Analysis of containment transport, human activities and environmental consequences in two Jamaican Wetlands and adjacent inshore marine systems prop

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Analysis of containment transport, human activities and environmental consequences in two Jamaican Wetlands and adjacent inshore marine systems prop
Ellins, Katherine K.
BT of the University of Florida
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
Jamaica -- Caribbean

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Full Text
KATHERINE K- EIJUNS, FILD (UhNmrs" of Flodda. Department of Gcapgy G31nesvffle Flodda)
ANITA SPRING, FILD (UWmers" of Flodda, Department of ArdbropoloM Gaftxmvffle6 Flodda)
PETER BACOM PILD (Urwwsq of The WeA hWm!s. Zoology Dqwiment. Yjngshx% Jamaica)
GERARD ALLENG. M..FhEL (Unmmly of the Wed 1ndk!4 Zoology Dtpartment Kingdow% Jamaica)
ELSA LEO-RHYNK Ph-D (Ux&ers1tyof the Wcst hKfiCSWbM0n and Dcvdbpmerst Programmir, Kingskzjamakn)
DIANA McCAULAY (Jamaka Embunmat ThLst)

Project Summary ................................................................ 3
Significance ...................................................................... 4
Background ...................................................................... 4
Geohydrology..................................................... 4
Ecology of Wetlands and Inshore Marine Systems .......... 5
The Human Environment.............................................. 5
Study Sites...................................................... 6
Research Design and Data Collection ........................................ 8
Wetland Inventory and Historical Evaluation of Land Use Patterns 8
Identifying and Quantifying Groundwater Influx ..................... 8
Tracing Groundwater Pathways ...................................... 8
Tracing Inshore Circulation ........................................... 9
Determining Stream Rearation ....................................... 9
Conducting Rapid Rural Appraisals.................................. 9
Conducting Interviews, Community Studies, and Participatoy
Ranking of Potential Solutions ................................ 9
Collaboration ..................................................................... 10
Dissemination ..................................................................... 10
Bibliography ......................................................................10
Figures .............................................................................15s
Budget ............................................................................ 19
Budget justification ............................................................. 20
Timetable ......................................................................... 21
Responsibilities of Principal Investigators.................................... 22
Resumes ........................................................................... 23
Supporting Materials ........................................................... 39
Letter from Dr. Peter Bacon, Chair of the Zoology Department, UWI
Letter from Ms. Diana McCaulay, President of the Jamaica
Environment Trust (ENGO) .................................

Wetlands are among the most productive of all ecosystems and are valuable as both a natural and economic resource. Jamaica's wetlands are in dire need of environmental protection as they are being rapidly destroyed by such diverse activities as agriculture, forestry and human habitation, and by over-exploitation of their resources. The proposed project represents a bold initiative to conduct a joint natural and social scientific investigation of two wetland ecosystems in Jamaica for the purpose of developing practical policies and educational programs that promote environmentally' sound economic development. This project focuses on defining differences in the patterns of environmental degradation in two coastal wetland study sites with different hydrologic regimes that are affected by different human activities. Specifically we will undertake the following. (1) The link between land use patterns and wetland decline will be examined by comparing historical patterns of wetland decline to historical patterns of land use. (2) The rates and dynamics of ecosystem decline will be investigated at two sites with different hydrologic regimes. Dynamics in a wetland with substantial freshwater discharge will be compared to those in an area with fewer fresh water water inputs. (3) Hydrologic differences between these areas will be analyzed by identifying important sources -and pathways for water-borne pollutants. (4) The transport processes that disperse water-borne contaminants throughout inshore waters will be investigated. (5) The impact of human habitation and activities on the wetlands at both sites will be evaluated and compared. (6) Indigenous knowledge and awareness of environmental degradation and conservation of the areas by the local population will be assessed. (7) Potential conservation strategies for interventions by government and by women and men in the affected areas will be assessed.
Two coastal wetland ecosystems on the south coast of Jamaica in which to concentrate the proposed research have been selected: the mangrove ecosystem fringing Portland Bight and the Lower Black River Morass. Numerous environmental threats to these ecosystems have been documented Including (1) the influx of surface runoff and groundwater polluted by human sewage, pathogenic organisms, pesticides, fertilizers, dunder (sugar cane processing waste), paper processing wastes, and animal wastes from dairy and chicken farms; (2) deforestation due primarily to agriculture, human habitation, and charcoal burning and (3) over-exploitation of forest and fisheries resources (Alleng, 1990; Eyre 1991; McCaulay, 1993 SCCF, 1992). Local populations, who overuse fishing and forestry resources In attempts to increase their low incomes, may impact negatively on the very ecosystems upon which they depend for their livelihoods. Commercial farmers' use of agrochemicals, the tourist industry, and elite sports clubs may also contribute to the problem; undoubtedly all these constituent groups must be factored into potential solutions.
To examine the social aspects, human land use patterns will be discerned and a wetland inventory carried out for both study sites through the examination of existing aerial photographs and topographic maps. Rapid rural appraisals of Portland Bight and the Black River Morass will be carried out to assess agricultural (including fishing and forestry) and nonfarming enterprises for small scale and commercial producers. Selected faculty and extension personnel will be team participants for the surveys. Knowledge, access and control of resources by gender, income level, and use of governmental and non-governmental services related to these enterprises will be appraised. The problems and constraints of small and commercial producers, as well as those of the wealthy land and tourist attraction owners will be prioritized; additional in-depth interviews and observations will be carried out. These data will be analyzed for a relative assessment of the magnitude of human and animal waste, agrochemical and tourist blight on water contamination and forest/fish resources. In addition, the particular Involvement of environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs), will be considered in terms of their service activities with local populations and for potential intervention strategies.

