Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents

Group Title: new recreation village, St. George Island, Florida
Title: A New recreation village, St. George Island, Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083809/00001
 Material Information
Title: A New recreation village, St. George Island, Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Environmental Planning and Design
Publisher: Leisure Properties, Ltd.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: December 16, 1974
Subject: Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083809
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
Full Text











13965 N.W. 67TH AVENUE



Prepared for:

Leisure Properties, Ltd.
Suite 201
2027 Thomasville Road
Tallahassee, Florida 32303


Environmental Planning and Design
Landscape Architects Community Planners
13965 N. W. 67th. Avenue
Miami Lakes, Florida 33014

December 16, 1974


Report on the Planning Approach

I. A Proposed Recreation Community

2. The Island, the Bay and the Estuary

3. Ecological Survey

4. Physical Constraints

5. Zones of Suitability

6. A Conceptual Plan

7. Environmental Protection

8. The First Recreation Village

9. A Broader View







2 0 2 4M6


C O.



St. George Island is one of
the last major barrier islands in the
State of Florida as yet uncommitted
for development or acquired as part
of the public domain in the interest
of conservation. Big and Little St.
George Islands together form a 28
mile long strip of dunes, pine-
palmetto cover and marsh-land
between the Gulf of Mexico and
Apalachicola Bay. The bay and
adjacent St. George Sound are
renowned as one of the world's most
productive oyster-gathering grounds.
With the harvesting of shellfish and
fin-fish their chief means of
livelihood, the people of Franklin
County are justifiably concerned
about the rapid deterioration of the
regional waters due to increasing
pollution. Citizens view the further
uncontrolled development of their
area, and St. George Island in
particular, as a serious threat to
their industry and economy.

Development of the Island

Ecologically, the crucial fact
of the St. George Island complex is
the existence, at the head of the
causeway, of a rapidly-building
subdivision of some 1,067 acres
which includes a large commercial

No water or sewage facilities
exist or are considered feasible

under present development
conditions. Controls on build-
ing construction have been non-
existent. Dunes are presently
being leveled. Shallow wells
are being drilled on the same
lots where discharge from septic
tanks leaches through the porous
sand into the water table. Garbage
and trash are dumped into open
pits. Trail bikes and dune buggies
roar freely over the island destroy-
ing vegetative cover. Campers
and picnickers strew their refuse
along the beaches and dunes.
Po-Hlution is rampant and destruction
goes on apace. It is evident
that should the present type of
development be permitted to
continue, or the present uses to
spread unchecked, there would
be little hope of preventing
massive degradation of the island
and its surrounding waters.

Of the total island, some 1,750
acres at the eastern tip have been
purchased for a State Park. At the
opposite tip, the area from the St.
George Island channel to the west,
has been designated by the State
of Florida as "endangered land" and
is, hopefully, to be acquired as a
nature preserve.

Aside from the existing sub-
division, the state park and a portion
of Little St. George Island, the
remainder of the island is owned by
Leisure Properties, Ltd., a Florida

limited partnership, which plans
a residential and resort community
on an 800 acre tract. The two
principles of Leisure Properties,
Ltd. are John R. Stocks and Gene
H. Brown. Mr. Stocks is an
individual general partner and
Mr. Brown is President of St.
George Island Development
Corporation, the other general
partner. Plans include the
installation of a water supply and
advanced waste-water treatment
system to initially serve the 800
acre community, but which can be
expanded to serve the entire
island. Also included are self-
imposed environmental protection
controls far exceeding in stringency
any yet in force in the State.
Although the island proposals
have been developed in close
coordination with the responsible
agencies and have been generally
commended, there is still, in the
minds of some officials, "reasonable
doubt" as to the consequences of
further island development.

The Alternatives

In most cases where the use of
a large tract of critical land is under
consideration, there are three

If the land is in its natural
state, it may well be eligible for
purchase by a public agency or a
foundation as a nature preserve,
wildlife sanctuary or recreation
area. In the case of St. George,
the owners have encouraged such
acquisition and will continue to
do so, but available funds are

limited and the island is far
removed from the population
centers where open space or
recreation lands are most urgently

A second, and far less desirable
alternative is the sale of the property
as raw land divided into parcels
without the benefit of an overall
plan or the provision of community
amenities or public facilities. Such
fragmentation is the reason for the
chaotic conditions which presently
exist on the island. It thrusts
upon the local government the
responsibility and burden of
installing the necessary public
facilities. This approach, as
ex-perience has shown, can lead only
to more problems and increased
public expense.

The third possibility entails the
comprehensive planning of the tract,
or a unified portion thereof, with
all trafficways, land uses and engineer-
ing systems designed and approved
as a total package. It is this latter
approach to which the owners and
their planning team have addressed

As the best alternative, the
owners have selected 800 acres of
their most desirable property for
development of a proto-typical
resort community to demonstrate
the best that can be achieved
environmentally and ecologically
in island development. This site
was selected because of its high
elevation, its broad width, and the
lack of any producing oyster beds
in the area, all factors which will

minimize the risk of environmental


To assure the ecological pro-
tection of the bay and sound, all
marshes are to be designated as
permanent preservation lands.
They are not to be disturbed by
construction or the presence of
the villages. The dunes which
border the Gulf along the entire
length of the island are also to be
preserved in, or restored to their
natural condition. Except for local
access paths, and perhaps a future
clubhouse and fishing pier, no
development is to occur within a
band extending from the water's
edge to the approved setback line
landward of the dune crest. The
full stretch of sandy beach will be
available for use by the residents
of the 800 acre community.

Between the dunes and the
lower-lying wetlands which are
owned by the State, is a broad
strip of sandflat and pine-
palmetto cover. This swath
extends on either side of the
causeway and present subdivision.
It is a beautiful natural environ-
ment within which the scenic
parkway and collector loop roads
will be aligned.

All development will occur in
compounds adjacent to the park-
way. The dwellings will range
in type from single family homes,
villas, and garden apartments to
low-rise condominiums and resort

hotels. By applying the "cluster"
principle of building groupings,
extensive areas of the scrub and
pine forest are to be left in their
natural state.

The Village

(A Working Test Model)

To allay lingering and under-
standable concerns, the owners
currently plan to "land bank" all
property outside of the platted
subdivision except for the site of
the above referenced 800 acre recrea-
tion village which will be created
over an eight to ten year period.
It will demonstrate the best techniques
of environmental protection and serve
to prove that responsible development
can take place successfully in any
area with similar finite balances
between the land and the sea.

