Citation
Stories of New York

Material Information

Title:
Stories of New York
Series Title:
Young folks' library of American history
Creator:
Lovering, Anna Temple
Educational Publishing Company ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Boston ;
New York ;
Chicago ;
Publisher:
Educational Publishing Company
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
224, [2] p., [10] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), ports., maps ; 18 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Generals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Statesmen -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Governors -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Colonists -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Battles -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Traitors -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
African Americans -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Sailing -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- New York (State) ( lcsh )
Biography -- Juvenile literature -- New York (State) ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1896 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1896
Genre:
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
collective biography ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
United States -- California -- San Francisco
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
"Some of New York's great men": p. 197-220.
General Note:
Plates printed in burgundy.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisements follow text and back cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Anna Temple Lovering, M.D.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026853911 ( ALEPH )
ALH3753 ( NOTIS )
38988312 ( OCLC )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text




The Baldwin Library

Universit
ve ty









YOUNG FOLK’S LIBRARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY.



© EOS

NEW YORK.

BY
ANNA TEMPLE LOVERING, M.D.

EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY
BOSTON
New York CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO



COPYRIGHTED
By EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY,
1896.



CONTENTS.

PAGE
The Coming of the Half-Moon : . tas . . 7
Trading for Furs . : : : : : +12
Legend of the Iroquois a 5 5 5 : 5 17
New Netherland, and its Dutch Governors 5 . 5 23
Good Times in the Dutch Colony .. . : é : 37
How the Dutch Surprised the English . 5 Sees 47
Jacob Leisler 5 i : 6 . : ‘ 52
Burning of Schenectady . . . . = 5 : 57
A Rover of the Seas 5 : 5 Sen. 4 61
Freedom of the Press Peiuiec eres cae: : . 5 69
The Negro Plot F 3 : : : : : 73
In the Valley of the Mohawk : 5 : : : 76
Colonial New York . ; 4 : i 4 : 82
A Scene on the Banks of the IIndson . 5 5 f 91
Sons of Liberty : : ; < , ‘ F 95
Ticonderoga and Crown Point. ; ; : : 101
The Green Mountain Boys . ; a : i ‘ 105
The Last English Governor . ‘i ; 2 6 107
The American Flag. 7 és 5 ; : 5 111
Battle of Long Island . : . . . a 112
Brave General Herkimer . . : . 3 : . 118
Bemis’s Heights and Saratoga . : : 3 125
Surrender of Burgoyne eee ue ; A : 130



4 CONTENTS.

Pace
Massacre at Cherry Valley : . : : . 1384
“ Mad Anthony ” : . : : . : : 138
A Traitor to His Country : : ee . 143
Evacuation Day : : 5 3 : : 152
Inauguration of Washington. : 3 a ee 156
First Years of Peace i ‘ 5 4 5 a 161
Alexander Hamilton , : : : . : 165
Fulton’s Folly : : . : é 6 : 171
The Erie Canal. ‘ 3 6 e ; e 175
The War of 1812 : : ales . 5 . . 180
Legend of the Catskill Falls: d Y . : B 190
New York City in the Civil War . . ae ° ‘ 198
Some or New Yoru’s Great MEN
Irving and Cooper ei : : : . . 197
John Jacob Astor : : : . ‘ 205
Horace Greeley . : : : S : 211
James Gorden Bennett . . ; . . 214

Henry Ward Beecher 5 ‘ * ° 5 ° 217








HUDSON’S CREW PLAYING NINEPINS









SORES OF

NEVE YORI.

THE COMING OF THE HALF MOON.

“The great white bird!”

“The great white bird!”

That is what the Indians along the shores of the
Hudson River cried, one to another, when the square-
rigged, stubborn little Dutch Half Moon appeared
upon the blue waters of the river which, until that
clear morning, had seen only the rude little canoes
of the natives. ie

But the Indians were hardly less surprised than
were Henry Hudson and his crew; for little had they

expected to find themselves upon the waters of a great
7



8 NEW YORK

and unknown river — they who had set forth to find
a northwest passage to Cathay.

For this was in the stirrmg days of old, when, the
new continent having been discovered, hardy seamen
from all nations were eagerly setting forth to try their
fortune and, perchance, to earn their fame by great
discoveries — that of a northern passage first of all;
for in this, every nation in Europe had profoundest
interest.

Tt was for this purpose, then, that Henry Hudson
had come with his queer little craft; but, finding him-
self at the mouth of a river, he determined to explore
it for its own sake. Then —who could tell? —it
might lead out into some open sea farther north — the
very one, perchance, for which they sought !

The Half Moon was well loaded with knives,
colored beads, and the thousand other brilliant but |
useless trinkets which delighted the eye of these early
Indians, and by which the white men had learned to
trade with these simple, color-loving savages.

For. three weeks the Half Moon cruised up and
down the river; for, as the log-book recorded, “ the

shores were very pleasant with grasses and flowers,



NEW YORK.: 9

and very sweet were the smells that came from
them.”

Then, too, the natives welcomed them, and heaped
the vessel with corn, tobacco, and, best of all, with furs
of great value, which they were content to exchange for
the bits of red and yellow glass the ship had brought.



HOW SANDY HOOK APPEARED TO HUDSON WHEN HE CAME TO NEW YORK.

It was at Castleton that Hudson made his first visit
to the Indians upon their own ground; for it was here
the chief dwelt, and it was from him that Hudson
hoped to learn of the source of the river and of what
lay beyond.

The natives had their own ideas of etiquette ; and



10 NEW YORK.

it was on the very next day that the visit was returned.
Arrayed in his very finest feathers, ‘the chief, with a
chosen few, paddled out to the ship, where they were
received with great courtesy and loaded with showy
gifts.
For these the chief was proud and grateful; but
when Hudson, having followed the course of the river
as far as it was navigable, turned back, he was attacked
by Indians at different points, who, jealous and cov-
etous, longed in their savage hearts for more of the
colored glass with which the vessel was loaded.

These attacks were, however, of little moment,
since with the flash of the first gun the natives fled,
terror stricken before a power they did not understand.

So, with slight adventures, they sailed along the
banks of the beautiful river, ever more to be known as
the Hudson, past the frowning walls of rock, now
called the Palisades, and past the shadowy forest, shelter-
ing game of every description, in which no foot had
ever trod save the moccasined feet of the red men.

Although not the first discoverer of this section,
now known as New York, since Champlain had already
penetrated the northern part of the state two months



NEW YORK. 11

earlier, Hudson’s report forwarded to Holland excited
great interest among the eager merchants, who looked
forward to large and quick returns, if only a trade in
fur could once be established.

As for Henry Hudson, you will want to know if he
ever came back again to the River of the Mountains.
No, he never did; unless, indeed, the legend of the
Catskills, as Irving has told it, is true, and once in every
twenty years the captain of the Half Moon and his
crew do return to the country they discovered, and
celebrate that happy event by a social game of nine-
pins, into which they enter with such hearty interest,
that the sound of their balls is like distant peals of
thunder. One thing, however, is certain ; the old Dutch
inhabitants to this day, when they hear a thunder-storm
of a summer’s afternoon, say, “It’s Heinrich Hudson

{>

and his crew at their game of ninepins







FIRST SETTLEMENT ON THE ILUDSON



TRADING FOR FURS.

When Henry Hudson returned to Holland, you
may be sure he was received as a hero. Champlain was
forgotten and ignored, and Hudson alone enjoyed the
glory of having penetrated an unknown country and
of having sailed an unknown water. Sometimes he
became a little vain— so some records say— but the
Holland people laid nothing up against him, for he had
indeed done great service to the goverment, which now
claimed the river and its shores as their own through
the right of discovery. A charter was granted by the
States General of Holland to a company of Amsterdam
merchants; a colony was founded, and ships were sent
out at once to engage the Indians along the Hudson to
trade for furs. |

Among the gallant captains they employed was one

Adrien Block, a Dutch navigator, not easily discouraged
: 13



14 NEW YORK.

in any undertaking he might engage in, as you will
shortly see. On his first voyage in 1613, he had
secured from the Indians a cargo of fine bear skins, and
was all ready to sail for Amsterdam, when his vessel,
the Tiger, caught fire, and was entirely destroyed.
This, of course, was a very serious disaster; but Captain
Block and his men were too plucky to waste any time
in useless complaining, and the nights were so cold
that: the bark wig-wams of the Indians, which were
freely offered to the unsheltered white men, were but
poor protection. Accordingly Captain Block and his
erew went busily to work erecting log cabins which,
rude as they were, kept out Jack Frost’s prying
fingers, and the North Wind’s icy breath. So friendly
were the Indians that they brought food and necessaries
of all kinds for the voyagers, and all through the long
winter months supplied them with the best of their own
stores. The cabins finished, these plucky seamen cut
down the stately oaks which grew on every side, and

fashioned them into planks for another vessel— forty-



four feet long and eleven feet wide— which they
called the Mestless. So industrious were they that

in a few months only, they gathered together a new



NEW YORK. 15

supply of furs, and, putting them on board, sailed
for Holland in the spring of 1614.

This was the first ship built within the limits of the
State, and the little cluster of log cabins was the
beginning of the present ‘stately city of New York.

In the same year Charles Christiansen, who had
made ten voyages to Manhattan Island, sailed up the
Hudson as far as Albany, and on a small island near
by built and fortified a trading house, which he called
Fort Nassau. Here the red men brought furs of every
kind and description, and bartered them for knives and
beads and trinkets brought over from Holland, and for
queer Indian money made out of clam shell and strung
on threads of sinew, or fastened on deer skin belts.
This wampum was for many years commonly used: in
making purchases, and the smooth white shell and the
bluish black one, had each a distinct value of its own.

The Dutch who built Fort Nassau, and, a little later
on, a new fort two miles below Albany, joined with the
settlers on Manhattan Island in making a treaty of
peace with the Indians. The wise Dutchmen and their
red brothers smoked the pipe of peace, and while the
latter agreed to bury the tomahawk, the former agreed



16 NEW YORK.

to build a church upon the spot. This was a most
sensible plan, for then the tomahawk could not be
dug up; and it was much easier for the Dutch to dwell
comfortably in their trading houses and buy furs,
than to go out into the forest8 to do their own hunting,
thereby endangering their scalps.

Thus the treaty was made; and, to the credit of
both parties be it said, it was kept for many long
years. The merchants of Amsterdam, and, later on, the
Dutch West India Company, built numerous trading.
posts along the Hudson; they made more and more
frequent trips across the ocean; and year after year
the trade increased, the colonies prospered, and most
friendly were the relations between the Dutch and

the simple natives.



DUTCH FORT AND ENGLISH CHURCH, ALBANY.









HELL GATE, FROM AN OLD DUTCH PRINT.

LEGEND OF THE IROQUOIS.

While Henry Hudson was sailing up the banks
of the River of the Mountains, he little thought that
beyond the hills and shadowy forests there dwelt a
people whose government had all the simplicity and
power of a great republic.

Hiawatha, Holder of the Heavens, took the
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas
under his especial protection, for he had found them
imprisoned under a mountain at the falls of the Oswego
river; and having set them free, loved them with a love
which the great of heart feel for those whom their own
goodness has blessed, And in return the five tribes
held Hiawatha in great esteem and affection, and

followed his advice in all things.
17



18 NEW YORK.

After their release they lived in the valleys and
among the hills which lie between the Mohawk river
and Lake Erie. But a fierce and powerful tribe came

down from the country beyond the lakes and made war

©. The Wharfr
D. Burlal Place,



TNE FIRST MAP OF THE CITY.

upon the Onondagas, killing their women and children
and filling their hearts with fear and sadness. In this
great trouble they hastened to Hiawatha for counsel ;
and in accordance with his advice all the tribes came

together to make plans for the general warfare.



NEW YORK. 19

Then Hiawatha, after many prayers to the Great
Spirit for guidance, said: “ Friends and Brothers, you
are members of many tribes and nations; you have
come here, many of you, a great distance from your
homes; you have met for one common purpose — to
provide for your mutual safety. To oppose these foes
from the north by tribes singly and alone would prove
certain destruction. You can make no progress in that
way; but if you will unite into one common band of
brothers, you may drive the invaders back. Do this
and you will be safe.

“You, the Mohawks, sitting under the shadow of
the ‘Great Tree,’ whose roots sink deep into the earth
and whose branches spread over a vast country, shall be
the first nation, because you are warlike and mighty.

“And you, Oneidas, a people who recline your
bodies, against the ‘ Everlasting Stone’ that-cannot be
moved, shall be the second nation, because you give wise
counsel.

“And you, Onondagas, who have your habitation
at the ‘Great Mountain’ and are overshadowed by its
crags, shall be the third nation, because you are gifted
in speech and mighty in war.



20 NEW YORK.

“And you, Cayugas, whose habitation is in the
‘Dark Forest’ and whose home is everywhere, shall be
the fourth nation, because of your superior cunning
in hunting. ;

“‘ And you, Senecas, a people who live in the ‘ Open
Country’ and possess much wisdom, shall be the fifth
nation, because you understand better than any other
tribe the art of raising corn and making cabins.

“You, as five great and powerful nations, must unite.
Have but one common interest, and no foe shall be able
to disturb or subdue you. If you unite, the Great
Spirit will smile upon you. Brothers, these are the last
words of Hiawatha ; let them sink deep into your hearts.’

Then the Five Nations made bright their council
fire, and the great chiefs gravely considered the advice
of the Holder of the Heavens; and when the twilight
warned them that the night was near, all were convinced
that in union only would they prove unconquerable.

Then said Hiawatha: “Preserve this nation as you
have formed it. Admit no other tribes to your councils;
so shall you be free, numerous and happy. Remember
these words; they are the last you will hear from
Hiawatha. The Great Spirit calls me, and I am ready
to go. Farewell!”



NEW YORK. 21

At this moment the air was filled with music, and a
soft mist descended over the fragrant meadows, dimming
the vision of the red men. Then, Hiawatha, seated in
the white canoe in which he had so often glided over
the blue waters of the lake, passed from beyond their
sight, and sailed far out into the land of the
setting sun. The south wind, softly sighing through
the tree-tops, mingled with the last faint whispers of
the distant melody, and the council, their hearts
softened one towards the other, sat down to smoke
the pipe of peace, by which they pledged themselves, one
to the other, to eternal brotherhood. Then the sun
went down, and the spirit of Hiawatha appeared to his
people, sitting high among the stars. And he smiled
upon his people, who should hereafter be as one people,

in peace and in war.



FORT GEORGE IN 1783.











Maso olorncin pct} ar 7

Sith Clerygeeg rae too oMleeg itieag” \ Jt
tat taalo Nolin eS /
So ae
teens Naf shlone ip Giiu8 00 Wily seveols, ay Bk
‘ \arelridnsant Dagrassee ge as
Wy 0t 18 vt, N° sts
ATT ts con

a5"





oe 5
AOE Mie eee
Bb vorktv ye”

Lowmkeay
26 royt

i Jet fivt

‘






v















fo
“LAINOVA (\
ao
ano
Â¥ a





















EARLY MAP OF NEW YORK.







SITE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK

NEW NETHERLANDS AND ITS DUTCH GOVERNORS.

The merchants of Amsterdam did not long enjoy
the sole right of trading with the Indians and shipping
furs to Holland. A great and powerful corporation, the
Dutch West India Company, was chartered, and for
forty years New Netherlands was governed by it in the
interests of its own share-holders.

Never before had so important a company been

privileged to make war or peace, to employ soldiers,
23



24 5 NEW YORK.

establish courts of justice, appoint and dismiss governors
whenever they saw fit. :

Now, governors would be of no use unless there
were something or somebody to govern. You will
remember the cabins and trading-houses already built
on Manhattan; and at this time there was also quite
an imposing fort on the Island, and another one, called
Fort Orange, had been established near the present site
of Albany.

Although the West India Company took but little
interest in their possessions, caring only for the ship-
loads of furs, they were now required by their charter
to further the settlement of the country, and take an
active part in forming a colony. It was, therefore, in
1624, that thirty families of Walloons, a French people
living in the southern part of Holland, were sent to
New Netherlands in one of the company’s ships.
These for the most part made their homes near Albany.
Other vessels quickly followed, bringing sometimes
rambling adventurers, sometimes sober-minded, home-
loving people, all anxious to better themselves in this
wonderful, untried country. Bakers and tailors, farmers
and fishermen, masons and shoemakers, wheelwrights









PURCHASING MANHATTAN





NEW YORK. 95

and coopers, old and young, landed at New Amsterdam
in the next few years, and built for themselves little
villages and towns round-about this first settlement.

Then it was that the company sent over the first
director or governor, Peter Minuit, who is said to have
been a “ kindly man, of firm temper and much energy,”
and one who, for the most part, made a wise use of the
power he held. Minuit’s first act was to purchase
Manhattan Island from the Indians for the astonishingly
small sum of twenty-five dollars. How much land do
you think you could buy now with that money? In
some parts of New York you could not purchase a
square inch. Besides buying the island, Governor
Minuit made friends with the Indians, visiting them in
their wigwams and giving them beads, axes and knives,
and gayly colored cloths. In return, the red men
brought him bales of furs, and kept him always gener-
ously supplied with venison, turkeys, wild fowl, and
other game from field and forest.

In New Amsterdam a rude but strong warehouse
had been built, in which to store the company’s: goods.
It was a queer building, with its rough stone walls, roof
thatched with reeds, and quaint old gables, like those





26 NEW YORK.

we see to-day in Holland. Besides this, some thirty
small cabins were put up along the shore of the East
River; and in one of the large warehouses a store was



‘FIRST SAW MILL ON THE HUDSON.

opened, and a mill worked by horse-power was built to
grind grain for the country people round about.
Indeed, much happened, during the six years that Peter
Minuit governed New Amsterdam, to favor the growth
and prosperity of the little colony.



NEW YORK. 2

27

At the close of these years, Governor Wouter
Van Twiller stepped into the official shoes of Governor



OLD DUTCH WINDMILL.

Minuit, and according’ to all accounts the exchange was
not by any means for the better. Perhaps Irving’s
description of the worthy Dutchman is not strictly true,





28 NEW YORK.

but it is the one that has come to be accepted: “He
was exactly five feet six inches in height, and six feet
five in circumference. His head was a perfect sphere,
and of such stupendous dimensions that Dame Nature,
with all her ingenuity, would have been puzzled to
construct a neck capable of supporting it; wherefore
she wisely declined the attempt and settled it firmly on
the top of his backbone just between the shoulders.
His body was oblong and particularly capacious at its
base. His legs were short but sturdy in proportion to
the weight they had to sustain; so that when erect he
had not a little the appearance of a beer barrel on skids.”

What a very comical figure he must have made, as
he landed that spring morning in April, 1633! With
him came Domine Bogar, the coleny’s first clergyman,
and Adam Roelandsen, the first school-master. During
the four years that Governor Van Twiller held sway,
windmills were built, houses of brick and frame, a
brewery, and a plain wooden church.

But trouble had sprung up with the Indians, and
blood had been shed on both sides. It was a pity that
peace could not have been kept, when for so many years
all had gone so smoothly with the red men and the



NEW YORK. 29

white men. But one day, most unfortunately, an
Indian hurt the dignity of a certain particularly sensi-
tive Dutchman. On the top of a post there had been
fastened a piece of tin bearing the arms of Holland.
Not long after, a sharp-eyed chief noticed the tin,
innocently enough took it away with him, thinking to
make from it a fine tobacco box. Unfortunately the
Dutch did not see the theft quite in the same light, and
friendly Indians hearing of their displeasure, killed the
chief of that tribe to which the thief belonged ; — the
worst thing they could have done, for naturally the tribe
resented the murder, and watching their chance,
attacked one day a party of the colonists, and killed
thirty-two of them.

From this time on the old security from the savages
was gone. Although Van Twiller may have been in
no way responsible for the affair —indeed he declared
he was not —still there were many who felt that he
might have prevented it; and for this, together with
certain other failures to carry out the plans of the
people, the land-holders petitioned the Government to
have him recalled to Holland; and in 1638 another
governor, William Kief, was sent to take his place.



30 NEW YORK.

Of the four Dutch governors, William Kief,
although more industrious and temperate in his habits
than any of the others, was the least successful, I

am afraid his temper was none of the best; certain

4
re



THE STADT HUYS, 1642.

it is that he many times treated the Indians with
great cruelty; and, by his lack of kindness and fore-
bearance, to say nothing of his lack of wisdom, pre-
cipitated a war between the races, which sadly crippled
the still struggling colony. Then, too, unwilling for
the people to have any part in the government, he



NEW YORK. 31

attempted to tax them without their consent; and, in
fact, he so mismanaged affairs that the hberty-loving
colonists again sent numerous petitions to Holland
asking for his removal. These were finally granted ;
and one and all gladly watched the good ship Princess,
as it winged its way down the bay, carrying on board
their one-time master.

And now gallant old Peter Stuyvesant took his
place; grim and battle-scared, whimsical and obstinate,
but every inch a hero. Great was the joy of the
people at his coming. What if he did strut like a
peacock, and stump pompously around on his wooden.
leg, with an air of overwhelming importance! Had
he not gained fame and honor on many a foreign
battle-field, and in many a naval combat? And so,
had he not a right to strut?

Very fortunate it was that Governor Stuyvesant
found the colonists so well disposed; for, although a
just and upright man, he vas somewhat of a tyrant, and,
although kindly in his rule, a little overbearing in his
manner. But, for all that, there is no doubt of the
genuine interest he took in the welfare of all the
colonies, and more especially in the growth of New





GOVERNOR STUYVESANT.



NEW YORK. 33

Amsterdam, which, in 1658, was incorporated. as a city.
If, indeed, his ghost does haunt the place he so helped
to build up, and if at night, as the story goes, his
shadowy wooden leg taps faintly down the aisle of
St. Mark’s church, near where his bones lie buried,
what a pleasure it must be to him to mark the
wonderful growth of the old Dutch town, now the
metropolis of America.

But alas, for the good Dutch government! So
prosperous had the colony become that James Stuart,
Duke of York, and brother of King Charles the Second,
looked with covetous eyes upon the fair possessions
across the sea, and already dreamed of them as his
own. Obtaining, therefore, a grant from the king, he
prepared to send several war ships of the Royal navy,
with four hundred and fifty soldiers on board, against
the unsuspecting Dutchmen.

There was peace at this time between the two
nations, and it was, indeed, the greatest treachery for
the English, under cover of their friendly relations,
to attempt to steal New Netherlands. The ships were
manned, however, and in due time they anchored

at the entrance. of: the harbor of New Amsterdam,





STUYVESANT TEARING UP THE LETTER



NEW YORK.

where, on Saturday, the thirtieth of September, 1664,
Colonel Richard Nicholls sent to Governor Stuyvesant
a summons to surrender the fort and city, promising
security of life and property to all the inhabitants
should they make no resistance. The Governor,
indignant, stoutly refused to yield, though none knew
better than he the weakness of the defense, and the
uncertain temper of the people; for many of them
looked with friendly eyes upon the coming of the
English.

Finally a letter was brought to him in which he
was urged to surrender. The council and the burgo-
masters also favored this plan; and so urgently did
they insist upon it, that the quick-tempered Peter
Stuyvesant, in great wrath, tore the letter in pieces
and threw it on the floor, refusing to have anything
to do with so cowardly a proceeding. But the people,
fearing the troops and willing to accept the favorable
terms offered, compelled the governor to send some
answer to Colonel Nicholls. Messengers were de-
spatched with a letter, in which Stuyvesant said,
“Though I will stand the storm, I am willing to

compromise on any fair conditions.”



36 NEW YORK.

Very sharp was the answer brought back.
“Tomorrow,” said Nicholls curtly, “1 will speak with
you at Manhattan.”

Stuyvesant as curtly replied: “ Friends will be
welcome if they come in a friendly manner.”

“T shall come with ships and soldiers,” said
Nicholls ; “raise the white flag of peace at the fort,
and then something may be considered.”

Brave Stuyvesant resented this sharp order. “I
would rather be carried out dead,” he thundered.
But what could one man do among so many? Very
little indeed; and on the next morning the red cross
of St. George waved over the fort. Colonel Nicholls,
with two hundred men, marched into the city, and
was proclaimed by the burgomasters, deputy-governor
of the province, which, together with the city of New
Amsterdam, was named New York, after the treacherous
duke who had sent out the expedition. So, without
even bloodshed, New Netherland passed into the hands
of the English.







1 Hoecker

Pau

GIRL

DUTCH

30]

LITTL









" tf x y

Y Wikg!

‘ Nh ee?

by. Wy Whe =
ee We vA

P ie



OLD DUTCH COTTAGE, N. ¥., 1679.

GOOD TIMES IN THE DUTCH COLONY.

But before we begin to think of this jolly little
Dutch colony as an English one, let us take one look
into the odd little homes where Hans and Katrina and
Gretchen and so many other round-faced little children
lived, so happy and free: For the children of this
colony, it has always seemed, had a much happier,
jollier, more child-like life than had the children of
certain other colonies we might mention.

By the time New Amsterdam became a city, the
industrious burghers had gathered about them many of

the comforts and even the luxuries they had enjoyed
37



38 NEW YORK.

in Holland. Of course things were not just the same,
but as nearly like the ways of fatherland as might be.

First, the houses, with their quaint gables and
diamond-paned windows, chimneys of Manhattan blue
stone, from which the smoke of hospitable fires curled
upward in wreaths but little larger than those from
the Dutchmen’s pipes. The fronts of the houses were
of wood and stone, the ends were finished in checker-
work of black and yellow Dutch bricks, while the tiled
roofs were surmounted with accommodating roosters,
which flew gaily round to all points of the compass.

Then the gardens,— why they were as much a part
of the dwelling as the big brass knockers on the
doors. Early and late flowers nodded greetings to each
other; and in generous orchards near by, apple, peach,
pear and quince trees made fragrant the springtime,
with their sweet, pink blossoms, and in the autumn
kept little Hans, Katrina and Gretchen busy heaping
up the ripened fruit.

Within these comfortable homes everything was
wonderfully clean and neat, for the good wives were
always scrubbing and scouring, sprinkling the floor with

clean white sand brushed into fanciful designs, and



NEW YORK. 39

brightening the pewter platters and porringers till the
happy round faces of the children could see themselves
in them.

In families in easy circumstances, there were
massive silver tankards, waiters and bowls, but very
little glass or china. As for lamps, they had none;
but ran candles in little tin moulds, or dipped them
in the good old-fashioned way, and carried them about
in brass or copper candlesticks brought from Holland.

The furnishings harmonized with all else ; in many
a hall stood a great Dutch clock with the family arms
upon its case, and portraits of ancestral grandees look-
ing stolidly down upon it. Sometimes in the front
room would be a square, figured rug, but rarely a car-
pet covering the whole floor, while straight-backed
chairs and mahogany tables stood stiffly around — for .
use perhaps — but hardly for comfort.

As for the dress of those days, men and women
both were very fond of wearing a great many clothes.
The every-day ones were generally home made and of
linsey woolsey, while for church going and festivals
richer stuffs were used. After wigs went out of

fashion, the men wore thei hair braided in long



40 NEW YORK.

queues, and covered their heads with soft felt hats
with wide brims often looped up on one side. Add
to this the long coats with capacious pockets, orna-
mented with brass or silver buttons, and breeches
reaching only to their knees, and you have a picture
of the happy, easy-going Dutchman in the time of
Peter Stuyvesant.

And the children, well, the children were in dress
perfect pictures of their elders; but for all that, they
had just as good times as if they had had fashions of
their own, and had not dressed as clumsily as the
older people. And speaking of good times, this makes ~
us think of the parties and the merry-makings, for the
Dutch were a very social people.

Many were the dancing parties, where the only
refreshments served were pots of chocolate and soft
watfles; and the tea-drinkings, where the loaf sugar
to be used was broken into large lumps and the pieces
laid by each cup to be nibbled at as needed. It is
said that one economical old lady used to hang a big
lump of sugar over the center of the tea-table, so that
it might be swung back and forth from one guest to
the other. But the best of the good times came in



NEW YORK. 41

the winter; and the following is a very good account
of them.

“First, as the weather turns cold, is the skating
on the neighboring ponds. Then comes the snow,

~







THE GOVERNOR’S HOUSE AND CHURCH, STUYVESANT'’S TIME.

and the young men arrange for a sleighing frolic by
moonlight. Four horses they get and Jan Derickson’s
sleigh that holdeth ten couples, packed close, as it
suiteth young men and maidens to ride, and away
they go over the Kissing bridge and under pine boughs,
oftimes, methinks, as far as to Harlem, where at Mynheer



49 NEW YORK

Borsom’s tavern they have a dance and a supper, which
by our custom may consist of naught but bread and-
a pot of chocolate.

“ Again, though the Dutch be a sober folk, yet
do they keep many festivals — Christmas, New Yeatr’s,
Easter, Whitsuntide and St. Nicholas’ Day. Christmas
comes first, and we also observe it as the anniversary
of landing day. After the stockings are explored for
whatever Santa Claus may have left, the young people
spend the morning skating on the fresh-water pond
or turkey shooting in the forest; at one o’clock the
great oven yieldeth up the Christmas feast, which all
meet to enjoy.

