till
fairly exhausted."
Closely allied to the Hoolock is the Hainan Gibbon, which is a
native of the island of Hainan, between the Gulf of Tonking and the China
Sea. Only one species has been brought alive to Europe, and that was
exhibited for a short time in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park.
"Jemmy," who was very tame, was quite black in colour, and nearly
full-grown. Before his journey to this country he lived for four years
in China, and must have been a greater curiosity to the Chinese than
he .was to us-if one can judge by their accounts of this species, for
a magistrate in Hainan told Consul Swinhoe that this Gibbon "had the
power of drawing its long arm bones into its body, and that when it
drew in one it pushed out the other to such an extraordinary length
that he believed they were united."
The Agile Gibbon, which runs into a number of varieties, some of
which have been described as distinct species, is found in Borneo,
Sumatra, and the islands of the Sulu Archipelago, with a range on the
mainland from Cochin-China to. Siam. The general colour of the best-
known form is a dark brown, and the face is surrounded by a fringe
of whitish hair. Martin (" Man and Monkeys ") says of one exhibited in
London in 1840, that when a "live bird. was let loose in her apart-
ment, she marked its flight, made a long swing to a distant branch,
caught the bird with one hand in her passage, and attained the branch
with the other hand, her aim both at the bird and the branch being as
successful as if one object only had engaged her attention. It may be
added, that she"instantly bit off its head, picked its feathers, and then
threw it down, without attempting to eat it."
The Tufted Gibbon, with a white patch on the crown, the Variegated
Gibbon, and Miiller's Gibbon are probably varieties of this. Our
illustration shows the only specimen of the last-mentioned form yet
brought to England. It is not only an excellent portrait, but from it
one may see how justly Gibbons are called Long-armed Apes. The long
fur was ashen-grey, while the palms and soles were black, as was the
face, which was fringed with white.
The Silver Gibbon, like the Hoolock, owes its native name, Wow-wow,
to its cry. It is found in Java and, according to some authorities, .in
Sumatra. The coat is thick, long, and woolly, and of a general dun
colour. The upper part of .the head is black, and white (or lightish)
hair fringes the blackish face. The under-surface is lighter, and the


palms and soles are black. Of one that lived for a short time in
the menagerie of the Zoological Society in 1828, Martin says that
it was usually gentle, but rather uncertain in temper, and would occa-
sionally attempt to bite a stranger. Forbes says, On first hearing their
cries one can scarcely believe that they do not proceed from a band of
uproarious and shouting'children. Their Woo-oo-it-- woo-ut- woo-
oo-it-- wut-wut-wut--wut-wut-wut,' always more wailing on a dull
heavy morning, previous to rain, was just such as one might expect from
the sorrowful countenance of this group. They have a wonderfully human
look in their eyes; and it was with great distress that I witnessed the
death of the only one I ever shot. Falling on its back with a thud
on the ground, it raised itself on its elbows, passed its long taper fingers
over the wound, gave a woful look at them, and fell back at full length
dead-' saperti orang' (just like a man), as my boy remarked." Forbes
kept one in captivity for a short time, and "it became one of the most
gentle and engaging creatures possible." In habits the Wow-wow
resembles the Siamang.

MCLLER'S GIBBON. (Photograpehd from Life.)


T was formerly the fashion to divide these into three groups-
those with long tails being called Monkeys, those with
short tails Baboons, while tailless forms were known as
Apes. This distinction cannot hold good, for among the
Macaques are Monkeys with long tails, Monkeys with
short tails, and Monkeys with no tails at all. It is better to keep the
word "Ape" for the Man-like forms, "Baboons-" for the Dog-headed
Monkeys and one or two others closely related to them, using "Monkeys"
for all the rest. In the Monkeys of the Old World the space between
the nostrils is narrow, and the tail is never prehensile-that is, it cannot be
used as a grasping organ. All the species have seat-pads, and in some
there are cheek-pouches-that is, the skin of the cheeks is loose, so as
to form a kind of natural cupboard on each side, into which food can
be put for future use.

Most of the Slender Monkeys are natives of Asia. They have no
cheek-pouches, but to make up for this on each side of the stomach
are little bags, or pouches, in which the .leaves and shoots, which form
their chief food, can be stowed and digested at leisure. In all bf ;them
the thumb is well developed, and we shall see for ourselves how im-
portant this is if we try to pick any small object from :the table or the
ground with the fingers only. The Indian species are called langzirs,
and the best known is the Common Langir, or Sacred Monkey. The
average length of the body is a little over 2 ft, while the tail will
probably measure half as much again. The general hue of the fur is
greyish-brown, but the face, ears, soles, and palms are black. There
is no crest, but the hair of the crown spreads out in all directions from a
point on the forehead. Owing to the fact that this monkey is looked
upon by the Hindus as sacred, and has been protected for a very long
period, it has no fear of man, and is found in troops-males, females,
and their young-in groves quite close to villages, and even on trees
within the village itself; and they swarm in the sacred city of Benares.
"They frequently pilfer food from the grain-dealers' shops, whilst the
damage they inflict on gardens and fields renders them so great a nuisance
that the inhabitants of the country, though they will not, as a rule, kill the
monkeys themselves, sometimes beg Europeans to kill the intruders."
But it would be scarcely prudent to comply with this request.


Mr. J. L. Kipling ("Beast and Man in India ") .relates several
instances of the dire offence given to natives by Europeans shooting
monkeys, and tells an amusing story of a magistrate who, 'having' shot
a monkey by accident, stole out by night with a lantern to bury the
body, feeling as:
guilty as if .he'
had been a
murderer try-
ing to hide the
evidence of his
The Wild
Langwirs fre-

and rocky hills,
never far from
water. Jerdon
says, "They -
leap with sur-
prising agility
and precision
from branch to
branch, and
when pressed
ishing jumps.,
I have seen
them cross from .
tree to tree, a
space of 20 to
3oft. wide, With
to 50 ft. in
descent. They can run on all fours with considerable rapidity."
But a man well mounted can easily run down a Langdir, and, according
to Blanford, it is their power of bounding, and the remarkable appearance
they present whilst leaping, with their long tails turned over their backs,
that convey the idea of speed rather than the actual rapidity of their
The Himalayan Langir is a little larger, and lives much farther to the
north. It has been seen near Simla sporting amongst the "fir-trees when
covered with snow.


The Purple-faced Monkeys are natives of Ceylon. The general colour
is brown. Hornaday says of them :-" They literally lined the road for
seven miles, sometimes in the trees, and sometimes on the ground.
One troop of very large old fellows we found playing in the road like
schoolboys, galloping up and down, or chasing each other about, with
their long tails held up at an angle of forty-five degrees. Their
favourite gait is a gallop unless the branches are too thick to permit
it, and they can run almost as fast through the tree-tops as over the
bare ground. When hotly pursued, it is marvellous to see them run.
They head straight away, and gallop madly along the larger branches
without a second's pause or hesitation, without a fall or even a false step,
spring boldly from one tree-top to the next, and, unless the ground below
is very open, they are gone from the hunter's gaze like a flash."
The Douc, from Cochin China, is more stoutly built than the True
Langdrs, and more gaily clad. The general hue of the fur is a dingy grey,
darker on the upper surface of the body than beneath; the tail, and a
large triangular patch near its root on each side, are white; the upper
parts of the limbs and the hands and feet are black; the legs are a
rich 'red, and the arms are white. Nothing is known of its habits,
and it has not yet been brought alive to this country.
The Tibetan Langiir comes from the Highlands of Tibet, ranging into
China, where it has been known from a very early date. The -limbs .re
shorter and stouter than in the Douc, but it is not so briilhantl) cofoured as
that monkey, the general hue being olive-brown above, yellowish beneath
and on the inner sides of the limbs, while the face is bluish-grey. The nose
is turned up so much that its tip is nearly on a level ,with the eyes.
Other species are the Madras Langir, the Malabar Langdr, the Banded
Leaf Monkey, the Negro Monkey (the jet-black fur of which is valued for
saddlery and military decorations), the Crested Lutong, the Nilgiri
Langdr, and some few others.
The Kahat, or Proboscis Monkey, is a native of Borneo. These
monkeys are usually found near water, are swift climbers, and extremely
shy. The cry is "honk," and occasionally "kee-honk," long drawn and
resonant, quite like the note of a bass viol. Of the prominent nose,
which gives the creature its name, Hornaday says :-" It hangs from
the face-well, totally unlike anything else in the world-coming down
below the chin, and shaped like a pear, except for a furrow down the
middle; and the division between the nostrils being contracted, causes
the organ to terminate in two points. An adult male is about as large
as a pointer; the face is cinnamon-brown, and the body conspicuously
marked with reddish-brown and white, the tails of old specimens being
white as snow."


The Thumbless Monkeys are African. They are closely allied tq the
Langiirs, but the thumb is either absent or so small as to be useless. One
of the best known is the Guereza, a native of Abyssinia, ranging
southward into Somaliland. The fur is long and black, with a mantle
of long white hairs hanging down on each side, and the tail is tufted
with white; there are long white whiskers on each side of the face.
They are said
to live in small "'
troops, and to
feed on fruit,
seeds, and in-
sects. They are
hunted for the
sake of their
skin s, which
are used by the
troops to cover
their shields.
A variety, in
Sh ih( the
n.,ntle and tail-:
tui' are much :i

species are
known, two of which-the Bay Colobus, from Gambia and, the Gold
Coast, and the King Monkey, from Sierra Leone-have been exhibited
n London.
For the Monkeys of the next genus there is no 'English collective.
ame, but the French name "Guenons" (which means "Grimacers")
s generally employed for them. They are common in Africa, and
especially so on the western side of the continent Very many of
em are to be seen in the cages of Zoological Gardens and travelling
menageries, and all of them, when young, are lively and amusing, and they
rarely, if ever, even when old, exhibit the savageness shown by some of
:he Macaques, and, to a greater degree, by the Baboons. They are mis-
chievous and destructive, and will often snatch at some article of dress or


ornament, and, if successful in the attempt, will promptly pick or tear it to
pieces on the spot. And they can bite sharply too, if teased or irritated,
and will pinch and scratch anyone who has offended them.
The Diana Monkey has greyish fur, with a long, pointed beard and a
crescent on the forehead of pure white. The name was given by Linnaeus,
from the fancied resemblance of the white on the forehead to the crescent
worn by the Roman goddess. One of these monkeys that lived for some
time in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, was exceedingly friendly to
her acquaintances. On their approaching her cage and whistling, she
would manifest her delight by a series of jumps up and down on the floor
of her dwelling, and would finish her performance by turning two or three
somersaults, one after another. Then she would quietly sit down, holding
the netting with both hands, and open her mouth for any dainties her
friends might have brought her-raisins, grapes, bananas, Di would take
them all. Sometimes she would begin her somersault again of her own
accord, as if to show she wanted more; but if she did not, a wave ot the
hand and Now, Di," were quite sufficient to start her, and she seemed to
enjoy the fun quite as much as the spectators. She seemed to have
some tfint notion of "hide-and-seek," for occasionally, at the end of
one of her acrobatic exhibitions, she would swing herself upon the
branch that crossed her cage and dive into her little sleeping-box at the
top, so as to be lost to sight for a minute or two; then she would come
down with a wild leap, and the "show" would begin. again.
The Mona Monkey, like the Diana, comes from West Africa.-' The
upper surface is dark, the under surface white, and near the root of the
tail on each side is an oval white spot. One that lived in the Jardin des
Plantes, at Paris, was allowed its liberty. Its cunning and activity were
very great, and its adroitness in performing any little theft was remarkable.
It could turn a key, and untie knots and search pockets with a delicacy of
touch so little felt that it was not remembered till the theft was discovered.
It.was gentle and playful, and when caressed uttered a low cry, seemingly
an expression of pleasure.
The Vervet has greyish-green fur, with black face, hands, and feet. It
is a native of South Africa, and is said to feed on the gum that flows from
acacias. These monkeys are often seen in confinement, and one in
Regent's Park was as adroit a pickpocket as the Mona Monkey mentioned
above. It was particularly pleased to put its hand and arm through the
netting and pluck out the hairs from the back of the hand of its acquaint.
ances. But it could be fierce enough when it liked, and it had a command
of uncomplimentary language that was astonishing.
The Grivet, from the north-east of Africa, has the hair on the upper
surface ringed with black and yellow, which gives the animal a greenish


appearance, while the under parts are white. Mr. Blanford met with them
in small droves in Abyssinia, and says that their habits appeared to differ
little from those of the Macaques, except that they were quicker and less
mischievous than the Indian monkeys.
The Green Monkey ranges from Senegal as far south as the Niger.


