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|Table of Contents|
|Officers and committees|
|List of members|
|History of association and treasurer's...|
|Bengal, a promising large-clustered...|
|A comparison of the percentage...|
|Packaging and handling of fresh...|
|Branch girdling and root pruning...|
|A new caterpillar on lychees|
|Immunity of the lychee to the burrowing...|
|Control of clitocybe rot|
|Marketing the lychee|
|A progress report on handling and...|
|Packaging and displaying of fresh...|
|Insects on lychees during the past...|
|Research work on lychees at the...|
|Research on the lychee in progress...|
|Cooperative release by the United...|
|Plant board lychee investigation...|
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|Table of Contents|
Table of Contents
Officers and committees
List of members
History of association and treasurer's report
Bengal, a promising large-clustered Indian lychee
A comparison of the percentage pulp, seed and skin of lychees grown in different parts of Florida
Packaging and handling of fresh lychee fruit
Branch girdling and root pruning trials on lychees in Florida
A new caterpillar on lychees
Immunity of the lychee to the burrowing nematode
Control of clitocybe rot
Marketing the lychee
A progress report on handling and storage of fresh lychees
Packaging and displaying of fresh lychee fruit
Insects on lychees during the past year
Research work on lychees at the sub-tropical experiment station, Homestead, Florida
Research on the lychee in progress and to be initiated during the next year at the University of Miami experimental farm
Cooperative release by the United States Department of Agriculture and the University of Miami regarding the Bengal lychee
Plant board lychee investigation plans for the coming year
1955 Year Book
THIRD ANNUAL MEETING
Winter Haven, Florida
November 14, 1955
1955 Year Book
THIRD ANNUAL MEETING
Winter Haven, Florida
November 14, 1955
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
VOLUME II PRINTED 1956
Officers of 1954-1955 4
Officers of 1955-1956 4.
List of Members.- ........ 5,6
History of Association .......... 7
Treasurer's Report -.. .. 7
In Memoriam _... . 8
Papers presented at 1955 Annual Meeting
Bengal, A Promising Large-Clustered Indian Lvchee, H. F. Loomis,
U. S. Plant Introduction Garden, Coconut Grove, and Rov O.
Nelson, U. of Miami, Coral Gables .. 9
A Comparison of the Percentage Pulp, Seed and Skin of Lvchees Grown
in Different Parts of Florida, Margaret J. Mustard, and S. John
Lynch, U. of Miami, Coral Gables-. ...... 12
Packaging and Handling of Fresh Lvchee Fruit, Geo. B. Macfie, Jr.,
U. of Miami, Coral Gables 15
Branch Girdling and Root Pruning Trials on Lvchees in Florida, T. W.
Young, Sub-Trop. Exp. Sta., U. of Fla., Homestead 16
A New Caterpillar on Lvchees, F. Gray Butcher, U. of Miami, Coral
Gables ......... 19
Immunity of the Lvchee to the Burrowing Nematode, E. P. Du Charme,
and R. F. Suit, Fla. Citrus Exp. Sta., U. of Fla., Lake Alfred 20
Control of Clitocvbe Rot, Mortimer Cohen, State Plant Board,
Gainesville ..... ... .. 21
Marketing the Lychee, Don Lins, Seald-Sweet Sales, Inc., Tampa 24
A Progress Report on Handling and Storage of Fresh Lvchees,
B. D. Thompson, U. of Fla., Gainesville 27
Packaging and Displaying of Fresh Lychee Fruit, Emmet Carpenter,
Publix Market, Clearwater .--- -...-.............. ..... 28
Insects on Lychees During the Past Year, Geo. W. Dekle, State Plant
Board, Gainesville ..... ...... 29
Reports on Research Plans for the Coming Year-
University of Florida, T. W. Young ----........ -- ..... ..30
University of Miami, S. John Lynch -.--- ...... 31
State Plant Board of Florida, Ed L. Ayers ---..... ...... 34
Cooperative release by the United States Department of Agriculture
and the Univ. of Miami regarding the Bengal Lychee .. 33
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES
November 1954 to November 1955
President ....... ....................Erie L. Wirt, Jr. 2nd Vice President...Col. William R. Grove, Jr.
1st Vice President ..........Judge C. E. Ware 3rd Vice President .........Henry A. Simpson
Secretary-Treseas rer .................... Gordon Palmer
District Number One....... Prof. S. John Lynch District Number Four ... Erie L. Wirt, Jr.
District Number Two ......Arthur M. Hill, Jr. District Number Five........Harold G. Johnstone
District Number Three ........Dr. D. V. Porter District Number Six .................C. C. Mitchell
AT LARGE .........................Col. Ray A. Trevelyan
Research Public Relations
Col. William R. Grove, Jr. Harold G. Johnstone
Arthur M. Hill, Jr. Col. William C. Arthur
Prof. S. John Lynch Henry A. Simpson
S. John Lynch Gordon Palmer
Gordon Palmer C. C. Mitchell
Robert J. Estes Henry A. Simpson
Arthur M. Hill. Jr. Judge C. E. Ware
Nursery Stock Certification
Col. Ray A. Trevelyan Harold G. Johnstone
C. O. Dodson C. C. Mitchell
Col. William R. Grove, Jr. Gordon Palmer
Arthur M. Hill. Jr. Henry A. Simpson
Judge C. E. Ware
President ..- .......
1st Vice President .....
2nd Vice President ..
District Number One..
District Number Two .
District Number Three
AT LARGE .
November 1955 to November 1956
..........Gordon Palmer 3rd Vice President .........Harold G. Johnstone
.....Judge C. E. Ware 4th Vice President ............. E. J. Morrissey
Henry A. Simpson Secretary-Treasurer Col. William R. Grove, Jr.
Prof. S. John Lynch District Number Four....Col. Ray. A. Trevelyan
..Arthur M. Hill, Jr. District Number Five......Col. D. R. VanSickler
....Gen. John K. Rice District Number Six.......... ...... C. C. Mitchell
....Gordon Palmer, Erie L. Wirt, Jr., Col. William C. Arthur
Arthur M Hill, Jr.
Henry A. Simpson
Erle Wirt, Jr.
William C. Arthur
J. J. Freke-Hayes
William R. Grove, Jr.
S. John Lynch
S. John Lynch
W. Eugene Wyles
S. John Lynch
R. A. Trevelyan
C. E. Ware
S. John Lynch
J. B. Pinkerton
J. H. Popham, Jr.
J. H. Macdonnell
C. C. Mitchell
J. B. Pinkerton
John K. Rice
D. R. VanSickler
William R. Grove. Jr.
John K. Rice
Henry A. Simpson
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
LIST OF REGULAR MEMBERS
Indicates charter members
Anderson, T. J.. Box 61, Pierce
Arthur, Col. William C., 743 Osceola Blvd.,
E., Vero Beach
*Asper, Pervis I., Rt. 3, Box 444, Lakeland
*Barnes, Mrs. O. T., Box 223, Osprey
Bateman, W. E., Rt. 1, Box 405 (Davie),
Bishop, Mr. and Mrs. R. G., Rt. 2, Clermont
*Bomke, Mr. and Mrs. W. F., Rt. 1, Box 80-!t,
*Brockway, E. K.. Lake Louis Groves, P. 0.
Box 695, Clermont
Brown, Miss Jessie M., 3400 Riverview Blvl.,
*Burhans, C. L., Box 1221, Fort Myers
Burke, Mr. E.. Box 515, Clermont
Carbone, Mr. Sebastian, 2163-7th Street,
Caribbean Gardens, Attention Mr. Joel Kup-
*Cassell, E. B., P. O. Box 4041, Sarasota
Coconut Grove Palmetum. Attention Mr. Ray
Vernon, Manager, P. O. Box 136, Co-
Constantine Farms, Inc., T. J. Constantine,
P. O. Box 1400, Clearwater
Couch, Adam, 5555-31st Street, North, St.
Crum, Roy M., Rt. 1, Box 651, Ft. Lauder-
Curtis, Mr. Charles F., Rt. 1, Box 102, Clear-
*Curtis, Raymond M. 3575 Stewart Ave., Coco-
Davison, Mrs. Allen S., 3400 Riverview Blvd.,
*Dixon, Col. V. B., Box 591, Venice
*Dodd, Chas. K., 1731 Bay Street. Sarasota
Dodson, C. O.. 15806 E. 1st Street, Redinz-
ton Beach. St. Petersburg
Douglas, W. W., Box 113, Parrish
*Dyer, John W., 4000-8th Street, South,
*Estes, Robert J., Box 893, Lake Wales
Forrest, Mr. John R., 417 Le Beau Street,
Freke-Hayes, Mr.. J J., Seminole Roald,
Goessling, Leo J., Box 307. Stuart
*Gose, A. E., 1748 North Lakeview Drive,
*Groff, Mrs. G. W., Rt. No. 1, Box 53-T,
*Grove, W. R., Jr., Laurel
*Hamilton, M. Kenneth & Sophie, Key Ave.,
*Henry, Dr. J. M., Box 110, Nokomis
*Hill, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur M., Jr., Vero
Horne, Fred R., 102 East Buffalo Ave.,
*Horton, H. N., R.F.D., Box 365, Land O'Lakes
Jesse, Mr. Edwin G., P. O. Box 764, Ft.
Jimenez, Mr. Gus R., Box 5112. Tampa
Johnson, Capt. Victor, Rt. 1, Box 406,
*Johnston, Julian A., Box 811, Winter Haven
*Johnstone, H. G., Laurel
Kluberg, Mr. W. N., 1718 Flamingo Driva,
La Voie, Louis, Box 416, Rt. 1, Ft. Lauder-
Lee, Carrol R.. Box 252-K, Rt. 3, Sarasota
Lowe, E. M., Box 450, Rt. 1, Largo
*Lynch, Prof. S. John, U. of Miami, P. 0.
Box 1015, South Miami 43
*Magee, Christopher, 537 Serata Street,
*Marigo, Mr. and Mrs. James, Rt. 1, Box 413.
*Martin, Mrs. Hampton, Sebring
*McMullen, Dr. Fred B., Jackson Bldg..
*Miami, University of, Attention Prof. S. J.
Lynch, Coral Gables
Miller, John B., Box 1152. Ft. Lauderdale
*Mitchell, C. C., Drier Ave.. Box 188, R.F.D.
