Title: Guide to the Natural History and Agricultural Digital Collections
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083424/00001
 Material Information
Title: Guide to the Natural History and Agricultural Digital Collections
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida Libraries
Publisher: University of Florida Libraries
Publication Date: 2004
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083424
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida


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Digital Library Center
Geor e A. Smathers Libraries
diversity of Florida
State of I~orida University System



The history of the University of Florida Herbarium may be traced to 1891
when Peter H. Rolfs established the Herbarium of Florida Agricultural College. The
herbarium and the associated paleobotanical collection have combined holdings of
approximately one half million specimens. The collections and estimated hold-
ings include: vascular plants (231,000), bryophytes and lichens (160,000), fungi
(57,000), wood (12,700), and paleobotany (125,000). It is the largest scientific plant
specimen collection in Florida and the fourth largest in the southeastern United
States. Digitization of the UF Herbarium specimens began with the type specimens
in 1997. Additional digitization projects include: Introduced Florida Plant Species,
Potentially Poisonous Florida Plant Species, UF Herbarium Type Specimens, Insec-
tivorous Florida Plant Species, John Bartram's Botany: St.Augustine to Picolata, and
Floristic Inventory of Kanapaha Botanical Gardens project specimens. There are
r ic 2. 300 i! .;i. o ii, this ':'lk-:ti,:,i,
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Florida Museum of Natural History

Digital Library Center, George A. Smathers Libraries, UF
The Digital Library Center was established in 1997 as an offshoot of several
digitization projects that were based in the Preservation Department and the
Marston Science Library. Today, it creates digital collections from traditional library
and museum materials in support of the university's teaching and research
missions. Grants from NEH, IMLS, and LSTA support the more innovative digital
projects that cross disciplinary and technological boundaries. The DLC works
closely with other library units to identify collections where digitization would
improve access and/or preservation of the original object. Collaborative projects
with other university units and state and regional agencies are frequent.

Publication of Archival, Library and Museum Materials (PALMM)
Publication of Archival, Library & Museum Materials (PALMM) is a coopera-
tive initiative of the public universities of Florida to provide digital access to impor-
tant source materials for research and scholarship. PALMM projects may involve a
single university or may be collaborative efforts between a university and partners
within or outside of the state university system. PALMM projects create high-
quality virtual collections relevant to the students, research community and general
citizenry of Florida.


Digital images are prepared using several types of scanners and digital
cameras. The format and size of the object determines whether flat bed scanners
or planetary cameras will be used. Large maps and herbarium specimen images
are acquired using a ZBE Satellite large format stationary camera equipped with a
PowerPhase ARI camera back, 135mm Rodenstock lens and daylight filter. Com-
puter support is currently a Macintosh (PowerMac G4) computer system with 17
gigabytes of storage and 800 megabytes of active memory. Camera images are
matched with a 1.8 gamma monitor, relative colorimetrics and the "BEST" quality
for rendering profiles. Colorimetrics are calibrated using Kodak Q-60R1 target per
ANSI IT8.7/2-1993(1999:04). Intermediate processing of digital herbarium images
is achieved with Adobe Photoshop 7.0.1. Final archives are recorded on CD/DVD
with accessible images available on the Internet via the Lizardtech viewing source
MrSID from the Florida Center for Library Automation web server.
Every effort has been made to preserve images as accurately as the original.
Objects are photographed at a 1:1 ratio, meaning camera height, DPI (ppi), and
output image are consistent with the original. This means that an 11.5 x 17.5 in.
specimen sheet is actually preserved as an 11.5 x 17.5 in. final image.Any post-
production manipulation is done using Adobe Photoshop 7.0.1.
Textual objects are captured on flatbed scanners and processed through
PrimeRecognition software that creates an imbedded text file behind a searchable
PDF file. Multiple PDF files can be searched simultaneously.
The DLC is currently creating serving capabilities using Greenstone program-
ming. This will permit a more rapid deployment of digital objects to the Internet
and support a different suite of formats than is currently available.