The fur is of a dark green hue above and yellowish below. It appears to
be voiceless, for it utters no sound in confinement, and seems to be equally
silent in a wild condition, for a French naturalist shot twenty-three out of
a large troop, "and yet not one screamed, although they often assembled
together, knitting their brows and grinding their teeth, as if they intended
to attack me." A celebrated English naturalist adds, "I wish they had,
with all my heart."


Stairs' Monkey was discovered quite recently.. Dr. Molony brought
home a young female in 1892 from the delta of the Zambesi River.
It was a gentle, playful little creature, but did not live long in con-
finement. It was distinguished from other species by a chestnut-red
patch in front of each ear. Strange to say, this was not the first .specimen
brought to England. An old male that had been kept for some years in
the open air in a garden in the North of London was presented to the
Zoological Society in 1893, but, unfortunately, only lived in the Monkey
House for about eight months. A writer in The Sketch says :-" He is
described by one of the keepers as a nice' monkey-that is, a well-
behaved creature, that gives little trouble. As the sole occupant of his
dwelling, he cannot quarrel; he is not given to mischievous tricks, such as
snatching off the glasses of any short-sighted person who may come too
near the cage; still less would he behave like his neighbour, the Barbary
Ape, who lives opposite, and viciously scratch the hand that offers him
some toothsome morsel. But he does not gambol; his playing days are
over. Age sobers monkeys as well as men, and he generally sits sedately
at the bottom of his cage, from time to time mounting the traverse bar
to take the offerings of visitors, or to put his paw through the wires to
be caressed by those on friendly terms with him. But as he takes no
liberties, so he suffers none; and those who wish to see what terrible
weapons an old monkey has in his canine teeth should pffer him a large
nut-a walnut for choice-and, as he pushes it .back between the last
molars to get the better leverage for cracking it, there will stand out
prominently four gleaming 'ivories' that would not discredit a flesh-eating
The Mangabeys, or White Eyelid Monkeys, also African, are some-
times placed in a separate genus, on account of some difference in the last
grinding-tooth. The Sooty Mangabey is the species most often seen in
confinement. Its colour is indicated in its name, and it has, like the
other species, white eyelids, which show up strongly, against the dark
coloration of the body. They are larger than most of the Guenons, and in
confinement they are well-behaved and gentle. One in Wombwell's
Menagerie was very lively and active, and very fond of putting herself
into extraordinary attitudes, so as to attract notice. Some that are now in
the Gardens at Regent's Park are equally gentle and well-behaved, and
offer. a decided contrast to the Macaques in a cage close by, who, when
teased, grin and show their teeth in a fashion that would bode ill for the
teasers if the monkeys were at liberty.
The Macaques are Indian, with the exception of one species, the Bar-
bary Macaque, from North Africa, with a colony, so to speak, at Gibraltar.
They have shorter limbs and are more stoutly built than the Guenons, and


the muzzle is more dog-like, though less so than in the Baboons. The
males are larger than the females, and have the canine teeth more fully
developed. Mr. Blanford says that the species resemble each other in
habits. They are found in flocks, often of considerable size, composed
of old and young of both sexes. They are active animals, though less
rapid in their movements, whether among trees or on the ground, than
the Guenons. Most of them, if not all, eat insects, as well as seeds, fruit,
etc., and one feeds partly on crabs. They have occasionally been known
to devour lizards, and, it 'is said, frogs also. All have the habit of cram-
ming food into their cheek-pouches, to eat at leisure--a practice that
must be familiar to anyone who has fed monkeys in confinement."
Colonel Tickell says that anger is shown by silence, or expressed by a
low hoarse "h eu," not so guttural as a growl; weariness or desire for
company by a whining "homn;" invitation, deprecation, and entreaty by
a smacking of the lips and a display of the front teeth into a broad grin,
with a subdued chuckle, highly expressive, but not to be rendered on
paper. Fear and alarm are shown by a loud harsh shriek Kra," or
"Kraouk," which serves also as a warning to others who may be heedless.
Now that so much is written about the "speech" of monkeys, it is
interesting to recall the fact that Captain Burton worked at the subject.
Lady Burton, in her Life of her husband, says that "he collected forty
monkeys of all.iInds of ages, races, species, and he lived with them, and
used to call them by different names. He used regularly to talk
to them, and pronounce their sounds afterwards, till he and the monkeys
at last got quite to understand each other. He obtained as many as sixty
words, I think twenty more than Mr. Garner-that is, leading words-
and he wrote them down and formed a vocabulary, meaning to pursue his
studies at some future time."
The Bonnet Monkey is a native of Southern India. An adult male
is about 3 ft. 6 in. long, of which the tail counts for a little more than
half, the fur is brown above and whitish beneath, with the ears and face
flesh-coloured. The hair on the crown is long, and spreads out on the
top of the head, and this gives the animal its popular name. This is
the common monkey of Southern India; it is found wild in the jungles,
and particularly tame in the towns. The native shops are open to the
streets, and this affords these animals a good opportunity for plundering,
the chief sufferers being those who sell fruit and grain. It has been
described as the most inquisitive and mischievous of its tribe, with
powers of mimicry that cannot be excelled; but it is doubtful if it can
surpass the Bhunder for curiosity and mischief, and it is said to be more
docile. Closely allied is the Toque Monkey from Ceylon, probably a
mere variety. Both these monkeys are trained by Indian showmen to


perform a variety of tricks. Mr. J. L. Kipling once saw a travelling
showman with a band of performing monkeys. Some wild monkeys
which were near the spot where the man began his preparations for
the show, took refuge in the neighboring trees; but when they saw
their fellows dance to his piping, and, clothed in strange raiment, ride
round and round on a goat, they crept closer with evident surprise and
The Crab-Eating Macaque is the common Macaque of menageries
(Plate II., No. 3). The total length is about 44 in., and the tail is nearly
as long as the head and body together. Individuals vary in colour,
some being dusky or greyish-brown, whilst in others the brown is
tinged with red; the under parts are whitish. It is widely distributed
in Burma and Arakan, Siam and the Malay Peninsula. These monkeys
live in small groups among the mangrove trees in tidal creeks, feeding
principally on seeds, crabs, and insects. They take readily to water,
and swim well. A writer in the Field, in mentioning the crab-eating
habits of this monkey, says that he has good reason to suspect that
the True Langtr does the same (near Bombay). Albinos of this
species sometimes occur. Some years ago there were a pair in the
Zoological Gardens; they were very lively and full of fun, but on bright
days they seemed to suffer from the glare, and the male showed his
dislike of it by scowling fiercely when the sun was on his face.
The Rhesus Monkey or Bhunder is the common monkey of Northern
India, and is found in some places at an elevation of 8,000 ft. The total
length is about 32 in., of which the tapering tail is a little more than a
third. The general colour is brown, with a tinge of grey, and the
under surface is nearly as dark as the fur on the back. It is found
in large herds, more generally near the habitations of man than in the
jungle, and it varies its vegetarian diet with spiders and insects.
Though the Hindus do not regard the Bhunder as sacred, they do
not molest it, and in consequence it has grown to be as mischievous
as the True Langir, and is more daring and impudent. The showmen
of the North of India train it for exhibition, and it readily learns to per-
form tricks. These monkeys are extremely mischievous and inquisitive,
and get savage as they grow old. In their wild state Blanford says
they "are very quarrelsome, perpetually screaming and fighting and
teasing each other; in fact, they behave very much like unruly children."
The Pig-tailed Monkey, when full grown, is said to be as big as a
good-sized mastiff. It is found in the Malay Peninsula as far north
as Tenasserim, and in Sumatra and Borneo. The general coloration
is dark, and the shape of the head, especially in old males, approaches
that of the Baboons. In Sumatra it is said that these monkeys are


trained to climb cocoa-nut trees and gather nuts for their masters, but
it is probable that only young animals are so employed.
The Lion-tailed Monkey is often wrongly called the Wanderoo, a
name applied by the natives of Ceylon to all monkeys. It is found in
troops of from twelve to twenty in the thick hill-forests near the Malabar
coast. The general colour is black, and a long ruff of light-coloured


hair runs round the face, but does not meet on the forehead. An
adult male will measure about 33 in., of which the tail, with a tuft
at the tip, counts for little more than a foot. Blanford says they are
sulky and savage in captivity. This can scarcely be said of three now
in the Zoological Gardens, which share a large cage with two Gibbons
and are on friendly terms with all visitors, though they certainly know
how to take their own part. It was the writer's custom to feed-
these monkeys, which generally sat in a row at the bottom of
the cage, grasping the netting with their hands, and opening their
mouths for grapes or morsels of banana. One morning while the
feeding was going on, a Gibbon stole slowly down the wire net-
ting that formed the front of the cage, and putting out its foot
seized the fruit intended for the Macaque. The latter jumped up,


and chattering loudly, hunted the Gibbon round the cage. The thief
swung from projection to projection, uttering cries of terror; but the
Macaque gained ground and caught the fugitive, and seizing it by the
loins bit it with a vigour that would have been dangerous had not the
assailant been so small.
The Japanese Monkey, with long, soft, brownish fur and reddish
face, is remarkable for living farther north than any other member of
the family. These monkeys live in troops and commit great depreda-
tions in gardens and plantations, for they feed on acorns, nuts, oranges,
date-plums, and any other fruit that fortune may throw in their way.
The Japanese showmen tame this monkey, and train it to walk the
tight-rope and to take part in acrobatic performances. Some of the
showmen are said to dwarf their monkeys, by arresting their growth;
and this is not unlikely, when it is remembered what marvellous results
they can bring about in the way of dwarfing trees.
The Tcheli Monkey is found in the mountains to the east of
Pekin. The yellowish-brown fur is very thick, and enables these
animals to bear the bitter cold of the winters of 'this part of China,
where the thermometer frequently falls to zerb-that is, 32 degrees below
freezing-point. This species and the former have mere stumps of tails.
The Zoological Society possesses specimens of the Japanese and
the Tcheli Monkey, but both are kept in cages in the open air, as
the warmth of the Monkey House would be injiirious to them. But
* monkeys from much warmer climates can bear cold better than one
would think. The old specimen of Stairs' Monkey lived for some years
in the open air in the North of London; and in 1893 two Toques just
brought home from Ceylon, escaped from the box in which they were
confined and remained at liberty for about eight weeks, and during
part of the time there was frost on the ground. Frank Buckland wrote
of Jenny," a Barbary Macaque which he had given to a friend :-" She
sits nearly all day on the top of a wall, and has only a common dog-
kennel .:for shelter. She is out in frost, snow, and rain, and is none
the worse for it. Her fur is magnificent, and she has a beard, that
makes her face positively beautiful-for a monkey." And thus "Jenny"
lived for sixteen years in the open air.
The Barbary Macaque (a better name than Barbary Ape), or Magot,
is found in the north of Africa, and on the Rock of Gibraltar is a small
colony of these monkeys. Shortly before the siege in 1779 a party of
Spaniards attempted to surprise one of the British outposts. As they
were advancing as noiselessly as possible, they came on a troop of
Magots, whose cries alarmed the sentinel. The guard turned out, and
the Spaniards, seeing that the British were on the alert, hastily retired.