There is an urgent need to address environmental problems that may threaten Jamaica's most important ecosystems and hasten the irretrievable loss of the island's unique natural heritage. At the same time, economic development and utilization of the island's natural resources are worthy goals for Jamaica because they provide employment and improve the quality of life. The primary objectives of our research are to provide fundamental information about hydrologic pollutant transport processes, contaminant dispersion mechanisms in adjacent inshore marine environments, and the environmental consequences of human activities and knowledge related to strategies that degrade and conserve the environment. The information will be used to explore the potential for developing practical policies and educational programs aimed at preserving a harmonious balance between the imperatives of nature and economic development. While it is true that a variety of management options have already been designed to preserve wetland ecosystems (Alleng, 1990; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984; Lugo and Brown, 1988), they have no real probability of success in rural Jamaica for they all fail to involve directly the various categories of people who utilize the wetlands (Eyre, 1991). The joint natural and social scientific approaches utilized in this investigation will offer resource managers and policy makers an in-depth understanding of the intimate interrelationship between various populations and their physical environments in the two selected study areas. While Jamaican policy makers have recognized the need for environmental protection as is evidenced by the recent passage of the Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act of 1991, effective programs aimed at environmental protection have not emerged. A joint natural and social scientific approach will increase the likelihood of the development and Implementation of appropriate, lasting strategies to manage Jamaican wetlands, protect public health, educate the local population to minimize the depletion of resources In their own environment, and enforce existing legislation. The approach will find application in other developing nations.
The results of the proposed study will also improve knowledge of wetland hydrology. In particular, groundwater influx, which is the single most important hydrological determninant for the establishment and maintenance of wetlands (Mitch and Gosselink, 1986), is difficult to measure accurately. The application of geochemical tracers will permit the measurement of groundwater flows, that cannot be easily obtained with conventional methods. In addition, while the ability of wetlands to cleanse water has received much research attention, the impact of polluted water on wetlands had not been adequately examined (Mitsch and Gosselink, 1986). This investigation will provide information about hydrologic pollutant transport processes and patterns of dispersion.
The scientific social methods that will be utilized in this investigation are significant because most studies do not assess all the constituents, gender issues and indigenous conceptualization and awareness of environmental conservation. This project represents a bold initiative to conduct a joint natural and social scientific investigation for the purpose of developing practical policies and educational programs that promote environmentally sound economic development
Jamaica is a Caribbean island of 1 1,400 square kilometers with a tropical marine climate The geology of the south coast of Jamaica, where the investigation is focused, is primarily composed of Tertiary limestones and alluvial deposits that dip to the south away from the anticlinal crest of the island (FElms, 1988). The limestone units show the effects of karstification to varying degrees. Numerous NW-SE or E-W trending faults related to a MidMiocene period of uplift occur throughout the area. These faults impede or act as preferred paths of groundwater flow (UNDF/ FAO, 1971). Due to the action of infiltrating rainfall and