The village site will embrace
some 800 acres of undeveloped land
lying directly west of and adjacent
to the existing subdivision. Of
this total tract, over 274 acres of
saltmarsh, beach and dune are to
be preserved intact. An additional
183 acres will be devoted to an 18-hole
golf course, racquet and swim club
and supporting recreation areas.
The scenic parkway and drives will
contribute additional open space, as
will extensive conservation ease-
ments within the residential parcels.
The eventual 3,000 dwelling units
within the village are to be constructed
over the next twenty years at a mean
average annual building rate of 160
dwelling units. When completed,

the village will be a complete
recreation community of exceptional
quality and a welcome County asset.

As a condition of development,
the owners have contributed funds
with which the appropriate agencies
will install along the water edge of
the bay and gulf, a series of
monitoring stations. These will be
manned by governmental scientists
and used to detect the slightest
trace of pollution. Should contami-
nation become evident, all
contributing conditions are to be
"cured" before further construction

Such an approach is unprece-
dented, for it commits the owners
to very substantial initial costs on
the basis of their confidence that
the working model will test out.
In short, the risk is on them.
While the eventual goal of the
development group is to build
a successful resort community, the
immediate concern let there be
no mistake is environmental

It is generally conceded that
the planned improvements, and
especially the installation of water
supply and sewers, will help to
correct the unsanitary conditions
which presently exist. The new
village will set a high standard,
encourage sound construction
regulations, and provide shops
and more recreation for all who
come to the island. Further,
it will serve as a substantial
tax base and will provide many

employment opportunities for a
County whose economy is presently

Many questions remain. The
local residents and leaders must
yet be convinced that their
fishery won't be harmed. The
reporters now on the island would
prefer, quite understandably, to
have the beaches all to themselves.
They wonder what changes the new
village will bring. The agencies, too,
have their special concerns which
relate to such matters as public
health, navigation and vehicular
traffic. But all seem to favor the
new approach which is more limited
and which provides for long
range and staged development under
close scrutiny and control.

Few opportunities remain in the
Apalachicola bay area for the creation
of desirable, high quality, resort
communities. With the plans now
being considered, St. George can be
one of them.


In flying over St. George Island,
one sees spread out before him in
panorama, a classic estuarine

The Apalachicola River, flowing
down from headwaters and tributaries
in Georgia and Alabama, debouches
the waters of the nation's sixth
largest river basin into Apalachicola
Bay and St. George Sound. These
great shallow mixing bowls of
fresh and salt water, nutrients, and
river-borne sediments provide almost
ideal conditions for shellfish culture.
It has been estimated that with
scientific aqua-farming, these two
oyster fisheries alone could produce
each year a crop sufficient to
supply the world's present consump-
tion. The waters teem also with
shrimp, clams, crabs and various
sport and commercial fish. But
perhaps the greatest value of the
estuary and its tidal marshes lies
in their vital function as a nursery
for most of the varieties of shell
and game fish taken the length of
the Florida coast.

Three large off-shore islands
enframe the bay. St. Vincent to
the west is a federal preserve, and
Dog Island to the east is under
private ownership. Stretching
eastward from St. Vincent, St.
George Island lies like a curving
protective arm against the winds
and waves of the Gulf of Mexico.
The narrow strand is blessed with
wide beaches and low dunes along
the Gulf, a central pine-palmetto
forest, and wide tidal marshes.

The river and its estuaries,
the bays, sound, off-shore islands,
and the tidal surgings of the Gulf
together form a complete ecological

The Estuarine System

As may be imagined, the
biologic workings of a bay system
are infinitely inter-related and
extremely complex.

The bays and sounds comprise
one of Florida's richest marine
breeding and feeding grounds. They
are shallow, with brackish water
ranging in depth to nine feet above
a sand base and layers of sediment.
Here, and along the bayside marshes,
fresh water, nutrients and decaying
vegetation brought down by the river
from upland forests and swamps are
co-mingled by the winds and tides
into a saline solution containing
CO2 and inorganic ions. These are
converted by photosynthesis into
the simple starches of the basic
aquatic food chain. This conversion
is dependent upon the presence of
sunlight and the chlorophyll contained
within the cells of phytoplankton,
algae or other marine plants. The
often microscopic phytoplankton
(plant) become the chief source of
food for grazing zooplankton (animals)
and other lower forms of aquatic
life. Or they may be ingested
directly by oysters and by smaller
fish which in turn become the food
of the larger species.

It can be said that within the
catalyst bay and sound, the
energies of the fetching river, the
blending winds, and the warming
sun are transformed into food and

The off-shore islands, and

especially St. George, provide a
barrier against the scouring
effects of the winds and waves which
would otherwise flush away the rich
bottom sediments of the protected
waters. They help to sustain the
freshwater hydraulic head against
the invasion of the salt tides. And
finally, they support the marshy bay
fringe so important to the system.

Although vast in extent, the
estuarine eco-system is intricately
balanced. It is dependent upon
finely adjusted tolerances in
seasonal salinity, nutritional values
and temperature. These in
turn are affected by rates of river
flow, currents, and wind action.
While natural imbalances may be
temporarily harmful, the presence
of man-made pollution in increasing
amounts presages biologic disaster,
eutrophication and the eventual
death of the bay.


In an effort to better understand
and protect the fishery, the County
government has, for the past
several years, been at work on
biologic studies and a permanent
bay-wide network of monitors. Four
stations have recently been installed
adjacent to the island to collect and
record base data in the vicinity
of the proposed village site.

The monitoring operations will
consist of periodic physio-chemical
probes to test those properties
associated with the aquatic
community structures and popula-

tion distributions. The biotic
parameters checked will include
counts and condition of phyto-
plankton, invertebrates, fishes,
and plants and food chain analysis.
The abiotic factors will include
those of temperature, salinity,
turbidity, and the presence-of
nutrients, dissolved oxygen,
pesticides, trace metals and other
pollutants. Both diurnal and
seasonal changes are to be

The purpose of the stations
is to detect any significant changes
in water quality in order that
possible problems may be fore-
stalled and unhealthy conditions
corrected. The ultimate aim of
the system is to assure zero
discharge of pollutants into the
marshes, bay and sound.