Historical aerial photographs dra-
matically document changes in Florida's
land use. Between 1937 and 1970, the U.S.
Department of Agriculture created more
than 88,000 black and white 9 x 9 aerial
photographs with 1,200 accompanying
photomosaic indexes of Florida. Due to
the unstable nature of the photographic
negative's sodium nitrate composition,
the U.S. government destroyed archival
negatives for the earliest photos.As a
result, the aging hardcopy photographic
prints are all that remain of this historic
resource. Originally intended to assist
farmers determine accurate assess-
ments for their farms and to provide
information on crop determination and
soil conservation, today these images
provide some of the oldest land use/cover
information available. They are used
extensively in agriculture, conservation,
urbanization, recreation, education,
hydrology, geology, land use, ecology,
geography, and history.
The University of Florida Map &
Imagery Library houses the largest and
most complete collection of Florida aerial
photographs (160,000 photos) outside of
the National Archives. Digitization of the
entire 160,000 photographs is anticipated
to occur over a three-year phased project;
the first two phases have been funded
through LSTA. Scanned photomosaics
sheets were geographically rectified and
combined with existing geospatial data
(i.e. roads, rivers, political boundaries,
etc.) to create a web based map inter-

face. While the individual digital aerial images were not geographically rectified, the
image is suitable for rectification and use in some remote sensing and Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) applications. The graphics quality images are intended
for education, historical evaluations, general planning purposes and aerial photo-
graph preservation; not for measurement use or as legal documents.


Florida Environments Online (FEOL) was the literature database component of
the 1997 IMLS grant Linking Florida's Natural Heritage discussed later. Originally
intended to digitize and Internet serve 200 seminal works on Florida's ecosystems
and species, it now serves as a portal to over 1,400 titles.
The original database included research bibliographies augmented with
records contributed by Florida scientists and state agencies. Research bibliogra-
phies ingested were: Florida Ecosystems compiled by Dr. John Ewel, co-author of
Ecosystems of Florida (3,000 records); Florida Ornithology compiled by the Florida
Ornithological Society (700 records); Fishes of Florida compiled by George Burgess,
Senior Biologist, Ichthyology Department, Florida Museum of Natural History
(1,000+ records on Florida species); Florida Herpetology compiled by Kevin Enge,
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (3,500 records); Florida Geol-
ogy compiled by Dr.Anthony Randazzo, Geology Department, University of Florida
(1,080 records); Bibliography of Literature Useful to the Study of Florida Plants
compiled by Kent Perkins, Collection Manager, University of Florida Herbarium
(300 records); Florida Freshwater Bibliography compiled by Tom Savage and
Landon Ross, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (1,300 records);
Florida Agricultural History compiled by Dr. Vernon Kisling, Marston Science
Library, University of Florida (2,500 records).
The publications digitized during the original grant included selected titles
from the Florida Geological Survey, agricultural documents created by the Agri-
cultural Experiment Station/Extension Service (IFAS) and the Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Affairs, UF Engineering and Industrial Experiment
Station, and Bulletins of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Over the years, col-
laborative agreements with other information providers have increased the value of
this resource to the citizens of Florida.

Florida Environments

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- .....i n...,rit,j ... ', ...... .. .. .. P http://everglades.fiu.edu/reclaim/

Reclaiming the Everglades is a special compilation that represents all or part
.. of sixteen physical collections housed in the archives and special collections of
F University of Miami, Florida International University and the Historical Museum of
Southern Florida. These collections are normally seen by appointment at the hold-
ing library in Miami. Reclaiming the Everglades now makes these valuable materi-
ated by Florida International University als freely accessible to users worldwide. Individually, each collection in Reclaiming
the Everglades offers a distinct perspective on the reclamation of the Everglades.
The persons represented in these historical materials focused national attention
on the unique value of the region through his or her efforts to explore, exploit, or
conserve its natural resources. Collectively, the materials in Reclaiming the Ever-
glades provide a balanced view of the history of the Everglades while illuminating
numerous topics and themes of regional, national and worldwide concern. Major
issues explored in these records include the role of the federal government, state
government, and private citizens in the creation of a national park; the growth and
development of the modern conservation movement and its institutions (e.g., gen-
esis of the National Audubon Society and the establishment of Everglades National
Park); the evolving role of women on the political stage both locally and nationally;
the treatment of Native Americans, including the Seminoles; rights of individual
citizens or private corporations vs. the public interest; and accountability of govern-
ment as trustees of public resources, whether for the purposes of development,
reclamation, or environmental protection.