General Elliot never allowed these monkeys to be molested, and now
the small colony is under the charge of the signal-sergeant at the Rock.
The average length is a little over 2 ft., the general hue of the fur
on the upper surface is yellowish-brown, the under parts are whitish, the
face and ears fleshlcoloured, and the tail is represented by a fold of
skin. It is not known how this monkey came to Europe; it is perhaps
a descendant of forms
now extinct, which for-
merly lived in many
parts of the Continent
and even in our own
The Black Ape is
confined to the Celebes
and the island of
Batchian, where it was
probably introduced by
the Malays. The fur
is of a deep black, as
are the face, hands,
and feet, the only ex-
ception being the flesh-
coloured seat-pads. On
the top of the head is o ,
a tuft of long hair,
spreading out behind
and at the sides so as
to form a crest. The
tail is scarcely an inch
long. These monkeys
feed on fruit, and live BLACK APE.
in small troops among
the tree-tops-two things that distinguish them from the True Baboons,
though the long muzzle shows relationship with that group.
The Gelada Baboon, a native of the south of Abyssinia, is the last link
joining the Macaques to the true Baboons, from which it differs in that
the nostrils are not at the extremity of the snout, but a little higher up,
nearer the eyes. The fur is dark coloured; the hair on the top of the
head and round the face is very long and turned backwards, flowing over
the shoulders so as to form a kind of mane, and the tail is tufted at the
end. The Geladas live in troops, which come down from the inountains
and) rob the fields, for they feed principally on grain. When attacked,


they roll down from the- heights large stones on their enemies, in
much the same manner as men of hill-tribes do. They are occasionally
seen in confinement.; but they have no manners, and their customs are

This brings us to the True Baboons, which are natives of. Africa and
the country round the northern shores of the Red Sea. They differ from
the Monkeys of both hemispheres in being more dog-like, and less human
in bodily shape and in disposition. The Man-like Apes and the Old-
World Monkeys live chiefly among tree-tops, and feed on fruit; 'the.
Baboons live among rocky mountains and in the open country, and
supplement the diet of grain with insects, centipedes, and scorpions,
occasionally taking lizards and frogs, and in one species, it is said,
waging war on flocks of sheep. They go on all-fours, and even on level
ground can travel as fast as a horse can trot. The limbs are nearly of
the same length, and the seat-pads are sometimes very brightly coloured.
They probably do not attack man, unless molested; but if interfered
with or roused to anger they are formidable foes, a bite from the large
canine teeth being sufficient to kill :a dog.
The Arabian or Sacred Baboon was one of the sacred animals of the
ancient Egyptians. It was worshipped as the type or symbol of Thoth,
the god of letters, who was sometimes represented in the likeness of this
creature. But though these animals were held. to be sacred, the
Egyptians seem to have taught them to do some useful work. A
monument still exists in which some of these Baboons are represented,
gathering fruit, while slaves stand below with baskets to receive it.
The adult male is about the size of a large pointer, but of stouter build;
the fur is ashen-grey, and the neck and shoulders of the males are
covered with a thick mane, -making them look like something between,
a lion and a big French :poodle. The tail is fairly long, and tufted at
the end; the hands are .blac-k,'tWT"face and ears flesh-coloured, and the
seat-pads bright red. The females are nearly as large as the males,
but, like the young, have. no manes-those of the older males being,
probably developed as a defence. Darwin found, from inquiry at the
Zoological Gardens, that when baboons fought they tried to bite the
back of the neck.: These animals are now more common in Abyssinia
and the Soudan than in Arabia itself, and in Eg.ypt they are no longer
found. Sir Samuel Baker says that they ." have a great variety of ex-
pressions that may perhaps represent their vocabulary. A few of. them
I begin to understand,-.such as the notes of .alarm and the cry to, direct,
attention; thus when I am sitting alone. beneath the shade ofa tree to.
watch their habits, they are at first not quite certain what kind of P,


creature I' may be, and they utter a peculiar cry to induce me to:
move and show myself more distinctly."
Fierce as these creatures are when attacked, and resolutely as they
defend themselves, they are capable of tender feeling. Professor Romanes
when in the Monkey House at the Zoological Gardens, once saw an
Anubis Baboon bitten by a neighbour from whom it had attempted to
steal a nut. The cries of the victim brought the keeper to its rescue, and
by dint of "a good deal of physical persuasion "-that is, the keeper's iron
rod-the assailant was induced to let go. "The Anubis Baboon then
retired to the middle of his cage, moaning piteously, and holding the
injured hand against his
chest, while he rubbed it
with the other one. The
Arabian Baboon now ap-
proached him from the top
part of the cage, and while
making a soothing sound
very expressive of sympathy,
folded the sufferer in its
arms, exactly as a mother
would do under similar cir-
cumstances. It must be
stated, also, that this ex-
pression of sympathy had a
decidedly quieting effect BABOON.
upon the sufferer, his moans
becoming less piteous so soon as he was enfolded in the arms of his
comforter; and the manner in which he laid his cheek upon the bosom:
of. his friend was as expressive as anything could be of 'sympathy
The Yellow Baboon (Plate II., No. 4), so called from the brownish-yellow'
colour of its fur, has long hair on the crown, and the hands, feet, and face
are black. It is a native of Western Africa, ranging across the continent
to Kilima-Njaro, where, according to Mr. Johnston, "they were generally:
found on the: outskirts 'of native plantations, where they almost subsisted
on the niaize and other food-stuffs stolen from the gardens of their'
more highly developed fellow-Primates. In the' inhabited region generally
known as the country of Chaga, baboons were strangely abundant. They
went generally in flocks of from fourteen to twenty, of all ages and both'
sexes. They were so little molested by the natives that they showed small,
fear of man, and instead of running away would often stop to look at n.ei
about twenty yards off, and the old males would Show- their teeth and


grunt. I have frequently seen the natives driving them from the planta-
tions as they might a troop of naughty boys, and the Baboons retreating
with swollen cheek-pouches, often dragging after them a portion of the
spoil. On one occasion, in the river-bed at the foot of Kilima-Njaro, my
Indian servant, ordinarily a very plucky boy, met a troop of these animals
which, instead of fleeing up the trees, came running towards him in a very
menacing manner, and he was so frightened at their aspect that he took
to his heels. The Baboons followed, and but that the boy forded the
shallow stream and put the water between him and his pursuers, he might
have had an awkward contest. I killed a Baboon once in Chaga, one of
a troop who were rifling a maize plantation, and its companions, instead
of running away, surrounded the corpse and snarled at me. As I had no
more ammunition I went back to my settlement to fetch some of my
followers, and upon the approach of several men the Baboons ran off."
The Chacma, or Cape Baboon, lives in the mountainous districts of
South Africa. An old male is said to be as large as an English mastiff, but
it does not appear that any specimen approaching that size has yet been
brought toEngland. The general colour is greyish-black, and the hairs of
different length give the fur a shaggy appearance. They live in herds, and
generally feed on the bulbs of a lily-like plant, varied with worms, insects,
lizards, and birds' eggs; but it is said that they are, in some cases,
becoming flesh-eaters. Mr. Tegetmeier, in the Field, says: It is main-
tained by some of the farmers that the animal. has become carnivororus,
leaving its original food and destroying sheep and goats Should
the habit become general it would necessitate very active measures being
taken against the Baboons, as their powerful canine teeth, great strength
and agility would render them most destructive enemies of sheep,
goats, and even calves."
The Anubis Baboon, with olive-green fur, from the west of Africa,
lives principally on the stems of the Welwitschia, which it tears open
with its large tusks, and nibbles the roots just like a sheep does a
turnip. These animals are said to be a great plague to the native
cultivators, for they come down in bands and strip whole fields of
maize in a single night.
The Guinea Baboon, Sphinx, or Common Baboon, is very often
imported for zoological collections. It shows relationship to the
Mandrill, but though the cheeks are swollen, they are not brightly
coloured. The fur is yellowish-brown, shaded with sandy or light-red
tints; the eyelids are white, the hairless parts black, the tail about half
the length of the body and without a tuft. Nothing is known of its
habits in a wild state.
The Mandrill is one of the most. extraordinary looking animals it


is possible to conceive. Hideous," is an adjective commonly applied
to it. Its home is the tropical region of West Africa. The adult male,
said to be nearly as large as an Orang, is very stoutly ,built, with short
limbs, and an enormous head without a perceptible forehead. The
nostrils are a little behind the lips, and on each side of the face are
prominent swellings, covered with
skin, coloured light-blue, scarlet, and 'I 4 ii -
purple. The seat-pads are blood-
red, and the tail is a mere stump.
Mandrills are not often seen in
confinement. "Jerry," that was
kept in the Surrey 'Zoological
Gardens, was described by Broderip
as "a glutton, arid ferocious in the
extreme. Most kindly he would
receive your nuts, and at the same
time, if possible, would scratch or
pinch your fingers, and then snarl
and grunt in senseless anger." He
had learnt to drink tea and grog,
and to smoke, and he is said to
have dined. with George IV. at
The Drill, also from West Africa, "RER Y."
.but spread over a wider range of
country, has brownish fur above, and of a much lighter hue beneath.
There are roll-like swellings on the face, as in the Mandrill, but the
skin covering them is black, as is also the case with' the Mandrill.
The females and the young have not the repulsive look of the old