Problem and Opportunity

The people of Franklin County
are well aware that new building
construction has traditionally
meant the dredging and filling
of wetlands, bulkheading,
channelization, and the discharge
of sewage into the fishing grounds.
Citizens are concerned that unplanned
development will destroy their
fishing and change their unique
and pleasant way of life. The
concern is justified. The threat
is real and serious, for historically
when development has moved into
coastal areas, the adjoining
oyster beds have been condemned
as a menace to public health. For
these good reasons, the cry is

now out to "Save the Bay!"

The potential sources of trouble
are three-fold. The river itself
which pours down its supply of
fresh water, detritus and nutrients
is now becoming polluted. Un-
regulated growth along the bay
shores is adding its share of
contamination. And now, with
the completion of the causeway,
the further development of the
island is a virtual certainty.
If history is to repeat itself,
there would seem to be little
hope for the threatened fishery.
One by one, others like it have
been closed.

But perhaps there may yet be
marshalled the necessary
combination of scientific
research and control, govern-
mental cooperation, and sound
planning to reverse the trend and
"put it all together". It is
fervently hoped by many that the
Apalachicola region may become a
laboratory and working model of
the best that can be achieved in
coastal land and water management.

It is within this context that
the planning of the recreation
village on St. George Island has
been initiated.


A first step in the planning
process is the collection of all
necessary background and survey
data. These are often recorded
in the form of a series of reference
"eco-determinant" maps and support-
ing documents which record all
physiographic, social and economic
and other pertinent information.

The maps are from a reference
series which includes that informa-
tion most useful in the conceptual
land planning of the island and
first village. Each planning team
member, consultant, and scientist-
adviser has contributed his special
knowledge to the preparation and
analysis of these maps.


The physiographic characteristics
of the island impose severe restric-
tions on its use.

Climate: The climatic conditions
of the Apalachicola region in
general, and of St. George Island
in particular, will be a primary
factor in the alignment of roads, the
designation of land use areas, the
siting of structures and the design
of the buildings themselves.
While many climatic influences may
be delt with intuitively in the

master planning studies, actual site
and building designs in the advanced
planning stage must reflect
thorough analysis.

High winds and tidal fluctuation:
Although no hurricane* has been
officially recorded on the island,
the effects of "Hurricane Agnes",
which passed nearby in May of
1972 were drastic. Aerial
photographs taken immediately
prior to and following the storm
indicate that storm waters swept
entirely across the island over a
length of approximately 7 miles
where the protective dunes were
low. These were practically
leveled by the storm, and the
profile of the remaining sand
barrier was substantially altered.
Unless the lower protective dunes
can be restored and stabilized,
the permanence of dwellings, or
even roadways, is in jeopardy.
Regeneration of the dunes would be
favorably considered by the State
Bureau of Beaches and Shores,
and State participation in such a
program has been suggested as
a possibility.

A second factor in tidal consideration
is the HUD insurance requirement
that the floor level of structures
in this area be a minimum of nine
to ten feet above mean sea level,
or from seven to eight feet above
mean high tide. This drastically
limits the extent of normal slab-
on-grade construction, and suggests
a post and beam island architecture.

Living quarters would thereby be
lifted well above grade, giving
protection from insects, welcome
exposure to the prevailing breezes,
improved views, and shade for cars
which could be parked under the

In addition, Florida State law also
provides that all buildings must be
located behind a "coastal construction
setback line." The precise location
of this line has been established
in cooperation with the State
Bureau of Beaches and Shores.
Construction must be located sufficiently
landward of the dune crest line to
prevent damage to its structural

The dunes: In addition to the
possible rebuilding and reshaping
of the dunes, their protection from
overuse and from the ravages of
"off-the-road vehicles" must be
ensured. The owners will cooperate
with state and local officials in
enforcing the legal prohibitions
against any vehicles on the dunes
seaward of the setback line.
Residents of the village will have
full and free access to the beaches
through membership in a homeowners
association. The general public
will be encouraged to use the
public beaches in the state park.

The wetlands: The tidal marshes
fringing Apalachicola Bay are the
most productive and valuable
land-water areas in the County.
They are also the most vulnerable

*Defined as a violent tropical
cyclonic storm with winds
exceeding 74 mph.

to pollution. Since the health of
the bay and the abundance of its
yield of fish, oysters, and shrimp
are directly dependent upon the
preservation of these wetlands,
their protection has become a
first consideration in the planning
of the village.

Water: Fresh water presently
exists on the island in limited
quantities. A test well drilled at
East Point on the mainland has
a capacity to provide enough potable
water for the entire village. A pump
and a treatment plant will be
installed at a collection point in
the well vicinity. Water
will then be transmitted to the
island where a concrete ground
water storage tank will be installed
for storage and distribution. Potable
water and advanced waste treatment
will be made available to the existing
subdivision as soon as economically
practicable. Shallow wells on the
island may be utilized to provide
some of the water for irrigation and
other auxiliary uses.

Vegetation: The existing vegetation,
while sparse in many areas, is
typical of Gulf barrier islands.
If preserved, reestablished where
disturbed, and supplemented with
indigenous plant materials, it
will provide a memorable island
setting. It is proposed that native
vegetation be maintained and that
the introduction of exotic plants
be prohibited except for limited
areas of intensive development.

It has also been proposed by the

Bureau of Sports Fisheries and
Wildlife that the seeding of dove
grass be considered in the dune
stabilization program since St.
George Island lies astride a prin-
cipal dove flyway. Other native
plants which provide food and cover
for birds and game have also been

Soils: The soils of the island are
composed largely of sands and
other porous materials. Clays and
humus are generally lacking.
Topsoil is practically non-existent.
Both the load-bearing and absorptive
capacities of the soil must be tested
on a systematic basis so that in the
process of excavation, the best use
wi-!l be made of selected materials
for filling and grading.