_ “New Year’s is the greatest day in New Amster-
dam. On-that day no one does aught but call and
receive calls. For days before, the housewives have
been. brewing, baking and mixing; and when the day
cometh and thou goest to meet thy friend, thou findest
the great logs crackling in the twelve-foot fire place,
and in the center of the table spread in the middle
of the room, a mighty punch bowl well reinforced by
haunches of cold venison and turkeys roasted whole,
and ornamented with cakes, comfits and confectionery ;



NEW YORK. 43

silver tankards and beakers filled with rare Madeira
and foaming ale. The good frau and her daughters
clad in their best, are there to receive one and to
dispense whole-hearted hospitality, smiles and good
wishes.

“On Easter day a favorite game is played for
egos. Thy sweetheart holds an egg in her hand
and challenges thee to break it by striking it with thy
egg, the broken one belonging to that which remain-
eth whole. On that day, too, the shops are gay with
boiled eggs, tied with red and blue ribbons, or colored
by mixing potent pigments in the water which hath
boiled them. On Easter day, no true son of St.
Nicholas tastes other food than eggs.”

What better picture can we have of the social
spirit of those days, or of the way in which the festi-
vals of the Fatherland were cherished in the new
homes beyond the sea?

These good Dutch people were a story-loving
people, too; and many were the legends they would
tell as they gathered the children around the big fire.
place on the cold winter evenings. Gruesome these

stories sometimes were —of ghosts and goblins; but



44 NEW YORK.

the Dutch children were. healthy little creatures — not
at all nervous, and so enjoyed them all as heartily as



THE LITTLE DUTCL GOBLIN OF DUNDERBERG MOUNTAIN

did their mothers and fathers; nor were they, as far

as we know, ever one whit harmed by them.



NEW YORK. 45

Then there was a story that Washington Irving
tells. It is a story of a boisterous little Dutch goblin,
with his sugar-loaf hat, who dwells on the top of
Dunderberg Mountain, whose steep sides look down
upon the Hudson.

One day when the wind was piping fresh, a ven-
turesome little sloop, in passing by the Dunderberg, was
overtaken by a thunder gust that came scouring round
the mountain, and seemed to burst just over the vessel.
Though tight and well ballasted, she labored dreadfully,
and the water came over the gunwale. All the crew
were amazed when it was discovered that there was
a little white sugar-loaf hat on the mast-head, known at
once to be the hat of the Head of the Dunderberg.

“Nobody, however, dared to climb to the mast-head
and get rid of this terrible hat. The sloop continued
laboring and rocking, as if she would have rolled her
mast overboard, and she seemed in. continual danger
either of upsetting or of running on shore.

In this way she drove quite through the Highlands,
until she had passed the Island where the power of the

little Dutch goblin is said to cease. No sooner had she
reached this point than the little hat sprang up into the



46 NEW YORK.

air like a top, whirled up all the clouds together and °
hurried them back to the summit of the Dunderberg,
while the sloop righted herself, and sailed on as quietly
as 1f in a mill-pond.

Nothing saved her from utter wreck but the fortu-
nate circumstance of having a horse-shoe nailed against
the mast, a wise precaution against evil spirits, since
adopted by all the Dutch captains that navigate this
haunted river.

Then there is the story of Ichabod Crane, told by
this same delightful writer, in which the hero is pursued
by a headless horseman, who these Dutch people believed
dwelt in a certain valley, ready to pounce out upon
belated travellers — of whom this Ichabod was one.

Then there is the story of Rip Van Winkle,
which never would have been written but for the Dutch
legend of Heinrich Hudson and his men at play with
ninepins up in the Catskill Mountains. And many
more there are, which we leave you to find for your-
self in the Sketch Book or in the Knickerbocker
ffistory, or in some other book as charming and

amusing.













































THE PALISADES ALONG WALL STREET NEW YORK CIty.

HOW THE DUTCH SURPRISED THE ENGLISH.

But to return to the politically important affairs
of this New Amsterdam. Governor Nicholls was thor-
oughly attached to the interests of the Duke of York.
At the same time he was a wise and fair-minded man,
and treated the Dutch in so kindly a manner that most
of them took without hesitation the oath of allegiance
to the British monarch, King Charles. English customs
were introduced, and also an English form of govern-
ment, which really gave the people more rights than they
had possessed under the West India Company. But

after four years of governing a foreign people and
AT



48 _NEW YORK.

keeping peace with the Indians, Nicholls resigned his :
commission and returned to England.

During the rule of Governor Lovelace, who suc-
ceeded him, something happened which quite upset the
general order of things and gladdened the heart of the
redoubtable Peter Stuyvesant. In the summer of 1678,
Lovelace left New York to pay a visit to Governor
Winthrop of Connecticut. By this time England and
Holland were again at war with each other, and the
sturdy Dutchmen were a good deal more than half
resolved to retake New York, which they had always
regarded as their own particular property.

So, one sunny morning in July, a Dutch squadron
of twenty-three ships, including numerous prizes
captured on the open sea, and bearing six hundred
troops for service on land, arrived off Sandy Hook.
What excitement there was among the people! How
the litttle Dutch people bustled and rustled! I think
they must have rather enjoyed it; for they flew around
like bees in a hive and gathered in little groups here and
there in the streets to talk it over.

Captain John Manning, who commanded the fort,
sent a messenger after Governor Lovelace and issued



NEW YORK. 49

a call for volunteers. Few came, however, and thinking
to gain a little time, he sent to the Dutch commander
to inquire why he had “in such a hostile manner
disturbed his Majesty’s subjects.”

“We have come,” he replied, “to take what is our
own, and our own we will have.”

This was certainly a very decided answer, and
Captain Manning had good reason to think so, too; for
before long the war-ships had floated up with the tide
until they lay broad side to the fort. Then their guns
thundered out, and a few of the soldiers in the fort
were killed.. The rest returned the fire riddling the flag
ship through and through. But the Dutch commander
landed six hundred men and prepared to storm the fort.
This was the critical moment, and Captain Manning,
realizing his inability to make a successful defence,
reluctantly ordered a white flag to be raised over the
little garrison. In marched the Dutch, and out marched
the English with drums beating and colors flying,
grounding their arms outside the fort.

The banner of the Dutch Republic floated from
the flag-staff; the English soldiers, as prisoners of war
were confined in the church within the fort; and again



50 NEW YORK.

New York became New Netherlands. The city was
called New Orange, and Dutch names everywhere
replaced the English.

Lovelace went back to England, where he was
treated very unkindly, the king blaming him severely
for the loss of the province. Perhaps he was to blame,
but very likely he could not have prevented the sur-
render, even had he been on hand when the Dutch
appeared.

But Holland was not to retain any permanent hold
upon the country it had first settled; for in less than
a year peace was declared between England and
Holland, and by the terms of
the treaty New Netherlands
was again given up to the
British crown.

Captain Anthony Colve,
whom the Dutch had chosen
to be the head of affairs,
most regretfully presented
his fine coach and three to
the new English governor?

Hdmund Andros; but he did





NEW YORK. 51

it with wonderfully good grace, and then sailed away
for Holland. But not even three fine horses and a
coach of state could make Governor Andros popular.
If half the stories told of him are true, during the
nine years in which he ruled New York, he proved
himself a tyrant, and the only wonder is that people
tolerated him as long as they did.

= Pyfremek.

tt gunancty ee 9

howe k 9s i:
ao + 3

oY y%G. ae,
te 09%) i eB
er







JACOB LEISLER.

When early in February, 1685, King Charles II.
died, the Duke of York succeeded him, becoming the
second King James upon the throne of England.
‘While still duke he had promised the people of New
York a “Charter of Liberties,’ but when he became
king he positively refused to keep his word, saying that
such a charter would give them more freedom than was
good for a dependent colony. This was only one of
the many unwise acts which finally cost this king his
crown; and when, as ‘we read in the history of the
times, William of Orange landed in England, many of
the best men in this country deserted King James and
joined in sympathy with his successor.

The majority of the people of New York were
overjoyed to hear the news from England which
announced the downfall of King James, but there were
some who still upheld the fallen monarch, and who

determined either to support the governor he had
52



NEW YORK. ae 53

appointed in the continuance of his power, or, if that
could not be done, to take the control of affairs into
their own hands.

Two parties were formed —the Aristocrats, who
favored James II., and the Democrats, who were friendly
to William and Mary.

Francis Nicholson, then acting as deputy governor,
became alarmed at the feeling among the citizens, and
not being a man of much strength of character, quietly
took ship and sailed for England. In the meantime.
Jacob Leisler, merchant and patriot, had been urged by
“many of the people to act as their leader until instruc-
tions should be sent by King William to the colonists,
It required a great deal of courage to take this position,
for not only was there much opposition to be encoun-
tered from the followers of King James, but the French
in Canada were making ready to attack the northern
settlements.

The people were divided in their wishes; Albany
refused to accept Leisler as governor, saying that he was
a “restless and ambitious spirit, acting without the least
show of authority.” However, nearly all the counties
sent delegates to an assembly, and Leisler was granted



5A NEW YORK.

almost unlimited power in New York. For the most
part he exercised his privileges in the interests of the
people, and probably with a really more earnest pur-
pose to secure their welfare than had the majority of
governors appointed by England.

William and Mary, when they learned the action
of the colony, refused to confirm Leisler in his new
office, and appointed Colonel Henry Sloughter governor
of New York. At the same time that he sailed for
America, another ship left port, having on board Major
Richard Ingoldsby and two companies of soldiers. The
latter vessel arrived first, and exceeding his authority,
Major Ingoldsby haughtily demanded the surrender of
the fort. This demand Govornor Leisler very naturally
refused to comply with, at the same time offering the
Major suitable accommodations for himself and for his
soldiers in the city, and assuring him of his readiness
to welcome Governor Sloughter. Ingoldsby, however,
attempted to take the fort by force, but without success.

Two days later, Governor Sloughter arrived, and
to him Leisler loyally gave up the fort and province.
But the only reward he received for his faithful service
was imprisonment; and so busy were his enemies, that



NEW YORK. 5B

before another month had passed he was tried for his
life on numerous charges, among them that of offering
resistance to Major Ingoldsby. You can easily guess
how the trial ended, for Leisler’s opponents were many

and powerful, and not a few of them were among the





















STREET IN NEW YORK AT CLOSE OF 17TH CENTURY.

jury before whom he was tried. Sentence was passed,
and Leisler and his son-in-law, who had also taken an
active part in the government, were condemned to death.
And were executed in New York in May, 1691.

Perhaps you will think so sad a story should not
have been told; and yet there is much in it which it



56 NEW YORK.

would be well for us to remember. In Leisler, we see the
first governor of New York who was practically the
choice of the people — a people, too, who previously had
hardly been allowed proper representation in their own
government. It was at Leisler’s suggestion, also, that
the call for the first Colonial Congress in America was
made, the purpose of which was to unite the resources
of the colonies, that expeditions might be sent out
against Canada, to repel French invasion.

Although the movement was a failure, the grand.
idea of the union of the colonies was foreshadowed by
the meeting of their representatives at the call of this
citizen governor. Whatever his errors of judgment
may have been, the service he rendered the people
entitled him to the name of patriot; and in that he lost
his life at the hands of the officers of the king whose
power he upheld, I think we might truly say that he

was a martyr as well.

Do thy duty, that is best,
Leave unto thy Lord the rest.





BURNING OF SCHENECTADY



BURNING OF SCHENECTADY.

Partly because of the war between England and
France, occasioned by the English revolution of 1688,
and partly because the French in Canada wished to
engage practically the interest and co-operation of the
Iroquois, they decided to march from Montreal to
Schenectady, N. ¥Y.—a distance of two hundred miles,
and destroy not only this town but Albany also.

It was in midwinter, and the snow was so very deep
that the soldiers could travel only on snow-shoes.
Starting from Montreal on the seventeenth of January,
1690, the Frenchmen, and an accompanying party of
hostile Indians, crossed the frozen lakes and rivers, and,
after many hardships on the way, arrived in sight of the
town on the eighth of February, at about eleven o’clock
at night. They had not intended to make the attack
just then, but it was so bitterly cold that they decided
to enter the town at once, and warm themselves by-the
blaze they should make of the pretty little Dutch houses.

57



58 NEW YORK.

Now the village was surrounded by a stockade of
pine logs ten feet high, and at one corner there was a
fort garrisoned by nearly twenty-five men. Within the
palisades were nearly eighty dwellings and some four
hundred men, women, and children; so you see it
was quite a sizable little town. Unfortunately, on this
fatal night in February, the villagers had gone to
bed without closing the gate, or even setting guard.
Very careless this certainly was; but there were friendly
Indians who had been sent out as scouts to Lake
George, and upon them the people relied for news of
any enemy that might be approaching. As the French
drew near the devoted village, they were met by four
squaws, who told them of the best way of arriving
secretly at the place. They entered by the north gate
and then separated, a few soldiers being placed before
each house. At a given signal the attack was made, the
Indians raisine their blood-curdling cry, the famous war
whoop. Taken entirely by surprise, the terrified inhabi-
tants could offer but little resistance. Within two hours
sixty of them had been killed, and the French had fired
the village. A few of those who escaped made their way
through the snowy forests to Albany; but some, alas,



NEW YORK. 59

unable to endure the intense cold, perished miserably
when almost within reach of help and safety.

But one man, at least, saved his life by not
running away. Andrew Vrooman’s house was strongly ~
built, being a sort of fort, and best of all there was
plenty of ammunition within it. So he loaded all the
muskets, and with such accuracy and rapidity did he fire
at the enemy that they were glad indeed to promise to
spare his life and not set fire to hig house, if only he
would stop shooting. This promise they kept, but they
carried off two of his sons into captivity.

The women and children who had not been killed
by the first fierce attack, were spared by the enemy, as
were thirty Mohawks found in the town, who were also
permitted to go unharmed.

The next day, which was Sunday, the French
departed, carrying with them a great deal of plunder,
and forty of the best horses they could find.

When the friendly Mohawks heard of this attack,
as they did two days later, they joined a party of young
men from Albany, and coming up with the enemy killed
twenty-five of them.

In a ballad of those days the story is told of how,



60 NEW YORK.

when the news reached Albany, Captain Willie set out
with a gallant company to avenge the burning of
Schenectady.

The News come on the Sabbath morn
Just att the Break of Day

And with a company of Horse
I galloped away.

But soon We found the French were gone
With all their great Bootye ;

And then their Trail We did persue,
As was our true Dutye.

The Mohaques joined our brave Partye,
And followed in the Chase

Till we came up with the Frenchmen
Att a most likely Place.

Our soldiers fell upon their Reare,
And killed twenty-five.
Our young men were so much enraged

They took scarce One alive,





























A ROVER OF THE SEAS.

The very same conditions which favored the hostile
French and Indians in their attack upon the towns and
villages of the English, made life out upon the ocean
quite as dangerous as life upon the land.

For the change. of rulers in England and the -
unsettled state of the British possessions in America -had
covered the seas with pirates, and the Indian Ocean
especially swarmed with these daring robbers. The loss
of life and property was very great; so great that the
English government decided to send out an armed vessel
in pursuit of them, and incidentally to capture as many
prizes from the King’s enemies as possible.

How many of you have heard of the famous
Captain Kidd? Ah, I thought so; nearly all of you
know that in the old days he scoured the seas — the
black flag, with its skull and cross bones, floating from
the mast-head of his ship. But was he always a

pirate? No, indeed; at the time the government
, 61







RCHANT ”

E

AW M

G THE “ QUED

RIN!

N KIDD CAPTU

CAPTAL



NEW YORK. 63.

thought of fitting out this vessel, Captain Kidd was in
London, the well known commander of a merchantman ;
and more than that, at various times he had highly
distinguished himself by his courage and gallantry in
the wars between England and France. Just because he
was so well and favorably known, he was chosen as
captain of the “ Adventure Galley,” and commissioned
under seal of royalty to cruise in all directions as a
privateer. So, instead of setting sail as a pirate, he
started out to overhaul and capture the pirate vessels.
The Earl of Bellemont, then recently appointed
Governor-General of New York and New England, took
an active part in completing this arrangement, as did
also Robert Livingstone, a very influential man in the
colony, and owner of large grants of land near Albany.
The first port Kidd touched at was New York :
here he shipped many volunteers, with the understand-
ing that their pay should depend on the value and
number of prizes they should capture. Then he
sailed for the Indian Ocean. For a while the famous
Captain attended: strictly to the business on which he
had been sent; but when days and weeks had passed
and no captures of any consequence had been made, the



my NEW YORK.

men began to murmur; for where was the prize
money to come from if no valuable captures were
made ?

But one summer’s day a fine ship, the “Quedah
Merchant,” hove in sight. Urged by his men, and
perhaps if the truth were told, rather inclined himself
not to let such a chance slip through his fingers,
Captain Kidd bore down upon the vessel and, after a
short chase, came up with and captured her. His crew
and their belongings were transferred to the new vessel,
and: away they went to capture other ships belonging to
the Great Mogul, and so enrich themselves with what-
ever gold and precious stones they might find upon
them.

In “ Ye Lamentable Ballad, and Ye True History
of Captain William Kidd,” Captain Kidd is supposed to
tell his story as follows : —

*“T steer’d from sound to sound, as I sail’d, as I sail’d;
I steer’d from sound to sound, as I sail’d;
T steer’d from sound to sound, and many ships I
found,
And most of them I burned, as I sail’d.



NEW YORK. neg

I spy’d three ships from France, as I sail’d, as I sail’d;
I spy’d three ships from France, as I sail’d ;
I spy’d three ships from France; to them I did
| advance,

And took them all by chance, ag I sail’d.

I spy’d three ships from Spain, as I sail’d, as I sail’d ;
I spy’d three ships from Spain, as I sail’d;

I spy’d three ships from Spain ; I fired on them amain,
Till most of them were slain, as I sail’d.

I’d ninety bars of gold, as I sail’d, as I sail’d ;
Td ninety bars of gold, as I sail’d;

I'd ninety bars of gold, and dollars manifold,
With riches uncontrolled, as I sail’d.”

Then follows an account of his capture, which was
not true at all; for leaving the “Quedah Merchant” to
follow after, Kidd returned to Boston in a small sloop,
and there asserted his innocence of the charges pre-
ferred against him. Evidently the Earl of Bellemont
did not put much faith in his statements, for in a few

days he had Kidd arrested, and finally sent him a



66 NEW YORK.

prisoner to England to be tried for piracy, and also for
the murder of one of his men. It was on this last
charge that Captain Kidd was condemned and sentenced
to be hanged, though he was also found guilty of
piracy.

This is the story of the famous captain that you
may not have heard before, but I am sure you have
heard of the treasure Kidd was supposed to have hidden
somewhere along the New York coast. Some articles of
great value he really did conceal on Gardinev’s Island,
east of Long Island; among them were three bags of
gold dust, two bags of gold in bars, and a bag of silver
pieces and jewels, and much else; all of which the Earl
of Bellemont recovered, and used as evidence against the
unfortunate Captain Kidd.

But the treasures in the “ Quedah Merchant,” what
became of them? Some say that the great vessel sailed
for New York and passing by the city in the night kept
on up the Hudson; and that, near the foot of the
Dunderberg mountain, the crew scuttled the ship and
fled with a portion of the treasure to the woods. Now
this is mere tradition; but certain it is that the party
sent out in search of the “ Quedah Merchant” never



NEW YORK. - 67

found any trace of her, and it may be (for there is no
one to dispute it) that beneath the blue waters of the
Hudson the famous old ship lies safely hidden, even as
tradition says ; and that some day—since all things
seem possible in this century —it may be brought to

sight again. Who knows?



















































OLD DUTCH CHURCH, TARRYTOWN



PART OF

3
a
‘3

LS]
et Fohnfors Fat
Colofime

East -Mybins GY O

Yond







NEW YORK AT THE BEGINNING OF THE BIGHTEENTH CENTURY. (FROM MATHER’S MAGNOLIA )





























































NEW YORK 1N 1704,

FREEDOM OF THE PRESS.

How should we know from day to day what is
going on in the world if we had no newspapers ?
But wnat if the men who issued the newspapers were
obliged to publish only that which it suited the
government to have known? What if no writers were
allowed to criticise the acts of any one in power?
Do you think then we could boast of having a free
press ?

It was just at the beginning of the establishment
of newspapers in New York, that John Zenger thought
it wise to issue a “ Weekly Journal.” Already there
was a “Gazette” published in the interests of Gov-

ernor Crosby, which approved always of all that he did.
69



70 NEW YORK.

But soon this new journal began to say some very
sharp things about the governor, charging him, among
other acts, with violating the rights of the people.
This paper shortly became altogether too bold to suit
His Excellency ; and before a year’s issue had been
sent out, Zenger was arrested and imprisoned, and
certain copies of his publications were ordered to be
burned in public by the common hangman.

But the mayor and council would not attend the
burning, as they were ordered to do, and the court of
sessions forbade the hangman to destroy the papers.
Zenger was kept in prison from November, 1734, till the
following August, when he was tried in City Hall,
New York. Very great was the excitement all through
the country, for the question involved was that of free-
dom of speech and of the press.

On a hot morning in August the trial took place..
An association, called the Sons of Liberty, had secured
Andrew Hamilton, speaker of the Assembly of Penn-
sylvania, a distinguished lawyer and a Quaker, to appear
in behalf of the printer. As the great man entered
the court room the people joyfully rose to give him
welcome, and in spite of the frowning looks of the



NEW YORK. a1

chief justi¢e, waved. their hands and shouted Joud
huzzas.

Zenger pleaded not guilty, but admitted that he
had published the articles in question, and _ boldly
asserted his ability to prove the truth of the charges
contained in them. |

Then Hamilton arose; and in a few eloquent
sentences defended the accused. He declared that the
jury were entirely competent to decide upon the
merits of the case, and he reminded them of their
duty to protect the “rights, liberties and privileges of
their fellow citizens.” In conclusion, he thus referred
to the underlying principles involved: —“TIt is not
the cause of a poor printer, nor of New York alone,
which the jury is now trying. No! It may in its
consequences affect every free man that lives under a
British government on the main of America.

“Tt is the best cause; it is the cause of liberty,
and I make no doubt that your upright conduct this
day will not only entitle you to the love and esteem
of your fellow citizens, but every man who prefers
freedom to slavery will bless and honor you as men
who have baffled the attempt of tyranny, and, by your



72 NEW YORK.

impartial and uncorrupt verdict, have laid a noble
foundation for securing to ourselves, our posterity and
our neighbors, that to which nature and the laws of
our country have given us a right, —the liberty of
both exposing and opposing arbitrary power, in these
parts of the world at least, by speaking and writing
the truth.”

After such a grand appeal to their sense of right
and justice, nothing that the opposing party had to
offer could have much effect; and the jury brought
in a verdict of “not guilty.” Then what shouts the
people gave and what cheers they raised for Hamilton!
They carried him on their shoulders out of the court
room to a grand celebration which had been planned
in his honor; they feasted him right royally; and at
a great banquet they presented him with a valuable
gold box made for the occasion, in which was a copy
of resolutions, stamped with the New York seal; and
New York thus made early in her history one of
the first great steps in the establishment of true,
American liberty.



THE NEGRO PLOT.

While the people of New York showed their good
sense, their love of liberty and their desire for honest
government, there was one direction in which they,
with many another colony, made a great mistake. And
that was in carrying on the slave trade, and in treat-
ing the negroes with cruel severity. I am sorry to
say that a slave-market, where the poor slaves were
sold or hired, was opened in the very streets of New
York, in 1709. The slave laws at that time were very
harsh. If a slave was caught out at night without a
lantern and a lighted candle, he was put in jail, and
the next day received thirty-nine lashes at the whip-
ping-post. Slaves could not receive any instruction
either in the schools or the churches, nor could they
possess any property of their own.

By 1741, there were so many negro slaves in New
York, that the inhabitants began to feel uneasy, fear-
ing the consequences should the slaves rebel. In March

oo



74, NEW YORK.

of that year, Fort George, on the Battery, caught fire,
and a rumor spread through the town that the negroes
had set it. Two weeks later eight more fires occurred,
and a negro was seen running away from the last one
discovered. Immediately all was consternation and
dismay ; many people were so alarmed that they moved
their goods from their houses, thinking to carry them
to some safer place.

A reward was offered to any white person who
_ should give information of the supposed plot, and full
pardon was promised the informer if he was engaged
sn it. Numerous arrests were made, and nearly two
hundred slaves were in jail on mere suspicion.

The prisoners were urged to confess, and_ finally
two of them, Mary Burton and Peggy Carey, told some
ridiculous stories of how two or three very common
white people and a few slaves had planned to burn
the whole city. But their stories did not agree at all;
and of all the other confessions that were made, no
two were alike. Nevertheless, the people were alarmed ;
they used no judgment whatever; and all the lawyers
in the town were engaged to prosecute the accused,—

the prisoners, of course, being allowed no council.



NEW YORK. io

&

Some of the negroes, thinking to save themselves,
accused others, and again some made confessions which
they afterward denied the truth of. In fact, it was a
very dreadful affair from beginning to end, for four
white slaves were executed, eighteen negroes hanged
and eleven burned to death. Moreover, fifty slaves
were transported mostly to the West Indies and sold;
and not until all this had been done, was the so-called
Negro Plot thought to be broken up. For six months
New York was a scene of terror which more than
equalled, in its miserable results, the famous witcheraft

delusion of the preceding century.















IN THE VALLEY OF THE MOHAWK.

Hiven as late as the middle of the eighteenth
century, the country west of Albany was but little
known, save to the trappers and traders who ventured
there for furs. Yet this portion of the state was of
wonderful beauty and fertility, watered by the winding
Mohawk, and reaching north to the borders of the
lakes. Here dwelt the tribes of the Iroquois Confed-
eracy, here burned their council fires, and here their
chiefs ruled with the untutored dignity of their race.
And thanks to the Iroquois and their long continued
friendship, first for the Dutch and afterwards for the
English, the colonists were protected by them from
many a French invasion from Canada.

In this section of the country lying nearest the
river which runs through it, lived the Mohawks, the
real head of the Iroquois, and the tribe living farthest
east. Among them, inthe spring of 1738, came

William Johnson, a young lad barely twenty, sent out
16



NEW YORK. v7

from the old country to take care of his uncle’s
estate. Now, as his uncle was Sir Peter Warren,
commander of the British fleet in American waters,
he was able to make his nephew prominent from the
very first. Not that William needed much assistance,
for he was a very energetic young man, and possessed
not only push and pluck, but also good common
sense. So he went busily to work improving his
uncle’s property, making firm friends of the Indians,
and building for himself what was considered in those
days a very fine mansion, to which he gave the name
of Johnson Hall.

One of the most sagacious of the Mohawk
warriors was a noted chief, who gloried in the English
name of King Hendrick. He became very friendly
with Johnson and visited him at the Hall. One morn-
ing when he had spent the night there, Hendrick said
to Johnson, “Brother, me dreamed last night.”
“Indeed,” was the answer, “what did my red brother
dream?” “Me dreamed that coat be mine,” referring
to a richly embroidered scarlet coat which hung near
them. “It is yours,” answered the shrewd, white man.
Not long afterward Johnson visited Hendrick, and he,



78 NEW YORK.

too, said, “ Brother, me dreamed last night.” “ What
did you dream?” asked Hendrick. “I dreamed that
this tract of land was mine,” describing a boundary
which included many hundred acres of land. Hend-
rick was astounded; but, determined not to be out-
done in generosity, he said, after thinking a few
moments, “ Brother, the land is yours ; but you must
not dream again.”

Thus Johnson added to his already large estates.
Year by year the number of his tenants grew and his
importance in the colony increased; for Governor
Clinton made him a member of his council, and, real-
izing his ability in military affairs, placed him over
the heads of many older officers. And so gallantly
did he conduct himself in the battles of the French
and Indian War, that England’s king dubbed him Sir |
William Johnson, and appointed him Major General
of the colonial forces.

Very little has been said about the wars with
the French, and the expeditions against Canada. Nor
shall we make more than a passing reference to
them, for the early campaigns were for the most

art unsuccessful, and in later ones, where victor
p > ’



NEW YORK. 79

was with the English, the stories of the battles
fought have not the same degree of interest that we
shall find in the great struggles that took place in
after years in the war for Independence.

Although Sir William joined in several expe
ditions against the French, he served the colonists
still better, not as a military leader but as an able
statesman, making treaties with the Indians, winning
their friendship, redressing their grievances, further-
ing the settlement of the beautiful valley in which
they lived, introducing new methods of agriculture,
and aiding in the establishment of schools and
churches. Perhaps it was fortunate that he died
before the actual commencement of the Revolution,
where he would have had to choose between the
king, whom he had served so long, and the people,
whose interests he had from the first faithfully
advanced. This choice he was however spared, and
his memory is rightly preserved in the name of
the prosperous village of Johnstown, which grew up
on the colonial estates of Sir William in the valley

of the Mohawk.








Bi
oN Wet.

se Beh ng

ae Scale of Miles” :

2 a

NEW YORK ABOUT THE MIDDLE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY-



COLONIAL NEW YORK.

At the close of Dutch rule in New Netherlands,
the customs and habits of the people were those of
the nation they represented. Nor were the
years during which England sent her royal governors
to the province of New York sufficent to make Eng-
lish the ways of the colonists. They had English
forms of government to be sure, and of course had
adopted many English customs, but they were not
English at heart. Neither were they Dutch. In
fact they were rapidly reaching that poimt when they
were to become Americans.