HESE animals differ in a marked manner from their cousins
of the Old World. All are forest dwellers, frequenting the
tree-tops, and most of them have a prehensile tail, which
serves in some sort as a fifth hand; but in none are there
cheek-pouches for the stowage of food, or those natural
cushions which we have described as seat-pads. The partition between
the nostrils is very wide; in those monkeys that have a thumb, it cannot
be opposed to the fingers so as to pick up or grasp; and in all (except-
ing the Marmosets) there are four more teeth-that is, 36, against the
32 teeth of the Old-World Monkeys, which are the same in number and
kind as our own.
The Capuchin Monkeys (Plate II., No. 5) take their popular name
from the fancied resemblance of the long hair on the forehead to the cowl
of a friar. In their native forests of Central America they go about
in large troops, feeding on the tender shoots and buds of trees, fruit,
birds' eggs, and young birds. They are very. intelligent, and bear confine-
ment and the climate of England well. They are common in menageries,
and itinerant musicians and showmen often train them to perform.
The White-fronted Capuchin, with reddish-brown fur, and white on
the face and chest, .is plentiful over the level forest-lands of Brazil, and
'Bates saw large troops on the banks of the Upper Amazon. They
spring from tree to tree with 'marvellous agility, and "grasp, on falling,
'with hands and tail, right themselves in'a moment, and then away they
go, along branch arid bough to the next tree."' Bates kept one. as
pet, but it was not a success, as the Capuchin killed an owl-faced
monkey, of which its master was very fond. "Upon this," says Bates,
" I got rid of him." Belt was more fortunate with "Mickey." His White-
fronted Capuchin killed nothing more valuable than ducklings, and a
light switch taught him that he must leave off such bad habits. He
was a sad thief. When anyone came near to fondle him he would
never miss an opportunity of pocket-picking. One day when
he got loose he was detected carrying off the cream-jug from the table,
holding it upright with both hands, and trying to move off on his hind
limbs. He gave the jug up without spilling a drop, all the time making
an apologetic grunting chuckle, which he often used when found out in
any mischief, and which always meant 'I know I have done wrong,


but don't punish me; in fact, I' did not mean to do it-it was acci-
dental.' However, when he saw he was going to be punished, he
would change his tone to a shrill threatening note, showing his teeth,
and trying to intimidate. He had quite an extensive vocabulary of
sounds, varying
from .a. gruff
bark to a shrill
whistle; and .
we could tell .
.by them with-
out seeing him
when it was
he was hungry,
eating, frighten-
ed, or mena-
Scing; doubtless
one of his own
species would
have under-
stood various
minor shades
of intonation
.and expression
that '.we, 'not
entering into
his feelings and
wants, I passed
over as. unin-
telligible." __ ---..
There are '.-
mnany Ispe-
cies of Capu- j j ,.
chins, or Sapa- P -
jous, as they '- '"
are sometimes SPIDER MONkIY~YS.
called. : The
Brown Capuchin, from Guiana, is, often: brought to'this country, and it
was On this species that Miss Romanes made the observations given in
Professor Romanes' "Animal- Intelligence."
The Woolly Monkeys are Brazilian, and have an under coat of
woolly filr beneath the longer hairs. The' tail is naked at the tip, on
the. under side, which' gives the animal a secure hold, and the thumb


is well developed. Humboldt's Woolly Monkey is stoutly built, with black
fur and face; its features resemble pretty closely those of an old negro,
whence it is often called the Nigger Monkey. They are good tem-
pered and docile in captivity. One that lived for a short time in the
Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, made many friends, and though his
greeting was never demonstrative, it was warm and affectionate. He
would fondle a hand or a finger, then spring upon the branch, and
hang thereon with his tail, bringing his head close to the netting and
putting out his lips for some fruit as a reward for his good behaviour.
They are among the largest of the American Monkeys. Bates took a
specimen of which the head and body measured 26 in., while the tail
was an inch longer.
The Woolly Spider Monkey, from South-East Brazil, probably links
the Woolly Monkeys to the True Spider Monkeys. It has the woolly
under-fur of the first, but the thumb is rudimentary.
The Spider Monkeys are found from Mexico in the north to
Uruguay in the south. Their popular name is due to their long,
slender limbs. They live principally on fruit, which is often conveyed
to the mouth with the tail, and the stomach is somewhat like that of
the Langdrs. Their activity is very great, as one may often see in the
monkey houses of zoological gardens. One that shared a very large
cage with some Capuchins in Regent's Park distinguished itself by
chasing them round and round the cage,. probably inviting them to a
romp. But the Capuchins did not enter into the game, and the Spider
swung from rope to bar, and across the cage, without a playfellow.
The Red-faced Spider Monkey, or Coaita, has a wide range in Brazil
and Guiana. It is of large size, clothed with coarse black fur, and the face
is flesh-coloured. Bates says that these monkeys are common pets among
the Indians, and he gives them a good character for temper and dis-
position. They display some ingenuity in breaking the case in which
what we call Brazil nuts are enclosed, by hammering it on a rock or hard
log. There seems to be little doubt that they do break off dead branches
with the intention of injuring a supposed foe. The author of Canoe and
Camp Life in Guiana" says :-" On seeing us, they used frequently to
hurl down large dead branches, some of which came rather too close to
our heads at times to be comfortable. The manner in which they per-
formed this was singular: they held on by tail and hind feet to a live
bough in a tree-top, alongside of a dead one, and pushing with their hands
with all their force against the latter, generally succeeding in breaking it
off, when down it came."
The Variegated Spider Monkey, from both sides of the Amazon, is
strikingly coloured. The long soft fur on the back is black, the cheeks are


white; there is a bright reddish-yellow band across the forehead, and the
under surface and the sides of limbs and tail are yellow. It is sometimes
called Bartlett's Monkey, because Mr. E. Bartlett brought home a specimen
in 1866, which was described as a new species. Other species are the
Hooded and the Brown Spider Monkeys, from Colombia, and the Black-
faced Spider Monkey, from Eastern Peru.
The Owl-faced Monkeys, Night Apes, or Douroucolis (as the natives
call them), are more active by night than by day, thus resembling
the birds from which they take their popular names. They are of small
size, with a large round head, short face, and very large eyes, generally
grey or brown; the fur is close, and the long tail can only curl round
objects without clinging thereto, and in this respect they differ from the
New-World Monkeys mentioned before, and agree with those that follow
them, with the exception of the Howlers. These animals are found in the
country from Nicaragua to the Amazon and Eastern Peru. There are three
or four species, which probably differ little in their habits. Mr. Bates says
that they sleep all day long in hollow trees, and come forth to prey on
insects and eat fruit only at night. He met with two species-the Three-
banded and the Feline. In both the forehead is whitish, and marked
with three black stripes, which in the former go back to the crown, and in
the latter meet on the forehead. He kept one of the Three-banded Night
Apes as a pet. The animal preferred insect food, though it would eat fruit.
Bates was told that these monkeys cleared the houses of bats as well as
of insect pests. "When approached gently, it 'allowed itself to be
caressed; but when handled roughly, it always took alarm, biting severely,
striking out its little hands, and making a hissing noise like a cat."
The Squirrel Monkeys inhabit the tropical forests from Costa Rica to
Brazil and Bolivia, There are three species of these active, graceful little
creatures, which in a wild state live in large flocks, and feed in great part
on insects. The head is greatly elongated. The common Squirrel
Monkey is about zo in. long in the head and body, with a tail nearly
half as long again. The body is olive-grey, the arms and legs bright
red, the face white, with a blackish muzzle. Humboldt describes these
creatures as having quite child-like faces and being of a very gentle
disposition. He had many opportunities of watching their habits,
and says that they knew objects when they saw them in' pictures,
even when they were not coloured; and when they represented their
usual food, such as fruit and insects, they endeavoured to catch hold
of them. One may be pardoned for doubting if the "endeavour to
catch hold were prompted by anything more than the spirit of curiosity
which is common to all monkeys. If experiments were carried out by
showing these monkeys-or, for the matter of that, far higher monkeys-


.pictures representing some favourite delicacy, and then: others repre-
senting, say, a landscape, a.battle, or a shipwreck, one would probably
be snatched at as eagerly as the other.
The Titi (or Teetee) Monkeys differ from the Squirrel Monkeys in
having the head round rather than long, the eyes .smaller, and the hair on
the tail much longer. They range over..South America, from Panama to
the southern limits of the great forests of the .Amazon. Bates describes
them as dull, listless animals, going in small flocks of five or six individuals,
running along the main boughs of the trees. He obtained one specimen,
.which "was caught on a.low fruit-tree at the back of our house at sunrise
one morning.. ... As the.tree was isolated,.it must have descended
to the ground from the neighboring forest, and walked some distance to
get at it."
The Sakis, or Saki Monkeys, also live in the great forests of South
America. Most of them have long hair on the top of the head, which
:may show a kind of parting down the middle, or may spread from the top
so as to form a kind of wig; all have whiskers and a beard, the latter in
.some cases very long. One of the-best-known species is the Hairy Saki,
or Humboldt's Saki-for it is called by both names. Bates. describes it as
a timid, inoffensive creature, with a long bear-like coat of harsh, speckled
.grey hair. The long fur hangs over the head, half concealing the pleasing,
diminutive face, and clothes also the tail to the tip, which member is well
developed, being 18 in. in length, or longer than the body, It is a
.very .delicate animal; rarely living many weeks in captivity." Of the
American monkeys, he considers this excels the rest in the quality of
showing strong personal attachment.
The Uakaris have long hair on the body, but the 'beard is short,
:as is the tail, which. in some of these monkeys is scarcely more than
a'stump. They, like the Sakis, dwell in the equatorial forests, rarely
descending to the ground. There are several species, probably the
best known being the Bald Uakari, which Bates describes as about
i18 in. long, clothed from neck to tail with long, straight, and
:shining whitish, hair. The head is nearly bald, and the face glows with
-the most vivid scarlet-blue.; the bushy sandy whiskers meet :under
the chin, the eyes are reddish yellow. It seems to be confined to the
western side of the Japuna, near its principal mouth. It lives in small
-troops among the crowns of lofty trees, and feeds on fruits of various
kinds. :i;It is said. to be pretty nimble, but is not much given to
leapingir;pteferring to run up and down the larger boughs in travelling
rpm 'tree -to. tree.
(j The JIowlers, .or Howling Monkeys, are aptly named. To produce
the ..terrible noises which. characterise them, they.have on. the. top of



'the windpipe a hollow bony structure which intensifies their ories. :As
in the Spider Monkeys, the tail is prehensile; but, unlike them, the
'Howlers have the thumb well developed. Their chief home appears
.to, be in Brazil, but some'range into Central America. They l-ive
among the tree-tops, and are vegetarian in diet. For size they carry
'off the palm among the monkeys of the:. New. World, some being
nearly 6 ft. in total length, of which. the tail 'counts for half.
.There are several species differing little in habit,, and all. of' them
'merit their distinctive..name. A traveller in Guiana says:- : .
"At early morning, at dusk, and through. the night, at all our
.camping :places, we were accustomed to hear the Howlers 'serenading.
To my: mind the sounds produced by these monkeys .riore'. nearly
'resembled a .roar than a. howl, and. when sufficiently far off are .not
unpleasant to the ear. When heard from a distance of half 'a mile or


so they seem to begin with low notes, swelling gradually into louder
and longer ones, till they merge into a prolonged roar, which dies
gradually away with a mournful cadence. When not more than one
or two hundred yards away, and consequently plainly heard, they
commence with a series of short howls, which break off into grunts,
and, at every repetition, become longer and longer till their voices
have got fairly in tune, when they give their final roar, which dies as
gradually away. Then, after an instant's silence, a few deep grunts
are given, as. if the remains of the compressed air in their throat
drums were being got rid of. Listening carefully to the performance,
one can detect a voice at a much higher key than the others,
especially in the dying-away portion. The Indians say this is made
by a dwarf monkey of the same family which accompanies every
troop. I was of the opinion that it was the voice of a female Howler,
but the Indians, who are very careful observers, said it was not."
The Red Howler and the Brown Howler have been brought alive
to England, but both died soon after their arrival at the Zoological

These tiny creatures have their home in Central and South America.
The hands and feet are paw-like, the fingers and toes being armed with
claws instead of being furnished with nails; the number of teeth is the
same as in the Old-World Monkeys, though there is .some difference in
their character, The tail is never prehensile, and is often marked with
rings of light and dark hairs, and the ears terminate, in many kinds, in
a small tuft of hair. They live in. small bands among trees, and feed
chiefly on insects and fruits. In disposition they are gentle, and they
seem to be very affectionate to each other. Accounts differ' as to
their behaviour in confinement, some authorities asserting that they. are
easily tamed, others that their confidence is won with difficulty. This
may arise from difference of disposition in the animals kept as pets,'
or it may be the result of the method employed. There are two or
three young in a litter, a fact that shows these little creatures to be
lower than the Monkeys, which produce but one at a birth.
These little creatures are more like squirrels than monkeys in their
habits of climbing, and they confine themselves to the trunks and larger
boughs of trees, the long nails enabling them to cling securely to the
bark; and Bates saw one species passing rapidly round a tree-trunk.
As the tail cannot be used to twist round a branch and the thumb is
useless for grasping, the Marmosets are unable to leap from branch to
branch, as do :some of their relations and neighbours.