Enviro l Documents http://library.fgcu.edu/PALMM/SWFEDC/index.htm
The Southwest Florida Environmental Documents Collection (SWFEDC),
comprising the Estero Bay Documents Collection, the Charlotte Harbor Information
Resource Center Documents Collection, and the Caloosahatchee Documents
ated by Florida Gulf Coast University Collection contains recent and historical scientific information related to the
environment of Southwest Florida, the Caloosahatchee River, and its watershed.
Reports, surveys, monographs, and other materials from agencies such as the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are collected together with materials
from local agencies such as the South Florida Water Management District, the
Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program, the Central and Southern Florida
Flood Control District, the Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council, and local
consulting and engineering firms. Many of the titles in the Estero Bay Documents
Collection and the Charlotte Harbor Information Resource Center, and all of the
documents in the Caloosahatchee Documents Collections, are available online;
all of the documents are available through Florida Gulf Coast University Library
Services. These collections were made possible in part through grants generously
provided by the Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program and the South Florida
Water Management District for the benefit of scientists, researchers, and plan-
ners working in Southwest Florida and has since also proven valuable to students
interested in the biology, geology, and environment of the area. The Charlotte
Harbor Information Resource Center, accessible through this site, also includes
bibliographies, pathfinders, and other web-based information related to the study
of Southwest Florida's environment.


State University Library Catalogs. The library catalogs of the State University
System of Florida describe the print and electronic holdings of libraries at Florida
A&M University, Florida Atlantic University, Florida Gulf Coast University, Florida
International University, Florida State University, the University of Central Florida,
the University of Florida, the University of North Florida, the University of South
Florida, and the University of West Florida. Together, the library catalogs contain
more than 10 million bibliographic records for books, journals, and media.


By creating individualized, special views of museum record data fields, the
following museum databases were also incorporated in the searches.

Ichthyology (FMRI). The Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) is a part of
the state's Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). The Ichthyology
collection contains approximately 8000 specimens.

Ichthyology Collection (Florida Museum of Natural History). The Florida
Museum of Natural History Ichthyology collection contains primary and secondary
types of more than 325 taxa of freshwater and marine fishes. It was ranked as the
tenth most important fish specimen resource in North America and the second high-
est by the National Center by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetolo-
gists. The collection contains 143,000 cataloged lots (ca. 1,430,000 specimens), and
about 70,000 identified and labeled but uncataloged lots (ca. 700,000 specimens).

Herpetology Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History. With approxi-
mately 149,000 specimens, the FLMNH herpetology collection is estimated to be
the 11th largest in the USA. Its skeletal collection is fifth largest, containing more
than 11,000 disarticulated skeletons and a small number of cleared and stained
specimens.An average of 3,800 specimens a year are catalogued. The collection
contains 50 holotypes and 844 paratypes representing 171 taxa.An additional 16
taxa are in the process of being described.

Mammalogy, Florida Museum of Natural History. The mammalogy collection
has approximately 30,000 catalogued specimens.

UF Herbarium. The University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS) collection contains
herbarium specimens on file in the vascular plant and bryophyte and lichen

Bird Specimen Collection, Tall Timbers Research Station. This collection
contains approximately 3900 specimens (mostly study skins) representing 597
species. Most specimens were collected in the 1950s- 1970s from Florida and
Georgia, many from the long-term study of bird mortality at the WCTV television
tower. The collection, although relatively small, has been valuable to Florida
ornithology and contains many important specimens.


Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System

The Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS)
collection for Florida is a bibliographic database that has been compiled by Victor
Ramey and Karen Brown at the UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
(CAIP). This collection is worldwide in scope and contains more than 58,000 anno-
tated citations to the literature, including grey literature, proceedings and govern-
ment reports. To access the entire CAIP web site, which contains photographs, line
drawings, basic and detailed information about many aquatic, wetland and invasive
plant species, prohibited plant laws and lists, a list of plant manuals and field
guides, and much more, go to < http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/ >. The APIRS database
was begun with funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development in
1979 in order to assist developing countries with information needs regarding the
control and management of extremely invasive aquatic weeds. Aquatic weeds often
cause life-threatening problems in these countries where water bodies are used
extensively for transportation, subsistence fishing and livestock watering, drink-
ing and household water, and crop irrigation. Later funding was provided by the
Florida Department of Natural Resources (now the Department of Environmental
Protection) Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management (now the Bureau of Invasive Plant
Management) and the U.S.Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE). Additional funding
has been received from the St. Johns River Water Management District. The CAIP/
APIRS collection was eventually expanded to include the scientific literature on all
aquatic and wetland plant species worldwide, and most recently, upland invasive
species in Florida. It is updated regularly.

Florida Agricultural History and Rural Life

A mix of citations, photographs, and online documents, this collection includes
publications of two IFAS agencies: the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
and the Florida Agricultural Extension Service. It also includes annual reports and
bulletins from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and
publications of the University of Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment
Station. The focus of the collection is Florida agriculture and rural life between
1820-1945. (See the Florida Agricultural History and Rural Life Pathfinder at this
link for a brief agricultural history.)