In 1756, the population of the colony had
increased to almost a hundred thousand. New York
city was the chief town, though its census in that
year ranked it only the fourth in number of inhabi-
tants; for here the governor lived, and the genera]
assembly ordinarily met. From here, grain, flour

and furs were sent to England, Lisbon and the West
81



82 NEW YORK.

Indies; in return, sugar and spice, wine and other
luxuries, together with a large variety of manufac
tured articles were received. Ail along the Hudson
and other rivers, boats passed up and down, trading
with the villagers, and really doing quite an extensive
business.
The wealthy landed proprietors lived in New
York in the winter, attended by numerous’ servants,
both white and black, and maintaining a splendor of
living not often found in the other colonies. The
summer they passed upon their large estates on the
Hudson; and it was fortunate indeed, that, for the
most part, they had a genuine interest in the advance-
ment of the colony, and did not spend all their time
in enjoying their wealth. :

The Dutch families still retained many of the
old customs. Within the quaintly built farmhouses
great rafters overhead looked down upon the generous
fire-places with their pictured tiles, and upon the
rows of great wooden and pewter dishes, and. racks
of long tobacco pipes which adorned’ the mantel
shelf. In these houses the floors were still scoured
and sanded, and big fraus and little frauleins swept



NEW YORK. 83

and dusted, and carded and spun, and_ proudly
hoarded the fine linen they had made.

And the good people were as famous for their
hospitality and their merry-making as in years gone
by. The farmers had their corn-huskings, spinning-
bees, house-raisings and dancing-parties; and in town,
the amusements included horse-racing, tavern-parties,
balls and parties.

Many industries were by this time well under
way. Among the Germans, homespun and woolens
were made. On Coney Island were salt works, and
near Kingstown, brick-kilns; while ship-building was
carried on at various points. There were also glass-
making in New York, hat-making in Albany, and
iron-working along the Hudson. So, in spite of royal
governors and of French invasions, the people were
asserting themselves; were improving and adding to
the manufacturies, extending their settlements and
cultivating more and more land.

Nor were these good Dutch people forgetful of
their schools.

It was as early as 1621 that the colony was
enjoined “to find speedy means to maintain a clergy-



“84 NEW YORK.

man and a_school-master.” And moreover “ each
house holder and inhabitant was enjoined to bear.
such tax and public charge as should be considered
proper for their maintenance.” Four years later, we
find in the colonial records the expense of the school-
master to be 360 florins — just one fourth of that of
the minister.

In 1633, Adam Roelandson, a professional school-
master, was brought over from the Dutch mother
country, and for nine years he trained the little
Dutch Hans and Katrina to read and write.

In 1650, “New Amsterdam,” with a population
of 800, now engaged two teachers for the children;
and so the cause of education grew alongside with
all other matters of the colony, political and other-
wise.

Not very long ago, the State superintendent of
schools of New York gave an address upon education
in the State. I know you will like to hear what he
said about these first beginnings of school in the
cheery Dutch colony.

“The excise moneys seem to have been set apart

to pay teachers, and they were in part, at least, paid



NEW YORK. 85

out of the public treasury. On one occasion the
governor of the colony parleyed with the Indian
chiefs and urged them to send their sons down to
New Amsterdam to school. After taking a week to
consider, they diplomatically answered that they were
powerless to accept the invitation, for the boys were
altogether under the control of their mothers.”

The churches frequently maintained or super-
vised schools; not uncommonly the functions of the
minister and teacher were combined in the same person.
Indeed, it more than once happened that the
teacher had also to act as sexton, precentor, choir-
master or psalmsetter, and a “comforter of the sick,”
as the person who supplied the minister’s place, was
commonly called.

Along with this spirit of progression in educa-
tion, came naturally a spirit of rebellion against
anything like tyranny from the English goverment,
under whose control the colony came in later years.
Very early they began to open their eyes to the fact
that the country might be governed far more to
their advantage than it ever had been, and that they
were entitled to a great deal more part in the

=



86 NEW YORK.

management of affairs than England seemed willing
for them to have. Thus the spirit of liberty was
stirring within their hearts, and unconsciously they
were making ready for the mighty struggle which by
and by should make them free. :

One incident occurred about this time that
aroused much righteous indignation among the New
York colonists against the English government, and,
I am sure your sympathies will be with these brave
people who, though often hard pressed for the money
they needed in ‘their own homes, had nevertheless
been prompt and generous in rendering such aid as
the mother country needed.

As one illustration of England’s folly toward
this loyal province; — when plans were made for
subduing the French, New York came bravely
forward and both publicly and privately subscribed
a great deal of money for this purpose. Does it
not seem as if England should have. been very
appreciative of this, especially as the defeat of the
French was, after all, more to the advantage of the
mother country than to the colonists?

However, England was greedy; and when ie saw





NEW YORK.

oD
|

how much money her subjects could raise, the
foolish old lady began to think she had found a
capital way in which to pay her own debts. Now,
New York was one of the richest of the colonies
and so came in for a goodly share of attention.





OLD DUTCH IOUSE AT KINGSTON

Duties were levied on all goods brought into the
provinces; but at the same time all articles sent
to foreign countries must be shipped in English
vessels — so their English government declared.
Although there was plenty of iron, the colonies

were not allowed to make it into steel, or fashion



88 NEW YORK.

their own tools; as by so doing they would lessen
their trade with England.

Among other very unpopular measures was that
which gave revenue officers the right to enter any
man’s house in search of smuggled goods. You all
know the old saying, “Every man’s house is his
castle.” The New York people thought so, too, and
deeply did they resent this interference with their
rights. They also objected to being obliged to pro-
vide quarters for the soldiers; for, under pretence of
fearing further trouble from France, England had left
practically an army in the colonies, and had appointed
New York as its headquarters.

When a man grows greedy, he cannot be expected
to show much wisdom; and, so, perhaps it was the
most natural thing in the world for England not to
realize her folly in trying the patience of the colonies
too far. They had been patient, very patient, but
underneath it all was a keen sense of justice and
right; and when, in March, 1765, the Stamp Act was
passed, they were united in their opposition to it.
Had William Pitt, prime minister to George the Second,

still been in power, this tax would never have been



NEW YORK. 89

imposed ; for, years before, this great man had said : —
“J will never burn my fingers with an American Stamp
Act.” But when George the Third came to the throne,
he made the Earl of Bute, his chief adviser and
representative. A very poor exchange it was, and one
which hastened the separation of the colonies from the
mother country.

How many of you know what the Stamp Act
was? It was an act which required the people to pay
from three cents to thirty dollars for stamps, which
were to be placed on every piece of paper used for legal
purposes. Papers showing that a man had bought goods
or had sold them, were not of any legal value unless
stamped, and no clergyman could even give a certificate
of marriage without first placing a stamp upon it.

This stamp duty was to begin on the first of
November. In the meantime, a colonial convention
assembled in New York and prepared resolutions to be
sent to the king and parliament. These resolutions
were very respectfully worded, but in them the people
said that no tax ought to be imposed upon them
without their consent. Men who had been appointed

to distribute the stamps were forced to resign; and



90 NEW YORK.

when the stamps arrived in New York, the colonists
obliged the governor to place them in the hands of
the mayor. The citizens resolved not to buy any more
goods from England until the Stamp Act was repealed ;
and business went on in defiance of the new law and
much to the discomfiture of the king’s officers.

William Pitt now took up the cause of the colo-
nists ; not because he cared very much about England’s
subjects across the sea, but because he was wise enough
to realize the danger of losing them. So he urged
parlament to repeal the Stamp Act; and this was
finally done just one year after it had been passed.

In the city of New York, as well as elsewhere,
there was great rejoicing when the good news arrived.
Cannon thundered forth royal salutes, the bells in the
steeples rang out their merry bells, the ships in the
harbor displayed their flags, and at night there were
feasts and fire-works for the people. |

So, for the time being, matters were smoothed
over; and even then, further trouble might have been
avoided had England been wise and less greedy, and
had she, in the future, levied taxes only with the consent
of her still loyal subjects.



A SCENE ON THE BANKS OF THE HUDSON.

Cool shades and dews are round my way,
And silence of the early day ;

’Mid the dark rocks that watch his bed,
Glitters the mighty Hudson spread,
Unrippled, save by drops that fall

From shrubs that fringe his mountain wall;
And o’er the clear, still water swells

The music of the Sabbath bells.

All, save this little nook of land
Circled with trees, on which I stand ;
All, save that line of hills which he
Suspended in the mimic sky —
Seems a blue void, above, below,
Through which the white clouds come and go;
And from the green world’s farthest steep
I gaze into the airy deep.
a1





THE PALISADES, 1IUDSON RIVER



NEW YORK. 93

Loveliest of lovely things are they,

On earth, that soonest pass away.

The rose that lives its little hour,

Is prized beyond the sculptured flower.
Even love, long tried and cherished long,
Becomes more tender and more strong,
At thought of that insatiate grave

From which its yearnings cannot save.

River! in this still hour thou hast
Too much of heaven on earth to last;
Nor long may thy still waters lie,
An image of the glorious sky.
Thy fate and mine are not repose,
And ere another evening close,
Thou to thy tides shall turn again,
And I to seek the crowd of men.
— Bryant.











en

3
a4 2

Pouskwick

Ge
SEAT Roc's et








8
°

NEW UTRECHT



SEND
onal

MAP OF NEW YORK AND VICINITY, 1776.



Full Text



The Baldwin Library

Universit
ve ty



YOUNG FOLK’S LIBRARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY.



© EOS

NEW YORK.

BY
ANNA TEMPLE LOVERING, M.D.

EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY
BOSTON
New York CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO
COPYRIGHTED
By EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY,
1896.
CONTENTS.

PAGE
The Coming of the Half-Moon : . tas . . 7
Trading for Furs . : : : : : +12
Legend of the Iroquois a 5 5 5 : 5 17
New Netherland, and its Dutch Governors 5 . 5 23
Good Times in the Dutch Colony .. . : é : 37
How the Dutch Surprised the English . 5 Sees 47
Jacob Leisler 5 i : 6 . : ‘ 52
Burning of Schenectady . . . . = 5 : 57
A Rover of the Seas 5 : 5 Sen. 4 61
Freedom of the Press Peiuiec eres cae: : . 5 69
The Negro Plot F 3 : : : : : 73
In the Valley of the Mohawk : 5 : : : 76
Colonial New York . ; 4 : i 4 : 82
A Scene on the Banks of the IIndson . 5 5 f 91
Sons of Liberty : : ; < , ‘ F 95
Ticonderoga and Crown Point. ; ; : : 101
The Green Mountain Boys . ; a : i ‘ 105
The Last English Governor . ‘i ; 2 6 107
The American Flag. 7 és 5 ; : 5 111
Battle of Long Island . : . . . a 112
Brave General Herkimer . . : . 3 : . 118
Bemis’s Heights and Saratoga . : : 3 125
Surrender of Burgoyne eee ue ; A : 130
4 CONTENTS.

Pace
Massacre at Cherry Valley : . : : . 1384
“ Mad Anthony ” : . : : . : : 138
A Traitor to His Country : : ee . 143
Evacuation Day : : 5 3 : : 152
Inauguration of Washington. : 3 a ee 156
First Years of Peace i ‘ 5 4 5 a 161
Alexander Hamilton , : : : . : 165
Fulton’s Folly : : . : é 6 : 171
The Erie Canal. ‘ 3 6 e ; e 175
The War of 1812 : : ales . 5 . . 180
Legend of the Catskill Falls: d Y . : B 190
New York City in the Civil War . . ae ° ‘ 198
Some or New Yoru’s Great MEN
Irving and Cooper ei : : : . . 197
John Jacob Astor : : : . ‘ 205
Horace Greeley . : : : S : 211
James Gorden Bennett . . ; . . 214

Henry Ward Beecher 5 ‘ * ° 5 ° 217


HUDSON’S CREW PLAYING NINEPINS






SORES OF

NEVE YORI.

THE COMING OF THE HALF MOON.

“The great white bird!”

“The great white bird!”

That is what the Indians along the shores of the
Hudson River cried, one to another, when the square-
rigged, stubborn little Dutch Half Moon appeared
upon the blue waters of the river which, until that
clear morning, had seen only the rude little canoes
of the natives. ie

But the Indians were hardly less surprised than
were Henry Hudson and his crew; for little had they

expected to find themselves upon the waters of a great
7
8 NEW YORK

and unknown river — they who had set forth to find
a northwest passage to Cathay.

For this was in the stirrmg days of old, when, the
new continent having been discovered, hardy seamen
from all nations were eagerly setting forth to try their
fortune and, perchance, to earn their fame by great
discoveries — that of a northern passage first of all;
for in this, every nation in Europe had profoundest
interest.

Tt was for this purpose, then, that Henry Hudson
had come with his queer little craft; but, finding him-
self at the mouth of a river, he determined to explore
it for its own sake. Then —who could tell? —it
might lead out into some open sea farther north — the
very one, perchance, for which they sought !

The Half Moon was well loaded with knives,
colored beads, and the thousand other brilliant but |
useless trinkets which delighted the eye of these early
Indians, and by which the white men had learned to
trade with these simple, color-loving savages.

For. three weeks the Half Moon cruised up and
down the river; for, as the log-book recorded, “ the

shores were very pleasant with grasses and flowers,
NEW YORK.: 9

and very sweet were the smells that came from
them.”

Then, too, the natives welcomed them, and heaped
the vessel with corn, tobacco, and, best of all, with furs
of great value, which they were content to exchange for
the bits of red and yellow glass the ship had brought.



HOW SANDY HOOK APPEARED TO HUDSON WHEN HE CAME TO NEW YORK.

It was at Castleton that Hudson made his first visit
to the Indians upon their own ground; for it was here
the chief dwelt, and it was from him that Hudson
hoped to learn of the source of the river and of what
lay beyond.

The natives had their own ideas of etiquette ; and
10 NEW YORK.

it was on the very next day that the visit was returned.
Arrayed in his very finest feathers, ‘the chief, with a
chosen few, paddled out to the ship, where they were
received with great courtesy and loaded with showy
gifts.
For these the chief was proud and grateful; but
when Hudson, having followed the course of the river
as far as it was navigable, turned back, he was attacked
by Indians at different points, who, jealous and cov-
etous, longed in their savage hearts for more of the
colored glass with which the vessel was loaded.

These attacks were, however, of little moment,
since with the flash of the first gun the natives fled,
terror stricken before a power they did not understand.

So, with slight adventures, they sailed along the
banks of the beautiful river, ever more to be known as
the Hudson, past the frowning walls of rock, now
called the Palisades, and past the shadowy forest, shelter-
ing game of every description, in which no foot had
ever trod save the moccasined feet of the red men.

Although not the first discoverer of this section,
now known as New York, since Champlain had already
penetrated the northern part of the state two months
NEW YORK. 11

earlier, Hudson’s report forwarded to Holland excited
great interest among the eager merchants, who looked
forward to large and quick returns, if only a trade in
fur could once be established.

As for Henry Hudson, you will want to know if he
ever came back again to the River of the Mountains.
No, he never did; unless, indeed, the legend of the
Catskills, as Irving has told it, is true, and once in every
twenty years the captain of the Half Moon and his
crew do return to the country they discovered, and
celebrate that happy event by a social game of nine-
pins, into which they enter with such hearty interest,
that the sound of their balls is like distant peals of
thunder. One thing, however, is certain ; the old Dutch
inhabitants to this day, when they hear a thunder-storm
of a summer’s afternoon, say, “It’s Heinrich Hudson

{>

and his crew at their game of ninepins




FIRST SETTLEMENT ON THE ILUDSON
TRADING FOR FURS.

When Henry Hudson returned to Holland, you
may be sure he was received as a hero. Champlain was
forgotten and ignored, and Hudson alone enjoyed the
glory of having penetrated an unknown country and
of having sailed an unknown water. Sometimes he
became a little vain— so some records say— but the
Holland people laid nothing up against him, for he had
indeed done great service to the goverment, which now
claimed the river and its shores as their own through
the right of discovery. A charter was granted by the
States General of Holland to a company of Amsterdam
merchants; a colony was founded, and ships were sent
out at once to engage the Indians along the Hudson to
trade for furs. |

Among the gallant captains they employed was one

Adrien Block, a Dutch navigator, not easily discouraged
: 13
14 NEW YORK.

in any undertaking he might engage in, as you will
shortly see. On his first voyage in 1613, he had
secured from the Indians a cargo of fine bear skins, and
was all ready to sail for Amsterdam, when his vessel,
the Tiger, caught fire, and was entirely destroyed.
This, of course, was a very serious disaster; but Captain
Block and his men were too plucky to waste any time
in useless complaining, and the nights were so cold
that: the bark wig-wams of the Indians, which were
freely offered to the unsheltered white men, were but
poor protection. Accordingly Captain Block and his
erew went busily to work erecting log cabins which,
rude as they were, kept out Jack Frost’s prying
fingers, and the North Wind’s icy breath. So friendly
were the Indians that they brought food and necessaries
of all kinds for the voyagers, and all through the long
winter months supplied them with the best of their own
stores. The cabins finished, these plucky seamen cut
down the stately oaks which grew on every side, and

fashioned them into planks for another vessel— forty-



four feet long and eleven feet wide— which they
called the Mestless. So industrious were they that

in a few months only, they gathered together a new
NEW YORK. 15

supply of furs, and, putting them on board, sailed
for Holland in the spring of 1614.

This was the first ship built within the limits of the
State, and the little cluster of log cabins was the
beginning of the present ‘stately city of New York.

In the same year Charles Christiansen, who had
made ten voyages to Manhattan Island, sailed up the
Hudson as far as Albany, and on a small island near
by built and fortified a trading house, which he called
Fort Nassau. Here the red men brought furs of every
kind and description, and bartered them for knives and
beads and trinkets brought over from Holland, and for
queer Indian money made out of clam shell and strung
on threads of sinew, or fastened on deer skin belts.
This wampum was for many years commonly used: in
making purchases, and the smooth white shell and the
bluish black one, had each a distinct value of its own.

The Dutch who built Fort Nassau, and, a little later
on, a new fort two miles below Albany, joined with the
settlers on Manhattan Island in making a treaty of
peace with the Indians. The wise Dutchmen and their
red brothers smoked the pipe of peace, and while the
latter agreed to bury the tomahawk, the former agreed
16 NEW YORK.

to build a church upon the spot. This was a most
sensible plan, for then the tomahawk could not be
dug up; and it was much easier for the Dutch to dwell
comfortably in their trading houses and buy furs,
than to go out into the forest8 to do their own hunting,
thereby endangering their scalps.

Thus the treaty was made; and, to the credit of
both parties be it said, it was kept for many long
years. The merchants of Amsterdam, and, later on, the
Dutch West India Company, built numerous trading.
posts along the Hudson; they made more and more
frequent trips across the ocean; and year after year
the trade increased, the colonies prospered, and most
friendly were the relations between the Dutch and

the simple natives.



DUTCH FORT AND ENGLISH CHURCH, ALBANY.






HELL GATE, FROM AN OLD DUTCH PRINT.

LEGEND OF THE IROQUOIS.

While Henry Hudson was sailing up the banks
of the River of the Mountains, he little thought that
beyond the hills and shadowy forests there dwelt a
people whose government had all the simplicity and
power of a great republic.

Hiawatha, Holder of the Heavens, took the
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas
under his especial protection, for he had found them
imprisoned under a mountain at the falls of the Oswego
river; and having set them free, loved them with a love
which the great of heart feel for those whom their own
goodness has blessed, And in return the five tribes
held Hiawatha in great esteem and affection, and

followed his advice in all things.
17
18 NEW YORK.

After their release they lived in the valleys and
among the hills which lie between the Mohawk river
and Lake Erie. But a fierce and powerful tribe came

down from the country beyond the lakes and made war

©. The Wharfr
D. Burlal Place,



TNE FIRST MAP OF THE CITY.

upon the Onondagas, killing their women and children
and filling their hearts with fear and sadness. In this
great trouble they hastened to Hiawatha for counsel ;
and in accordance with his advice all the tribes came

together to make plans for the general warfare.
NEW YORK. 19

Then Hiawatha, after many prayers to the Great
Spirit for guidance, said: “ Friends and Brothers, you
are members of many tribes and nations; you have
come here, many of you, a great distance from your
homes; you have met for one common purpose — to
provide for your mutual safety. To oppose these foes
from the north by tribes singly and alone would prove
certain destruction. You can make no progress in that
way; but if you will unite into one common band of
brothers, you may drive the invaders back. Do this
and you will be safe.

“You, the Mohawks, sitting under the shadow of
the ‘Great Tree,’ whose roots sink deep into the earth
and whose branches spread over a vast country, shall be
the first nation, because you are warlike and mighty.

“And you, Oneidas, a people who recline your
bodies, against the ‘ Everlasting Stone’ that-cannot be
moved, shall be the second nation, because you give wise
counsel.

“And you, Onondagas, who have your habitation
at the ‘Great Mountain’ and are overshadowed by its
crags, shall be the third nation, because you are gifted
in speech and mighty in war.
20 NEW YORK.

“And you, Cayugas, whose habitation is in the
‘Dark Forest’ and whose home is everywhere, shall be
the fourth nation, because of your superior cunning
in hunting. ;

“‘ And you, Senecas, a people who live in the ‘ Open
Country’ and possess much wisdom, shall be the fifth
nation, because you understand better than any other
tribe the art of raising corn and making cabins.

“You, as five great and powerful nations, must unite.
Have but one common interest, and no foe shall be able
to disturb or subdue you. If you unite, the Great
Spirit will smile upon you. Brothers, these are the last
words of Hiawatha ; let them sink deep into your hearts.’

Then the Five Nations made bright their council
fire, and the great chiefs gravely considered the advice
of the Holder of the Heavens; and when the twilight
warned them that the night was near, all were convinced
that in union only would they prove unconquerable.

Then said Hiawatha: “Preserve this nation as you
have formed it. Admit no other tribes to your councils;
so shall you be free, numerous and happy. Remember
these words; they are the last you will hear from
Hiawatha. The Great Spirit calls me, and I am ready
to go. Farewell!”
NEW YORK. 21

At this moment the air was filled with music, and a
soft mist descended over the fragrant meadows, dimming
the vision of the red men. Then, Hiawatha, seated in
the white canoe in which he had so often glided over
the blue waters of the lake, passed from beyond their
sight, and sailed far out into the land of the
setting sun. The south wind, softly sighing through
the tree-tops, mingled with the last faint whispers of
the distant melody, and the council, their hearts
softened one towards the other, sat down to smoke
the pipe of peace, by which they pledged themselves, one
to the other, to eternal brotherhood. Then the sun
went down, and the spirit of Hiawatha appeared to his
people, sitting high among the stars. And he smiled
upon his people, who should hereafter be as one people,

in peace and in war.



FORT GEORGE IN 1783.








Maso olorncin pct} ar 7

Sith Clerygeeg rae too oMleeg itieag” \ Jt
tat taalo Nolin eS /
So ae
teens Naf shlone ip Giiu8 00 Wily seveols, ay Bk
‘ \arelridnsant Dagrassee ge as
Wy 0t 18 vt, N° sts
ATT ts con

a5"





oe 5
AOE Mie eee
Bb vorktv ye”

Lowmkeay
26 royt

i Jet fivt

‘






v















fo
“LAINOVA (\
ao
ano
Â¥ a





















EARLY MAP OF NEW YORK.




SITE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK

NEW NETHERLANDS AND ITS DUTCH GOVERNORS.

The merchants of Amsterdam did not long enjoy
the sole right of trading with the Indians and shipping
furs to Holland. A great and powerful corporation, the
Dutch West India Company, was chartered, and for
forty years New Netherlands was governed by it in the
interests of its own share-holders.

Never before had so important a company been

privileged to make war or peace, to employ soldiers,
23
24 5 NEW YORK.

establish courts of justice, appoint and dismiss governors
whenever they saw fit. :

Now, governors would be of no use unless there
were something or somebody to govern. You will
remember the cabins and trading-houses already built
on Manhattan; and at this time there was also quite
an imposing fort on the Island, and another one, called
Fort Orange, had been established near the present site
of Albany.

Although the West India Company took but little
interest in their possessions, caring only for the ship-
loads of furs, they were now required by their charter
to further the settlement of the country, and take an
active part in forming a colony. It was, therefore, in
1624, that thirty families of Walloons, a French people
living in the southern part of Holland, were sent to
New Netherlands in one of the company’s ships.
These for the most part made their homes near Albany.
Other vessels quickly followed, bringing sometimes
rambling adventurers, sometimes sober-minded, home-
loving people, all anxious to better themselves in this
wonderful, untried country. Bakers and tailors, farmers
and fishermen, masons and shoemakers, wheelwrights






PURCHASING MANHATTAN


NEW YORK. 95

and coopers, old and young, landed at New Amsterdam
in the next few years, and built for themselves little
villages and towns round-about this first settlement.

Then it was that the company sent over the first
director or governor, Peter Minuit, who is said to have
been a “ kindly man, of firm temper and much energy,”
and one who, for the most part, made a wise use of the
power he held. Minuit’s first act was to purchase
Manhattan Island from the Indians for the astonishingly
small sum of twenty-five dollars. How much land do
you think you could buy now with that money? In
some parts of New York you could not purchase a
square inch. Besides buying the island, Governor
Minuit made friends with the Indians, visiting them in
their wigwams and giving them beads, axes and knives,
and gayly colored cloths. In return, the red men
brought him bales of furs, and kept him always gener-
ously supplied with venison, turkeys, wild fowl, and
other game from field and forest.

In New Amsterdam a rude but strong warehouse
had been built, in which to store the company’s: goods.
It was a queer building, with its rough stone walls, roof
thatched with reeds, and quaint old gables, like those


26 NEW YORK.

we see to-day in Holland. Besides this, some thirty
small cabins were put up along the shore of the East
River; and in one of the large warehouses a store was



‘FIRST SAW MILL ON THE HUDSON.

opened, and a mill worked by horse-power was built to
grind grain for the country people round about.
Indeed, much happened, during the six years that Peter
Minuit governed New Amsterdam, to favor the growth
and prosperity of the little colony.
NEW YORK. 2

27

At the close of these years, Governor Wouter
Van Twiller stepped into the official shoes of Governor



OLD DUTCH WINDMILL.

Minuit, and according’ to all accounts the exchange was
not by any means for the better. Perhaps Irving’s
description of the worthy Dutchman is not strictly true,


28 NEW YORK.

but it is the one that has come to be accepted: “He
was exactly five feet six inches in height, and six feet
five in circumference. His head was a perfect sphere,
and of such stupendous dimensions that Dame Nature,
with all her ingenuity, would have been puzzled to
construct a neck capable of supporting it; wherefore
she wisely declined the attempt and settled it firmly on
the top of his backbone just between the shoulders.
His body was oblong and particularly capacious at its
base. His legs were short but sturdy in proportion to
the weight they had to sustain; so that when erect he
had not a little the appearance of a beer barrel on skids.”

What a very comical figure he must have made, as
he landed that spring morning in April, 1633! With
him came Domine Bogar, the coleny’s first clergyman,
and Adam Roelandsen, the first school-master. During
the four years that Governor Van Twiller held sway,
windmills were built, houses of brick and frame, a
brewery, and a plain wooden church.

But trouble had sprung up with the Indians, and
blood had been shed on both sides. It was a pity that
peace could not have been kept, when for so many years
all had gone so smoothly with the red men and the
NEW YORK. 29

white men. But one day, most unfortunately, an
Indian hurt the dignity of a certain particularly sensi-
tive Dutchman. On the top of a post there had been
fastened a piece of tin bearing the arms of Holland.
Not long after, a sharp-eyed chief noticed the tin,
innocently enough took it away with him, thinking to
make from it a fine tobacco box. Unfortunately the
Dutch did not see the theft quite in the same light, and
friendly Indians hearing of their displeasure, killed the
chief of that tribe to which the thief belonged ; — the
worst thing they could have done, for naturally the tribe
resented the murder, and watching their chance,
attacked one day a party of the colonists, and killed
thirty-two of them.

From this time on the old security from the savages
was gone. Although Van Twiller may have been in
no way responsible for the affair —indeed he declared
he was not —still there were many who felt that he
might have prevented it; and for this, together with
certain other failures to carry out the plans of the
people, the land-holders petitioned the Government to
have him recalled to Holland; and in 1638 another
governor, William Kief, was sent to take his place.
30 NEW YORK.

Of the four Dutch governors, William Kief,
although more industrious and temperate in his habits
than any of the others, was the least successful, I

am afraid his temper was none of the best; certain

4
re



THE STADT HUYS, 1642.

it is that he many times treated the Indians with
great cruelty; and, by his lack of kindness and fore-
bearance, to say nothing of his lack of wisdom, pre-
cipitated a war between the races, which sadly crippled
the still struggling colony. Then, too, unwilling for
the people to have any part in the government, he
NEW YORK. 31

attempted to tax them without their consent; and, in
fact, he so mismanaged affairs that the hberty-loving
colonists again sent numerous petitions to Holland
asking for his removal. These were finally granted ;
and one and all gladly watched the good ship Princess,
as it winged its way down the bay, carrying on board
their one-time master.

And now gallant old Peter Stuyvesant took his
place; grim and battle-scared, whimsical and obstinate,
but every inch a hero. Great was the joy of the
people at his coming. What if he did strut like a
peacock, and stump pompously around on his wooden.
leg, with an air of overwhelming importance! Had
he not gained fame and honor on many a foreign
battle-field, and in many a naval combat? And so,
had he not a right to strut?

