Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 The first voyage of Captain...
 The second voyage of Captain...
 The third voyage of Captain...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Captain Cook's three voyages round the world : with a sketch of his life
Title: Captain Cook's three voyages round the world
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083409/00001
 Material Information
Title: Captain Cook's three voyages round the world with a sketch of his life
Alternate Title: Captain Cook's voyages
Physical Description: 512 p., 12 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Low, Charles Rathbone, 1837-1918 ( Editor )
George Routledge and Sons ( Publisher )
Cowan & Co ( Printer )
Publisher: George Routledge and Sons
Place of Publication: London ;
Manchester ;
New York
Manufacturer: Cowan & Co.
Publication Date: 1895
Edition: New ed.
Subject: Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Ship captains -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Seafaring life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages around the world -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Discovery and exploration -- Juvenile literature -- Oceania   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1895   ( rbgenr )
Biographies -- 1895   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1895
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Biographies   ( rbgenr )
individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Manchester
United States -- New York -- New York
England -- Perth
Statement of Responsibility: edited by Charles R. Low ; with twelve plates in colours from designs by Gordon Browne and twenty-eight illustrations.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00083409
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002391240
notis - ALZ6129
oclc - 12932074

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
    Half Title
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Title Page
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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        Page 11
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    The first voyage of Captain Cook
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    The second voyage of Captain Cook
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    The third voyage of Captain Cook
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text




The Bald un Libran
1?jn! nz





Ij m










(Late) H.M. Indian Navy, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and
Member of the Royal United Service Institution







AMONG the most remarkable voyages of discovery of which we
have record, those made by the celebrated Captain Cook hold in
popular estimation, and deservedly so, the first place. This is
due as much to the magnitude and importance of his discoveries
as to the interest of the incidents he details; the graphic and
accurate, yet simple, descriptions of the people and places he
visited; and the sad fate that ultimately overtook him, which has
cast around his name a halo of romantic interest as one of the
martyrs of scientific exploration.
James Cook was born in November, 1728, at Marton, in
Cleveland, near Great Ayton, in Yorkshire. He was of humble
parentage, and, when only two years of age, his father, who was
a day labourer to a farmer, removed to Great Ayton, where he
was employed in the same capacity by Mr. Thomas Scottowe.
At first young Cook assisted his father in the different branches
of husbandry, but, at thirteen, was placed under the care of Mr.
Pullen, the village schoolmaster at Ayton, where he learned
arithmetic and book-keeping, and is said to have displayed a
remarkable aptitude for figures.
About January, 1745, when James Cook was seventeen years
of age, his father bound him apprentice to learn the grocery and


haberdashery business, at Snaith, about ten miles from Whitby;
but after a year and a halfs servitude, having contracted a strong
predilection for the sea, his master was willing to indulge him in
following the bent of his inclination, and agreed to cancel the
indentures. Accordingly, in July, 1746, the future circum-
navigator was bound apprentice to Mr. J. Walker, of Whitby, for
the term of three years, which he served to the full satisfaction of
his employer. He first sailed on board the Freelove, chiefly
employed in the coal trade between Newcastle and London; and
in May, 1748, was employed in assisting to rig and fit out for sea
the Three Brothers, a ship of 300 tons, thus acquiring that
intimate knowledge of the rigger's art which forms so important
an element in the education of a sailor. After performing two
coaling voyages in this ship, she was chartered by the Govern-
ment as a transport, and conveyed troops to Dublin, thence em-
barking other soldiers to Liverpool. Cook continued to serve in
her, in the Norway trade, until the expiration of his apprentice-
ship, and, in the spring of 1750, we find him shipping as a seaman
on board the Mfaria, under the command of Captain Gaskin; in
her he performed some voyages in the Baltic trade. In 1752,
Mr. Walker, of Whitby, was glad to avail himself of his services
as mate of one of his ships, called the Friendship, and he gave so
much satisfaction to the owner that, it is said, he was offered the
post of master of the vessel, which, however, he declined. Hence-
forth his services were devoted to his country.
In the spring of 1755, hostilities broke out between this country
and France, and strenuous efforts were made to man the ships of
war. As press-warrants had been issued, Mr. Cook, whose ship
then lay in the Thames, afraid of being pressed, at first resolved
to conceal himself; but afterwards, reflecting on the difficulties of
doing so, he adopted the resolution of entering the navy as a
volunteer, having a mind," as he expressed himself, to try his
fortune that way." In pursuance of this design he repaired to a
house of rendezvous in Wapping, and entered on board the Eagle,
of 60 guns, at that time commanded by Captain Hamer; on the
appointment, in the following October, of Captain (afterwards Sir
Hugh) Palliser to the command of this ship, Cook's diligence and
attention to the duties of his profession, although in the humble


capacity of a foremast hand, attracted the notice of that discern-
ing and intelligent commander, and he afforded him every en-
couragement. Cook's meritorious conduct also came to the ears
of his friends in his native county, and representations were made
to his captain by the Member for Scarborough, which resulted in
his being recommended for a master's warrant on board one of
His Majesty's ships. After some delay he was appointed master
of the M3fercury, and proceeded in her to North America, and was
of signal service during the reduction of Quebec by the combined
military and naval expedition under General Wolfe and Admiral
Sir Charles Saunders; as is well known, the chief credit of that
famous exploit fell to the lot of the sister service, which covered
itself with glory, though at the sad cost of the loss of Wolfe, whose
death dimmed the lustre of even so great a victory.
At the siege of Quebec, Sir Charles Saunders committed to his
charge the execution of services of the first importance in the
naval department. He piloted the boats to the attack of Mont-
morency, conducted the embarkation to the Heights of Abraham,
and examined the passage, and laid buoys for the security of the
large ships in proceeding up the river. He was employed for
several nights taking soundings opposite the French camp at
Montmorency, until at length he was discovered by the enemy,
who sent a number of canoes, filled with Indians, to surround
him; and he narrowly escaped capture by pulling for the Isle of
Orleans, the Indians seizing the stern of his boat as he sprang
ashore. The courage and address with which he acquitted him-
self in these services, and the admirable completeness of the plan
of the channel and its soundings, which he furnished to the ad-
miral, gained him the warm friendship of Sir Charles Saunders
and his successor, Lord Colville, who continued his zealous
patrons during the remainder of their lives.
After the conquest of Canada, Mr. Cook was appointed, on
the 2nd of September, 1759, master of the Northumberland, bear-
ing the broad pennant of Lord Colville, which lay, during the
ensuing winter, at Halifax. But Cook, whose chief anxiety was
to rise in his profession, resolved to qualify himself for promotion,
and counteract the deficiencies of his early education by applica-
tion to those sciences and branches of knowledge which are


essential to success. Inspired by this noble ambition, instead of
devoting his spare time to amusements, he was engaged in im-
proving his mind. During the hard winter of 1759 he first read
Euclid, and applied himself to the study of mathematics and
astronomy, without any other assistance than was afforded him by
a few books and his own industry.
Mr. Cook's commission as lieutenant was dated the ist of
April, 1760. In September, 1762, we find him assisting at the
recapture of Newfoundland; and subsequently, while the British
fleet lay at Placentia, he was engaged surveying the heights and
harbour in order that it might be put into a state of defence, a
task which he performed with such marked ability, as to attract
the favourable notice of the Governor of Newfoundland, Captain
(afterwards Admiral) Graves. Towards the close of the year,
Lieutenant Cook returned to England, and, on the 2ist of
December, was married at Barking to Miss Batts, whose god-
father he was said to have been, although, it should be added,
there was only a difference of fourteen years in their ages. For
this lady, by whom he had six children, he entertained a tender af-
fection through life; but, like all great seamen, he placed the requir-
ments of the public service before his personal predilections, and was
ever ready at the call of duty to resign the solace of her society for
years. In 1763 Lieut. Cook accompanied Captain Graves when he
went out for the second time as Governor of Newfoundland, and he
carried out a survey of its coasts, as well as of the islands of
Miquelon and St. Pierre, which had been ceded to this country by
France in the treaty of peace. He again returned to England,
but, early in the following year, accompanied his former captain,
Sir Hugh Palliser, who had been appointed Governor of New-
foundland and Labrador, and continued the prosecution of his
surveys of those coasts and of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. His
charts were considered admirable and most trustworthy, while he
did not confine his labours to marine surveying alone, but ex-
plored the interior of Newfoundland. In 1765 he was with Sir
William Burnaby on the Jamaica station; he was employed by
the Admiral in carrying despatches to the Governor of Yucatan,
relative to the wood-cutters in the Bay of Honduras, and a record
of this mission, which he performed in an eminently satisfactory


manner, was published in 1769. Returning to Newfoundland, he
observed an eclipse of the sun on August 5th, 1766, an account
of which appears in the seventh volume of the Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society.
Lieutenant Cook returned to England, in 1767, when much in-
terest was felt by the astronomical and scientific world at the ap-
proaching transit of Venus over the sun's disc in 1769. Acting
on the advice of Captain Wallis, who had just returned from his
voyage round the world, it was decided that Otaheite, in the
Society Islands, would be the most convenient spot for carrying
out the observations; and, after some delay, Lieutenant Cook
was selected to command the expedition, which was fitted out
under the auspices of the Royal Society and the patronage of his
Majesty King George the Third and the Board of Admiralty,
whose instructions to him embraced the prosecution of discoveries
in those seas, which had been already partially explored by our
countrymen, Captains Wallis, Carteret, and Byron. These
officers, by their discoveries, had greatly contributed towards in-
creasing our knowledge of the islands in Polynesia; but how far
the Pacific Ocean extended to the west, by what lands it was
bounded on that side, and the connection of those lands with
former discoveries, remained unknown until Cook, on his return
from his first voyage, brought back a solution of these points.
After Lieutenant Cook's return from his first voyage, he was
promoted to Commander on the i9th August, 1771; and on the
9th of August, 1775, ten days after his arrival in England from
his second voyage, he was raised to the rank of Post-Captain in
the Royal Navy.
For the species of enterprise on which he was engaged during
these years, Captain Cook appears to have been eminently
qualified. The earliest habits of his life, the course of his
service, and the constant application of his mind, all conspired to
fit him for it, and gave him a degree of professional knowledge
which few officers had then or have since attained.
His frame and constitution were robust, inured to labour and
capable of undergoing the severest hardships. When necessity
required it, he could submit, uncomplainingly, to the coarsest and
most unpalatable food; and, indeed, temperance in him was


scarcely a virtue, so great was the indifference with which he sub-
mitted to every kind of self-denial. The qualities of his mind
were of the same hardy, vigorous kind as those of his body. His
understanding was strong and perspicuous; his judgment,
especially in professional matters, quick and sure. His designs
were bold, and, both in the conception and in the mode of
execution, bore evident marks of original genius. His courage
was cool and determined, and accompanied with an admirable
presence of mind in the moment of danger. His manners were
plain and unaffected; his temper, it was said, was open to blame
on the score of hastiness and passion, but on the other hand he
was generous, benevolent, and humane.
Such was the outline of Captain Cook's character; but its
most distinguishing feature was that unremitting perseverance in
the pursuit of his object, which was superior to the opposition of
dangers, difficulties, and hardships. During the long and tedious
voyages in which he was engaged, his eagerness and activity were
never in the least abated. No incidental temptations could de-
tain him for a moment; even those intervals of recreation which
sometimes unavoidably occurred, were submitted to by him with
a certain impatience whenever they could not be employed in
making further provision for the more effectual prosecution of his
designs. It is not necessary here to enumerate the instances in
which these qualities were displayed, as his whole life bore wit-
ness that he was the possessor of them; but we will briefly state
the results of the great and important enterprises in which he was
Perhaps no man ever made greater additions to our knowledge
of the twin sciences of geography and navigation than Captain
Cook. In his first voyage to the South Seas he discovered the
Society Islands ; determined the insularity of New Zealand; dis-
covered the straits called after his name, which separate the two
islands, and made a complete survey of both.
With wonderful skill and perseverance, amidst perplexities,
difficulties, and dangers, he explored the eastern coast of Australia,
hitherto unknown, for an extent of twenty-seven degrees of lati-
tude, or upwards of 2,000 miles.
In his second expedition he traversed the southern hemisphere,


between the fortieth and sixty-seventh degrees of latitude, having
sailed nearer to the South Pole than any previous navigator; and
it was not until 1823, just fifty years later, that Weddell penetrated
214 miles further south, though it was reserved for the late Sir
James Clark Ross, in his memorable voyage in 1841, in Her
Majesty's ships Erebus and Terror-the same that carried Franklin
and his associates on their last voyage-to prove the existence of
an antarctic continent, 450 miles in length, in 780 4'.
During this voyage Captain Cook discovered New Caledonia,
one of the largest islands in the South Pacific, the island of
Georgia, and other islands, besides settling the situations of the
old and making several new discoveries.
But the third and last voyage was distinguished above the
others by the extent and importance of its results. Although he
had richly earned repose by reason of his great services in the
two former voyages, Cook voluntarily quitted the comfortable
quarters he had been allotted in Greenwich Hospital by the
bounty of the King, and once more embarked on the dangers
inseparable from the navigation of unknown seas, the dealing
with savage races, and the search for the mysterious "north-west
passage,"' which had baffled so many of our most experienced
navigators, and which, seventy years later, was destined to engulf
the great Franklin and upwards of ioo gallant officers and seamen
at the moment when the secret was yielded up to their energetic
Besides several smaller islands in the South Pacific, he dis-
covered, to the north of the equinoctial line, the group called the
Sandwich Islands, which, from their situation and productions,
have attained a position of importance not yet assumed by other
groups in Polynesia. He afterwards explored what had hitherto
remained unknown of the western coast of America, from the
latitude of 430 to 70o 44' north, containing an extent of 3,500
1 Strictly speaking, Cook was engaged in discovering the "north-east"
passage, from which point he attacked the great problem of Arctic navigation.
On this side Captain Beechey reached as far as 710 25', by which means a space
of about 150 miles only remained unexplored between Point Barrow, the N.E.
point reached by Captain Beechey, and Point Beechey, the N.W. limit of Sir
John Franklin's land expeditions from the mouth of McKenzie's River. This
interval was surmounted by the late Sir Robert McClure.


miles, ascertained the proximity of the two great continents of
Asia and America, passed the straits between them, and surveyed
a considerable extent of coast on each side; and it was not until
1826 that Captain Beechey passed Cook's farthest, and again,
many years later, Sir Robert McClure and Sir Richard Collinson.
But Cook was destined never to return to England, and, on
the 14th of February, 1779, on the shores of an island he had
given to the civilised world, this great mariner perished by the
daggers of a horde of savages whom it had been his utmost
endeavour to conciliate by kind and friendly treatment.
Those who are conversant with naval history need not be told
at how dear a rate the scientific advantages which are sought to
be attained through the medium of long voyages at sea have
always been purchased. Scurvy, that dreadful disorder which
is peculiar to this service, and whose ravages have marked the
tracks of discoverers, as witness the records of the voyages of
Lord Anson and other navigators, must have proved an insuper-
able obstacle to the prosecution of such enterprises, unless the
preservation of the lives of our seamen were deemed a matter of
no moment. It was reserved for Captain Cook to show the
world, by repeated trials, that voyages might be protracted to the
unusual length of three or even four years, in unknown regions,
and under every change and rigour of climate, not only without
affecting the health, but even without diminishing the probability
of life in the smallest degree. The method he pursued was fully
explained by himself in a paper which was read before the Royal
Society, in the year 1776, a few months after he quitted England
on his last voyage, on which occasion Sir Godfrey Copley's gold
medal was awarded him; and he also noted in his journal, up to
the time of his death, whatever improvements were suggested by
With respect to his professional abilities, Captain King, his
able lieutenant, well observes, "I shall leave them to the judg-
ment of those who are best acquainted with the nature of the
services in which he was engaged. They will readily acknowledge
that to have conducted three expeditions of so much danger and
difficulty, of so unusual a length, and in such a variety of situation,
with uniform and invariable success, must have required not only


a thorough and accurate knowledge of his business, but a power-
ful and comprehensive genius, fruitful in resources, and equally
ready in the application of whatever the higher and inferior calls
of the service required."
Owing to the great care taken by Captain Cook of his men, and
the sanitary precautions he adopted, his voyages were distin-
guished among those of the century for the small loss incurred in
their prosecution. But the last was destined to be fatal to many
of the officers who sailed in the two ships, the Resolution and Dis-
covery. In addition to Captain Cook, killed on the 14th of
February, 1779, Captain Clerke, who succeeded to the chief com-
mand, succumbed, at the age of thirty-eight, to consumption,
from which he had suffered before he left England, on the 22nd
of August in the same year; and Captain King, the accomplished
historian of the voyage after the death of Cook, died, at Nice, in
the autumn of 1784, of disease caused by the hardships and
vicissitudes of climate to which he had been exposed. King
George the Third was not forgetful of the services of his great
subject, whose discoveries shed no less glory on his reign than the
victories by sea and land, which we Englishmen regard with so
much pride and satisfaction. He settled a pension of 25 per
annum on each of the three surviving sons of the great circum-
navigator, and a pension of 200o a year on the widow.
This lady had soon cause to deplore the loss, in their country's
service, of others only less dear to her than her gallant and
lamented husband. In October, 1780, the month when, by the
return of the Resolution and Discovery, Mrs. Cook was first made
aware of the irreparable loss she had sustained, her second son,
Nathaniel, sixteen years of age, was lost on board the Thunderer
man-of-war, which foundered in a gale of wind. The youngest
son, Hugh, a student at Christ's College, Cambridge, died of
fever at the early age of seventeen, on the 2 st of December, 1793;
and, on the 25th of January in the following year, the eldest son,
aged thirty-one, who bore his father's name, and commanded the
Spitfire sloop-of-war, was driven to sea while attempting to board
his ship off Poole in a heavy gale, and perished, together with
the boat's crew. His body was afterwards recovered, and con-
veyed to Spithead on board his own ship, whence it was removed to