corrosive runoff, an extensive underground hydrologic network of channels has been established in the limestone beneath the surface of the karst as is evidenced by the existence of numerous springs, underground rivers, and cave systems.
Fzxdo f Welxands and isbom Mne !RnWetlands are among the most productive of all ecosystems and perform a number of functions making them valuable as both a natural and economic resource. Jamaican wetlands offer habitat opportunities to numerous endemic and migratory species of invertebrates, fishes, birds, reptiles (lizards and the American crocodile), land mammals (Jamaican coney) and marine mammals (manatees and dolphins) and support an extensive food web that extends to adjacent marine systems. Wetlands may also improve water quality by intercepting nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous, and toxic substances transported by agricultural runoff, rivers, and groundwater pathways (Femald and Patton, 1984). Their utility as natural water treatment facilities has recently been recognized in Jamaica, where two pilot projects currently function. Finally, cores of peat deposits taken in wetlands often yield information about past climate, vegetation, animals, and human occupation (Fernald and Patton, 1984).
In Jamaica the mangrove wetlands that mark the transition from the marine to the terrestrial environment are especially vulnerable to environmental degradation (Alleng 1990). A mangrove wetland or swamp is composed of an assemblage of botanically diverse species of tropical trees and shrubs that are adapted to a saline habitat and periodic tidal submergence. The individual mangrove species found in Jamaica are Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove). (Allen& 1990; Odum et al, 1982).
A clear picture of the complex dynamics of the intricate interrelationship between mangrove wetlands and other aquatic ecosystems, such as seagrass communities and coral reefs, is only now beginning to emerge (Mitsch and Gosseling, 1986). The mangrove ecosystem supports an extensive food web.and is the nursery for many species that colonize the coral reef ecosystem or serve as prey for sport and commercial fish species (e.g, tarpon, snook, red drum, jack and jewfish). An estimated 150,000 Jamaicans derive a livelihood from commercial fishing (SCCF, 1992). Furthermore, Jamaican mangroves are vital for sport and commercial fisheries throughout the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and even the North Atlantic Ocean. Finally, coral reefs often buffer the mangrove wetlands from the open ocean. In turn, the mangrove wetlands protect the fragile coral reefs from nutrient laden, fresh water runoff from the land (Odum et al., 1982).
The Hmnan Firwvkmo nt
The use by Jamaicans of natural resources (forest and fish) has been described in terms of a "love-hate relationship," where high value is placed on land ownership, but little value is given to flora and fauna conservation (Eyre, 1991). Additional factors, including crop larceny, uncontrolled land and crop residue burnings, lack of erosion control and land husbandry techniques, and poor enforcement of laws, contribute to environmental degradation. Commercial and smallholder agricultural techniques and marketing strategies, as well as other enterprises such as fishing and charcoal making, involve different groups in using these resources. Yet, the degree to which conservation techniques are employed by these users is little known.
The topic of women and the environment in terms sustainable development and the conservation of natural systems is becoming important to a number of researchers in the area (Antrobus and Peacocke, 1992 Bernal and Bruce 1990; Stubbs, n.d.; Wiltshire 1991). In rural areas women are involved in smallholder production, as well as in wage labor in commercial endeavors. Additionally, they are famous as the marketeers or higglers in the region (Edwards, 1980; also see extensive the bibliography in Staudt, 1984). At least 34 percent of all households are female headed (Massiah, 1983; McGowan, 1990; United Nations, 1991). Caribbean women have been involved, or viewed as involved, with the environment in a