Landscape Analysis: To understand
the nature of the land upon which the
first village is to be built, it is
well to take an overview to discover
the chief landscape features and
their inter-relationships. A visual
sweep of the island from gulf to
bay reveals a topography of
dramatic changes and rich vege-
tative variety. From the south, the
floor of the Gulf of Mexico slopes
up to a relatively stable beach
which extends for over a hundred
feet from the mean high water line
to the toe of the frontal or primary
dune. The sugar sand is deep and
when dry, is subject to the drift
that has built here a dune barrier
some twenty to thirty feet in height,
and upon which the vegetative covers
remain for the most part intact. It
is to be noted that in other parts

of the island where the cover has
been destroyed, the dunes have
been subjected to severe wind erosion.
The secondary dunes are crowned
with interlocking patches of wind-
sheared scrub. The close-
knit, picturesque growth helps
to stabilize the lateral sand drift
and should be left undisturbed
insofar as possible. A transitional
belt of slashpine scrub lies between
the dune tailings and flatwoods.
Toward the north, the undulating
ground levels out to form a
relatively high pine-palmetto
plateau. Here, where most of
the dwellings will be grouped, the
scattered clumps of slash pine
provide a sparse but spectacular
overstory with their storm-contorted
upper limbs and tops.

Between the scrub and the tidal
marsh are found occasional
freshwater bogs which, in times
of downpour, serve as natural
holding basins and a filter between
the high land and the bay.
Beyond to the north, along the
whole length of the village site,
lie the broad saltwater marshes.
By consensus, these wetlands and
the adjacent bottoms must be pro-
tected in their entirety as the
aquatic nursery for the oysters,
crabs and other fish which inhabit
the bay beyond.

Each of the realms described,
while interacting with the others,
is a natural system in itself and
worthy of detailed study.


A study of the landscape
environs begins to reveal areas or
zones of varying fragility and
ecological significance. Each suggests
those uses for which it is suited,
and others for which it is not. Some
areas cry out for complete
preservation as a nature preserve
or open space enframement. Such
are the frontal dunes, the tidal
marshes and portions of the fresh
water swamp. With the possible
exception of occasional raised
observation walks or platforms and
confined access trails, the existing
condition is not to be changed in any
significant way by man's presence
or constructions.

Other less sensitive or less
productive areas are suited to
limited use. In such conservation
areas, the best of the springs, groves
and other natural features will be
conserved and protected. In and
around these, recreation areas and
paths of movement will be arranged
with care to bring people and nature
into compatible relationship. Here
people may enjoy the natural
scenery and live amidst thriving
oaks, pines and palmetto clumps and
the associated flora and fauna. Such
conservation areas will be governed
by use restrictions and will serve
as the buffers between the
preservation areas and zones of more
intensive development.

Designated development
areas are those in which the natural
land forms and vegetation are of
minimal significance. These may
be modified by grading and used
freely as construction sites, pro-
vided precautions are taken to
eliminate any possible degradation
of the bordering zones. Here
again, the better landscape elements
will be saved insofar as feasible
and the building clusters, parkway,
and other construction fitted in
amongst them. New plantings
and ground covers of native
materials will be established to
blend all installations into the
natural surroundings.

As with land areas, certain
stretches of water are also of
ecological importance. Oyster
shoals and marine grass beds, for
example, should be left undisturbed.
Although there are legal difficulties
in restricting the use of navigable
waters, the owners will cooperate
with local and state officials in
trying to secure legal approval
for the restrictive zones described

To assure the integrity of the
several zones, they have been
meticulously defined over various
reference maps with all factors
considered. Starting from the open
water and moving inward, the
zones are proposed as follows:


These will include all waters
of the bay and gulf excepting those
which may be designated as

They will be open to all those forms
of water-related activities which cause
no significant pollution or unaccept-
able levels of stress upon the natural
estuarine system.

Suitable Uses
All water sports
Commercial and sport fishing
Construction of offshore recreation
facilities on the gulf side only,
provided environmental criteria are

Not Permitted
Dredging or filling
Sea wall construction
Docks, piers or other construction
within bay waters
Destruction of the reefs or plant life


These include the oyster reefs,
marine grass beds and water areas
or bottoms especially productive
in shellfish, commercial or sport-
fish propagation.

Suitable Uses
Boating by sailing craft
Commercial fishing by licensees
Scientific monitoring and marine
Aquatic preserves
Aquaculture leases

Not Permitted
Any other uses


These lands of particular
ecological sensitivity are to be
preserved, essentially, in their
natural condition. Aside from

their vital role of protecting the
bay systems and shorelines,
they will afford aesthetic values
to the community, and a bulwark
against the storms.

Suitable Uses
Raised access walks and nature
trails with confining guardrails.
Observation decks and platforms
of post and beam construction.
Dune stabilization devices.
Protective fencing.
Dune renourishment and establish-
ment of supplementary ground

Not Permitted
Use of recreational or other
vehicles except for maintenance
carts on confined cartway.
Trespassing on the primary dune
and beaches.
Public use or trespass on the
bayside shore.
Building construction.
Excavation, filling or grading.
Pollution in any form.
Disturbance of archeological
or historic sites.
Dredging, filling or seawall


While conservation areas, as
herein designated, are not
considered to be critical to ecological
balance, they contain many features
of landscape significance which are
to be preserved insofar as feasible.
They may be unsuited to intensive
use because of the physical

limitations of the soil of the
probability of wind erosion or flooding.
They may be utilized for local drives,
walks, bicycle trails, golf fairways
and greens and other recreation
uses. Buildings of post and platform
construction may be permitted with
adequate restrictions and controls.
Broadly, however, conservation
lands serve best for limited use,
open space recreation and greenbelt
buffers to preservation zones.

Suitable Uses
Local access drives and parking
Pedestrian walks and bicycle trails
Golf course installation
Tennis courts, swim clubs and other
recreation areas
Limited building and other construc-
Recharge swales and holding basins
Public use of the beach for swimming
and shelling
(Gulf exposure only)
Life guard station and cabanas

Not Permitted
Use of off-cartway
Major roadways or
Excavation, filling
Felling of trees or
of ground covers*


or grading*

*Without written approval of
the Environmental Control


This zone includes those lands
which are intrinsically suitable
for more intensive development.
Although there may be physical
limitations such as drainage
problems, or unstable bearing
conditions, it is anticipated that
these can be overcome without
disruption to the surrounding
environs. It is to be noted
that all uses and construction are
to be in accordance with plans
approved by the appropriate
agencies and governed by applicable
laws, codes and ordinances. In
addition, it is intended that all
development is to be subject to
deed restrictions and the issuance
of permits based upon review and
approval by the management of
detailed layouts, types and methods
of construction and stringent
anti-pollution controls both during
and after construction. All
first floor elevations will be above
100 year flood levels. Within the
broad development zone, several
sub-zones have been designated
on the basis of suitability for
varying degrees of land use

Suitable Uses
Vehicular parkway and circulation
Residential construction of all
proposed categories
Golf clubhouse, spa and recreation
Community center
Convenience shopping
Possible future airstrip

Service station
Utility and waste-water treatment
Forest and agricultural uses

Not Permitted
Major commercial facilities
Industrial or manufacturing uses
Trailer parks
Sanitary land fills
Livestock, barns, pens, stables,
or pasturage



Just as the land has been analyzed
to find those uses for which each
area is best suited, so has the
planning team considered each plan
component also, to determine
its best location and design charac-
teristics. The various plan
elements and land-use areas of
approximate size and shape have been
tested out in most reasonable relation-
ship one to the other and to the lie
of the land.