The Common Marmoset is a native of Brazil. It has been described
as- "a little creature resembling a kitten, banded with black and grey all
over the body and tail, and having a fringe of long white hairs sur-
rounding the ears." A South American traveller writes of one of these
animals which he kept as a pet:-" Nothing pleased him better than
to perch on my shoulder, when he would encircle my neck with his
long, hairy tail, and accompany me in all my rambles. His tail formed
a not very agreeable neck-cloth with the thermometer above one hun-
dred degrees, but he seemed so disappointed when I refused to carry

him that it was impossible to leave him behind. One reason of our
intimacy was that our pursuits were the same, inasmuch as both were
entomologists; but he was a far more indefatigable insect-hunter than
myself. He would sit motionless for hours among the branches of a'
flowering shrub or tree, the resort of bees and butterflies, and suddenly
seize them when they little suspected danger."
Some that were kept by a French naturalist would kill small birds
that were put into their cage. These they did not eat, though they
licked up the blood that fell on the bottom of the cage.
These animals are often seen in confinement' in this country, and
they have bred several times here and on the Continent. A case was


recorded in the Times in 1883, and the owner, in announcing the fact,
wrongly supposed that it was the first time such an event had happened.'
There are several: other species, differing somewhat in size and more
in coloration from the Commor6 Marmoset, though their habits are
pretty much the same. .The name "Ouistiti"is often applied to any of
them from their shrill, whistling cry.
The Tamarins live in troops in the forests of Panama, Peru, and the
Brazils. They are restless little creatures, almost continually in motion,
and their food. consists of fruit, insects, birds' eggs, etc. There are no'
hairy tufts to the ears, nor is the tail banded with different colours.
The Negro Tamarin is one of the best-known forms. It is a native
of Guiana and the lower part of the Valley of the Amazon. Bates says
that "in Park it is often seen in a tame state in the houses of the
inhabitants. When full grown it is' about 9 in. long, indepen-
dently of the tail, which measures 15 in. The fur is thick, and
black in colour, with the exception of a reddish-brown streak down the
back. When first taken, or when kept tied up, it is very timid and
irritable. It will not allow itself to be approached, but keeps retreating
backwards, uttering a twittering, complaining noise, its dark, watchful
eyes, expressive of distrust, observant of every movement which takes
place near it. I once saw one as playful as a kitten, running
about the house after the negro children, who fondled it to their hearts'
content." The same writer remarks their knowing expression," which
must have struck many other persons. After stating that some anatomists
have compared the brain of the Tamarin to that of the Squirrel, he con-
cludes that this is an unsafe character by which to judge of their mental
qualities, and adds, In mobility of expression of countenance, intelli-
gence, and general manners, these small Monkeys resemble the higher
Apes far more than they do any rodent animal with which I am
The Silky Tamarin, or Lion Marmoset, owes its first name to the
character of its fur, and its second "to the long brown mane, which
hangs down from the neck and gives it very much the appearance of a
miniature lion. Bates says 'of a tame one : "The first time I went in,
it ran across the room straightway to the chair on which I had sat down,
and climbed-up to my shoulder; arrived there, it turned round and
looked into my face, showing its little teeth and chattering as though it
would say, 'Well, and how doy'ou do ? '" The colour is bright golden-
yellow and the length about 2' ft., of which the tail takes up the half.:

I N many respects the Lemurs and their allies resemble,
Monkeys, from which, however, they may be readily dis-
tinguished by their sharp, foxy-looking heads, large staring.
eyes, and the nostrils at the extremity of the snout, in form
like those of a dog or a cat. The index-finger in some of
them is a mere stump; -the second toe always bears a claw, the other
digits being .furnished with flat nails. The tips of the fingers and toes
are flattened into disc-like pads, the skin of which is well supplied with
nerves, so that they not only serve as cushions to break the fall of
these creatures in the leaps, but as delicate organs of touch. The tail is
never prehensile. Most of them are nocturnal-that is, they are more
active by night than by day-and live for the most part among the
branches of trees, rarely coming down to the ground from choice, and
feeding on fruit, insects, reptiles, birds' eggs, and small birds. The teeth
vary in number; but the back teeth resemble those of the Insectivores,
in that they are furnished with points.
Madagascar is the chief home of Lemurs; some are found in Africa,
and others are dotted here and there in the great forests as far east as
the Philippines and Celebes. To account for their being thus scattered,
it. has been suggested that there must have been "a large tract of land
in what is now the Indian Ocean, connecting Madagascar on the one
hand with Ceylon and with the Malay countries on the other."
The Short-tailed Indris, from the eastern forests of Madagascar, is
active in the daytime. The head and body are about 2 ft. long, while
the tail is a, mere stump. The general hue of the fur is sheeny black,
with some white on the back, forearms, and hind-quarters. These
animals are held in great veneration by the natives of some villages,
though European travellers have not been able to ascertain the reason.
A French naturalist has suggested that it may be on account of their
sad, wailing cries, not unlike those of a human being in pain.
The Diadem Indris gets its name from a band of white on the fore-
head, which, as the face is black and fringed with grey, gives the creature
a strange appearance. .The fur of the upper surface is dark, with some.
lighter markings. In this animal, and two others closely allied to it, the,
hinder limbs are longer than the front pair, which,' though well suited for,-
a life among the .trees, makes walking oqn all-fours difficult .. On the,


ground they stand half-erect, and move forward by a series of jumps,
with the hands raised in the air and the long tail streaming behind.
There are two other species-Verreaux's Indris and the Crowned Indris,
the former from the west and south, and the latter from the north-west,
of Madagascar.
The Woolly Lemur, or Avahi, is generally found alone or with a single
companion. It passes the day in sleep among the thick foliage, or in the
hollow of a tree, coming out at dusk to feed and gambol. The natives
give it a character for stupidity, which is probably not deserved, for the
brain is larger in proportion to its body than that of any other of the
Lemurs. The fur is distinctly woolly in character, and the general hue is
reddish, though there is a great difference
in individuals. In all these animals the
second, third, fourth, and fifth toes are
Joined by a web up to the first joint.
They feed chiefly on fruit.
The True Lemurs (Plate II., No. 6) are
found only in the island of Madagascar
Sand the Comoro Islands. They differ from
those before described in having the toes
free, the limbs more nearly of equal length,
and in all the tail is long. Some are
diurtial in habit and others nocturnal; but
Sto the fruit diet of the Indris they add
eggs, insects, and young birds. Some of
them are always to be seen in zoological
LEMURS. collections, where they are great favourites
with visitors, for while they are active and
sprightly, and indulge in amusing gambols, they show none of the bad
temper that is manifested by their higher relatives the Monkeys. If
these latter rise above the Lemurs in brain power, they fall below them
in conduct.
The White-fronted Lemur, with brownish-red fur and a broad white
band across the forehead, is often brought to England. Mr. Broderip
kept one as a pet It was sometimes allowed to wander about the house,
and its manifestations of joy when allowed to come into the room with
its master are thus described:-
His bounds were wonderful. From a table he would spring twenty
feet and more to the upper angle of an open door, and then back again to
the table or his master's shoulder, light as a fairy. In his leaps his tail
seemed to act as a kind of balancing-pole, and the elastic cushions at the
ends of his fingers enabled him to pitch so lightly that his descent was

I. Orang. 2. Gorilla. 3. Macaque. 4. Baboon. 5. Capuchin
Monkey. 6. Lemur. 7. Flying Fox. 8. Vampire Bat. 9. Mole.
to. Hedgehog. II. Brown Bear. 12. Polar Bear. 13. Badger.
14. Marten. 15. Polecat. 16. Otter. 17. Wolf. 18. Fox.
r9. Striped Hy'ena. 20. Ichneumon.


B IC~p

u Srrror s~ungr*

LEMURS. 6 65

hardly felt when he bounded on you. He would come round the back of
my neck and rub his tiny head.fondly against my face or ear, and, after a
succession of fondlings and little gruntings, descend to my instep, as I
sat cross-legged before the fire, when he would settle himself down thereon,
wrap his tail round him like a lady's fur boa, and go to sleep. When in
his cage he generally slept on his perch, rolled up with his head down-
wards, and his tail comfortably wrapped over all."
The Ring-tailed Lemur is ashy-grey on the upper surface and'
white beneath, while the tail is banded with black and white. These
Lemurs live more on the ground than do any others of the group. They
do well in confinement, and are generally gentle in disposition, though
one that was presented to the Zholc,.icL-Il Society had a nasty trick
of making vicious snaps at the hand of anyone who attempted to
feed it.
The Mungoose Lemur, with reddish-grey fur; the Ruffed I.emur,
generally with black-and-white fur, the colours being disposed in large
patches, but sometimes clad in reddish-brown; the Black Lemur, and
some others, have lived in the Zoological Gardens, where young Lemurs
have been born.
The Gentle or Grey Lemur has a more rounded head than the True
Lemurs. It lives in the bamboo forests of Madagascar, sleeping by day
and coming out at night to feed on the tender shoots and leaves.
There are two species of Weasel Lemurs, also nocturnal. They are
distinguished from the Gentle Lemurs by the fact that full-grown animals
have no froit teeth, or quite rudimentary ones.
The Mouse Lemurs are so called from their small size; one of them
was called by Buffon the Madagascar Rat. The food is chiefly fruit,
insects, and probably small birds. Most of them build nests, and some
of them mstivate, or indulge in a long sleep during the hot season. Just
before they retire for their slumber, a large quantity of fat accumulates
at and round the base of the tail, and the tail itself is enlarged. '1 his
fat nourishes them during their summer rest, and when they wake its loss
is shown by the small size of their tails. Like the Galagos, the Mouse
Lemurs have the bones of the ankle very long, thus giving great leverage
to the muscles of the leg and increasing the jumping power.
The Galagos are confined to the continent of Africa. Some of the
species are no larger than Mouse Lemurs, from which, however, they may
be readily distinguished by their curious folding ears. The tail is long
and bushy.
Garnett's Galago, from Eastern Africa, though it is often called the
Black Galago, has dark-brown fur, fading into yellowish on the under
parts. These animals have been exhibited in the Zoological Gardens,-


and of one to which he gave its liberty in his room, Mr. Bartlett, the
superintendent, writes:-
"Judge my utter astonishment to see him on the floor, jumping about
upright like a kangaroo, only with much greater speed and intelligence.
The little one sprang from the ground on to the legs of tables, arms of
chairs, and, indeed, on to any piece of furniture in the room; in fact, he
was more like a sprite than the best pantomimist I ever saw. What
surprised me most was his entire want of fear of dogs and cats. In bound-
ing about on the level ground his jumps, on the hind legs only, are very
S. astonishing, at least several feet at a
spring, and with a rapidity that requires
the utmost attention to follow. He
eats fruits, sweetmeats, bread, and any
kind of animal substance, killing every-
thing he can pounce upon and over-
.s power. This strong and active little
brute thus eats his prey at once, as I
S had proof in an unfortunate sparrow,.
S which he unmercifully devoured head
Other species are the Great or Thick-
tailed Galago, from West Africa, with a
bushy tail longer than the head and
body together; the Senegal Galago, which
COMMON LORIS. has been known longer than any other;
(From Sketch by Col. Tickell.) and the tiny Demidoff's Galago, from the
West Coast,with small ears and slender tail.
The Slow Lemurs, or Loris, have the tail short or absent. The thumb
and great toe stand out from the other digits, and the latter is directed
backwards. In those which live in Asia the first finger is small, while in
those from West Africa it is reduced to a mere pimple. All are nocturnal
and live among trees, amongst which they climb, and do not jump
or run.
The Common Loris is found in India, to the east of the Bay of Bengal;
it lives also on the north-east frontier, and ranges southward through the
Malay Peninsula and Siam to Borneo and the neighboring islands.
Colonel Tickell says: It inhabits the densest forests, and never by choice
leaves the trees. Its movements are slow, but it climbs readily and grasps
with great tenacity. If placed on the ground, it can proceed, if frightened,
in a wavering kind of trot, the limbs placed at right angles. It sleeps rolled
up in a ball, its head and hands buried between its thighs, and wakes up in
the dusk of evening to commence its nocturnal rambles." The total