Very fortunate it was that Governor Stuyvesant
found the colonists so well disposed; for, although a
just and upright man, he vas somewhat of a tyrant, and,
although kindly in his rule, a little overbearing in his
manner. But, for all that, there is no doubt of the
genuine interest he took in the welfare of all the
colonies, and more especially in the growth of New


GOVERNOR STUYVESANT.
NEW YORK. 33

Amsterdam, which, in 1658, was incorporated. as a city.
If, indeed, his ghost does haunt the place he so helped
to build up, and if at night, as the story goes, his
shadowy wooden leg taps faintly down the aisle of
St. Mark’s church, near where his bones lie buried,
what a pleasure it must be to him to mark the
wonderful growth of the old Dutch town, now the
metropolis of America.

But alas, for the good Dutch government! So
prosperous had the colony become that James Stuart,
Duke of York, and brother of King Charles the Second,
looked with covetous eyes upon the fair possessions
across the sea, and already dreamed of them as his
own. Obtaining, therefore, a grant from the king, he
prepared to send several war ships of the Royal navy,
with four hundred and fifty soldiers on board, against
the unsuspecting Dutchmen.

There was peace at this time between the two
nations, and it was, indeed, the greatest treachery for
the English, under cover of their friendly relations,
to attempt to steal New Netherlands. The ships were
manned, however, and in due time they anchored

at the entrance. of: the harbor of New Amsterdam,


STUYVESANT TEARING UP THE LETTER
NEW YORK.

where, on Saturday, the thirtieth of September, 1664,
Colonel Richard Nicholls sent to Governor Stuyvesant
a summons to surrender the fort and city, promising
security of life and property to all the inhabitants
should they make no resistance. The Governor,
indignant, stoutly refused to yield, though none knew
better than he the weakness of the defense, and the
uncertain temper of the people; for many of them
looked with friendly eyes upon the coming of the
English.

Finally a letter was brought to him in which he
was urged to surrender. The council and the burgo-
masters also favored this plan; and so urgently did
they insist upon it, that the quick-tempered Peter
Stuyvesant, in great wrath, tore the letter in pieces
and threw it on the floor, refusing to have anything
to do with so cowardly a proceeding. But the people,
fearing the troops and willing to accept the favorable
terms offered, compelled the governor to send some
answer to Colonel Nicholls. Messengers were de-
spatched with a letter, in which Stuyvesant said,
“Though I will stand the storm, I am willing to

compromise on any fair conditions.”
36 NEW YORK.

Very sharp was the answer brought back.
“Tomorrow,” said Nicholls curtly, “1 will speak with
you at Manhattan.”

Stuyvesant as curtly replied: “ Friends will be
welcome if they come in a friendly manner.”

“T shall come with ships and soldiers,” said
Nicholls ; “raise the white flag of peace at the fort,
and then something may be considered.”

Brave Stuyvesant resented this sharp order. “I
would rather be carried out dead,” he thundered.
But what could one man do among so many? Very
little indeed; and on the next morning the red cross
of St. George waved over the fort. Colonel Nicholls,
with two hundred men, marched into the city, and
was proclaimed by the burgomasters, deputy-governor
of the province, which, together with the city of New
Amsterdam, was named New York, after the treacherous
duke who had sent out the expedition. So, without
even bloodshed, New Netherland passed into the hands
of the English.




1 Hoecker

Pau

GIRL

DUTCH

30]

LITTL






" tf x y

Y Wikg!

‘ Nh ee?

by. Wy Whe =
ee We vA

P ie



OLD DUTCH COTTAGE, N. ¥., 1679.

GOOD TIMES IN THE DUTCH COLONY.

But before we begin to think of this jolly little
Dutch colony as an English one, let us take one look
into the odd little homes where Hans and Katrina and
Gretchen and so many other round-faced little children
lived, so happy and free: For the children of this
colony, it has always seemed, had a much happier,
jollier, more child-like life than had the children of
certain other colonies we might mention.

By the time New Amsterdam became a city, the
industrious burghers had gathered about them many of

the comforts and even the luxuries they had enjoyed
37
38 NEW YORK.

in Holland. Of course things were not just the same,
but as nearly like the ways of fatherland as might be.

First, the houses, with their quaint gables and
diamond-paned windows, chimneys of Manhattan blue
stone, from which the smoke of hospitable fires curled
upward in wreaths but little larger than those from
the Dutchmen’s pipes. The fronts of the houses were
of wood and stone, the ends were finished in checker-
work of black and yellow Dutch bricks, while the tiled
roofs were surmounted with accommodating roosters,
which flew gaily round to all points of the compass.

Then the gardens,— why they were as much a part
of the dwelling as the big brass knockers on the
doors. Early and late flowers nodded greetings to each
other; and in generous orchards near by, apple, peach,
pear and quince trees made fragrant the springtime,
with their sweet, pink blossoms, and in the autumn
kept little Hans, Katrina and Gretchen busy heaping
up the ripened fruit.

Within these comfortable homes everything was
wonderfully clean and neat, for the good wives were
always scrubbing and scouring, sprinkling the floor with

clean white sand brushed into fanciful designs, and
NEW YORK. 39

brightening the pewter platters and porringers till the
happy round faces of the children could see themselves
in them.

In families in easy circumstances, there were
massive silver tankards, waiters and bowls, but very
little glass or china. As for lamps, they had none;
but ran candles in little tin moulds, or dipped them
in the good old-fashioned way, and carried them about
in brass or copper candlesticks brought from Holland.

The furnishings harmonized with all else ; in many
a hall stood a great Dutch clock with the family arms
upon its case, and portraits of ancestral grandees look-
ing stolidly down upon it. Sometimes in the front
room would be a square, figured rug, but rarely a car-
pet covering the whole floor, while straight-backed
chairs and mahogany tables stood stiffly around — for .
use perhaps — but hardly for comfort.

As for the dress of those days, men and women
both were very fond of wearing a great many clothes.
The every-day ones were generally home made and of
linsey woolsey, while for church going and festivals
richer stuffs were used. After wigs went out of

fashion, the men wore thei hair braided in long
40 NEW YORK.

queues, and covered their heads with soft felt hats
with wide brims often looped up on one side. Add
to this the long coats with capacious pockets, orna-
mented with brass or silver buttons, and breeches
reaching only to their knees, and you have a picture
of the happy, easy-going Dutchman in the time of
Peter Stuyvesant.

And the children, well, the children were in dress
perfect pictures of their elders; but for all that, they
had just as good times as if they had had fashions of
their own, and had not dressed as clumsily as the
older people. And speaking of good times, this makes ~
us think of the parties and the merry-makings, for the
Dutch were a very social people.

Many were the dancing parties, where the only
refreshments served were pots of chocolate and soft
watfles; and the tea-drinkings, where the loaf sugar
to be used was broken into large lumps and the pieces
laid by each cup to be nibbled at as needed. It is
said that one economical old lady used to hang a big
lump of sugar over the center of the tea-table, so that
it might be swung back and forth from one guest to
the other. But the best of the good times came in
NEW YORK. 41

the winter; and the following is a very good account
of them.

“First, as the weather turns cold, is the skating
on the neighboring ponds. Then comes the snow,

~







THE GOVERNOR’S HOUSE AND CHURCH, STUYVESANT'’S TIME.

and the young men arrange for a sleighing frolic by
moonlight. Four horses they get and Jan Derickson’s
sleigh that holdeth ten couples, packed close, as it
suiteth young men and maidens to ride, and away
they go over the Kissing bridge and under pine boughs,
oftimes, methinks, as far as to Harlem, where at Mynheer
49 NEW YORK

Borsom’s tavern they have a dance and a supper, which
by our custom may consist of naught but bread and-
a pot of chocolate.

“ Again, though the Dutch be a sober folk, yet
do they keep many festivals — Christmas, New Yeatr’s,
Easter, Whitsuntide and St. Nicholas’ Day. Christmas
comes first, and we also observe it as the anniversary
of landing day. After the stockings are explored for
whatever Santa Claus may have left, the young people
spend the morning skating on the fresh-water pond
or turkey shooting in the forest; at one o’clock the
great oven yieldeth up the Christmas feast, which all
meet to enjoy.

_ “New Year’s is the greatest day in New Amster-
dam. On-that day no one does aught but call and
receive calls. For days before, the housewives have
been. brewing, baking and mixing; and when the day
cometh and thou goest to meet thy friend, thou findest
the great logs crackling in the twelve-foot fire place,
and in the center of the table spread in the middle
of the room, a mighty punch bowl well reinforced by
haunches of cold venison and turkeys roasted whole,
and ornamented with cakes, comfits and confectionery ;
NEW YORK. 43

silver tankards and beakers filled with rare Madeira
and foaming ale. The good frau and her daughters
clad in their best, are there to receive one and to
dispense whole-hearted hospitality, smiles and good
wishes.

“On Easter day a favorite game is played for
egos. Thy sweetheart holds an egg in her hand
and challenges thee to break it by striking it with thy
egg, the broken one belonging to that which remain-
eth whole. On that day, too, the shops are gay with
boiled eggs, tied with red and blue ribbons, or colored
by mixing potent pigments in the water which hath
boiled them. On Easter day, no true son of St.
Nicholas tastes other food than eggs.”

What better picture can we have of the social
spirit of those days, or of the way in which the festi-
vals of the Fatherland were cherished in the new
homes beyond the sea?

These good Dutch people were a story-loving
people, too; and many were the legends they would
tell as they gathered the children around the big fire.
place on the cold winter evenings. Gruesome these

stories sometimes were —of ghosts and goblins; but
44 NEW YORK.

the Dutch children were. healthy little creatures — not
at all nervous, and so enjoyed them all as heartily as



THE LITTLE DUTCL GOBLIN OF DUNDERBERG MOUNTAIN

did their mothers and fathers; nor were they, as far

as we know, ever one whit harmed by them.
NEW YORK. 45

Then there was a story that Washington Irving
tells. It is a story of a boisterous little Dutch goblin,
with his sugar-loaf hat, who dwells on the top of
Dunderberg Mountain, whose steep sides look down
upon the Hudson.

One day when the wind was piping fresh, a ven-
turesome little sloop, in passing by the Dunderberg, was
overtaken by a thunder gust that came scouring round
the mountain, and seemed to burst just over the vessel.
Though tight and well ballasted, she labored dreadfully,
and the water came over the gunwale. All the crew
were amazed when it was discovered that there was
a little white sugar-loaf hat on the mast-head, known at
once to be the hat of the Head of the Dunderberg.

“Nobody, however, dared to climb to the mast-head
and get rid of this terrible hat. The sloop continued
laboring and rocking, as if she would have rolled her
mast overboard, and she seemed in. continual danger
either of upsetting or of running on shore.

In this way she drove quite through the Highlands,
until she had passed the Island where the power of the

little Dutch goblin is said to cease. No sooner had she
reached this point than the little hat sprang up into the
46 NEW YORK.

air like a top, whirled up all the clouds together and °
hurried them back to the summit of the Dunderberg,
while the sloop righted herself, and sailed on as quietly
as 1f in a mill-pond.

Nothing saved her from utter wreck but the fortu-
nate circumstance of having a horse-shoe nailed against
the mast, a wise precaution against evil spirits, since
adopted by all the Dutch captains that navigate this
haunted river.

Then there is the story of Ichabod Crane, told by
this same delightful writer, in which the hero is pursued
by a headless horseman, who these Dutch people believed
dwelt in a certain valley, ready to pounce out upon
belated travellers — of whom this Ichabod was one.

Then there is the story of Rip Van Winkle,
which never would have been written but for the Dutch
legend of Heinrich Hudson and his men at play with
ninepins up in the Catskill Mountains. And many
more there are, which we leave you to find for your-
self in the Sketch Book or in the Knickerbocker
ffistory, or in some other book as charming and

amusing.










































THE PALISADES ALONG WALL STREET NEW YORK CIty.

HOW THE DUTCH SURPRISED THE ENGLISH.

But to return to the politically important affairs
of this New Amsterdam. Governor Nicholls was thor-
oughly attached to the interests of the Duke of York.
At the same time he was a wise and fair-minded man,
and treated the Dutch in so kindly a manner that most
of them took without hesitation the oath of allegiance
to the British monarch, King Charles. English customs
were introduced, and also an English form of govern-
ment, which really gave the people more rights than they
had possessed under the West India Company. But

after four years of governing a foreign people and
AT
48 _NEW YORK.

keeping peace with the Indians, Nicholls resigned his :
commission and returned to England.

During the rule of Governor Lovelace, who suc-
ceeded him, something happened which quite upset the
general order of things and gladdened the heart of the
redoubtable Peter Stuyvesant. In the summer of 1678,
Lovelace left New York to pay a visit to Governor
Winthrop of Connecticut. By this time England and
Holland were again at war with each other, and the
sturdy Dutchmen were a good deal more than half
resolved to retake New York, which they had always
regarded as their own particular property.

So, one sunny morning in July, a Dutch squadron
of twenty-three ships, including numerous prizes
captured on the open sea, and bearing six hundred
troops for service on land, arrived off Sandy Hook.
What excitement there was among the people! How
the litttle Dutch people bustled and rustled! I think
they must have rather enjoyed it; for they flew around
like bees in a hive and gathered in little groups here and
there in the streets to talk it over.

Captain John Manning, who commanded the fort,
sent a messenger after Governor Lovelace and issued
NEW YORK. 49

a call for volunteers. Few came, however, and thinking
to gain a little time, he sent to the Dutch commander
to inquire why he had “in such a hostile manner
disturbed his Majesty’s subjects.”

“We have come,” he replied, “to take what is our
own, and our own we will have.”

This was certainly a very decided answer, and
Captain Manning had good reason to think so, too; for
before long the war-ships had floated up with the tide
until they lay broad side to the fort. Then their guns
thundered out, and a few of the soldiers in the fort
were killed.. The rest returned the fire riddling the flag
ship through and through. But the Dutch commander
landed six hundred men and prepared to storm the fort.
This was the critical moment, and Captain Manning,
realizing his inability to make a successful defence,
reluctantly ordered a white flag to be raised over the
little garrison. In marched the Dutch, and out marched
the English with drums beating and colors flying,
grounding their arms outside the fort.

The banner of the Dutch Republic floated from
the flag-staff; the English soldiers, as prisoners of war
were confined in the church within the fort; and again
50 NEW YORK.

New York became New Netherlands. The city was
called New Orange, and Dutch names everywhere
replaced the English.

Lovelace went back to England, where he was
treated very unkindly, the king blaming him severely
for the loss of the province. Perhaps he was to blame,
but very likely he could not have prevented the sur-
render, even had he been on hand when the Dutch
appeared.

But Holland was not to retain any permanent hold
upon the country it had first settled; for in less than
a year peace was declared between England and
Holland, and by the terms of
the treaty New Netherlands
was again given up to the
British crown.

Captain Anthony Colve,
whom the Dutch had chosen
to be the head of affairs,
most regretfully presented
his fine coach and three to
the new English governor?

Hdmund Andros; but he did


NEW YORK. 51

it with wonderfully good grace, and then sailed away
for Holland. But not even three fine horses and a
coach of state could make Governor Andros popular.
If half the stories told of him are true, during the
nine years in which he ruled New York, he proved
himself a tyrant, and the only wonder is that people
tolerated him as long as they did.

= Pyfremek.

tt gunancty ee 9

howe k 9s i:
ao + 3

oY y%G. ae,
te 09%) i eB
er




JACOB LEISLER.

When early in February, 1685, King Charles II.
died, the Duke of York succeeded him, becoming the
second King James upon the throne of England.
‘While still duke he had promised the people of New
York a “Charter of Liberties,’ but when he became
king he positively refused to keep his word, saying that
such a charter would give them more freedom than was
good for a dependent colony. This was only one of
the many unwise acts which finally cost this king his
crown; and when, as ‘we read in the history of the
times, William of Orange landed in England, many of
the best men in this country deserted King James and
joined in sympathy with his successor.

The majority of the people of New York were
overjoyed to hear the news from England which
announced the downfall of King James, but there were
some who still upheld the fallen monarch, and who

determined either to support the governor he had
52
NEW YORK. ae 53

appointed in the continuance of his power, or, if that
could not be done, to take the control of affairs into
their own hands.

Two parties were formed —the Aristocrats, who
favored James II., and the Democrats, who were friendly
to William and Mary.

Francis Nicholson, then acting as deputy governor,
became alarmed at the feeling among the citizens, and
not being a man of much strength of character, quietly
took ship and sailed for England. In the meantime.
Jacob Leisler, merchant and patriot, had been urged by
“many of the people to act as their leader until instruc-
tions should be sent by King William to the colonists,
It required a great deal of courage to take this position,
for not only was there much opposition to be encoun-
tered from the followers of King James, but the French
in Canada were making ready to attack the northern
settlements.

The people were divided in their wishes; Albany
refused to accept Leisler as governor, saying that he was
a “restless and ambitious spirit, acting without the least
show of authority.” However, nearly all the counties
sent delegates to an assembly, and Leisler was granted
5A NEW YORK.

almost unlimited power in New York. For the most
part he exercised his privileges in the interests of the
people, and probably with a really more earnest pur-
pose to secure their welfare than had the majority of
governors appointed by England.

William and Mary, when they learned the action
of the colony, refused to confirm Leisler in his new
office, and appointed Colonel Henry Sloughter governor
of New York. At the same time that he sailed for
America, another ship left port, having on board Major
Richard Ingoldsby and two companies of soldiers. The
latter vessel arrived first, and exceeding his authority,
Major Ingoldsby haughtily demanded the surrender of
the fort. This demand Govornor Leisler very naturally
refused to comply with, at the same time offering the
Major suitable accommodations for himself and for his
soldiers in the city, and assuring him of his readiness
to welcome Governor Sloughter. Ingoldsby, however,
attempted to take the fort by force, but without success.

Two days later, Governor Sloughter arrived, and
to him Leisler loyally gave up the fort and province.
But the only reward he received for his faithful service
was imprisonment; and so busy were his enemies, that
NEW YORK. 5B

before another month had passed he was tried for his
life on numerous charges, among them that of offering
resistance to Major Ingoldsby. You can easily guess
how the trial ended, for Leisler’s opponents were many

and powerful, and not a few of them were among the





















STREET IN NEW YORK AT CLOSE OF 17TH CENTURY.

jury before whom he was tried. Sentence was passed,
and Leisler and his son-in-law, who had also taken an
active part in the government, were condemned to death.
And were executed in New York in May, 1691.

Perhaps you will think so sad a story should not
have been told; and yet there is much in it which it
56 NEW YORK.

would be well for us to remember. In Leisler, we see the
first governor of New York who was practically the
choice of the people — a people, too, who previously had
hardly been allowed proper representation in their own
government. It was at Leisler’s suggestion, also, that
the call for the first Colonial Congress in America was
made, the purpose of which was to unite the resources
of the colonies, that expeditions might be sent out
against Canada, to repel French invasion.

Although the movement was a failure, the grand.
idea of the union of the colonies was foreshadowed by
the meeting of their representatives at the call of this
citizen governor. Whatever his errors of judgment
may have been, the service he rendered the people
entitled him to the name of patriot; and in that he lost
his life at the hands of the officers of the king whose
power he upheld, I think we might truly say that he

was a martyr as well.

Do thy duty, that is best,
Leave unto thy Lord the rest.


BURNING OF SCHENECTADY
BURNING OF SCHENECTADY.

Partly because of the war between England and
France, occasioned by the English revolution of 1688,
and partly because the French in Canada wished to
engage practically the interest and co-operation of the
Iroquois, they decided to march from Montreal to
Schenectady, N. ¥Y.—a distance of two hundred miles,
and destroy not only this town but Albany also.

It was in midwinter, and the snow was so very deep
that the soldiers could travel only on snow-shoes.
Starting from Montreal on the seventeenth of January,
1690, the Frenchmen, and an accompanying party of
hostile Indians, crossed the frozen lakes and rivers, and,
after many hardships on the way, arrived in sight of the
town on the eighth of February, at about eleven o’clock
at night. They had not intended to make the attack
just then, but it was so bitterly cold that they decided
to enter the town at once, and warm themselves by-the
blaze they should make of the pretty little Dutch houses.

57
58 NEW YORK.

Now the village was surrounded by a stockade of
pine logs ten feet high, and at one corner there was a
fort garrisoned by nearly twenty-five men. Within the
palisades were nearly eighty dwellings and some four
hundred men, women, and children; so you see it
was quite a sizable little town. Unfortunately, on this
fatal night in February, the villagers had gone to
bed without closing the gate, or even setting guard.
Very careless this certainly was; but there were friendly
Indians who had been sent out as scouts to Lake
George, and upon them the people relied for news of
any enemy that might be approaching. As the French
drew near the devoted village, they were met by four
squaws, who told them of the best way of arriving
secretly at the place. They entered by the north gate
and then separated, a few soldiers being placed before
each house. At a given signal the attack was made, the
Indians raisine their blood-curdling cry, the famous war
whoop. Taken entirely by surprise, the terrified inhabi-
tants could offer but little resistance. Within two hours
sixty of them had been killed, and the French had fired
the village. A few of those who escaped made their way
through the snowy forests to Albany; but some, alas,
NEW YORK. 59

unable to endure the intense cold, perished miserably
when almost within reach of help and safety.

But one man, at least, saved his life by not
running away. Andrew Vrooman’s house was strongly ~
built, being a sort of fort, and best of all there was
plenty of ammunition within it. So he loaded all the
muskets, and with such accuracy and rapidity did he fire
at the enemy that they were glad indeed to promise to
spare his life and not set fire to hig house, if only he
would stop shooting. This promise they kept, but they
carried off two of his sons into captivity.

The women and children who had not been killed
by the first fierce attack, were spared by the enemy, as
were thirty Mohawks found in the town, who were also
permitted to go unharmed.

The next day, which was Sunday, the French
departed, carrying with them a great deal of plunder,
and forty of the best horses they could find.

When the friendly Mohawks heard of this attack,
as they did two days later, they joined a party of young
men from Albany, and coming up with the enemy killed
twenty-five of them.

In a ballad of those days the story is told of how,
60 NEW YORK.

when the news reached Albany, Captain Willie set out
with a gallant company to avenge the burning of
Schenectady.

The News come on the Sabbath morn
Just att the Break of Day

And with a company of Horse
I galloped away.

But soon We found the French were gone
With all their great Bootye ;

And then their Trail We did persue,
As was our true Dutye.

The Mohaques joined our brave Partye,
And followed in the Chase

Till we came up with the Frenchmen
Att a most likely Place.

Our soldiers fell upon their Reare,
And killed twenty-five.
Our young men were so much enraged

They took scarce One alive,


























A ROVER OF THE SEAS.

The very same conditions which favored the hostile
French and Indians in their attack upon the towns and
villages of the English, made life out upon the ocean
quite as dangerous as life upon the land.

For the change. of rulers in England and the -
unsettled state of the British possessions in America -had
covered the seas with pirates, and the Indian Ocean
especially swarmed with these daring robbers. The loss
of life and property was very great; so great that the
English government decided to send out an armed vessel
in pursuit of them, and incidentally to capture as many
prizes from the King’s enemies as possible.

How many of you have heard of the famous
Captain Kidd? Ah, I thought so; nearly all of you
know that in the old days he scoured the seas — the
black flag, with its skull and cross bones, floating from
the mast-head of his ship. But was he always a

pirate? No, indeed; at the time the government
, 61




RCHANT ”

E

AW M

G THE “ QUED

RIN!

N KIDD CAPTU

CAPTAL
NEW YORK. 63.

thought of fitting out this vessel, Captain Kidd was in
London, the well known commander of a merchantman ;
and more than that, at various times he had highly
distinguished himself by his courage and gallantry in
the wars between England and France. Just because he
was so well and favorably known, he was chosen as
captain of the “ Adventure Galley,” and commissioned
under seal of royalty to cruise in all directions as a
privateer. So, instead of setting sail as a pirate, he
started out to overhaul and capture the pirate vessels.
The Earl of Bellemont, then recently appointed
Governor-General of New York and New England, took
an active part in completing this arrangement, as did
also Robert Livingstone, a very influential man in the
colony, and owner of large grants of land near Albany.
The first port Kidd touched at was New York :
here he shipped many volunteers, with the understand-
ing that their pay should depend on the value and
number of prizes they should capture. Then he
sailed for the Indian Ocean. For a while the famous
Captain attended: strictly to the business on which he
had been sent; but when days and weeks had passed
and no captures of any consequence had been made, the
my NEW YORK.

men began to murmur; for where was the prize
money to come from if no valuable captures were
made ?

But one summer’s day a fine ship, the “Quedah
Merchant,” hove in sight. Urged by his men, and
perhaps if the truth were told, rather inclined himself
not to let such a chance slip through his fingers,
Captain Kidd bore down upon the vessel and, after a
short chase, came up with and captured her. His crew
and their belongings were transferred to the new vessel,
and: away they went to capture other ships belonging to
the Great Mogul, and so enrich themselves with what-
ever gold and precious stones they might find upon
them.

In “ Ye Lamentable Ballad, and Ye True History
of Captain William Kidd,” Captain Kidd is supposed to
tell his story as follows : —

*“T steer’d from sound to sound, as I sail’d, as I sail’d;
I steer’d from sound to sound, as I sail’d;
T steer’d from sound to sound, and many ships I
found,
And most of them I burned, as I sail’d.
NEW YORK. neg

I spy’d three ships from France, as I sail’d, as I sail’d;
I spy’d three ships from France, as I sail’d ;
I spy’d three ships from France; to them I did
| advance,

And took them all by chance, ag I sail’d.

I spy’d three ships from Spain, as I sail’d, as I sail’d ;
I spy’d three ships from Spain, as I sail’d;

I spy’d three ships from Spain ; I fired on them amain,
Till most of them were slain, as I sail’d.

I’d ninety bars of gold, as I sail’d, as I sail’d ;
Td ninety bars of gold, as I sail’d;

I'd ninety bars of gold, and dollars manifold,
With riches uncontrolled, as I sail’d.”

Then follows an account of his capture, which was
not true at all; for leaving the “Quedah Merchant” to
follow after, Kidd returned to Boston in a small sloop,
and there asserted his innocence of the charges pre-
ferred against him. Evidently the Earl of Bellemont
did not put much faith in his statements, for in a few

days he had Kidd arrested, and finally sent him a
66 NEW YORK.

prisoner to England to be tried for piracy, and also for
the murder of one of his men. It was on this last
charge that Captain Kidd was condemned and sentenced
to be hanged, though he was also found guilty of
piracy.

This is the story of the famous captain that you
may not have heard before, but I am sure you have
heard of the treasure Kidd was supposed to have hidden
somewhere along the New York coast. Some articles of
great value he really did conceal on Gardinev’s Island,
east of Long Island; among them were three bags of
gold dust, two bags of gold in bars, and a bag of silver
pieces and jewels, and much else; all of which the Earl
of Bellemont recovered, and used as evidence against the
unfortunate Captain Kidd.

But the treasures in the “ Quedah Merchant,” what
became of them? Some say that the great vessel sailed
for New York and passing by the city in the night kept
on up the Hudson; and that, near the foot of the
Dunderberg mountain, the crew scuttled the ship and
fled with a portion of the treasure to the woods. Now
this is mere tradition; but certain it is that the party
sent out in search of the “ Quedah Merchant” never
NEW YORK. - 67

found any trace of her, and it may be (for there is no
one to dispute it) that beneath the blue waters of the
Hudson the famous old ship lies safely hidden, even as
tradition says ; and that some day—since all things
seem possible in this century —it may be brought to

sight again. Who knows?



















































OLD DUTCH CHURCH, TARRYTOWN
PART OF

3
a
‘3

LS]
et Fohnfors Fat
Colofime

East -Mybins GY O

Yond







NEW YORK AT THE BEGINNING OF THE BIGHTEENTH CENTURY. (FROM MATHER’S MAGNOLIA )


























































NEW YORK 1N 1704,

FREEDOM OF THE PRESS.

How should we know from day to day what is
going on in the world if we had no newspapers ?
But wnat if the men who issued the newspapers were
obliged to publish only that which it suited the
government to have known? What if no writers were
allowed to criticise the acts of any one in power?
Do you think then we could boast of having a free
press ?

It was just at the beginning of the establishment
of newspapers in New York, that John Zenger thought
it wise to issue a “ Weekly Journal.” Already there
was a “Gazette” published in the interests of Gov-

ernor Crosby, which approved always of all that he did.
69
70 NEW YORK.

But soon this new journal began to say some very
sharp things about the governor, charging him, among
other acts, with violating the rights of the people.
This paper shortly became altogether too bold to suit
His Excellency ; and before a year’s issue had been
sent out, Zenger was arrested and imprisoned, and
certain copies of his publications were ordered to be
burned in public by the common hangman.

But the mayor and council would not attend the
burning, as they were ordered to do, and the court of
sessions forbade the hangman to destroy the papers.
Zenger was kept in prison from November, 1734, till the
following August, when he was tried in City Hall,
New York. Very great was the excitement all through
the country, for the question involved was that of free-
dom of speech and of the press.

On a hot morning in August the trial took place..
An association, called the Sons of Liberty, had secured
Andrew Hamilton, speaker of the Assembly of Penn-
sylvania, a distinguished lawyer and a Quaker, to appear
in behalf of the printer. As the great man entered
the court room the people joyfully rose to give him
welcome, and in spite of the frowning looks of the
NEW YORK. a1

chief justi¢e, waved. their hands and shouted Joud
huzzas.