Cambridge, and buried by the side of his youngest brother, whose
funeral he had attended only six weeks before. Mrs. Cook was
herself brought to the brink of the grave by these accumulated
bereavements, but she recovered her health, and lived to the
extraordinary age of ninety-three, having survived her husband
fifty-six years. She died on the i3th of May, 1835, at her resid-
ence at Clapham, to the poor of which she left a charitable be-
quest, and was buried in the middle aisle of St. Andrew's the Great,
Cambridge, by the side of her two sons. Within the communion
rail of that church is a tablet, having an appropriate design de-
scriptive of naval discovery sculptured at the top, and below, a
shield, the device of a globe and a star, with the motto,
Nil intentatum reliquit."
On the tablet is the following inscription to the memory of
Captain Cook:-
Of the Royal Navy,
One of the most Celebrated Navigators that this or former ages can boast of;
Who was killed by the natives of Owyhee in the Pacific Ocean,
On the 14th day of February, 1779, in the fifty-first year of his age.
In continuation of the above, is an inscription to his widow
and their sons, with the names and ages of three children who
died in infancy; and, on the slab in the middle aisle, beneath
which lie Mrs. Cook and her sons, is a brief record of their names
and ages at the date of decease.
But though it is a meet and proper thing that this country,
even by a cenotaph, should record its sense of the services and
devotion to duty of one of the noblest of its sons, yet more in-
terest attaches to the memorials that have been raised to our
great countryman on the scene of his labours and of his death.
Until within the past year, however, no suitable monument to the
memory of Captain Cook had been raised in the Sandwich
Island, though this remissness did not extend to the officers of
the Royal Navy, who have ever been proud of numbering the
name of James Cook among the most distinguished in the long
roll of naval worthies. About ioo yards from the beach, where
he was so cruelly murdered, stands a portion of the trunk of a


cocoa-nut tree, set in a bed of loose stones and broken lava, and
bearing four plates of copper, upon which appear the following
inscriptions, rudely stamped, apparently with a punch. On
the largest of these, the following is the only portion that is now
"This bay was visited by Her Majesty's ship Carrysford, Right Honourable
Lord George Paulet."
A second plate bears the following inscription:-
"This tree having fallen, was replaced on this spot by Her Majesty's steam
vessel Cormorant, G. T. Gordon, Esq., Captain, which visited this spot, May
18, 1846."
The third plate has the following inscription:-
This sheet and capping were put on by the Sparrow Hawk, September 16,
1839, in order to preserve this monument to the memory of Cook. Give this
a coat of tar."
On the fourth plate the following may be deciphered:-
"Near this spot fell Captain James Cook, R.N., the renowned navigator,
who discovered this island A.D. 1778. His Majesty's ship, Imogene, October
17th, 1837."
Yet another rude memorial, supposed to be by the officers of
the Blonde, attests the estimation in which the name of Cook is
held by the Navy. About a mile from the bay, and at an
elevation of some 500 feet above the level of the sea, is a post,
about ten feet in height, set in rude blocks of lava, enclosed
within a wall of the same material, and bearing the following in-
scription upon a plate of copper:-
Who discovered this island A.D. 1778,
This humble monument is erected by his fellow-countrymen, A.D. 1825.
These memorials to Cook displayed a just appreciation on the
part of our naval officers, but the means at their disposal were
limited; and it was not until 1874 that a suitable monument was
erected to his memory. The "Honolulu Gazette," of the 25th
of November of that year, records the circumstances under which
this was effected. The chief credit is due to Mr. Wodehouse,
the British Commissioner, who obtained the co-operation of the
Hawaiian Government, and Captain Cator, of Her Majesty's ship


Scout, who conveyed the architect and men and materials to the
spot in Karakakooa Bay where Captain Cook fell.
The monument is a plain obelisk, standing on a square base,
the whole being 27 feet in height, and constructed throughout of
a concrete composed of carefully screened pebbles and cement.
It stands on a level platform of lava, only a few feet distant
from and above high-water mark, and fifteen or twenty yards
from the stone or lava slab on which the great seaman stood
when struck down. The site is the gift of the native Princess Like-
like, and the expense of the erection is partly borne by sub-
scribers in England, among whom are Admiral Richards, late
Hydrographer at the Admiralty, several officers who served under
him when he commanded H.M.S. Hecate, on this station, and
Lady Franklin, who it was natural should feel a peculiar interest
in one who, like her great husband, at the call of duty, left a
competence, a loving wife, and admiring friends, to perish in the
prosecution of nautical exploration.
On the seaward base of the obelisk is deeply cut the following
Who discovered these islands on the 18th of January, 1778, and fell near
this spot on the 14th of February, 1779.
This monument was erected in November, A.D. 1874,
By some of his fellow-countrymen.
The unveiling of the monument, which will be surrounded by
a fence or railing, took place on the I4th of November, 1874, in
presence of Mr. Wodehouse, Mr. Lischman, the architect, Captain
Cator and the officers of the Scout, and many foreign and native
visitors and residents.
But no monument is needed to the fame of the discoverer of
the Sandwich group, of New Caledonia, of Georgia, and other in-
ferior islands; the explorer of the unknown coasts of New Zea-
land, of Australia, and of the West Coast of America as far as Icy
Cape. Among the names most cherished by his countrymen, is
that of the greatest navigator of all time, Captain James Cook,
whose unassuming, genuine character obtained for him the
honourable title of Orbis investigator acerrimus."


DURING the past year the governments and scientific men of all
civilised nations were vying with each other as to which should
contribute most to the observation of one of the rarest and most
interesting of astronomical phenomena. Numberless expeditions
were organised under the auspices, and at the expense, of govern-
ments, learned societies, and munificent private individuals, and
were despatched to some of the most remote and inaccessible
spots and islands on the face of the globe, for the purpose of ob-
serving the transit of Venus over the sun's disc.
Much more humble were the efforts made a century ago to
observe the same phenomenon, though it was the furthering of
this scientific end that brought before the world the name of that
great man, whose memory his countrymen will not willingly per-
mit to die; and, indeed, of few, if any, of our worthies, have so
many biographical sketches been written, while the narrative
of his voyages has been edited by numerous hands, and never so
well as when the original text of Captains Cook and King has
been most closely adhered to. This course we have adopted,
abbreviating freely, and, where necessary, throwing into modern
language the somewhat antiquated phraseology of the early
Calculations having been made that the planet Venus would pass
over the sun's disc in 1769, the Royal Society, under the patron-
age of King George the Third, presented a memorial to Govern-
ment, requesting that a vessel might be fitted out to convey proper
persons to observe the transit, either in the Marquesas or Friendly
Islands, though, on the recommendation of Captain Wallis, who
at this time returned from his voyage round the world, it was
ultimately decided that the observers should proceed instead to
Otaheite, in the Society Islands. Accordingly, Sir Hugh Palliser,


a captain in the Royal Navy, under whom Cook had served on
board the Eagle, of 60 guns, was commissioned to provide a
proper vessel; and after examining a great number, fixed on the
Endeavour, a vessel of 370 tons, which had been built for the
coal trade. Mr. Stephens, Secretary to the Admiralty, having
recommended Mr. Cook, and this recommendation being
strengthened by the testimony of Sir Hugh Palliser, he was ap-
pointed to the distinguished post of Commander of the expe-
dition by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, on the
25th of May, 1768, being then nearly 40 years of age. Mr.
Charles Green, the coadjutor of Mr. Bradley, the Astronomer
Royal, was nominated to assist him .in the astronomical part of
the undertaking; he was also accompanied by Mr. (afterwards Sir
Joseph) Banks, President of the Royal Society, who took with
him two draughtsmen, and had likewise a secretary and four
servants. Dr. Solander, an ingenious and learned Swede, who
held a place in the British Museum, and was an adept in natural
history and philosophy, also joined the expedition. The comple-
ment of the Endeavour consisted of eighty-four persons. She was
victualled for eighteen months, and ten carriage and twelve swivel
guns, with abundance of ammunition, and all manner of stores,
were taken on board. Her principal officers were :-Lieutenants
Hicks and Gore; Mr. Molineux, master, who died the 15th of
April, 1771, and was succeeded by Mr. Pickersgill; Mr. Charles
Clerke, mate; Mr. Monkhouse, surgeon, who died the 5th of
November, 1770, and was succeeded by Mr. Perry,
? p Captain Cook sailed from Deptford on the 3oth of July, 1768,
and on the i8th of August anchored in Plymouth Sound, from
', ( which, in a few days, he proceeded to sea. On the 2nd of
i / September they made the first land after leaving the Channel, and
on the 13th arrived at Madeira, where they unfortunately lost
Mr. Weir, the master's mate, who fell overboard and was drowned.
I, L .I They left Madeira on the gth of September, and on the 23rd
sighted the Peak of Teneriffe, which, from its great elevation, is
visible a vast distance at sea. On the 29th, Bona Vista, one of
/ the Cape de Verd islands, was passed, and on October the2-t
they crossed the line with the usual ceremonies. Provisions


falling short, it was determined to put into Rio Janeiro, where
.t^ they arrived on the i3th afNovember~and having procured the
L/ necessary supplies, weighed anchor on the 8th December. On
the 22nd they were surrounded by a great number of porpoises,
v:i: oowf a singular species, about 15 feet in length, and of an ash
S colour. On the following day they observed an eclipse of the
moon; and at seven o'clock in the morning a small white cloud
appeared in the west, from which a train of fire issued, followed
by a distinct explosion, when the cloud disappeared. The year
S168 closed without any noteworthy incident.
I' On the 4th of anuuarvy _69,_they saw an appearance of land,
S which they mistook for Pepy's Island, and bore away for it; but
S it proved one of those deceptions which sailors call a fog bank."
S On the 14th they entered the straits of Le Maire, but were driven
out again with great violence, the tide being against them. At
length they got anchorage at the entrance of a little cove, which
Captain Cook called St. Vincent's Bay. Dr. Solander and Mr.
Banks went on shore, and returned about nine in the evening
with upwards of a hundred different plants and flowers, hitherto
unnoticed by European botanists.
On Sunday, the i th, they came to anchor off this part of
Terrae.deltiFuego, in twelve fathoms of water, upon coral rocks,
before a small cove, at a distance of about a mile from the shore.
Two of the natives came down upon the beach, as if they ex-
pected the strangers would land; but as there was no shelter, the
ship got under weigh again and the natives retired. The same
afternoon they came to an anchor in the Bay of Good Success.
The captain went ashore, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander, to search for a watering-place and confer with the
natives. These gentlemen proceeded above a ioo yards in ad-
vance of Captain Cook, when two of the natives who had seated
themselves, rose up, and, as a token of amity, threw away a small
stick or boomerang which they had in their hands. They after-
wards returned to their companions, who had remained some
distance behind, and made signs to their guests to advance.
They received the Englishmen in a friendly manner, and in return
for their civility, some buttons and beads were distributed among
them. Thus confidence was established, and the rest of the


English party joined and conversed with them in an amicable
manner. Captain Cook and his friends took three of the natives
to the ship, clothed them, and gave them provisions, part of
which they carried on shore. They, however, refused to drink
rum or brandy, after tasting it, intimating by signs that it burned
their throats. None of these people exceeded 5 feet o1 inches in
height, but their bodies appeared large and robust, though their
limbs were small. They had broad flat faces, high cheeks, noses
inclining to flatness, wide nostrils, small black eyes, large mouths,
small but indifferent teeth, and straight black hair falling down
over their ears and foreheads, the latter being most generally
smeared with brown and red paints; and, like all the original
inhabitants of America, they were beardless. Their garments
were the skins of seals and guanicos, which they wrapped round
their shoulders. The men likewise wore on their heads a bunch of
yarn, which fell over their foreheads, and was tied behind with
the sinews or tendons of some animal. Many of both sexes were
painted in different parts of their bodies with 'red, brown, and
white colours, and had also three or four perpendicular lines
pricked across their cheeks and noses. The women had a small
string tied round each ankle, and each wore a flap of skin fastened
round the middle. They carried their children upon their backs,
and were generally employed in domestic labour and drudgery.
Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Mr. Buchan, and attendants, set out
with a design of going into the country and returning the same even-
ing. The morning had been very fine, but the weather afterwards
became cold and disagreeable, the blasts of wind were piercing,
and the snow fell very thick; nevertheless, they pursued their
route, in the hope of finding a better road, as that which they had
crossed was swampy. An accident now happened that greatly
disconcerted them all. Mr. Buchan was attacked with a fit.
Such as were fatigued remained to assist him; but Mr. Banks,
Dr. Solander, and Mr. Monkhouse proceeded on further, and
found a great variety of plants that amply repaid their toil. When
they returned to the company amidst the snow, which now fell in
great abundance, they found that Mr. Buchan was much recovered.
It was now about eight in the evening, and Dr. Solander, knowing
from experience that extreme cold, when joined with fatigue,




occasions a drowsiness that is not easily resisted, entreated his
friends to keep in motion, however disagreeable it might be to
them. His words were, Whoever sits down will sleep, and who-
ever sleeps will wake no more." Accordingly, everyone now
seemed armed with resolution; but, on a sudden, the cold became
so very intense as to threaten the most dreadful effects. It was
remarkable that the doctor himself, who had so forcibly ad-
monished his party, was the first person who insisted on repose.
In spite of their earnest entreaties, he lay down amidst the snow,
and it was with the greatest difficulty they kept him awake. One
of the black servants became also weary and faint, and was on
the point of following his example. Mr. Buchan was therefore
detached with a party to make a fire at the first commodious spot
they could find; Mr. Banks and four more remained with the
doctor and Richmond, the black servant, who with the utmost
difficulty were persuaded to proceed; but when they had traversed
the greater part of the swamp, they expressed their inability to go
any further. When Richmond was told that if he remained there
he would soon be frozen to death, his reply was that he was so
exhausted with fatigue, that death would be a relief to him. Dr.
Solander said he was not unwilling to go, but that he must first
take some sleep, acting contrary to the opinion which he himself
had so lately delivered. Thus resolved, they both sat down, sup-
ported by some bushes, and in a short time fell fast asleep. In-
telligence now came from the advanced party that a fire was kindled
about a quarter of a mile in advance. Mr. Banks then awakened
the doctor, who had almost lost the use of his limbs, though it
was but a few minutes since he sat down; nevertheless, he con-
sented to go. Every measure, however, taken to relieve Rich-
mond proved ineffectual; he remained motionless, and they were
obliged to leave him to the care of a sailor and the other black
servant who appeared to be the least affected by the cold, and
they were to be relieved as soon as two others were sufficiently
warmed to supply their places. The doctor, with much difficulty,
was got to the fire, but the party who were sent to relieve the
companions of Richmond returned without having been able to
find them.
A fall of snow continuing for nearly two hours, there now re-


mained no hopes of seeing the three absent persons again. About
twelve o'clock, however, a great shouting was heard at a distance,
when Mr. Banks and four others went forth and met the sailor,
who had just strength enough left to walk. He was immediately
taken to the fire, and they proceeded to seek for the other two.
They found Richmond upon his legs, of which, however, he had
lost the use, and the other black was lying senseless upon the
ground. All endeavours to bring them to the fire were fruitless:
nor was it possible to kindle one upon the spot, on account of the
snow that had fallen and was still falling, so there remained no
alternative, and they were compelled to leave the two unfortunate
negroes to their fate, after they had made them a bed of the
boughs of some trees, and covered them over thick with the same.
As all hands had been employed in endeavouring to move these
poor fellows to the fire, and had been exposed to the cold for near
an hour and a half in the attempt, some of them began to be
afflicted in the same manner as those whom they went to relieve.
Briscoe, another servant of Mr. Banks, in particular, began to
lose his sensibility. At last they reached the fire, and passed the
night in a very disagreeable manner. >
The party that set out from the ship consisted of twelve; two
were already judged to be dead, and it was doubtful whether a
third would be able to return on board; Mr. Buchan, a fourth,
seemed to be threatened with a return of his fits. They reckoned
that the ship was distant a long day's journey through an unfre-
quented wood, and having been equipped only for a journey of a
few hours, they had not a sufficiency of provisions left to afford
the company a single meal.
At daybreak on the I7th nothing presented itself to view but
snow, and the blasts of wind were so frequent and violent that
their journey seemed to be impracticable. However, about six in
the morning they had a dawn of hope, by discerning the sun
through the clouds, and as they proposed to set out on their
return journey to the ship, messengers were despatched to the
unhappy negroes, but they returned with the melancholy news of
their death. They then started about ten in the morning, and to
their great astonishment and satisfaction, in about three hours
found themselves on the shore, and much nearer the ship than


their most sanguine expectations could have suggested, for, instead
of ascending the hill in a direct line, they had made a circle
almost round the country.
On the 2oth Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander again proceeded on
shore, and collected a number of shells and plants hitherto un-
known. After dinner they went to visit an Indian town, about
two miles up the country, situated on a small hill covered with
wood, and consisting of about a dozen huts, constructed without
art or regularity, composed of a few poles, inclining to each other
in the shape of a sugar loaf; these poles were covered on the
weather side with grass and boughs, and on the lee side a space
was left open which served at once for a fireplace and a door.
A little grass formed their only beds and chairs; their utensils
were a basket for the hand, a satchel to hang upon the back, and
a bladder of water, out of which they drink through a hole in the
top. This town was inhabited by a tribe of about fifty men,
women, and children. Their bows and arrows were constructed
with neatness and ingenuity, being made of wood highly polished,
and the point, which was either glass or flint, was very skilfully
fitted. These latter substances were observed among them un-
wrought, as also cloth, rings, buttons, etc., from whence it was
concluded that they sometimes travelled to the northward, as no
ship, for years past, had touched at this part of Terra del Fuego.
They did not show any surprise at the sight of arms, but appeared
to be well acquainted with their use. They seemed to be of a
very low type of humanity, passing their lives in wandering in a
forlorn manner over dreary wastes; their only food was shell-fish,
nor had they the rudest implements of art-not even so much as
was necessary to dress their food.
On the 2oth of January Captain Cook took his departure from
Cape Horn; and the weather being very calm, Mr. Banks pro-
ceeded in a small boat to shoot birds, when he killed some shear-
waters and some large albatrosses. The latter proved very good
food. Notwithstanding that the doubling of Cape Horn was re-
presented by voyagers of that date as fraught with danger, and it
was generally thought that passing through the Straits of Magellan
was less perilous, yet the Endeavour doubled "the Horn," as
sailors call it, with as little danger as she would the North Fore-


land on the Kentish coast. The heavens were fair, the wind
temperate, the weather pleasant, and, being near shore, they had
a very distinct view of the coast. Captain Cook surveyed the Bay
of Good Success and traced the coast. The former charts of this
part of Terra del Fuego were nearly useless, they having been formed
from the rude sketches of Hermite, the Dutch Admiral, in 1624,
and those still worse of the discoverers Schouten and Le Maire.
On the 2th a marine, about twenty years of age, being falsely
charged with theft, took the accusation so much to heart that, in
the dusk of the evening, he threw himself into the sea and was
On the 4th of April about io o'clock, Peter Briscoe, servant to
'Lk ... Mr. Banks, discovered land to the south, at the distance of about
three or four leagues. Captain Cook immediately gave orders to
S.' ^ sail for it, when they found an island of an oval form, having a
lagoon or lake in the centre, whence he gave it the name of
Lagoon Island. The surrounding border of the land was low and
narrow in many places, especially towards the south, where the
beach consisted of a reef of rocks. Three places on the north
side had the same appearance, so that, on the whole, the land
seemed to resemble several woody islands. When within a mile
of the north side, no bottom could be found at 130 fathoms, nor
any good anchorage. Several of the natives were discovered on
shore; they appeared to be tall, with heads remarkably large,
which probably some bandage might have increased. Their com-
plexion was copper colour and their hair black. Some of these
people were seen abreast of the ship, holding poles or pikes of
twice their own height. They appeared also to be naked, but
when they retired, on the ship's passing by the islands, they put on
a light covering; some clumps of palm trees served them for
The Endeavour, on the ath, continued her course with a favour-
able wind, and about three o'clock land was discovered to the
"westward. It was low, in form resembling a bow, and in circum-
ference seemed to be ten or twelve leagues. Its length was about
three or four leagues, and its width about 200 yards. This island,
from the smoke that was discovered, appeared to be inhabited,
and was named Bow Island.



