Title: Tracks to the Promised Land : Selected Maps of the Holy Land brochure
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083384/00001
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Title: Tracks to the Promised Land : Selected Maps of the Holy Land brochure
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida Libraries
Publisher: University of Florida Libraries
Publication Date: 2003
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
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Selected Maps of the Holy Land

FEBRUARY 3 MAY 7, 2003

The Exhibit Gallery
Second Floor Smathers Library
George A. Smathers Libraries
The University of Florida

Cram, George Franklin. Birds-Eye-View of the Holy Land.
[Chicago: Geo. F. Cram Engraver and Publisher, 1886]

Lithograph 25.5 x 30.2 cm.

This oblique view of the Holy Land illustrates how much bird's-eye views
have developed since the Nuremberg Chronicle view of Jerusalem.
They have become more representative of the city's actual streets and
buildings, although these types of maps are still not drawn to scale. The
map also demonstrates the changing aesthetic of late nineteenth-century
maps that increasingly had little decoration and emphasize scientific
method and accuracy. Note the steamships in the Mediterranean in
contrast to the sailing and fishing boats on earlier Holy Land maps. One
fourth of the map is the eastern sky, containing numerous birds.

This map is printed with the map of Palestine and Japan on its verso and
is from an atlas produced by the George F. Cram Publishing Company of
Chicago. Beginning in 1883, there were many general atlases published
by the company for use in schools and libraries.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. (Cartobibliography # 106)

Palmer, Loomis T. Modern Jerusalem/Ancient Jerusalem. [Chicago:
Standard-Columbian Company, 1887]


Selected Maps of the Holy Land

Steel engraving 29 x 37 cm. FEBRUARY 3 MAY 7, 2003

Page 61 of verso contains information from Interest Rates to Knit
Goods, from the Statistical Dictionary. This map demonstrates further
evidence of the late-nineteenth-century's tendency towards a more sci-
entific, more rational approach to maps and cartography, even in the
area of Holy Land maps.

The Exhibit Gallery
Second Floor Smathers Library
George A. Smathers Libraries
The University of Florida

Hughes, William. Palestine in the Time of Our Saviour. [London:
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: George Cox, 1843.]

Steel engraving 39 x 32 cm.

Shows locations of the tribes of Israel at the time of Christ; map drawn in
1842 but from edition of an atlas published in 1853. Inset: Plan showing
the probable extent of ancient Jerusalem. Roman numerals keyed to the
legend show Tribal territories. Relief shown by hachures.

A fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, Hughes (1817-1876) was a
professor of geography at the College of Civil Engineering. He was also
a surveyor and engraver. The Royal Geographical Society was responsi-
ble for issuing inexpensive publications, including its maps, that were
quite popular and responsible for the development of a new form of liter-
ature readily available and enjoyed by a wide diversity of people. Hughes
is responsible for maps published in a number of atlases in Edinburgh,
London, and the United States.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 96]

Rapkin, John. Modern Palestine. The Illustrations by H. Warren &
Engraved by R. Baker. The Map Drawn & Engraved by J. Rapkin.
[London & New York: J. & Tallis, 1851]

Steel engraving 32.2 x 24.3 cm.

Shows Syria and Palestine during the period of Turkish rule; illustrations
of Jaffa, Gazelle, Nazareth and natives of Mount Lebanon.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Simmons # 100]


The exhibit, "Tracks to the Promised Land: Selected Maps of the Holy
Land," signifies a productive collaboration among the exhibit team
consisting of John Ingram (Director of Collections), Robert Singerman
(Head, Price Library of Judaica), HelenJane Armstrong (Head, Map
and Imagery Library), Jeffrey Barr (Curator of Rare Books), and
Robert Shaddy (Chair, Special and Area Studies Collections). The
following individuals also played a significant role in the exhibit and
their efforts are acknowledged with thanks and appreciation: John
Freund, Erich Kesse, Barbara Hood, Joe Aufmuth, Bill Hanssen, Russ
Fairman, and Susan Lupi. We also acknowledge the generous support
of the Howe Society.

The focus of the exhibit is upon the maps and rightly so. They span the
fifteenth- through nineteenth-centuries and trace mapmaking technolo-
gies and collaborations evident from the cradle of printing to the dawn of
contemporary society and the digital age. Each map represents a concen-
trated production (among cartographer, engraver, publisher, patron, etc.)
that, until the late nineteenth-century, stressed aesthetic and religious
imagery over geographical accuracy. Viewers are encouraged to consult
the interpretative labels and look closely at these remarkable works of art
and craftsmanship.

Subjects suggested by the maps on display (e.g., the history of map-
making, the Holy Land in iconography, Biblical history, among many
others) may be readily researched by consulting the University of
Florida Libraries' Catalog. We hope that this exhibit will stimulate
interest in our collections among students, faculty, staff, and members
of the community.


The exhibit is arranged, basically, in chronological order. The informa-
tion presented in the exhibit checklist includes: basic cataloging infor-
mation; description of important illustrative elements found within each
map; and information on many of the cartographers and mapmakers
represented in the exhibit. Many of the maps on display are from the
magnificent "James C. and Adina P. Simmons of Tel-Aviv, Israel and
Tallahassee, Florida Collection of Antique Maps of the Holy Land" and
are so noted, below.

In preparing this checklist, I have compiled information from the maps
themselves along with the following sources:

* HelenJane Armstrongj. -.4, iquc Maps of the Holy Land in the University
of Florida Libraries, Featuring The James C. and Adina P Simmons of
Tel-Aviv, Israel and Tallahassee, Florida Collection ofAntique Maps of
the Holy Land: An Annotated Cartobibliography. [Gainesville, FL]:
George A. Smathers Libraries, 1999.

* Eran Laor, Maps of the Holy Land. New York: A. R. Liss, 1986.

*Kenneth Nebenzahl, Maps of the Holy Land. New York: Abbeville
Press, 1986.

Items from the Holy Lands Map collection, included in Dr. Armstrong's
Cartobibliography, are indicated by the respective Cartobibliography

Copies of the Armstrong guide are available for purchase through the
Bookstore located in the Smathers Library building. This fine work is a
must for anyone interested in the cartography of the Holy Land and
includes a fine introductory essay, "Of Pilgrims, Peregrinations, and
the Landscape of Belief' (by Robert Singerman); an introductory note
by Dr. Armstrong; and in-depth descriptive entries of the collection
organized by the following categories: "Classical and Early Middle

Kitchin, Thomas. Palestinae Seu Terrae Promissionis in duodecim
Tribus Paritae Facie... [London: 1768]

Copperplate 42 x 57.3 cm.

Shows the entire Middle East from Crete to Babylonia, Phoenicia,
Palestine, and Egypt. Palestine is divided among the 12 Tribes, shows
the empire of David and Solomon with the route of the Israelites
through the desert.

d'Anville, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon. La Palestine. [Paris: Chez
1'Auteur aux Galeries du Louvre, 1767]

Copperplate 38 x 43 cm.

Relief shown pictorially. The map includes regional and tribal names but
the Twelve Tribal divisions are drawn on the inset map. The Jordan River
between the Lake of Tiberias and the Dead Sea is shown as a large bulge,
whereas in fact it should be shown nearly as a straight line. Insets include:
"Les Tribus;" and "Jerusalem" (a plan of ancient Jerusalem). Includes one
diagram of eight scales and the distances between various places are
given upon a reduced scale.

Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville (1697-1782) is considered one of
the greatest French geographers of the eighteenth-century. His maps are
known for their elegance and scholarship. He was one of the first whose
main object was to reform geography in drawing his maps with exacti-
tude, in putting an end to the blind copying of older maps, and in elimi-
nating the baroque fantasies illustrating such maps. He preferred scholar-
ly research and scientific method in the development of his own maps. He
produced over 200 maps and collected over 10,000 maps from others.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 58]

Homann, Johann Baptist. ludaea seu Palaestina ... hodie dicta
Terra Sancta prout olim in Duodecim Tribus divisa separatis ab
invicem Regnis luda et Israel... collect ex Tabulis Gull Sansonij...
a Joh. Baptista Homanno. [Nuremberg: Homann, 1707]

Copperplate 48.5 x 57 cm.

Map of Palestine divided among the Tribes, drawn by Homann after
Guillaume Sanson. The shoreline runs from "Sidon" as far as
"Rinocorura." The mythical Kishon River is shown as connecting the
Mediterranean Sea with the Lake of Tiberias. The title cartouche at upper
left shows Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law on Mount Sinai. At the
bottom right comer appears a small inset map delineating the Exodus.
Moses and Aaron (brother of Moses and the traditional founder of the
Jewish priesthood) stand nearby. On the top of this map, two spies are
carrying the oversized bunch of grapes (a visual reference from Exodus).

Johann Baptist Homann (1663-1724) was a renowned mapmaker and
atlas publisher in Nuremberg whose success helped revitalize German
cartography in the eighteenth-century. The cartographic institute he
founded in1702 was continued by his heirs well into the nineteenth-cen-
tury. This map was published in his first atlas, Atlas Novus Terrarum

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 63]

Ages;" "Renaissance: 1450-1569;" "Golden Age of Cartography
/Emergence of the Atlas: 1570-1660;" "Ascendance of France and the
Later German Revival: 1660-1770;" and "Emergence of England and
the Beginning of Topographic Surveys: 1770-1900." The
Cartobibliography also contains illustrations of selected maps, a list of
references, and supplemental sources.

Robert A. Shaddy, compiler

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Selected Maps of the Holy Land

Blome, Richard. A Mapp of the travels and voyages of the Apostles in
their mission and in particular of Saint Paul [London: Richard
Blome, 1680]

Copperplate 30.8 x 46.2 cm.

Schedel, Hartmann. Hierosolima. [Nurnberg, Anton Koberger, 1493]

Woodcut 20 x 23 cm.

An imaginary representation of the Temple "Teplum Saomois" in the
midst of walled-in Jerusalem. From Folio XVII of Liber Cronicarum,
commonly called the "Nuremberg Chronicle."

While thought to be an imaginary view, it is probably the first printed rep-
resentation of Jerusalem. This view was made in 1492. By this time
Nuremberg, Germany was a major cultural center and becoming one of
the most important publishing centers in Europe. In his woodcut, Schedel
(1440-1514) used a new technique of mapping called a bird's-eye view to
present a more accurate impression of the city's character. The bird's-eye
view was a panoramic view simulating the elevated profile of the city
from a low angle. It was to become a popular method of showing town
plans during the next two centuries.

The "Nuremberg Chronicle" was published shortly after Columbus
reached the New World. Thus, it is one of the last opportunities to view
the medieval world, as the Western Europeans knew it. It is considered
the most important illustrated book of the fifteenth century and only the
Gutenberg Bible ranks higher as the most important printed book of the

The illustrations and the maps are cut in wood by Michael Wohlgemut.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 3]

Shows the entire Eastern Mediterranean from Italy as far as Mesopotamia
as traveled through by Paul. Small ships and dotted lines show the voy-
age of Paul from Jerusalem to Rome. The bottom third of the map con-
tains large inset drawings of 13 apostles. The map contains a dedication
to and shield of the Baronet who supported the making of the map.

Richard Blome (1669-1705) was a Heraldic writer and cartographer who
flourished in the latter half of the seventeenth-century. He was a prolific,
but not at all an original, worker and was frequently accused of plagia-
rism although he made no attempt to hide his sources. His maps were
attractive and quaintly designed and they still retain their charm.

L -I- r I I I I- II I

Speed, John. Canaan. [London: Basset and Chiswell, 1651 (1676)]

Copperplate 37 x 51 cm.

Shows part of Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula, and Palestine on both sides of the
Jordan River, divided among the Tribes. The shoreline runs from "Biblus"
as far as the Nile delta. Delineating the route of the Exodus. The emblems
of the Tribes appear on the map. Biblical illustrations are scattered over the
map-e.g., the encampment of the Tribes in the Desert around the
Tabernacle. The title cartouche shows Moses and Aaron. Includes the inset
of Jerusalem, a plan of the ancient city surrounded by vignettes showing the
Temple vessels and index to locations of biblical events.

John Speed (1552-1629) was an English historian and cartographer who
had been trained in his father's trade of tailoring. However, he had both
the passion and talent for mapmaking. In 1611, he was responsible for the
first printed "atlas of the British Isles, Theatre of the World of Great
Britaine." It contained county maps with an innovative addition of insets
of town plans similar to the one on this map.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 30]

Schedel, Hartmann. Destruccio Iherosolime. [Nurnberg, Anton
Koberger, 1493]

Woodcut 26 x 54 cm.

An imaginary view of the destruction of Jerusalem. Shows the Temple
ablaze. From Folio LXIII of Liber Cronicarum, commonly called the
"Nuremberg Chronicle."

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 4]

Munster, Sebastian. TabulaAsiae IIII. [Basel: Henricus Petri, 1545]

Woodcut 30 x 39 cm.

Shows the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East from Cyprus to
Babylonia. The shoreline of the Holy Land runs from "Ptolemais" (Acco)
as far as "Ascalon." There is a nonexistent bay north of Acco and the
same north of Jaffa. On verso Latin text within decorative borders,
"Q Varta."

Sebastian Munster (1489-1552) was a humanist scholar, astronomer and
geographer, and professor of Hebrew at Heidelberg. He relocated to
Basel, Switzerland after 1525. He published many works on the history
of geography, among them Cosmographia Universalis (1544) and
Cosmographia Universalis, vetus et nova complectens Claudi Ptolemaei
(1540). Munster's maps became the most influential general and regional
maps until the 1570 publication of Ortelius's Theatrum orbis Terrarum.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 5]

Hogenberg, Frans. Hierosolyma, Clarissima totius Orientis ciuitas,
Iudaee Metroplis... Hoc tempore Hierosolyma turcis Czumobarech
dicitur. [Cologne: Braun and Hogenberg, 1575]

Copperplate 33.7 x 48.3 cm.

Two plans of Jerusalem on the same sheet. On the left half of the sheet is
an imaginary topographic description of the ancient city at the time of
Jesus Christ. On the right half of the sheet is found a topographical
description of the modem city (i.e., in 1575). Small inset at bottom right:
Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law, with Aaron at the right.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 26]

Fuller, Thomas. Juda. [London: John Williams, 1650]

Copperplate 28.1 x 34.3 cm.

Shows the inland territory west of the Dead Sea apportioned to the Tribe
of Judah. In a big, impressive Dead Sea, four cities, including Sodom and
Gomorrah, are burning. Biblical illustrations are on the map. The deco-
rative scale has a child with map dividers. The emblem of the Tribe: a
crouching lion.

Thomas Fuller (1608-1661) was a respected English clergyman who
wrote commercially successful books on history and geography of the
Holy Land. His Pisgah-Sight ofPalestine was a geographical description
of the Holy Land with special reference to biblical history. For over two
centuries it was considered the finest collection of maps and descriptions
of the area. Pisgah-Sight appeared with 30 double-page copper plates, an
expensive method of illustration. Fuller financed the book by dividing it
into sections and finding sponsors for each one. This was a precursor to
the practice of publishing by subscription. To acknowledge the patrons,
all maps contained decorative cartouches with the sponsor's coat of arms
and a dedication to him that was signed with the initials, "F.T." Smathers
Libraries has a copy of Pisgah-Sight of Palestine and the majority of the
map sections.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 38]

Fuller, Thomas. Zebulon. [London: John Williams, 1650]

Copperplate 27.4 x 34.3 cm.

Shows the territory in "Galilaea inferior," apportioned to the Tribe of
Zebulon. Many biblical illustrations are on the map. The decorative scale
has a globe and map dividers. The emblem of the Tribe: a ship with mast.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 34]

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Moxon, Joseph. Paradise, or the gardens of Eden with the countries
circumjacent inhabited by the patriarchs. [London: 1671 (1691)]

Copperplate 31.5 x 46.5 cm.

One of a series of six biblical maps published in Dutch by Visscher in
1671, which were completely translated into English by Moxon. The
library's copy is from the second edition published in 1691.

The cartouche in the upper right comer of the map depicts the expulsion
of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden. The map is dedicated to the
Duke of Buckingham, Chancellor of Cambridge. In the upper left comer
is a colored copy of the Duke's Coat of Arms with the dedication signed
by Joseph Moxon.

Moxon (1627-1691) was a London cartographer, engraver, publisher and
seller of maps and globes, and maker of navigational instruments. For a
while he was a hydrographer to the king. Moxon was instrumental in
breaking the stranglehold the Dutch had on making nautical charts. He
translated them into English and had them printed in London.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 72]

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Hogenberg, Frans. Hierosolyma urbs sancta. ludeae, totius que
Orientis long clarissima, qua amplitudine ac magniicentia hoc nostro
aevo conspicua est. [Koln, 1575]

Copperplate 32.7 x 41.3 cm.

Jerusalem "in her present time, size and greatness." Bird's-eye-view of
modem Jerusalem. The city is represented as it would be seen from the
eastern heights of the Mount of Olives. From the oblique angle an incredi-
ble amount of detail can be seen as the viewer looks down into the circular
walled city. But, as with all such views, the map is not drawn to scale.

There is an index of 48 numbered locations. At the bottom of the map, in
the foreground, are five persons dressed in local costumes, which are
drawn larger than other comparable features.

Trans. of Latin, from the Prophet Exekiel: "This is Jerusalem! I have set
it in the midst of the nations and countries that are round about her."

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 25]

--u r-a-


Ortelius, Abraham. Peregrinationis Divi Pavli Typus
Chorographicus. [Antwerp: Christopher Plantin, 1579]

Copperplate 34.8 x 49.8 cm.

Shows the entire Eastern Mediterranean from Italy as far as Mesopotamia
as traveled through by St. Paul. On both sides of the title cartouche are
medallions depicting scenes from the life of St. Paul.

Ortelius (1527-1598) was the creator of the first modem atlas, Theatrum
Orbis Terrarum (Theater of the World). The Theatrum is considered the
first publication of a systematic collection of maps of the known world,
which meets the modem definition of an atlas. Ortelius gathered the most
accurate maps from other cartographers and carefully re-engraved their
maps to match his own. Also, he was the first to acknowledge publicly his
sources in the appendix. The maps were based on contemporary knowl-
edge rather than theories or imagination. The contributions of Ortelius are
such that he is considered one of the most influential persons in the
history of modem geography and cartography.

Ortelius, Abraham. Terra Sancta a Petro Laicstain perlustrata, et ab
eius ore et schedis a Christiano Schrot in tabulam redacta. [Antwerp:
Christopher Plantin, 1584]

Copperplate 36.5 x 50 cm.

The Holy Land described by Petrus Laicstain and designed by Christian
Schrot. Oriented to the east. Shows the shoreline from Beirut to Gaza.
Many fanciful bays and promontories distort the shoreline. The wide
meanderings of the River Jordan do not correspond to reality. Biblical
vignettes surround the title cartouche. Left hand bottom, Jonah is being
thrown from the ship to the whale. This map illustrated how the Holy
Land would appear for one approaching by ship, which was the normal
mode of travel by pilgrims. The entire map is enclosed in a border with a
simple design that was made to resemble a picture frame.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 13]

period in the production of Holy Land maps in that readers began to
request more modem maps over historical ones.

Jan Jansson's (1588-1664) name appears on the map, and he published it
in Amsterdam. It is either a copy or a reprint of a map by Henricus
Hondius drawn after Andrichom. The powerful family publishing firm of
maps and atlases, Hondius-Jansson, began after Jansson married the
daughter of Jodocus Hondius. His brother-in-law, Henricus Hondius, son
of Jodocus, worked n a number of Mercator's plates and was the owner of
them after Mercator's death.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 18]

12-volume work with over 600 maps. It was among the most important
geographical publications of the century.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 16]

F--. R ..D! T VC

Janssonius, Jan. Palestina, siue Terrae sanctae description.
[Amsterdam: Jansson, 1630]

Copperplate 43.6 x 56.7 cm.

Palestine or the Holy Land. Oriented to the east, divided into the Tribes
on both sides of the Jordan River, the shoreline from Sidon to Alexandria.
Along the top and the bottom 18 vignettes showing the Exodus. Bottom
left of the map itself, a miniature inset view of Jerusalem. The cartouche
has the decorative strap work and allegorical figure of a winged woman
as part of the right edge. The entire map with surrounding vignettes is
within a picture frame-type border. The map represents a transitional

Ortelius, Abraham. Abrahami Patriarchae peregrinatio et vita.
[Antwerp: Ortelius, 1586]

Copperplate 35 x 45 cm.