Scenic Parkway and Drives

The several types of trafficways
are arranged to provide access and
interconnection. The parkway spine,
being dominant, is so aligned as to
establish a theme of varying views
and dramatic scenic exposures. It
serves also, together with its
drainage swales and median, as a

protective surface drainage barrier
between the multi-family development
areas and the fragile marshes which
lie along the edge of the bay. The
circulation loop roads and cul de
sacs too, seek out and reveal the
best of the landscape features as
they weave between and around them.

Golf Course

The golf course, as a design
element, must be considered from
many points of view. Since the
first concern of the golf architect
will be the quality of the play, he will
want the most favorable orientation,
topography and enframement. He
will be interested, too, in the
relationships to the clubhouse and
access roads, and will check and
recheck the soil types and existing
drainage patterns. The architects
will be seeking to enhance their
buildings with the best exposures
from and across the fairways and
greens. The marketing consultant
will be well aware than an important
aspect of the course will be the
appreciation of land values along
its sides and he will seek to extend
the benefits. The botanist will
be intent upon the interactions of
the course and the plant communities,
while the marine biologist will
promote its use as a buffer and filter
between development and the bay.
The engineer will envision the
irrigation system as an advanced phase
of the wastewater treatment and
disposal. And the landscape
architect will want to be assured that

all installations respond to, preserve
and accentuate the best of the landscape
features and contribute in full
measure to the environmental en-
hancement of the new community.

Community Center

The community center with its
club, spa, recreation areas and
general store will be planned as
the village focal point. Here the
approaches, spaces and the structures
with their terraces, courts and flying
decks will take full advantage of the
views and breeze. They will achieve
in all ways possible a harmonious
integration of architecture and nature.


Villas and apartment clusters will
be grouped compactly around tree-
shaded courtyards. Parking bays and
entrances will face inward upon the
"motor gardens." Living areas
patios and screened decks will be
oriented outward to the breeze and
to the views. The free arrangement
of dwellings in clusters has many
advantages. It is less disruptive
of the ground forms and vegetation.
It requires shorter runs of access
drives and utilities. It confines the
parking and service functions and
thus minimizes pollution. It assures
a higher degree of privacy and pre-
serves more usable outdoor open space.

Utility Plant

The utility plant is also a service

facility with demanding placement
requirements. A location central
to its service area will reduce the
lengths of reach and the size of
mains and equipment. Its relation
to the marshes and bays must provide
a failsafe means of protection in
case of a breakdown or temporary
surcharge due to storms or other
emergencies. Although it is to
be well designed and fully maintained,
such an installation tends to reduce
adjacent land values and is best
kept isolated within its own domain.

the relationships developed are
sound, then the village will be
attractive and "life will be
beautiful; for beauty by definition
is the "perceived harmonious
relationship of all the elements."

The goal of the conceptual
planning and design process has
been to provide a pollution-free
environment where life, and the
most healthful forms of recreation,
may be enjoyed within the exhilarating
setting of a coastal nature preserve.

Open Space

All open spaces are to be combined
into an interrelated system which
will surround and interlace the
entire community. They will
embrace the length and breadth
of the beach and foredunes, include
the tidal marsh preserves and
incorporate the golf course, parkway,
recreation areas and all conservation
easements. Open space lands and
waters not dedicated for public
use will be maintained by the village

The Village

Building, facilities, trafficways
and the open space framework have
been brought together in the
conceptual plan to establish the
broad outlines of a complete
recreation resort village. The
plan sets the general pattern for
all those myriad relationships and
experiences which make for
community life. If, the planning as
it proceeds, confirms the fact that


As has been noted, the
conceptual plan is a diagram of
relationships. It is to be refined
and developed, and perhaps revised,
as each element, and the plan itself,
is subjected to further study. In the
continuing design process, as from
the start, all aspects of the community
are to be considered in the light
of four guiding objectives.

These are:

1. To create a resort community
of the highest order, as an
integral part of an attractive
and prosperous region.
2. To preserve the bay, the
gulf, and all shoreline and

beaches in their natural condition
as a magnificent land-water
3. To protect the estuarine
eco-system against pollution
in any form.
4. To plan the St. George
Island property as a laboratory
and working model of the
best that can be achieved
in coastal land development.

In working to achieve these
goals, the concerns for environmental
quality have resolved themselves
for the most part into the elimination
of all possible forms of pollution.
To this end, all potential sources
have been listed, together with
the safeguards proposed.

Mis-use of the beaches

The beaches below the mean
high water line belong to the
State and will be available for the
use of the residents and the public.
The beaches above the mean high
water mark will be owned and
regulated by a village homeowners
association. The beaches will be
open for use by the residents and
their guests, subject to such
reasonable restrictions as may
be imposed by the association.

Dune erosion

The primary dunes are the
island's protective barriers against
wind-driven tides and storms
from the Gulf. The loose sands
of which they are comprised are
extremely susceptible to

erosion. Once the fragile
vegetative covers of sea oats,
vines and scrub growth are disturbed,
the rapid disintegration of the dune is
imminent. The frontal dune system
is, therefore, to be made "off-limits"
to all vehicles and uses except for
raised beach access walkways and
scenic overlooks.