length is a little over a foot, the fur is ashy-grey, with a chestnut stripe on
the back and dark rims round the eyes.
The Slender Loris, from Southern India and Ceylon, is much smaller,
and has dark-grey fur with a reddish tinge. The Singhalese use the eyes
of this creature in love-charms and philtres. To obtain them Sir Emerson
Tennent says they hold the little animal to the fire till the eye-balls burst.
Before we say hard things about the Singhalese it may be well to re-
member that living shrews were formerly plugged into ash-trees in this
country, and that some North Country fisher-folk "after having caught
nothing for many nights, keep the first fish that comes into the boat, and
burn it on their return home as a sacrifice to the Fates."
The African species of Slow Lemurs are called by their native name
-Pottos. Bosman's Potto was discovered on the Guinea coast early in
the eighteenth century, and then lost sight of for a hundred and twenty
years. The tail is short, and two or three of the vertebrae of the neck
have long processes, which form little prominences, and are only covered
by a thin skin. In habits it resembles the Common Loris, but is said to
be even slower in its movements. Another species-the Awantibo-is
found at Old Calabar.
The Tarsier, which lives in the forests of many of the islands of the
East Indian Archipelago, is about the size of a squirrel, which it resembles
in sitting up and holding its food in its hands while eating. The face is
round, with sharp muzzle, large ears, and staring eye. The hind limbs are
longer than the front pair, the tail is tufted, and the general colour of the
fur is fawn-brown. It owes its name to the great elongation of the bones
of the ankle, technically called the tarsal bones. These animals are
nocturnal and.arboreal, leaping from bough to bough in pursuit of insects
and lizards. The natives regard them with superstitious dread, and if the
people in some parts of Java see one near their rice-grounds they will
leave them uncultivated.
The Aye-Aye is confined to the bamboo forests of Madagascar, where
it lives solitary or in pairs. This animal is about the size of a large cat,
has long, loose, dark-brown hair, with a woolly undercoat, and the long
tail is bushy. With the exception of the great toe, which is opposable and
bears a nail, all the digits are armed with long claws, and the middle finger
of each hand is so thin that one writer has compared it to a piece of bent
wire. The Aye-Aye builds a kind of nest of dried leaves in a fork of a
tree, with an opening at the side, at which to go in and out. This creature
is remarkable from the fact that its true position was long misunderstood.
From the number and the peculiar character of its teeth, it was
formerly placed with the Gnawing Animals. The resemblance was not
confined to the number of the teeth. The incisors grow from persistent


pulps-that is, they are pushed up from behind as fast as they are worn
away in front, as is the case in the rabbit and the mouse. Specimens
have lived in the Zoological Gardens, but have been seen byfew visitors,
for during the day they sleep in the little box at the top of the cage, only
coming out when the house is cleared at dusk. Dr. Sandwith, who kept
one of these creatures for some time, gives the following account of its
habits in captivity:-
"The thick sticks I put into his cage were bored in all directions by a
large and destructive grub.
Just at sunset the Aye-Aye
Script from under his blanket,
.yawned, stretched, and be-
took himself to his tree,
where his movements are
lively and graceful, though
by no means so quick as a
squirrel. Presently he came
'to one of the worm-eaten
branches, which he began to
S examine most attentively;
THE AYE-AYE. and bending forward his ears
and applying his nose close
to the bark, he rapidly tapped the surface with his curious second
digit, as a woodpecker taps a tree, though with much less noise, from
time to time inserting the end of the slender finger into the worm-holes as
a surgeon would a probe. At length he cane to a part of the branch
which evidently gave out an interesting sound, for he began to tear it with'
his strong teeth. He rapidly stripped off the bark, cut into the wood, and
exposed the nest of a grub, which he daintily picked out of its bed with
the slender tapping-finger, and conveyed the luscious morsel to his mouth.
But I was yet to learn another peculiarity. I gave him water to drink in a
saucer, on which he stretched out a hand, dipped a finger into it, and
drew it obliquely through his open mouth. After a while he lapped like
a cat, but his first mode of drinking appeared to me.to be his way of
reaching water in the deep clefts of trees."


HE Bats are nocturnal animals having the fore-limbs specially
modified for flight. We can easily trace out on our own
bodies the general plan of this flying apparatus. If we
stand upright, with the feet a little apart, the extended
arms bent into a V-shape from the shoulder, with the
thumb pointing upwards and the fingers downwards, we shall have
some idea of the framework, so to speak, of the apparatus by yhikh
Bats fly. From the point of the shoulder to the thumb there stretches
a thin sensitive membrane, the
fingers are immensely elongated,
and between these, and extending
from the little finger to the heel,
and running thence along the side
of the body to the arm-pit, is the
wing-membrane. Most Bats have,
between the legs, reaching nearly
or quite to the heel, a membrane,
supported by. the hind-limbs, and
often by a bony spur which, runs
backward and downward from each
heel. The wings are spread for HEAD A BAT (MEGADERM).
flight by stretching out the arms, Showing Earlets and Nose-Leafs.
and opening the fingers, which, as
the bones of the palm are free, seem to start directly from the wrist,
something like the sticks of a fan. Bats have teeth of three kinds
like our own; the number varies, but never exceeds thirty-eight. The
ears are large, especially in the insect-eating Bats, which also have an
inner ear, or earlet ; and they generally have a nose-leaf"-an out-
growth of skin on and round the nose. The ears, nose-leaf, and wing-
membranes are extremely sensitive, and serve as delicate organs of touch.
On the ground Bats walk badly, owing to the fadt that the hind-limbs
are weak and the knee bent backwards. By means of the claws on
their toes and their thumbs, they can climb up sloping and upright
surfaces if there be any small projection for them to take hold of.
When at rest, they hang by their feet in caves, or old buildings, or


to the branches of trees, and sleep head downwards. In temperate
regions Bats take a long winter sleep. Even in India the insect-
eating Bats are rarely seen abroad in the cold season, though the
fruit-Bats are as active then as at other times.
There are two sub-orders-the Large, or Fruit-eating Bats, from
the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Old World, and Australia;
and the Small, or Insect-
eating Bats, from the
tropical and temperate
regions of both hemi-
The Flying-foxes of
the East, which owe
their popular name to
their long, sharp muzzle,
are good representatives
of the Fruit-eating Bats.
The average length is
a little over a foot, and
the wing-spread is about
four times as much.
There is no tail. The
general colour of the fur
is reddish-brown. Jer-
don says: "During the
day they roost on trees,
generally in large colo-
nies,hanging head down-
wards, wrapped in their
FLYING-FOXES AT REST. wings, and resembling
large dead leaves. To-
wards sunset they begin to get restless, move about along the branches, and
by ones and twos fly off for their nightly rounds. If water is at hand-a
tank, a river, or.the sea-they fly cautiously down and touch the water; but
I could not ascertain, if they took a sip or merely dipped part of their
bodies in. They fly vast distances occasionally to such trees as happen
to be in fruit, returning from their feeding-grounds at early morning."
Colonel Tickell says that, on their arrival at their roosting-places, "a
scene of incessant wrangling and contention is enacted' among them,
as each endeavours to secure a higher or better place, or to eject a
neighbour who presses too close. In these struggles the Bats hook
themselves along the branches, striking out with the long claw of the


thumb, and shrieking and cackling without intermission. Each new-
comer-is compelled to fly several times round the tree, being threatened
from all points, and when he eventually hooks on has to go through
a series of fights, and is probably ejected two or three times before
he makes good his place."
The Kalong, or Malay Flying-Fox (Plate II., Np. 7), is the largest
Bat known, having a wing-spread of quite 5 ft. Wallace says: "These
ugly creatures are considered a great delicacy, and are much sought
after. At about the beginning of the year they come in large flocks
to eat fruit, and congregate during the day on some small islands in
the bay, hanging'by thousands on the trees, especially on.dead*ones.
They can then be easily'caught or knocked down with sticks, and
are brought home by basketfuls. .
They require to be carefully pre- .
pared, as the skin and fur have a
rank and powerful foxy odour; but
they are generally cooked with
abundance of spices and condi-
ments, and are really very good
eating, something like hare."
The Grey-headed Fruit Bat.
from Australia; the Egyptian Fruit HEAD OF HAMMER-HEADED BAT.
Bat, which lives among the ruins
of the ancient buildings and in the dark chambers of the Pyramids;
and the Fulvous Fruit Bat, froi India, Ceylon, and Burmah, are
closely allied. The last is .shetimes found in caves, near the sea-shore,
and is said to feed on m'qiE cs.
White's Fruit Bat ranges over Africa, from the Northern tropic to
Senegal. It represents a group, in which the males of most of
the forms have, near the shoulder, pouches, from the mouth of which
long yellowish hairs project, whence they are called Epaulet Bats. They
live principally on figs. To this group belongs the Hammer-headed
Bat, discovered by Du Chaillu in Western Africa. There are many
other species, but they differ little in habit from those described.
The Small, or Insect-eating Bats, fall into two groups, which may
be distinguished by the character of the tail and the hair. In the first
the tail is generally long, and enclosed within the thigh-membrane. In
the second, the tail, when present, usually comes through the membrane.
The character of the hair is pretty constant in the two groups. The
figure a on the next page shows the hair of one of the Covered-tail
Bats, while that marked b shows a hair of one of the Free-tailed group.
The Horseshoe Bats are so called from the fact that the nose bears


leaf-like appendages, of whieh the front part surrounding the nostrils is
not unlike a horseshoe'in shape. The Greater Horseshoe Bat is found
in the southern counties of England, and! ranges over Central and
Southern Europe, part of Asia, and the. whole African continent.
The total length is nearly 4 in., and the,4wing-spread 13 in. The
fur on the upper' surface is reddishigrey below, the red tint
is lost. Its. .favourite haunts are deserted quarries, old buildings,
Sand iiitural caverns, preferring the darkest and most inaccessible parts.
S: .'In some 'uic situations it passes the winter in a torpid state, coming
f.:.rth'-at the approach of spring. Cockchafers, which do so much
'. 'ama.i, to t.,rin craps and plantations, are said to b' its chief food.
.. !2, The Lesser Horseshoe 1'at' i also British, but has
U/ a *.wider range, and spreads to Ireland. Dr. Leach
Described it ,as "a very cautious animal; very easily
tamed, but fond of concealing itself." It probably flies
higher than its larger relation, and there is great dif-
ference in its manner of alighting from that of other
Bats. Mr. Bell, who turned one loose in a room, says
that instead o~ adhering by its claws against an object,
S it invariably sought for something from which it could
a hang freely suspended. The leaf of a table which was
HAIR OF BATS. let .down was often tried, but the polished surface not
furnishing a suitable hold for its claws, was as often
relinquished for some fringe over a window, from which it would hang
suspended by one foot for sonie ti'iine, swinging about, and twisting
itself round, to watch those who were observing it."
The Mourning Horse-shoe Bat is a naiv'e of India and the Asiatic
Islands. The fur is long and thick, and black in colour, whence the
popular name. The total length is a little under 6 in. There are
several other Eastern species; and one, the Australian Horseshoe Bat,
with mouse-coloured fur and very large nose-leaf, from Australia.
The Diadem Bat, from India, Ceylon, and Burmah, is from
31 in. to 4 in. long, with a wing-spread of about 2 ft. The fur
is light brown. Captain Hutton says that "this species may be
heard during its flight cracking and crunching the hard wings of
beetles, which in the evening are usually abundant among the trees;
the teeth are strong, and the general aspect is not unlike that of a bull-
dog." This genus also has many Eastern species.
In the Megaderms and the Nycterine Bats the ears are enormously
developed; the earlet also is very large. These Bats live in the warmer
parts of the Old World. The best known of the Megaderms is the Lyre
Bat from India and Ceylon, from 3 in. to 4 in. in length, with a


wing-spread from 14 in. to 19 in.. The fur is ashy-blue above, and
yellowish below. Sterndale says they are very abundant in old buildings,
and, undoubtedly, bloodsuckers. Blyth noticed one fly into his room one -
evening with a smaller bat,/which it dropped. The latter wgs. weak from
loss of blood, and the jieft morning, the Lyre Bat having been caught
and both Bats put intq the cage, the little one was again attacked and
devoured. Sterndale also records the killing of two canaries .by this Bat,'.
and Sir William Flower thinks that the Megaderms feed,' Ciien they can,
upon the smaller Bats and other small mammals. ,
The Nycterine Bats, of which there are seven, inhabit :-irlrca and


Arabia, with the exception of one species found in Java. In all these
the nose-leaf is absent, but in its place there is a deep groove extending
upward from the nostrils. The Desert Bat, about 4 in. long, with grey
fur, lives in the desert regions of Egypt and Abyssinia, and owes its
popular and scientific names to the fact that it is found in the Thebaid,
the home of so many hermits in early Christian times.
In the True Bats the nostrils are at the end of the muzzle, and are
not surrounded by leaf-like appendages. They are widely distributed
throughout the temperate and warm regions of both hemispheres, and
here belong most of the European Bats and all the British Bats, with
the exception of the two already mentioned.
The Long-eared Bat, pretty generally distributed all over the country,
and found throughout the greater part of Europe and Asia, is nearly
4 in. long, including the tail. The fur is rather long, thick, soft, and
silky, lightish-brown above and brownish-grey beneath. According to


Bell, it may be easily tamed. Its favourite retreat is in the roofs of
houses in towns and villages, and in the towers of churches. In moving
along the ground the foreparts are raised, and the body thrown forward
by successive jerks, first on one side, then on the other.
In the Barbastelle the ears are of moderate size. The total length
is less than 4 in., of which the tail forms nearly a half. The long,
soft fur is brownish-black. The Barbastelle ranges over great part of
Europe and thle southern and midland counties of England. When
kept as a pet, not only does it shun its owner, but- declines to make
the acquaintance of other Bats that may share its cage.
The Pipistrelle is very common in Britain and ranges to the Hima-
layas. The total length is a little less than 3 in.; the fur on the upper
surface is reddish-brown, and dusky beneath. From the middle of
spring to October this Bat may be seen after sunset, skimming the
water like a swallow in search of insects, and instances are on record
of its darting at a fisherman's fly and becoming hooked. Its close
ally-the Serotine, some 4 in. long, with rich chestnut-brown fur
above, and yellowish grey beneath-is the only Bat found in both
hemispheres. In England it is confined to the south-eastern counties.
The Great Bat, or Noctule, is widely distributed in the Eastern
hemisphere. With us it is found as far north as Yorkshire. The head
and body are 3 in. long, and the tail about half as much; the
fur is reddish-brown. A naturalist, who kept some of these Bats in
captivity, speaks of their voracious appetite. A female passed the
day suspended by the hind feet at he 'top of the cage, coming down
at evening to feed. Her weight was just two drachms, yet she managed
to consume a whole half-ounce of cockchafers-just four times her
own weight. She was careful in cleaning herself, using the feet as
combs, with which she 'parted the hair on each side down the middle.
A young one was born, but though the mother died the next day, 'the
little thing lived for eight days on milk. The Hairy-armed Bat
occurs in the Midlands and in Ireland. One specimen of the Parti-
coloured Bat (from North-eastern Europe) was found at Plymouth,
whither it had doubtless been brought by some ship.
The Tube-nosed Bats, of which there are seven or eight species,
are found in Java, Japan, Tibet, and the Himalayas. The nostrils
project on each side the muzzle, like tubes; and the lower part of the
wings and the thigh-membrane are hairy.
The Painted Bat is found in the forests of Tropical Asia. It is of
small size, but is very remarkable for its coloration-orange and black
-which is probably protective: that is, it harmonises so well with
the creature's surroundings as to render it difficult of detection. Of


another species of the same genus, Swinhoe says: "The body of this
bat was of an orange-yellow, but the wings were painted with orange-
yellow and black. It was caught suspended head downwards on a
'cluster of the round fruit of the longan tree. Now, this tree is an
evergreen, and all the year through some portion of its foliage is under-
going decay, the particular leaves being in such a stage partially orange
and black. This bat. can therefore, at all seasons, suspend itself from
the branches and elude its enemies by its resemblance to the leaf."
The Brown Pig-Bat, from South and Central America, is -nearly
,3 in. long, including the tail. The fdr is cinnamon-brown above,
paler beneath, and the wings are dusky. This 'animal has suckers
on the feet and hands, something like those on the arms of the
cuttle-fish. These Bats are thus enabled to
climb over smooth upright surfaces; and it
is supposed that they capture the insects
on which they fedd, while crawling over the
branches of trees.
The Thick-legged Bats are chiefly .con-
fined to the tropical and sub-tropical regions
of both hemispheres. The Sack-winged
Bats derive their name from a pouch or
sac on the lower surface of the arm- BROWN PIG-BAT Enlarged).
membrane, near the elbow. It secretes
a reddish substance with a strong smell. There are six species from
Central and South America.
The Tomb Bats owe their name to the fact that the first species
known was found in the ancient tombs of Egypt. There are some ten
species spread ove the Eastern hemisphere. The Egyptian Rhinopome
is also a tomjhaunting Bat. The long slender tail is produced
beyond the t mgh-membrane. Owing to the length of the hinder
limbs, and the fact that the wing-membrane does not extend the whole
length of the leg, these Bats can walk much more freely than do
In the Mastiff Bats the muzzle is short and thick and the tail stout.
Of the Smoky Mastiff Bat, which spreads from South America to
Jamaica, Mr. Osburn says that they swarmed in the roof of his house,
and passed out under the eaves. Frequently small parties of them
would come in through the windows and take a short flight round the
room. In hibernating, the males and females form separate groups,
and this habit is common in most species of Bats. The strangest of
the group is the Short-tailed Bat-from New Zealand, which resembles
the Brown Pig-Bat in the possession of special organs for climbing. It


seems to go pretty well on all-fours. The thumb-claw bears a sharp
tooth, which probably increases its clinging power. Thelodwer surface
of the hind limbs and the soles are covered with a soft, loose, wrinkled
skin, almost certainly adhesive. Dr. Dobson believes "that this' spel:'ies -
hunts for its insect food not only in the air, but also on the branches,,
and leaves of trees, amongst which its peculiarities of structure -most
probably enable it to walk about with security and ease."
The Javelin Bat, from Tropical America and the West Indies, is
about 5 in. long, with a wing-spread of nearly 2 ft., and fur of a
uniform brown hue. Wallace charges this Bat with blood-sucking,
and other writers support him. On the other hand, the stomachs of
many of these Bats have been examined,
and found to contain insects, but no
traces of blood. One of the strangest-
looking of this family is Blainville's Bat,
the head of which surpasses any demon-
mask seen in a pantomime. There are
allied species which have the leaf-like
S appendages on the chin.
e BThe Vampirine Bats, long accused
S of blood-sucking, have been proved to
be fruit-eaters. Of the Great Vampire Bat
HEAD OF BLAINVILLE'S BAT. (Plate II., No. 8), Bates says : "Nothing
in animal physiognomy can be more
hideous than the countenance of this creature when viewed from the front
-the large, leathery ears standing out from the top of the head, the erect
spear-shaped appendage on the tip of the nose, the grin, and the glistening
black eye-all combine to make up a figure that reminds one of some
mocking imp of fable." He opened the stomachs of several of these
Bats, and found the contents to be fruit and insects.
The Soricine Bat, from the warmer parts of South America, may be
taken as the type of a small group in which the tongue is long, thickly
set with hairs, and capable of being protruded to some distance from
the mouth. These Bats were formerly considered to be bloodsuckers,
and the tongue was believed to be used in some way to increase the
flow of blood. These Bats have been kept in confinement, and have
been seen to use the long tongue to lick out the soft pulp of fruit.
In the Stenoderm Bats, which have a lance-shaped nose-leaf, springing
from a. regular horseshoe, the molar teeth have sharp points and a
cutting edge. They feed chiefly, if not entirely, on fruit. The Mont-
serrat Stenoderm, first described in 1894, is said to do great damage
to the cacao-plantations in that island.


The blood-sucking Vampires, or Desmodonts, have the teeth and
stomach fitted for a blood diet-a state of things found in no other
mammals. The Common Desmodont is some 4 in. long, and nearly
,four times as much in wing-spread. The fur is brown, but the tint


varies considerably in different individuals. This and an allied species
seem to be the only Bats habitually guilty of blood-sucking. Horses,
cattle, and man himself are the victims. The wound, which is difficult
to heal, is probably inflicted with the sharp cutting teeth, the skin
being shaved away till the small vessels are exposed and a constant
supply of blood kept up.
Some persons are particularly annoyed by these Bats, while others
are free from their attacks. Wallace tells of an Indian girl who was
bitten again and again, till she became quite weakened from loss of
blood, so that it was found necessary to send her to a distance where
these bloodthirsty animals did not abound.