The wanderings and life of Abraham, the Patriarch. Shows Palestine and
part of Egypt, from Dan to the Nile Delta. 22 medallions (vignettes)
depicting Abraham's life, from his departure from Ur until his death,
surround the map. A small inset shows a map of the Middle East from the
Mediterranean to the Euphrates River.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 11]

Adrichom, Christian van. Situs Terrae Promissionis SS Bibliorum
intelligentiam exacte aperiens: per Christianum Adrichomium
Delphum. [Cologne: Officina Birckmannica, 1590]

Copperplate 35.4 x 101 cm.

Oriented to the east, this map shows the whole of Palestine divided into
the 12 Tribes on both sides of the Jordan River, the shoreline running
from Sidon to Alexandria. The River Cison (Kishon of today) is shown as
connecting the Lake of Tiberias with the Mediterranean Sea. There are
many nonexistent rivers, e.g., a river connecting Jerusalem with the Dead
Sea. In the Dead Sea, four burning cities are shown: Sodoma, Gomorra,
Seboim, and Adama. Published after Adrichom's death by Gerardus
Brunius. The atlas (Theatrum Terrae Sanctae) is considered the first sci-
entific book on historical geography of the Holy Land.

Adrichom (1533-1585) was a Dutch priest whose scholarly research of
the Bible and writings of pilgrims and Josephus made him the acknowl-
edged expert on Holy Land geography. Josephus was a Jewish historian
who was employed by the Romans to write about the history of Roman
Palestine during the Jewish revolt of 60-70 AD. Many of his works con-
tain accurate geographic details based on his firsthand observations.
Adrichom was assigned to Cologne during the time it was a thriving cen-
ter for cartography and atlas publishing.

Mercator, Gerhard. Paradisus. [Amsterdam: Hondius, 1607]

Copperplate 15 x 19 cm.

This map of the entire Middle East locates the site of Paradise near
Babylon between four rivers. At center bottom is a vignette of Adam and
Eve under the fruit tree. In 1604, the copperplates for Mercator's Atlas
were sold to Hondius. The atlas was so popular that Hondius produced it
in a smaller and cheaper format called Atlas Minor, of which he and his
successors published 25 editions between 1607 and 1738.

Gerhard Mercator (1512-1594) is one of the best-known cartographers in
history. He was Flemish but moved to Germany after being accused of
heresy. With his experience as a land surveyor and maker of astronomi-
cal and mathematical instruments, he developed a projection that is still
widely used for navigational charts. The first part of his celebrated Atlas
was published in 1585.

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 10]

Adrichom, Christian van. Tribus Zabulon, Isachar, et, Dimidia
Manasse altera, hoc est, illae Terrae Sanctae regions, quas iste tribus
in distribuendopossidendas acceperunt. [Cologne: Birchmann, 1593]

Copperplate 37 x 40 cm.

Oriented to the east, this map is the fourth of ten Tribal maps drawn by
Adrichom for publication in his Theatrum Terrae Sanctae (The Theater of
the Holy Land).

From the Holy Land Map Collection donated by Dr. James and Adina
Simmons in memory of their parents. [Cartobibliography # 27]

Blaeu, Willem Janszoon. Terra Sancta quae in Sacris Terra
Promissionis olim Palestina. [Amsterdam: Hondius, 1640]

Copperplate 38 x 50 cm.

"The Holy Land, Promised Land or Palestine." Relief shown pictorially.
This map originally appears in the first edition of the Atlas of Willem
Janszoon Blaeu in 1630, although the Library's copy has the date 1629.
This map is from the French edition.

The Holy Land and Sinai are depicted with adjacent parts of Syria and
Egypt. The coastline extends from the Nile Delta to Tripoli (Lebanon).
The map has an unusual western orientation that lays out the Holy Land
as it would have been seen by Moses from Mt. Pisgah at the end of his
life, and places the Mediterranean coast at the top. The path of the
Exodus through the desert is shown and there are numerous drawings
on the map of events that occurred along the way (e.g., the Pharaoh's
forces are shown drowning in the Red Sea). Other features of the map
include several distortions of bodies of water and a depiction of all four
cities destroyed for their wickedness (with Sodom and Gomorra shown
in flames).

Willem Blaeu (1571-1638) founded one of the most successful carto-
graphic institutes and publishing houses of the seventeenth-century
Netherlands. He and his sons published atlases, globes and maps for over
four decades. His Atlas, published for over 34 years, culminated in a

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