Destruction of vegetation

Also to be protected are the
thin soil mantle and vegetative
covers of the balance of the island.
The trees, shrubs and other indigenous
plants comprise a natural system in
dynamic equilibrium. They ameliorate
the micro-climate by providing shade,
windscreen, evapo-transpiration,
conserving air and ground moisture
and by recharging the ground water
table. They serve as wildlife
habitat and form a landscape of great
beauty. Sound planning will seek
to bring development patterns into
harmonious relationship with the
natural order in such a way as to
enhance the workings of both.

Trafficways and parking areas

In terms of environmental
impact, the alignment and section
of roadways and parking compounds
are as important as the materials
of which they are constructed.
They are to be located to "run with"
and blend into the land forms and to
be placed, wherever possible,
between the trees and groves and
other landscape features.

The scenic parkway has been

located and is to be designed as a
storm water barrier and filter between
the development areas of higher
intensity and the waters of the
bay. Berms, local roads, and
parking courts are to be con-
structed of porous materials.
Paved surfaces are to be minimized.

Marinas and boat use

No marinas, landings, or
private docks are to be permitted
within the village. Boat access
and moorings now existing at the
causeway marina will be used,
and possibly improved upon
eventually for the use of the
village residents.

It is urged that all boat use
of the waters surrounding the
island be made subject to
regulations as to type, condition
and operation which will preclude
all forms of pollution.

Service facilities

The village store, filling
station, laundrette and all similar
public and private service areas
and facilities are to receive special
study. Such potential "point
sources" of contamination are to
be located, and planned with care to
eliminate the possibility of
degrading the environs.

Dredging and filling

Permits for off-shore dredging
are currently being granted by
the State only when it can be

demonstrated that there will
be no harmful effects. Because no
marinas or landings are being
planned for the village, and
because of the wish to preserve
the adjacent bay bottoms and edges,
and the beaches, in their entirety,
no dredging in canals or seawalls
are to be considered within the
village confines.

Building construction

The hazards of erosion,
siltation and contamination are
perhaps the most acute during
the construction period. It is,
therefore, to be mandated that the
plans and specifications for all
earthwork, road building or other
construction include a detailed
section on pollution control. It
shall cover such aspects as the
provision of protective barricades,
signing, interception ditches and
settling basins, material storage,
and the disposal of surplus
materials and refuse. It shall also
provide for the prevention of
erosion by the installation of
temporary or permanent storm
drainage, mulching, netting and
ground cover seeding. All
clearing, burning, excavation,
filling and grading is to be
performed under bond and made
subject to the pre-filing of a plan
to assure erosion and pollution

Storm drainage and surface runoff

While the sheet flow of the
natural rainfall on undisturbed areas

is beneficial to the bay, contaminated
storm runoff from rooftops, parking
and service areas and from the
parkway pavement must be intercepted.
Should the level of pollution from
oil or other sources be considered
hazardous, the runoff will be collected
and processed in a manner that the
potential problem will be resolved.


On a narrow barrier island
particularly the accelerated movement
and settling out of windborne or
waterborne soils or other particulate
matter can have deleterious effects.
The blowout of a frontal dune can
bury whatever lies behind it.
Concentrated storm water runoff
can cut deep gullies into the duff
and sands. The resulting siltation
can soon overwhelm an existing
plant or animal community.
Siltation is best controlled at the
source. Dune protection and the
use of all effective erosion controls
are considered to be essential.

Water supply and saltwater intrusion

The primary supply of potable
water is to be pumped from wellfields
on the mainland in quantities
sufficient to provide for the needs of all
village uses and users on a ten-year
projection. Supplementary wells
may be drilled on-island for
secondary uses as long as it can
be demonstrated that salt water
intrusion will not be induced by
the freshwater drawdown.

Sewage disposal

A wastewater treatment plant
to be located at the eastern limit of
the village will have the capacity
to serve all existing and proposed
development for the area of St.
George Island lying westward of
the bridge. This plant will provide
advanced waste treatment of sewage
with the reuse of all treated water
for local irrigation and recharge of
the freshwater aquifer.

The design engineer is to provide
a comprehensive program for
nutrient loadings and quantitative
models for controlling the disposition
of all water and possible contaminants
introduced to the island in any form.
Hydraulic and nutrient loadings are
to be based on 25 year storms.

The treatment plant will be
designed with a standby auxiliary
system and without a bypass. It
is to be operated by a Class "A"
Wastewater Treatment Operator.


Insofar as feasible, all treated
effluent from the plant is to be used
either for irrigation or as makeup
water in the recharging ponds. As a
possibility, excess treated effluent
may be discharged by offshore outfall
into the Gulf.

The golf course irrigation system
is to be designed as a form of
advanced wastewater treatment for

"burning off" residual nutrients.

All water used for irrigation is
to be kept from flowing into the
bay or marshes. It is to be
retained by berms or recharge
lagoons and pumped back to
irrigate the golf course, parkway
and other non-sensitive areas.


The type, amount and place-
ment of all fertilizer used shall
be made the responsibility of the
management which shall keep
accurate records of its ordering,
storage and application. The
use of fertilizer by private home
owners or their tenants will
not be permitted.

Garbage disposal

Each dwelling is to be equipped
with a garbage disposal unit
on-line with the treatment plant.
Garbage from public or other
major dining facilities is to be
stored in refrigerated containers
for removal by truck from the site.

Solid waste

Trash, and other solid wastes
will be stored in approved water-
tight containers in enclosed service
areas at each dwelling or other
building. Collection will be by
privately owned companies
franchised by the County or
Community management, with off-
island disposal as approved.

Trace metals and PCB

Contamination by poly-
chlorinated biphenyl (PCB) or such
trace metals as copper, zinc, lead,
cadmium or mercury is not considered
to be a problem since strict controls
on their use and disposal will be
enforced in the form of building
restrictions, construction regulations
and solid waste disposal specifications.

Pets and livestock

No pets, livestock or domestic
fowl of any kind are to be kept
within the island community.

Insect control

No pesticides or herbicides
are to be used on-site except
under the direction of the Super-
intendent of Maintenance and by
trained crews. Selected materials,
methods and rates of application,
and controls, are to be as approved
by the consulting biologist, botanist
and entomologist, and are to be
consistent with all County, State and
Federal health ordinances, regulations
and practices.

Operation and maintenance

The maintenance of all roads,
rights of way, exterior grounds
of public and private buildings,
golf course areas, and all beach,
dune, marsh, conservation, or
preservation areas is to be conducted
by trained crews operating under the
supervision of the management.