These animals are in many ways related to the Bats, but the limbs
are organised for walking or burrowing, and in some few cases for
swimming. There are generally five digits, armed with claws, on each
limb; and in walking, the soles and palms are placed flat on the
ground. Some have an external resemblance to some of the Rodents,
and are often wrongly called by names that properly belong to
that order. Thus, the Common Shrew is often called the Shrew-
mouse, and some of the Indian Shrews are called Musk-rats. The
teeth are of the ordinary three kinds-incisors, canines, and molars,
the latter furnished with sharp points (see p. 85). Their chief food
consists of insects and their larvae, but some forms devour worms and
molluscs, and shell-fish; while others attack frogs, snakes, fishes, small


birds, and even small mammals. Some of them are found all over the
temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres, with the exception
of South America and Australia.
For a long time naturalists were uncertain where to put the Colugos.
They have been classed with the Lemuroids and called Flying Lemurs
-a name which contains as many errors as words, for these creatures
cannot fly, and are not Lemurs. They possess a parachute-membrane,
or patagium, extending from the wrists along the sides of the body to
the heels, as well as a thigh-membrane, like that of the Bats. But on
comparing the body and limbs of the Colugo with our own in the
same fashion that we compared those of the Bat' (p. 69), we shall see
:in 'a moment that true flight is impossible for these animals. Motion
of the fore-limbs would never raise them from the ground.
The Common Colugo is a native of Malacca, Sumatra, and
Borneo. The general length is from 18 in. to 20 in. It has been
said to live principally on leaves, but it also relishes insects, and it
frequently captures and devours small birds. Wallace, in his "Malay
Archipelago," says that the Colugo "rests during the day clinging to
the trunks of trees, where its olive or brown fur, mottled with irregular
whitish spots and blotches, resembles closely the colour of mottled
bark, and no doubt helps to protect it. Once, in a bright twilight, I
saw one of these animals run up a trunk in a rather open place, and
then glide obliquely through the air to another tree, on which it
alighted near its base, and immediately began to ascend. I paced the
distance from one tree to the other, and found it to be 70 yards;
and the amount of descent I estimated at not more than 35 ft. or
40 ft., or less than one in five. This, I think, proves that the
animal must have some power of guiding itself through the air, other-
wise in so long a distance it would have little chance of alighting
exactly upon the trunk." Another species, of similar habits, lives in
the Philippine Islands.
The Tree-Shrews are natives of South-eastern Asia and the islands
of the Eastern Archipelago. They live among the branches of trees,
and are active in the daytime. In form and size they closely resemble
squirrels, for which they have been often mistaken. Their diet consists
of fruit and insects. The Burman Tree-Shrew is about 14 in, in
length, the tail being as long as the head and body together. The
general hue of the fur is a dusky greenish-brown. It is a harmless
little animal, in the dry season living in trees, and in the rainy season
entering the houses. One that lived in a mango-tree, near the house
of an Indian missionary, made itself nearly as familiar as the cat. It
would take up its quarters on the bed, and was very fond of putting its


nose into the tea-cups immediately after breakfast, and acquired a taste
for tea and coffee. But at last it lost its life by walking into a
In the same family is the Pen-tailed Tree-Shrew, a native of Borneo
and Sumatra. Its general colour is blackish-brown above, and yellowish
on the under surface. Its great peculiarity is in its tail, which is hairy
at the base, then black and scaly for some distance, and for about a
third of the length at the end furnished with white hairs arranged on


each side like the wings of an arrow or the plume of a feather. Its
habits resemble those of the Tree-Shrews.
In the next family are the Elephant-Shrews, from Africa. The
snout is prolonged into a kind of proboscis, which accounts for the
popular name. The hind-legs are more developed than the fore-limbs,
and they advance by a succession of leaps, thus resembling the Jerboas,
and causing some writers to call them Jumping Shrews. The Common
Elephant Shrew, from South Africa, is about 8 in. long, of which
the tail takes up 3 in. The colour is tawny-brown, becoming whitish
on the limbs. It is active by day, and lives in burrows, to which it
retreats on being disturbed. There are several other species.


The Hedgehogs are small, stoutly-built animals, with pointed snouts
and very short tails, and in most, of them the hair on the upper surface
is so thickened as to form spines. In this family we meet for the first
time with a mode of defence, or means of protection---that of rolling
into a ball, common among many of the lower Mammals.
The Common Hedgehog (Plate II., No. io), when full grown, is
about o1 in. in length; the spines of the upper surface are dirty-
white ringed with black, and about an inch long. The face is black,
and the hair on the spineless parts yellowish-white. It is spread over
Europe, except in the extreme North, and ranges irto the South-west
of Asia. It generally sleeps by day, coming out to hunt at night, and
hibernates in the winter, a habit which is not shared by the Indian,
nor probably by the African species. Its chief diet consists of insects
and beetles; and these creatures are sometimes kept in houses to kill
cockroaches (which despite their popular name are not beetles at all),
and so fond are they of this diet that some have died of- over-feeding.
Earthworms, slugs, and ,snails are also eaten, as are frogs, toads, snakes,
vipers, and mice. Strange to say, the Hedgehog does not fear the bite
of the viper, and will crunch up the Blistering Beetles pr Spanish Flies
as if they were sweetmeats; but the secretion from the skin of the toad
is disagreeable, and the Hedgehog rubs its muzzle on the ground after
each bite. From its habit of devouring slugs and snails, the Hedge-
hog must be reckoned as the gardener's friend; but he has a bad habit
of feeding on birds' eggs, and sometimes attacks poultry. A writer in-
the Field says: "I was going to bed, I heard a tremendous outcry
from a hen in an adjacent orchard. Hurrying out with a friend to
the rescue, and picking up some handy stones, we made for a coop
under which was the hen with her chicks. Overturning the coop, we
found a large Hedgehog hanging to the hen's throat. The stone, of
which I expeditiously delivered myself, caught the Hedgehog between
the eyes, and he rolled over dead." When disturbed, the Hedgehog rolls
himself into a ball, with the head and legs tucked in, and only the
spiny surface of the back exposed. A jet of water poured on the part
where the head is concealed will cause it to unroll; and it is said that
foxes and some dogs will push a Hedgehog into a pond or ditch, so
that he must either unroll and be eaten, or be drowned. The young
are born blind and naked, but possessing the rudiments of spines,
which are then soft and flexible. There are several allied species.
The Collared Hedgehog, a native of India, "has the habit, when
touched, of suddenly jerking up the back with some force, so as to
prick the fingers or mouth of the assailant, at the same time emitting
a blowing sound like that from a pair of bellows."


The Bulau, discovered by Sir Stamford Raffles in Sumatra, is a
Shrew-like Hedgehog, "with the body, and especially the head, more
elongated than in the Common IHdgehog, with flexible hairs, and
furnished with a tail that is nearly as long as the body." The general
colour is greyish-black; the head and body are about 14 in. long,
and the tail 12 in. It is more active by night than by day, and lives in
holes among the roots of trees. There is another closely-allied species
The Shrews constitute a numerous family of mouse-like or rat-like
creatures, spread over the Old. World and North America. The
snout is long and
pointed, the body
mouse-like, and the
tail thick and tapering,
and more or less densely
set with hairs. Many
of them are furnished
with glands which se-
crete a strong-smelling '
The Common Shrew
is about 2 in. long,
with a tail of rather
more than i in. It
feeds on insects, worms, h '
small snails, and slugs; HEDGEHOG AND YOUNG.
and it is preyed upon
by barn owls and weasels. It is said that cats will kill but not eat
them, owing to their strong-smelling glands. In the autumn .great
numbers of these little creatures are found dead, without apparent injury,
on roads and footpaths in the country-probably starved.
Some old superstitions still linger round the Shrew, which is, or was
till very recently, credited with causing cattle to fall lame if it ran over
their backs, while its bite made them "swell at the heart and die."
The only cure was to stroke the part affected or bitten with a twig
from a shrew-ash-that is, an ash-tree, into which a hole had been
bored with an auger, and a Shrew. plugged up alive in the hole.
The Pygmy Shrew, which is also British, is rather smaller, though
the tail is longer in proportion to the body. There is also. more white
on the under-parts.
The Garden Shrew is common over nearly all Europe. The total
. length is about 4 in., of which the tail occupies somewhat less than
TIl in. The fur is mouse-grey, shading into light ash-grey below, In

S .8I



habit it resembles the Common Shrew, and the same story of its injuring
cattle is told of it. Our illustration shows the three British Shrews. To
the left is the Common Shrew; the Water Shrew is on the right; and
the little creature at the top is the Pygmy Shrew.
The Tuscan Shrew, with ashy-red fur above and ash-grey beneath,
is probably the smallest living mammal. From the snout to the tip of
its tail (about I in.), it measures from 2- in. to 2J in.
The Indian Musk Shrew has bluish-grey or mouse-coloured fur; the
head and body together measure from 6 to 7 in., and the tail
nearly 4 in., so that, compared to the British Shrews, this is quite a
giant. It has a strong musky odour, which it was (falsely) said to im-
part to wine and beer by running over the bottles in which these liquors
were contained. Mr. Sterndale champions these little creatures on
account of their insect-eating habits, and proved by experiment that
the mere passing of a Musk Shrew over a substance does not neces-
sarily impart a musky odour. While dressing for dinner one day he
saw a Musk Shrew in his room. Placing a clean white handkerchief
on the floor, he chased the Shrew till it had crossed the hand-
kerchief five times. At mess he asked his brother-officers if they
could perceive any peculiar smell about the handkerchief, but none of
them could. "Well, all I know is," said he, "that I have driven a
musk-rat five times over that handkerchief just now." From which it
seems that the Musk Shrew emits no odour except at certain seasons, or
when irritated.
The Water Shrew is a little more than 3 in. long, with a


tail of rather more than 2 in. The fur is black, or nearly black,
above, and white below, the two being sharply marked off from, and
not shading into, each other; but there is great diversity in the colora-
tion. On the under-side of the tail is a long fringe of hair, and there
are comb-like fringes of stiff hairs on the feet and toes, thus making
the limbs and tail good swimming-organs. The Water Shrew forms a
burrow in the banks of ponds or streams; its prey consists of fresh-
water shrimps, insects, larva, and the fry of small fishes; and it has
been seen feeding on a rat that had been killed in a trap. It is fairly
common in Britain, and ranges through Europe to the Altai Mountains.
The Himalayan Water Shrew is somewhat larger; and another species
is found in Japan.
The Tibetan Water Shrew is about 8 in. long, of which the tail
counts for half. The feet are webbed, and furnished with sucker-
like discs, which probably enable the animal to cling to the stones
in the river-bed. It is said to feed on small fishes.
The Tailless Shrew, also from Tibet, is a burrowing animal. Like
the Mole, it has the fore-feet broader and stronger than those of the
hind-limbs. It is about 4 in. long, clad in grey fur with a greenish-brown
The Desmans and True Moles are confined to the temperate parts
of Europe, Asia, and North America. The eyes are very small, and in
some forms covered with skin; the ears are short, and hidden in the
fur; and in most cases the fore-limbs are modified into shovel-like
organs for burrowing.
The Desmans, which are aquatic in habit, are not unlike big rats,
but the nostrils are very long, and form a tube-like snout; the toes
are webbed, and
the scaly tail is
flattened from side
to side to aid the
animals in swim-
ming. They fre-
quent standing water
and slow streams, in
the banks of which
they form their bur-
rows, which are -
only used as resting- -
places, the greater -
part of their time
being spent in the PYRENEAN DESMAN.
G 2


water. They feed on worms, pond-snails, and insect larvaej and pro-
bably no small aquatic animals come amiss to them. 'The Common
Desman is 'a native of Southern Russia and South-western Asia. Its
length is about 18 in., of which the tail forms a little more than
a third. 'The fur is reddish-brown on the back, ashy-grey below,
with a silvery lustre in certain lights. The Pyrenean Desman is
about two-thirds the size of its relative, and has chestnut-brown
fur on the back, and silvery-grey on the under-surface. It is said

Ij Z Viz
~7- il~Ay


to feed principally on

trout. Both species have a strong musky

The Mole Shrews are small animals that connect the Shrews with
the True Moles. The Hairy-tailed Mole Shrew, common in mountain
regions of Southern and Eastern Japan, but rarer in the north, is about
the size of the Water Shrew, with velvety-brown fur. It burrows like
a Mole, but does not throw up heaps of earth. Gibbs' Mole Shrew,
from North America, is closely allied. The Tibetan Mole Shrew differs
from the other species in riot making a burrow. The fur is slate-
coloured, and the general appearance Shrew-like, but the skull is like
that of a Mole.
The True Moles have the collar-bone (c) and the bone of the upper
arm (b) from the shoulder to the .elbow, very short and broad, and,
consequently, of great strength; and from the inside of each wrist there

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