On the ioth of April, after a tempestuous night, the Endeavour
came in sight of Osnaburg Island, called by the natives Maitea.
This island is circular, about four miles in circumference, partly
rocky and partly covered with trees.
On the 1Ith they made Otaheite, or, as Captain Wallis had
named it, George the Third's Island." This island, the largest
and most important of the Society group, was first discovered by
Quiros, a Spaniard, as early as the year 16o6, and called Sagit-
taria. The next European to visit it was Captain Wallis, in 1767;
and it had been so ill described by the Spanish navigator, that
our countryman was unable to recognize it as the island discovered
by him. The third visitor was Captain Cook, on the occasion
under notice.
The society group consists of five islands and numerous small
islets. The former are called Otaheite, Eimeo, Meatia (or
"( Maitea), Maiavitiand Tituaro and they all lie between 160 30
and 17 54' South lat., and 1480 153' West long. At the present
S time the island of Otaheite is the seat of the native government,
as well as that of the French, since its subjugation. This island
.x- is formed by two distinct mountains, rising to the height of from
S 6,oo000 to 8,000 feet, and divided from each other by a low isthmus
S some three miles in width. The circumference of Otaheite is be-
tween iio and 113 miles, and its coasts are girded by a coral reef.
Its geological formation is volcanic, though the valleys and hill-
S sides are of great fertility. The climate is temperate, the tempera-
ture ranging in summer between 68 and 860. At the date of
-,'j the arrival of the first missionaries in .9LL the population is said
to have been under 20,000, and twenty years later it had actually
decreased to 5,000. Since 82 owing to the abolition of infanti-
cide and the influence of the new religion upon the morals of the
natives, the population has attained the level of 1797, and again
numbers 20,000.
The calms prevented the Endeavour approaching Otaheite till
the morning of the 12th of April, when a breeze sprang up, and
several canoes were seen making towards the ship. Few of them,
however, would come near, and the occupants of those that did
could not be persuaded to come on board. They brought with
them young plantains and branches of trees, which were handed


up the ship's side; and by their desire were stuck in conspicuous
parts of the rigging as tokens of peace and friendship. After this,
the crew purchased their commodities, consisting of cocoa-nuts,
bananas, bread-fruit, apples, and figs, which were very acceptable.
They lay "off and on" all night, and in the morning of the
13th entered Port Royal Harbour, in the island of Otaheite, and
anchored within half a mile of the shore. Many of the natives
came off immediately in their canoes, and brought with them
bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, apples, and some hogs, which they bar-
tered for beads and other trinkets with the ship's company. The
tree which bears the bread-fruit is about the size of a horse chest-
nut; its leaves are nearly a foot and a half in length, in shape
oblong, and very much resembling those of the fig-tree. The
fruit is enclosed in a thin skin, and its core is as large as a man's
thumb. The substance of this fruit is somewhat like that of new
bread, and as white as the blanched almond. It should be
roasted, and has a sweetish taste to the palate.
Amongst those who came on board the Endeavour was an
elderly man named Owhaw, known to Mr. Gore and others who
had visited the island with Captain Wallis, and as he was con-
sidered a very useful personage, they studied to please him and to
gratify all his wishes.
Captain Cook drew up several necessary rules to be observed
by every person on board, for the better establishment of a regular
trade with the natives. The substance of the rules were, "That
in order to prevent quarrels and confusion, every one of the ship's
crew should endeavour to treat the inhabitants of Otaheite with
humanity, and by all fair means to cultivate a friendship with
them. That no officer, seaman, or other person belonging to the
ship, excepting such only as were appointed to barter with the
natives, should trade or offer to trade for any kind of provision,
fruit, or other produce of the island, without having express leave
so to do. That no person should embezzle, trade, or offer to
trade with any part of the ship's stores; and that no sort of iron
or anything made of iron, or any sort of cloth, or other useful
articles in the ship, should be given in exchange for anything but
provisions." These necessary rules were signed by Captain Cook,
and to the non-observance of them were annexed certain penalties,


besides the punishment accorded in the navy to the infraction of
the captain's orders.
When the ship was properly secured, Captain Cook, Mr. Banks,
and Dr. Solander went on shore, with an armed party and their
friend Owhaw. They were received with awe and reverence by
some hundreds of the natives, who exchanged the tokens of peace,
and offered to conduct them to a spot of ground which would be
more convenient for them to occupy than where they landed.
They now took a circuit of about four miles, through groves of
the bread-fruit and cocoa trees. Intermingled with these were
the dwellings of the natives, which consisted of huts without walls.
In the course of their journey they found but few fowls or hogs,
and understood that none of their conductors, nor any of the
people they had hitherto seen, were persons of rank in the island.
Those of the crew who had before been at Otaheite, in the
Dolphin, were likewise of opinion that the queen's residence had
been removed, as no traces of it were now to be discovered.
Next morning, before they could leave the ship, several canoes
came about her, filled with people, whose dress denoted them to
be of the superior class. Two of these came on board, and each
fixed on a friend; one of them chose Mr. Banks and the other
Captain Cook. The ceremonial of investiture, if it may be so
called, consisted in taking off their clothes in a great part and
putting them upon their adopted friends. This compliment was
returned by the gentlemen presenting them with some trinkets.
They then made signs for their new friends to go with them to
the place of their abode, and the latter, desirous of being acquainted
with the people, and finding out a more convenient harbour,
accepted the invitation and went with them. Mr. Banks, Dr.
Solander, and others, landed in two boats at a distance of about
three miles from the ship, among a great number of the natives,
who conducted them to a large habitation, where they were intro-
duced to a middle-aged man, named Tootahah. When they were
seated, he presented to Mr. Banks a cock, a hen, and a piece of
perfumed cloth, which compliment was returned by a present
from Mr. Banks. They were conducted to several other large
dwellings, wherein they walked about with great freedom. Walk
ing afterwards along the shore they met another chief, named


Tubourai Tamaide, with whom they settled a treaty of peace in
the manner before described. The chief gave them to understand
that he had provisions at their service, if they chose to eat, which
he produced, and they dined heartily upon bread-fruit, plantains,
and fish. In the course of this visit, Dr. Solander having missed
an opera-glass, complaint was made to the chief, which interrupted
the convivial party. This complaint was enforced by Mr. Banks
starting up and striking the butt-end of his musket against the
ground, which alarmed the Indians so much that all of them ran
precipitately out of the house, except the chief and a few others
of the superior class. The chief observed, with an air of probity,
that he would endeavour to recover it, adding that if this could
not be done he would make compensation, by giving as much
new cloth as should be thought equal to the value, The case,
however, was brought in a short time, and the glass itself soon
after. After this adventure was amicably terminated, they re-
turned to the ship about six o'clock in the evening.
On Saturday, theNh in the morning, several of the chiefs
came on board, bringing with them hogs, bread-fruit, and other
refreshments, for which they received linen, beads, and other
trinkets. The captain, attended by Mr. Banks and some officers,
went on shore to select a suitable spot for the erection of a fort
for their defence during their stay, and the ground was marked
out for the purpose, a great number of the natives looking on, and
behaving in the most peaceable manner.
Mr. Banks and his friends having seen few hogs and poultry in
their walks, suspected that they had been driven up the country,
for which reason they determined to penetrate into the woods, the
tent being guarded by a petty officer and a party of marines. On
this excursion several of the natives accompanied them. While
on their march they were alarmed by the report of two pieces,
fired by the guard of the tent. Owhaw, calling together the
captain's party, dispersed all the Indians except three, who, in
token of their fidelity, broke branches of trees, according to their
custom, and whom it was thought proper to retain. When the)'
returned to the tent they found that an Indian had snatched
away one of the sentries' muskets, and a young midshipman, who
commanded the party, was so imprudent as to give the marines


orders to fire, and many of the natives were wounded; but as the
offender had not fallen, they pursued him and shot him dead.
Mr. Banks was much displeased at this conduct; but as what had
passed could not be recalled, nothing remained but to endeavour
to accommodate matters with the Indians. Accordingly, through
the mediation of an old man, several of the natives were pre-
vailed to come over to them, and to give the usual tokens of
friendship. The next morning, however, they saw but few of the
natives on the beach, and none on board, from whence it was
concluded that the treatment they had received the former day
was not yet forgotten; and the English were confirmed in this
opinion by Owhaw's having left them. In consequence of these
circumstances the captain brought the ship nearer to the shore,
and moored her in such a manner as to make her broadside bear
on the spot which they had marked out for erecting the fort. In
the evening, the captain and some of the gentlemen going on
shore, the Indians came round them and trafficked with them as
On the 7th they had the misfortune to lose Mr. Buchan. The
same day they received a visit from Tubourai Tamaide and
Tootahah, who brought with them some plantain branches, and
till these were received they would not venture on board. The
erection of the fort commenced on the j8th,
Some of the ship': company were employed in throwing up in-
trenchments, whilst others were busied in cutting fascines, in
which work the Indians assisted them. The natives brought
down such quantities of bread-fruit and cocoa-nuts this day that it
was necessary to refuse them, and to let them know that none
would be wanting for two days. Mr. Banks slept for the first
time on shore this night. None of the Indians attempted to ap-
proach his tent; he had, however, taken the precaution to place
sentries about it for his defence.
A sort of market was now established without the lines of the
fort, which was tolerably well supplied, and Tubourai Tamaide
was a frequent guest of Mr. Banks and the other English gentle-
men. He was the only native that attempted to use a knife and
fork, being fond of adopting European manners. Mr. Monkhouse,
the surgeon, being abroad on his evening walk, reported that he


had seen the body of the man who had been shot from the tent.
It was deposited in a shed close to the house where he had re-
sided when alive. The body lay on a bier, the frame of which
was wood, supported by pillars about 5 feet high, and covered
with a mat, over which lay a white cloth; by its side lay a wooden
mace, and towards the head two cocoa-nut shells. Towards the
feet was a bunch of green leaves and small dried boughs tied to-
gether, and stuck in the ground, near which was a stone about
the size of a cocoa-nut; here were also placed a young plantain
tree, and on the stem of a palm tree, which was placed upright
outside of it, was placed a cocoa-shell, filled with water. At the
side of one of the posts there hung a little bag with some roasted
pieces of bread-fruit. The natives were not pleased at his ap-
proaching the body, their jealousy appearing plainly in their
countenances and gestures.
On the 22nd they were entertained by some of the musicians
of the country, who performed on an instrument somewhat re-
sembling a German flute, but the performer blew through his
nostrils instead of his mouth, and others accompanied this instru-
ment, singing only one tune. Some of the Indians brought their
axes to grind-and repair, most of which they had obtained from
Captain Wallis and the crew of the Dolphin; but a French axe
occasioned a little speculation, and at length, upon inquiry, it
appeared to have been left here by M. De Bougainville.
On the 25zth, several knives being missed, Mr. Banks, who had
lost his among the rest, accused Tubourai Tamaide of having
taken it, upon which the chief, with tears in his eyes, made signs
that if he had been guilty of such a theft as had been imputed to
him, he would suffer his throat to be cut. But though he was
innocent, it was plain that the natives in general were very much
addicted to thieving, as though Mr. Banks' servant had mislaid
the knife in question, yet the rest were produced in a day by one
of the natives.
On the 26thsix swivel guns were mounted on the fort, which
alarmed the Indians, and several of the fishermen removed, fear-
ing that the guns would open fire on them. The next day,
Tubourai Tamaide came with three women and a friend to dine
at the fort, and after dinner returned to his own house. In a


short time after he came back to complain of a butcher, who had
threatened to cut his wife's throat because she would not barter a
stone hatchet for a nail. It appearing clearly that the offender
had infringed one of the rules enjoined by the captain for trading
with the natives, he was flogged on board, in their sight. When
the first stroke had been given, they interfered, and entreated that
the culprit might be untied; but when this favour was denied
them, they appeared greatly concerned, and burst into tears.
Mr. Molineux, master of the Endeavour, seeing a woman whose
name was Oberea, he declared she was the same person whom he
judged to be queen of the island when he was there with Captain
Wallis. The eyes of everyone were now fixed on her, of whom so
much had been said by the crew of the Dolphin, and in the
account given of her by the captain. In person she was tall and
rather large made she was about forty years of age, her skin
white, and her eyes had great expression in them; she had been
handsome, but her beauty was now upon the decline. An offer
was made to conduct her on board the ship, which she accepted.
Many presents were made her, particularly a child's doll, which
she viewed very attentively. Captain Cook accompanied her on
shore, and when they landed, she presented him with a hog and
some plantains in return for his presents, which were carried to
the fort in procession, Oberea and the captain bringing up the
rear. On the way they met Tootahah, who, though not king,
seemed at this time invested with sovereign authority. He no
sooner saw the doll than he discovered strong symptoms of
jealousy, nor could any method be found of conciliating his friend-
ship but that of presenting him with one also.
On the 3oth, Tomio came in great haste to the tents, and tak-
ing Mr. Banks by the arm, told him that Tubourai Tamaide was
dying, owing to something which had been given him by our
people, and entreated him instantly to go to him. Accordingly
Mr. Banks did so, and found the Indian very sick. He had been
vomiting, and had thrown up a leaf which they said contained
some of the poison. Mr. Banks having examined the leaf, found
that it was tobacco, which the Indian had begged from some of
the ship's company. He ordered him to drink cocoa-nut milk,
which soon restored him.


On the Ist of May, a chief, who had dined with the captain
sometime before, accompanied by some of his women, who used
to feed him, came on board alone. At dinner the captain helped
him to some victuals, supposing that he would have dispensed
with the ceremony of being fed, but the chief never attempted to
eat, and would have gone without his dinner if one of the servants
had not fed him. The officers took the astronomical quadrant
and other instruments on shore that afternoon, but when they
wanted to make use of the quadrant next day, it was missing. A
strict, search was made in and about the fort, and a considerable
reward was offered for it; but all proving fruitless, Mr. Banks,
accompanied by Mr. Green and some others, set out for the
woods, where they thought they might probably hear some tidings
of what was stolen. On their way they me' with Tubourai
Tamaide and some of the natives, who were made to understand
that they had lost the quadrant, and that, as some of their coun-
trymen must have taken it, they insisted upon being shown the
place where it was concealed. After some inquiry, the instru-
ment was recovered, and it was found that it had received no real
injury, though it had been taken to pieces.
When they returned in the evening, they were much surprised
to find Tootahah under confinement in the fort, while a crowd of
the natives surrounded the gate, discovering marks of the greatest
anxiety for the fate of their chief. The occasion of his detention
originated from the conduct of the Indians, who, alarmed at
Captain Cook's having gone up the country with an armed party,
left the fort that evening, and one of the canoes attempted to quit
the bay. The lieutenant who commanded on board the ship,
having received orders not to suffer any canoes to depart, sent a
boat to detain her, but she no sooner approached than the
Indians jumped into the sea. Tootahah being of the number,
was taken and sent to the officer who commanded at the fort, who
concluded he should do right to detain him prisoner. The poor
chief expected to be put to death, until Captain Cook caused him
to be liberated, to the great joy of his countrymen. But the
natives entertained a sense of injury, and, as a proof of it, they
neglected to supply the market with provisions.
On the d of Maprovisions were extremely scarce, and it


was not without difficulty that Mr. Banks got a few baskets of
bread-fruit from Tubourai Tamaide. Tootahah, on the th sent
for an axe and a shirt, in return for the hogs he had left behind;
and accordingly, early in the morning of the 5thh Captain Cook,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and the doctor, set out in the pinnace,
taking with them one of Tootahah's people, and soon reached
Eparre, where he resided. When they arrived, they found a
number of natives waiting for them on shore, and were conducted
directly to the chief, the people, notwithstanding the offence they
had so lately taken, shouting out in their language, "Tootahah is
your friend." He was sitting under a tree, and some old men
were standing about him. Having made signs for them to be
seated, he asked for the axe, which was then given him by
Captain Cook, as also the shirt, and a broad-cloth garment, which
latter he put on, and was well pleased with the present. They
were afterwards conducted to a large court-yard on one side of the
chiefs house, where they were entertained with wrestling, after
the manner of the country. He himself sat at the upper end of
the arena, having on each side of him several of his principal men
as judges of the sport, which was conducted as follows :-
Ten or twelve combatants entered the arena, and, after many
simple ceremonies of challenging, engaged, each endeavouring to
throw his antagonist by mere strength : they seized each other by
the hand, or other parts of the body, and without the least art,
till one, by having a greater hold, or stronger muscular force,
threw his antagonist on his back. The conquest was applauded
by the old men with a few words, repeated in a kind of tune, and
with three huzzas. After one engagement another succeeded : if
the combatants could not throw each other in the space of a
minute, they parted, either by consent, or the intervention of
their friends. A man with a stick officiated as master of the cere-
monies, keeping order among the people, and those of them who
pressed forward he struck with his stick very smartly. During
these athletic sports, another party of men performed a dance for
the space of a minute, but neither of these parties took the least
notice of each other, their attention being wholly fixed on their
own endeavours to please and conquer. At the conclusion of
this entertainment, not unlike the wrestling matches of remote


antiquity, they were told that some hogs and a quantity of bread-
fruit were preparing for dinner; but their host, instead of setting
his two hogs before them, ordered one of them to be carried into
the boat. Here they thought to have enjoyed their good cheer,
but, at the desire of Tubourai Tamaide, they proceeded to the
ship. However, they were at last gratified with the promised re-
past, of which the chiet and his friends had a liberal share. This
friendly reconciliation operated on the natives like a charm, for it
was no sooner known that Tubourai Tamaide was on board, than
provisions of all kinds were brought to the fort in great plenty.
By this time the forge was set up and at work, which afforded
a new subject of admiration to the natives, and to Captain Cook
an additional opportunity of conferring obligations on them, by
permitting the smith, in his leisure hours, to convert the old iron
which they were supposed to have procured from the Dolphin into
various kinds of tools.
On the ioth they sowed, in ground properly prepared, seeds of
melons and other plants, but none of them came up except
mustard. Mr. Banks thought the seeds were spoiled by a total
exclusion of fresh air, they having all been put into small bottles,
and sealed up with rosin. They learnt this day that the Indians
called the island Otaheite, the name by which it is now distin-
guished. They were not so fortunate in endeavouring to teach
them their names) and after repeated attempts to pronounce
them, which proved fruitless, the natives had recourse to new
names of their own invention. Captain Cook they named Toote;
Mr. Hicks, Hete-; the master they called Boba, from his Chris-
tian name, Robert; Mr. Gore, Toarro; Dr. Solander, Toano;
Mr. Banks, Tapane; and so on with the greater part of the ship's
On the r.th, Tubourai Tamaide offended Mr. Banks by snatch-
ing his gun out of his hand, and firing it in the air, an action
which much surprised that gentleman, as he imagined him totally
ignorant of the use of it. As consideration for their safety im-
peratively required that these people should not acquire the use
of firearms, Mr. Banks made a serious matter of what probably
the other meant only as a joke; and, not without threats, gave
him to understand that to touch the piece was a great insult