Administrative responsibility shall
be centered in a management company.
It shall be governed by a charter
which shall be made part of all sales
and lease agreements. It is considered
to be essential that the management
shall have the authority and adequate
staff to impose and enforce whatever
sanctions may be required to
assure environmental quality and
to protect the bay.

Aside from those measures
required to preclude the contamination
of the bay and sound, there are
others which can also have a telling
effect on environmental quality.
These deal with air, noise, and
visual pollution. They include also
those guidelines and controls which
help to ensure fine architecture and
landscape development. It is intended
that all concerns are to be addressed
and receive full attention.

Conditions for development

In its initial report*, the Coastal
Coordinating Council has noted,
"The fragile strands that make up
the webs of checks and balances (in
the Florida coastal zones) were woven
by the forces of nature. When the
weight of man's activities are thrust
upon one strand, repercussions are
often felt in portions of the web
quite remote from the area acted
upon, and may remain unseen until
other strands break under the stress.
The end result can be the complete
collapse of entire systems."

*Coastal Zone Management in
Florida, 1971.

As a condition of undertaking
the St. George project, a firm
commitment by the project develop-
ment organization has been made to
the county and State that the
proposed community will not harm
the fishing industry or the estuary.
This has underscored the urgent
necessity for emphasis on the
ecological considerations throughout
the planning process.

The self-imposed conditions
for development may be summarized
as follows:

1. Comprehensive schematic
planning for the total
island and its environs.
2. Phased development and
commitment to a construction
schedule and periodic reviews.
Procedure from stage to stage
to be based on performance.
3. A limited first phase community
of no more than 800 acres and
a density not exceeding 3.75
dwelling units per gross acre.
4. Controlled (and monitored)
protection of the bay and sound
against any significant project-
caused pollution in any form.
5. Preservation of the dunes, wetlands,
and water edges in their natural
6. Preparation, and County acceptance
of a comprehensive environmental
impact report.
7. Creation of a centralized adminis-
trative unit with strict construction
and operation controls and means
of enforcement.
8. Provision of leadership in
reversing the trend of deterioration

of the island. (An important
first step will be the installation
of the potable water supply and
advanced waste water treatment


An essential feature of all fine
communities is that they take their
form stage by stage from an overall
plan which determines from the
start the patterns of traffic movement
and land use.


In this village plan, a
distinguishing feature is the broad
scenic parkway which sweeps
through the slash-pine forest to
interconnect the residential compounds
and the community center. Local
loop roads and winding trails of
shell or gravel will complete the
trafficway system. Within each
neighborhood compound villas and
apartments will be grouped around
the motor courts with cars stored
in parking bays or beneath the
structures where floors will be
raised above the 100 year floor
elevation and take full advantage of
the scenery and breeze. Cars will
thus be kept confined, while views
from the dwellings will be oriented
outward to the forest, dunes and

marshes, or toward the golf course
which weaves between the neighbor-
hoods to overlook Gulf and Bay.

Also dominant is the spacious
enframement of nature preserves
and conservation lands. These,
together with the parkway and golf
course, will provide an open space
system embracing the entire village.
Within this beautiful natural environ-
ment, building clusters will be
interspersed and paths and bicycle
trails will be threaded.

A third distinguishing feature
of the plan is its response to
the need to protect the bay waters.
Since contaminants are concentrated
where people congregate, the
higher density residential uses
and more intensive activity centers
such as swimming pools, recreation
terraces and the village store
are located in areas of minimum
sensitivity and with maximum
care in pollution control. Even
the cluster arrangement of all
building types is devised to minimize
the disruption of the landscape and
provide open space lands between the
groupings and the marsh.

The scenic parkway has been
designed in plan and section as an
effective drainage barrier between
the more populous compounds and the
bay. The golf course has also been
placed as a buffer and filter for surface
runoff. Sheet flow from the greens and
fairways will be directed away from
the marsh to retention swales, and
in turn, to ponds where fresh makeup

water will be added. Storm-water
runoff from roads and developed
areas may be intercepted and
collected in shallow recharge
swales or in deeper ponds where
it should be circulated, supple-
mented with treated waste water
and reused for irrigation.

A complete resort community

With a broad base of single
family housing designed for a
wide range of modest to higher
family incomes, the master plan
provides also for villas, patio homes,
garden apartments and several low-
rise condominium clusters grouped
near the village convenience mall.
Plans for the future include a
conference center and eventually
a beach resort complex and inn. One
hundred twenty-five conference
center-related dwellings are
scheduled. It is estimated on
the basis of comparable resort
community experience, that
approximately 90% of the
dwelling units will be acquired for
seasonal use.

Residents will be served by a
general store complex where one
can find a well-stocked grocery,
hardware, and druggist shop and
other conveniences. There will be
a restaurant, cafe and a tennis and
swim club. The community center
will include a pro shop and spa and
will face upon a wide sandy beach
accessible to all residents by a short
walk or bicycle ride. There will be
play areas, game courts, overlooks
and nature trails. Recreation, in a

beautiful natural setting, will be
a way of life.

A Commitment

The master plan of the village
must be considered both a guideline
and a pledge. It must give the
residents assurance that growth
will be orderly and in accordance
with established limitations of
land use, density and other pre-
determined controls. Yet it is best
kept sufficiently flexible in detail to
accommodate necessary change and
to permit expected improvements.


Within the past few years,
Floridians throughout the length
of the State have come to share
a growing concern for the rapid
spread of unplanned development.
They have in increasing numbers
expressed a desire for government
controls to ensure the protection
of the State's outstanding natural
attributes. The concern is clearly
evident in the fact that a number
of the most stringent state environ-
mental bills to be enacted in the
United States have been passed
in recent sessions of the Florida

To fully understand the reasons
for this concern, one must know

that while many developers have
produced exemplary communities,
the overall Florida record of large
scale land development has been
dismal. Speculation, misrepresen-
tation, and poor planning have
ravished some of the most beautiful
coasts and richest agricultural lands
of the State. The unfortunate citizens
left in the wake of such exploitation
have been saddled with fragmented
subdivisions, inoperable utility
systems, erosion, pollution, high
taxes and many other vexing problems.
It can thus be appreciated that even
entrepreneurs with the best of
intentions and the most enviable of
records, must demonstrate step by
step, and detail by detail, that
their product will be in all ways a
long range community asset.