*Moore, Mrs. Dorothy, 480 Island Circle,
*Morrissey, Mr. E. J., Rt. No. 1, Box 40S-C,
Nelson, Mrs. Wickliffe, "Casa Rosa", 802
Georgia Ave., Winter Park
Orman, Fred, P. O. Box 334, Stuart
*Palmer, Gordon, The Oaks, Osprey
*Parsons, Adm. E. C., Box 81, Osprey
Phleger, Mr. and Mrs. Lee, 12601 S. W. 77th
Ave., Miami 43
'Pinkerton, J. B., Chester Groves, City Point,
Merritt Island, Brevard County
*Popham, J. H., Jr., The Oaks, Osprey
*Porter, Mrs. D. V., Rt. 1, Box 38, Clermont
*Reaves. Dr. and Mrs. Hugh G., 1444 Harbor
*Rice, Maj. Gen. John K., R.F.D. No. 1,
*Roberts, Pasco, Box 728, St. Petersburg
*Ruffing, John, Rt. 2, Box 148, Dade City
Scott, Mrs. Margaret Couch, Rt. 1, Box
*Simpson, Mr. and Mrs. Henry A., Geneva
Stewart, Mr. Clyde M., 433-61st Street,
North. St. Petersburg
Stixrud, Mrs. Madeleine E., Box 741, Tice
*Summers, Mr. and Mrs. W. J., Laurel
*Thompson, Dr. T. S., Venice
*Tingley, C. L. S., Jr., Rt. 2, Box 518, Largo
*Trevelyan, Col. Ray A., De Soto City
*Turner, Mr. and Mrs. Donald L., 1271-4th
*Van Sickler, Col. D. R., Laurel
*Ware, Judge C. E., 1411 N. Ft. Harrison
*Wirt, Erie L., Jr., Babson Park
*Wyles. W. Eugene, P. O. Box 828, Bradenton
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
LIST OF PROFESSIONAL MEMBERS
Ayers, Edward L., Plant Commissioner, State
Plant Board, Gainesville
Beckenbach, J. R., Dir. Agr. Exp. Stas., U. cf
Butcher, Dr. F. Gray, U. of Miami, P. O. Box
1015, South Miami 43
Dekle, George W., State Plant Board, Gaines-
DuCharme, Dr. E. P., Fla. Citrus Exp. Sta.,
Fifield, Willard M., Provost of Agric., U. oZ
Gardner, Dr. Frank E., Sub-trop. Fruit In-
vestigations, U. S. Hort. Sta., 2120
Camden Road, Orlando
Joiner, Jasper, Fla., Agr. Ext. Service, U. of
Kelsheimer, Dr. E. G., Gulf Coast Exp. Sta.,
lawrence, Fred P., Fla. Agr. Ext. Service,
U. of F'la., Gainesville
Iedin, Dr. R. Bruce. Sub-trop. Exp. Sta., U.
of Fla., Homestead
Loomis, Harold F., U. S. Plant Introduction
Garden. Coconut Grove
Macdonnell, John Henry, Flamingo Ave., Bay
MacFie, Prof. George B., Jr., U. of Miami,
P. O. Box 1015, South Miami 43
Marloth, Dr. Raimund H., The Citrus & Sub-
trop. Hort. Res. Sla., Nelspruit, East-
ern Transvaal, Union of South Africa
Mounts, M. U., Fla. Agr. Ext. Service. Box
70, West Palm Beach
Mustard, Prof. Margaret J., U. of Miami.
P. O. Box 1015, South Miami 43
Nelson, Prof. Roy O., U. of Miami, P. O. Box
1015, South Miami 43
Popenoe, Dr. Wilson, Director, Escuela AgrH-
cola Panamericana, Apartado 93, Tegu-
cigalpa, Honduras, C. A.
Reuther, Dr. Walter, Citrus Exp. Sta., U. of
California, Riverside, California
Ruehle, Dr. George D., Vice-Director in
Charge, Sub-trop. Exp. Sta., U. of Fla.,
Spencer, Dr. Herbert, Sub-trop. Fruit Investi-
gations. U. S. Hort. Sta., 2120 Camden
Stahl, Dr. A. L., U. of Miami, P. O. Box 1015,
South Miami 43
Storey, Dr. W. B., Citrus Exp. Sta., IT. of
California, Riverside, California
Suit, Dr. Ross F., Fla. Citrus Exp. Sta., Lake
Thompson, Dr. B. D., Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.,
Van Der Meulen. Dr. A., The Citrus & Suli-
trop. Hort. Res. Sta., Nelspruit, East-
ern Transvaal, Union of South Africa
Veldhuis. Dr. M. K., U. S. Citrus Products
Sta., Winter Haven
Whitehouse, Dr. W. E.. Sr. Horticulturist,
Fruit & Vegetable Introductions, U. S.
Dept. of Agric., lieltsville, Maryland
Young, Dr. T. W., Sub-trop. Exp. Sta., U. of
History of the Florida Lychee Growers Association
A group of people interested in the growing of lychees in Florida, number-
ing 58 men and women, met on October 11, 1951 at Winter Haven, Florida,
to discuss the formation of a Ivchee growers organization. The late beloved
Colonel William R. Grove was chosen chairman of the group and of a seven
man executive committee including Messrs. Dean V. Porter, S. John Lynch,
C. E. Ware, E. C. Wirt, Jr., Arthur M. Hill and Henry A. Simpson, charged
with the details of formally organizing a Lychee Growers Association.
The charter meeting of the Florida Lvchee Growers Association was held
November 5, 1952 at the Soreno Hotel, St. Petersburg. Judge C. E. Ware as
chairman of the Constitution and Bv-laws Committee, read to the members the
Articles of Incorporation (Charter) and By-laws, as -I..', -t-.I by the Executive
Committee. They were accepted and approved unanimously. The Executive
Committee was re-elected with the change of R. A. Trevelyan for D. V. Porter,
who withdrew due to ill health, and William R. Grove, Jr., replacing his recently
deceased father. The Charter was signed by nine members and the Acts of
Incorporation submitted to the State Department. The Board of Directors
met following the organizational meeting of the Florida Lvchee Growers Associ-
ation and elected as the first officers: President, William R. Grove, Laurel;
Vice-President, C. E. Ware, Clearwater; Sec.-Treas., Gordon Palmer, Osprey.
The Board of Directors, elected from each of six districts in the state,
meet bimonthly to conduct the regular business of the Association. The entire
Association meets each November at Winter Haven, at which time the year's
business is reviewed and a forum of papers is given of interest to growers and
shippers of Ivchees.
FLORIDA LYCHEE GROWERS ASSOCIATION
TREASURER'S REPORT-31 DECEMBER 1955
Membership Dues ......... ............ $510.00
"Revolving Fund" transfer ................. 175.00 $ 6S5.00
Membership dues ........ ..... . ... 150.00
Advance loan ............. ........... .. 100.00 2501.00
M embership dues .........................-. 1,80.00
"Proceedings" sales .. .......... -. 102.00
Advance loan ........... ........ 499.60
"Revolving Fund" transfer .5.......... ... 507.50 1,289.00 $2.224.00
1 9 5 3 ....................................... . . ........ .... 5 5 0 .3 7
1954 ................ ........ .. ..... ....... 335.89
Proceeds .... ...... ...... $499.50
Interest .. .. .... ........... ........... 7.50
Doe. Stamps ...... ...... .... ...... 50 507.50
Printing and Mimeo.
"Proceedings" ....... .... . 489.75
O their .... .......... ........ ....... ..... .. 163.24 652.99
"In Memoriam" flowers .. ....---.--. 17.07
Lug storage ........... ------- - --- 16.00
P. O Box rent ............ ........... ..... 9.00
Room rent, annual meeting .......... 7.50 1,210.06 2,096.32
Balance 12/31/55 ....... ... .. ...... .. --.......... ------ 127.63
Statement of Condition
Cash in bank ................. ......... ........ ......... ... 107.68
Account receivable dues ..........................-...... 20.00 127.68
A advance Loan ................................................. 100.00
N et W orth ......................................... ... 27 .68 127.68
ARTHUR GILMAN HENRY
Arthur Gilman Henry, 39, horticulturist and son of Dr. and Mrs. James
M. Henry, died tragically on September 28, 1955. as he apparently fell and
was crushed by a tractor he was operating in his lychee grove on the Nokomis
By-Way, just north of Venice, Florida.
Mr. Henry was born in New York City in 1915 and spent his early years
in the Canton area of China where his father was a Presbvterian missionary.
He graduated from Harvard University in 1936 as a Bachelor of Arts and was
awarded his Master of Arts degree in 1938 by the same university. He then
returned to the Orient, became fluent in the Japanese language and taught
in the Saga Higher School, Saga, Japan for four years.
In 1942, Mr. Henry entered the United States Army as a Private and in
1951 finished his service in the grade of Captain. A part of this period of
service was with Colonel William R. Grove, Jr., whose father did so much
toward developing the lychee in this country.
Mr. Henry came to Florida in 1951 and established his Nokomis home
which he reminiscently named "Nanvuem" or Southern Gardens. Among his
local community interests, he was a Charter Member of the Osprey Lions Club,
Scout Master of the Osprey Boy Scouts and an active participant in the Venice
Arthur Henry was a Charter Member of the Florida Lvchee Growers
Association. His life-long love of the lychee made him its ardent booster. His
well-planned, diligent efforts resulted in a beautiful lychee grove, contributing
materially to the successful growth of the Ivchee industry.
DEAN V. PORTER
Dr. Dean V. Porter, 62, died in an Orlando hospital on September 12, 1955,
following a brief illness. Born in Patten, Maine, February 26, 1893, Dr. Porter
attended Patten Academy and Maine Central Institute and then served in the
United States Navv for a period of four ears. Thereafter he attended the
Kirksville (Missouri) College of Osteopathy for two years, and finished his edu-
cation at the Massachusetts College of Osteopathy in 1926, graduating with the
degree of Doctor of Osteopathy.
Some ten years ago, Dr. Porter retired from practice and focused his
interests upon the growing of citrus, near Clermont in Central Florida. In July
1951, he established the first lychee grove in Lake County. With his back-
ground knowledge of organic chemistry, Dr. Porter was continually in search
of ways and means of applying organic treatment toward obtaining well-rounded
health and normal growth in his trees. He was eminently successful in this
and lived to see his grove, at four years, bearing abundantly and possessing
as lush foliage as any of its age within the State.
Dr. Porter was truly a pioneer in the Florida Lychee Growers Association,
serving as a member of the Executive Committee concerned with its organiza-
tion. Ill health forced him to forego active executive duties during the first
two years of the Association's existence, but in 1954, his intense interest in
and love for the lychee compelled him to accept membership on the Board of
Directors, a post he held at the time of his death.
Mrs. Bella Porter, his wife, shared Dr. Porter's enthusiasm for the Ivchee
and plans to continue the development of their grove.
Bengal, A Promising Large-Clustered Indian
H. F. LOOMIS
U. S. Plant Introduction Garden
Coconut Grove, Florida
ROY O. NELSON
Division of Research and Industry, University of Miami
Coral Gables, Florida
With interest in the relatively new commercial Ivchee industry on the
increase, varieties having worthy or outstanding characteristics are being sought.
At present, the Brewster variety, of Chinese origin, is most widely planted in
Florida and is generally used in making comparisons with less well known or
On March 22, 1929, the present Plant Introduction Section, Agricultural
Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. received
a small plant, probably a seedling, of lvchee (Litchi chinensis) from Calcutta,
India, described as a "rose scented" form of this species. This plant was given
Plant Introduction Number 94066. In 1930 it was sent to the U. S. Plant
Introduction Garden, Coconut Grove. Florida where in May 1931, when two
feet tall, it was planted in the shallow marl soil of its present location in an
old rock quarry. Here it has grown and prospered except for severe injury
caused by the hurricane of September 1945 and is now in vigorous condition.
The tree fruited first in June 1940, when the good size of the fruits,
their excellent eating quality and habit of being borne in large clusters were
observed but no rose scent was noted. The tree has truited manv times
since then and the characteristics mentioned have been repeatedly observed.
In 1942, fruits were sent to the Ivchee authority Dr. G. Weidman Groff,
for his appraisal, which is here quoted: "The fruit did not resemble any of our
Canton (China) varieties. The fruits were of good size and color. In general
they seemed to be of a class very similar to Brewster's "Henghua"' from
Fukien Province which is fruiting \Vell in Florida. But not anv of the fruits
you sent me had undeveloped seed found so often in Brewster's "Henghua",
and the seeds were a bit more elongated. I regret that I am not familiar with
the Indian forms to link it up to anv Indian name".
This Ivchee has not been identified as a known Indian variety nor has
a name previously been applied to it in this country. Now, however, since
its excellent tree and fruit qualities have been recognized, and it may be found
to have value in commercial plantings, it is proposed to give it the name "Bengal",
calling specific attention to its Indian origin.
The Bengal lvchee tree is somewhat more spreading in habit than the
Brewster, and it has larger, more leathery leaves of darker green color; bark
of the trunk is smoother and lighter colored. Fruit ripens in May and June
Footnote. This is the Brewster variety of Florida where it also has been called "Chen
Family Purple" and "Chen Purple". In China it has been identified as the "Chen-tze" (1, 2).
A commercial establishment in Florida has marketed fruit of this variety under the n.,me
"Royal Chen" (3).
and is produced in large clusters, one cluster of 67 lull-sized fruits having
been observed, with the average number being 20 to 24. Color of the fruit
has been identified by T. B. McClelland, formerly in charge of the Introduction
Garden where the original tree is growing, as "close to jasper red" (Ridgway
Color Standards). Individual fruits (Fig. 1) large, averaging about 22 grams
Figure 1. Fruit and leaf of the Bengal lychee, natural size.
in weight; heart shaped, 1% to 1U inches long and with rather roughly tubercular
pericarp or shell; flesh translucent white, thickest at basal half of fruit; Havor
excellent; texture firm, cells not tending to burst when the fruit is peeled.
Seed large, elongate oval, generally well developed, there being tew abortive
seeds produced. Exact data on weights and proportions of pericarp, flesh and
seed of Bengal fruits as compared with Brewster fruits from several parts of the
state are being presented at this Meeting (4) and show the Bengal to be con-
siderably larger and with a relatively smaller seed.
Several ears ago the University of Miami Experimental Farm began
collecting propagations of lychee varieties and seedling trees growing in this
region, for comparison and studv under uniform field conditions. Material
of the various Ivchees growing at the U. S. Plant Introduction Garden, near
Coconut Grove, was supplied for this purpose. The early tests indicated that
the Bengal had certain outstanding qualities and considerable additional ma-
terial has been made available to the Experimental Farm for further study and
expansion of comparative tests elsewhere in the state.
The original variety planting, established in randomized form at the
University Farm in 1953, consisted of 9 varieties, including Bengal, with 7
specimens representing each variety. Brewster trees, planted in larger numbers
in several adjacent locations, were not included in the randomized planting. In
1954 the striking adaptability of the Bengal trees to the limestone soil was
plainly visible and this, plus the desirability of the fruit, was reported by the
junior author (5). In 1955 great tolerance of Bengal to the high pH of the
planting location is even more apparent, the trees showing vigorous growth
with deep green leaves. Many trees of the other varieties in the planting, all
of which were given the same normal fertilizer and spray treatments, were re-
tarded in growth and showed chlorosis in varying degrees. A few of these
other trees were so stunted and chlorotic that they died. Brewster trees in
the adjacent plantings, with similar treatments, are vigorous and non-chlorotic.
The Bengal Ivchee is propagated by air layering with the same ease as
Brewster and on removal to the bathhouse the propagations grow well and do
not suffer from chlorosis.
Study of the Bengal Ivchee is to be continued on a wider scope with the
object of testing it both as a fruit variety in its own right and as a rootstock
for varieties intolerant to soils of a high pH or having other adverse qualities.
One intolerant variety is the Groff, which in preliminary testing here on its own
roots does not exhibit the vigor needed for establishment in field plantings or
for growth under the near ideal conditions in the lathhouse and nursery.
Although the Bengal has shown itself resistant to the burrowing nematode,
as have other varieties tested to date, a few small trees have been supplied to
Dr. T. W. Young, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, for further nematode
investigations on a cooperative basis.
In order to test the Bengal Ivehee in several types of soil and under various
climatic conditions in comparison with other varieties, cooperative arrange-
ments have been made with the executive council of the Florida Lvchee
Growers Association for the distribution, under strict regulation, of a few trees
of this variety to several designated persons in different parts of the state.
It is regretted that for the next year, at least, all available propagation
material of the Bengal lychee will be needed bv the institutions working with
it and none can be supplied to private interests.
1. LI, LAI-YUNG, and CHU-YING CHOU. Notes on the Chen-tze Lychee of Hengwa,
Fukien, China. Proe. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 61: 283-285, 1948.
2. CHEN, WEN-HSUN. The Culture of the Lychee. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.,
62: 223-226, 1949.
3. COBIN, MILTON and R. BRUCE LEDIN. The Lychee in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bull. 546, 12. 1954.
4. MUSTARD, MARGARET J. and S. JOHN LYNCH. A Comparison of the Per-
centage, Seed. Pulp, and Skin of Lychees Grown in Different Parts of Florida. Proc. Fla.
Lychee Growers Assoc., 2: 12-15, 1955.
5. NELSON, ROY O. Comments on Lychee Propagation-Air Layering and Graftage.
Proc. Fla. Lychee Growers Assoc., 1: 8-11, 1954.
A Comparison of the Percentage Pulp, Seed and
Skin of Lychees Grown in Different
Parts of Florida
By MARGARET J. MUSTARD and S. JOHN LYNCH
Division of Research and Ilndustry, University of Miami
Coral Gables, Florida
One of the criteria used for centuries in China in judging lychees has
been the size of the seed in relation to the amount of aril or flesh. Visual
observation can frequently be misleading, due in part to the limited number of
fruit checked and in part to the frequency with which seeds are compared
without regard to the ratio of seed to flesh.
Lvchees are growing under diverse soil and climatic conditions in Florida
some being grown in sandy soil in the Ridge Section; some in muck soil in the
Everglades; and others in oolitic limestone soil in southern Florida. The soil
fertility differences, coupled with diverse temperature and rainfall, might well
effect the size of fruit and degree of seed development, thus effecting the
ratio of seed to flesh.
In order to determine the comparative merits of new varieties and
seedlings, it seems advisable to determine their seed to flesh ratio. It should
also be of interest to Ivehee growers to know how a specific variety grown in
their area compares to the same variety produced elsewhere in the state. It was
with this problem in mind that the University of Miami initiated an investigation
this vear to determine the percentage of seed, skin, and flesh of some additional
varieties grown in Florida. The results presented here are of a very preliminary
nature and will be enlarged upon as additional information is collected in suc-
Each sample consisted of 100 fruit. The whole fruits were weighed
individually, as were the individual seeds and skins. The weight of flesh was
determined as the difference between the weight of the whole fruit and that
of the combined weight of seed and skin. This procedure seems more accurate
than attempting to weigh the flesh of the individual fruits, as many are so
juicy that errors would inadvertently result from loss of juice in handling.
The data presented in Table I show that the Bengal variety described by
Loomis and Nelson (2) compares quite favorably to the Brewster variety in
percentage flesh. These data substantiate the statement previously made that
visual observations are sometimes lacking in accuracy, as the comment has
frequently been made by those sampling Bengal fruit that the seed was especi-
TlBLE I. Comparison of the Percentage Seed,
in Some Florida Groun Lychees.
Skin, and Flesh
Variety & Po. of Av. ,t. Av. % Av. % Av. %
Location Type Seed Fruit Fruit Seed Skin Flesh
jengal Normal Seed 94 22.44 15.94 17.81 66.25
(Coconut Grove) Chicken-tongue 6 17.42 5.45 21.15 73.37
All Types 100 22.14 15.31 18.01 66.67
.re-ster Normal Seed 91 16.12 17.96 18.56 63.48
:Perrine) Chicken-tongue 9 15.04 5.71 18.44 75.85
All Types 100 16.02 16.86 1E.55 64.59
Brenster Normal Seed 82 15.32 18.18 14.62 67.20
(Geneva) Chicken-tongue 18 13.76 7.05 16.08 76.87
All Types 1CO 15.04 16.18 14.88 68.94
're-.ster Hormcl Seed 89 18.56 16.49 14.18 69.32
(Osprey) Chicken-tongue 11 14.52 5.49 13.94 80.56
All Types 1CO 18.15 15.28 14.16 70.57
TABLE II. Comparison of the Percentage Seed, Skin, and Flesh
in Some Lychee Varieties Cultivated in Florida.*
Av. :'t. Av.. % Av. 5 Av. % Av.
Variety Fruit Seed Skin Flesh Error
Street Cliff 14.83 12.62 16.90 67.26 3.2
Late Globe 14.83 17.18 14.60 63.42 4.8
Yellow Red 14.62 17.80 14.36 65.08 2.8
Prenster 14.53 14.20 19.64 65.48 0.68
l.uei U:ei 16.67 14.L4 21.04 62.86 1.64
Black Leaf 23.57 19.28 13.98 64.86 2.08
iountrin Lychee 18.71 15.34 11.46 70.62 2.9
Data b&sed on that presented by Liu (1) page 159.
ally large. Figure 1 shows the relative appearance of cut Bengal Brewster
fruit. It can readily be seen from the data in Table I that the Bengal is approxi-
matelv 25% heavier than the Brewster.
No attempt has been made in this preliminary report to analyze statistic-
ally large. Figure 1 shows the relative appearance of cut Bengal and Brewster
different environmental conditions throughout the state. It can he seen from
the data that environmental conditions apparently have little effect on the size
of seed produced in the Brewster lychee. Some differences were found in
the percentage flesh and the average weight of the Brewster truit produced in
the three areas. These differences may be due in part to slight differences in
degree of maturity at the time of harvesting as well as differences in moisture
lost from the skin between harvesting and weighing the fruit. In the two
lots of fruit shipped to the workers, a lapse of three to five days between picking
and weighing occurred. There was a decidedly lower percentage of skin in the
shipped fruit than in the locally grown fruit which were weighed shortly after
harvesting. Every effort will be made in subsequent work to keep these
sources of error at a minimum. The desirability of selecting varieties producing
fruit containing chicken-tongued seeds is quite apparent from the accompanying
For the sake of ease in comparison, the writers have take t he liberty ot
converting some of Li's figures (1), for other varieties of hees grown in
Florida, to a percentage basis and summarizing thesin e II. A comparison
of the data presented in Tables I and ec show the differences in percentage
skin, seed, and flesh of these varieties.
The writers will appreciate an opportunity to include in this study any
other varieties or seedlings showing commercial possibilities.
The writers wish to acknowledge their indebtedness to the United States
Plant Introduction Garden, Coconut Grove, Florida; Mr. Henry A. Simpson,
Geneva, Florida; and Mr. Gordon Palmer, Osprey, Florida, who contributed
fruit used in this study.
1. Liu, Su-Ying. Studies of Litchi chinensis Sonn. Unpublished thesis. Submitted
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of Michigan. 1954.
2. Loomis, H. F. & Roy O. Nelson. Bengal, a promising large-clustered Indian lychee.
Proc. Fla. Lychee Growers Assoc., 1: 9-12. 1955.
Packaging and Handling of Fresh Lychee Fruit
By GEORGE B. MACFIE, JR.
Division of Research and Industry, University of Miami
Coral Gables, Florida
In the last three years, the Tropical Food Laboratory of the University of
Miami has run and confirmed different test methods of packaging and handling
of lvchee fruit. The samples of the 1955 crop obtained from the University of
Miami Experimental Farm were used partially to recheck previous work, and
partially for new investigation in the methods of freezing. From these, and the
previous tests, certain conclusions can and should be drawn. They are as
A. Without extensive drying equipment, it is better to handle the fruit
dry rather than subject it to any treatment necessitating an aqueous solution.
Moisture retained on the surface of the fruit more than offsets any advantage
of the treatment. This has been evidenced by more rapid decay, general un-
sightliness of the package, and erratic behavior of the test samples.
B. Any type of packaging is better than none at all. In general, poly-
ethylene has given a longer shelf life, however, cellophane of several different
gauges and types has proven very satisfactory under suitable conditions. It is
felt that this leaves sufficient latitude for adjustment of the packaging method
to suit the demands of current sales trends.
C. The lower the holding temperature the better, as long as there is no
freezing of the fruit. It has been shown, however, that abrupt changes of
temperature are very undesirable and promote breakdown of the fruit. It may
therefore be concluded that a higher, but more constant temperature will yield
a better shelf life. It has been found that 55F. is about the upper limit of the
D. The shelf life expectancy must be considered in the light of existing
conditions. Some adjustments can often be made to modify these conditions.
In a large package, the chances of several spoiled fruit are higher than for a
small unit under the same conditions. One of the most difficult parts of this
experiment has been deciding on a suitable criterion of ,p.1il.gi. and sample
cancellation. For example, if only one fruit out of a pound package spoils,
should the whole package be cancelled from the list? Is this worse than having
a number of fruit turn brown or off color, even though they are still edible?
The rule of the thumb that has evolved is based on the appearance in regard to
salability. If the average person would not buy that particular package, then it
would be cancelled. All of this means that while shelf life holdings of 20 to .30
days have been accomplished and reported, generally enough of the entire test
spoiled to an unsalable degree so that these figures cannot be considered valid
from an economic standpoint. It is my opinion that under usual commercial
conditions, a shelf life of 10 to 14 days should be anticipated.
E. Maturity has a definite effect on the final condition of the product.
For best results, both in flavor and appearance, the fruit should be picked
when it is a full, firm, red-ripe. The accompanying slides can show this much
better than it can be described here.
F. Lychees can be frozen very easily to make an average to inferior
product, if the fresh fruit is to be used as a criterion of comparison. However if
freezing facilities permit a defined quick freeze, (2 hours or less) under suitable
conditions (as listed above) an excellent product can be obtained.
Fruit packed in tin cans under about 20 inches of vacuum were compared
with fruit packed in cellophane and polyethylene bags and quick frozen. For
taste the vacuum pack was preferred by all members of the laboratory taste
panel. For appearance, the vacuum pack and cellophane pack were equal,
however, both were superior to the polyethylene pack. This showed distinct and
general browning through the whole pack. In texture, all samples were superior
to slow frozen packs. It may be concluded therefore, that it would be exceed-
ingly difficult to deliver a commercial product from a home freezer.
G. It is felt in this laboratory that most of the basic and general pre-
packaging work has been done, and results obtained should be adequate to act
as a guide in working out the specific packaging that will ultimately be
demanded by the sales group. The freezing of the fruit could stand some
further work, but should be more specialized along lines anticipated by the sales
committee of the organization.
Branch Girdling and Root Pruning Trials on
Lychees in Florida
By T. W. YOUNG
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Irregular and frequently light bearing of Brewster vlchees is a major
problem facing growers in Florida. The trouble generally is due to failure to
bloom rather than failure to set fruit following adequate bloom. Branch gird-
ling and root pruning are among the more common practices long used in an
effort to induce flower-bud formation and subsequent fruiting, under such cir-
cumstances, on deciduous and nondeciduous fruit trees from the tropics to the
Some interesting results are reported from Hawaii by Nakata (3) from a
series of branch girdling tests made in 1950 and 1952 on Brewster Ivchees.
These tests were on five to 10-vear old trees, some of which had failed to bear
the previous season and others which had fair crops. Branches from 3` inch in
diameter to scaffold branches, 4 to 6 inches in diameter, as well as the trunks
ol some trees, were girdled at different times. Yields from these and suitable
controls were secured. The total yields for the two years from all controls,
girdled branches and trunks, together with time of girdling, are given in the
TOTAL YIELDS IN POUNDS
TIME OF GIRDLING
Mid-September Mid-October Mid-November Dec. 9, 1952*
Cont. Girdled Cont. Girdled Cont. Girdled Cont. Girdled
41.9 621.1 71.2 430.4 62.4 358.2 0 0
* 1952 only. These trees flushed between October and December 2 and had nearly mature
leaves when girdled.
Girdling in September, October and November resulted in total fields
which were 14.8, 6.0 and 5.7 times greater, respectively, than the total yields
from matching controls. In three cases where vegetative growth was just start-
ing when branches were girdled in October or November and in one case where
the flush was nearly mature when branches were girdled in December, no fruit
was produced on girdled or ungirdled branches. This demonstrated that gird-
ling would not promote flowering on trees that had flushed late in the season,
ior prevent or retard full development of a flush w hen girdling was after the
new flush was initiated. It appeared that September was the better time lor
girdling Brewster lvchees in Hawaii, where favorable temperatures and rainfall
in October and Novemnber tend to promote vegetative growth.
A series of tests were made in an eightt-year old Brewixster Ivchee grove oi
Merritt Island in the fall of 1954 to investigate the influence of branch girdling
and root pruning on flowering and fruiting under Florida conditions.
Twentv-four trees were selected for the branch girdling tests. Eight had
horne no fruit the previous season, eight had light crops andl the remainder
medium to heavv crops, according to performance records. Three branches,
ranging in diameter from about : to 1'- inches, on each of four trees in each of
the three icldt classes were girdled bv removing a hand of bark approximately '
of an inch wide on October 1. 1954. Each .,,ii.. 1 branch was paired with a
nearl)v nlgirdled branch of similar size and vigor as a control. On October 26,
1954, three branches of similar size and vigor to those first treated were girdled
,n each of tie remaining 12 trees. A hand of b ark about !s inch wide was
removed from one branch on each tree. Two other brainehes on each were
girdled hv completely ringing the bark to wood at three points about t inch
apart with a knife, but without removing a hand of bark. These were also
paired with appropriate controls. The bark slipped readily at both times of
girdling so that where a band was removed little camlbilli remained on the
By the middle of January some chlorosis of the foliage had developed on a
few branches receiving each girdling treatment. There was no chlorosis on the
control branches. At flowering, in Februarv, all girdled branches were slower
in blooming than the controls, except two branches which had a wide band of
bark removed on October 1. Later it was found that the girdles on these had
been bridged by narrow bands of new bark. ()n the average, the panicles on
girdled branches remained shorter than those on the controls up to fruit maturi-
ty. Time of maturity was the same, practically, on girdled branches as on the
controls, except on three branches girdled October 26 without removing a band
of bark. One of these branches was on a tree that had borne no fruit the
previous season and the others on a nearby tree which had t produced a medium
amount of fruit. Maturity on these three branches \\was delayed about three
weeks, but was only slightly later than the fruit on one entire Brewster tree in
the same section of grove. As nearly as could he determined by observation
and counting fruits, there was no measurable difference in fruit size, color or
total yield between girdled and ungirdled branches. At harvest time all girdled
branches were living and without pronounced foliage chlorosis. Those ringed
at three places without removing a band of balk were noticeably larger above
For the root pruning tests 18 trees were selected. Six of these had borne
no fruit the previous season, six had light crops and six bore medium to heavy
crops. Each tree was paired with a nearby tree of similar size and performance
to serve as a control. On October 1, 1954, three trees in each performance
class were root-pruned by forcing a sharp nursery spade vertically downward
at a distance of about three feet from the trunk so as to sever both large and
small roots to a depth of about 16 inches. The remaining nine trees were root-
pruned in the same manner on October 26, 1954.
Observations were made at intervals of about six weeks. At no time was
there a discernible difference in behavior between the root-pruned and control
trees; flowering and fruiting were comparable in all respects.
Groff (1) has stressed the necessity of reoccurring temperatures between
30 and 40 F. during fall and winter for satisfactory flowering and fruiting of
lychees. Marloth (2) comments similarly. The branch girdling experiments in
Hawaii (3) were conducted in an area of relatively high fall and winter temper-
atures, where a minimum of 52 F. is rarely experienced. Relatively high
temperatures, combined with ample rainfall, prevented the trees from becoming
semi-dormant; a condition apparently essential to the production of fruit buds
on lychees. Girdling supplied the necessary physiological stimulus, in spite of
unfavorable climatic factors, and good yields resulted from the treatment, as
compared to yields from ungirdled controls. On the other hand, according to
records of the Federal-State Frost Warning Service, temperatures in the vicinity
of the grove on Merritt Island where the branch girdling and root pruning tests
were made, were below 52 F. 38 days between November 1, 1954 and January
31, 1955. There were 10 days during this period when temperatures from
33 to 400 F. were recorded. A good bloom occurred on most trees in this grove
early in February. Low temperatures, with perhaps some dry weather, appar-
ently brought about sufficient dormancy to induce flowering and thus masked
any effects in this direction of branch girdling or root pruning. A good crop
was harvested from most trees. The yields obtained following a warm winter
might conceivably be increased as a result of either treatment. There is the
question, however, of adverse effects that repeated branch girdling or root
pruning might have on the tree. Experiences with other fruit trees suggest that
lychees might be retarded in growth and tend even more to alternate bearing,
with a net result of lower total yields. It seems doubtful if either practice
would be desirable in the regular culture of Ivchees. Investigations are being
continued for further information along these lines.
1. GROI'FF. G. WEIDMAN. The lychee and lungan. Orange Judd Co., New York.
188 pp. 1921.
2. MARLOTH. RAIMUND H. The litchi in South Africa. Union of South Africa Dept.
of Agri. Hort. Series No. 13. Bul. 2S6. 1947.
3. NAKATA, SHIGERU. Girdlin" as a means of inducing flower-bud initiation in
litchi. Hawaii Agri. Exp. Sta. Progress Notes No. 95. Oct., 1953.
A New Caterpillar on Lychees
By F. GRAY BUTCHER
Division of Research and Industry, University of Miami
Coral Gables, Florida
Some foliage-feeding caterpillars not previously reported on lychees de-
veloped a light to moderate infestation on some young trees being maintained
in pot culture at our Experimental Farm this fall. These larvae have recently
been identified by Harold Denmark of the State Plant Board as Schizura ipomeae
Doubleday. This is a representative of the large lepidopterous family Notodon-
tidae, and a related species within the genus is the rather common apple pest
known as the "red-humped caterpillar". The species herewith concerned is not
uncommon, and is contained in lists of insects from many states.
These caterpillars are of rather striking appearance. The mature larva is
about 1I inches long, of a basic reddish-brown color, with a conspicuous bright
green neck collar about ," inch wide, incomplete on the dorsal surface. A strong
pointed tubercle on the top of the fourth segment, bearing two short hairs, and
a more moderate tubercle on the eleventh segment, give the larva a distinctive
"humped" appearance, especially since the posterior end is frequently raised
from the feeding surface. The larva feeds on the edge of a leaf, clasping the
leaf-surfaces with its effective prolegs located ventrally on the central seg-
ments. It pupates in a silken cocoon constructed in a protected location or on
the soil surface. The adult is a brownish colored moth with a wing expanse of
nearly two inches. The wings are normally held sloping, roof-like over the body,
when the moth is at rest.
Even though these caterpillars are of a conspicuous color and structure,
they are quite inconspicuous in their feeding locations. Their brownish color
blends well with any tip browning of lychee leaves and with twig colors, and
their humped appearance simulates to some extent the deformities of any
necrosis of lateral leaf margins. In our pot culture plantings the infestations
were always first indicated by observing the pellets of fecal frass which had
dropped to the flat covers maintained on the pots. We have recognized only
one or two specimens on our larger field and nursery trees.
Their injury appears entirely as typical leaf-chewing damage along leaf
margins, with the individual leaf being largely consumed or adjacent leaves
being injured if the larvae are undisturbed. No evidence of gregarious or group
larval feeding has been recognized, as is the case with several related species of
Larval collections made in late September showed a high percent of para-
sitism by a tachinid fly, with only one out of sixteen larvae completing its growth
and pupating. The parasite eggs are clearly visible as small whitish objects at-
tached to the body of the caterpillar, and the parasitic maggots consume the
body contents of the host larva. The adult flies have been identified as
Phorocera floridensis (Towns.) by C. W. Sabrosky of the U. S. National Mu-
seum. This is a rather common parasite of various caterpillars, including the fall
army worm, the poplar tent caterpillar, and the larger canna leaf roller.
It does not seem probable that this form will become a serious pest on our
Ivchee plantings, or that it should be difficult to control if heavier infestations
should develop. The caterpillars should be susceptible to any effective stomach
poison applied to the foliage. Obviously natural parasitism has prevented this
form from becoming abundant in our locality this season, and it seems probable
that this may be an important factor in the ecology of this notodontid.
Immunity of the Lychee to the Burrowing
By E. P. DuCHARMIE and R. F. SUIT
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
The increase in prevalence of spreading decline caused by the burrowing
iitmatode, Radophllus similis (Cobb) Thorne, in Florida citrus groves has led
some growers to consider replanting infested areas with another tree crop. The
newv plantings of Iychee, Lilchi chiniie.sis Sonn., attracted the attention of citrus
growers seeking a substitute tree crop. A few growers cleared small areas of
citrus affected bv spreading decline and replanted with lYchees. Because of
this interest in replanting infested citrus land to Ivehees without the benefit of
soil treatment, it became advisable to investigate whether or not the lvchee
might be a host of the burrowing nematode and to determine, if possible,
whether these lcvhee plantings would he a source of infestation to surrounding
Since no information was available on the relationship of the burrowing
nematode to the lychee, the investigation was conducted both in the field and
i; the laboratory. The field observations were made on Iychee trees planted in
citrus groves infested with burrowing nematodes. One of the field plantings
consisted of 65 Ivchee trees planted in burrowing nematode infested land in
1952. The grower had removed the spreading decline affected citrus trees and
replanted immediately to young air-layered Brewster variety of lychee, without
fumigating to destroy nematodes. Soil and root samples were taken from this
lvchee planting in 1953 and root samples were examined for burrowing nema-
tode infestation in 1954 and 1955. Additional observations were made on two
lvchee trees, 25 years old, growing among burrowing nematode infested citrus.
These old lvchee trees and adjoining citrus were examined twice for infestation
by burrowing nematodes.
Experiments with vlchee plants were made in temperature control tanks
where the soil temperature \\as maintained constantly at 75 to 78, F. This
temperature level seems to be close to the optimum for burrowing nematode
activity and at the same time favorable for root growth. Bre\\ster variety of
lvchee seedling were used in one test and air-lavered plants in the second. In
each experiment six Ivchee test plants were potted in subsoil from a spreading
decline affected grove and six control plants were potted in subsoil from a
healthy citrus grove. In addition, the test plants potted in infested soil were
inoculated twice with burrowing nematodes from infested citrus trees. Six
citrus seedlings were planted in soil from the same source used for the ]vchee
test plants and inoculated also with burrowing nematodes. The roots of the
inoculated and control plants were examined twice for infestation bv the bur-
rowing nematodes and after one year the plants were taken up and both the
soil and roots were examined again.
None of the young lvchee trees planted in the citrus grove infested with
burrowing nematodes showed symptoms of decline. The growth of these lvchees
- Presented before the Fla. State Hort. Soc.. Nov. 1-3. 1955.
appeared to be normal in every respect. Burrowing nematodes were never
extracted either from the soil under Ivchee trees or from lychee roots during
the three ears that these trees were studied. Lateral roots from the spreading
decline affected citrus trees grew across the row middles and extended beyond
the Ivchee trees and the rootlets mingled in a common root sphere. Rootlets
from these zones were sorted with forceps and incubated separately. The lychee
roots from the zones of mixed roots were completely free of burrowing nema-
todes whereas the citrus roots were heavily infested.
The twenty-five year old Ivchee trees growing in the infested citrus grove
had no symptoms of decline, die back or root rot. Burrowing nematodes were
never extracted from the roots of these old Ivehee trees.
Burrowing nematodes were never recovered from the roots of the lvchee
test plants although the plants were potted in infested soil and inoculated re-
peatedlv. The citrus plants kept under identical conditions became heavily
infested. The experiment was repeated with identical results. Burrowing nema-
todes from citrus would not force-feed on lychees and the population died.
The above experiments and observations established that the lvehee is
immune from the nematode that causes the spreading decline disease of citrus.
Burrowing nematodes not only preferred citrus to lychee roots in the field
where a choice was possible but also could not be forced to feed on lychee
roots under controlled conditions where the environment was favorable for
burrowing nematodes. Lvchee roots apparently do not liberate a metabolite
inhibiting burrowing nematodes because in dense clumps of mixed rootlets the
susceptible host rootlets became heavily infested. It seems that the lychee roots
are unpalatable to burrowing nematodes. Another reason may be that the outer
tissues of Ivehee roots are less succulent than root tissues of citrus, avocado and
other host plants of the burrowing nematode.
The Ivchee, because of its immunity to burrowing nematodes, should be a
satisfactory' vard tree for home sites. Certainly its growth and development do
not seem to be hindered by the presence of burrowing nematodes. The inves-
tigation indicates that the Ivehee could be used as a substitute tree crop in place
of citrus where land is infested with burrowing nematodes. A few such plant-
ilgs exist and one grower has planted a border of Ivehee trees 100 feet wide
on one side of the infested home site as part of a landscaping plan and also in
the hope of preventing burrowing nematodes from getting into the surrounding
citrus grove. Nothing is known as yet about the effect of such biological
harriers. It would be necessary to keep the cover crop down in such a barrier
to prevent burrowing nematodes from crossing it on the roots of native weed
hosts. The Ivchee, because of immunity to burrowing nematodes, would not
be a reservoir of infestation and a source of infection to surrounding citrus.
Control of Clitocybe Rot
By MORTIMER COHEN, PATHOLOGIST
State Plant Board of Florida
Almost everyone has heard of Typhoid Mary, but many of us have proba-
bly forgotten what brought her to public attention. She was by trade a cook
who had recovered from typhoid fever but remained a carrier of that disease.
Carriers are actually not rare, and, when they follow the precautions requir-
ed by the health department, do not represent a serious danger. But Typhoid
Mary liked to cook and refused to quit when told to do so. She liked to cook
so much that she transmitted her infection to more than 200 people as she went
from job to job, all the while leading the health authorities on a merry chase.
The Clitocybe disease of Ivchees, the mushroom root rot disease, has its
Typhoid Mars they are the oaks. An understanding of the role of oaks as
carriers of the disease is basic to an appreciation of the measures required for
its control. Oaks can be carriers because they are tolerant of the fungus. Clito-
cybe fungus can remain alive for ears on oak roots which it attacks only mild-
lv, but when it comes in contact with the roots of a susceptible tree like Ivchee
-- Clitocvbe can do a great deal of damage.
Clitocybe tabescens fruits as a clump of mushrooms which, by the way, are
quite edible. It does its damage as a feltlike sheet of fungus mvcelium which
grows between the bark and wood of tree roots and ends bv girdling the entire
tree at the crown. Wounded roots, such as roots cut in digging a young tree in
the nursery, appear to be especially susceptible to attack.
The control of this disease can be discussed under three categories: Preven-
tion, exclusion, and eradication.
The most desirable method of handling the Clitocvbe problem when lav-
ing out the lychee grove, obviously, is to plant the trees in an area in which
Clitocvbe is not likely to be found. Fields which have been free of oaks or other
susceptible or tolerant species for a number of vears are locations of this kind.
Clitocybe is not known in the Dade County area, perhaps because of its unique
soil type, so mushroom root rot will not be a problem in Dade County groves.
Where oaks have been present it is necessary to remove roots as well as
tops when the land is cleared because any small Clitocvbe infection on oak
roots which are left in the ground will soon cover the entire root system. If it
is possible to plant annual crops for a few years on newly cleared oak land this
too will reduce the possibility of infection. It is important to remember that
Clitocvbe will not live in the soil itself, but only on roots or plant debris in the
soil. Once its food has been consumed the Clitocvbe fungus will die unless it
has made contact with a new host.
Any soil which is once free of this fungus will remain free, unless trees
growing in the soil become infected or infected wood or plant parts are some-
how brought in. A new infection can be started by spores which are produced
by the millions on the gills of Clitocvbe fruiting bodies. Luckily new infections
are rarely started in this way in nature.
However the fungus can also be brought in on the roots of young trees
or ornamental plants, on oak leaf mulch, or on wood such as might be taken
into a grove to burn for protection of trees against frost. If such materials are
excluded from the grove, a lychee planting which is free of mushroom root rot for
the first five to ten years of its life can be expected to remain free of the
What of those groves which do lose trees because of Clitocvbe rot? Quick
removal of the dead trees is certainly a desirable first measure. Again, the
thorough removal of all roots affected and even the larger roots which appear
still healthy is also necessary. If no fumigation is planned the soil which is
excavated when the tree is removed should be allowed to dry in place and no
new tree planted in the affected space for six months or more. However wNhere
the soil contains manv infected oak roots this method may not be very successful.
If the disease is found on a tree before it has progressed too far, the affected
roots and portion of the crown can be removed surgically and cut surfaces
covered with a pruning paint. Such treatment may sometimes not prevent the
eventual death of the tree but at least one case is known where a lychee tree
heated in this manner more than fifteen years ago is still standing with no sign
of Clitocybe infection.
Where the infestation is more serious, however, a better method of des-
troying the fungus in the ground is needed and it will probably be found that
some type of soil fumigation is required.
In recent years a considerable amount of scientific work has been done
with soil fnmigants in general, and, in particular, with soil fumigants used
against Armillaria mellea, a fungus which is widely distributed, is very closely
related to Clitobyce tabesccns, and greatly resembles it in its attack on plants.
The information which has been developed has enabled us to formulate some
trial treatments. An experiment using these treatments was set up in a lychee
grove on Merritt Island in October 1955 but results will probably not be avail-
able for years. Because of grower interest the treatments used are described here.
IT MUST BE CLEARLY UNDERSTOOD HOWEVER, THAT THESE
TREATMENTS ARE EXPERIMENTAL AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN
'PRACTICE IS NOT YET KNOWN.
The treatments below were designed for use on soil from which trees
killed by Clitocvbe were removed. They should not be used to treat soil in
which trees are growing because the materials used will kill roots with which
tlev come in contact. Each treatment has been calculated to cover a circle 16
feet in diameter. This will be a convenient area to treat in most groves but it
may be adjusted to individual needs. After soil treatment a period of at least
two months should intervene before young trees are set in the ground.
Four methods of fumigation are described here, of which two are soil
injection methods and two are soil drench treatments:
These are applied with an injector gun. A number of these devices are
available from different manufacturers. One which has given satisfactory service
is Mack's Chemical Injector Gun made by Mack's Anti-Weed Gun, 1424 Chicago
Street, Caldwell, Idaho. Either the 3 quart or l gallon size can be used.
Injections should be made at a depth of 7 to 12 inches. Injections at 12 inch
depth are preferable but will require a special probe which should be ordered
with the gun. After an area has been treated it should be moistened to a depth
of about three inches. This blanket of moist soil should be maintained for a
period of 3 weeks to confine the gas and allow it to act over an extended period.
(In this treatment the recommendations generally followed are those of
Dr. Donald E. Bliss in his circular "Controlling Armillaria root rot in citrus"
University of California, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1947). Dose per in-
jection is 2 ounces applied 18 inches apart in rows which are themselves 18
inches apart. Injections should be staggered in successive rows so that a
diamond pattern of injection holes is made. Four deep charges of 6 ounces each
are also applied around the center of the tree space at a depth of 3 feet. These
are poured into holes made by an earth auger or soil tube. Holes for the deep
charges should each be 2 feet from the center and should be at the corners of
a square around the center. At this rate of application approximately 2 gallons
of carbon disulfide will be used for each 16 foot circle treated. Carbon disul-
fide may be obtained from dealers in agricultural chemicals. In our experimental
work Stauffer Chemical Company, Apopka, Florida, supplied this material.
Application procedure is similar to that used with carbon disulfide but
injections are applied at 1 foot intervals in rows 1 foot apart, staggered. Dose
is only 0.18 oz. (5.2 ml) per injection. Four deep charges of 1.15 oz. (34 ml)
should be applied at a depth of 3 feet. These should be two feet from the
center of space and holes for the charges should form the corners of a square.
This is applied at approximately the same rate as is used in fumigating citrus
soil infested with the burrowing nematode. Each 16 foot circle requires approx-
imately 1. quarts of fumigant. D-D is a product of the Shell Chemical Corpor-
ation and is available at most farm supply stores.
Fumigant is mixed with 500 gallons of water which is flooded on the 16
foot circle. The area to he treated should be leveled before treatment. The cen-
tral 8-foot circle should be cut 1 inch lower than the remainder of the plot so
that more of the fumigant solution will stand on it and thus make for deeper
penetration at the center.
Five gallons of commercial formalin (approximately 40% formaldehyde)
are mixed with the 500 gallons of water. Formalin can be purchased from
chemical or agricultural supply houses.
This is a relatively new material which the manufacturer reports is show-
ing promise in the control of Armillaria in experimental trials. It is made by
Stauffer Chemical Company and can be obtained at their warehouse at Apopka.
The fumigant solution is made by mixing one gallon of Vapam with 500 gallons
ol water and is applied in the manner previously described.
NOTE: The assistance of Dr. C. E. Williamson, Cornell University, in setting up these trial
treatments is gratefully acknowledged.
Marketing the Lychee
Bv DON LINS
Scald-Sweet Sales, Inc.. Tampa
The marketing of Florida lychees for the 1955 season varied from
that of 1954. The volume of fruit was considerably greater as approximately
125 per cent more fruit was sold in fresh form than in 1954. Due to poor
weather the first of the season, picking was delayed and shipments were then
crowded together as rains seemed to hasten maturity. Thus we had full scale
production before the initial buyers were able to come back for re-orders.
The thinking of Seald-Sweet, in line with your marketing committee, was
to stretch out into new areas seeking the so-called "American" market. The
Chinese population of the United States is relatively small, and as a whole a
very low income group. Consequently, larger lvchee crops will have to be
sokl into the American market in order to gather new customers.
Distribution of the crop was made into forty-five markets in the United
States and Canada. This stretched from coast to coast and from Texas through
Canada. We made sales in all of the terminal markets, and many of the larger
cities. This year sales represented movement into better than twenty new
markets which had never seen fresh lvchees before.
Reception was generally good in these new markets although in most of
them sales were limited in volume. Sales were actually made to over seventy
customers composing more than one hundred fifty individual orders. It was of
great interest to note that in each market in the United States where sales were
made last year thev showed an increase in 1955. Most of the new customers
developed this season also repeated their orders. (It must be remembered that
iew customers do not lbu large orders. In most cases it is a question of token
orders with succeeding ones increasing in volume.)
It was quite disappointing to find that our sales in Canadian markets,
were not anv better than last year. In 1954 these markets were not able to
get enough fruit. From all indications we thought these markets would show
a good increase this season. It seems the only ready market in this area was
with the Chinese population. When they bought once their "curiosity taste"
Swas satisfied. Naturally they have a terrific freight rate and the retail sale
price is high. However, our sales representatives indicated to us that they
did not believe that cutting the price would encourage sales. I1 fact several
of the customers in this area quick froze their fruit as sales were so slow that
otherwise they would have lost some of the fruit. I think it should also be
pointed out that the quality of the trade in the Canadian markets was good.
Supermarket groups and the best jobbers and wholesalers in Canada handled
Ivchees. Some incentive will have to be developed in this area next year in
order to increase movement and develop new buyers.
It is of great importance to remember that lychees are a new fruit even
to most of the Chinese-Americans. They have heard of them through their
history and from ancestors but actually very few Chinese-Americans have ever
seen or eaten a Ivehee before. Even the dried fruit has been practically
unobtainable for the last few vears. The integration of the younger Chinese
ilto the American way of life together with their separation from Chinese settle-
ments and traditions also de-emphasizes the Chinese as a buying element.
Since many experts believe the term "marketing" starts wi'h harvesting
I think mention should be made of this important phase. We had some minor
complaints of fruit being picked immature in our earliest shipments. Late ilt
the season we had some complaints of fruit being overmature. It arrived in
a leaking and discolored condition. Generally, however, there were few com-
plaints as to quality. Many compliments were given as to fruit quality and color.
There were some instances of weight shortages on shipments. Very few
instances involved more than 10 per cent shortage. This could have been
caused by slightly detective scales and dehydration during transit. I believe
more experience as to weight loss in transit will correct this situation for future
The question of type of package and packaging is still an experimental
problem. It is pretty well determined that for sales in the American Super-
Market a form of consumer package is definitely needed. Many of the Chinese
were packaging lychees in a one pound bag this past season as this was the
average unit purchase size. If lychees follow a pattern similar to the other
fruits which are prepacked the price will have much to do with the size of
the package. For the long pull it may be that a one-half pound package will
be the most suitable. It would seem that a 49 cent package would be an
ideally priced unit. These bags or other type packages selected would have
lo be packed in a master shipping container. The present white lug would
be a suitable one.
One of the greatest drawbacks to lychee distribution, and I might add
sales, is the terrific cost of transportation. Air freight is extremely high. If
fast truck service can be worked out at least into eastern markets a tremendous
savings would result. Air freight on perishables has another decided draw-
back in that it can be delayed without obligation of the Air line when planes
are overloaded. We experienced several shipments around the Fourth of July
where vychees were delayed and showed some decay upon arrival. Great
pressure should be put on these carriers to insure no delay on shipments.
It was decided by our organization and the lychee marketing committee
to sell lychees at a dollar per pound. This price was maintained for the first
ten days of the season. However, it was found that this price made a pro-
hibitive delivered price in the markets. After consulting your marketing
committee, we offered quantity discounts available to all buyers to encourage
volume purchases. This increased sales considerably, but production also
increased at a faster rate. The real volume of Ivchees was sold on the basis
of fifty cents per pound. This was the level at which the law of supply and
demand took hold and the available supplies moved into buying channels.
Lychees were tested in Super-Markets in the New York area. The overall
results were encouraging. These tests were made by our dealer service man in
this area. The results showed that lvchees could be sold to the American
population if properly displayed and moderately priced. I believe one of the
prize comments was, "Steak is a dollar a pound and I can't afford it more
than once a week." This comment is not important except when you consider
the housewife in her continual financial struggle to balance a budget. The
average family has definite financial obligations. After these are covered,
the housewife may then use the surplus for whatever luxuries are available.
Lvchees must be considered a luxury item bought on impulse. This is all the
more reason for reasonable pricing, good packaging and proper display.
We will do all we can to get you the proper outlets, the merchandising,
and the repeat sales necessary to make the lychee industry in Florida a success-
iul one. It is going to take a lot of co-ordination between grower and sales
agency with plenty of merchandising in between to keep the continually in-
creasing production moving into retail channels at satisfactory prices for the
grower. This can be done with mutual co-ordination between all of us.
A Progress Report on Handling and Storage
of Fresh Lychees
By 13. D. THOMPSON
University of Florida, Gainesville
The word progress generally carries the connotation of positive success.
However, we often make progress in research by the interpretation of negative
data. This has been largely the case with our work with lychees this year.
The first shipment of fruit was received from Sarasota on June 28. The
fruits were of uniform size, excellent appearance and quality. Work the previ-
ous year had indicated that water precooling might result in somewhat firmer
fruit than those not precooled. Water, however, resulted in serious discolora-
tion. Facilities for air precooling were available this year and one lot of fruit
was precooled to 40F. with air at 30 F. in an air-blast cooler. Cooled and
non-cooled lychees were packaged in ventilated polyethylene bags or remained
in bulk in the standard lugs. Storage was at 40, 55 or 70F. Samples were
observed daily and detailed examinations for color, flavor, decay, general ap-
pearance and the ascorbic acid content made on specific days.
Non-precooled fruit either packaged or non-packaged retained better color
hor four davs at 700 than at 55 or 40. A considerable amount of decav
occurred on fruits at 70 and after six days storage at 70, decay was quite
severe and color was only fair. No decay was evident and color remained good
for ten davs at 400. Fruit subjected to a higher temperature after storage
at low temperature discolored completely within a few hours.
The ascorbic acid content on a dry-weight basis was originally about 90
ing. per 100 grams of the edible fruit, and gradually decreased as temperature
and storage time increased. Precooled fruits were consistently of poorer appear-
ance than non-precooled ones and in almost all cases ascorbic acid content was
lower. The edible aril of the precooled fruits was severely damaged and this
damage may have resulted in a greater loss of ascorbic acid.
A general observation made was that increased handling of the bulk fruit
resulted in more severe discoloration. A complete lug-liner of polyethylene
\was used in some tests and appeared to enhance the storage quality of the fruit
although results were not conclusive. Some moisture condensation occurred
and caused slight spotting of the fruit.
The sodium salt of orthophenylphenate had shown some promise the pre-
vious year in controlling a fungus that grows so profusely on the surface of the
fruit. The water solution of the fungicide, however, had resulted in severe
discoloration of the fruit. The chemical in one percent solutions in the volatile
solvents, acetone, ethyl alcohol and isopropylalcohol was sprayed on fruits which
were then packaged and held in storage. The fruits in all treatments were se-
verely discolored within 24 hours. After six davs' storage at 70", the fruit not
treated or sprayed with the solvents alone were all moderately or severely
infected with fungi and yeasts. Only about 50 percent of the fruits treated
with the fungicide were slightly to moderately infected. A white fungus, as vet
unidentified, was the most serious decay apparent.
The arrival condition of the second lot of fruit, received on July 7, was
poor. Fruits were all sizes and many were discolored and decayed. More than
half were discarded as being unsuitable for experimental work. The time from
shipment to delivery was less than 18 hours.
The best of the remaining fruits were packaged in ventilated polyethylene
bags or in sealed bags made of cellulose acetate. The latter is a very permeable
film in which there is rarely any moisture condensation. Color of the fruit in
both types of bags remained excellent for four days at 70 and good for ten
days. All fruits were moderately to severely decayed after seven days, how-
ever. Color was good up to ten days at 400 in polyethylene but only fair in
cellulose acetate after four days and poor within seven days.
Sulfur dioxide is a chemical used for fumigating grapes prior to shipment
and during storage in order to control some of the organisms causing fruit de-
cay. Several treatments with this fumigant were made ranging from continuous
fumigation in dilute concentrations to more concentrated treatments prior to
storage. None of the treatments resulted in any control of fungi, yeasts, or
bacteria on the fruit during storage at 70. The continuous treatments and
those using concentrated solutions resulted in bleaching of the lychees. Some
color was regained after the sulfur dioxide was removed from the fruit.
It would appear that careful grading and selection of fruit at the time of
packing are major factors in the maintenance of quality of lvchees during
There is a good possibility that a fungicidal spray such as Captan, or some
of the carbamates in a formulation that would not leave an unattractive residue
applied some days prior to harvest could control some of the decay. The appli-
cation of spray prior to harvest should be tested in order to determine proper
timing for good control without deleterious effects on the fruit color and ap-
pearance. Under the provisions of the Miller Bill passed by the Congress,
tolerances were set for the amount of residue of a pesticide remaining in or
on fruits, vegetables and other raw agricultural products at the time they were
offered into interstate commerce. These tolerances must be set for each chemi-
cal for use on specific crop plants, and the necessity for its use must be shown.
This pre-harvest clean-up combined with a minimum of handling, good
packing sanitation and careful grading should result in better quality fruit.
Packaging and Displaying of Fresh Lychee Fruit
By EMMET CARPENTER
Publix Market, Clearwater
Toward the end of the lvchee harvesting season last July, Mr. C. C.
Mitchell and Judge C. E. Ware, both of Clearwater, brought eighteen pounds
of fresh lvehee fruits to our store. They were put up in one pound polyethylene
bags. The fruit was of good quality and attractive in color. I displayed them
in the fruit rack and at the growers' si,.',, a.;., priced them at one dollar per
pound. During the succeeding three days, (Thursday, Friday, and Saturday)
we sold eight pounds.
On the following Monday, the growers took out the unsold Ivchee fruit
and replaced them with fresh fruit in the one pound packages. That day,
Monday, we sold one pound.
On Tuesday, I packaged a further supply of fresh attractive Ivchees in
a 5 inch by 3 inch tray. overwrapped in cellophane, putting 10 ounces of fruit
in the tray and marking the package one-half pound with a price of 49 cents.
(The extra weight was added to overcome shrinkage, and not being familiar
with the moisture loss of fresh lvchees chose the 2 ounce increase per package
The new type packages of lvchees were displayed in the same location in
the store, except that the display of fruit was larger. During the five days,
(Tuesday through Saturday) we sold 150 pounds of the fruit. This ready sale
continued until the crop was exhausted.
I found, as a store manager, that a housewife would spend 49 cents to
trL the fresh lvchee fruits, but would not spend one dollar for this luxury. I
also learned that there were a great preponderance of people who dlid not know
tie fresh Ivehee fruit.
It would seem to me that the fresh Ivehee will have to be advertised.
placed in the store in a display that catches the eve of the buying public, and
priced within the range of the housewife's pocketbook.
Insects on Lychees During the Past Year
By G. W. DEKLE
State Plant Board
Insect problems were of minor importance to Florida growers during 1955.
Some fruit loss occurred as a result of plant bugs "stinging" green and mature
The fruit scarring worm (Platynota stultana Wism.) was observed by Mr.
j. B. Pinkerton for the first time in his grove on Merritt Island, Brevard Coun-
tv, during April 1955; the larvae were feeding on and tying the bloom panicles
together. Fruit scarring worm larvae have previously been reported feeding
on green Ivchee fruit, and have been collected on citrus, avocados, and man-
goes.' The infestation on Merritt Island consisted of one to four webbed
panicles per tree with two to four larvae present in each of the webs. Inspecting
the grove two weeks after the infestation \was reported revealed no larvae. It
was not necessary to apply control measures and apparently the fruit scarring
vworms will not be a serious pest to lvchee.