Wr -~



The offender made no reply, but set out immediately with his
family for Eparre. Great inconvenience being apprehended from
this man, and as in many instances he had been particularly use-
ful, Mr. Banks determined to follow him. He set out the same
evening from the fort, accompanied by Mr. Molineux, and found
him in the middle of a large circle of people, the picture of ex-
treme grief, which was also visible in the countenances of his at-
tendants. Mr. Banks lost no time in effecting a reconciliation
with the chief, and a double canoe being got ready, they all re-
turned together to the fort before supper, and as a pledge of
reconciliation both he and his wife passed the night in the tent of
Mr. Banks.
On Monday. the ith, Tubourai Tamaide was detected in a
theft. Mr. Banks had a good opinion of this chief, but a basket
of nails, left in the corner of the tent, proved irresistible. He
confessed the. fact of having stolen four nails, but when restitu-
tion was demanded, Tamaide said the nails were at Eparre.
High words passed, and the Indian produced one of the nails,
and was to be forgiven on restoring the rest; but his virtue was
not equal to the task, and he withdrew himself as usual when he
had committed an offence.
On the h,. Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Captain Cook, and
some others, set out in the pinnace to visit Tootahah, who had
again removed to a place called Atahourm, six miles from his last
abode. Having presented him with a yellow stuff petticoat and
other trifling articles, they were invited to supper and to pass the
night there. The party consisted of six only, but the place was
crowded with a greater number than the houses and canoes
could contain. Among the guests was Oberea, with her train of
attendants. Mr. Banks, having accepted of a lodging in Oberea's
canoe, left his companions in order to retire to rest. Oberea had
the charge of his clothes; but, notwithstanding her care, they
were stolen, as were also his pistols, his powder-horn, and several
other things out of his waistcoat pockets. An alarm was given
to Tootahah, in the next canoe, who went with Oberea in search
of the thief, leaving Mr. Banks with only his breeches and waist-
coat on, and his musket uncharged. They soon returned, but
without success, and Mr. Banks thought proper to put up with


the loss at present, and he then proceeded to find his companions.
He found the hut where Captain Cook and three other gentlemen
slept, and they told him that they had lost their stockings and
jackets. In effect, Dr. Solander, who joined them the next
morning, was the only one that escaped being robbed, and he
had slept at a house that was a mile distant.
Preparations were now made for viewing the transit of Venus,
and two parties were sent out to make observations from different
spots, so that in case of failing at Otaheite, they might succeed
elsewhere. They employed themselves in preparing their
instruments, and instructing in the use of them those gentlemen
,C p, who were to go out: and on Thursday, the Ist of June, they sent
. iy', r the long boat, with Mr. Gore, Mr. Monkhouse (the two observers),
Sand Mr. Sporing, a friend of Mr. Banks, with proper instruments
to Eimayo. Others were sent out to find a spot that might
answer the purpose, at a convenient distance from their principal
The party that went towards Eimayo, after rowing the greater
part of the night, having hailed a canoe, were informed by the
Indians of a place which was judged proper for their observatory.
On this rock, which rose out of the water, about 140 yards from
the shore, they fixed their tents.
On Saturday, the 3d, the. day of the transit, Mr. Banks, as
soon as it was light, left them in order to go and get fresh
provisions on the island, and had the satisfaction of seeing the
sun rise without a cloud. The king, whose name was Tarrao
came to pay him a visit, and brought with him Nuna, his sister.
As it was customary for the people to be seated at their con-
ferences, Mr. Banks spread his turban of Indian cloth, which he
wore as a hat, upon the ground, and they all sat down. Then
the king's presents, consisting of a hog and a dog, some cocoa-
nuts and bread-fruit, were brought, and Mr. Banks presented in
return an adze, a shirt, and some beads, which his Majesty re-
ceived with apparent satisfaction. The king, his sister, and
three good-looking young women, their attendants, then ac-
companied Mr. Banks to the observatory, where he showed them
the transit of Venus over the sun's disc, and informed them that
his sole object in undertaking a voyage from remote regions was


to view the planet in that situation. Both the parties that were
sent out to make observations on the transit met with good
success, though they differed more than might have been ex-
pected in their records of the contact. Mr. Green's account was
as follows:-

Hours. Min. Sec,
The first external contact or appearance of Venus on
the Sun 9 25 4
The first internal contact, or total immersion 9 44 4
The second internal contact, or beginning of the
immersion 3 14 8
The second external contact, or total immersion 3 32 10
Latitude of the Observatory,
Ir7 29' 15".
Longitude, 1490 32' 30" W.
of Greenwich.

While the gentlemen and officers were busied in viewing the
transit, some of the ship's company broke into the store-room
and stole a quantity of spike nails. After a strict search the
thief was discovered, and was ordered to receive two dozen
On account of the absence, on the 4th of June, of the two
parties sent out to observe the transit, Captain Cook deferred
keeping the birthday of King George the Third to the next day,
the 5th, when it was celebrated, and several of the Indian chiefs
partook of the entertainment, and drank his Majesty's health in
the name of Kihiargo, the nearest imitation they could produce
of King George. On the 12th, complaint was made that the
Indians had lost some of their bows and arrows and strings of
plaited hair; the affair was inquired into, and being well attested,
the offending sailors each received two dozen lashes, which
appears to have been the limit of the corporal punishment ever
inflicted by Captain Cook, whose humanity appears in marked
contrast to that of naval commanders of his time, when frequently


many hundred lashes were adjudged for offences that would now
be punished by two dozen, or fifty lashes at the outside.
On the 19th, in the evening, Oberea and several of her
attendants paid the Endeavour a visit. She came from Tootahah's
palace in a double canoe, and brought with her a hog, bread-
fruit,. and other presents, among which was a dog. Tupia under-
took to kill and dress the dog, which he did by making a hole in
the ground and baking it, and it was esteemed a very good
On the 2ist they were visited by many of the natives, who
brought with them various presents. Among the rest was a chief
named Oamo, accompanied by a boy and a young woman.
Oberea and some of the Indians went from the fort to meet
them, bareheaded, and uncovered as low as the waist, which the
English judged to be marks of respect usually shown to persons
of high rank. When Oamo entered the tent, the young woman,
though seemingly very curious, could not be prevailed upon to
accompany him. The youth was introduced by Dr. Solander,
but as soon as the Indians saw him, they took care to have him
sent out.
Curiosity being raised by these circumstances, they made in-
quiry concerning the strangers, and were informed that Oamo
was the husband of Oberea, but that by mutual consent they
had been for a considerable time separated, and the boy and
girl were their children. The former was called Terridiri; he
was heir-apparent to the sovereignty of the islands, and when he
attained the proper age was to marry his sister.
On the Z3rd, in the morning, one of the crew being missing,
they were told he was at Eparre, Tootahah's residence in the
wood, and one of the Indians offered to fetch him back. On his
return, he said that he had been taken from the fort and carried
to the top of the bay by three men, who forced him into a canoe,
after having stripped him, and conducted him to Eparre, where
he received some clothes from Tootahah, who endeavoured to
prevail on him to continue there. There was reason to conclude
this account true, for the natives were no sooner acquainted
with his return than they left the fort with precipitation.
On June the 26th, early in the morning, Captain. Cook setting


out in the pinnace with -Mr. Banks, sailed to the eastward, with
a view to circumnavigating the island. Coming to a large bay,
they mentioned their design of going to the other side; but
their Indian guide, whose name was Titubaolo, said he would not
accompany them, and also endeavoured to dissuade them from
going, observing "that the country was inhabited by people who
were not subject to Tootahah, and who would destroy them all."
They resolved, however, to put their design into execution, and
on loading their pieces with ball, Titubaolo ventured to go with
Having rowed till it was dark, they reached a narrow isthmus
which divided the island into two parts, which formed distinct
governments. They landed in the district of a chief called
Maraitata,. a name which signifies the burying place of men; his
father was called Pahairede-that is, a stealer of boats. The
people, however, gave the captain a very good reception, sold
them a hog for a hatchet, and furnished them with provisions.
A crowd of the natives came round the English gentlemen, who
continued to advance until they reached a district under the
government of Waheatua. They proceeded on their journey for
a considerable way along the shore, till at last they were met by
the chief, who had with him an agreeable woman of about twenty-
two years of age, who was called Toudiddi.
The parts which they now passed appeared to be better culti-
vated than any of the rest, and the burial-places, which were neat
and ornamented with carvings, were more numerous.
A little further to the eastward they landed again, and were met
by Mathiabo, a chief, with whom they were unacquainted. He
supplied them with bread-fruit and cocoa-nuts, and they purchased
a hog for a glass bottle, which he chose in preference to all the
other articles presented for his acceptance. A turkey and a goose
were seen here, which were much admired by the natives, and
were supposed to have been left by Captain Wallis's people.
When they left the place the chief piloted them over the shoals.
In the evening, on their arrival at a bay on the north-west side of
the island, they met with a very friendly reception from the chief,
whose name was Wiverou, with whom they supped, in company
with Mathiabo. Part of the house was allotted for them to sleep


in, and soon after supper they retired to rest. The thieving pro-
pensities of these people, from the chiefs downward, were incor-
rigible, and again received an illustration in the conduct of
Mathiabo, who, having borrowed a cloak from Mr. Banks, to
serve as a coverlet when he lay down, made off with it. News of
the robbery was brought them by one of the natives, and they set
out in pursuit of Mathiabo, but had proceeded only a little way
before they were met by a person bringing back the cloak, which
this person had given up through fear.
On their return they found the house entirely deserted, and
about four in the morning the sentry gave the alarm that the boat
was missing. Their situation now was extremely disagreeable.
The party consisted of only four, with one musket and two pocket
pistols, without a spare ball or a charge of powder. After remain-
ing a considerable time in a state of anxiety, the boat, which had
been driven away by the tide, returned; and Mr. Banks and his
companions had no sooner breakfasted than they set out on their
On Friday, the 3oth, they arrived at Otahorou, where they
found their old acquaintance Tootahah, who received them with
great civility, and provided them with a good supper and con-
venient lodgings; and though they had been so shamefully
plundered the last time they slept with this chief, they spent the
night in the greatest security, none of their clothes nor any article
being missing the next morning. They arrived at the fort at Port
Royal Harbour on the istfuly,
After their return from this tour, they were very much in need
of bread-fruit, but their Indian friends soon supplied their wants.
On the ard Mr. Banks made an excursion in order to trace the
S river up the valley to its source, and to note the condition of the
country along its banks. He took some Indian guides with him,
and after passing houses for about six miles along its course, came
to one which was said to be the last that could be met with. The
master presented them with cocoa-nuts and other fruits, and they
proceeded on their walk. In the course of their journey they
often passed through vaults, formed by rocky fragments, in which,
as they were told, benighted travellers sometimes took shelter.
Pursuing the course of the river about six miles further, they found


it banked on both sides by rocks almost Loo feet in height, and
nearly perpendicular. Mr. Banks sought in vain for minerals
among the rocks, which, though bare on almost all sides, were
destitute of such substances. The stones everywhere exhibited signs
of having been burnt, which was the case with all the stones that
were found while they stayed in Otaheite; and both there and in
the neighboring islands the traces of fire were evident in the clay
upon the hills.
On the 4th a great quantity of the seeds of the water-melon,
oranges, limes, and other plants, brought from Rio. de Janeiro,
were planted on each side of the fort by Mr. Banks, who also
plentifully supplied the Indians with them, and planted many of
them in the woods. Some melons, the seeds of which had been
sown on their first arrival on the island, grew up and flourished
before they left it.
Preparations were now made to depart. The carpenters being
ordered to take down the gates and palisades of the fort, to be
converted into firewood for the Endeavour, 6ne of the natives
stole the staple and hook of the gate; he was pursued in vain,
but the property was recovered and returned by Tubourai
Between the 8th_and 9_th two young marines one night with-
drew themselves from the fort, their absence being discovered in
the morning. Notice having been given the next day that the
ship would sail on that or the ensuing day, Captain Cook began
to suspect that they designed to remain on shore; but as no
means could be taken to recover them without running a risk of
destroying the harmony that subsisted with the natives, he resolved
to wait a day, in hopes of their returning. But as they were still
missing on the jLoth, an inquiry was made after them, when the
Indians declared that they did not purpose to return, having
taken refuge among the mountains, where it was impossible for
them to be discovered, and that each of them had taken a wife.
In consequence of this, it was intimated to several of the chiefs
who were in the fort, with the women, among whom were
Tubourai Tamaide, Tomio, and Oberea, that they would not
be suffered to quit it till the deserters were produced. They did
not show any signs of fear or discontent, but assured the captain


that the marines should be sent back. In the meantime Mr.
Hicks was despatched in the pinnace to bring Tootahah on board
the ship, and he executed his commission without giving any
alarm. Night coming on, Captain Cook thought it imprudent to
let the people Whom he had detained as hostages remain at the
fort; he therefore gave orders to remove them on board, which
greatly alarmed them all, especially the females, who testified
their fears by floods of tears.
In the evening one of the marines was brought back by some
of the natives, who reported that the other, and two of our men
who went to recover them, would be detained till Tootahah was
released. Upon this Mr. Hicks was immediately sent off in the
long boat, with a strong body of men, to rescue the prisoners; at
the same time the captain told Tootahah that it was incumbent
on him to assist them with some of his people, and to give orders,
in his name, that the men should be set at liberty, for that he
would be held answerable for the event. Tootahah immediately
complied, and the party recovered the men without opposition.
On examining the deserters, it appeared that the Indians had told
the truth, they having associated with the females, with whom
they intended to have remained in the island. Tupia, who had
been prime minister to Oberea when she was supreme, and being
also chief priest, was well acquainted with the religion of the
country, and often expressed a desire to go with them whenever
they continued their voyage.
On the morning of the i2th of July he came on board, with
a boy about 12 years of age, his servant, named Taiyota, and
earnestly requested permission to accompany them. As it was
thought he would be useful to them, his request was complied
with. Tupia then went on shore for the last time, to bid farewell
to his friends, to whom he gave several small tokens of remem-
Mr. Banks, being desirous of obtaining a drawing of the Morai,
which Tootahah had in his possession at Eparre, Captain Cook
accompanied him thither in the pinnace, together with Dr.
Solander. Immediately upon landing they repaired to Tootahah's
house, where they were met by Oberea and several others. A
general good understanding prevailed. Tupia came back with


them, and they promised to visit the gentlemen early the next
day, as they were told the ship would then sail.
On the 13th these friendly people came very early on board,
and the ship was surrounded with a vast number of canoes, filled
with Indians of the lower sort. Between eleven and twelve they
weighed anchor, and took their leave of the natives, who could
not restrain their tears. Tupia supported himself through the
scene with a becoming fortitude, and though tears flowed from
his eyes, the effort he made to conceal them did him additional
honour. He went with Mr. Banks to the mast-head, and waving
his hand, took a last farewell of his country. Thus they departed
from Otaheite, after a stay of just three months.
According to Tupia's account, this island could furnish above
6,ooo fighting men. The produce is bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts,
bananas, sweet potatoes, yams, sugar-canes, the paper mulberry,
several sorts of figs, with many other plants and trees, all which
the earth produces spontaneously or with little culture. They
have no European fruits, garden stuffs, pulse, nor grain of any
kind. The tame animals are hogs, dogs, and poultry: there are
also wild ducks, pigeons, parroquets, and a few other birds. The
only quadrupeds are rats, and not a serpent.is to be seen. In
the sea is a great variety of excellent fish, which constitute their
greatest luxury.
The people in general are of larger make than the Europeans.
The males are mostly tall, robust, and finely shaped; the women
of the higher class are about the size of our English ladies, but
those of inferior rank are below our standard, and some of them
very short. Their natural complexion is a fine clear olive,. or
what we call a brunette. Their skins are delicately smooth and
agreeably soft; their faces in general are handsome, and their
eyes full of sensibility. Their teeth are remarkably white and
regular, and their hair for the most part black. The men, unlike
the aboriginal inhabitants of America, have long beards, which
they wear in various shapes. Their motions are easy and grace-
ful, and their behaviour, when unprovoked, affable and courteous.
Contrary to the custom of most other nations, the women of this
country cut their hair short, whereas the men wear it long, some-
times hanging loose upon their shoulders, at other times tied in


a knot on the crown of the head, in which they stick the feathers
of birds of various colours. A piece of cloth, of the manufacture
of the country, is frequently tied round the heads of both sexes in
the manner of a turban, and the women plait their human hair
into long strings which are tied on the forehead by way of
They stain their bodies by indenting or pricking the flesh with
a small instrument of bone, cut into short teeth, which indentures
they fill with a dark blue or blackish mixture prepared from the
smoke of an oily nut and water. This operation, called by the
natives tattaowing, whence we derive the term tattooing, is ex-
ceedingly painful, and leaves an indelible mark on the skin. It
is usually performed when they are about ten or twelve years of
age, and on different parts of the body; the instrument employed
has twenty teeth, and at each stroke the blood issues; both
males and females are compelled to undergo the operation.
They clothe themselves in cloth and matting of various kinds;
the first they wear in fine, the latter in wet weather. The
garments are in different forms, no shape being observed in the
pieces, nor are they sewed together. The women of the superior
class wear three or four pieces; one, which is of considerable
length, they wrap several times round the waist, and it falls down
to the middle of the legs. Two or three other short pieces, with
a hole cut through the middle of each, are placed one on another;
and their heads coming through the holes, the long ends hang
before and behind, while both sides being open, they have the
free use of their arms.
The dress of the men is very similar, differing only in this,
that one part of the garment, instead of falling below the knees,
is brought between the legs. This dress is worn by all ranks of
people, the only distinction being quantity in the superior class.
At noon both sexes appear almost naked, wearing only a piece of
cloth tied round the waist. Their faces are shaded from the sun
with small bonnets made of cocoa-nut leaves or matting, which
they construct in a few minutes. The men sometimes wear a
sort of wig of human or dog's hair, or of cocoa-nut strings, woven
on a single thread, and hanging down behind. Both men and
women wear ear-rings on one side, consisting of shells, stones,


berries, or small pearls; but they soon gave the preference to the
beads brought by the Endeavour's company. The boys and
girls go quite naked; the first till they are seven or eight years
old, the latter till they are about five.
The natives of Otaheite seldom use their houses but to sleep
in or to avoid the rain, and they eat their meals under the shade
of a tree. Their clothes serve them for covering at night. There
are no divisions or apartments; the master and his wife repose in
the middle, next the unmarried females, then the unmarried men,
and in fair weather the servants sleep in the open air. The
houses of the chiefs, however, differ in some particulars. There
are some very small and so constructed as .to be carried in
canoes; all sides of them are enclosed with the leaves of the
cocoa-nut; the air nevertheless penetrates. In these the chief
and his wife only sleep. There are also houses which are general
receptacles for the inhabitants of a district, many of them being
more than 200 feet in length, 40 in breadth, and 70 or 80 feet
high. They are constructed at the common expense, and have
an area on one side, surrounded with low palisades, but, like the
others, without walls.
The cookery consists chiefly in baking. When a chief kills a
hog, which is seldom, he divides it equally among his vassals.
Dogs and fowls are more common food. When the bread-fruit
is not in season, cocoa-nuts, bananas, plantains, etc., are sub-
stituted in its stead. They bake their bread-fruit in a manner
which renders it somewhat like a mealy potato. Of this three
dishes are made by beating them up with bananas, plantains, and
sour paste, which is called by them mahie. Their drink is
generally confined to water, or the milk of the cocoa-nut; some
of them would drink so freely of the English liquors as to become
quite intoxicated, though they were never known to practise a
debauch of this kind a second time. It was said that their chiefs
sometimes became inebriated by drinking the juice of a plant
called ava, but of this not a single instance occurred during the
time the Endeavour remained at the island.
Chiefs eat generally alone, unless when visited by a stranger,
who is permitted sometimes to be a mess-mate. They sit on the
ground, with leaves of trees spread before them as a table-cloth.


Their attendants, who are numerous, having placed a basket
before the chiefs, containing their provisions, and cocoa-nut shells
of fresh and salt water, seat themselves around them; they then
wash their mouths and hands; after which they eat a handful
of bread-fruit and fish, dipped in salt water, alternately, till the
whole is consumed, taking a sip of salt water between almost
every morsel. The bread-fruit and fish is succeeded by a second
course, consisting of either plantains or apples, which they never
eat without being pared. During this time a soft fluid of paste is
prepared from the bread-fruit, which they drink out of cocoa-nut
shells. This concludes the meal, and they wash their hands and
mouths again as at the beginning. They eat an astonishing
amount of food at a meal. Mr. Banks and others saw one of
them devour three fish of the size of a small carp, four bread-fruits
as large as a common melon, thirteen or fourteen plantains seven
inches long, and about half as big round, to all which was added
a quart of paste to wash down and digest the whole.
The inhabitants of this island, though apparently fond of the
pleasures of society, have yet an aversion to holding any inter-
course with each other at their meals, and they are so rigid in
the observance of this custom, that even brothers and sisters
have their separate baskets of provisions, and generally sit some
yards apart, when they eat with their backs to each other, and
without exchanging a word. The middle-aged of superior
rank usually take a siesta after dinner, but older people are not
so indolent.
Music, dancing, wrestling, and shooting with the bow con-
stitute the greatest part of their diversions. Flutes and drums
are the only musical instruments among them. Their drums are
formed of a circular piece of wood, hollow at one end only, which
is covered with the skin of a shark, and beaten with the hand
instead of a stick. Their songs are extempore and frequently in
rhyme, but consisting only of couplets, which are often sung by
way of evening amusements, between sunset and bed-time;
during this interval they burn candles made of an oily nut, fixing
them one above another upon a small stick, which is run through
the middle. Some of these candles will burn a long time and
afford a good light.


Personal cleanliness is much esteemed among these Indians.
Both sexes are particular in washing three times a day-when
they rise, at noon, and again before they go to rest. They are
also cleanly in their clothes, so that no disagreeable effluvia are
found to arise in the largest assemblies.
Cloth is the chief manufacture of Otaheite, and of this there
are three sorts, which are made out of the bark of different trees,
namely, the mulberry, the bread-fruit, and a tree which bears
some resemblance to the West Indian wild fig-tree. The first of
these produces the finest cloth, which is seldom worn but by
those of the first rank. The next quality is made of the bread-
fruit tree, and the coarsest of that which resembles the wild-fig
tree. This last sort, though the coarsest, is manufactured only in
small quantities.
Matting of various kinds is another manufacture, in which in
many respects they excel Europeans. They make use of the
,coarser quality to sleep upon, and in wet weather they wear the
finer. They excel in basket and wicker-work, and both men and
women employ themselves in working them in a great variety of
patterns. They make ropes and lines in all sizes of the bark of
the poerou, and their'nets for fishing are made of these lines.
They make thread of the fibres of the cocoa-nut, with which they
fasten together the several parts of their canoes, the forms of
which are various, according to the use to which they are applied.
The fishing lines are esteemed the best in the world, made of the
bark of the erowa, a kind of nettle which grows on the mountains.
They are strong enough to hold the heaviest and most vigorous
fish, such as bonetas and albicores.
The tools which these people make use of for building houses,
constructing canoes, hewing stones, and for felling, cleaving,
carving, and polishing timber, consist of nothing more than an
adze of stone and a chisel of bone, most commonly that of a
man's arm; and for a file, or polisher, they make use of a rasp of
coral and coral sand. The blades of their adzes are extremely
tough, but not very hard; they are of various sizes, those for fell-
ing wood weigh six or seven pounds, and others, which are used
for carving, only a few ounces.
Some of the smaller boats are made of the bread-fruit tree,

which is wrought without much difficulty, being of a light spongy
nature. Instead of planes, they use their adzes with great dex-
terity. Their canoes are all shaped with the hand, the Indians
not being acquainted with the method of warping a plank. Of
these they have two kinds, one used for short trips, and the other
for longer voyages. These boats are in no degree proportionate,
being from 60 to 70 feet in length, and not more than a thirtieth
part in breadth. The ivahahs, or war-boats, are fastened together
side by side when they go to sea, at the distance of a few feet, by
strong wooden poles, which are laid across them and joined to
each side. A-stage or platform is raised on the forepart, about
io or 12 feet long, upon which stand the fighting men, whose
missile weapons are slings and spears. Beneath these stages the
rowers sit, who supply the place of those who are wounded. The
pahies, or sea-going boats, in going from one island to another,
are out sometimes a month, and often a fortnight or twenty days,
and if they had convenience to stow more provisions, they could
keep the sea much longer. These vessels are very useful in land-
ing, and putting off from the shore in a surf, for by their great
length and high stern they land dry, when the Endeavour's boats
could scarcely land at all.
The care of the sick belongs to the priests, whose office is
hereditary, and whose method of cure consists generally of
prayers and ceremonies which are repeated till the patients re-
cover or die.
The religion of these islanders appears to be very mysterious.
The Supreme Being they style "The Causer of Earthquakes."'
They suppose that the chiefs and principal people will have the-
preference to those of lower ranks in a future state, and that the
Deity takes no particular cognisance of their actions.
Their weapons consist of slings, in the use of which they are-
extremely dexterous, and of long clubs, remarkably hard, with
which they fight obstinately and cruelly, giving no quarter to their
enemies in battle.
On the ith of Tuly. i6L the Endeavour quitted Otaheite.
Captain C"ok was informed by Tupia that four islands, which he
called Huaheine. Ulietea, Otaaand Bolabola were at the dis-
tance of about one or two days' sail, and that hogs, fowls, and


54 '



other refreshments, which had been very scarce, were to be got
there in abundance.
On the i6th they sounded near the north-west part of the
island of Huaheine, but found no bottom at seventy fathoms.
Several canoes put off, but the Indians seemed fearful of coming
near the ship, till the sight of Tupia removed their apprehensions.
They then came alongside, and the king of the island, with his
queen, came on board. They seemed surprised at whatever was
shown them, but made no inquiries after anything but what was
offered to their notice. The king, whose name was Oree, as a token
of amity, proposed exchanging names with Captain Cook, which was
readily acceded to.
Having anchored in a small but convenient harbour on the
west side of the island (called by the natives Owparre), the captain
went on shore, accompanied by Mr. Banks and some officers,
with the king and Tupia. The moment they landed, Tupia un-
covered himself as low as the waist, and desired Mr. Monkhouse
to follow his example. Being seated, he began a speech which
lasted about twenty minutes; the king, who stood opposite to
him, answering him in what seemed set replies. During this
harangue, Tupia delivered, at different times, a handkerchief, a
black silk neckcloth, some plantains and beads, as presents to
their Eatua or Deity; and in return received a hog, some young
plantains, and two bunches of feathers, all which were carried
on board. These ceremonies were considered as a kind of rati-
fication of a treaty between the English and the King of Hua-
On the i9th, in exchange for some hatchets, they obtained three
very large hogs. As they intended to sail in the afternoon, King
Oree and others of the natives went on board to take their leave.
Captain Cook presented to Oree a small pewter plate, stamped
with this inscription, His Britannic Majesty's Ship Endeavour,
Captain Cook, Commander. July i6th, 1769." They gave him
also some medals or counters, resembling English coins, and
other trifles, which he promised to keep. From Huaheine, which
is about sixty miles from Otaheite, they sailed for the island of
Ulietea, distant seven or eight leagues.
On the 20th the Endeavour anchored in a bay on the north


side of that island. Two canoes soon came off from the shore,
and the natives brought with them two small hogs, which they
exchanged for some nails and beads. The captain, Mr. Banks,
and other gentlemen now went on shore, accompanied by Tupia,
who introduced them with the same kind of ceremonies that had
taken place on their landing at Huaheine; after this Captain
Cook took possession of this and the adjacent islands, in the
name of his Britannic Majesty.
On the 24th they put to sea, and steered northward within the
reef, towards an opening about five or six leagues distant, in
effecting which' they were in danger of striking on a rock, the
soundings suddenly deepening to two fathoms," supposed to be
the edge of a coral rock, many of which, in the neighbourhood of
these islands, are as steep as a wall.
On the th they.were within a league or two of the island of
Otaha, but could not get near enough to land, the wind being
contrary until the morning, when Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander
went in the long-boat with the master, to sound a harbour on the
east side of the island, which they found safe and convenient.
They then went on shore and purchased a large quantity of plan-
tains and some hogs and fowls.
They made sail to the northward, and finding themselves to
windward of a harbour on the west side of Uieta on the 2nd of
August, they moored in twenty-eight fathoms. Many of the
natives came off and brought hogs, fowls, and plantains, which
were purchased upon very moderate terms. Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander went on shore and spent the day very agreeably, the
natives showing them very great respect. Being conducted to the
houses of the chief people, they found those who had run hastily
before them, standing on each side of a long mat spread upon the
ground, and the family sitting at the further end of it.
In one of the houses they were entertained with a dance, differ-
ent from any they had yet seen. The performer put upon his
head a large piece of wicker-work, about four feet long, of a cylin-
drical form, covered with feathers, and edged round with shark's
teeth. With this head-dress he began to dance with a slow
motion, frequently moving his head so as to describe a circle with
the top of his wicker cap, and sometimes throwing it so near the


- ---I



faces of the bystanders as to make them jump back. This they
considered as an excellent piece of humour, and it always pro-
duced a hearty laugh when practised upon any of the English
gentlemen. On the gd they met with another company of
dancers, consisting of six men and two women. The dancers
were some of the principal people of the island, and though they
were an itinerant troop, they did not, like the strolling parties of
Otaheite, receive any gratuity from the bystanders. The women
wore a considerable quantity of plaited hair, ornamented with
flowers, which were stuck in with taste, and made an elegant head-
dress. They advanced sideways, keeping time with great exact-
ness to the drums, which beat quick and loud; soon after they
began to shake themselves in a very whimsical manner, and put
their bodies into a variety of strange postures, sometimes sitting
down, and at others falling with their faces to the ground, and
resting on their knees and elbows, moving their fingers at the
same time with a quickness scarcely to be credited. Between
the dances of the women a kind of dramatic interlude was per-
formed by the men, consisting of dialogues as well as dancing;
but they could not learn the subject of this interlude.
Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and some other gentlemen were
present at a more regular dramatic entertainment the next day.
The performers, who were all men, were divided into two parties,
one dressed in brown, the other in white, by way of distinction.
Tupia, being present, informed them that the partyin brown acted
the parts of a master and his servants, and the party in white a gang
of thieves. The master having produced a basket of meat, which
he gave in charge to his servants, the party in white exhibited a
variety of expedients in endeavouring to steal this basket, and the
brown as many in preventing the accomplishment of the design.
After some time had been spent in this manner, those to whom
the basket was intrusted, laying themselves on the ground round
it, pretended to fall asleep; the other party availed themselves of
this opportunity, and carried off their booty; the servants awaking
soon after, discovered their loss, but made no search after the
basket, and began to dance with as much alacrity as before.
On Saturday, the 5th, some hogs and fowls, and several large
pieces of cloth, many of them from forty to sixty yards in length,


with a quantity of plantains and cocoa-nuts, were sent to Captain
Cook as a present from the king of the neighboring island of
Bolabola, with a message to the effect that he was then on the
island, and intended waiting on the captain. He, however, did
not visit them according to his promise, but sent three young
women to demand something in return for his present. After
dinner they set out to visit the king on shore, since he did not
think proper to come on board. As he had conquered Bolabola,
and was the dread of all the neighboring islands, they were
greatly surprised at finding a poor feeble old dotard, half blind,
and sinking under the weight of age and infirmities. He received
them without that state or ceremony which they had hitherto met
with among the other chiefs. On the 9th, having stopped a leak,
and taken on board a fresh stock of provisions, they sailed out of
the harbour, and flattered themselves that the fowls and hogs
would be a sufficient supply for the voyage, but in this they were
disappointed, for the hogs could not be brought to eat European
grain, or any provender that the ship afforded, and they were
under the necessity of killing them immediately. The fowls also
all died of a disease in the head, with which they were seized
soon after they had been brought on board. Being detained
longer at Ulietea in repairing the ship than they expected, they
did not go on shore at Bolabola, but after giving the general name
of "Society Islands" to the whole group, they pursued their
course, standing to the southward, for an island to which they
were directed by Tupia, at about ioo leagues distant, which they
discovered on the th, and were informed by him that it was
called Ohiterea. On the i4_h of Augus they stood in for the
land, and as they approached observed that the Indians were
armed with long lances. A number of them were soon drawn
together on the beach, and two jumped into the water, endeavour-
ing to gain the boat, but she soon left them, and some others who
had made the same attempt, far behind.
Having doubled the point where they intended to land, they
saw another party of natives standing at the end of it, armed like
those whom they had seen before. Preparations being made for
landing, a canoe full of Indians came off towards them. Tupia
was desired to acquaint them that the English did not intend to


offer violence, but meant to traffic with them for nails, which were
produced. Upon this they came alongside the boat, and accepted
some nails which were given them, appearing well pleased with
the present. In a few minutes, however, several of these people
boarded the boat, designing to drag her on shore; but some
muskets being discharged over their heads, they leaped into the
sea, and having reached the canoe, joined their countrymen, who
stood ready to receive them. The boat pursued the fugitives, but
the crew finding the surf extremely violent, did not land, but
coasted along shore, to find a more convenient place. After this
it was proposed that the people of the Endeavour should go on
shore and trade with the natives if they would lay aside their
weapons; but to this they would not agree unless the English
would do the same. As treachery was anticipated, the proposal
was not complied with; and since neither the bay which the
Endeavour entered, nor any other part of the island, furnished a
good harbour or anchorage, it was resolved to proceed to the
On the i5th, they sailed with a fine breeze, and on the 2th
celebrated the first anniversary of their leaving England. A large
Cheshire cheese, which had been preserved for this festive occa-
sion, was brought out, and a barrel of porter tapped, which proved
r to be in sound condition.
Land was discovered on Thursday, the 7th of October. and on
S the morning of the 8th they came to an anchor opposite the
mouth of a small river, not above half a league from the shore,
Captain Cook, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and some others, went
-on shore in the evening, and proceeded to a few small houses in
the neighbourhood. Some of the natives, who had concealed
themselves, took advantage of their absence from the boat, and
rushed out, advancing and brandishing their long wooden lances.
The coxswain fired a musket over their heads, but it did not ap-
pear to intimidate them, in consequence of which he levelled his
piece and shot one of them dead on the spot. Struck with
astonishment at the death of their companion, they retreated to
the woods with great -precipitation. The report of the gun
brought the advanced party back to the boats, and they returned
S immediately to the ship.