number of ways in terms of: (1) their concern and membership in environmental conservation groups; (2) their work as agricultural producers and entrepreneurs using the natural environment; (3) the perceived or real notions that women are closer spiritually to nature and have a hand in sustaining and nurturing it; and (4) the misperception that women are sometimes responsible for environmental degradation (Chaney, 1985; French, 1988; Harris, 1983; Stubbs, n.d4 ).
Study Sites
Two coastal wetland ecosystems on the south coast of Jamaica have been selected for the proposed research: the mangrove ecosystem fringing Portland Bight and the Lower Black River Morass (Figure 1). The economic and aesthetic values of the Portland Bight mangroves and Lower Black River Morass and adjacent marine ecosystems are well recognized. Both areas have been under consideration for over 15 years for special designation and status as either national parks or national conservation reserve and wildlife sanctuaries (Coke et al, 1982; Government of Jamaica, 1987; National Physical Plan for Jamaica, 1978).
Portland Bight, has the largest and most productive fisheries and is also close to the capital city of Kingston. Some of the mangrove areas there have been preserved because the city's elite utilize the area and employ local people as rangers to keep poachers and would-be charcoal makers out. Black River has a mixture of commercial (sugar and rice plantations) and smallholder farmers (including illegal Cannabis sativa cultivation),, and small fisherfolk. Here, again wealthy individuals and environmentalist groups (ENGOs) have introduced tourism as a counterpoint to forest encroachment by local people Yet, tourism has brought its own type of contaminants, namely the vendors and the garbage they generate. Standard descriptions note that many Jamaicans are ambivalent towards the land, valuing ownership, but not conservation and showing Kno positive valuation of forest itself...apart from the cash value of Individual trees" (Eyre 1991: 28).
The mixture of rural and peri-urban rangers, sugar plantation workers, small holder farmers, fisherfolk, charcoal makers, and vendors as well as sports club members, tourist industrials, and ENGOs form the constituents whose activities impact on the environment. The objectives of sports club members (and their hired rangers), Industry, and ENGOs are sometimes in conflict with those of local people, who depend on the natural resources to gain a livelihood.
Taland ffiht
The Portland Bight lies between the two fastest population centers in Jamaica, May Pen in the west and Spanish Town in the east (SCCF, 1992). Along the coast of the Portland Bight, mangrove wetlands stretch from Hellshire Point to the mouth of the Rio Minho, a distance of 90 kilometers, encompassing more than 75 square kilometers (Figure 2). Most of these mangrove wetlands have enjoyed limited protection as they have been leased for 50 years or longer by several sports clubs and by Old Ponds Limited, a group of concerned private citizens. In the Portland Bight project area, the largest population centers are Old Harbour, Lionel Town, and the fishing village of Old Harbour Bay. Population clusters can be found at McCooks Pen, Bridge Pen, and Hayes. Inland from the coast, the area is of agricultural importance, with sugar cane being the dominant crop. Animal husbandry is also important and there are several dairy farms and over 88 chicken farms in the area. The town of Old Harbour Bay serves as the largest commercial fishing base in the island of Jamaica. There are 633 registered fishing boats and numerous unregistered fishing boats that operate out of Old Harbour Bay (SCCF, 1992). Fisherfolk utilize fish traps, pots, seine nets, and lines. In the project area strip, development has occurred at the intersection of roadways with the establishment of bars, restaurants, shops, hardware stores, gas stations, and supermarkets. Two important ports, one at Rocky Point and the other at Port Esquivel, are used primarily for the shipment of bauxite ore (SFFC, 1992), although Rocky Point is reputed to be an important offloading point for smugglers bringing cars and large appliances (generators, televisions, refrigerators, etc) into the island.