Florida Geological Survey Publications

As part of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida
Geological Survey (FGS) collects, interprets, disseminates, stores, and
maintains geologic data. Its activities contribute to the responsible use and
understanding of Florida's natural resources, to the conservation of Florida's
oil and gas resources, and to minimizing environmental impacts from explo-
ration and production activities. Many of the publications in the following
FGS series have been digitized and are available through this site: ANNUAL
REPORTS record the results of geologic investigations and include adminis-
trative information of the FGS, including budget, staff, lists, and facilities.
BIENNIAL REPORTS record the administrative workings of the FGS includ-
ing descriptions of the budget, programs and personnel. BULLETINS are
comprehensive reports on geologic or related studies. They generally cover
a broad subject area and/or geographic location. INFORMATION CIRCU-
LARS are reports of a preliminary or interim nature, or update reports on
continuing investigations. LEAFLETS are short publications related to areas
of general, educational, public interest. MAP SERIES contain geologic and
other related data presented in graphic formats including maps, cross
sections, and graphs, and generally include accompanying text.

Howard T. Odum Center for Wetlands Publications

Howard T. Odum founded the UF Center for Wetlands in 1973. His goal was
to use the Center as a focal point for both basic research on wetlands ecology
and for demonstrating how sustaining wetlands contributes to the fulfill-
ment of societal needs. The Center is recognized as the world leader in the
ecology and management of subtropical and tropical wetlands. The World
Bank, United Nations and numerous conservation organizations have called
upon Center staff to advise on management issues based on their extensive
Florida experience. In addition to a long history with freshwater wetlands,
center staff has also built an impressive research record for lakes, coastal
wetlands, estuaries, streams and springs. Center faculty and students have
recently worked in concert with researchers from Brazil, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Israel, Paraguay, and Uganda. The Center for Wetlands has been
generating publications related to environmental issues since its inception
in 1973. Digitization of these publications began in the summer of 2004 as
a cooperative project with the UF Libraries Digital Library Center. This is an
ongoing project and only those publications without copyright restriction
will be included.

Linking Florida's
Natural Heritage

'- .-- .


Linking Florida's Natural History uses species information as the nexus for
pulling together scientific data from museum specimen databases and library cata-
logs of scientific literature. The goals of the IMLS funded project were to integrate
specimen records and bibliographic records about the same species; to create an
interface equally easy for scientists, students and laymen to use; and to enhance
bibliographic description to make it more usable in a taxonomic and environmental
context. Although some development was required to enable Z39.50-based broad-
cast searches across bibliographic and specimen collections, the bulk of the work
was devoted to identifying and overcoming inconsistencies between the resource
description practices of libraries and museums. Enriching records with taxonomic
and geographic information was also a challenge. The use of Z39.50 permitted
integration and retrieval from the following MARC based library collections and
specimen databases.


Everglades Online. Everglades Online is a searchable database covering the diver-
sity of the Everglades information universe. It provides search access to the online
collections in the Everglades Digital Library, to electronic resources elsewhere
on the Internet, and to printed library materials relating to the Everglades. Ever-
glades Online together with the Everglades Digital Library make up the Everglades
Information Network, a program of library and information services in support of
research, restoration, and resource management of the south Florida environment.
Originally initiated as a collaborative project of the Florida International University
Libraries and Everglades National Park, the project has now grown to involve nu-
merous other scientific, government, library, and educational organizations such as
the FIU Southeast Environmental Research Center (SERC), the Restoration Ecology
Branch of the Florida Caribbean Science Center, USGS-Biological Resources Divi-
sion, the University of Miami Library, and the Historical Museum of South Florida.

FORMIS Ant Bibliography. FORMIS99 is a master bibliography of ant litera-
ture, composed from eleven ant literature databases as well as contributions from
individual users. It contains citations for a large fraction of the world's ant literature
(about 29,000 references). This database includes the UCD Ant Literature Database
compiled by Philip S. Ward, Steve 0. Shattuck, and William L. Brown, Jr.; AGRICOLA,
the information service of the National Agricultural Library; and ANTBIB by Philip
S. Ward, Barry Bolton, Steven 0. Shattuck, and William L. Brown, Jr.

Sea Turtle Bibliography. The Sea Turtle Online Bibliography was developed by the
Archie Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research at the University of Florida. This online
bibliography contains more than 12,000 references on all aspects of sea turtle biol-
ogy, conservation and management. The bibliography is continually updated with
citations from recognized bibliographic sources as well as grey literature, such as
unpublished notes and reports.

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