On the o a great number of the natives were seen near the
place where the Englishmen landed the preceding evening, and
the greater part of them appeared to be unarmed. The long-
boat, pinnace, and yawl being manned with marines and sailors,
Captain Cook, with the rest of the gentlemen and Tupia, went on
shore, and landed on the opposite side of the river, over against a
spot where several Indians were sitting on the ground. They im-
mediately started up and began to handle their weapons, each
producing either a long pike, or a kind of truncheon made of
stone, with a string through the handle of it, which they twisted
round their wrists. Tupia was directed to speak to them in his
language; and they were agreeably surprised to find that he was
understood. Their intention at first appeared to be hostile,
brandishing their weapons in the usual threatening manner; upon
which a musket was fired at some distance from them, and the
ball happening to fall into the water they appeared terrified, and
desisted from their menaces, Tupia informed them the English
desired to traffic with them for provisions, to which they con-
sented, provided the English crossed over to them to the other
side of the river. This was agreed to, upon condition that the
natives would quit their weapons; but the most solemn assur-
ances of friendship could not prevail with them to comply. Not
thinking it prudent, therefore, to cross the river, the English in
turn entreated the Indians to come over to them, and after some
time one of them did so. He was presently followed by several
others. They did not value the beads and iron that were offered
in the way of barter, but proposed to exchange weapons, which
being objected to, the Indians endeavoured to snatch the arms,
but in this attempt they were frustrated, and Tupia gave them to
understand that any further offers of violence would be punished
with instant death. One of them, nevertheless, had the audacity
to snatch Mr. Green's dagger when his back was turned to them,
and retiring a few paces, flourished it over his head; but his
temerity cost him dear, for Mr. Monkhouse fired a musket loaded
with ball, and shot him dead. Soon after the natives retreated
slowly inland, and the English returned to their boats. This be-
haviour of the Indians, added to the want of fresh water, induced
Captain Cook to continue his voyage round the bay, with a hope


of inducing some of the natives to come on board, so that by
kind treatment he might establish a good understanding with
them.' An event occurred, which, though attended with disagree-
able circumstances, promised to facilitate this design. Two
canoes appeared, making towards land, and Captain Cook pro-
posed intercepting them with his boats. One of them got clear
off; but the Indians in the other, finding it impossible to escape,
began to attack them with their paddles. This compelled the
Endeavour's people to fire upon them, when four of the Indians
were killed, and the other three, who were young men, jumped
into the water and endeavoured to swim to shore; they were,
however, taken up and conveyed on board. At first they were
greatly terrified, thinking they should be killed; but Tupia, by
repeated assurances of friendship, removed their apprehensions.
Having retired to rest in the evening, they slept very quietly.
The next morning preparations were made for sending them to
their countrymen, at which they expressed great satisfaction; but
finding the boat approaching Captain Cook's first landing-place,
they intimated that the inhabitants were foes. The captain,
nevertheless, judged it expedient to land near this spot, resolving
at the same time to protect the youths from any injury that might
be offered them. They had scarcely departed on their return to
their friends when two large parties of Indians advanced hastily
towards them, upon which 'they agiin flew to the English for
protection. When the Indians drew near, one of the boys dis-
covered his uncle among them, and a conversation ensued across
the river, in which the boy gave a just account of our hospitality,
and took great pains to display his finery. After this the uncle
swam across the river, bringing with him a green bough, a token
of friendship, which was received as such, and several presents
were made him. The three youths, by their own desire, returned
to the ship ; but as the captain intended to sail the next morning
he sent them ashore in the evening, though much against their
Captain Cook, on the iith, set sail in hopes of finding a better
anchoring-place, and in the afternoon the Endeavour was be-
calmed. Several canoes, full of Indians, came off from the shore,
who received many presents, and bartered their clothes and some


of their paddles for European commodities. Having finished
their traffic, they returned in such a hurry, that they forgot three
of their companions, who remained on board all night. These
testified their fears and apprehensions, notwithstanding Tupia
took great pains to convince them that they were in no danger,
and about seven o'clock the next morning a canoe came off, with
four Indians on board. It was at first with difficulty the Indians
in the shIip could prevail on those in the canoe to come near
them, and not till after the former had assured them that the
English did not eat men.
On the i2th several Indians came off in a canoe; they were
disfigured in a strange manner, danced and sang, and at times
appeared peaceably inclined, but at others, to menace hostilities.
Notwithstanding Tupia earnestly invited them to come on board,
none of them would quit the canoe. Whilst the Endeavour was
getting clear of the shoals, five canoes, full of Indians, came off,
and seemed to threaten the people on board by brandishing their
lances, and other hostile gestures. A 4-pounder, loaded with
grape-shot, was therefore fired over their heads, which made them
drop astern. Two more canoes came off whilst the iEndeavour
lay at anchor, but the Indians behaved very peaceably, and re-
ceived several presents, but would not come on board.
On Friday the 3th, they pursued their course. The next
morning they had a view of the inland country. Nine canoes,
full of Indians, came off from the shore, and five of them, after
having consulted together, pursued the Endeavour, apparently
with a hostile design. Tupia was desired to acquaint them that
immediate destruction would ensue if they persevered in their at-
tempts; but words had no influence, and a 4-pounder, with
grape-shot, was fired to give them some notion of the arms of
their opponents. They were terrified at this kind of reasoning,
and paddled hastily away. Tupia then hailed the fugitives, and
acquainted them that if they came in a peaceable manner, and
left their arms behind, no annoyance would be offered them, upon
which one of the canoes, submitting to the terms, came alongside
the ship, and received many presents.,
SLL ( On the I th, in the afternoon, a canoe with a number of armed
Ihdians came up, and one of them, who was clothed with a black


skin, found means to defraud the captain of a piece of red baize,
under pretence of bartering the skin for it. As soon as he had
got the baize into his possession, instead of giving the skin in re-
turn agreeable to his bargain, he rolled them together and ordered
the canoe to put off from the ship, turning a deaf ear to the re-
peated remonstrances of the captain. After a short time, this
canoe, together with the fishing-boats which had put off at the
same time, came back to the ship, and trade was again began.
During this second traffic with the Indians, one of them unex-
pectedly seized Tupia's little boy, Taiyota, and pulling him into
his canoe, instantly put off and paddled away with the utmost
speed; several muskets were immediately fired at them, and one
of them receiving a wound, they let go the boy, who before was
held down in the bottom of the canoe. Taiyota, taking advant-
age of their consternation, immediately jumped into the sea and
swam back towards the Endeavour. He was taken on board
without receiving any harm, but his strength was so much ex-
hausted with the weight of his clothes, that it was with great
difficulty he reached the ship. In consequence of this attempt to
carry off Taiyota, Captain Cook called the cape off which it
happened, Cap Kidnape.
The Endeavour now passed a small island, which was named
Bare Island. On the ~h Captain Cook gave the name of Cape
Turnagain to a headland, and on the ith named a peculiar-look-
ing cape, Gable-end Foreland. On Friday, the oththey anchored
in a bay about two leagues further to the northward, to which they
were invited by some natives in canoes, who behaved very amic-
ably, and pointed to a place where they said they would find
plenty of fresh water. Two chiefs came on board; they were
dressed in jackets, the one ornamented with tufts of red feathers,
the other with dog-skin. They were presented with linen and
some spike-nails, though they did not value the last so much as
the inhabitants of the other islands. The rest of the Indians
traded without the least attempt at imposition, and Tupia was
directed to acquaint them with the views of the English in coming
hither, and promised that they should receive no injury if they
offered none. In the afternoon the chiefs returned, and towards
evening the captain. Dr. Solander, and Mr. Banks went on shore,


They were courteously received by the inhabitants, who did not
appear in numerous bodies, and in many instances were scrup-
ulously attentive not to give offence. They made an agreeable
tour round the bay, and had the pleasure of finding two streams
of fresh water. They remained on shore all night, and the next
day Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander discovered several birds, among
which were quails and large pigeons. Many stages for drying fish
were observed, and some houses with fences. They saw dogs
with pointed ears, and very ugly. Sweet potatoes were found
also. The cloth-plant grew wild. In the neighboring valleys
the lands were laid out in regular plantations; and in the bay
they caught plenty of crabs, cray-fish, and horse-mackerel, larger
than those upon the English coasts.
The women paint their faces with a mixture of red ochre and
oil, which, as they were very plain, rendered them even less pre-
possessing. The faces of the men were not in general painted,
but they were daubed with dry red ochre from head to foot, their
apparel not excepted. Though in personal cleanliness they were
inferior to those of Otaheite, yet in some particulars they surpassed
-On the evening of Sunday, the 22nd, they weighed anchor and
put to sea, but the wind being contrary, they stood for another
bay a little to the south. They found a watering-place in a small
cove a little within the south point of the bay, distant about a
On Monday, the 23r, in the afternoon, they went on shore,
and found the water extremely good, also plenty of wood; and
the natives showed them much civility. In a valley, between two
very high hills, they saw a curious rock that formed a large arch.
This cavern was 70 feet in length, 30 in breadth, and nearly 50
in height, and commanded a view of the bay and the hills on the
other side.
On their return they met an old man, who entertained them
with the military exercise of the natives, which he performed with
the patoo-patoo and the lance. The former is used as a battle-
axe; and the latter is 18 or 2o.feet in length, made of hard wood,
and sharpened at each end. A stake was substituted for a sup-
posed enemy. The old warrior first attacked him with his lance,


advancing with a most furious aspect. Having pierced him, the
patoo-patoo was used to demolish his head, at which he struck
with a force which would at one blow have split any man's skull.
At the watering-place the Indians sang their war song, which was
a strange medley of sighingshoutingnand grimace, at which'the
women assisted. The next day Captain Cook and other gentle-
men went upon an island at the entrance of the bay, and met
with a canoe which was 67 feet in length, 6 in breadth, and 4 in
height; her bottom, which was sharp, consisted of three trunks of
trees, and the sides and head were curiously carved.
They also came to a large unfinished house; the posts which
supported it were ornamented with carvings that did not appear
to have been done upon the spot, though the people seemed to
have a taste for carving, as their boats, paddles, and the tops of
walking-sticks evinced. Their favourite figure is a volute or spiral,
which is sometimes single, double, or triple, and is done with
great exactness, though the only instruments were an axe, made
of stone, and a chisel. Their taste is extremely whimsical and
extravagant, scarcely ever imitating nature. Their huts are built
under trees, in the form of an oblong square; the door low on
the side, with the windows at the ends. Reeds covered with
thatch compose the walls; the beams of the eaves, which come to
the ground, being also covered with thatch.
On the 2eth of cher the Endeavour quitted the bay, and
sailing to the northward, came to a small island about a mile
distant from the north-east point of the mainland; and this being
the most eastern part of it, the captain named it East Cape, and
the island, East Island. Continuing under sail, they came to an
, island which he named White Island. On the ist of Nver.b
forty canoes came off as before, threatening to attack the
S Endeavour. One of their chiefs flourished his pike and made
several harangues, seeming to bid defiance to those on board the
vessel. At last, after repeated invitations, they came close along-
side; but instead of showing a disposition to trade, the harangu-
S ing chief took up a stone, which he threw against the ship, and
they immediately after seized their arms. They were informed by
Tupia of the dreadful consequences of commencing hostilities,
but this admonition remained unheeded. A piece of cloth, how-


ever, happening to attract their eyes, they began to be more mild
and reasonable. A quantity of cray-fish, muscles, and conger-eels
were now purchased. No fraud was attempted by this company
of Indians, but some others that came after them took goods
from the vessel without making proper returns. As one of them,
who had rendered himself remarkable for these practices, and
seemed proud of his skill in them, was putting off with his canoe,
a musket was fired over his head, which circumstance produced
good order for the present; yet when they began to traffic with
the sailors they renewed their frauds, and one of them was bold
enough to seize some linen that was hung to dry, and run away
with it. In order to induce him to return, a musket was fired
over his head, but this not answering the end, he was shot in the
back with small shot, yet he still persevered in his design. This
being perceived by his countrymen, they dropped astern and set
up the song of defiance. In consequence of their behaviour,
though they made no preparations to attack the vessel, the captain
gave orders to fire a 4-pounder, and its effects on the water so
terrified them that they retreated with precipitation.
On the 4th, at daybreak, no less than twelve canoes made their'
appearance, containing nearly 200 men, armed with spears, lances,
and stones, who seemed determined to attack the ship, and would
have boarded her had they known which quarter was most suit-
able for attack. While they were paddling round her, the
crew meantime being on the watch in the rain, Tupia, at the
request of the captain, used a number of dissuasive arguments to
prevent their carrying their designs into execution; but nothing
could pacify them till some muskets were fired. They then laid
aside their hostile intentions, and began to trade; yet they could
not refrain from their fraudulent practices, for, after they had fairly
bartered fwo of their weapons, they would not deliver up a third,
for which they had received cloth, and only laughed at those who
demanded an equivalent. The offender was wounded with small
shot, but his countrymen took not the least notice of him, and
continued to trade without any discomposure.
On the morning of the fifth the Indians came off to the ship
again, and behaved much better than they had done the preced-
ing day. An old man in particular, named Tojava informed


them that they were often visited by freebooters from the north,
who stripped them of all they could lay their hands on, and at
times made captives of their wives and children, and that being
ignorant who the English were after their first arrival, the natives
had been much alarmed, but were now satisfied of their good in-
tentions. He added that for their security against those plunderers,
their houses were built contiguous to the tops of the rocks, where
they could better defend themselves. Having despatched the
long-boat and pinnace into the bay to haul and dredge for fish
with little success, the Indians testified their friendship, and
brought for sale great quantities of fish dressed and dried; they
also supplied them with wood and good water. While the English
were out with their guns, the people who stayed by the boats saw
two of the natives fight. The battle was begun with their lances,
but some old men taking these away, they were obliged to decide
the quarrel, like Englishmen, with their fists.
On the 9th the Indians brought a prodigious quantity of mac-
kerel, which they sold at a low rate, and the cargoes purchased
were so great that the ship's company cured as many as would
serve for a month's provision.
This being a clear day, Mr. Green, the astronomer landed with
some of the gentlemen to observe the transit of Mercury. The
observation of the ingress was made by Mr. Green alone, and
Captain Cook took the sun's altitude to ascertain the time. While
the observation was making, a canoe, with various commodities
on board, came alongside the ship, and Mr. Gore, the officer who
had then the command, being desirous of encouraging them to
traffic, produced a piece of Otaheitean cloth, of more value than
any they had yet seen, which was immediately seized by one of
the Indians, who obstinately refused either to return it or give
anything in exchange. He paid dearly, however, for his temerity,
being shot dead on the spot. His death alarmed all the rest;
they fled with great precipitancy, and could not be induced to
renew their traffic. But when the Indians on shore had heard
the particulars related by Tojava, who greatly condemned the
conduct of the deceased, they seemed to think that he merited
his fate.
The weather being favourable, the transit of Mercury was viewed


without a cloud intervening. In consequence of this observation
being made here, this bay was called Mercury Bay.
The Indians sup before sunset, when they eat^fish and birds,
baked or roasted on a stick planted in the ground near the fire.
A female mourner was present at one of their suppers. She sat
on the ground and wept incessantly, at the same time repeating
some sentences in a doleful manner, but which Tupia could not
explain. At the termination of each period she cut herself with
a shell upon her breast, her hands, or her face. Notwithstanding
this spectacle greatly affected the gentlemen, all the Indians who
sat by her, except one, were quite unmoved.
Abundance of oysters were procured from a bed which had
been discovered, and they proved exceedingly good. Next day
the ship was visited by two canoes, who bartered with honesty.
Captain Cook sailed from this island, having, on the I thof
November, taken possession of it in the name of his sovereign.
On the morning of the 8th, the Endeavour steered between
the mainland and an island, which seemed very fertile, and as ex-
tensive as Ulietea. Several canoes, filled with Indians, came
alongside, and they sang their war-song, but the Endeavour's
people paying them no attention, they threw a volley of stones
and then paddled away; however, they presently returned and
renewed their insults. Tupia spoke to them, but they answered
by brandishing their weapons, intimating that they would destroy
them all. The Endeavour cast anchor in the evening, and early
the next morning sailed up an inlet. Soon after the canoes
paddled off, and some of the Indians came on board. They
knew Tojava, and called Tupia by his name. Having received
some presents they returned peaceably, and apparently highly
On.Monday, the 2oth, after having run five leagues, they came
to anchor in a bay called by the natives Ooahaouragee, which
Captain Cook, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and others, set off in the
pinnace to examine. They landed on the west side to inspect
the lofty trees that adorned its banks; at the entrance of a wood
they met with a tree 9 e high from the ground, quite straight,
and 19 feet in circumference; and as they advanced they found
others still larger. Captain Cook gave to this river the name of


Thames, it having a resemblance to the river of that name in
They made sail early on the 22nd, and kept under weigh till
the flood obliged them once more to come to an anchor. The
captain and Dr. Solander went on shore to the west, but made no
observations worth relating. After these gentlemen departed, the
ship was surrounded with canoes, and Mr. Banks remained on
board, that he might trade with the Indians, who bartered their
arms and clothes for paper; but though they were in general
honest in their dealings, one of them took a fancy to a half-minute
glass, and being detected in secreting it, he was punished with the
cat-o'-nine tails. The Indians attempted to interfere, and they
got their arms from their canoes, but being informed of the nature
of the intended punishment, they appeared satisfied, and the
criminal not only received a dozen, but afterwards a good drub-
bing from an old man who was thought to be his father. On the
24th they kept steering along the shore, anchoring between the
tides. No inhabitants were visible, but from the fires perceived
at night, it was concluded to be inhabited.
On the 26th, towards night, seven large canoes paddled off with
about 200 men, some of whom came on board. These were
followed by two larger canoes,. adorned with carving. The
Indians, after holding a conference, came alongside the vessel.
They were armed with various weapons, and seemed to be of the
higher order. Their patoo-patoos were made of stone and
whalebone, ornamented with dogs' hair, and were held in high
On the 29th, having weathered a point of land which the captain
named Cape Brett, they bore away to leeward, and got into a large
bay, where they anchored on the south-west side of several islands,
and the ship was soon surrounded by thirty-three large canoes,
containing nearly 300 Indians, all armed. Some of them were
admitted on board, and Captain Cook gave a piece of broadcloth
to one of the chiefs and some small presents to the others. They
traded peaceably for some time, being terrified at the firearms,
with the effects of which they were not unacquainted; but whilst
the captain was at dinner, on a signal given by one of the chiefs, all
the Indians quitted the ship and attempted to tow away the buoy.


A musket was first fired over them, but without effect, and then
small shot was fired at them, but it fell short. A musket, loaded
with ball, was, therefore, ordered to be fired, and a son of the
chief was wounded in the thigh by it, which induced them im-
mediately to throw the buoy overboard. To complete their con-
fusion, a round shot was fired which reached the shore, and as
soon as they landed they ran to search for it. If they had been
under any kind of discipline they might have proved a formidable
Captain Cook, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander landed in a small
cove in the island, and were presently surrounded by nearly 400
armed Indians; but the captain, not suspecting any hostile design
on the part of the natives, remained peaceably disposed. The
Englishmen marching towards them, drew a line, intimating that
they were not to pass it. They did not infringe upon this boun-
dary for some time; but at length they sang the song of defiance,
and began to dance, whilst a party endeavoured to drag the
]ndeavour's boat on shore; these signals for an attack being
followed by the Indians breaking in upon the line, the gentlemen
judged it time to defend themselves, and accordingly the captain
fired his musket, loaded with small shot, which was seconded by
Mr. Banks discharging his piece, and two of the men followed
his example. This threw the Indians into confusion, and they
retreated, but were rallied again by one of their chiefs, who
shouted and waved his patoo-patoo. The doctor now pointed
his musket at this hero, and hit him, when he took flight with
the other Indians. They were now at too great a distance for a
ball to reach them; but these operations being observed from the
ship, she brought her broadside to bear, and by firing over them
soon dispersed them. The Indians had in this skirmish two of
their people wounded, but none killed. Peace being again re-
stored, the gentlemen began to gather celery and other herbs, but
suspecting that some of the natives were lurking about with evil
designs, they repaired to the cave, where they found the chief who
had that day received a present from the captain. He came forth
with his wife and brother, and solicited their clemency. It ap-
peared that one of the wounded Indians was a brother to this
chief, who was under great anxiety lest the wound should prove:


mortal; but his grief was in a great degree alleviated, when he
was made acquainted with the different effects of small shot and
ball; and he was also assured that upon any further hostilities
being committed, ball would be used. This interview terminated
very cordially, after some trifling presents were made to the chief
and his companions.
Being again in their boats, they rowed to another part of the
island, when landing, and gaining an eminence, they had a very
agreeable and romantic view of a great number of small islands,
well inhabited and cultivated. The inhabitants of an adjacent
village approached unarmed, and testified great humility and sub-
mission. Some of the seamen on shore, having forced their way
into some of the plantations, and dug up potatoes, the captain
showed strict justice in punishing each offender with lashes; one
of them being refractory upon this occasion, and complaining of
the hardship of an Englishman being flogged for plundering an
Indian, received six additional lashes.
On Tuesday, the 5th of December, they weighed anchor, but ': '
were soon becalmed, and a strong current setting towards the
shore, were driven in with such rapidity, that they expected every
moment to run upon breakers, which appeared above water not t
more than a cable's length distance. Indeed, they were so near
the land that Tupia, who was totally ignorant of the danger, held
a conversation with the Indians, who were standing on the beach.
They were happily relieved, however, from this alarming situation
by a fresh breeze suddenly springing up from the shore.
On the 7th, several canoes put off and followed the Endeavour,
but a light breeze springing up they did not wait for them. On ,
the 17th, they came off the northern extremity_.dfewJZ._ _land ~dt3 ,(c CUict
which Captain Cook named North Cape On the 27th, it blew a v
gale from the east, accompanied with heavy showers of rain which
compelled them to bring the ship to, under her mainsail. The
gale continued till the 28th, when it fell about two o'clock in the
morning, but at eight increased to a hurricane, with a prodigious CU- -
sea; at noon the gale somewhat abated, but with heavy squalls. '"
January the Ist,_1., at six in the morning, they tacked and /
stood to the eastward, and on the 3rd they saw land, trending
away to the south-east, beyond the reach of the naked eye. It is


remarkable that the Endeavour was three weeks in making ten
leagues to the westward, and five weeks in getting fifty leagues,
the distance they were now from Cape Brett.
On the 9th they saw high land to the east-north-east, which the
captain named Albatross Point. At about two leagues distance
from this point, to the north-east, they discovered a remarkable
high mountain, equal in height to that of Teneriffe. Its summit
was covered with snow, and it was named Mount Egmont. At
this place Captain Cook proposed to careen the ship, and also
to take in a fresh supply of wood and water; accordingly, on the
ith, at daybreak, they steered for an inlet, when, it being almost
a calm, the ship was carried by a current or the tide within a
cable's length of the shore, but she got clear by the assistance of
the boats. At two they anchored in a safe cove on the north-west
side of the bay, and moored in eleven fathoms of water, with a
soft bottom. Four canoes came off for the purpose, as we
imagined, of reconnoitring; for none of the Indians would venture
on board except an old man, who seemed of elevated rank. His
countrymen expostulated with him, laid hold of him, and took
great pains to prevent his coming on board, but they could not
divert him from his purpose. He was received with the utmost
hospitality. Tupia and the old man joined noses, according to
the custom of the country, and having received several presents,
he returned to his associates, who began to dance and laugh, and
then retired to their fortified village.
Captain Cook and other gentlemen now went on shore, where
they met with plenty of wood, and a fine stream of excellent water,
and on hauling the seine were very successful, having caught
three hundredweight of fish in a short time.
On the 16th the crew were employed in careening the ship,
when three canoes came off with a number of Indians, and
brought several of their women with them, a circumstance whicli
was thought to be a favourable presage of their peaceable dis-
position; but they soon gave proofs to the contrary by attempting
to stop the long-boat, when Captain Cook had recourse to the
old expedient of firing shot over their heads, which intimidated
them for the present. Tupia asked them if they had ever before
seen a ship so large as the Endeavour, to which they replied in


the negative; nor had they heard that such a vessel had ever
been on their coast. The inhabitants catch their fish, which are
plentiful here, in cylindrical nets, extended by several hoops at
the bottom and contracted at the top. The fish going in to feed
upon the bait are caught in great abundance. There are also
birds of various kinds, and in great numbers.
Captain Cook, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander visited another
cove, about two miles from the ship. They found here a family
of Indians, who appeared greatly alarmed at their approach;
these people were cannibals, there being several human bones
that had lately been dressed and picked. They made no secret
of this abominable custom, but, with great composure, answered
Tupia, who was desired to ascertain the fact, that his conjectures
were just, that they were the bones of a man, and testified by
signs that they thought human flesh delicious food. There was a
woman in this family whose arms and legs were cut in a shocking
manner, and it appeared that she had thus wounded herself be-
cause her husband had lately been killed and eaten by the enemy.
Some of the Indians brought four skulls one day to sell, which
they rated at a very high price. They seemed to pride them-
selves upon their cruelty and barbarity, and took a particular
pleasure in showing the manner in which they killed their enemies.
This was done by first knocking them down with their patoo-
patoos, and then ripping up their bellies.
On the 2th, in the morning, Mr. Banks purchased of the old
Indian a man's head, which he seemed very unwilling to part
with. The skull had been fractured by a blow, and the brains
were extracted, and, like the others, it was preserved from putre-
faction. From the care with which they kept these skulls, and
the reluctance with which they bartered any, they were considered
as trophies of war and testimonials of their valour. Some of the
ship's company, in their excursions, met with fortifications that
had not the advantage of an elevated situation, but were sur-
rounded by two or three wide ditches, with a drawbridge, such as,
though simple in its construction, would answer every purpose
against the arms of the natives. Within these ditches is a fence
made with stakes fixed in the earth.
On the 24th they visited a hippah, or fort, which was situated


on a very high rock, hollow underneath, forming a very fine
natural arch, one side of which joined the land and the other rose
out of the sea. The inhabitants received them with great civility,
and very readily showed everything that was curious.
On the 25th the captain, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander went on
shore to shoot, when they met with a numerous family, who were
among the creeks catching fish; they behaved very civilly, and
received some trifling. presents from the gentlemen, who were
loaded, by way of return, with the kisses and embraces of both
sexes, young and old. The next day, being the 26th, they made
another excursion, in order to survey, from the summit of a hill,
the strait which passes between the eastern and western seas.
Before their departure from this hill they erected a pyramid of
stones, and left some musket balls, small shot, and beads, as
memorials that this place had been visited by Europeans. On
the 27ih and 28th they were engaged in making necessary repairs,
catching fish, and refitting the Endeavour for her voyage.
On Tuesday, the 3oth, some of the people who were sent out
early in the morning to gather celery, met with about twenty
Indians, among whom were five or six women whose husbands
had lately been made captives. They sat down upon the ground
together and cut many parts of their bodies in a most shocking
manner with shells and sharp stones, in testimony of their exces-
sive grief. In the meantime their male companions paid not the
least attention to them, but with the greatest unconcern imagin-
able employed themselves in repairing their huts.
The carpenter having prepared two posts, they were set up as
memorials, being inscribed with the date of the year, and the month,
and the ship's name. One of them was erected at the watering-place,
with the union jack hoisted at the top, and the other in the island
that lies nearest the sea, called by the natives Motuaraj and the
inhabitants being informed that these posts were set up to acquaint
other adventurers that the Endeavour had touched this place, they
promised never to destroy them. Captain Cook named this inlet
Queen Charlotte's Sound, and took possession of it in the name
,i ~~' ; of his sovereign.
On the 5th of February they got under weigh, but the wind
S soon falling, came to anchor a little above Motuara.


On the following morning the Endeavour sailed out of the bay,
which, from the savage custom of eating human flesh common to
its people, the ship's company called CannibaLhBaz- The in-
habitants, who numbered about 400, are scattered along the coast,
and upon any appearance of danger retire to their hippahs, or
forts. They are poor, and their canoes are without ornaments.
The traffic with them was wholly for fish; but they had some
knowledge of iron, which the natives of other parts had not.
The Endeavour stood over to the eastward, and was carried by
the current close to one of the islands at the entrance of Queen
Charlotte's Sound. They were every moment in danger of being
dashed to pieces against the rock, but after having veered out 150
fathoms of cable, the ship was brought up, when the rocks were
not more than two cables' length distant. In this situation they
remained, being obliged to wait for the tide's ebbing, which did
not take place till after midnight.
On the 7th, at eight o'clock in the morning, they weighed
anchor, and a fresh breeze, with an ebb tide, quickly bore them
through the strait.
The next morning they were off Cape Palliser, and found that
the land stretched away to the north-eastward of Cape Turnagain.
In the afternoon three canoes, ornamented. like those on the
northern coast, put off from the shore. There was no difficulty
in persuading the Indians to come on board, and they demeaned
themselves very civilly, a mutual exchange of presents taking
place. Their dress resembled that of the natives of Hudson's
Bay. One old man was tattooed in a very peculiar manner, and
had likewise a red streak across his nose, while his hair and beard
were remarkable for their whiteness. His upper garment was
made of flax, and had a wrought border, and underneath he wore
a sort of cloth petticoat. Teeth and green stones decorated his
ears, and it was concluded, from his deportment, that he was a
person of distinguished rank among his countrymen.
On the 4th about sixty Indians, in four double canoes, came
within a stone's throw of the ship. As they surveyed her with
surprise, Tupia endeavoured to persuade them to come nearer,
but this they could not be prevailed upon to do. On this account
the place was denominated the island of Lookers-on.


On the 4th of March several whales and seals were seen. On
the 9th they saw a ledge of rocks, and soon after another ledge,
at three leagues distance from the shore, which they passed in the
night to the northward, and at daybreak observed the others
under the bows. Proceeding northward, the next day they fell
in with a barren rock about fifteen miles from the mainland, of
great height, and apparently about a mile in circumference; this
was named Solander's Island.
On the I3th they discovered a bay, containing several islands,
where, if there was depth of water, shipping might find shelter
from all winds. Dusky Bay was the appellation given to it by
the captain, and five high-peaked rocks, for which it was remark-
able, gave to a point the name of Five Fingers. They had now
passed the whole north-west coast of Tovy Pooenamoo.which had
nothing worthy of observation but a ridge of naked and barren
rocks covered with snow. As far as the eye could reach the
prospect was wild, craggy, and desolate. Having sailed round
the whole of this inhospitable shore by the 27th. Captain Cook
determined to depart. He accordingly went on shore in the
long-boat, and having found a place suitable for mooring the
ship, and a good watering-place, the crew began to fill their
casks, while the carpenter was employed in cutting wood. The
captain, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander went in the pinnace to
examine the bay and the neighboring country. Landing there
they found several plants of a species which was before unknown
to them. No inhabitants appeared, but they saw several huts,
which seemed to have been long deserted. Sufficient wood and
water having been taken on board, the vessel was ready to sail by
the time that they returned in the evening, and it was resolved to
steer for the coast of New Holland, and return by the way of the
East Indies,
On the st March they took their departure from an eastern
point they named Cape Farewell; the bay from which they sailed
was called Admiralty Bay, and the two capes, Cape Stephens and
Cape Jackson, after the two secretaries of the Board of Admiralty.
They called a bay between the island and Cape Farewell, Blind
Bay, which was supposed to have been the same that was called
Murderer's Bay by Abel ansen Tasaman, who first discovered New


SZealand in December,~62; but though he named it Staten Island,
wishing to take possession of it for the States-General, yet, being
a attacked by the Indians, he never went on shore to effect his pur-
pose. The coast being now more accurately examined, was
discovered to consist of two islands (now known as New Zealand),
Which were before thought to be a part of the southern continent
so much sought for. They are situated between the 34th and
48th degrees of south latitude, and between the i8ist and i94th
degrees of west longitude. The northern island is called by the
natives Eahienomauweeand the southern island, Tovy Poenamoo.
SThe former, though mountainous in some places, is well wooded,
Sand in every valley there is a rivulet. The soil in those valleys is
;light but fertile, and well adapted for the plentiful production of
all fruits, plants, and corn of Europe.
-- The sea that washes these islands abounds with delicate and
... wholesome fish. Wherever the vessel came to anchor, enough
were caught with hook and line only to supply the whole ship's
company; and when they fished with nets, every man in the ship
salted as much as supplied him for several weeks. There were
-- many sorts of fish here which they had never before seen, and
which the sailors named according to their fancies.
About 400 species of plants were found, all of which are un-
known in England, except garden night-shade, sow thistle, two or
three kinds of ferns, and one or two sorts of grass. They found
wild celery and a kind of cress in great abundance on the sea-
shore; and of eatable plants, raised by cultivation only, cocoas,
yams, and sweet potatoes, of which there were large plantations.
There is only one shrub or tree which produces fruit, a kind of
almost tasteless berry; but there grows on the islands a plant
which answers all the uses of hemp and flax. There are two
kinds of this plant, the leaves of one of which are yellow and the
other a deep red, and both resembling the leaves of flags. Of
these the natives make lines and cordage much stronger than
anything of the kind in Europe. They likewise split these leaves
into breadths, and by tying slips together form their fishing nets.
Their common apparel, by a simple process, is also made from
them, and their finer, by another preparation, is made from the

The natives are as large as the finest races of Europe. Their
complexions are brown, but little more so than that of a Spaniard,
and they are stout and well-shaped. As the dress of both sexes
is similar, the voice chiefly distinguishes the women from the
men. The latter are active in a high degree; their hair is black
and their teeth white and even. They appear to be of a gentle
disposition, and treat each other with the utmost kindness; but
they are perpetually at war, every little district being at enmity
with the rest. Notwithstanding the custom of eating their
enemies, the circumstances and temper of these people is in
favour of those who might wish to become settlers.
These Indians anoint their hair with oil melted from the fat of
fish or birds. The poorer people use that which is rancid, so that
they have a very disagreeable smell; but those of superior rank use
fresh oil. They have combs made of bone and wood, which are
considered as an ornament when stuck upright in the hair. The
men tie their hair in a bunch on the crown of the head, and
adorn it with the feathers of birds, which they also sometimes
place on each side of the temples. The hair of the women is
worn either flowing over the shoulders or cut short.
Both sexes, but the men more frequently, mark their bodies
with black stains, called amoco. In general the women only
stain the lips, but sometimes mark other parts with black patches.
The men, on the contrary, put on additional marks from year to
year, so that the bodies of those who are very old are almost
covered. Exclusive of the amoco, they mark themselves with
furrows. These furrows make a hideous appearance, the edges
being indented and the whole quite black. The ornaments of the
face are drawn in the spiral form, both cheeks being marked ex-
actly alike, while the paintings on their bodies resemble filigree
work and the foliage in old chased ornaments ; but no two faces
or bodies are painted exactly after the same model. The people
of New Zealand likewise paint their bodies, by rubbing them with
red ochre, either dry or mixed with oil. Their dress is formed of
the leaves of the flags, split into slips, which are interwoven and
made into a kind of matting, the ends, which are seven or eight
inches in length, hanging out on the upper side. One piece of
this matting, being tied over the shoulders, reaches to the knees;








the other piece, wrapped round the waist, falls almost to the
ground. The men wear the lower garment only at particular
They have two kinds of cloth besides the coarse matting or
shag above mentioned, one of which is as coarse, but beyond all
comparison stronger than the English canvas; the other, which is
formed of the fibres of the plant, drawn into threads, which cross
and bind each other, resembles the matting on which our dishes
are placed at table.
They have a few dresses ornamented with feathers, and one
man was seen covered wholly with those of the red parrot.
The women never tie their hair on the top of their heads, nor
adorn it with feathers, and are less anxious about dress than the
men; their lower garment is bound tight round them, except
when they go out fishing, and then they are careful that the men
shall not see them.
The ears of both sexes are bored, and the holes stretched so as
to admit a man's finger. The ornaments of their ears are
feathers, cloth, bones, and sometimes bits of wood; a great many
of them made use of the nails given them by the English for this
purpose; and the women sometimes adorn their ears with the
white down of the albatross. They likewise suspend to their ears
chisels, bodkins, the teeth of dogs, and the teeth and nails of
their deceased friends. The arms and ankles of the women are
adorned with shells and bones, or anything else through which
they can pass a string. The men wear slung round the neck, by
a string, a piece of green talc or whalebone, with the representa-
tion of a man carved on it. One man had the gristle of his nose
perforated, and a feather passing through it projected over each
These people show less ingenuity in the structure of their
houses than in anything else belonging to them. They are from
16 to 24 feet long, io or 12 wide, and 6 or 8 in height. The
frame is of light sticks of wood, and the walls and roof are made
of dry grass, firmly knit together. Some of them are lined with
the bark of trees, and the ridge of the house is formed by a pole,
which runs from one end to the other. The door is only high
enough to admit a person crawling on his hands and knees, and


the roof is sloping. There is a square hole near the door, serv-
ing both for window and chimney, near which is the fireplace.
A plank is placed over the door, adorned with a sort of carving,
and this they consider as an ornamental piece of furniture. The
side walls and roof, projecting 2 or 3 feet beyond the walls at each
end, form a sort of portico, where benches are placed to sit on.
The fire is made in the middle of a hollow square on the floor,
which is inclosed with wood or stone. They sleep near the walls,
their beds consisting of straw laid on the ground. The wealthier,
or those having large families, have three or four houses, inclosed
in their courtyard. Their clothes, arms, feathers, some ill-made
tools, and a chest in which all these are deposited, form all the
furniture of the inside of the house. Their hammers to beat fern
root, gourds to hold water, and baskets to contain provisions, are
placed without the house. One house was found near 40 feet
long, 20 wide, and 14 high. Its sides were adorned with carved
planks, of workmanship superior to the rest; but the building
appeared to have been left unfinished.
The canoes of this country are long and narrow; the larger
sort seem built for war, and will hold from 30 to 1oo men. One
of those of Tolaga measured nearly 70 feet in length, 6 in width,
and 4 in depth. It was sharp at the bottom, and consisted of
three lengths, about 2 or 3 inches thick, and tied firmly together
with strong plaiting; each side was formed of one entire plank,
about 12 inches broad, and about 1-- inch thick, which was fitted to
the bottom part with equal strength and ingenuity. Several thwarts
were laid from one side to the other, to which they were securely
fastened, in order to strengthen the canoes. Some few of their
canoes at Mercury Bay and Opoorage, were all made entirely of
one trunk of a tree, which is made hollow by fire; but by far the
greater part are built after the manner above described. The
smaller boats, which are used chiefly in fishing, are adorned at
head and stern with the figure of a man, the eyes of which are
composed of white shells; a tongue of enormous size is thrust
out of the mouth, and the whole face is a picture of absolute de-
formity. The grander canoes, which are intended for war, are
ornamented with open work, and covered with fringes of black
feathers, which gave the whole an air of perfect elegance; the


side boards, which are carved in a rude manner, are embellished
with tufts of white feathers. These vessels are rowed by paddles,
between 5 and 6 feet in length, the blade of which is a long oval,
gradually decreasing till it reaches the handle; and the velocity
with which they row with these paddles is very surprising. Their
sails are composed of a kind of mat or netting, which is extended
between two upright poles, one of which is fixed on each side;
two ropes, fastened to the top of each pole, serve instead of sheets.
The vessels are steered by two men, each having a paddle, and
sitting in the stern; but they can only sail before the wind, in
which direction they move with considerable swiftness.
These New Zealanders use axes, adzes, and chisels, with which
last they likewise bore holes. The chisels are made of jasper, or
of the bone of a man's arm; their adzes and axes of a hard black
stone. They use their small jasper tools till they are blunted, and
then throw them away, having no instrument to sharpen them
with. The Indians at Tolaga having been presented with a piece
of glass, drilled a hole through it, and hung it round the neck.
A small bit of jasper was thought to have been the tool they used
in drilling it.
Their tillage is excellent. A long narrow stake, sharpened to
an edge at bottom, with a piece fixed across at a little distance
above it, for the convenience of driving it into the ground with
the foot, supplies the place both of plough and spade. The soil
being light, their work is not very laborious, and with this instru-
ment alone they will turn up ground of six or seven acres in ex-
The seine or large net, which has already been noticed, is pro-
duced by their united labour, and is probably the joint property
of the whole town. Their fish-hooks are of shell or bone, and
they have baskets of wicker-work to hold the fish. Their warlike
weapons are spears, darts, battleaxes, and the patoo-patoo. The
spear, which is pointed at the ed, is about 16 feet in length, and
they hold it in the middle, so that it is difficult to parry a thrust
with it. Whether they fight in boats or on shore, the battle is
hand to hand. They trust chiefly in the patoo-patoo, which is
fastened to their wrist by a strong strap, that it may not be wrested
out of their hands. These are worn in the girdles of people of


superior rank as a military ornament. They have a kind of staff
of distinction, which is carried by the principal warriors. It is
formed of a whale's rib, is quite white, and adorned with carving,
feathers, and the hair of their dogs. Sometimes they have a
stick 6 feet long, inlaid with shells, and otherwise ornamented
like a military staff. This honourable mark of distinction was
commonly in the hands of the aged, who were also more daubed
with the amoco. When they came to attack the English, one or
more of these old men thus distinguished were in each canoe.
It was their custom to stop 50 or 60 yards from the ship, when
the chief, rising from his seat, put on a dog's skin garment, and
holding out his decorated staff, directed them how to proceed.
When they were too far from the ship to reach it with their missile
weapons, they uttered cries of defiance. Thus they would ap-
proach the ship gradually till they were close alongside, still talk-
ing at intervals in a peaceable manner, and answering any ques-
tions that were asked them. Then again their menaces were
repeated, till, encouraged by the supposed timidity of the En-
deavour's people, they began the war-song and dance, the sure
prelude to an attack, which always followed, and sometimes con-
tinued till the firing of small shot repulsed them; but at others,
they vented their passion by throwing a few stones against the
ship by way of insult.
In the war-dance their limbs are distorted and their faces
agitated with strange convulsive motions : their tongues hang out
of their mouths to an amazing length, and their eyelids are drawn
so as to form a circle round the eye. At the same time they
shake their darts, brandish their spears, and wave their patoo-
patoos to and fro in the air. There is an admirable vigour and
activity in their dancing, and in their song they keep time with
Such exactness, that sixty or a hundred paddles, when struck
against the sides of their boats at once, make only a singkt prt.
In times of peace they sometimes sing in a manner resembling
the war-song, but the dance is omitted. The women, whose
voices are exceedingly melodious and soft, sing likewise in a
musical but mournful manner. One of their instruments of
music is a shell, from which they produce a sound not unlike that
made with a common horn the other is a small wooden pipe


not superior in sound to a child's whistle. They were never
heard to sing, or to produce any measured notes like what we call
a tune.
As to the horrid custom of eating human flesh, prevalent
among them, in most of the caves were found flesh and the bones
of men ; and some of the heads that were brought on board had
false eyes and ornaments in their ears, as if alive. The head pur-
chased by Mr. Banks, and sold with great reluctance, was that of
a young person, and by the contusions on one side, appeared to
have received many violent blows.
The hippahs, or villages of these people, of which there are
several between the Bay of Plenty and Queen Charlotte's Sound
are all fortified. In these they constantly reside; but near
Tolaga, Hawk's Bay, and Poverty Bay, only single houses are to
be seen, at a considerable distance from each other.
Both sexes eat together. The men cultivate the ground, make
nets, catch birds, and go out in their canoes to fish; while the
women are employed in weaving cloth, collecting shell-fish, and
dressing food.
As to the religion of these people, they acknowledge one
Supreme Being and several subordinate Deities. Their mode of
worship could not be learned, nor was any place proper for that
purpose seen. There was, indeed, a small square area encom-
passed with stones, in the middle of which hung a basket of fern
roots on one of their spades. This, they said, was an offering to
their gods, to obtain from them a plentiful crop of provisions.
They gave the same account of the origin of the world, and the
production of mankind, asthe inhabitants of Otaheite.
A great similitude was observed between the dress, furniture,
boats, and nets of the New Zealanders and the inhabitants of the
South Sea Islands, which would seem to denote a common
origin. Indeed, the inhabitants of these different places have a
tradition that their ancestors sprang from another country many
years since, and they both agree that this country was called
Heawige Tupia, when he accosted the people here in the
language of his own country, was perfectly unerstood although
the dialect is different.
On Saturday, the 31st of March, 1770, the Endeavowr sailed


from Cape Farewell in New Zealand, having fine weather and a
fair wind. They steered westward with a fresh gale till the
2nd of Apri when they saw a tropic bird, a sight very unusual
in so high a latitude. On the ih, they saw a gannet; and as
this bird never goes far from land, they sounded all night, but
had no ground at 130 fathoms. The day following, a small land
bird perched on the rigging, but they had no ground at 120
fathoms. On the morning of the pth, theydiscovered land to
the southernmost point of which they gave the name of Point
Hicks, in compliment to the first lieutenant, who discovered it.
At noon, in lat. 37Q 5' S. and 2100 i V.lon&., they saw
another remarkable point of land, distant about four leagues.
Captain Cook gave it the name of Ram Head Point, from its
remarkable resemblance to the promontory of the same name at
the entrance of Plymouth Sound. The land appeared to be low
and level, the shore white and sandy, and the inland parts
covered with wood and verdure. At this time they saw three
water-spouts. .In the evening, at six o'clock, the northernmost
point of land, which they named Cape Howe, was distant about
two leagues. On the 27th they saw several of the inhabitants
walking along the shore, four of them carrying a canoe on their
shoulders; but as they did not attempt to come off to the ship,
the captain took Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Tupia in the
yawl to that part of the shore where they saw the natives, near
which four small canoes lay close inland The Indians sat on
the rocks till the yawl was within a quarter of a mile of the land,
when they ran away into the woods. The surf beating violently
on the beach, prevented the boat from landing. At five in the
evening they returned to the ship, and a light breeze springing up,
she sailed to the northward, where they discovered several people
on shore. The pinnace having been sent ahead to sound, ar-
rived near the spot where the Indians had stationed themselves,
on which one of them hid himself among the rocks near the
landing-place, and the others retreated up the hill. The pinnace
keeping along the shore, the Indians walked nearly in a line with
her; they were armed with long pikes, and a weapon resembling
a scimitar, and by various signs and words invited the boat's
crew to land. Those who did not follow the boat, having ob-



served the approach of the ship, brandished their weapons and
threw themselves into threatening attitudes.
The Endeavour anchored opposite a village of about eight
houses, whereupon Captain Cook manned the boats and took
Tupia with him, but had no sooner come near the shore, than
two men advanced, as if to dispute their setting foot on land.
The captain threw them beads, nails, and other trifles, which they
picked up with great delight. He then made signals that he
wanted water, and used every possible means to convince them
that no injury was intended. They now made signs to the boat's
crew to land, but no sooner had Captain Cook done so, than the
two Indians came again to oppose them. A musket was now
fired between them, on the report of which one of them dropped
a bundle of lances, which he immediately snatched up again in
great haste. One of them threw a stone at the boat, on which
the captain ordered a musket loaded with small shot to be fired,
which, wounding the eldest of them in the legs, he retired hastily
to one of the houses that stood at some distance. The people
in the boats now landed, imagining that the wound this man had
received would put an end to the contest. In this, however, they
were mistaken, for he immediately returned with an oval-shaped
kind of shield, painted white in the middle, and with two holes in
it to see through. They now advanced with great intrepidity, and
both discharged their lances at the boat's crew, but did not wound
any of them. Another musket was now fired at them, on which
they threw another lance, and then took to their heels. The crew
now went up to the huts, in one of which they found the children,
who had secreted themselves behind some bark. Having thrown
several pieces of cloth, ribbons, beads, and other things into the
hut, they took several of their lances and then re-embarked in the
boat. They now sailed to the north point of the bay, and found
plenty of fresh water. Some men having been sent to get wood
and water, they no sooner came on board to dinner, than the
natives crowded down to the place, and examined the casks with
great attention, but did not offer to remove them. When the
people were on shore in the afternoon, about twenty of the natives,
all armed, advanced within a trifling distance of them, and then
stopped, while two of their number approached still nearer. Mr.


Hicks, the commanding officer on shore, went towards them, with
presents in his hands, and endeavoured by every possible means to
assure them of his friendly intention, but to no purpose, for they
retired before he came up to them. In the evening, Messrs.
Banks and Solander went with the captain to a cove north of the
bay, where they caught between three and four hundredweight of
fish, at four hauls.
,On Tuesday, Mayjthe st, the south point of the bay was named
Sutherland Point, one of the seamen of the name of Sutherland, who
died that day, being buried on shore. More presents were left in
the huts, such as looking-glasses, combs, and other articles, but
the former ones had not been taken away. Making an excursion
about the country, they found it agreeably variegated with wood
and lawn, the trees being straight and tall, and without under-
wood. The second lieutenant, Mr. Gore, who was dredging for
oysters, saw some Indians, who made signs for him to come on
shore, which he declined; having finished his business, he sent
the boat away, and went by land with a midshipman to join the
party who were getting water. On their way they met with more
than twenty of the natives, who followed them so close as to come
within a few yards of them; Mr. Gore stopped and faced them,
on which the Indians stopped also, and when he proceeded again,
they followed him; but they did not attack him, though each had
a lance. The Indians coming in sight of the water-casks, stood
at the distance of a quarter of a mile, while Mr. Gore and his
companions reached their shipmates in safety. Two or three of
the waterers now advanced towards the Indians, but observing
they did not retire, they here imprudently turned about, and re-
treated hastily. This apparent mark of cowardice emboldened
the savages, who discharged four of their lances at the fugitives,
which fell beyond them. They now stopped to pick up the
lances; on which the Indians retired in their turn. At this
instant the captain came up, with Messrs. Banks and Solander.
Tupia having learned to shoot, frequently strayed alone to shoot
parrots, and the Indians constantly fled from him with as much
precipitation as from the English. The name of B.taRy_.ay was
given to this place from the great number of plants collected by
Messrs. Banks and Solander.


While the captain remained in the harbour, the English colours
were displayed on shore daily, and the name of the ship, with the
date of the year, was carved on a tree near the place where they
took in water. On Sunday, the 6th of May, they sailed from
Botrany.Bay, and at noon were off a harbour, which was called
Port Jackson, and in the evening near a bay to which they gave
the name of Broken_Baay The next day, at noon, the northern-
most land in sight projected so as to justify the calling it Cape
Three Points. As they proceeded northward from Bany Bay
the land appeared high and well covered with wood. In the
afternoon of the I3th they discovered some rocky islands, and a
day later, by the assistance of their glasses, discerned about a
score of Indians, each loaded with a bundle.
Early in the morning of the 2Ard Captain Cook, attended by
several gentlemen and Tupia, went on shore to examine the coun-
try. They landed within the point of a bay, which led into a
large lagoon, by the sides of which grew the true mangrove, where
they found many nests of ants of a singular kind, as green as
grass. When the branches were moved they came forth in great
numbers, and bit the disturber most severely. These trees like-
wise afforded shelter for immense numbers of green caterpillars,
whose bodies were covered with hairs.
On Thursday, the 24th, they made sail out of the bay, and on
the day following were abreast of a point, which, being immedi-
ately under the tropic, the captain named Cpe ricorn. On the
west side of the point they saw an amazing number of large birds,
resembling the pelican, some of which were near five feet high.
On Monday, the Z8th they sailed to the northward, and got
among another cluster of islands. Here they were greatly alarmed,
having on a sudden but three fathoms of water, in a rippling tide;
they immediately put the ship about, and hoisted out the boat in
search of deeper water; after which they stood to the west under
easy sail, and in the evening came to the entrance of a bay. In
the afternoon, having sounded round the ship, and found that
there was water sufficient to carry her over the shoal, they weighed,
and stood to the westward, having sent a boat ahead to sound,
and at six in the evening anchored in ten fathoms, with a sandy
bottom, at about two miles from the mainland.


On Tuesday, the 2 th, Captain Cook, intending to lay the ship
ashore, and clean her bottom, landed with the master in search of
a convenient place for that purpose; in this excursion Mr. Banks
and Dr. Solander accompanied them; several places were found
suitable for laying ashore, but, to their great disappointment, they
could meet with no fresh water. They proceeded, however, up
the country, and in the interior parts found gum trees, on the
branches of which were white ants' nests, formed of clay, as big
as a bushel. On another tree, they saw black ants, which per-
forated all the twigs, and after eating out the pitch, formed their
lodgings in the hollows, notwithstanding which the trees were in
Sa flourishing condition. They also saw many thousands of butter-
flies, which covered every bough in incredible numbers.
On Wednesday, the loth, Captain Cook and other gentlemen
went on shore, and having gained the summit of a hill, took a
survey of the coast and the adjacent islands, which being done,
the captain proceeded with Dr. Solander up an inlet that had been
discovered the preceding day; but the weather proving unfavour-
able, and from fear of being lost among the shoals in the night,
they returned to the ship, having seen during the whole day only
two Indians, who followed the boat a considerable way along the
shore. As no water was to be found in their different excursions,
the captain called the inlet where the ship lay Thirst nd
On the st of june they got under weigh, and had now quite
opened the western inlet, which they distinguished by the name
of Broad Sound. A point of land which forms the north-west
entrance they named Cape Palmerston, lying 21 30' S. lat. and
210o 54' W. long. Between this cape and Cape Toished-..is
the bay which they called the Bay of Inlets. At eight in the
evening they anchored in 11 fathoms, with a sandy bottom, about
two leagues from the mainland.
Saturday, the nd, they made sail, and at noon saw a high pro-
montory which they named Cae Hillsborouh. It bore W. half
N., distant seven miles. The land appeared to abound in wood
and herbage, and is diversified with hills, plains, and valleys. A
chain of islands large and small are situated at a distance from
the coast and under the land, from some of which they saw smoke
ascending in different places.


On Sunday, the grd, they discovered a point of land, which
they called Cape Conway, and between that and Cape Hills-
borough a bay, to which they gave the name of Repulse Bay
By the help of their glasses, they discovered two men and a
woman on one of the islands, and a canoe with an outrigger like
those at Otaheite. They named the islands Cumberland Islands,_
in honour of the Duke; and a passage which they had discovered
was called Whit-Sunday Passage, from the day on which it was seen.
At daybreak, on Monday, the they were abreast of a point
which they called Cape Gloucester. Names were also given this
day to several other places, namely, Holbourne Isle, Edgcumbe
Bay, and Cape startwhich last was so called because it rises
abruptly from the low lands that surround it. Inland are some
hills or mountains which, like the cape, afford but a barren
On Tuesday, the 5th,.they were about four leagues from land,
and continued to steer W.N.W. as the land lay, till noon on the
6th when their latitude by observation being I~_' S., they had
the mouth of a bay all open, distant about two leagues. This
they named Cleveland Bay, and the east point Cape Cleveland,
now forming part of the colony of Queensland. The west, which
had the appearance of an island, was called Magnetical Island,
because the compass did not traverse well when they were near
it. They are both high, as is the mainland between them, the
whole forming a surface the most rugged, rocky, and barren of
any they had seen upon the coast. Yet it was not uninhabited,
for they saw smoke in several parts of the bottom of the bay.
Thursday, the 7th, at daybreak, they were abreast of the eastern
part of this land, and, in the afternoon, saw several columns of
smoke, also canoes, and some trees.
On Friday, the 8th, they stood away for the northernmost point
in sight, to which they gave the name of Point 1_HiljQk Be-
tween this and Magnetical Isle the shore forms Halifax Bay, which
affords shelter from all winds. At six in the evening they were
abreast of a point of land which they named Cape Sandwich,
From hence the land trends west, and afterwards north, forming
a fine large bay, which was named Rockingham Bay. They now
ranged northward along the shore, towards a cluster of islands,

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