During 1955 Circular No. 131 '"Lchee Insect Control" dated May 1955
\\as released by the Agricultural Extension Service at Gainesville.
The following insects have been recorded on lvchee since the check list
of insects associated with lychee was published in 1954 Proceedings of Lvchee
1. Acarina (Mites)
Erinose mite (Aceria litchii (Keifer)) was collected by Mr. William R.
Grove, Jr., at Nokomis, Sarasota County, during October 1955. The
specimens were identified by Dr. H. H. Keifer, Systematic Entomolo-
gist, California State Department of Agriculture, Sacramento, Calif.
This tiny elongated microscopic white mite with two pairs of legs is
approximately 1/200 inch long. A brown felt-like hair "erineum" is
produced on infested leaves. Specimens of the erinose mite and in-
fested leaves were exhibited at the 1955 meeting of Lychee Growers
Association in Winter Haven. Dr. T. Nishida and Dr. F. G. Haldawavy
consider this mite to be one of the most serious foliage pests of Ivchee
in Hawaii, and also report this mite as being specific to lychee. The
State Plant Board will be watching for this mite during inspections and
urge growers to do likewise. Growers were asked to be on the lookout
for this blister mite by Dr. F. Grav Butcher in 1953. Dr. Butcher
mentioned it would he a considerable problem if introduced into this
2. Coleoptera (Beetle)
Caeniella dinidiata (F.) averaging ten adults per panicle was collected
from a late blooming lychee tree at Estero, Lee County, by Mr. J. C.
Denmark, Plant Inspector, State Plant Board. We do not know whether
this will be a serious pest or not.
A stink-bug (Banasa lenticularis Uhler) was collected while sweeping
lychee foliage at Laurel, Sarasota County, by F. W. Mead, Entomologist,
State Plant Board. An average of four adults was obtained per 75
sweeps. This insect has been reported previously in Florida on huckle-
berry (Gaylhl.sacia sp.) and on Lyionia ferruginea (Walt.).'
False unicorn caterpillar (Schizura ipomae Dbldv.) in the larval stage
averaging a few per tree was collected at Perrine, Dade County, by Dr.
F. Grav Butcher, Entomologist, University of Miami, October 10, 1955.
1. DEKLE, G. W. 1954. Some lychee insects of Florida. Florida Horticultural Society
2. DEKLE, G. W. 1954. Insects associated with lychee (Litchi chinensis) in Florida.
Proceedings Florida Lychee Growers Association. Ref. on pp. 16-20. (Released 1955).
3. NISHIDA, T. and F. G. HALDAWAY. 1955. The erinose mite of lychee. Hawaii
Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 4S: 1-10.
4. BLATCHLEY, W. S. 1926. Heteroplera or true bugs of Eastern North America.
Ref. on pp. 165-166.
5. BUTCHER, F. GRAY. 1953. Insect pests affecting lychees. Proceedings Lychec
Growers Association (Appendix C) Ref. on pp. 4-5.
Research Work on Lychees at the Sub-Tropical
Experiment Station, Homestead, Florida
Investigations on lvchees in progress include:
. Variety Collection
About 20 promising varieties are under observation for vigor of growth.
yield, time of fruit maturity, fruit quality and other pertinent data. The number
of plants of each of these varieties will be increased for more extensive trials
at the Station and at Plantation Laboratory. Other promising varieties in
Florida and elsewhere will be secured for similar tests.
2. Dormancy Induction
Trials with sprays of sodium naphthalene acetate are in progress in groves
near Sarasota and Vero Beach to determine the influence of this practice on
inducing dormancy and the effect on subsequent flowering and fruiting. An-
other approach to this problem is through branch girdling. Investigations on
the influence of branch girdling on lvehee fields are being conducted in groves
on Merritt Island and at Davie.
3. Performance Records in Coinmercial Groves
The performance of the Brewster lychee growing under different cultural
practices and climatic conditions on various soils in the state is being examined
in groves at Davie, Vero Beach, Merritt Island, Geneva, Desoto City and Osprey.
Temperature records through the fall and winter are being obtained through
the cooperation of the Federal-State Frost Warning Service in Lakeland.
Fertilizer records are kept and the performance is measured by inventorying
the vegetative growth, bloom and estimated yields on each tree in the portion
(o each grove under observation.
Investigations definitely planned for the coming year:
1. Fertilizer Trials
Fertilizer trials will be initiated in a suitable commercial grove to examine
the influence of time of application, with primary attention given to nitrogen,
on flowering and fruiting of Brewster lychee. It is also planned to test nitrogen
fertilizer rate by field plot technique.
T. W. YouNG
Research on the Lychee in Progress and to be
Initiated During the Next Year at the University
of Miami Experimental Farm
All members of the Experimental Farm and Plant Research Laboratories
of the University of Miami are taking part in the work with lychees.
Our work along entomological lines will be a continued survey of new
pest forms and biological studies of forms observed to date. Control studies
must be continued against certain forms especially in regard to timing of in-
secticide applications for scale insect control.
Studies of pollination by insects are indicated and will be carried out
during the next blooming season.
Work on determining the incidence of chicken-tongue seeds in the Brew-
ster variety is being approached from the viewpoint of pollination and through
propagation of certain clones reputed to yield a high percentage of chicken-
Rootstock studies on the lychee are now in progress. Certain varieties
have good fruit quality but low tolerance to extremes of soil conditions. It is
probable that these varieties when grafted onto a stock that exhibits tolerance
to our soil conditions will then thrive. Studies have been initiated using Bengal
and Brewster, both as air layers and seedling stocks, on Miami oolite soils as
well as the sandy soils in the central part of the state. The work on sandy soils
will be in cooperation with the University of Florida.
Introduced varieties other than Brewster now represent 16 named varieties
now growing at the Experimental Farm, introduced from Africa, Hawaii, India.
and Honduras. These will be added to during the year as grafted and air
On a 7,2 acre Brewster block, three and a half years old, on Miami oolite
soil, fertilizer tests will begin after January. High and low nitrogen and potash
as well as timing of applications are the principle variations to be tested.
In search of new varieties, sixty selected seedlings have been planted in
the field and 200 more will be planted in the spring.
Work is continuing on the project initiated in the fall of 1953 to determine
the effect of hormones and fertilizer on the flowering and fruiting of lvchees.
In addition, sugar and boron sprays in the bloom have been combined with
variations of fertilizer levels applied.
The floral cycle of the Brewster variety is still under investigation. During
the past fruiting season, an investigation was initiated to determine the total
weight, percentage of seed, skin, and flesh of lvchees grown throughout the
state. No comparative data has previously been available dealing with the
quality of the different seedling varieties or the effect of different environmental
conditions on the quality of the same varieties. This season data was collected
on Brewster Ivchees grown in three different areas of Florida and on the Bengal
variety grown in South Florida.
Thirty-six air layered trees of the lychee (variety Brewster) are being
grown in sand culture to establish nutritional deficiency patterns in the leaves
as one basis for recognizable symptoms of some physiological diseases. Diffi-
cultv has arisen in establishing the Ivchee air layers in sand, but they have about
reached a consistent condition of growth and the various elements will soon
be withheld to establish the leaf patterns.
S. JOHN LYNCH
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AGIIICULTUlAL RESEAIICH SERVICE
Horticultural Crops Research Branch, Beltscillc, Maryland
DIVISION OF RESEARCH AND INDUSTRY
University of Miami, Coral Gables. Florida
November 1, 1955
NOTICE TO FRUIT GROWERS AND NURSERYMEN RELATIVE TO THE NAMING
AND RELEASE OF A NEW VARIETY OF LYCHIEE CALLED BENGAL,
A VARIETY ADAPTED TO SOILS OF HIGH pH AND
PRODUCING LARGE CLUSTERS OF FRUIT
The Horticultural Crops Research Branch, and the University of Miami
Division of Research and Industry hereby announce release for introduction the
lvehee variety BENGAL which has been tested under P.I. No. 94066. This
variety originated from a single plant, believed to be a seedling, received by the
Horticultural Crops Research Branch in 1929 through a plant broker, Frederico
Varela. Calcutta. India. who obtained it from Islamia Fruit Gardens, Bengal
\where it was under cultivation under the name of "Rose-scented Litchi". The
tree \was set in its present field location at the U. S. Plant Introduction Garden,
Coconut Grove, Florida in Mav 1931 and fruited for the first time in 1940.
The fruits ripen from late May through June. the normal season for most
ivchees and are produced in unusually large clusters, 60 or more sometimes
being seen. The fruit is large, exceeding that of the commercially planted
Brewster, has a strongly tubercular shell close to Jasper red in color. The flesh
is thick, firm, with cells not tending to burst when the fruit is peeled, and having
an excellent flavor, but not "rose-scented". Seeds large, but smaller in propor-
tion to flesh than normal seeds of Brewster, seldom abortive. The fresh fruit
ships well and also may be satisfactorily quick-frozen.
The BENGAL tree is a vigorous grower, does not show chlorosis in the
limestone soil of Dade County, where it has been tested in the form of air-
layers the leaves being somewhat larger and of heavier texture than the Brew-
ster. and of dark green color; it is propagated easily by air-layering. The
original tree has produced large crops of fruit.
Neither the U. S. Plant Introduction Garden nor the University of Miami
Experimental Farm has plants of the BENGAL Ivehee available for distribution
to private interests at this time but such material should be ready for release
in limited quantities in the autumn of 1956.
,s, Walter O. Walker
W. O. Walker, Dean
Division of Research and
/s/ F. P. Cullinan
F. P. Cullinan, Chief
Horticultural Crops Research
Plant Board Lychee Investigation Plans for the
By ED L. AYERS
Plant Cornrmissioner State Plant Board
The Plant Board will continue to watch Ivchee trees in all areas for the
appearance of insect pests and diseases. The inspectors are regularly checking
groves in their areas. Growers also should be alert in examining their plantings
and should inform the Plant Board of any cases where diseases or pests are
suspected. Early detection of these conditions may make possible their elimini-
nation, whereas if allowed to go unchecked serious problems may occur.
Special attention will be directed to determining the extent of injury done
by insects which have been found on lvchee trees in the past. A bark-scaling
condition found in the center of the State will be studied to determine whether
mites are involved in causing this condition in lychees as thev do in other plants.
The disease study will concentrate on clitocvbe rot. Inoculations of seed-
lings in the greenhouse have been made and these are being studied to find
the mode of infection and the extent of damage. Groves which have had trees
killed bv this disease are being watched to discover whether and how it spreads.