Zenger pleaded not guilty, but admitted that he
had published the articles in question, and _ boldly
asserted his ability to prove the truth of the charges
contained in them. |

Then Hamilton arose; and in a few eloquent
sentences defended the accused. He declared that the
jury were entirely competent to decide upon the
merits of the case, and he reminded them of their
duty to protect the “rights, liberties and privileges of
their fellow citizens.” In conclusion, he thus referred
to the underlying principles involved: —“TIt is not
the cause of a poor printer, nor of New York alone,
which the jury is now trying. No! It may in its
consequences affect every free man that lives under a
British government on the main of America.

“Tt is the best cause; it is the cause of liberty,
and I make no doubt that your upright conduct this
day will not only entitle you to the love and esteem
of your fellow citizens, but every man who prefers
freedom to slavery will bless and honor you as men
who have baffled the attempt of tyranny, and, by your
72 NEW YORK.

impartial and uncorrupt verdict, have laid a noble
foundation for securing to ourselves, our posterity and
our neighbors, that to which nature and the laws of
our country have given us a right, —the liberty of
both exposing and opposing arbitrary power, in these
parts of the world at least, by speaking and writing
the truth.”

After such a grand appeal to their sense of right
and justice, nothing that the opposing party had to
offer could have much effect; and the jury brought
in a verdict of “not guilty.” Then what shouts the
people gave and what cheers they raised for Hamilton!
They carried him on their shoulders out of the court
room to a grand celebration which had been planned
in his honor; they feasted him right royally; and at
a great banquet they presented him with a valuable
gold box made for the occasion, in which was a copy
of resolutions, stamped with the New York seal; and
New York thus made early in her history one of
the first great steps in the establishment of true,
American liberty.
THE NEGRO PLOT.

While the people of New York showed their good
sense, their love of liberty and their desire for honest
government, there was one direction in which they,
with many another colony, made a great mistake. And
that was in carrying on the slave trade, and in treat-
ing the negroes with cruel severity. I am sorry to
say that a slave-market, where the poor slaves were
sold or hired, was opened in the very streets of New
York, in 1709. The slave laws at that time were very
harsh. If a slave was caught out at night without a
lantern and a lighted candle, he was put in jail, and
the next day received thirty-nine lashes at the whip-
ping-post. Slaves could not receive any instruction
either in the schools or the churches, nor could they
possess any property of their own.

By 1741, there were so many negro slaves in New
York, that the inhabitants began to feel uneasy, fear-
ing the consequences should the slaves rebel. In March

oo
74, NEW YORK.

of that year, Fort George, on the Battery, caught fire,
and a rumor spread through the town that the negroes
had set it. Two weeks later eight more fires occurred,
and a negro was seen running away from the last one
discovered. Immediately all was consternation and
dismay ; many people were so alarmed that they moved
their goods from their houses, thinking to carry them
to some safer place.

A reward was offered to any white person who
_ should give information of the supposed plot, and full
pardon was promised the informer if he was engaged
sn it. Numerous arrests were made, and nearly two
hundred slaves were in jail on mere suspicion.

The prisoners were urged to confess, and_ finally
two of them, Mary Burton and Peggy Carey, told some
ridiculous stories of how two or three very common
white people and a few slaves had planned to burn
the whole city. But their stories did not agree at all;
and of all the other confessions that were made, no
two were alike. Nevertheless, the people were alarmed ;
they used no judgment whatever; and all the lawyers
in the town were engaged to prosecute the accused,—

the prisoners, of course, being allowed no council.
NEW YORK. io

&

Some of the negroes, thinking to save themselves,
accused others, and again some made confessions which
they afterward denied the truth of. In fact, it was a
very dreadful affair from beginning to end, for four
white slaves were executed, eighteen negroes hanged
and eleven burned to death. Moreover, fifty slaves
were transported mostly to the West Indies and sold;
and not until all this had been done, was the so-called
Negro Plot thought to be broken up. For six months
New York was a scene of terror which more than
equalled, in its miserable results, the famous witcheraft

delusion of the preceding century.












IN THE VALLEY OF THE MOHAWK.

Hiven as late as the middle of the eighteenth
century, the country west of Albany was but little
known, save to the trappers and traders who ventured
there for furs. Yet this portion of the state was of
wonderful beauty and fertility, watered by the winding
Mohawk, and reaching north to the borders of the
lakes. Here dwelt the tribes of the Iroquois Confed-
eracy, here burned their council fires, and here their
chiefs ruled with the untutored dignity of their race.
And thanks to the Iroquois and their long continued
friendship, first for the Dutch and afterwards for the
English, the colonists were protected by them from
many a French invasion from Canada.

In this section of the country lying nearest the
river which runs through it, lived the Mohawks, the
real head of the Iroquois, and the tribe living farthest
east. Among them, inthe spring of 1738, came

William Johnson, a young lad barely twenty, sent out
16
NEW YORK. v7

from the old country to take care of his uncle’s
estate. Now, as his uncle was Sir Peter Warren,
commander of the British fleet in American waters,
he was able to make his nephew prominent from the
very first. Not that William needed much assistance,
for he was a very energetic young man, and possessed
not only push and pluck, but also good common
sense. So he went busily to work improving his
uncle’s property, making firm friends of the Indians,
and building for himself what was considered in those
days a very fine mansion, to which he gave the name
of Johnson Hall.

One of the most sagacious of the Mohawk
warriors was a noted chief, who gloried in the English
name of King Hendrick. He became very friendly
with Johnson and visited him at the Hall. One morn-
ing when he had spent the night there, Hendrick said
to Johnson, “Brother, me dreamed last night.”
“Indeed,” was the answer, “what did my red brother
dream?” “Me dreamed that coat be mine,” referring
to a richly embroidered scarlet coat which hung near
them. “It is yours,” answered the shrewd, white man.
Not long afterward Johnson visited Hendrick, and he,
78 NEW YORK.

too, said, “ Brother, me dreamed last night.” “ What
did you dream?” asked Hendrick. “I dreamed that
this tract of land was mine,” describing a boundary
which included many hundred acres of land. Hend-
rick was astounded; but, determined not to be out-
done in generosity, he said, after thinking a few
moments, “ Brother, the land is yours ; but you must
not dream again.”

Thus Johnson added to his already large estates.
Year by year the number of his tenants grew and his
importance in the colony increased; for Governor
Clinton made him a member of his council, and, real-
izing his ability in military affairs, placed him over
the heads of many older officers. And so gallantly
did he conduct himself in the battles of the French
and Indian War, that England’s king dubbed him Sir |
William Johnson, and appointed him Major General
of the colonial forces.

Very little has been said about the wars with
the French, and the expeditions against Canada. Nor
shall we make more than a passing reference to
them, for the early campaigns were for the most

art unsuccessful, and in later ones, where victor
p > ’
NEW YORK. 79

was with the English, the stories of the battles
fought have not the same degree of interest that we
shall find in the great struggles that took place in
after years in the war for Independence.

Although Sir William joined in several expe
ditions against the French, he served the colonists
still better, not as a military leader but as an able
statesman, making treaties with the Indians, winning
their friendship, redressing their grievances, further-
ing the settlement of the beautiful valley in which
they lived, introducing new methods of agriculture,
and aiding in the establishment of schools and
churches. Perhaps it was fortunate that he died
before the actual commencement of the Revolution,
where he would have had to choose between the
king, whom he had served so long, and the people,
whose interests he had from the first faithfully
advanced. This choice he was however spared, and
his memory is rightly preserved in the name of
the prosperous village of Johnstown, which grew up
on the colonial estates of Sir William in the valley

of the Mohawk.





Bi
oN Wet.

se Beh ng

ae Scale of Miles” :

2 a

NEW YORK ABOUT THE MIDDLE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY-
COLONIAL NEW YORK.

At the close of Dutch rule in New Netherlands,
the customs and habits of the people were those of
the nation they represented. Nor were the
years during which England sent her royal governors
to the province of New York sufficent to make Eng-
lish the ways of the colonists. They had English
forms of government to be sure, and of course had
adopted many English customs, but they were not
English at heart. Neither were they Dutch. In
fact they were rapidly reaching that poimt when they
were to become Americans.

In 1756, the population of the colony had
increased to almost a hundred thousand. New York
city was the chief town, though its census in that
year ranked it only the fourth in number of inhabi-
tants; for here the governor lived, and the genera]
assembly ordinarily met. From here, grain, flour

and furs were sent to England, Lisbon and the West
81
82 NEW YORK.

Indies; in return, sugar and spice, wine and other
luxuries, together with a large variety of manufac
tured articles were received. Ail along the Hudson
and other rivers, boats passed up and down, trading
with the villagers, and really doing quite an extensive
business.
The wealthy landed proprietors lived in New
York in the winter, attended by numerous’ servants,
both white and black, and maintaining a splendor of
living not often found in the other colonies. The
summer they passed upon their large estates on the
Hudson; and it was fortunate indeed, that, for the
most part, they had a genuine interest in the advance-
ment of the colony, and did not spend all their time
in enjoying their wealth. :

The Dutch families still retained many of the
old customs. Within the quaintly built farmhouses
great rafters overhead looked down upon the generous
fire-places with their pictured tiles, and upon the
rows of great wooden and pewter dishes, and. racks
of long tobacco pipes which adorned’ the mantel
shelf. In these houses the floors were still scoured
and sanded, and big fraus and little frauleins swept
NEW YORK. 83

and dusted, and carded and spun, and_ proudly
hoarded the fine linen they had made.

And the good people were as famous for their
hospitality and their merry-making as in years gone
by. The farmers had their corn-huskings, spinning-
bees, house-raisings and dancing-parties; and in town,
the amusements included horse-racing, tavern-parties,
balls and parties.

Many industries were by this time well under
way. Among the Germans, homespun and woolens
were made. On Coney Island were salt works, and
near Kingstown, brick-kilns; while ship-building was
carried on at various points. There were also glass-
making in New York, hat-making in Albany, and
iron-working along the Hudson. So, in spite of royal
governors and of French invasions, the people were
asserting themselves; were improving and adding to
the manufacturies, extending their settlements and
cultivating more and more land.

Nor were these good Dutch people forgetful of
their schools.

It was as early as 1621 that the colony was
enjoined “to find speedy means to maintain a clergy-
“84 NEW YORK.

man and a_school-master.” And moreover “ each
house holder and inhabitant was enjoined to bear.
such tax and public charge as should be considered
proper for their maintenance.” Four years later, we
find in the colonial records the expense of the school-
master to be 360 florins — just one fourth of that of
the minister.

In 1633, Adam Roelandson, a professional school-
master, was brought over from the Dutch mother
country, and for nine years he trained the little
Dutch Hans and Katrina to read and write.

In 1650, “New Amsterdam,” with a population
of 800, now engaged two teachers for the children;
and so the cause of education grew alongside with
all other matters of the colony, political and other-
wise.

Not very long ago, the State superintendent of
schools of New York gave an address upon education
in the State. I know you will like to hear what he
said about these first beginnings of school in the
cheery Dutch colony.

“The excise moneys seem to have been set apart

to pay teachers, and they were in part, at least, paid
NEW YORK. 85

out of the public treasury. On one occasion the
governor of the colony parleyed with the Indian
chiefs and urged them to send their sons down to
New Amsterdam to school. After taking a week to
consider, they diplomatically answered that they were
powerless to accept the invitation, for the boys were
altogether under the control of their mothers.”

The churches frequently maintained or super-
vised schools; not uncommonly the functions of the
minister and teacher were combined in the same person.
Indeed, it more than once happened that the
teacher had also to act as sexton, precentor, choir-
master or psalmsetter, and a “comforter of the sick,”
as the person who supplied the minister’s place, was
commonly called.

Along with this spirit of progression in educa-
tion, came naturally a spirit of rebellion against
anything like tyranny from the English goverment,
under whose control the colony came in later years.
Very early they began to open their eyes to the fact
that the country might be governed far more to
their advantage than it ever had been, and that they
were entitled to a great deal more part in the

=
86 NEW YORK.

management of affairs than England seemed willing
for them to have. Thus the spirit of liberty was
stirring within their hearts, and unconsciously they
were making ready for the mighty struggle which by
and by should make them free. :

One incident occurred about this time that
aroused much righteous indignation among the New
York colonists against the English government, and,
I am sure your sympathies will be with these brave
people who, though often hard pressed for the money
they needed in ‘their own homes, had nevertheless
been prompt and generous in rendering such aid as
the mother country needed.

As one illustration of England’s folly toward
this loyal province; — when plans were made for
subduing the French, New York came bravely
forward and both publicly and privately subscribed
a great deal of money for this purpose. Does it
not seem as if England should have. been very
appreciative of this, especially as the defeat of the
French was, after all, more to the advantage of the
mother country than to the colonists?

However, England was greedy; and when ie saw


NEW YORK.

oD
|

how much money her subjects could raise, the
foolish old lady began to think she had found a
capital way in which to pay her own debts. Now,
New York was one of the richest of the colonies
and so came in for a goodly share of attention.





OLD DUTCH IOUSE AT KINGSTON

Duties were levied on all goods brought into the
provinces; but at the same time all articles sent
to foreign countries must be shipped in English
vessels — so their English government declared.
Although there was plenty of iron, the colonies

were not allowed to make it into steel, or fashion
88 NEW YORK.

their own tools; as by so doing they would lessen
their trade with England.

Among other very unpopular measures was that
which gave revenue officers the right to enter any
man’s house in search of smuggled goods. You all
know the old saying, “Every man’s house is his
castle.” The New York people thought so, too, and
deeply did they resent this interference with their
rights. They also objected to being obliged to pro-
vide quarters for the soldiers; for, under pretence of
fearing further trouble from France, England had left
practically an army in the colonies, and had appointed
New York as its headquarters.

When a man grows greedy, he cannot be expected
to show much wisdom; and, so, perhaps it was the
most natural thing in the world for England not to
realize her folly in trying the patience of the colonies
too far. They had been patient, very patient, but
underneath it all was a keen sense of justice and
right; and when, in March, 1765, the Stamp Act was
passed, they were united in their opposition to it.
Had William Pitt, prime minister to George the Second,

still been in power, this tax would never have been
NEW YORK. 89

imposed ; for, years before, this great man had said : —
“J will never burn my fingers with an American Stamp
Act.” But when George the Third came to the throne,
he made the Earl of Bute, his chief adviser and
representative. A very poor exchange it was, and one
which hastened the separation of the colonies from the
mother country.

How many of you know what the Stamp Act
was? It was an act which required the people to pay
from three cents to thirty dollars for stamps, which
were to be placed on every piece of paper used for legal
purposes. Papers showing that a man had bought goods
or had sold them, were not of any legal value unless
stamped, and no clergyman could even give a certificate
of marriage without first placing a stamp upon it.

This stamp duty was to begin on the first of
November. In the meantime, a colonial convention
assembled in New York and prepared resolutions to be
sent to the king and parliament. These resolutions
were very respectfully worded, but in them the people
said that no tax ought to be imposed upon them
without their consent. Men who had been appointed

to distribute the stamps were forced to resign; and
90 NEW YORK.

when the stamps arrived in New York, the colonists
obliged the governor to place them in the hands of
the mayor. The citizens resolved not to buy any more
goods from England until the Stamp Act was repealed ;
and business went on in defiance of the new law and
much to the discomfiture of the king’s officers.

William Pitt now took up the cause of the colo-
nists ; not because he cared very much about England’s
subjects across the sea, but because he was wise enough
to realize the danger of losing them. So he urged
parlament to repeal the Stamp Act; and this was
finally done just one year after it had been passed.

In the city of New York, as well as elsewhere,
there was great rejoicing when the good news arrived.
Cannon thundered forth royal salutes, the bells in the
steeples rang out their merry bells, the ships in the
harbor displayed their flags, and at night there were
feasts and fire-works for the people. |

So, for the time being, matters were smoothed
over; and even then, further trouble might have been
avoided had England been wise and less greedy, and
had she, in the future, levied taxes only with the consent
of her still loyal subjects.
A SCENE ON THE BANKS OF THE HUDSON.

Cool shades and dews are round my way,
And silence of the early day ;

’Mid the dark rocks that watch his bed,
Glitters the mighty Hudson spread,
Unrippled, save by drops that fall

From shrubs that fringe his mountain wall;
And o’er the clear, still water swells

The music of the Sabbath bells.

All, save this little nook of land
Circled with trees, on which I stand ;
All, save that line of hills which he
Suspended in the mimic sky —
Seems a blue void, above, below,
Through which the white clouds come and go;
And from the green world’s farthest steep
I gaze into the airy deep.
a1


THE PALISADES, 1IUDSON RIVER
NEW YORK. 93

Loveliest of lovely things are they,

On earth, that soonest pass away.

The rose that lives its little hour,

Is prized beyond the sculptured flower.
Even love, long tried and cherished long,
Becomes more tender and more strong,
At thought of that insatiate grave

From which its yearnings cannot save.

River! in this still hour thou hast
Too much of heaven on earth to last;
Nor long may thy still waters lie,
An image of the glorious sky.
Thy fate and mine are not repose,
And ere another evening close,
Thou to thy tides shall turn again,
And I to seek the crowd of men.
— Bryant.








en

3
a4 2

Pouskwick

Ge
SEAT Roc's et








8
°

NEW UTRECHT



SEND
onal

MAP OF NEW YORK AND VICINITY, 1776.




SONS OF LIBERTY.

What a grand, good name that was for the
organization of young men who took such an enthu-
siastic part in the struggle for independence! _

Sons of Liberty! Yes, that is just what they
were, helping to secure the freedom of the press, man-
fully opposing the Stamp Act, and interfering not a
little with the unwise and unjust schemes of His
Majesty, George the Third. However, they were loyal
to him just as long as they could believe that, per-
haps, after all, he had not really meant to treat the
people unjustly. And when his birthday anniversary,
the fourth of June arrived, they erected in honor of
him a tall mast, and unfurled a banner, wpon which
were the words, “THe Kine, Prrr anp Lrperry.”

All the citizens celebrated this holiday; yet, per-
haps, the greater part of their rejoicings were more
on account of the repeal of the Stamp Act than

because it was the king’s birthday. However, on each
95
96 NEW YORK.

side of the public common an ox was roasted whole,
barrels of beer were opened, and gallons of punch were
made and drunk, as was the custom of the day; and
‘at night a tremendous bonfire was lighted, made out
of twenty-five cords of wood and a great many tar
barrels, which blazed up finely and lighted up the
country for miles around.

But the liberty pole was left standing where the
young men had raised it earlier in the day. There it
remained until the tenth of August, when some of the
soldiers quartered in the barracks cut it down wilfully,
intending to thus insult the inhabitants. The people
understood this very well and immediately proposed to
raise another one; but a party of soldiers carrying
bayonets, and “cutting and slashing everyone who
came in their way,” drove them back and prevented
their putting up the new pole.

This was a little too much for the Sons of Liberty;
soldiers or no soldiers, a liberty pole they would have,
and did have, though more than once it had to be
replaced after fresh attacks had been made upon it by
the redcoats. The finest pole of all was the one put
up in 1770. It was so heavy that it took six horses to
NEW YORK. 97

drag it through the streets, and on the top of it was
a gilt vane and the word LIBERTY in large letters.
When the British captured the city in 1776, this
pole, too, they cut down ; but they did not succeed in



















































HOUSE IN WHICH THE NON IMPORTATION AGREEMENT OF THE COLONIES
WAS SIGNED ON THE 3818T OCT. 1765.

destroying the spirit it represented, as they soon found

out to their cost.
There were other popular demonstrations of the

liberty-loving spirit in which the Sons of Liberty took
part. At one time, New York had a tea-party, as well
as Boston. Lord North, at that time prime minister
98 NEW YORK.

in England, insisted that the colonists should pay a
tax upon tea, and Governor Tryon, of New York,
assured the East India company that the law should
be enforced. He also said that the tea should be
delivered to the owners even if steeped in blood. A
very brave speech indeed, but when John Lamb, an
ardent Son of Liberty, sent him word that the tea _
should not be landed, and that if an attempt was
made his blood should be the first shed, the prudent
governor thought it wise to pass the matter over for
a time at -least.

However, on the twenty-first of April, 1774, the
long expected tea-ship, the ancy, arrived. The captain
came up to the town and was there politely informed
by the Sons of Liberty that he might straightway
hoist his anchor and take his good ship and his chests
of tea home again.

In the meantime it was learned that one of. the
New York ship captains had arrived at Sandy Hook,
and had eighteen chests of tea hidden away in the
vessel’s hold. So the Sons. of Liberty boarded the
ship, and after much questioning found that there

really was tea on board. The hatches were opened, the
NEW YORK. 99

eighteen chests found, and their contents. emptied into
the salt waters of the bay. | )
Everything being now ready for the departure of
the Nancy, her captain was escorted to the wharf
and put on board the pilot boat which was to tow
the vessel out to sea. The Sons of Liberty went
on board, too, to prevent any attempt to land even a
pound of the valuable cargo. So the Nancy, with her
hold full of tea, sailed back again to England; and
the people cheered as they watched her departure,
and rang all the bells in the city, and hoisted a flag of
triumph, which floated gaily in the breeze from the
top of the liberty pole. .
It was but a few weeks later that the Sons of
Liberty and the rest of the citizens met together
and elected representatives to the first Continental
Congress, which met in Philadelphia that same year,
and where, nearly a year afterwards, news was received
of the battle of Lexington. The same men who
raised the liberty-pole now prevented vessels from
leaving New York harbor for English ports, and for-
bade the sale of arms and ammunition except to

those who favored the cause of the colonies.


“IN THE NAME OF THE GREAT JEHOVAH AND TITE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS”
TICONDEROGA AND CROWN POINT.

Immediately after the battle of Lexington, a plan
was formed to take the fortress of Ticonderoga, on
Lake Champlain ; for this was a very important point
for the colonial forces to gain possession of. Captain
Ethan Allen, of Vermont, with 230 valiant Green
Mountain Boys, cheerfully undertook the enterprise ;
and by a forced march arrived at the lake just oppo-
site Ticonderoga, on the evening of the ninth of May,
1775. On the way they were joined by Benedict
Arnold, who had started out on a similar expedition,
but had not raised men enough for the undertaking.
He wanted to take command of the party, but the
Green Mountain Boys objected; declaring that they |
intended to fight under Captain Allen, and Arnold
had, therefore, to join them as a private in the ranks.

When they reached the shore of the lake they
found great difficulty in finding boats in which to row

across. Guides, too, were needed; and as good fortune
: 101
102 NEW YORK.

would have it, one of the farmers who lived near by
allowed his little son, Nathan, to go with them to
show the way; for he had often been to the fort to
play with the other boys, and having kept his eyes
open while there, he knew every secret way that led —
to the fortress.

Having so few boats, it took Captain Allen’s,
men a long time to cross; indeed, day began to dawn
and only the officers and eighty-three men had reached
the farther shore. Allen, seeing that he must not
wait any longer if he expected to take the fort by
surprise, drew his men up in line, told them how
dangerous an undertaking it would be with so small
a force, and then asked those willing to volunteer to
raise their guns. Every gun was raised. Pleased with
their spirit, Allen ordered them to march to the gate.
There the sentinel snapped his fusee at the captain
and then ran within the fort.

The Green Mountain Boys followed close at his
heels, and found all the garrison asleep except the
sentries. In his written account Allen says:—“We
gave them three huzzas, which greatly surprised them.”

Probably it did, under the circumstances. Allen, with
NEW YORK. 108

Nathan at his elbow to show him the way, then ran
up the steps to the quarters of the commander, rapped
loudly upon the door with the hilt of his sword, and
ordered him to appear at once or the whole garrison
should be sacrificed.

Captain Delaplace sprang out of bed and opened
the door. Recognizing Allen, he thundered with a
great show of authority, “ Your errand, sir?” The
captain pointed to his men and exclaimed, “T order
you instantly to surrender.” “By what authority do
you demand it?” said Delaplace. “In the name of
the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress!”
thundered Allen. Captain Delaplace cared very little
‘for the Continental Congress, but having a hearty
respect for powder and ball, he ordered his troops to
parade at once without arms, and surrendered the gar-
rison of forty-eight men as prisoners of war. By
this capture the colonists secured one hundred and
twenty pieces of cannon, ten tons of musket balls, three
cart-loads of flints, besides barrels upon barrels of
provisions.

A pretty good morning’s work, was it not? How
the Green Mountain Boys enjoyed their breakfast !
104 : NEW YORK.

How. they laughed and cheered and feasted! And
truly they deserved it all.

On the twelfth, the next day but one, ‘a detachment
was sent under Seth Warren to capture Crown Point,
which was only a short distance from Ticonderoga.
This, too, was easily accomplished, for the place was
garrisoned only by twelve men; and the colonists
thereby added sixty more cannon to their store.

From this, you will see that the first military con-
quest ot the Americans in the Revolution occurred
within the province of New York, and that by it was
secured the fortress which commanded the entrance

to Canada.


THE GREEN MOUNTAIN BOYS.
I.

Here we halt our march, and pitch our tent,
On the rugged forest ground,

And light our fire with the branches rent,
By wind from the beeches round.

Wild storms have torn this ancient wood,
But a wilder is at hand,

With hail of iron and rain of blood,

To sweep and scath the land.

II.

How the dark waste rings with voices shrill,
That startle the sleeping bird,

To-morrow eve must the voice be still,
And the step must fall unheard.

The Briton lies by the blue Champlain,
In Ticonderoga’s towers,

And ere the sun rise twice again,

The towers and the iake are ours.
108
106 NEW YORK.

TEL,
Fill up the bowl from the brook that glides,
Where the fireflies light the brake ;
A ruddier juice the Briton hides,
In his fortress by the lake.
Build high the fire, till the panther leap
From his lofty perch in fright, .

And we'll strengthen our weary arms with sleep,

For the deeds of to-morrow night.


THE LAST ENGLISH GOVERNOR.

The second Continental Congress, which met on
the same day that the Green Mountain Boys captured
Ticonderoga,— the tenth of May, 1775,— appointed
George Washington, of Virginia, commander-in-chief
of the American forces. A month later, when Wash-
ington passed through New York, on his way to take
command of the army at Cambridge, near Boston,
their was no little disturbance in the minds of the
good people; for Governor Tryon was also expected,
and what, pray, should they do if the distinguished
Tory and the equally distinguished Whig should enter .
the city at the same time?

The civil authorities were indeed perplexed; for
they must avoid giving offence to either party. They
waited and watched and fidgeted about, and more than
once wished themselves well out of it. Fortunately
Washington arrived early in the afternoon, being

conducted into the city by several companies of soldiers
107


GEORGE WASHINGTON.
NEW YORK. 109

and a large number of citizens. Here he was suitably
received by the president of the congress, who read
ani address, which, if the truth be told, was anything
but warlike, for New York at that time held many a
Tory, and so was filled with Tory sentiments.

It was in the evening that Tryon arrived ; and
he, too, was received with the same honor and attention
as had been shown to Washington earlier in the day,
the members of congress, mayor and the officers prov-
ing themselves remarkably skilful in looking two ways
at once. _ Washington, however, soon went on to
Cambridge, and the city fathers were left to do as
they liked with their royal governor, which was a relief
no doubt just then, even to the Whigs. It was a
year later when Washington returned again to New
York. The British had been driven out of Boston;
and it was lest they should oceupy New York that
the brave general made his headquarters near the city.
Governor Tryon, who was always plotting mischief,
bribed one of Washington’s soldiers, on this occasion,
to try to poison him; and very nearly did the plot
succeed. The poison was placed in a dish of green
peas, of which the general was very fond; but his
110 NEW YORK.

faithful housekeeper, discovering the plan, warned her
master, who, making some excuse, sent the peas away
from the table without having tasted them.

The soldier was arrested, found guilty and hanged
in the midst of a great crowd of indignant people.
What a pity it was that Tryon could not have been
hung as well as the poor fellow whom his money had
corrupted! However, he got safely away to England ;
and when it was known that he left the province,
never to return, there were many who rejoiced; for his
departure freed New York from the hated presence of the

last of the royal governors who ruled within her borders.


THE AMERICAN FLAG.

When Freedom, from her mountain height,
Unfurled her standard to the air,

She tore the azure robe of night,
And set the stars of glory there.

She mingled with its gorgeous dyes
The milky baldric of the skies,

And striped its pure, celestial white
With streakings of the morning light ;
Then from his mansion in the sun
She called her eagle bearer down,
And gave into his mighty hand

The symbol of her chosen land.

Flag of the free, heart’s hope and home! :

By angel hands to valor given ;
Thy stars have lit the welkin dome, |

And all thy -hues were born in heaven.
Forever float that standard sheet !

Where breathes the foe but falls before us,
With Freedom’s soil beneath our feet,

And Freedom’s banner streaming o’er us!
5
—Joseph Rodman Drake.
LLL


THE BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND.

Before the battle of Long Island, General Howe,
who really wished that the Americans would acknowl- .
edge the authority of King George, sent an officer
with a letter for Washington. When he met
Colonel Knox, who was appointed to receive him, the
officer said: “I have a letter from Lord Howe to Mr.
Washington.” “We have no person in our army by
that address,” replied the Colonel. “Will you not
look at the address?” persisted the officer; “No sir,”
was the answer; “I can not receive that letter.” “I
am sorry,” said the officer, and then returned to the
fleet. This was wisely done, for since Lord Howe
would not recognize the right of the American people to
make Washington a general like himself, Washington,
if he had accepted the letter, would have thus
acknowledged that General Howe was in the right.

Another time, when General Washington received
Colonel Patterson and other British officers, the former

112
NEW YORK. 113

apologized for the address on the previous letter and
produced another directed to “George Washington,
Esq., etc, etc.’ This, as it implied everything, he
hoped would be satisfactory. “True” replied Wash-
ington, “but it also implies anything; and _ besides
this I cannot receive a letter addressed to me as a
private person, which relates to my public station.”
“But,” said Colonel Patterson, “the letter is to
convey to you and the colonists complete pardon for
all past offences. “Then,” Washington answered, “ the
Americans, having done no wrong, want no pardon ;
we have but maintained our rights as Englishmen.”

After this General Howe decided that only more
fighting would bring the rebels to terms; so he
stopped sending letters and hastened his preparations
for a decisive battle with the Colonial forces.

It was, then, in this spirit, that General Wash-
ington, hearing that Sir Henry Clinton, the British
general, would very likely sail for New York to take
possession of the city, ordered General Lee, with
twelve hundred troops to march as quickly as possible
across the country, and occupy the town before Sir
Henry could get there.
114 NEW YORK.

This was very close planning indeed; and so well
were Washington’s orders carried out that General Lee
marched into New York City just as General Clinton
was sailing up the harbor. Surprised, indeed, at this
quick movement on the part of the colonists, Clinton
concluded it would be best to postpone the taking of
New York until other forces should be ready to
jom him, that his success in the attempt might be
sure. It was, then, June 29th that General Howe
entered the harbor with a large fleet of vessels.
Soon he was joined by more ships from England,
bringing many troops of Hessians, foreign soldiers
whom the king had hired by thousands to come
and help subdue his unruly people. Sir Henry
Clinton, too, came back from the South, and alto-
gether General Howe found himself in command of
nearly thirty thousand men.

On the ninth of July word came from Phila-
delphia that the Declaration of Independence had
been signed; and General Washington, who was now
in the city, had a copy of it read to his troops
that same afternoon. How the soldiers and citizens

cheered and shouted!—not for King George and
NEW YORK. 115

British rule, but for Liberty and the free and inde-
pendent colonies to which they now belonged. But
there were dark days ahead; many battles to be
fought, to be lost or won, and General Howe’s
thirty thousand men were quite ready to begin the -
fight which was to gain for them the city of New
York. :
General Washington fortified Brooklyn, on Long
Island, as strongly as possible; for he knew that the
coming battle must take place near by. The British
landed on Staten Island opposite, and remained
there until the middle of August, getting rested and
refreshed after their long sea-voyage, and preparing for
the battle to come by sending spies into the Ameri-
can camps, who often learned only too well what
the patriots were about. Washington himself, with
the main part of the army, remained in New York
ready to defend the city should an attack be made
there. However, as the Americans expected, General
Howe landed his men on Long Island, and after
many skirmishes, on the twenty-seventh of August
the main battle took place.
That was a most unfortunate day for the patriots,
116 NEW YORK.

for their army was small, and lacked the training
and confidence of the tried troops of the Tories.
However, the difference in numbers was such as to
have made success on the colonists’ part almost
impossible.

All day the fight went on, now here, now there.
The British gained an important road crossing’ at
Long Island, which should have been defended; but
being carelessly left unguarded, by means of this
pass the enemy were able to surprise and cut off many
of the Continental forces, and to attack them at a great
disadvantage. Though the Americans fought with
great gallantry, their defeat was overwhelming; and
it is said that their entire loss amounted to more than
three thousand men, killed, wounded or taken pris-
oners. The loss of the English did not reach four
hundred.

‘ That night the enemy encamped in front of the
American lines; they threw up a breast-work on the
Wallabout Heights, and in the morning commenced
firmg upon Fort Putnam. But the patriots were
ready to return the compliment, as the red-coats soon
found out somewhat to their surprise. Still matters
NEW YORK. 117

were very serious indeed; and Washington, after
taking council with his officers, decided that discreet
withdrawal would be better than a useless display of
bravery. Accordingly, on the evening of the twenty-
ninth, his troops were ferried across to New York,
and when, bright and early next morning the British
prepared to attack Fort Putnam, lo, and behold, there
were no soldiers within its walls to fire upon!

Under cover of the darkness and the fog the
army had stolen away, and General Howe was forced
to acknowledge himself outwitted by the shrewd
colonists. |

“ You should never put off until to-morrow what
you can do to-day,” said the colonists to General
Howe; and although it was hardly soothing to the
British general's pride, there was nothing to be
done but to learn wisdom from this defeat and be

wiser and sharper next time.










GENERAL HERKIMER AT ORISKANY ©

There dwelt in these early days when Oriskany
was surrounded on all sides by deep forests in which
the Indians lurked, one chief, Brant, of whom the white
men stood in terror; even the bravest of them, for a
mighty chief was he, and of his origin the tribes loved
to tell this story: Long, long years ago, when the
Mohawk River was broader, and its falls more lofty than
you will find them now, a feud arose between two young
braves, the Wolf and the Tortoise; for both loved a
beautiful young maiden who dwelt in the wigwam of
the Mohawks.

For. a time she showed no preference for either
of them, but finally, because the Wolf entreated her so
earnestly, she promised to be his bride. Then the
Tortoise’s heart grew hot with jealous anger, and he
vowed that never, never should she enter the wigwam
of his rival. All these wicked thoughts, however, he

kept to himself, and appeared to be so kindly disposed
: 118


IN THE CAVE OF THE TORTOISE
NEW YORK. 119

that the maiden had no. thought of danger, and, when
her lover was absent, would take long rambles with the
Tortoise, as she had been wont to do.

But one still evening, as they lingered near ‘the
brink of the river, the Tortoise proposed a trip to a
beautiful little island out in the stream, where the fire-
flies sparkled and the whippoorwill’s call was answered
by the spirit of the evening, whose voice none but
Nature’s children may hear.

The light canoe-sped like an arrow down the swift
current. The young chief did not try to land upon the
island, but instead of doing so, steered for the western
shore, and, once there, seized the frightened maiden and
bore her to a cave where dry, soft skins were spread,
and an abundance of provisions stored. There he kept
her prisoner for many months.

But when the May time came and the earth was all
abloom with flowers, the Wolf, who had sought his
promised bride through all the winter months, chanced
one day, as he strolled along the river, to see his rival’s
canoe floating at the mouth of the cavern. That
evening, silently plying his paddle, he floated over the
silvery waters and through the streaming moonlight, till
120 NEW YORK.

he reached the hidden cave ; and there he found both the
Tortoise and the maiden. The former, only slightly
wounded by the first quick blow, fled into the night, and
the young brave knew that he would soon return to slay
them both.

Then said the maiden: “Let us rather perish by
the waters of the falls.” So, springing lightly into the
canoe, they let the current carry them whither it would.
But their frail little craft passed unharmed through the
eddies and down the flying sheet of foam into the
smooth waters below; and they glided far, far away to
a wonderful lake, upon whose shores they lived and
loved, and their children after them, for years unnum-
bered. And from this race came Brant, the Mohawk
sachem, the strong wolf of his nation.

Now the colonists did not accept this marvellous
legend of the Indian chief ; but there were often times
when they realized to their bitter grief that Brant was
indeed an enemy to be feared, so daring, so cunning
and so wolfishly cruel could he be.

Many are the sad stories to be told of this chief
who, in these times of war, was a terror to even the
bravest of the brave colonists ; but perhaps no attack was
NEW YORK. 121

more cruel than when General Herkimer led his forces
forth one night to bear aid to the general in command
of Fort Schuyler.

Colonel St. Ledger with a large force of men
was besieging Fort Schuyler, not so very far away,
and the little garrison was in great need of assis-
tance. As soon as this became known to General
Herkimer, he called for volunteers from all the
country round; and having gathered together some
eight hundred men set out to carry aid to the fort.
But first he sent a message to its commander asking
that three signal guns be fired, that the relief party
might know that the garrison was on the watch
for them, in case of any surprise from the enemy.

Unfortunately two of General Herkimer’s colonels,
. Cox and Paris, were very anxious to hurry on to
the fort, and when their leader would not permit such
tashness, they called him a coward. This insult
was hard to bear, but thinking only of his duty
he replied: “TI am placed over you as a father and
a guardian, and I shall not lead you into difficulties
from which I may not be able to extricate you.”

Then, ungenerously persisting in their demands, his
122 NEW YORK.

men accused him of being a Tory. This was an
insult too bitter to be borne. “As you please,” said
Herkimer. “Let the order to march be given; but
look to it that you who boast the loudest of
your courage be not the first to run should we meet
the enemy.”

The forces now moved rapidly forward never
" suspecting that apart of the enemy were lying in
ambush in a deep ravine near which they must pass.
Here the famous Indian Chief, Brant, who fought
for and with the Tories, lay in wait until Herkimer’s
forces had entered the circle they had made. Then,
without one second of warning, the air was filled
with war-hoops, and Brant fell upon them with
hatchet and spear, and a perfect shower of rifle balls.

The cowardly rear-guard, as Herkimer had_pre-
dicted, fled and left their comrades to their fate.
Then the battle waged fast and furious. General
Herkimer was severely wounded and his horse killed
under him. Calling to one of the soldiers he said:
“Take the saddle off and place it against that
beech-tree.” It was done, and the soldier helped him

to it. “Now” said the stout-hearted general, “go
NEW YORK. 123

and fight.” Seated there with his men falling on
every hand like autumn leaves, with the bullets
whistling close about his head, the brave old man
calmly gave his orders and encouraged his soldiers
to do or die. “Coward,” was he? “Tory?”
Of such stuff was many a Tory made, but never
one coward, R

Soon it began to rain, and there was a lull in
firing. But the battle was not yet over; for when
the shower ceased the fight began again; but, prof-
iting by experience, the colonists sheltered themselves
as much as possible behind the trees, or, forming
circles, they poured the murderous fire upon the
enemy. One of the British colonels had his com.
pany turn their coats inside out, thinking, that their
appearance would deceive the Americans into think-
ing help was at hand from the fort. This plan
came very near proving successful; but just in time
the quick eye of a Yankee captain discovered the
trick, and enabled his men to give the turn-coats a
very warm reception of fire and bullets. Quite differ.
ent it was from anything that they had planned

for.
124 NEW YORK.

At last, the Indians, finding their ranks thinned
and the colonists still resolute and wunconquered, -
became panic stricken and fled; and the Tories,
deprived of their allies, also took to their heels,
pursued by the Americans with shouts of victory.
To be sure the patriots had stood their ground; but
they had not succeeded in bringing relief to Fort
Schuyler, though its brave commander, without help,
held his position until the British were forced to
raise the seige several weeks later.

But what became of brave General Herkimer?
I am sorry to tell you that, although he lived to
be carried to his own home at Little Falls, his wound
was treated so unskilfully that there was no chance
for his recovery, and not many days after the
battle he died, but as courageously as he had lived.

Land of the West— beneath the Heaven
There’s not a fairer, lovelier clime ;
Nor one to which was ever given

A destiny more high, sublime.
—W. D. Gallagher.


BEMIS’S HEIGHTS AND SARATOGA.

When General Burgoyne took command of the
British troops in Canada, he planned to so separate the
New England States that they should be cut off from
all aid and assistance from the other states. In
order to do this he decided to invade New York by
way of Lake Champlain; and as his officers looked upon
the expedition as something of an idle pleasure trip,
careful preparations were not made, neither was there
that concentrated interest in the campaign which
should have been. “For of course” so the red-coats
said, “the untrained militia of the Americans would
not be able to offer much resistance to the tried

{7

troops of the British In this spirit, then, the
forces set forth upon their march. .
On reaching Ticonderoga and Crown Point, Bur.
goyne found these forts very insufficently defended ;
and so, by the aid of a battery planted on a hill near

by, he soon drove the brave defenders from the fort.
128
126 s NEW YORK.

But turn about is fair play, and the patriots had
their chance at the battle of Bemis’s Heights,
where they gave the red-coats so much to do that,
though they fought from morning until night, they —
did not win the battle; and for the first time they
began to suspect the colonists were not to be played
with so easily.

Indeed, if General Gates had not been short of
ammunition, he would have given the British plenty
to do the next day also, but he was forced to wait
for a further supply of powder and shot. The
British, however, did not know this, and were so
afraid of being attacked that they spent the whole
morning putting up breast-works. Burgoyne was much
dismayed by his ill-suecess the day before, but, unwill-
ing that his troops should know this, he kept up his
braggadocio, addressed his men quite cheerfully,
saying, “ A bit of ill-success to be sure; but we shall
push on to Albany for anything these clumsy farmers -
can do.”

For many days both armies remained encamped,
each watching the other, the forces of General Gates

growing stronger, however, every hour; for the farmers
me

NEW YCRK — 197

had harvested their crops and were now ready and
eager to join the patriots.

On the morning of the seventh of October, Bur-
goyne made deliberate plans to attack the Americans ;
but while he was moving forward and his generals
were placing their men, his advance was discovered,
and he was forced to begin the battle before he was
ready.

I cannot begin to tell you of all that happened
that busy day; but by afternoon the British were
astonished to find themselves practically surrounded
by the militia, who were fighting away very vigorously
and effectively, if not with the science of trained
troops. Five times one of the cannon-was taken and
re-taken; finally the Americans got possession of it,
and General Cilley, mounting the gun, waved his
sword high in air and shouted: “I dedicate this eun
to the American cause.

So the fight went on. General Arnold, who had*
been deprived of his command by General Gates and
had really no authority to act even as a private
soldier, exclaimed to one of his aids, “No man shall

keep me from the field to-day. If I am without
*



‘““] DEDICATE THIS GUN TO THE AMERICAN CAUSE”
NEW YORK. 129

command I will fight in the ranks; but the soldiers,
God bless them, will follow my lead.” And so they
did into the hottest of the fray, covering themselves
and their gallant officer with well earned glory.

Through shot and shell and whizzing bullets and
charge of bayonets, the Americans pressed on; up to
the very mouths of the belching guns they made
their way; for the British fought for conquest, but
the Americans fought for Liberty.”

That night Burgoyne resolved to retreat. He
marched to the heights of Saratoga, his troops arriv-
ing on the tenth, wet, weary and. dispirited, for a cold
and heavy rain had still further disheartened them.
The army of General Gates also moved its position
to a point directly opposite the enemy’s camp.

The British general saw that he was entrapped.
He could not fight, neither. could he retreat. What
could he do? And the “clumsy farmer patriots?”
Well, if they were somewhat hilarious over their
success; if they cheered rather loudly and burned
bonfires from every hill, who could blame them?
Certainly not you or I.
SURRENDER OF BURGOYNE.

On the morning of the thirteenth of October,
1777, General Burgoyne called his officers together to
take council as to what course to follow. As they
talked the situation over, musket balls from the
American lines several times came whizzing through
-the walls of the tent as if to emphasize what was
being said, and finally an eighteen pound cannon-ball
swept across the table at which Burgoyne and _ his
generals were seated. These interruptions were not
exactly pleasant, and the officers very quickly resolved
to treat with General Gates for an honorable surren-
der. There was no choice but to send a messenger
to the American camp with a flag of truce; and after
this, terms were agreed upon by which Burgoyne’s
troops were to lay down their arms, promising not
to fight again during the war; and General Gates on
his side promised that the British soldiers should be

permitted an unmolested passage to Great Britain ;
180
NEW YORK. 131

moreover, on their march to Boston they were to
be supplied with everything needed for their comfort.

General Burgoyne, hearing that the British had
taken the forts on the Hudson, was very loth
to sign this “convention,” as he called it; but on
the seventeenth, General Gates knowing that delay
was dangerous, drew up his army in order of
battle and sent a message to Burgoyne, telling him
that if he did not sign the articles at once his
camp would be fired upon.

There was no hope. The articles were signed,
and before many hours the British army were march-
ing sorrowfully down from among the hills to the
green plains below, where they laid down their arms
at the command of their officers.

When this part of the surrender had _ been
accomplished, General Burgoyne proceded to the
American head-quarters. The two commanders, each
attended by his staff of officers, met at the head of
the camp, the British general clad in his rich uniform
of scarlet and gold, the American commander in a
plain blue frock-coat. When near each other they
reined in their horses, and on being introduced
182 NEW YORK.

General Burgoyne raised his hat gracefully and said :
“The fortune of war, General Gates, has made me
your prisoner.” “I shall be always ready to bear
testimony that it has not been through any fault of
your excellency,’ was the ready reply.

The staff officers were then made acquainted
with each other, and after that they all went to the
head-quarters of General Gates, where dinner was
served. . After dinner the American soldiers were
drawn up in two lines extending nearly a mile, and
the conquered red-coats were obliged to march
between them to the lively tune of “ Yankee Doodle.”
Then General Burgoyne in the presence of the two
armies handed his sword to General Gates, who
received it with a courteous inclination of the head,
and instantly returned it to the vanquished com-
mander.

In this unhappy manner Burgoyne’s expedition
ended. He had thought to strike a crushing blow
to the cause of liberty, to march triumphantly to
Albany, and, perhaps, even to Boston. Part of his
plan was carried out; for the British troops went
on to Boston, but sadder and wiser than when they
NEW YORK. 133

started out, and minus their arms and gay standards.
How the good news gladdened the hearts of the
patriots! Congress passed a vote of thanks to
General Gates and his army, and ordered a gold

medal to be struck in honor of so glorious a victory.



HORATIO GATES
MASSACRE AT CHERRY VALLEY.

How many lives would have been spared if the
Indians had taken no part in the scenes of the Revol--
ution! But the Iroquois remembered their losses at
Oriskany and elsewhere, and meant to be revenged.
Then, too, they were joined’ by many of the Tory
settlers, who were far more cruel than the red-coats
from England. During 1778, the Indians were very -
hostile, making many descents upon the scattered settle-
ments all along the Mohawk, plundering and burning
the villages, and murdering men, women and children.

One of the most fatal of their raids was that
which resulted in the complete destruction of Cherry
Valley, a beautiful little town on the Susquehanna.
That spring, a fort had been built and garrisoned, and
Colonel Alden had been placed in command. Although
he was a brave man, he was but little accustomed to
Indian warfare, and when word was received, early in

November, that the Tories and Indians were about to
184






COLONEL ALDEN AND THE REDSKIN
NEW YORK. 135

attack the fort, he paid but little attention to the
report, thinking it a mere idle rumor.

Hiven when the people wished to seek shelter
there, he told them not to be alarmed, for he would
send out scouts, that there might be timely warning
should danger threaten. Scouts were accordingly sent
out, but at least one party of them, who kept along
the shore of the river, had so. taken on the careless
colonel’s unconcern, that they kindled a fire in the
evening, and, lying down beside it, went fast asleep.
Of course the Indians saw the light, for they were on
the watch; and, stealing softly upon the sleepers, made
them all prisoners before they realized what was
happening.

Learning from one of these scouts just where the
officers in the fort were quartered, the Tories and
Indians, some seven hundred in all, planned to surprise
the villagers and surround the different houses. On
the morning of the eleventh, when the air was thick
and hazy, and everything favored thei reaching the
place undiscovered, the Indians moved forward towards
the fort. When almost within the town they came
up: with one of the settlers who lived a few miles
136 NEW YORK.

below. Putting his horse to its utmost speed, he
galloped toward the fort and succeeded in informing
Colonel Alden of the enemy’s approach.

Even now the colonel doubted the truth; but
was prevailed upon to order out the guard. Had they
obeyed promptly, even now much might have been
done; but on examination of their guns, they found
the powder wet with the rain of the previous night,
so negligent had they all been in the matter. On
same the Indians, and down the hill ran Colonel
Alden, chased by a red-skin who called to him to
surrender. Instead of doing so, Alden turned round
and snapped his pistol at him; the Indian in return
threw his tomakawk, and rushing upon his victim
took his scalp and fastened it to his belt. Then
followed a frightful scene of destruction and blood-
shed. Whole families were killed, even to little chil-
dren not able to walk.

One old man, a minister of the town, was saved
by little Aaron, a Mohawk chief, who led him from
the house and stood at his side to protect him. An
Indian passing by pulled the old man’s hat off. Little
Aaron ran after him and regained it. When he got
NEW YORK. Fj 137

back, another Indian had taken the minister’s wig ;
perhaps he thought he had got his scalp: Poor old
man! he died in less than a year after, never having
recovered from the exposure and excitement of that
fearful day.

That evening the prisoners, numbering thirty or
forty, were marched about two miles south of the fort
where ‘the enemy was encamped. Large fires were
kindled, and the shivering captives huddled about them
and waited for the morning. Not far away they could
see the flames from the burning village, where all
their little property was being destroyed.

During the night the Indians divided the spoil
they had taken, and in the morning resumed their
march. But before they had gone far they set free
most of the women and children, not wishing to be
burdened with so many captives. But none of those
who were set at liberty or who had escaped returned
to Cherry Valley, for there were only blackened ruins
and desolation. “The cocks crowed from the tops of
the forest trees, and the dogs howled through the
fields and woods;” and not until peace came did a
new town rise from the ashes of the old.


NY POINT

AULT ON STO

ASS.

E

TH
“MAD ANTHONY.”



~JTONY POINT had been taken
oe by Sir Henry Clinton, the
very last night in May,
1779, and at the same time
the British had gained pos-
session of Fort Lafayette,
at Verplanch’s Point, on
the opposite side of the
Hudson. This was most
inconvenient, for it cut off all communication with
New England below West Point. General Washington
and General Wayne accordingly met to talk the matter
over, and most extensive plans were made to recapture
Stony Point, which the British were making into a
very formidable fort, mounted cannon being placed

within, and long lines of felled trees without.
139
140 i NEW YORK.

Now General Wayne, more often called “Mad
Anthony,” because of the fierce fury with which he
executed his plans, was ready and eager to undertake
just such an enterprise, and, what is more, he was con-
fident that he knew just how to do it. With picked
men he would march across the marsh at low tide,
sending an advance party with axes to cut through
the lines of trees, while the others should carry
unloaded muskets with fixed bayonets, and make a
erand rush upon the enemy. This was the plan, and
a very good one it proved to be.

With three regiments of Continental light infantry,
General Wayne started for Stony Point at noon of a
hot July day. The advance was made slowly, for the
roads were narrow and rocky; and then, too, much
care was needed as they approached the fort, lest any
alarm should be given. When night came on, General
Wayne directed the soldiers to pin pieces of white
paper to their hats that they might be able to tell
themselves from the foes. “ We are going to attack
- the fort,’ he said, “and the first man inside of it
shall have five hundred dollars and immediate pro-
motion; the second, four hundred; the third, three
NEW YORK. 141

hundred; the fourth, two hundred; the fifth, one
hundred. If any of you are so lost to the sense of
honor as to attempt to retreat or skulk, any officer is
authorized to put you to death. I shall share the
dangers with you. This is the watchword: “The fort
is our own.”

Until half past eleven the men rested, and then
in silence they moved toward the fort .and through
the waters of the marsh, for the tide was not wholly
out, and there was still some two feet of water through —
which they must wade. Before they were well across,
however, an alarm was given, and the soldiers within
the fort began to fire the cannon.

But “Mad Anthony” and his men did not stop
for that; the lines of trees were cut through and a
way made for the patriots to rush on and up the
hill to the breast-works ; over these they swarmed, and,
bayonets in hand, forced the enemy back on every
side. A musket ball struck General Wayne on the
head, but fortunately only stunned him, and when the
fort had been gained, he was able in person to receive
the surrender of the commanding officers.

“The fort is our own!” Yes, that was true
142 : NEW YORK.

enough; for, in not more than fifteen minutes, the
three Continental regiments had captured an important
military point and taken five hundred and forty-three
prisoners; and all with a loss of only fifteen killed.

Here is a copy of the letter General Wayne
wrote to General Washington :—

Stony Pornt,
July 16, 1779. (2Qo’elock, A. M.)
Dear General:

The fort and garrison, with Colonel Johnson,
are ours. Our officers'and men behaved like men who
- are determined to be free. |

Yours most sincerely,
AnrTHony WAYNE.
General Washington. 7

This was one of the most: brilliant exploits of
the Revolution, and “Mad Anthony’s” name will
always be remembered in connection with it.


THE GREAT CHAIN,

A TRAITOR TO HIS COUNTRY.

In March, 1778, work was begun on the famous
fortifications. at West Point; for General Washington
realized that a strong fort there would protect the
troops and supplies which he might wish to send
back and forth across the river between New England
and the other colonies. Nature had done a great deal
for the place, and it was comparatively easy to make
it so strong that not all the forces of the British
would be able to capture it.

Not far from the fort a heavy iron chain, with.
great links riveted to logs, was stretched across the
river from shore to shore and bolted firmly to the
rocks on either side, so that the British ships might
not slip by the point under cover of darkness.

When the fortress was finished General Washington
143


D WHERE ANDRE WAS CAPTURED

ERECTE.

STATUE
NEWYORK. 145

stored all the powder there, together with one hun-
dred cannon and a large supply of provisions, and
then appointed General Benedict Arnold commander
of the garrison. :

You remember how General Arnold distinguished
himself at the battle of Bemis Heights? That was
not the first, nor the only time he had won renown
for his bravery and daring on the field of battle.
But unfortunately though he was brave physically, he
was a coward morally. During the war he for
his own use so appropriated money which should
have been spent for the army, that finally an
investigation was held, and Arnold was severely
censured for the way he had conducted the business
entrusted to him. Now, General Arnold was not the
kind of a man to try to regain the good opinion of
others. He only grew angry and sullen when Wash-
ington reproved him for his wrong-doing, and in his
heart of hearts began to plan revenge. He kept
his angry feelings to himself, and protested that he
was as great a patriot as any man in the army. It
was in consideration of his bravery in the field that his

short-comings were overlooked, and he was, as 1 have


\

Ve

a

Etromlondt





WhitePlajiis

A
5 eH


NEW YORK. 147

told you, made commander of the fort at West Point.

All this time Sir Henry Clinton had his eye on
the new fortress; and when he learned of the large
amount of supplies stored there, he was anxious to
get possession of it. For, if West Point fell into
the hands of the British, it would be a crushing blow
to the Americans. Su Henry knew that General
Arnold was all but ready to join the English forces,
and so began a secret correspondence with hin,
through which he discovered that this trusted com-
mander was willing to betray his country and sell its
stronghold to the British. Major Andre, one of Gen-
eral Clinton’s staff-officers, was sent to arrange the
terms of purchase. He met General Arnold one dark
September night; and then and there it was agreed
that the traitor should receive £10,000 of gold for
his treachery, and that within the next few days. the
British should surprise the garrison at West Point.

It was morning before the plans were completed ;
and the men who had rowed Andre from the English
ship to the shore refused to take him back again, for
they were tired out with the long night’s waiting.
But Andre could not wait for boatmen to rest; so




ESCAPE OF BENEDICT ARNOLD.
NEW YORK. 149

Arnold gave him a horse and a pass through the
American lines, furnishing him also with written
plans of the fort and the number of men _ within
it. How many, many times did Andre afterwards
wish he had never taken those tell-tale papers.
However, he galloped away, putting mile after mile
behind him, and beginning to breathe more freely
as he neared the British lines. His written pass from
Arnold had helped him by more than one American
sentinel already, and when three men suddenly sprang
into the road ahead of him and eried “ Halt!” he
hoped they also would let him by. Indeed, one of
them wore a British uniform. Perhaps they were
Tories. If so he was safe. “Gentlemen,” he said,
“T hope you are of our party.”

To this, John Paulding, one of the three men,
replied, “ What party ?”

“ The lower party,” said Andre, meaning the British.

“ We are,” said Paulding.

Then Andre told them that he was a British
officer on special business, and that they must not
detain him a moment.

“ But,” said Paulding, “ we are Americans.”
150 NEW YORK.

Poor Andre, though he offered them almost any
amount of money and goods, they would not let him
go But they knew better than to let a British

2

soldier on “special business” slip by; so they forced
him to dismount, and, in searching him, found hidden
in his stocking the tell-tale papers. ‘“ Why, this man’s a
spy!” cried Paulding; and with no further words, they
took him to the nearest camp, where the papers were
read, and then word was sent to General Washington.

That next morning, the twenty-fifth of September,
1780, the General was about sitting down to his break-
fast with Arnold when the news arrived that the traitor
Andre had been captured. Hastily excusing himself,
Arnold mounted his horse, rode swiftly to the river’s
bank, Jumped into his boat which was in waiting for
him, and rowed to the English vessel lying in the
stream. In an hour he was under the protection of the
British army, thus escaping the punishment his crime so

richly merited.


WASHINCTON’S ILEADQUARTERS, AT NEWBURGIL

EVACUATION DAY.

But the war was, drawing to a close. Only a
year after Arnold’s ‘attempted treachery, six thousand
brave Frenchmen joined Washington’s forces on the
Hudson; and while Sir Henry Clinton was busying

himself in New York preparing a warm reception
151




WBURGHL

AT NE

TOWER OF VICTORY


NEW YORK. 153

for the patriots, the patriots quietly marched south,
and, in 1781, forced Cornwallis to surrender at York-
town. Washington and his army then established
themselves at Newburgh, and waited patiently for the
announcement of peace and the recall of the British
forces. . .

By this time the people of England were grow-
ing very tired of furnishing means for armies that
gained no decisive victories, and which never came
back again. The king would have continued the
struggle, but his subjects said, “ No, we are tired of
war, and we will not waste any more money trying
to whip a people who do not know when they are
beaten.” So, very reluctantly the king’s ministers
sent dispatches to the British generals, ordering them
to return home. It was on_ the twenty-fifth of
November, 1783, that the British evacuated New
York.. What a glorious sight it was to the long
tried inhabitants when regiment after regiment of
red-coats marched through the streets to the wharves,
embarking in small boats which were to take them to
the ships lying in the stream. And how much
more glorious to see the stately ships spread their
154 NEW YORK.

white wings and sail out of the harbor with all the
hated Tories on board! How the people shouted
and cheered! “A good riddance to King George’s
tyranny and taxation, and three times three for the
Stars and Stripes, and Independence forever!” They
shouted and shouted. until the Catskill’s themselves
took up the echo, and rolled it from peak to peak.
Only a few days later, on Thursday, the fourth
of December, the principal officers of the American
army met at Francis tavern to take a final leave of |
their much loved commander-in-chief; for now that
the war was ended, Washington was going to his
own quiet home at Mt. Vernon. |
When they had assembled, General Washington
addressed them in a few affectionate words, and
closed by saying, “With a heart full of .love and
gratitude, I now take leave of you. I most devoutly
wish that your latter days may be as prosperous
and happy as your former ones have been glorious
and honorable. I can not come to each of you
to take my leave, but shall be obliged to you, if each
of you will come and take me by the hand.” Then
General Knox, who stood nearest him, turned and
NEW YORK. 155

grasped his hand. Washington embraced and kissed
him, and in the same manner took leave of the rest «
of the officers.

Not a word was spoken. What words could
have been as eloquent as the silence which showed
how deeply those brave men felt the parting from
their distinguished and honored leader! Leaving the
tavern, Washington went at once to the barge which
was in waiting, and, waving his hat to the assembled
people, bade them a silent farewell as he sailed away.
Nor did he dream that in so short a time he would
come back to them again, loaded with greater honor
than ever, and take his place at the head of a new
people and a new nation. The needs of the people
were once more to summon him from his quite home,
to become the head of that government which his
wisdom and bravery had secured to a united country.
Not again on the field of battle was he to lead
the Continental forces from defeat to victory, but in
the halls of Congress and, later, as President of a
great republic, was he to guard the liberties of the
American people, and so make the United States of

America, a land of peace. prosperity and progress.


INAUGURATION OF WASHINGTON.

When the Constitution had been adopted, it
became the duty and privilege of the people to cast
their vote for the first President of the United States.
New York had a special interest in this, for Congress
had decided that it should be the capital city; and a
capital city must, of course, have a Capitol.

So the old city hall was remodeled, and decorated
with the thirteen stars for the thirteen states, with
thirteen. arrows over the windows, with the American
eagle, with olive branches, and with much else besides
that I cannot stop to tell you about; but all of which
showed that the building was to be used for national
purposes. There was a senate chamber, a hall of
representatives, two galleries for spectators, and the
apartments were very fine and lofty, with beautiful
columns and pillars reaching from floor to ceiling.

Why have I told you all this? Because in this

156
NEW YORK. 157

building, the first Congress under the new Constitution
met; and because on the balcony leading from the
senate chamber, George Washington, in the presence
of the assembled people, took the oath of office which
made him President of the United States.

But let us follow him a little on his journey from
his home in Virginia to the city of New York.
Every village and town made haste to do him honor;
crowds of glad and grateful people sped him on his
way. In one place they crowned him with laurel, in
another thirteen fair young maidens strewed flowers .
in his pathway and chanted songs in praise of the
hero of their country.

At Elizabethtown Point, Washington was met by
a committee of Congress, the Mayor of New York and
other officers, and was rowed across to the city in a
handsomely decorated barge manned by thirteen pilots
in spotless white uniforms. The vessels in the harbor
and the battery in the fort fired a grand salute of
thirteen guns, and when all had landed, the Governor
of the state, the clergy and the foreign ministers, joined
the great procession, and together they marched to
the house prepared for the reception of the President.
158 NEW YORK.

All that day there was feasting and joy through-
out the city, and in the evening the streets and the
houses were ablaze with the brilliant illumination.

The first public act of the president-elect was
that of taking the oath of office; and for this, great
preparation had been made. On the morning of the
thirteenth of April, 1789, every bell in the city pealed
merrily forth, and then was hushed and silent, or rang
in slower numbers, while the doors of the church were
opened and the space within filled by the reverent
throng, which came to ask God’s blessing upon the
new nation and its great leader. At noon the troops
paraded before the President’s house, and before long
the procession was formed. Then, with bands playing
and flags flying, Washington was escorted to Federal
hall and at once to the senate chamber.

Here, in the midst of the chosen statesmen of the
land, he was received by John Adams, of Massachusetts,
who formally introduced him to the representatives of
the people, saying: “Sir: The Senate and House of
Representatives of the United States are ready to
attend you to take the oath required by the constitu-
tion, which will be administered by the Chancellor of




ii Ras aac



UNITED STATES TREASURY BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY.

On this site in Federal Hall, April 30, 1789, George Washington took the oath as the first
President of the United States of America,
NEW YORK. 159

the State of New York.” “I am ready oe
was the President’s reply.

So they passed to the balcony overlooking ‘Wall
street, and here the grandest sight of all met their
eyes; for the house tops and the windows were filled
with richly dressed ladies; banners and flags floated
everywhere; eager upturned faces thronged the streets
below; and even the little children knew what this .
holiday meant, and that they were gathered together
to do honor to that President who was first and last
in the hearts of his countrymen, and the only one who
should be unanimously chosen by the nation.

Then Washington stepped forward to the front of
the baleony; and, attended by the Chancellor of the
State and the Secretary. of the Senate, he took the
solemn oath of office, promising to “preserve, to pro-
tect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
Then the Chancellor, turning to the assembled multitude,
cried in strong, triumphant tones: “Long live George
Washington, President of the United States.”

How the people cheered! They shouted till they
were hoarse! Martial music filled the air, cannon
thundered and bells were rung! The city went mad
160 NEW YORK.

with joy! At night it was one blaze of light! The
great heart of the nation throbbed with a gladness
beyond expression. For their government was estab-
lished, their leader was chosen, and peace and liberty
were proclaimed throughout the land.







Ar

Gi, &
a @

; a



}

» B i” :

i
2

Ponatarne

—
==
Se
1

! s

}
PCAC | vy















{

SUGAR HOUSE USED AS A PRISON IN REVOLUTIONARY DAYE.
FIRST YEARS OF PEACE.

New York did not long remain the capital city ;
but so long as it did, it was very gay, for most of
the members of the government made it their home.
The President himself was most socially inclined and
entertained generously, and Mrs. Washington held
receptions on Tuesdays, which were the great social
occasions. On these afternoons she was surrounded
by quite a little court, over which she presided with
all the stately, graceful courtesy of the day.

Though the city was becoming very English in
its fashions and ways, it had not forgotten to make
much of New Year’s Day, after the good old Dutch
custom. In the morning all the high officials and
foreign representatives called upon the President, and
in the afternoon Mrs. Washington received great
numbers of ladies and gentlemen who came to offer
her their good wishes.

Plum and plain cake, tea and. coffee were served,
161
162 _ NEW YORK.

and the evening was spent in a very social manner.
The President enjoyed the day so much that he said:
“ Whatever changes take place never forget the cordial
and cheerful observance of New Year’s Day.’ And
the New Yorkers never have forgotten to keep that
festival which was so dear to the hearts of the honest
burgomasters of New Amsterdam.

When Philadelphia was chosen as the seat of
government, and congress adjourned to hold its session
there, the people of New York turned their attention
to law and politics, and, best of all, to building up
their commerce with other nations.

From 1790 to 1800, great progress was made
throughout the State. The population was. nearly
doubled; many new counties were formed by the
legislature, and villages and towns began to spring up
in all directions. These settlements were made mostly
along the large rivers and lakes, and here the farmers
raised wonderful crops from the fertile soil. The culti-
vated lands in the Mohawk and Genesee valleys, are
famous to this day for their richness and fertility.

In the center of the State most of the produce

was taken to market in wagons, for the canals which
NEW YORK. 163

were built to connect the large streams did not entirely
answer the purpose. The roads were bad enough to
be sure; few in number and full of ups and downs.
No wonder the mails were carried so slowly from one
part of the State to the other. However, people did
not write many letters then; postage was high, and
perhaps, too, they were not very ready writers. Even
when New York city had nearly fifty thousand inhab-
itants there were only about a hundred boxes in the
post-office, and these were kept in one part of a
private house.

Up to this time education in general had not
received much attention. But in 1795, a grand, good
work was begun, for the legislature voted to use fifty
thousand dollars every year for five years for the
benefit of the schools. The counties that wished to
have their share of this amount were to raise as much
more for the same purpose; and this they very gladly
did, for they were beginning to realize the truth of
the old saying, “Knowledge is power.” So the
schools multiplied and grew; academies were estab-
lished, colleges founded, and an era of real progress
entered upon.
164 NEW YORK.

Manufacturies were commenced in various parts
of the State; woolen, linen and silk goods were made,
iron was mined and worked, and ships were built to
coast along shore, or to sail beyond to foreign ports.
Within the next few years New York became the
proud possessor of a boat which went by steam, a
erand canal extending from its western borders to its
eastern, and swift iron horses which ran on iron rails,
north, south, east and west. But of all these you
shall hear later on.












ALEXANDER HAMILTON.

‘¢ The Patriot of Incorruptible Integrity,
The Soldier of Approved Valor,
The Statesman of Consummate Wisdom.”

This is the tribute to the life and character of
this famous statesman and lawyer which one may
read on the simple stone which marks his resting
place in Trinity Church Yard, in New York City.
It is sad to think that party strife could end the
life of a man so valuable to his country; for Alexander
Hamilton was one of the chief framers of the Constitu-
tion, was Secretary of the Treasury while Washington
was President, and was also a brave soldier and
a great lawyer.

At the time of his death in 1804, there were
two great parties of exactly opposite political views ;
Hamilton was the leader of the Federalists, and
Aaron Burr, also a noted lawyer, was at .the head

of the Republicans. Unfortunately these two leaders,
165


















































































































































































































ALEXANDER HAMILTON.
NEW YORK. 167

as well as their followers, were not content with
making wrong statements and using hard words
about the opinions of their opponents, but they
must needs descend to bitter personal remarks.

So it happened that Colonel Burr, who had been
defeated in some of his best laid plans, took offence
at certain statements he was told Hamilton had
made. Several letters passed betweem them, Burr
insisting that General Hamilton should retract what
he had said. Hamilton would not do this, saying
that. he could not undertake to give a general denial,
but that if Burr would mention any one statement,
he would then deny or acknowledge it as the case
might be.

Now, in those days, I am sorry to say, it was
still customary for men to settle disputes by blood-
shed, and no one was very. much surprised to know
that Colonel Burr had challenged General - Hamilton
to a duel. This challenge was accepted, and one
July morning at sunrise the fatal meeting was held
at Hoboken, on the Jersey side of the Hudson.
Was Aaron Burr able in after years to put from his mind
the memory of the peace and beauty of that fair
168 NEW YORK.

summer’s day, which, with ruthless hand, he marred,
leaving his enemy wounded and dying in that green field
beyond the river? I can not tell; but I do know
that with that fatal shot he ended his own career of

honor and usefulness, as surely as he took the life of



THE GRANGE, HAMILTON’S NOM



Alexander Hamilton, for the people were full of grief
for the slain, and indignation for the slayer.

On the day of the funeral all business ceased ;
the flags on the shipping drooped idly at half-mast ;
men and women trod the streets with sorrowful, down-

cast faces,and signs of mourning were seen every-
NEW YORK. 169

where. To the solemn booming of the minute guns
from fort and fleet, the assembled people moved
slowly down Broadway to the church where the
services were held.

In strong, well-chosen sentences, Governor Morris,
the life-long friend of Hamilton, paid loving tribute
to the uprightness of his life, to his wisdom, his
valor, and his love of country. Then they sorrow-
fully laid him to rest in the quiet graveyard. But
as his life was of value to his country, so also was
his death; for party strife was stilled for the time ~
being, and the people realized how cruelly wrong that
code of honor was which made it possible for men
to murder one another. Even such a sacrifice, the life
of Hamilton, the “Patriot, Soldier, and Stateman,”
was not too great a price to pay to make the people
realize that no political ambition, no differences of

opinion should put in jeopardy the life of the individual.


ROBERT FULTON.








FULTON’S FOLLY.

What a good time all the wiseacres had while
Robert Fulton’s new vessel was being built in one
of the many ship yards! Could a heavy boat be
propelled against wind and tide by the power of
steam? Certainly not; what nonsense to say it could
be done! All the idlers and the strangers and the
knowing ones who visited the yard said the same
thing, and they all thought it very bright and witty
to call the new invention, “ Fulton’s Folly.” But Fulton
believed too fully in his plans to be entirely dis-
couraged; steam would win he thought, if only a
fair trial could be made.

The eventful day came, the eleventh of August,
1807, when the Clermont started on her first trip up
the Hudson. Many of Fulton’s friends were on board,

not one of them confident of success; and when, after
171
172 NEW YORK.

proceeding a little way, the steam stopped, every one
said, “ There, I told you so; it is a foolish scheme; I
wish we were well out of it.”

As Fulton did not know just what the difficulty
was, he asked them to wait patiently for only half —
an hour, promising to give up the voyage at the end
of that time if he could not remedy the trouble.
In a few minutes he had discovered the cause of
the delay; and, adjusting the machinery, the boat
moved on again beyond New York, along the beautiful
banks of the Hudson, past villages and towns and
fair, green meadows and wooded heights, till Albany,
one hundred and fifty miles from their starting point,
was safely reached.

How glad and proud Fulton was! But even then
his guests looked gloomy, and said among themselves,
“Tt is doubtful if this can be done again; and even
if itis, the new invention may not be of any great
value.” How widely their eyes would have opened if
they could have looked forward into the future and
seen the blue waters of the Hudson dotted with
steamboats plying back and forth from landing to
landing, or if, with vivid imagination, their thoughts
NEW YORK. ; 173

could have foreshadowed the magnificent ocean steamers
which now cross the broad Atlantic. But they could
not look beyond to these triumphs of man’s ingenuity.
Indeed, the little Clermont was more than they could
understand.

As you will see, it was not a very imposing
looking vessel, nor was it the very ‘first steamboat ;
for: John Fitch had made one several years before.
“Fulton’s Folly,” so-called, was, however, the first really
successful steamboat. After its trial trip, the Clermont
was run regularly between New York and Albany ; and
as the packet sloop required from four to seven days to
make the passage, while by steam it took only thirty-
two hours, the new boat did not lack for passengers.

To Robert Fulton and Robert R. Livingston, who
had furnished the necessary funds for building the
Clermont, was given the exclusive right to navigate
the Hudson by steam. Rival boats were built, how-
ever, and before many years there was a regular line
of steam packets leaving New York for Albany two
or three times a week

You must remember Robert Fulton; for to him

we owe many important inventions and discoveries ;
74 NEW YORK.

among them the use of torpedoes and torpedo boats
in war, and the ferry boats and floating docks. But
above all let us remember “ Fulton’s Folly,” the
steamboat Clermont, the wonderful success, that added
so much to the prosperity of the State in which it
had its first trial.

Ebb ese UA TET A OORT LO CORON MONE



FIRST FERRY, LONG ISLAND














































THE ERIE CANAL.

“°Tis done; tis done; the mighty chain
Which joms bright Hrie to the Main,
For ages shall perpetuate
The glory of our native State.”

When people found that steam could be made so
useful, they began to think what a grand thing it
would be to connect Albany with Buffalo by means
of a great canal. Then all products of the far West
could be sent direct from the great lakes to the
Atlantic coast, avoiding the long and tedious overland
journey. Towns and villages would spring up along
its banks, granaries, manufactories and warehouses
would be built, and unlimited growth secured by such
a wonderful water-way.

Though many prominent men favored this plan,
De Witt Clinton, afterwards Governor of the State, was

175
176 NEW YORK.

the leading spirit ; and it was largely due to him that
the Erie Canal was successfully completed. On the
fourth of July, 1817, the first spadeful of earth for
‘the new venture was dug at Rome, midway between
Buffalo and Albany. The people took the greatest
interest in the work, contributing time, money, labor
and land. A few old grumblers and skeptics said that
not even the nation had money enough to build such
a great canal; but the wise ones kept steadily at
work and let them talk on.

In little more than eight years the proposed
water-way was completed; nine millions of dollars
had been spent upon it, every cent of which had
been raised within the State! Preparations were
made for a grand celebration of the opening of
the canal. The people were jubilant; and well they
might be, for eight years is a long time even for
so great an undertaking.

There was no telegraph there to let the New
Yorkers know when the waters of Lake Erie should be
allowed to flow into the canal at Buffalo; so cannons
were placed along the banks at intervals of eight or
ten miles, and veterans of the war stationed beside
NEW YORK. 177

them, each strictly charged to fire his piece as soon as
the report from his neighbor’s gun should be heard.

At, ten o’clock on the morning of the twenty-
sixth of October, 1825, water was let into the canal,
and a little procession of boats began their journey —
to New York. In one of them was De Witt Clinton,
Governor of the State; and a very happy man he
was indeed ‘that sunny autumn day. As soon as
they had started, the guns boomed all along the
route until at Sandy Hook the good news was
received. Return salutes were fired, and the people
flocked to the banks of the canal to greet the first
travelers on its waters.

At Rochester, a sentinel in a small boat hailed
them with the question, ‘““ Who comes there?” “Your
brothers from the West on the waters of the Great
Lakes,” was the reply. “By what means have they
been diverted so far from thew natural course?”
“Through the channel of the Grand Erie Canal.”
“By whose authority and by whom was a work of
such magnitude accomplished?” “By the authority
and by the enterprise of the people of the State of
New York.” True enough, how else could that great
178 NEW YORK.

work have been accomplished. Passing Rochester the
boats kept on to Albany, where there. were feasting,
and fireworks, and speeches, and congratulations. On
the fourth of November, New York was reached ; and
here the real celebration was held. The steamer,





VIEW IN NEW YORK TO-DAY

Washington, having on board many city and State
officials, came along side, and the question was asked,
“Where are you from and whither bound?” “From
Lake Erie and bound for Sandy Hook,’ was the answer.

A few hours later hundreds of vessels formed
NEW YORK. 179

in line and moved out to sea. Such a_ brilliant
procession, each boat covered from stem to stern with
bright banners and gay flags! Guns thundered salutes
from the forts and from the British frigates lying in
the harbor, and the bands played merry airs. When
Sandy Hook was reached Governor Clinton took a
keg of lake water, which had been brought from
Buffalo, and poured its contents into the sea, wedding
the lake with the ocean. He also made a little speech,
in which he commended the wisdom, public spirit and
energy of the people, and asked God’s blessing upon
the great work they had accomplished. Then all
returned to the city to take part in the procession
on land, which was a very grand affair indeed. In
the evening there were fireworks and illuminations of
some of the principal buildings.

So the Erie Canal was formally opened, and traffic
upon it commenced. This wonderful water-way has
proved an untold blessing to the State; and though
the railways have easily distanced it as a means of
transportation, still thousands of thousands of dollars
worth of freight are towed along its waters from city

to city, every year.

-
WAR OF 1812.

“‘ May our bannered stars as ever
Splendidly o’er freeman burn,
Till the night of war is over,
Till the dawn of peace return.”

Just in the midst of the peaceful pursuits in which
the people of the States were engaged, war was declared
with Great Britain. This was the war which is always
spoken of as the War of 1812. Since the Revolution,
England has not shown a really friendly spirit; she had
secretly encouraged the Indians in the North-west to.
make war upon the border settlements of the United’
States, and out at sea she had claimed the right to
search American vessels for deserters from her own
navy.

Tf an English ship was a little short of hands, her
captain was very apt to think that some sailor belonging

- to an American crew ought to be under the British flag,
180

NEW YORK. 181

and accordingly with or without his consent, the unfort-
unate American sailor would be made to change vessels.
Our government attempted to settle the matter with
Great Britain in a peaceable manner, but England
simply would not give up her old custom of boarding
other nations’ vessels and taking their seamen. So
at last the United States decided to uphold its rights by
force of arms.

Now, though the war lasted less than three years, very
many battles were fought both within and without the
State, of New York, many lives were lost, and a very
ereat deal of money was spent before peace was secured.
Though war is an event so greatly to be dreaded, it
-sometimes happens that even in the midst of it an
amusing incident will happen.

Just look on your map along the northern part of
Lake Ontario for Sacket’s Harbor. Much happened in
this vicinity while the English forces by land and water
were endeavoring to invade the state. One July
morning, in 1812, five British vessels entered the harbor.
Only one American ship was there, and of course it was
in great danger of being captured; and so, as her
commander could not pass the British, he made prepara-
182 NEW YORK.

tions to fight. His ship was so stationed that her
broadside of nine guns might be brought to bear on the
enemy. The other guns were loaded and placed in the
battery, but even with these there were only seven.
cannon on shore with which to defend the harbor.

There was, however, one other gun, a thirty-two
pounder, that for a long time had laid harmlessly in the
mud, but had finally been mounted and after a fashion
made ready for use. The gun had been named the
“Qld Sow,’ and no one thought it could do much
execution. Finally, after firmg had been kept up for an
hour or two, the ships standing on and off, a thirty-two
pound ball came over the bluff, ploughing a deep furrow
in the earth. One of the officers who was standing by,
ran and picked it up, and carrying it to Captain.
Vaughn, who was in command of the “Old Sow,”
exclaimed : “ I’ve been playing ball with the red-coats,
and have caught ’em out. See if the British can catch
back again.”

Oddly enough the ball exactly fitted the old
cannon ; so the gun was loaded and aimed at the “Royal
George,” which was just drawing near. Bang went the
big gun! With a sounding crash the British cannon
NEW YORK. 183

ball struck the British ship fairly on the stern, racking
her deck completely, sending splinters of wood in all
directions, killing fourteen men outright and wounding
many more. The flag-ship had already been greatly
damaged and two other vessels severely injured; and
with this final shot, the little fleet concluded that
it had had enough of playing ball with the Americans,
and shortly sailed out from the harbor into the lake.
The band on the shore played “ Yankee Doodle,”
_ and the soldiers and the citizens cheered the retiring
foe. ,

Although previous to the war of 1812 the United
States had many merchantmen trading from port to
port, she had no navy. Now there was great need of
one. In the fall of 1812, four ship carpenters were
sent to Sackett’s Harbor to refit vessels of every descrip-
tion and make them ready to do battle for the Union.
Before long there was quite a respectable little American
fleet upon the waters of the lake. On the ocean, too,
the little navy, numbering not quite a score of vessels,
was doing valiant work, winning victory after victory
for the American cause against the superior numbers

and equipments of the British war-ships. So the war
184 NEW YORK.

went on for two years more, on ocean and lake, and all
along the northern border and at many southern points
also.

The little villages of Buffalo and Black Rock, on
the shore of Lake Erie, were burned. Oswego was
sacked, and the same fate befell Ogdensburg on the St.
Lawrence. On Lake Champlain there were many
stirring scenes. Early in September, 1814, while the
British forces near Plattsburg were attempting to drive
back the Americans on land, the British naval force
appeared at the entrance of the bay, and on the
morning of the eleventh opened fire upon the American
squadron, which was commanded by Captain Thomas
McDonough. McDonough was a young man of only
thirty-one, but brave as a lion, and a sincere Christian.
When his ship was cleared for action he called his
officers about him and, kneeling upon the deck, invoked
God’s help in the coming struggle.

For two hours and a half the great guns thundered
over the lake; at last the battle was ended, and a
complete victory had been won by the Americans. Dur-
ing the battle a young game-cock, which the sailors had
brought on board the “Saratoga,” flew up in the rigging
NEW YORK. 185

and there flapped its wings and crowed most lustily.
After the war was, over some rhymster wrote the story
of the battle in this comical verse:

“QO, Johnny Bull, my Joe, John,

Behold on Lake Champlain,

With more than equal force, John,
You tried your fist again ;

But the cock saw how ’twas going, John,
And eried ‘ cock-a-doodle-do.’

And McDonough was victorious, John,
O, Johnny Bull, my Joe.”

During the latter part of 1814, it was greatly
feared that the British fleet would attack New York City ;
so the people patriotically left their workshops and went
to work building fortifications on Long Island. The
school-teachers locked their school-room doors, the
scholars left their books, and all went to help build the
breast-works ; and some of the small boys who could not
handle the heavy shovels the men used, carried earth on

shingles — for every little counted.
186 NEW YORK.

“ Johnny Bull, beware !
Keep at your proper distance ;
Else we'll make you stare
At our firm resistance.

Let alone the lads
Who are freedom tasting.
Recollect our dads
Gave you once a basting.

Pickaxe, shovel, spade,
Crowbar, hoe and barrow,
Better not invade ;

Yankees have the marrow.”

The British took the warning and, after all, did not
attack New York. Many more battles, however, were
fought in other parts of the country before the treaty of
peace was agreed upon at Ghent, in Belgium. The
treaty was made on the twenty-fourth of December, 1814,
and later ratified by the two governments.

Then indeed the war of 1812 was ended; the last

war, let us hope, we shall ever have with England.
WEST POINT MILITARY ACADEMY.

- What a very long name to read, or to write, or to
spell. That is what every one thinks; so everyone is glad
to shorten it, and to call this school for soldiers simply
West Point.

You have heard of West Point before — of how a
fortress was built there in the Revolution, and how its
one-time commander, Benedict Arnold, tried to deliver -
it into the hands of the British.

Washington thought from the first that this com-
manding situation would be an excellent spot for a
military academy; and in his message to Congress, in
1783, he recommended that one should be built,
Little was done, however, until the beginning of the
second war with England showed the government the
necessity of having a school where the science of war
could be taught, and young men fitted to take command
in the regular army.

But more than all this, West Point was meant to
187
188 NEW YORK.

be, and is, a place where its pupils, the cadets, not only
learn to be soldiers, but also receive a good general
education ; their studies are many, and during the four
years they remain at the academy they are kept busily
at work. No boy is allowed to enter who is not well
and strong in every way, and over sixteen years of age ;
and every boy who is admitted, is obliged to promise to
serve in the United States army four years after he
graduates from the school. Not that the boys ought: to
mind that; for that is just what they go to West Point
for,— to be made into good soldiers, and to be fitted to
take part in defending their country’s flag.

. The academy is situated in the midst of the most
beautiful grounds imaginable, with quiet, shady walks,
pleasant, well-kept gardens, little springs and bubbling
fountains ; and from every point lovely views can be
had of the picturesque Hudson and the surrounding
hills and villages. One narrow path, over-hung with
boughs and shrubbery, leads down to Kos-ci-us-ko’s
Garden —a favorite place for ramblers to visit ; and to
rest in. i

Thaddeus Kos-ci-us-co was a young Polish officer
who came to America to take part in the Revolution,
NEW YORK. 189

He brought letters of introduction to Washington, who
asked him: “ What do you seek here?” “I came to
fight as a volunteer for American independence,”
replied the young Pole. “What can you do?”
Washington asked. “Try me,” said Kos-ci-us-ko.
Washington was pleased with his prompt replies, and
kept him among his officers; later on Congress made
him engineer, with the rank of colonel. It was this
brave Polish officer who planned Fort Clinton, and
superintended its building in the spring of 1778.
Within the ruins of the old fort the cadets have erected
a beautiful marble monument to his memory.

In summer, West Point is a very fashionable resort;
the cadets go into camp there asa relief from their long
winter’s work, and the nearby hotels are crowded with an
endless throng of guests, who find this part of the
Hudson very attractive. And so it is; and perhaps
when you grow older you may visit it yourselves, or
perhaps some of the very lads who read this story may
wear the cadet’s uniform, and fit themselves, at this
famous military school, for patriotic service in the
United States Army.
LEGEND OF THE CATSKILL FALLS.

In the days of long ago, when the Mohawks were a
great and powerful tribe, an old chief wandering apart
from his braves, came suddenly upon the sleeping form
of a beautiful white maiden, with eyes blue as the violets,
and hair golden as the sun.

Gently awakening her, he led her to his warriors,
and told them that surely this must be a special gift
from the Great Spirit. So they took her to their
wigwams and treated her with the greatest reverence ;
but they could not understand the language she spoke,
nor could she understand theirs. When the old chief
found her she was clothed all in white; and because of
this, and because she was so fair, the Mohawks called
her the White Maiden.

Now, not many miles from the wigwams of the

tribe, along the mountain side and among the ledges of
the rocks was a cavern, and here they carried her every

year to spend days and weeks alone, that she might con.
190
NEW YORK. : 191

verse with the Great Spirit, by whose wonder-working
she had come to them.

Ah, how lonely it was for the White Maiden ia
the cave of hills, with only the twittering birds for
companions, and the flowers and grasses nodding
silently to each other! How she watched the fleecy
white clouds overhead, and wished she might drift with
them far away to sunset land!

But one glad sunny day a young brave, hunting
far from his own people chanced to see her, and, lightly
leaping down the steep side of the mountain, came to
bear her company, and while away the long hours with
stories of his own tribe and his own powers in the
- chase.

Year after year he found her out and comforted
her loneliness till she learned to look forward to the
weeks of banishment in the deep cleft of the rocks. At
last she agreed to go with him over the hills and
through the woods and valleys to his own people; yet
still they lingered, lingered until, alas, the White
Maiden heard the shouts of the coming Mohawks.

On the steep crags below, the young brave was
gathering the wind-blown flowers that she loved. How
192 NEW YORK.

should she warn him in time for him to escape? With
light and fearless step she sprang from ledge to ledge;
down, down the rugged side of the mountain till she
could go no farther ; higher, steeper cliffs still remaining.
Glancing back at her pursuers she hesitated but a
moment, then, with her streaming hair floating about:
her like a golden cloud, and her white garments
swaying in the breeze, she leaped toward the cruel rocks
below.

Then before the eyes of the Mohawks a miracle
was wrought. As the White Maiden sprang into the
air, water gushed from the rocks above, and, falling,
enveloped her in clouds of spray; and in the midst she
was borne away by the Great Spirit, never more to
gladden the hearts of the red men.

And to this day the waters foam from ledge to
ledge, and shower their diamonds on leaf and twig, and ~
those who visit the mountain torrents say: “ Why, yes,
these are the Catskill Falls.” But we are wiser; we
know that the hurrying waters are the veil of the White
Maiden, who once lived in the wigwams of the Mohawk,
in the days of long ago.
NEW YORK IN THE CIVIL WAR.

Strike, for that broad and goodly land,
Blow after blow, till men shall see
That Might and Right move hand in hand,
And glorious must their triumph be!
— William Cullen Bryant.

When the trouble between the North and South
grew so serious that war threatened, there were business
people in New York who were most anxious for peace}
for war meant to them the loss of a great deal of
capital which they had invested in trade with the South.
These thought that almost any compromise would be
wiser than to engage in open war, while others were
determined to preserve the Union at all hazards.

When, however, Fort Sumter was fired upon — the
twelfth of April, 1861,— all loyal men and women were
of one mind; and when President Lincoln issued a
call for men and arms to surpress the rebellion, New

York furnished, in little more than two months, not
193
194 NEW YORK.

seventeen regiments which was her share, but forty-
eight; and on the first of July her troops in the
field numbered forty-six thousand seven hundred.

All through the first years of the war New. York |
gave men and money with patriotic enthusiasm and
liberality; her loyal women originated the Sanitary
Commission, and collected and contributed delicacies —
for the sick and wounded soldiers, lint and bandages
and other supplies for the hospital, and clothing for
the men at the front.

But there came a time when even these brave
men and women felt as if there was to be no end to
the demand made upon the people. New York had
already borne more than her share of the burden when,
in May, 1863, a draft of 300,000 men was ordered.

This was just the chance the Peace Party had
been looking for. They had never favored the war,
and had hindered the enlistment of soldiers as much as
they could. They now denounced the new call for men,
and tried to make the people believe that the
government was exceeding its authority.

July 13, 1863, the draft began in New York
city. At first all went quietly, but soon a large and
NEW YORK. 195

determined crowd gathered about the building where
it was held, drove out the men in charge, and set
the place on fire. This was the beginning of a
terrible scene of bloodshed and violence which lasted
three days.

The Colored Orphan Asylum was burned to the
ground, and colored men and women were chased
through the streets and beaten, and even hanged to
the nearest lamp-post. The police were powerless
to quell the outbreak, and only by the aid of the
loyal citizens, and the small military force which
remained in the city, was any control over the rioters
obtained. In fact, the Secretary of War had to order
the New York troops to return to the city; but by
the time they had reached there the worst of the
trouble was over. In three short days two millions
of dollars worth of property had been destroyed, and
a thousand persons killed or wounded, and a great
number of stores and dwellings burned, or sacked and
plundered.

Altogether this was one of the saddest incidents
happening in the State during the Civil War. But
you must not forget that, after all, it was the act
196 NEW YORK.

of only a small portion of the people, and that the
State as a whole did noble service in every way for
the cause the North believed to be right, and for
which it paid so great a price.

It was from this State that there went the brave
regiment of young men, led by Col. Ephraim Ellsworth.
Hllsworth was a handsome, daring youth, and
his regiment was as brave as he. It was a beautiful
sight when these brave defenders marched down
Broadway in their uniforms of red and blue and
yellow — the New York Zouaves they were called —
and out from the city. New York was justly proud
of her boys, and when the young leader fell, all the
country mourned with the State that had sent him
to the front.

- And when the war was over, no State was more
glad; in no State was there greater and grander
demonstration of joy over victory; nor was there any
State that could claim greater right to rejoice than
brave old New York, who had given—and let us
never forget it—not only as many soldiers as the
government demanded, but thousands upon thousands

more.
SOME OF NEW YORK’S GREAT MEN.

IRVING AND COOPER.

But you have now heard so many stories of war
that perhaps you will like to read something of the
times of peace; and so, in closing, let us just glance at
~ some of New York’s great men and scenes of prosperity.

In all these years: great changes were going on in
the government, the commerce, and the general devel-
opment of the state, and especially in the minds of
the people. Never before had so much attention been
paid to multiplying and improving the schools, and
to encouraging the literary men of the day to do their
best ; for the public now began to take a great interest
in the new journals, newspapers, and books, that
appeared; and to realize that right in their own midst
were men, and women too, whose writings would form
the foundations of American literature.

Among her earliest writers was Washington

Irving, who was born in 1783, and who lived to be
197


GTON IRVING.

WASHIN
NEW YORK 199

more than seventy-six years old. Of all her many
men of genius, New York is particularly proud of
Irving, because his name and fame can never be
separated from the State he loved so well, and which
he wrote about in his own tender, merry fashion.

You have all heard the story of Rip Van Winkle,
and of how he wandered off among the mountains
with his faithful dog and gun, and was led by a queer,
little old man to an equally queer company of quaintly
dressed Dutchmen, who were playing ninepins in a
hollow of the mountains; how Rip drank all too deeply
of the wine they offered him, and finally went to sleep
to find, when he woke up, that twenty years had passed,
and that all the world was new and strange to him.
And all this happened among the Catskills, beyond
the banks of the Hudson, and is only one of the
many marvellous tales Irving knew so well how to tell.

Then there is his Knickerbocker’s History of
New York; such a comical story of the way the Dutch
lived and ruled in New Amsterdam. You will want
to read it for yourself some day, I am sure. But
Irving wrote of other lands than ours, stories of old

England and sunny Spain, and more than one book
200 NEW YORK.

about the great voyager and discoverer, Christopher
Columbus.

Although our noted writer spent a great many













SUNNYSIDE.

years abroad, he had a very lovely home on the Hudson,
not far from Tarrytown. This home he called Sunny-
side; and here he lived and worked during the latter
part of his life; and near here he was buried, in a
quiet and peaceful spot beside the old Dutch church
NEW YORK. 201

in. Sleepy Hollow. Just as soon as the first sweet flowers
of spring gladden the hearts of the children, the fragrant
blossoms are laid upon Irving’s grave; and every year

many go on pilgrimages to the last resting-place of



this man of genius,— the first American writer whose
works received due recognition abroad.

But there is one other author of whom we must
make special mention and that one is James Fenimore
Cooper; for although he was born in New Jersey
(1789), he was brought to New York while still
a baby, and lived and died in the State he made
so widely known by his famous tales of life among
the Indians and the trappers. Everyone who reads
them will learn how beautiful were the forest glens,
the lakes and streams of the wilderness, and what
exciting adventures and thrilling escapes befell those
pioneers who braved the dangers of encountering the
wild animals and the hostile red-men. But Cooper
wrote stories of the sea as well as of the land; and
perhaps it will be hard work for the boys to tell which
they like best.

Irving and Cooper are, of course, only two of

the many, many writers whom New York can claim.


JAMES FENIMORE COUPER.
NEW YORK. 208

There are noted authors of poetry, biography, history
and science; but these I have told you of are, perhaps,
the most famous of the writers of fiction, and their
stories will be the very first ones you will want to

read for yourselves.



THE OLD FERRY HOUSH, BROOKLYN, 1791.


TRADING WITH THE INDIANS
JOHN JACOB ASTOR.

New York has had, too, great business men.
- There is John Jacob Astor for one. When this man —
a mere lad —left his home near the Rhine in Germany,
his old schoolmaster said: “Iam not afraid of Jacob,
he'll get through the world. He has a clear head, and
everything right behind the ears.” Young Astor was
then seventeen years old, stout and strong, and full of
courage, and determined to make his way in the
new country called America. Before he set out on his
travels he made three very good resolutions: to be
honest, to be industrious, and. not to gamble.

On the voyage to Baltimore, in 1783, he became
acquainted with one of the passengers, who advised him
to go into the fur business in New York, telling him
that even with.a basket of toys, or cakes, he could trade :
with the Indians, who brought all sorts of skins to the

city; he could sell these to the dealers in furs.

205
206 NEW YORK.

This young Astor decided to do, and very shrewd
bargains did he drive with the keen-witted red-men, who
found their match in the lad from across the waters.
When he had thoroughly learned the fur trade he made
trips to Canada, sometimes walking through the wilder-
ness, with his pack upon his back, sometimes gliding
over the great lakes in a birch bark canoe.

By and by, John Jacob opened a little shop for
himself; for he had the greatest confidence in his own
powers. “Some day,” he once said, as he saw some finé
new houses on Broadway, “I will build a greater house
than any.of these, and in this very street;” and so he
did, a perfect palace, still called the Astor House.

In the little shop on Water Street was the
beginning of the great fur trade Astor built up; but
he made the greater part of his wealth by buying land.

Once he sold a lot near Wall Street for eight
thousand dollars, which was less than its real value.
The purchaser rather chuckled over his good bargain
and said: “ Why, Mr. Astor, in a few years this lot will
be worth twelve thousand dollars.’ “Very true,”
replied Astor, “but now you shall see what I will do
with this money. With this eight thousand dollars I
NEW YORK. 207

will buy eighty lots above Canal Street. By the time
your lot is worth twelve thousand dollars, my eighty
lots will be worth eighty thousand dollars.” And this
was what really came to pass.

This was being far-sighted indeed, and I think he
showed himself equally so when he established a long
line of trading posts, reaching from St. Louis to the
Pacific coast, and there sent the furs, which were
gathered together at the different stations, across the
Pacific Ocean to China. The ships which carried them
came back to their owner deeply laden with tea and
spices, and rich silks.

When the merchant prince, as he has been called,
died, he left a large sum of money with which to build
a library, which should be free to all. This home
for books is called the Astor Library ; an] if you should
ever see it, and also see that other imposing building
the Astor House, I think you would be likely to
remember something at least about the man who built
them.
PETER COOPER.

Do you know what the Cooper Institute is? It
is one of the most noted buildings in New York City,

_ where thousands of pupils have been instructed in many

very practical branches of the arts and sciences, and all
through the generosity of one good and great man —
Peter Cooper.

Peter Cooper began life as a poor boy, just as so
many of our great men before and since his day have
made their start in the world ; like them, too, Peter, was
honest, industrious and thrifty. Do not forget the last
word, for it is the penny saved, as well as the penny
earned, that puts money into a boy’s pocket.

Peter was the son of a hatter, and could make a
good beaver hat himself before he was fifteen years old.
Afterward he became a carriage-maker, and later on
an inventor. But by and by, after the war of 1812
was ended, he kept a grocery, just where the Cooper
Institute now stands.

One day a friend came to him and said: “I have

been building a glue-factory for my son, but I do not
208


PETER COOPER q


NEW YORK. 209

think either of uscan make it pay. But you are the
very man to do so.” “Tl go and see it,” said Peter
Cooper. So he did, and as he liked the looks of it, he
bought it then and there, and went to work manufact-
uring glue :—not any kind of glue, but the very best
glue he could find out how to make.

In the morning he made glue, and in the afternoon
he drove round the city selling it, and seeking new
customers. By twenty years of faithful work he
established a fine business, and the money it brought
him he carefully invested. So he prospered, and
planned to spend his earnings in building a large school
for the benefit of young men who wished to become
trained workers. Was not this a generous ambition ?

At last his plan was carried out; the Institute was
built, and Mr. Cooper spent ‘in all two millions of
‘dollars in this grand gift to our State and country.
And when at the ripe old age of ninety-two his familiar
face ceased to be seen in the city he had enriched,
many grateful hearts bore witness to the true success he
had won in living for others, and in making for
himself an honored name by the wise use of the wealth

he had acquired.




















































































































































































































H GREELEY.

HORAC
HORACE GREELEY.

When Horace Greeley first set foot in New York
City, in 1831, he was a very queer looking object indeed.
He was tall and very thin, and his clothes were
altogether too small. Then, too, he appeared awkward
because he was bashful. Though he had no letter of
recommendation, he had that best recommendation of all
to a business man, that he knew his trade thoroughly
and well. But the question was who would give him a
trial 2

All that first day and the next one too, he wandered
about the streets, going from one printing-office to
another and repeating the same question: “ Do you want
ahand?” And everywhere he got the same discouraging
reply: “No, we do not.” At one place the owner
looked him over severely and said, “ My opinion is,
young man, that you’re a runaway apprentice, and you'd
better go home to your master.” Horace tried to
explain, but the proprietor hastily replied, “ Be off about
your business, and do not bother me.” The next day

was Sunday, and the weary, but hopeful lad walked
211
212 NEW YORK. |

three miles to church, and afterwards said that he had
never enjoyed a service more in his life.

Monday morning, bright and early, he went to
“ West’s Printing-Office,” where he had heard that
more help was needed. The office was not yet open; so
he sat down on the steps to wait. Pretty soon one of
the men employed there came along, and sat down
beside him, and as they chatted became quite interested
in Horace, for he found that they were both from the
same State.

Through the kindness of this new friend, the fore-
man gave young Greeley a chance, though he evidently
thought he would not amount to much; but when the
first day’s work was ended, and Horace showed what he
had accomplished, it was found that his work was the
best, both as to quality and quantity, that had yet been
done.

Thus Horace Greely made his beginning in the
great city of New York. He was industrious, temperate
and thrifty. He did not waste his health, his time nor
his money ; and when in after years, his plan of starting
a one cent daily paper, called the Tribune, proved to be
a great success, I think his untiring efforts showed that
NEW YORK. 2138

he fairly deserved the prosperity which now came to
hin.

Among the noted names in journalism, Horace
Greeley’s will always have a distinguished place; but in
his active, busy life he found it only too true that
success is not always a bed of roses, and that thorns are
everywhere. Though he made many friends, he also
made a great many enemies; for enemies are something

that no man who edits a paper can hope to escape.



BROOKLYN BRIDGE.
JAMES GORDON BENNETT.

When James Gordon Bennett started the New York
Herald, he was nearly forty years old, an age when
most men who attain success have already reached it.
But Bennett was still struggling along with
perserverance and pluck enough, but with almost no
money or cre lit.

Where do you suppose the Herald was first made
ready for the public? In a place anything like the fine
building it occupies to-day? No, indeed; not even in
the most ordinary looking office you ever saw, but in a
dingy little cellar on Nassau Street, where the sun could
not find its way in, and where the shadows stayed all
day long.

And such fyrniture as the place boasted of!
Why, we can hardly call it by such a big name as
furniture. Just a common chair placed in front of a
wide pine board, supported at either end by an empty
flour barrel. That was all; nothing else in the place
except the owner, the future capitalist, James Gordon
Bennett.

214
NEW YORK. 215

From such small beginnings came great results.
After the first year of anxious, poorly paid work, Bennett
could really feel sure that his paper was going to be a
success. At first he had to be office-boy, clerk, reporter,
book-keeper, and editor all in one, and yet when he died
in 1872 at the age of seventy-five years, he had the

greatest fortune which had ever been earned in this
country,— at least by a newspaper.

The Tribune which Mr. Greeley published, was
from the beginning opposed to the Herald which Mr.
Bennett issued, and yet these men once came very near
being partners; for when Mr. Bennett was looking for a
printer to set type for his proposed paper, he went to
Mr. Greeley and asked him to join him in his plan.

But Horace Greeley thought that the would-be
publisher had not money enough to make the newspaper
a success; -so he refused his request. Perhaps the
Herald would not have succeeded as soon as it did, but
for the fact that a patent medicine man from England
gave Bennett the chance to advertise the pills he sold,
and agreed to pay him a certain sum of money every
week for doing so. This money was a wonderful help

and encouragement.
216 NEW YORK.

I think you will see from these stories about
Horace Greeley, the Yankee, and James Gordon Bennett,
the Scotchman, that their success was really secured by
honest, faithful work, temperate living, and patient
waiting for results. Of course they were men of great
talents; but remember they did not waste them, nor let
them lie idle; but instead bent all their energies toward
making every talent help them in winning honorable |
positions in the great world.

Let us be proud of our great workers who have
each made something of value to our State, and so to the
world ; whether that something be a newspaper, a book, a
library or a school. And let us not forget that it is for
us to strive to do as well as they have done, and as
much better as we have the strength, the courage, and

the ability.
HENRY WARD BEECHER.

Many of you, I am sure, have heard of the famous
clergyman, Henry Ward Beecher, who for years and
years delighted the people of our State with his eloquence.
Perhaps you think I am going to tell you what some of
his sermons were about. No, I am not going to do
that, though young folks and old both were always
interested in his earnest words. I am going to tell
you about when he was a boy, the merriest, jolliest
lad you ever met, full of fun and mischief, and much
looked up to by all the other boys.

One day they had a game of “Follow my Leader,”
and Henry was leader. Off they started, fifteen or twenty
of them, in full chase; up one street and down another,
over the fences and through the alleys, and everywhere
you can think of, till half of them for sheer lack of
breath had to stop running. Henry looked back and
saw eight or nine still following hard after him. How
should he shake them off?

Not far away there was a brick house building,
and only the floor joists had been laid. So in he ran
along the joists to the back of the house, where he

swung himself down by a rope and dashed through a
217
218 NEW YORK.

large bed of mortar which was standing there ready
for the workmen to use. Five boys came out on the
other side, —a very sorry looking five.

But away they went after Henry, who ran through
a near-by shop, in at one door and out at the other;
then up a steep hill, one side of which had been dug
away, so that from the top of the hill to the bottom
must have been a distance of twenty feet. Henry
hesitated, but the boys were at his heels, and with
some misgivings he leaped down, landing on the sand
unhurt, but well shaken up.

Only two boys were now left, and they pluckily
refused to be shaken off. But Henry had a happy
thought. Not far away were the wharves, and by
them lay several vessels. Picking out the largest he
clambered over the side, and, running far out on the
bowsprit, jumped into the water. Down, down he
went, till it seemed as if he never would be able
to come to the surface again; but finally he commenced
to rise, and when his head got above the water and
he opened his eyes, there to his great joy he beheld
the two lads still standing on the bowsprit, afraid
to follow after him. Wasn’t that an exciting chase ?
NEW YORK. 219

Just one more story about when Henry Ward
Beecher was a boy. Not so very long after this famous
game of “Follow my Leader,” he went to visit the Char- .
lestown Navy Yard, near Boston. There he saw piles of
big black cannon balls, six and twelve pounders, and
while he was looking at them he. happened to think
that he would very much like to have one.

Now, in the main, he was a good lad, and knew how
very wrong it was to take what did not belong to him;
but this time the temptation proved too strong. So
he cautiously took one of the balls and tried to put
it in his pocket; but that would not do at all, his
prize was far too bulky. Finally he put it in -his cap,
and his cap on his head, which he held mer stiffly
indeed as he started for the gate.

Oh, how long the way seemed and how heavy
that ball grew! Hveryone seemed to be watching
him; but at last he reached the gate and the sentry
came marching along.

In telling the story in after years Mr. Beecher
said: “I thought the guard was going to say, ‘O, you
little thief, do you think I do not see through you?’
But bless his heart, he only said ‘Pass!’ and I did
220 NEW YORK.

not wait to be told twice. Once safely away from
the gate, heart sore and head sore and with my scalp
well rolled I made for home, carrying my cap in my
hand as soon as I dared.” ;

He also said that this experience rolled a good
deal of common sense into his head, and I should
think it might have done so, shouldn’t you? You
may be sure that Henry Ward Beecher as boy and
man never did anything like that again, for he was
too honest and upright at heart to find much pleasure
in taking what did not belong to him.

But these are very few of the many brave and
- brilliant men of the Empire State —a whole book could
not name them all; but we must leave them all just
here. We know that the State has had a noble history
even from its first colonization; we know it is the
richest State, and that its city is known in every mart of
the whole world. We know that in the wars of the
country it has never failed to do its part right royally
and from this we may reason that in the years to come
it will, as it always has, stand as one of the bravest,
strongest States in our noble Union.
NEW YORK.

But see! the broadening river deeper flows,
Its tribute floods intent to reach the sea,
While, from the west, the fading sunlight throws
Its softening hues on stream, and field, and tree;
All silent nature bathing, wondrously,
Tn charms that soothe the heart with sweet desires,
And thoughts of friends we ne’er again may see,
Till lo! ahead, Manhatta’s bristling spires,

Above her thousand roofs red with day’s dying fires,

May greet the wanderer of Columbia’s shore,
Proud Venice of the west! no lovelier scene.
Of thy vast throngs now faintly comes the roar,
Though late like beating ocean surf I ween, —
And everywhere thy various barks are seen,
Cleaving the limpid floods that round thee flow,
Encireled by thy banks of sunny green,— —
The panting steamer flying to and fro,

Or the tall sea-bound ship abroad on wings of snow.

~-- Theadore Sedgwick Fay.
221
HENDRIK’S PROPHESY

Flow fair beside the Palisades, flow, Hudson, fair and
free,

By proud Manhattan’s shore of ships and green
Hoboken’s tree ;
So fair yon haven clasped its. isles, in such a sunset
gleam, ;
When Hendrik and his sea-worn tars first sounded up
the stream, :

And climbed this rocky palisade, and resting on its
brow,

Passed round the can and gazed awhile on shore and
wave below;

And Hendrik drank with hearty cheer, and loudly
then cried he:

“°Tis a good land to fall in with, men, and a pleasant

land to see!”

Then something — ah, ’twas prophecy ! — came glow-
ing to his brain:

He seemed to see the mightier space between the
oceans twain, ;

Where other streams by other strands run through
their forests fair,

From bold Missouri’s lordly tide to the leafy Delaware ;

222
Niw YORK. 223

The Sacramento, too, he saw, with its sands of secret
gold,

And the searlike Mississippi on its long, long courses
rolled ;

And oe thoughts glowed within him ; — “ God
bless the land,” cried he ;

“Tis a good land to fall in with, men, and a pleasant

land to see!

“I see the white sails on the main, along the land I view
The forests opening to the light and the bright axe
flashing through ;
I see the cots and hy millage ways, the churches with
their spires,
Where once the Indians camped and danced the
war-dance, round their fires ;
‘I see a storm come up the deep,—’tis hurrying raging,
o’er
The darkened fields,— but soon it parts, with a sullen,
seaward roar.
"Tis gone ; the heaven smiles out again— ‘God loves
the land,’ cried he :
“Tis a good land to fall in with, men, and a pleasant
land to see!’ _

“T see the white sails on the main, I see, on all the
strands,
Old Europe’s exiled households crowd, and toil’s un-
- numbered hands: -
294 NEW YORK.

From Hessenland and Frankenland, from Danube,
Drave, and Rhine,

From Netherland, my sea-born land, and the Norse-
man’s hills of pine,

From Thames, and Shannon, and their isles— and
never, sure, before,

Invading host such greeting found upon a stranger
shore.
The generous Genius of the West his welcome prof-

fers free :

‘’T is a good land to fall in with, men, and a pleasant
land to see!’

“They learn to speak one language ; they raise one flag:
adored

Over one people evermore, and guard with it the
sword.

In festive hours, they look upon its starry folds above,

And hail it with a thousand songs of glory and of love.

Old airs of many a fatherland still mingle with the
cheer,

To make the love more loving still, the glory still
more dear —

‘ Drink up — sees out ! join hands about! bear chorus
all,’ chants he:

‘Tis a good land to fall in with, men, and a pleasant
land to see!’ ”

— Anonymous.
HISTORY.

(2nd Grade.) -
Stories of the
United States.

STORIES

| OFTHE. By ANNA CuHAsE Davis.
q UNITED STATES Large type edition. Illus.
YOUNGEST READERS Price, Boards, 30 cents;
Cloth, 40 cents.

The supply of supplemen-
tary reading for a grade or
two in advance of this has
been abundant. But Miss
Davis is one of the few who

| have succeeded in writing zo

ANNA CHASE DAVIS











the children interesting matter.
Cuas. W. DEANE, Supi. Schools, Bridgeport, Ct.

When a practical teacher undertakes to prepare history
stories for the youngest children it is pretty safe to conclude
that she will make them usable from the standpoint of other
teachers. The author has begun at the Indian period, and the
second year children who, already familiar with Hiawatha, will
be ready and anxious to know more of Indian life in the early
days. Then follows the story of the Norsemen, making ready
for the coming of Columbus and the later discoverers. Inter-
esting events connected with colonial times follow cach other
till the war cf 18i2, The closing chapter is the story of
Lincoln. If any unfortunate children are compelled to leave
school after the two or three first years, they will have acquired
enough knowledge of their own history to enable them to
take it up intelligently in after life. Large, clear type, simple
sentences, sho.t paragraphs and abundant full-page illustra-
ions, with numberless smaller ones of Indian life will ensure
4t a welcome among all Primary teachers.

—Primary Education,
GEOGRAPHY.



STORIES
OF
NDIA

























Centlemen. — People and

eines the sample copies of
Australasia, India, China,
Northern Europe and Lng-
land are at hand. They are
handsome books and what I

have read of them up to this

time makes me feel that a, |

aii our schools ought to be

supplied with a full set of |

such books.
I. J. Georcr,
County Supt. Schools, Tell
City, Ind.

IN SAME SERIES.
Stories of India.
Stories of China.

Stories of Northern

Europe.

Stories of England.

Fully lus. Bds. Price, 40 cts.;
Cloth, 60 cts.






























nen ae ae









Boece eecceeess SS seseemN

Books for Young Folk’s Libraries.



"LL

SSeS
Ze Lo
SS










: Vi oe Bdssere Clo: WW
: \ -#igop's Fables. Vols. I. and I. $30 fo ONY
In Mythland ys s 230 140 “Ne
ua Ul \ Story of Ulysses : +30 5 140 \
AN ' Grimm’s Tales - VAL S650 2s
F f N Stories of the Red Children 30 -40 \ i)
ey ; Robinson Crusoe fox Little Folks 30 +404 =/\=
BE i \ : Hawthorne's Wonder Book 30 +49 NV
AW Dickens’ Little Nell Rc aeeSO RNY
AN Dickens’ Paul Dombey ~ Fi +49 +50 \ ;
ee ~~ Robinson Crusoe 40 +50 “ae.
5 ON ' Legends of Norseland +40 +50 \ I)
$ i ; Stories from Old Germany. : +49 60 ly
pest iN 2 Myths of Old Greece, Vols 1: and II. +30 -40 \ I)
Re eae - Stories of the Bible 302i Eso. Ul \ ; Scott's Talisman (abridged) -40 60 \W
O \ Ie Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare “40 150 ai\*)
A\)\ Stories of Old Rome “ +50 269 \ iy .
ai i ‘ ~ Pratt’s/Stories from Shakespeare. = oh
UNS Vol. I. Tragedies +50 \ Ip
d \ Vol. II Comedies ; +50 “/\*
A\) Vol. III. ‘Histories “50 QW
i N Stories from Dickens H Grego +50 RAY
JU) Sketches of American Authors. Vols. I. and If. +40 60 \ Y
Jj \ Some of Our Friends ‘ -30) -40 AN. Nature Stories for Youngést Readers ; +30 «40, \ I)
ff \ . Buds, Stems, and Roots : 30 +40 o/\%
ens “Stories of Birdland. Vols-1. and II +30. +50 \ ip
4 \ Introduction to Leaves from Nature's Story-Book +30 ~40 <\e
Y, Leaves from Nature’s Story-Book. Vols }.. 11., III. +40 60 \ I)
dj : Stories from Garden and Field : Reig, +40 oN"
TYNE Little Flower Folks, or Stories from Flowerland \\ i)
: of \ Vols: I. and If. : +30 +40 e(\9
AVS Stories from Animal] Land +50 275 \ Ip
; i a Storyland of Stars -40 “0 | NAY
A\)s Stories of Industry. “Vols. Land I1- +40. 60 en ip
A Science Ladders, Vols. 1./11., TIT, ° 240 VAIN: Stories of. the United States for Youngest Readers +30 +40 \ Mi
- d \, Stories of Great Men +30 +40 Ay,
“YN Stories of Great Inventors +39. «40 W 7
> d \ Stories of American Pioneers <30 +40, Cy
‘Ve _ < Stories of Colonial Children 40 .60 \ i
; A ag American History Stories. Vols. 1., 1, i, 1V. +36 +50 CN
WMUN = Our Fatherland +50 y i)
d \ a Stoties of Massachusetts 66 +75 MAY
eM aerioet DeSoto, Marquette, and! 1a Salle £305) «50 \ )
4 \ a ’ The Great West 30 +50 ay
AVS” Cortes and Montezuma 30 +50 \ lp
Ny Pizarro : 230 +50) o\%
yaaae ss Stories of England +40 .60 \ ?
\ Geography for Young Folks 30! +49 NAY,
Ni Stories of Northern Kurope 40 +60 \ )
a « ** Australasia 240) +60. 2 INNY
ives “* Bnegland s +40 .60 j WW)
4 «China 40 60. W
fe India +140 60° i
NI
, + fe
_ Educational Publishing Company, \
. BOSTON: \

NEW YORK. CHICAGO. © SAN FRANCISCO..

Ze 20 te 0 6 De te tt I TAO Fe

m8