A preliminary needs assessment carried out by the South Coast Conservation Foundation (SCCF), one of the ENGOs concerned with the protection of the Portland Bight area, has documented several serious environmental threats in the Portland Bight/Old Harbour project area: (1) the influx of surface runoff and groundwater polluted by human sewage, pesticides, fertilizers, dunder (sugar cane processing wastes), paper processing wastes, and animal wastes from the dairy and chicken farms; (2) marine pollution from oil spills at the two existing port facilities (Jones, 1989; SCCF, 1992); (3) mangrove deforestation due to clearance for cultivation, logging and charcoal making and (4) overfishing in the mangroves and in the Portland Bight because of too many fisherfolk (who fish more frequently and harvest younger and smaller fish and shellfish, often out of season). Many engaged in fishing use illegal practices such as dynamite and chlorine that kill indiscriminately, destroy the coral reefs, and may cause injuries to the practitioners. Most recently, there has been an increase in the collection of turtle eggs from nesting sites for human consumption (Levy, 1993). Problems connected to overfishing are exacerbated by the piracy of vessels and fish pots of legitimate fisherfolk by armed thugs (SCCF, 1992).
7he Io wJ* RikwAMwas.
The Black River hydrologic basin is located in the southwestern part of Jamaica (Figure 3). The Black River and its two main tributaries, the Y.S. and Broad Rivers, drain an immense wetland ecosystem, the Upper and Lower Black River Morass. The Lower Black River Morass Is an exceptionally complex and diverse wetland ecosystem known to support a rich indigenous flora and fauna (Proctor, 1986). The vegetation of the Lower Morass includes a mangrove community, sedge savannah or marsh, riparian swale, marsh forest, riparian forest, aquatic vegetation, and limestone islands (Figure 4). Mangroves occur along the coast and in the estuaries of the Black and Broad Rivers. The open wet savannas are dominated by sawgrass, the sedge Cladium iamaicense. Non-woody thickets (riparian swale) occur along the Black River and its tributary streams between the mangrove woodland and the marsh forest. Here the giant grass, Phragmites australis. is dominant and the rare herbaceous vine, Ipomea sagitata, also occurs. The marsh forest, considered the most distinctive feature of the the Lower Black River Morass, has been decimated by unchecked cutting of the trees. Important species include Roystonea princeps (a palm endemic to Jamaica) and Combreteum robinsonii (a woody climber endemic to Jamaica). The special characteristics of the riparian forest are nearly lost due to cutting and burning, and modification by introduced species (Proctor, 1983). The limestone islands are raised rocky outcrops that support the scattered human settlements and pastures. These islands have been inhabited for so long that most of the natural vegetation has disappeared. Important for the preservation of the system are the remaining indigenous species that include the palm Sabal jamaicensis and M. zapota (naseberry, with edible fruit) (Proctor, 1986).
The major population centers in the study area are Black River and Lacovia. Other population clusters can be found on the limestone islands at Cataboo, Slipe and Frenchman. To the west of Black River is Negril, Jamaica's most popular tourist resort strip. The area is important for agriculture, with sugar cane, bananas, and rice the most important crops. Animal husbandry and subsistence farming are also important and much of morass has been cleared for pasture, the cultivation of subsistence crops and illegal Cannabis sativa (Coke et al 1982). The palm Sabal jamaicensis, that occurs naturally, is of economic importance because the leaves are used for thatching houses and to make baskets and mats (Coke et al.; 1982; Proctor, 1986). The Middle Quarters River supports crayfish and African Perch fisheries and is an important source of potable water (Coke et al, 1982). The town of Black River, located on the coast, is also an important fishing base and commercial center.
Environmental threats to the unique ecosystem of the Black River include the following. (1) The influx of groundwater and rivers polluted by human sewage, animal wastes, pesticides, fertilizers, and dunder from the Appleton Rum distillery (Coke et. al., 1983; Government of Jamaica, 1990; Proctor, 1982). (2) Wetland deforestation of the marsh and riparian forests that have been decimated by clearance for cultivation (Coke et al, 1986;

Garrick, 1986). (3) Tourism has spawned new environmental threats as enterprising locals engage in the destruction and clearing of mangroves, marsh and riparian forests, and riparian swale, in order to establish concession stands to sell beverages, food, and souvenirs to the tourists who venture upstream. Piles of garbage are left behind. (5) Overfishing is a large problem in Black River Bay and nearshore coastal waters. Of particular concern is the fate of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus). Once abundant in the shallow water of Black River Bay, manatees have rarely been sighted in this area since the early 1980s (Lefebvre et al., 1989). Although manatees are protected by the Wildlife Protection Act of 1945, that prohibits hunting and possession of endangered species, Jamaican fisherfolk continue to take and sell them illegally. In addition, they are often accidentally captured in gill nets and beach seines where they drown. Attempts to educate the public about their protected status has apparently failed in the Black River area where the fishing-related mortality of manatees is greatest (Lefebvre et al, 1989).
Wetland Inventory and Histoncal Evaluation of land Use Patlerns
Existing aerial photographs, nautical charts, and topographic maps will be examined for both hydrological and human use (land and marine) patterns. Hydrological reconnaissance surveys of the water contaminants will be carried to document the occurrence and extent of karstic features and fracture patterns in the project area and to map the distribution of springs and creeks in the wetland ecosystem. Well logs on file with Jamaica's Underground Water Authority will be examined to help characterize the subsurface structure. Surveys of the inshore waters of Black River Bay and the Portland Bight will be also be undertaken. Rapid appraisals and in-depth anthropological investigations of the constituents groups to document the constraints and problems of the local and commercial producers and utilizers of natural resources will also be carried out. Finally, particular attention to local peoples' especially women's, use of environmental resources as well as to professional urbanites interest in ENGOs will be investigated.
Idc"ntWg and Ouganllft Crondwater flux
Since groundwater and surface discharge transport a myriad of natural and anthropogenic substances, a hydrologic study is an important component of this investigation. Previous work by Ellins and colleagues (Ellins, 1988; Ellins et al, 1990; Ellins et al, 1991) and investigations carried out by others (Genereux, 1990; Wanninkhof et al., 1990) have successfully established that high concentrations of natural 2221Rn, an inert radioactive gas, measured in a stream are indicative of groundwater influx. (222Rn occurs in much higher concentrations in groundwater than in rivers). Hence, the difference between the 222Rn concentration in the local groundwater and In the stream can be used to estimate the relative proportion of groundwater influx (Ellins, 1988; Ellins et al., 1990; Ellins et al., 1991). 222Rn measurements will be made using a small portable extraction system and Lucas-type cells with alpha scintillation counters following the methods described in Ellins et al. (1988).
Tracing Qromndwater Pathways
Both study sites are underlain by soluble limestone. Contaminants transported by surface runoff may be diverted to the groundwater system via karst features, such as sinkholes and caves, and rapidly delivered to the wetlands and coastal waters along extensive cavernous zones. Recent work in the Santa Fe River basin in northern peninsular Florida has demonstrated that SF6 gas, which is non-biodegradable, non-toxic, and inert (Wanninkhof, 1986), is a safe, viable alternative to the conventional application of fluorescent dyes in water tracing studies (Ellins et al., 1993). In this investigation SF6, will be used to identify specific point-to-point connections of groundwater recharge and spring discharge. SF6 analysis will be

done on a Shimadzu gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector in
accordance with the techniques described by Wanninkhof (1986).
Trad Ismore Cinlation
SF6 will also be used to track the dispersion of contaminants introduced to inshore waters of Portland Bight and Black River Bay by submarine springs and rivers. SF6 will be introduced in a 50 meter long streak at selected locations and tracked to coastal waters over a period of two months using grid sampling (Ledwell and Watson, 1988)
Dttemng SInrm Reacrafion
Stream reaeration, which refers to the uptake of oxygen, is the primary mechanism by which oxygen depleted during the decomposition of organic matter, such as sewage, is replenished (Kilpatrick 1989). Reaeration coefficients will be determined for the primary surface waterways (Salt Island Creek Black River, Broad River, Y.S. River) in gaseous tracer experiments involving the continuous release of SF6. These coefficients will be used to quantify the process of reaeration in dissolved-oxygen water quality models and to determine the optimum organic pollutant (sewage) loading for the surface waters in the study areas
Ommluinsg Rapid Rural Appraisals
The practices of these various constituent groups will be investigated by using several methods Including the field intensive method of a week long rapid rural appraisal or sondeo in each area (Figure 5) (Hildebrand 1980; Poats et al. 1988; Spring 1982Z 1988), additional interviews, examination of land-use from aerial photography and census data. Rapid rural appraisal involves multi-disciplinary teams of researchers and extensionists coming together for (1) examining secondary data and planning for field collection of data; (2) collecting data in the field and daily processing of information; (3) synthesizing models of the various farm, forest, and fishing and non-agricultural enterprises in relation to the sexual division of labor and an annual calendar, (4) discerning the problems of various constituent groups and assessing the probable causes; and (5) evaluating short and long-term strategies for Interventions.
Canduding Interview- Conmwnily Shiges and Parkiptow Ran" d Plenial Solutiom
In-depth participant observation, community studies in the twp sites by students at the University of the West Indies, Mona campus, will facilitate learning about enterprise development, people's own conservation techniques, and potential ways to change people's behavior to natural resource management. The various natural resources users (constituent groups) and the wastes they produce will be related to the hydrologic data studies, allowing comparisons of types, frequency and amounts of contaminants. The potential for educational, legal, and technology strategies that might provide additional options for conservation will be discussed with the different constituent groups. Participatory evaluation of resource management strategies will be carried out to test for acceptability versus non-adoption, and possible problems in terms of dissemination, costs, and cultural compatibility.
To understand the nature of these issues, a number of topics will be queried, namely differential utilization of environmental resources by the different constituent groups (by gender of user); differential impacts by gender of resource changes and depletion; and relation of environmental usage to other income sources. The involvement of women and men in ENGOs and other environmental organizations and the strategies that they have utilized will be examined and discussed with the local user groups.
Based on the findings of the anthropological community investigations, a number of potential alternative solutions for program, project, and policy actions and activities will be devised. The different constituent groups will be asked to evaluate and prioritize these suggestions in terms of feasibility, logistics to enactment, and potential for adoption.

Principal investigators include an anthropologist (Anita Spring) and a physical geographer hydrologist (Katherine Ellins) from the University of Florida, and a wetlands scientist (Gerard Alleng) who will be working under the supervision of Peter Bacon at the University of the West Indies (UWI) in Jamaica. We will also collaborate with Elsa LeoRhynie, Director of the Women and Development Programme at UWL Graduate students from both the University of Florida and the University of the West Indies will serve as research assistants. In addition, two Jamaican ENGOs, the Jamaica Environment Trust and the South Coast Conservation Foundation, will assist with various government departments and regulatory authorities, as well as providing some logistical support for the research efforts.
The results of the investigation will be compiled as a report to be submitted to the North South Center. Papers will be presented at national and international meetings and submitted to appropriate peer review joumals The research conducted will serve as the basis for the masters theses for two graduate students from the University of Florida, and possibly for the University of the West Indies students. Finally, the documents produced will serve as the basis for policy development and future work.
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IS0 30'
IX~~~ ~ ~ ili DrIabkreunan 6010
I Blue Mountain Soth ~ ~ ~ 10 If BasnnBgndryon V Blac Rivere
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rlT~Ift Chin- 0 m .0.-f
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Figure 4. Distribution of wetland vegetation in the Black River Morass (Coke et al., 1982)

Figure 5 Rapid Rural Appraisal Sequence

19th February, 1993. FaX No. 904 392 6929
Dr. Anita Spring
Associate Professor,
Department of Anthropology
Dr. Katherine Ellins Assistant Professor,
Department of Geolog UniversiL of Florida
i112 Tur gton Lall
Gainesville, Florida 32611.
Dear Dr. Spring & Dr. Ellins,
The Jamaica Environment Trust is a non-profit non-Government organization dedicated to the preervation of Jamaica's unique natural resources and the concept and practice of sustain3mable development. We are comprised entirely of volunteers with a high proportion of women. The Trust was formed in February 1991 and now has a fairly broad based membership of 95 individuals and 14 Corporate sponsors. We are funded from membership and
subscription fees, corporate donations, sales of various environmentaly-friendly products, and apply for and receive grants to carry out specific projects from time to time. Our
main area of interest is education and advocacy with an emphasis on Solid Waste Management, and we have carried out on-the-ground community projects such as Beach and Gully clean-ups. We support
student environment groups at two schools in the Kingston area.
We have extensive contacts and networking arrangements with the
environmental community across the Island.
We fully endorse a comparative study of three wetland ecosystems and the dependant populations. The choices of Old Harbour, Bowden and Black River are ideal, situated as they are in different parts of the Island and presenting three entirely
different communities and uses of the ecosystem. Old Harbour
and Black River are both under extreme threat from bad fishing practices, charcoal burning in the mangroves and unplanned and unregulated tourism devel moment. The three communities are depressed areas, badly in need of assistance in identifying and
implementing sustainable ways of earning a living.
., '"!, m Tus? 58 HIa! Wa! v !: Road n st 0 TnJ 09) 929 2376

The Jamaica Environment Trust offers to assist you in any way possible. We have an indepth knowledge of two of the three areas. We can introduce you to leaders and business people in the communi-ties and assist you with intrracton with the various Government Departments and regulatory authorities. We can provide secretarial and communication facilities.
We look forward to welcoming you to Jamaica and if there is any further information you require, please do not hesitate to
contact me.
Yours faithfully,
Diana McCaul