To this end, it is proposed
that on St. George Island great care
be given in each area and stage of
development to cooperative planning
and consultation with each of the state
departments and divisions having
jurisdiction. It is further proposed
that, in addition to the normal legal
safeguards, a set of environmental
quality controls be formulated to
run with the land as binding
covenants. These, together with
the system of monitors described
should guarantee that the village
can be completed with many positive
values and no significant negative

In looking to the Bay and its
protection, one must look far beyond
St. George Island. There is a larger

area of concern which embraces the
whole of the Apalachicola River basin
and includes all of Franklin County.
For only with an unprecedented and
massive approach can the river bay and
sound and their natural environs be
preserved for long as a healthy ecosystem
From the springs of the rising river
tributaries to the estuarine delta,
the whole is linked together in a
pattern of cause and effect.

There is need for a comprehensive
study of the entire region a study
which will appraise the problems
and possibilities and lead to a many-
faceted program of conservation and
sound development. Such a study,
hopefully to be launched and coordinated
by the State, would be directed to such
projects as:

- A comprehensive regional plan
showing the disposition of all
trafficways and land uses and
including a supporting zoning
- A river basin study directed
toward an analysis of the alterna-
tive types of agricultural,
industrial, housing or recreational
development and their long range
- Continuation of the current
Sea-Grant Program of scientific
investigation of the physical,
chemical and biological features
of the estuary.
- A soil and water conservation
program to stabilize the soils and
flows of the watershed in such a
way as to assure high levels of

- A study of aquaculture as a means
of increasing the extent and
yield of the bay-sound fishery.
- An historical and archeological
program to define and catalogue
those structures and sites of
highest value and to propose
legislation and methods of
funding designed to preserve
A regional recreation plan to
outline the means of conserving
and developing the land and its
natural resources in the best
interest of the locality and the

The Apalachicola region is now at
a critical period in its history. It can
proceed without planning and expect
little short of economic and environ-
mental disaster. Or with coordinated
effort and in view of the new public
interest in environmental matters -
the State and the County can manage
to "put it all together," and demonstrate
the best techniques and methods of
coastal land and water management. In
considering an overall program of
regional conservation and improvement,
it is proposed that this village on
St. George Island should be a welcome
example, and help to lead the way.


Preservation Conservation


Conference Center

Conv. Commercial

Golf Course





Open Space

Salt Marsh


Land below 2' contour

8.4 AC

13.9 AC

3.2 AC


243.7 AC

12.0 AC

1.0 AC

164.0 AC

5.1 AC

20.8 AC

20.0 AC

27.1 AC

6.0 AC

94.8 AC

57.8 AC

122.2 AC

297.1 AC 173.2 AC

329.7 AC

(800 AC1



Phase 1




Phase 2 C 13.9 1.7 Acres @ 40 DU/AC &
12.2 Acres @ 4 DU/AC 117
D 3.4 4.0 13
E 8.7 4.0 35
F 16.0 4.0 64
H .7 4.0 3
I .6 4.0 2
Y 6.5 40 260

Phase 3 G 1.2 4.0 5
J 8.4 4.0 34
K 30.4 4.0 121
L 12.2 40 488
M 14.0 4.0 56
Z 5.5 40 "220
AA 1.5 4.0 6
BB .5 4.0 2

Phase 4 N 1.6 40 64
0 9.9 4.0 40
P 4.7 2.6 AC @ 20 DU/AC &
2.1 AC @ 40 DU/AC 136
Q 10.9 4.0 44
R 4.8 2.8 AC @ 20 DU/AC &
2.0 AC @ 40 DU/AC 136
CC 1.1 4.0 4
S 13.0 12 AC @ 10.4 DU/AC &
1 AC @ 40 DU/AC 165
T 8.1 4.0 32
U 8.0 4.0 32
V 9.0 5.0 AC @ 7 DU/AC &
4.0 AC @ 20 DU/AC 115
W 14.3 40 572
X 10.5 4.0 42

267.3 11.22























1100 ACRES


1 100 ACRES



400 0 400 1200


0 F






This master development plan and ecological study

have been prepared by the firm of Environmental Planning

and Design, Landscape Architects and Community Planners,

in cooperation with a planning team, consultants, and a

panel of scientist-advisers.

Mr. Gene Brown, and Mr. John Stocks, principles of Leisure

Properties, Ltd., Mr. Alan Ewen and Mr. Clayton Anderson have

represented the owners at all meetings of the planning group.

Mr. William Bishop, Engineer, and Messrs. John 0. Simonds and

James Voss have comprised the balance of the planning team.

Dr. Robert J. Livingston, marine biologist, has served as

chief adviser and has ably coordinated the work of the following


Dr. Andre F. Clewell Terrestrial Vegetation

Dr. Richard L. Iverson Nutrients and Primary Productivity

Dr. D. Bruce Means Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals

Dr. Henry M. Stevenson Avifauna

These scientist-advisers have explored the more significant

aspects of the island, bay and estuary as an interrelated natural

system and have defined the ecological framework within which good

land planning and development may proceed. Much credit for the

quality of the plan is due these men and their perceptive work.

The following consultants have also contributed professional

skills to the continuing planning study.

Barr, Dunlop Associates Traffic Engineer

William W. Amick Golf Architect

Betts, Gardner, Hartsfield Financing and Public Auditing

Real Estate Research Corp. Economists

Brown, Smith, Young and
Pelham, P.A. Legal Counsel

Folsom and Steinmeyer, P.A. Legal Counsel

Rader and Associates, Inc. Photogrammetry

Philip E. LeMoreaux and
Associates, Inc. Ground Water Hydrology

Ardaman & Associates, Inc. Soil Investigation

From the firm of Environmental Planning and Design, John Simonds

has served as Partner in charge, and James Voss as Project Coordinator.

Conceptual planning studies, statistical analyses and other supporting

data have been prepared by Partner Paul Wolfe and Jack Scholl.

Regional planning research has been conducted by Vernon Kennedy,

David Germond, and George Sloss. Steven Victor and Richard Graig

have handled the field investigation and eco-determinant mapping. The

report graphics are the work of John Laatsch and Edward Dumont.

All are grateful to the many public officials, agency staff members

and others who have contributed generously of their time and experience

in helping to shape the plans for this new community.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs