Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Summary and conclusions
 Background information
 Suggestions to improve UCA's committment...
 Appendix A: Time table and...
 Appendix B: Department of rural...

Title: Impact on small holders and women
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00083290/00001
 Material Information
Title: Impact on small holders and women
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Spring, Anita
Publisher: Spring, Anita
Publication Date: 1980
Subject: Africa   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Africa -- Cameroon
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Bibliographic ID: UF00083290
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Background information
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Suggestions to improve UCA's committment to small holders and women
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Appendix A: Time table and costs
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Appendix B: Department of rural education
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
Full Text


University Center for Agriculture, Dschang

Impact on Small Holders and Women

Anita Spring, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

University of Florida

June 1980

Prepared for USAID Contract No. AID/AFR-C-1636, Yaoundd, Cameroon


University Center for Agriculture, Dschang

Impact on Small Holders and Women

Anita Spring, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

University of Florida

June 1980

Prepared for USAID Contract No. AID/AFR-C-1636, Yaounde, Cameroon


INTRODUCTION .. .. .. .. ... .. . . .. .. 1

I. Summary and Conclusions . . . .... .. 3

A. Social feasibility . . . . ... .. 3

1. Small holder characteristics and the context of development 3

2. Donor and recipient interests: the interrelations of
University Center for Agriculture (UCA) and small
holders and women .... . . ..... 5

3. UCA and the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) . . 7

4. The role of women . . . .. . 8

B. Suggestion to improve UCA's commitment to small holders and
women . . . . . . ... 8

II. Background Information . . . . . 11

A. Background on the small holder and women . . .. 11

1. Government policy . . . .... 11

2. Definition and characteristics of the small holder . 12

3. Regional variations and constraints on innovation . 14

4. Small holder interests in innovations . . . 23

B. Interrelation of UCA programs and the small holder and women 24

1. General curriculum . . ... . 24

2. Role of women . . . .. . .. 26

3. Department of Rural Education . . . . 29

a. Division of Rural Sociology and Extension . 29

1) teaching and research ... . . . 29

2) Yemessoa and Mbankomo intervention zones . 30

b. Division of Rural Pedagogy . . . . 32

1) relation to MOA training schools . . 32

2) media activities . . . . 33

4. UCA farms (Bansoa, Djouttitsa, UCA farms) . . 34

C. Ministry of Agriculture . . . . . 35

1. Use of UCA graduates . . . . 35

2. MOA extension and community development services . .. 41

III. Suggestions to Improve UCA's Commitment to Small Holders and Women 44

A. General University . . . . . 44

1. Creation of the position of Director for Extension
and Research and farming systems approach seminar . .. 44

2. Recruitment of women students and faculty . . 44

B. Department of Rural Education . . . . 45

1. Training of staff . . . . 45

2. Curricula suggestions .. . . . 46

3. UCA intervention zone . . . . 47

4. Training MOA extension post and community
development assistants . . . . 49

5. Radio tapes . . . . . 50

6. Media Center . .. . . . .. 51

C. Other university components 51

1. Departments of Agriculture, Animal Science and Rural
Engineering . . . . . .. 51

2. UCA farms (Bansoa, Djouttitsa, UCA farms) . 52

D. Ministry of Agriculture and Parastatals . . ... 3

1. MOA . . . . . . . 53

2. Parastatals .. . . . . . .

E. Monitoring and evaluation . . . . . 54

Appendix A Time Table and Costs .

UCA Program and Evaluation Funding .

Department of Rural Education .. ..

Appendix B Department of Rural Education

Courses of Instruction . .

Persons Interviewed ...........

Bibliography . . .







* .




This technical paper provides a general social soundness analysis, and
concrete recommendations about programs and departmental structures at the
University Center for Agriculture, Dschang (UCA). The report examines
1) the needs and constraints underlying UCA's programs in teaching, research
and extension and 2) the articulation of UCA with the Ministry of Agriculture
(MOA) in terms of curriculum, placement of graduates and training of exten-
sion personnel. At present, UCA is primarily a teaching institution, but to
fulfill its potential as an agricultural university at the national level,
research and extension components must be incorporated and rewarded. The
goal is to develop a holistic approach to agricultural education in order to
create a university where theory and practice are integrated, and local and
international level agricultural problems are studied. Graduates will be
able to fill positions in Cameroon's ministries, research institutes, colleges
and universities. They will have to be knowledgeable about Cameroonian and
international agriculture.

USAID projects aim to help the small farmer, rural poor and women. AID
has requested that this social soundness analysis consider how assistance to
higher education in Cameroon can impact on these target groups. The Cameroon
small farmer is the backbone of the country's agricultural production. This
paper examines the characteristics of small holders and briefly discusses
farming approaches, division of labor and receptivity to innovation accord-
ing to region. Cameroon often is described as Africa in miniature because of
its ecological and cultural diversity and historical background. The aim in
this paper is to provide data to make UCA personnel cognizant of regional and
ethnic differences as they affect agricultural production. UCA graduates will
be placed throughout the country and their training must prepare them for re-
gional customs and constraints.

The report also studies the topic of women in agriculture both at the
University level and in terms of the farmer. As we move into an era when
governments are interested in realizing the potential of-both men and women
in order to have full economic development in their countries, we must con-
sider constraints on any segment of the population. In Cameroon, almost half
of the total number of small farmers are women and they perform more than half
of the labor on family farms. A focus on these farmers is germane to a con-
sideration of the problems of small scale production and feeding the nation.
The report also studies women in the UCA and MOA in terms of their participa-
tion and potential for impacting on women in the development process in

In considering the goals of USAID's project to assist higher education
in Cameroon, it is crucial to ask about the end results desired by the donor
and recipient. The main goal of USAID is to increase the agricultural pro-
ductivity and income of small farm families in Cameroon. It proposes to



accomplish this by increasing the number of appropriately trained agricultural
scientists who will be employed in the agricultural sector to provide services
to small farmers and women. The goal of UCA is to obtain technical assistance
in programs, graduate training and campus facilities. These goals are
different, yet there is convergence that is both explicit and implicit. Well
trained agricultural scientists should be able to deal with their country's
agricultural needs. For their positions in the MOA and parastatals, they
must have the skills to administer extension programs, supervise personnel,
retrain agricultural officials and set policies to improve services to farmers.
However, many of the UCA professors have studied abroad and received training
more oriented to the large scale agriculture of the developed world than to
small holder agriculture. At present, the curriculum at UCA reflects this
orientation and students know more about agricultural theories and techniques
in developed than in developing countries. Furthermore, the training tends
to be more theoretical than practical so that graduates require about a year
of on-the-job training once they take up their positions in the Ministry of
Agriculture and research institutes. We suggest that the move of the National
School of Agronomy (ENSA) to Dschang and the restructuring of UCA provide the
opportunity to remedy the program's focus, teaching strategies, and research
and extension components.

A major aspect of this paper is the Department of Rural Education and
its teaching and extension programs. The Department has two Divisions with
different but converging missions. The Division of Rural Sociology and Ex-
tension provides theoretical and practical experiences concerning cultural
conditions and communication techniques concerned with small holder agricul-
ture. The sociology courses consider peasants and could expand to include
Cameroon's small holders' problems. The extension education course at ENSA
allows interaction with farmers through interventions. Extension education
should continue on the Dschang campus and be expanded to include students in
all programs at UCA (i.e., the Institute of Agricultural Techniques' (ITA)
two levels and ENSA). The Division of Rural Pedagogy has linkages
to the MOA through its mission to prepare curriculum for MOA's agricultural
colleges and training schools. Presently this activity is constrained by
the lack of staff, but the potential for incorporating a focus on the small
holder in agricultural education is great. We therefore make suggestions
for the Department's programs, training and equipment needs to facilitate
the above goals.

To conclude, it is fair to say that there is a great willingness for
USAID and UCA to mesh their needs and desires. Hopefully, the recommenda-
tions here will facilitate these ends and align the commitment of these
two institutions towards agricultural excellence.


A. Social Feasibility

1. Small Holder Characteristics and the Context of Development

a. The Government of the United Republic of Cameroon (GURC) is
extremely interested in agricultural activity and agricultural producers in
the country. Small holders are the agricultural backbone of Cameroon; one
million farm families cultivate 1.5 million hectares of food and cash crops,
which includes 70% of the export production. The President's 1980 Policy
Report gives priority to the rural areas and the farmer so as to increase
production for home consumption and export.

Eighty-seven percent of rural and 42% of urban families are
farmers. The Cameroonian small-scale holder relies on his and his family's
labor and uses minimal capital inputs on a small-sized, rain fed farm. The
average farm size is 1.6 hectares; cash crop parcels average 61 ares1; mixed
crop parcels 42.5 and food crop parcels 33 ares. The small holder uses tra-
ditional and improved agricultural methods. Fertilizers and pesticides are
used primarily for the cash crops of coffee, cocoa and cotton,

b. There are a large number of ethnic groups in Cameroon and the
cultural and ecological diversity is great. However, it is possible to group
the various peoples into three groups which correspond roughly to the three
major ecological zones: 1) the Western Highlands grasslands zone, 2) the
Northern savannah-sahelian zone and 3) the Central and Eastern forest zone.
Cultural factors affect land holdings and tenure, division of labor and re-
ceptivity to agricultural innovations. Both men and women farm, often doing
different tasks and cultivating different crops. Men are primarily involved
in export crops; women in food crops. Men are responsible for the heavy work
of clearing the land; women for the continual work of planting, weeding, har-
vesting and processing. The family forms the production unit which is involved
in consumption and distribution. Women are involved in the marketing of their
surplus food stuffs; men in the organization and running of cash crop cooper-

c. The Bamileke people live in the Western Highlands, which is
the area where the UCA is located. They are a centralized group with numerous
chiefdoms headed by a Fon (chief) who apportions land to lineage and family
heads for use by themselves and their wives. Land is very scarce in this
region and the holdings small (1.2 hectares). Women are responsible for
almost all food production, with yams, maize, cassava, beans, groundnuts
and vegetables being the main crops. .Men grow plantains, tea, tobacco and
rice, but coffee is the main cash crop.

10ne hectare contains one hundred ares.

The Bamileke are known as resourceful, energetic cultivators,
and their rich area as the heartland of agricultural production. They are
likely to be a good target zone for innovations because of land fertility on
the one hand and a social system that allows for adaptation on the other, but
great care needs to be given to the target group. Most extension work in the
area has focused on cash crops and extension workers have been men. Women,
who are overwhelmingly important in food crop production, tend not to receive
the information given by the extension workers to their husbands. But they
form a group of farmers who are interested in technical information concern-
ing plant protection, use of fertilizers and improved seeds. Younger men
will be interested in different innovations than older men as they lack the
large coffee holdings because of land scarcity and tenure rules.

The University Center for Agriculture's program should include
extension work with local farmers directly, and the training of local Ministry
of Agriculture (MOA) extension and community development personnel. It is
well to bear in mind that since the Bamileke are innovators and their soils
are fertile, what may work well in this area may not necessarily be transfer-
able to other areas without modifications for cultural and ecological differ-

d. In the North there are Fulani and non-Fulani people. Their
farming practices differ. The Fulani are agriculturalists and cattle keepers,
organized into twenty-one lamidats units, each headed by a chief (Lamido).
Fulani men prefer to hire laborers if they are able. Women have "kitchen
gardens" but prefer trading and food processing to cultivating. Among non-
Fulani peoples, both men and women cultivate millet, maize, rice and ground-
nuts. Cassava and yams are grown occasionally. Men are involved in cotton
production for export. All agricultural endeavors are constrained by the
short rainy season which places heavy demands on agricultural labor and all
family members must work at these times. Agricultural innovators must take
the separation of the sexes into account, and male and female extension per-
sonnel who speak the local language would be the best diffusion agents. Any
innovations suggested for the area must consider that people here are closer
to subsistence, and agricultural risk-taking must be minimized. Thus far,
extension efforts have favored cash crops, but people are very concerned
about food for their families.

e. In the Southern forest zones, people live in small lineage
units without centralized chieftancies. Farming land is allocated by heads
of lineages to families, and women are dependent on husbands and fathers for
land to grow food crops. Men are responsible for the heavy clearing of for-
est lands. They cultivate cash crops such as cocoa and tend palm trees.
Women are responsible for the cultivation of most food crops (cassava, coco-
yams, plantains, maize and vegetables) and their sales of food crop surpluses
have increased dramatically in regions near urban areas such as Yaounde. A
good potential exists for positive response to innovation both for women and
young men. Women desire technical information on improved methods, as well
as inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers. Their interests in innovations
were demonstrated in the Yemessoa and Mbankomo intervention zones organized
by ENSA faculty for student training.


2. Donor and Recipient Interests: The Interrelations of UCA
and Small Holders and Women

Small holders are articulate about their needs and interests.
They want technical information on pest management, optimal plant types,
spacing for mixed cultivation and maintenance of soil fertility. They would
welcome information and inputs from a variety of sources such as UCA person-
nel, radio broadcasts and Ministry of Agriculture extension workers. The
needs of women farmers are the same as the men who farm, except that their
access to inputs, credit and information is reduced.

One reason why women have had less access is because local MOA
extension workers are all male and tend to work with the men. There are fe-
male community development (CD) assistants, but they tend to teach domestic
and sewing skills commensurate with their .training. It would seem that ex-
tension and community development workers would be an ideal combination for
reaching small holders as they are already located in the rural towns and
villages. Some are of the same ethnicity or speak the local language; others
are from different areas and may or may not have good rapport with their cli-
entele. The female CD assistants seem an appropriate group for agricultural
training as they are already located in the area and family constraints
(husband's location and child care) are already being solved.

The University Center for Agriculture can have an impact on small
holders and women, but it is important to realize that the small farmer (rural
poor) form one client and.the faculty and students at UCA form another. There
are direct and indirect ways that an institution of higher learning can affect
the rural poor. UCA's aim is to train Cameroonians to the Ph.D. level in order
to increase its faculty and to acquire facilities for its campus. UCA's inter-
est in small farmers and women is tangential to AID's.interests, except for
the fact that the University must function to produce good agricultural scien-
tists, the majority of whom will work in ministries and parastatals concerned
with small holder needs and food/cash crop production. Many faculty members
and students recognize the need for theories and practicums that are more
appropriate to the country's needs. The move to Dschang and restructuring of
the University Center would provide an ideal time and context for curricular
and outreach emphasis on small holder needs.

a. Each department needs to be evaluated individually in terms
of its practical commitment to small scale agriculture. However, students
at all levels are required to do some practical work concerning farming and
agricultural management. Students at UCA do three to four weeks of practical
farm work in the first year, the same amount with parastatals and private
societies in the second and they live in a village for the time period in the
third year. ENSA students go back to parastatals in the fourth year with a
specific problem and in their final year they carry out a small research proj-
ect (two to four months) concerned with a development problem. Students are
placed all over the country and many have experiences inseveral provinces and
levels of development. Although the experiences are very brief, this structure
is crucial for the students' education; it would be possible to emphasize small
holder problems as topics for consideration at this time.

-b. The Department of Rural Education links rural sociology and
extension activities. The faculty in this department are interested in small
holder attitudes, problems and motivation. They presently offer "Rural Sociol-
ogy" in the third year for 35 hours at ENSA, 20 hours at Upper ITA, and 40
hours at Lower ITA. Upper ITA students take 20 hours of "Applied Sociology."
Some of the topics covered in this course deal with the small holder. For
ENSA students taking the option in Economics and Extension, there are a great
variety of courses offered.in the fifth year on an occasional basis. Adequate
faculty would mean that courses such as "Peasant Organization," which deals
directly with small scale agriculture, could be given on a regular schedule.
The "Extension Education" course presently includes outreach activities in
which the students learn to interview farmers and obtain information about
agricultural practices. With an increase in staff, they could offer courses
on "Extension Administration" and "Women and Youth Extension Programs."

c. Between 1970-78, the Department set up an intervention zone
at Yemessoa to work with small holders in order to provide 1) a practical
rural experience for their students, 2) an experimental research area for re-
search and 3) technical aid to the small holders. The results of the project
have been variable with very good success in the early years when there was
funding for inputs, and declining success after 1975 when there were no funds
for inputs. The project at Yemessoa ended in 1978. Since then,students have
been interviewing farmers at Mbankomo, which is approximately seventy kilome-
ters (km) from Nkolbisson, where ENSA is located. No major intervention proj-
ect has been implemented though.

It appears that in the later years of the project, ENSA faculty
came to the conclusion that a university intervention zone could not work be-
cause "the university was not a development agency" and could not therefore
supply inputs. One criterion for selecting the site was that no parastatals,
which provide inputs, be operative in the area. As a result of the Yemessoa
experience, the faculty suggested that an intervention program involve a de-
velopment agency for inputs as well as relieving the students and faculty from
taking the whole responsibility for funding and diffusion of innovations.

The Cornell Report (1979:64) cautions against setting up exten-
sion and practical training programs in the Dschang area because of the Western
Highlands Development Project which will be starting in the area next year.
The rationale for this position is that 1) farmers will not have a choice as
to whether or not to participate, 2) it is a "top-down" type of extension pro-
gram and 3) large farmers, especially coffee growers, are likely to benefit
the most. The report concludes that UCA would not be able to operate its prac-
tical training and extension programs effectively as a result. The present
report does not support the Cornell position and suggests that an extension/
intervention program be set up at Dschang. First, the criterion of having no
other agency in the area must be removed since it presupposes a "pure," con-
trolled situationwhich does not exist anywhere in Cameroon. Second, students
and faculty have to consider the operation and impact of development projects
and.parastatals agencies. Since a large number of UCA graduates will work for
these agencies, it would be wise to consider the constraints posed by the

agencies' programs on the farmers' acceptance of innovation. Furthermore,
students need to consider the problems of using existing structures which
have dealt with large, commercial farms, to deal with small holder needs.
It is highly recommended that the criteria for site selection be modified
and that an intervention zone be set up by the Department of Rural Education
in the Dschang area.

It also will be important to coordinate efforts of the agri-
culture and livestock departments in solving local problems in the zone.
The lack of technical inputs and a coordinated multidisciplinary approach
was partly responsible for difficulties encountered at Yemessoa. With the
larger staff, all of whom will be located at Dschang, and with the creation
of a Director for Research and Extension, it should be possible to coordinate
a multidisciplinary effort to solve local problems.

3. UCA and Ministry of Agriculture (MOA)

a. UCA graduates work for the MOA throughout the country as
Advisors, Inspectors, Directors, Bureau Chiefs and Provisional and Divis-
ional Delegates. The Cornell Report notes that there is now a more specific
demand for specialized positions within the MOA as previous graduates have
filled most of the upper level administrative posts. Future UCA graduates
will be implementing projects closer to the local level than their predeces-

b. The Division of Rural Pedagogy within the Department of Rural
Education was created in 1970 to prepare curriculum for MOA technical schools.
It was housed at ENSA because ENSA was the only institution concerned with
national agricultural education. Between 1970-1975, the Division prepared
curricula and teaching materials for MOA schools, as well as offering media
services to ENSA faculty. However, with the cessation of funds from the
Bureau pour le Developpement de la Production Agricole (BDPA), and the appoint-
ment of its faculty to the MOA, the Division functions are now reduced. Cur-
rently, only one course on note taking/report writing and the use of audio-
visuals is being offered by a part-time instructor. The other faculty in the
Division of Rural Sociology and Extension have taken over the supervisory
aspects of the printing and media operations. This is viewed as detracting
from their teaching, research and extension functions and hence, a centralized
media and printing center is suggested.

However, the structural links to MOA and its agricultural
training schools and colleges are formulated already and these should not be
allowed to wane or dissolve. Rather, Cameroonians should be trained in agri-
cultural education so they can work in the Division on curriculum design for
agricultural training colleges, extension programs and farmers' training
centers. The Rural Sociology, Extension and Pedagogy components would provide
an ideal unit to update agricultural curriculum and prepare in-service train-
ing f;r MOA extension workers. It is proposed that the Department of Rural
Education, in conjunction with the Director of Research and Extension, set up
a model program in the Dschang area to give short courses to extension and
community development workers.


4. Role of Women

The small number of women at UCA is a reflection of the small
number of girls in higher education in Cameroon. Girls comprise 44% of pri-
mary school students but only 20% of students in higher education. The current
number and percentage of women students at ENSA, Upper ITA and Lower ITA are
seventeen (7.0%), sixteen (5.9%) and twenty-two (7.7%), respectively. Women
students comprise 15% of those taking the UCA entrance examinations. It would
be useful to examine why the percentage of those taking and passing the examin-
ation differs.

Most women students were hoping to go to medical school, but de-
cided to take the examination for the agricultural schools as well. The
students said that women do not consider agricultural careers because they
know very little about them and believe a job in agriculture requires the
operation of heavy machinery and being subjected to rough, bush conditions.
When they get to UCA, their opinions change of what agricultural scientists
do. Once in UCA, women students perform extremely well; their drop out rate
is low and they tend to experience little preferential or discriminatory

ENSA women students tend to chose options in Economics and Exten-
sion and Plant Production. No women have yet chosen Animal Science or Forestry,
although a second year student may chose the former; generally these are per-
ceived as men's fields. Women students are rarely selected for graduate train-
ing; there is one ENSA woman faculty member and she is being trained in the
United States. Five percent of ENSA graduates are female and most are assigned
to MOA extension administrative posts in urban areas after graduation.

B. Suggestions to Improve UCA's Commitment to Small Holders and Women

1. The position of Director for Research and Extension should be
created to 1) help coordinate the model extension program for agricultural
extension programs for agricultural extension workers and community develop-
ment assistants and 2) focus research and extension interests on small holder

2. A four to six week "Seminar in Farming Systems and Small Scale
Agriculture" should be held for UCA faculty. The Seminar will be led by
the contracting university professors.

3. A program should be implemented in which UCA faculty and students
visit secondary schools to acquaint potential students (especially women stu-
dents) with UCA programs and requirements. A special information campaign
should be prepared to inform girls about careers in agriculture.

4. Department of Rural Education

a. Eleven faculty are necessaryto provide the requisite staff
to carry out teaching, extension and MOA outreach activities. Six should be

trained to the Ph.D. level, four to the Masters1. It is suggested that two
or three of those trained be women.

b. The courses in "Rural Sociology" and "Extension Education"
should be increased by five to ten hours each in order to incorporate new mate-
rials on small holder farming systems. The ITA course on extension should
include a practical component.

c. The Department should operate an "intervention zone" where
students can work with local farmers. Research can be carried out, and a
multidisciplinary effort coordinated. UCA activities in the zone should
articulate with parastatal and MOA services in the area through the Director
for Research'and Extension so as to assure technical input. Until ENSA moves
to Dschang, it is suggested they keep the Mbankomo site, but there should be
an effort to locate a zone in Dschang so ITA students can gain experience
working with local farmers.

d. The Department should prepare short courses for MOA extension
and community development assistants. The effort would be coordinated through
the Director for Research and Extension to assure technical input from the
other departments at UCA.

e. The Department should coordinate and produce radio tapes on
problems such as pest management, use of fertilizers, crop associations, soil
fertility, etc. The tapes would be recorded in various languages using both
male and female narrators.

f. The media and printing duties of the Department should be re-
moved to a central location in order to facilitate wider usage and the Depart-
ment's concentration on teaching, research and extension.

g. The Division of Rural Pedagogy should re-activate its mandate
to prepare curriculum and teaching materials for Ministry of Agriculture tech-
nical training colleges. Information on small holder agriculture should be
added to the curriculum.

5. UCA Farms at Bansoa, Djouttitsa and on the campus should have
sections where the problems and commercial viability of small holder agricul-
ture and animal production are considered. At Bansoa there should be a section
for traditional farming techniques and crops which could be cultivated by stu-
dents and farm workers. At Djouttitsa, animal production problems of the small
owner needs to be considered. At the UCA campus farm,it is recommended that
subsistence food crops, as well as export crops, be used in research experiments
and practical exercises. Poultry and swine production should be considered in
terms of family and commercial production at the village level.

]One will complete his Ph.D. training independent of this project.


6. .,The extent of the above suggestions in terms of the curriculum
changes, training of extension personnel, research interests on small holders
and women and activities of the intervention zone should be monitored and
evaluated at two year intervals by a team from USAID, UCA, HOA and the con-
tracting university.



A. Background on the Small Holder and Women

1. Government Policy

In 1974, the President said that "the agricultural sector is
clearly the number one economic sector in the country .. the one whose
contribution to gross domestic production is the greatest" (Ahidjo 1974:8).
He noted that although agricultural production had increased and the export
sector had undergone great expansion, "the same cannot be said of food crops
which have not shown the same rate of growth" (Ahidjo 1974:7). The farmer
should be encouraged to adopt more farming techniques, use improved varieties,
extend his/her cultivated lands and use agricultural credit. He argued that
no effort should be spared to bring subsistence farms into the modern produc-
tion sector.

The current Policy Report (Ahidjo 1980) notes that the Fourth
National Development Plan gives priority to the rural areas so as to increase
the standard of living in the rural areas and agricultural rural production
for home consumption and export. The President's speech exalts the peasant
farmer and the peasant family where "members are all attached to production"
and proposes to revitalize the rural village areas. To this end he suggests
"the development of community activities within cooperatives," fair agricul-
tural prices, better living conditions in the rural areas, facilities to enable
young people to settle and own property, better transportation networks con-
cerned with produce distribution, diversification of agricultural products
and greater importance be attached to food production.

In particular the report argues that because of soil impoverishment,
pests and plant diseases, the yields In some parts of the country are diminish-
ing. The size of the average farm is decreasing, and in the West farms now
average 1.2 hectares. The President cautions that if the fertility rate of
Cameroon remains unchanged, there will only be about 1.0 hectare of arable
land per person by year 2000, and 0.4 hectare by 2005.

To increase agricultural productivity, the country should pursue
a policy of setting up industrial plantations especially for export crops,
"however small family holdings will not be sacrificed" (Ahidjo 1980:21). The
report states that government is interested in helping farmers with prices,
pest management, credit and new techniques and last year gave small farmers
bonuses for replacing their low yielding cocoa and coffee plants. Considering
the President's speeches, the rural peasant farmer is very much a target of
government concern.

The President also urges greater participation of women in the
economic, social and political life of the country (Ahidjo 1980:8). Along
these lines, the Women's Wing of the Cameroon National Union recently completed
the first phase of a national program to train rural women organizers to work
with village leaders to improve living conditions. USAID's Interests and the


policy of GURC are in agreement vis-a-vis the need to focus on the small
farmer and women.

2. Definition and Characteristics of the Small Holder

the small-scale farmer is an agricultural producer
who is self-employed and uses his and his family's labour.
Generally he is non-mechanized or hardly mechanized in his
operations. Being mainly subsistence oriented, he uses
minimal capital inputs on a small-sized farm (1.5
hectares in Cameroon .. .). The majority depend on rain-
fall while others may have the advantage of irrigation
facilities." (Report of group C 1978:1-2.)

In Cameroon, small farmers produce both food and cash crops.
Approximately one million farm families cultivate 1.5 million hectares.
Crop exports are about 70% of total exports, and most of these crops ar;
cultivated by small farmers. However, two-thirds of all hectares culti-
vated are food crops (Cornell Report 1979:2).

The small holders may be found in the urban areas as well as
the rural. Table 1 gives the numbers and percentages of rural and urban
farmers by sex.


Rural-Urban Men and Women Engaged in Agriculture1

Rural Urban Total

Number (000) 971 871 102 91 1073 962

Percentage 53 47 53 47 53 47

The 1972-73 agricultural census (UNDP/FAO 1977) notes that 87%
of rural and 42% of urban families are agricultural. There are 5.4 individ-
uals per agricultural family, with 2.7 adults providing the major labor input.
Agricultural family size varies from 4.5 in the North to 6.8 in the West, and
5.4 in rural to 6.3 in urban areas. The census relates the characteristics
of the farmer in relation to the "chef d'exploitation" or head of household
who cultivates. Men compose 92.3% of "chefs d'exploitation." Women compose
8.7% for the whole country, but the figure increases to 16% in Littoral and
14% in the West and Southwest Provinces. The majority of males who are

1Adapted from Table 1 Bryson (1979:46) which is based on the 1976 population


"chefs d'exploitation" are married monogamously (61%); 25% have more than one
wife and 14% are not married (single, separated or widowed). Three quarters
of the females who are "chefs d'exploltation" are widows; the others are
single or separated. A small number are married, but their husbands have
been away a long time. The average age for men heads of households is forty-
four and for women it is forty-seven years.

The typical production unit is the family unit. The population
doing active agricultural work is 57% female, of whom 73% are the wives of
the male "chefs d'exploitation," 8% are their daughters, 12% are other female
adults and 7% are women who are themselves "chefs d'exploitation" (UNDP/FAO
1977:63). The average farm size is 1.6 hectares for all of Cameroon but
reaches two hectares in South Central and is only 1.25 in the West and North-
west. On the average, men cultivate 167 ares and women eighty-six ares.
Farms are divided into fields and these into parcels. The categories and
divisions reflect ecological variations, division of labor by type of crop
grown and inheritance patterns. The average field is fifty ares and the
average number of parcels differ. For the country as a whole, the average
cash crop parcel cultivated is sixty-one ares, while the average mixed cul-
tivation is forty-two and a half and food crops thirty-three ares. In the
North it is sixty-five, forty-two and twenty-two ares, respectively. The
land is primarily cultivated by hoe (97%); tractors are used on 3% of the

Table 2 gives the number of farms and the area cultivated. Farms
having less than 1.5 hectares (3.7 acres) comprise 61% of the total, and 81%
are under 2.5 hectares (5.2 acres); these farmers cultivate only 52% of the
land. The average small holder can be defined as a man and one or two wives
who do not hire laborers and cultivate, less than,2.5, or even 1.5, hectares.
Other small holders may hire laborers or have more wives or both in order to
cultivate three hectares or more by hand cultivation. Small holders are not
a single entity, but there is a distribution of farmers in terms of size of
their holdings.

Commercial agricultural production utilizes fertilizers, but only
10% of food stuff production does so. In mixed cash cropping of cocoa and
coffee robusta, 22% receive fertilizers but the proportion decreases to 5% in
the East, 6% in the South Central, 15% in the Southwest, but reaches 45% in
the Littoral, 40% in the Northwest and 80% in the West Province. Pesticides
are used on 25% of cash crop production and 4% of food stuffs production. In
mixed cash cropping, 65% of cocoa and coffee robusta are protected (55% in the
East and 80% in the South Central) whereas 61% of coffee arabica are protected
in the West Province. For mixed cropping, 37% of the total plants of Cameroon
are protected (UNDP/FAO 1977:70-1).



Number of Farms and Area Cultivated1

Number of Farms

(00o) %

Area Cultivated
ha (100) %

less than .5 hectares 185

.5 to 1.0 hectares 210

1.0 to 1.5 hectares 168

1.5 to 2.0 hectares 114

2.0 to 2.5 hectares 74

2.5 to 3.0 hectares 51

3.0 to 4.0 hectares 64

4.0 to 5.0 hectares 26

5.0 to 10.0 hectares- 30





51 2.5





more than 10.0 hectares 3 .3

926 100.0









Table 3 shows the value of small holder production. They produce
CFA 96,090 million in total-food crops and CFA 35,336 million in commercial

3. Regional Variations and Constraints on Innovations

There are 136 distinct ethnic groups In Francophone and sixty-five
in Anglophone Cameroon. In spite of the great linguistic and ethnic diversity,
it is possible to group the various peoples into.three groups which correspond
approximately to the three primary ecological zones: 1) Western Highlands
grasslands zone, 2) the Northern savannah-sahel zone and 3) Central and East-
ern forest zone.

There is variation by region in terms of the crops that small
farmers grow, both for food and export. In the North, the main food crops are
sorghum, millet, maize and groundnuts, and the main export crop is cotton. In

lAgricultural Census 1972-73 (UNDP/FAO 1977:172).

41 2.8

1481 100.0






- 1976/78

Constant Prices)


CFAF' 000/ton












Ma ize

Millet +





13 254
19 685


11 4
22 I

Other major








4 310


31 667

10 o
14 !
16 2
16 E
58 J


Sweet Potatoes
Fresh vegetables









1 557

3 271
7 360
58 712


15 "
96 (




- Arabica
- Robusta




10 856
4 020

11 (







30 228
88 940



I/ From Economic Memorandum 1978

i -.



the Southwest, Central and Eastern forest zones, cassava, yams, maize, plan-
tains and groundnuts are the food crops, cocoa and robusta coffee the cash
crops. The Highland region (West and Northwest) is the country's agricultural
heartland. Yams, maize, cassava, plantains and groundnuts are food crops;
arabica and robusta coffee are the cash crops.

Cultural factors affect land holdings and tenure, division of labor
and receptivity to innovations. Generally speaking, husbands hold the land
and apportion it to their wives. The services of both men and women are needed
for household production and income generating activities. In the southern part
of Cameroon, men are involved in export crop production and women cultivate food
crops, whereas in the north both men and women participate in cash and food crop
farming. A common expectation of westerners is that agricultural production
is a male activity, but in Cameroon women are heavily involved in agricultural
production, spending 70% of their waking hours in this pursuit (Bryson 1979:5).

The production of food crops gives women status and decision-making
input within the family. Bryson argues that women make production decisions
of when-they work, what they plant, weed and harvest and decisions about what
is surplus to be sold. Women are likely to continue their involvement in agri-
culture as Cameroon's population grows and they need to feed their families and
others. Bryson argues that women's low involvement in wage employment "plus
the fact that 40% of the women in wage employment are working in agriculture"
means "it will be at least forty years and probably considerably longer before
the numbers of women in agriculture are reduced by any appreciable amount"

The production of cash crops (cocoa, coffee, tea, tobacco, cotton
and rice) generates income for men and they are involved in cash cropping
throughout the country. In the Lekie District in South Central Province,many
have begun to grow food (including bananas, plantains, groundnuts and vegetables)
for sale and their contribution to food crop production for sale is likely to

Women are also heavily involved in the marketing of food stuffs,
and in the urban areas some have become known as the "Buyum-Sellums" who buy
produce in the countryside and resell in the cities. On the other hand, men
work as wholesalers in expensive vegetables and they are the main organizers
and members of cooperatives.

The Highlands1

The University Center, Dschang, is located in the Western Province, a densely
populated agricultural district. The largest group in the area are the Bamileke
(population 701,000 in the mid-1960's), who have densities of 150 people per

1This section relies heavily on Bryson (1979), National Cereals Project (1979)
and Nelson et al. (1974).


square kilometer and who are noted for their community enterprises, energetic
attitudes and resourcefulness. As UCA farms will be located in Bamileke areas
and extension services directed to this area, it is important to describe their
agricultural and economic practices in detail.

Social Structure as it Relates to Land Tenure

The Bamileke are a centralized group who have numerous chiefdoms each
headed by a Fon (chief) who is the titular head of the land in the area. He
parcels the land out to lineage heads who then allocate it to family members.
Lineage heads may also give land to strangers after taking care of family needs.
Each family has its own compound which is fenced and includes cultivated garden
plots. Customary law provides that a man's property is not divisible and is
inherited by his favorite son often, but not necessarily, the eldest. This
often causes struggles between brothers, especially half-siblings, and sons
other than the inheritor tend to split off and form their own patrilineages.
Daughters rarely inherit through the patrilineage.

Land distribution has been a continual problem in the area because of in-
creasing population. Farms are smaller in this region than elsewhere (the
average is 1.2 hectares). In the past, after marginal village land was culti-
vated and large plots subdivided, men tried to.settle outside the village and
there was armed conflict with neighboring groups. At present, social tensions
provide incentives for Bamileke entrepreneurial activities and migration to the
cities. Chiefs, who were also responsible for adjudication, intervened in
land palavars, and although they frequently split up land for other people,
usually refused to divide their own property. They also reallocated land of
people who were temporarily away from the village. Presently, they are re-
luctant to give out land on a permanent basis, especially for tree crops, as
they may not be able to reclaim or reallocate it. They will give out land for
food crops as this land can be reallocated after the harvest. A reason for
the reluctance to give out permanent land rests on the 1974 land laws which
allow people "to develop" the land and therefore claim it as their own. Plant-
ing permanent tree crops as opposed to "temporary" food crops is considered
"development." In any case, chiefs have become the focus of resentment con-
cerning land rights, and men who cannot obtain land become laborers, domestic
servants, entrepreneurs or leave the area.

Each chiefdom has a "queen mother" who has her own household, lands and
raffia plantations. Her daughters inherit her lands and presently there is a
group of noble propertied women. The literature states that this group did
not have to depend on their husbands for sufficient land to grow food for the
household. Other women also had some land rights through their matrilineages.
It would be interesting to compare women's actual land holdings from their
matrilineages with the land they farmed which belonged to their husbands.

Agricultural Crops and Roles

Women are responsible for almost all food production and may spend 190 days
of work per year solely in agriculture. Kaberry's study (1952) on neighboring


Tikar noted..that men spent only 10 days per year on land clearing. Bamileke
women do all the work (except for plantain and banana cultivation) associated
with food crop production; they also clear the land, They receive some help
from men in the heavier work, usually from their daughters' fianc6s rather
than their husbands. Women grow yams, coco-yams, maize, groundnuts, beans,
cassava and vegetables. Men grow bananas, plantains, tea, tobacco and palm
trees, but coffee is the major export cash crop. Women help their husbands
in cultivation and harvesting of many of these crops. Men raise cattle, sheep,
goats and swine; women raise poultry. Men provide palm oil, build houses and
fences, and many are artisans. Women trade in food crops, weave baskets and
make pots. It is estimated that women sell 35-40% of the food crops and have
part control over the proceeds. Rice cultivation, up to 60% of which is desig-
nated for commercial markets, is primarily grown by men. But it is arabica
coffee that most men have cultivated for the cash crop market and the coffee
cooperative is large, has its own export markets, electronic sorters, etc.

Women's organizations are important in economic activities. Women's
societies are used to organize cooperative work in the fields. A special
society called the Mansu admitted the best women farmers. These women carried
a long curved knife used to clear fields as a symbol of Mansu membership and
had priority over other women in the fields and on paths.

Bamileke men, in both rural and urban areas, form savings associations,
but women in the rural areas did not in the past. In towns they do form rotat-
ing credit associations which are very important to market women and traders,
and Bryson argues that with increased economic activities in the rural areas
involving women selling food crops, women's savings associations are likely
to appear.

Other Economic Activities

Nelson et al. (1974) write that the Bamileke have become among the wealthi-
est people in Cameroon, adapting quickly to the cash economy by improving their
farms and purchasing trucks, stores, hotels, factories, etc. The main con-
straints on their progress in the rural areas are population pressure and hind
scarcity. In the cities they are important in the transport sector and become
taxi drivers. They are well represented as doctors, engineers and government
officials. In Douala, they are believed to comprise 70% of professional and 30%
of civil servants, 60% of the traders, 80% of the artisans, 40% of the laborers
and 12% of domestic workers. In Yaound6, they are a majority of the merchants.
In Southern cities, they constitute a large proportion of the unemployed. The
percentage of Bamileke women in the professions and as urban workers is not

The Cornell Report lists the number of ENSA graduates by province. Western
Province alumni constitute 131 of the 276, but this Includes the Bamileke as
well as other groups such as the Tikar, Bamoun and Widekum. Fourteen or 44%
of the Cameroonian faculty at ENSA are from Western Province.


Innovation Concerning Agricultural Research and Extension

The Bamileke area and Bamileke people are likely to be good target zones
and candidates for innovations because of land fertility on the one hand, and
a social system that allows for adaptation on the other. The National Cereals
Research Project concluded that "the highlands are the midst of an agricultural
revolution" and that "the adoption and adaptation of innovative agronomic prac-
tices and new varieties and crops should be very rapid" (1979:111-12).

However, great consideration needs to be given to the categories of people
to which innovations will be introduced. Young men will be interested in cer-
tain innovations, but may have difficulty securing land. Chiefs may or may
not be opinion leaders because of their position in land tenure decisions. The
National Cereals Research (1979) noted that "the most important factor to con-
sider in this area is the overwhelming importance of women in food crop produc-
tion." They argued that there was loss of information to women producers when
male extension agents worked with men. Effective demonstration programs would
probably require women extension agents and supervisors to work with women
producers through cooperatives and community development sectors, as well as
in the informal sector. Unfortunately there are no agricultural extension
agents who are female and the present agricultural training of community de-
velopment assistants is minimal. Also it would seem useful to utilize women's
societies such as the Mansu in the introduction of agricultural innovations.

There is little question that women in the area are working long hours and
most days, and could benefit from improved seeds, fertilizers and pesticides,
as well as improved management techniques to increase yields and reduce labor
inputs. The emphasis on cash crops, combined with male extension workers, has
precluded information and inputs from reaching women foodstuff producers.

In terms of mechanization, as much as 25% of the cultivation is carried
out on mountain slopes and the hoe is likely to remain the major tool; but
appropriate technology concerned with water supplies, food processing and
storage could be important in the area.

The North1

The northern areas of Cameroon is where USAID has concentrated its programs.
ENSA students with an option in Animal Science do their fieldwork studies in
the north More than 80% of the area is rural and half of the urban dwellers
grow a large percentage of their own food. There are four Departments that
have a plains ecology and one Department that is mountainous.

1This section relies heavily on Bryson (1979) and National Cereals Project (1979),
and to a lesser extent on Nelson et al. (1947).


Social Structure as it Relates to Agriculture

About half the plains dwellers are Fulani or Boulbe and approximately 80%
of them are sedentary agriculturalists and cattle raisers. They are organ-
ized into twenty-one lamidats. The Chief (Lamido) is important in land use
and allocation, and in the implementation of agricultural production programs.
Fulani follow Islamic inheritance rules. One-eighth of the estate goes to
widows, two-thirds of the remainder is equally divided amongst the sons, and
the remaining one-third is equally divided amongst the daughters. The property
of a man with no sons should go to his brothers, but the usual practice is for
daughters to inherit the property. Some women have become large landowners as
a result. The agricultural census of 1972-73 lists 16,059 women as farm owners
in north Cameroon.

The Mafa live in the Mandara Mountains, where USAID and World Bank are
working on a large water-dam project. These agriculturalists have an extreme-
ly dense population (up to 245 people per square kilometer). The patrilineal,
patrilocal family is the basic social unit. The youngest son inherits his
father's land and the older ones must settle elsewhere.

Other people in the area are the Massa and Toupouri along the Chadian
border who are agriculturalists, but keep livestock and fish.

Agricultural Crops and Roles

The staple crops are millet and sorghum sometimes supplemented by maize or
rice and cassava; yam and sweet potatoes are grown occasionally. Groundnuts
are grown for local consumption or as a cash crop. Rice is the primary cash
food crop; cotton the major export crop. Central plains people practice shift-
ing, extensive agriculture.

"In some areas, cotton rotates with sorghum on heavy soils
and on sandy soils cotton may be followed by sorghum inter-
planted with peanut before prolonged fallow. Transplanted
sorghums are grown in the clayey lowlands, without rotation
or interplanting. In the Mandara, the Mafa use a complex
system of mulching and intercropping to grow sorghum, millet
and other crops on terraces. Even when the Mafa move to the
plains, their cropping systems remain intensive." (National
Cereals Research 1979:111-9.)

In terms of cultivation, Fulani men prefer to hire laborers. Fulani women
prefer to trade or process food rather than cultivate, but they grow their own
kitchen gardens. Secluded women rely on children and employees to vendor their
products. Women in lower status families will work in their husband's fields
during labor shortages connected with planting and harvesting. The responsi-
bility for most household costs falls on the men, and women normally can retain
any income they earn for their own purpose. Among nomadic Fulani, women milk
the cows and make milk products (soured milk, butter) for sale. They purchase
staple foods and clothes with their earnings.


Among nQn-Fulani peoples, men and women cultivate. The division of labor
is based on who owns or has usage rights to a particular field. In the moun-
tains, women cultivate sorghum and groundnuts with their husbands, as well as
secondary crops In their own fields. The sorghum harvest is placed in the
husband's granary and he dispenses the grains to his wives. The women's
harvest is kept in granaries in their rooms and is used to prepare daily
meals or sold in small amounts. In the plains, the men grow cotton for cash
incomes, women grow groundnuts. Men own livestock and women own poultry.

Massa and Toupouri men and women cultivate their own fields. The men's
granary supplies the seed material, reserve stock and any surplus for market.
Women keep their harvests of sorghum, sesame, beans and vegetables for the
preparation of daily meals. During certain seasons, men spend a great deal
of time fishing and their wives look after their agricultural endeavors at
this time. Men own and care for cattle which are used mostly for bridewealth;
women are responsible for the care of smaller animals and poultry.

Constraints on Innovations Concerning Agricultural Research and Extension

All agricultural endeavors are constrained by the short rainy season which
places heavy demands on agricultural labor and all family members must work at
these times, often ignoring the traditional division of labor.

Bryson notes that the literature does not mention any women's organiza-
tions for Northern groups, and that the absence of these organizations would
tend to limit the spread effects of extension activities. Nevertheless, the
National Cereals Project argues that "traditional roles of men and women do
not appear to limit agricultural innovation of and by themselves, but both
sexes should be trained by extension personnel" (1979:111-10). Because of
the strict separation of the sexes, they suggested female extension personnel
who speak the local language.

Agricultural innovators in the area must take into consideration the fact
that people here are closer to subsistence and risk-taking must be minimized.
Labor shortages at important growing season points constrain the adoption of
new techniques and ideas. "Subsistence farmers consider food for their fami-
lies more important than cash crop production, but Cameroonian extension
efforts have favored cash crops" (National Cereals Project 1979:111-9). For
innovations to be accepted, farmers must be able to see favorable results,
especially because of the risks of crop failures and low rates of literacy.
Furthermore, inputs must be inexpensive and easily obtained, and labor demands
must not conflict with demands of other crops.

The Southern Forest Zones1

There are many ethnic groups in the Littoral, Southwestern, Center South
and Eastern Provinces. Littoral Province includes Douala and has 935,000

1This section relies heavily on Bryson (1979), and National Cereals Research
(1979), and to a lesser extent on Nelson et al. (1974).


people, 233,000 are rural. Southwestern has 621,000, 420,000 of whom are
rural. Center South, where Yaounde is located, is the largest Province with
1,497,000 people, 994,000 of whom live in rural districts. Eastern Province
has the smallest population of 366,000, with 291,000 living in rural areas.

The present ENSA faculty is located at Nkolbisson, eight km from Yaounde.
Students have worked with small holder families in the areas around Yaounde,
especially at Yemessoa (sixty-five km away) and Nbankomo (ten km away).

Social Structure as it Relates to Agriculture

The Pahouin, a collective name for a group of eleven societies including
the Ewondo, Fang and Beti, live in Center South Province and are stateless,
i.e., without centralized chiefdoms. People live in small hamlets consisting
of five to twenty houses. Patrilineage heads provide political leadership
and have control of land in the area. Farming land is allocated to all
married men by heads of the family. The position of lineage head is inher-
ited patrilineally by a younger brother or oldest son. Sons inherit land
from their fathers; women do not own or inherit land, but inherit personal
property from female relatives. Women are dependent on husbands or fathers
for land to grow food crops. People form work teams which are

". .. based on the traditional 'machete group,' whereby
several families cooperate in land clearing, cash crop
plantation rehabilitation or other tasks. The teams have
six to ten members and may be organized on the basis of
age, sex, strength, friendship, proximity or family."
(National Cereals Research 1979:111-13)

Agricultural Crops and Roles

Each family cultivates about two hectares per year but requires a larger
area because of shifting cultivation. The family's ability to clear land
limits the food crop acreage. Men are responsible for clearing the land and
women cultivate most of the food crops. Cassava, cocoyams and plantains are
interplanted with each other, and groundnut fields include manioc, maize,
gumbo, pepper, green vegetables and plantains. Women may grow sweet potatoes,
greens and very early corn under irrigation for the urban market. They often
form workgroups to clear the bush. "Growing food crops is still a rather de-
meaning activity for a man, although this attitude changes when the possibil-
ity of marketing specialty crops for the urban market is perceived" (National
Cereals Research 1979:111-14).

Kpe men are somewhat more involved in food crops, cultivating plantains
and yams while Kpe women cultivate cocoa, yams and other crops. In many
groups, men tend palm trees, gather clusters of oil-bearing kernels and tap
palm wine. Women extract the oil from the kernels which is a laborious
activity. Cocoa is a major cash crop in the area, and some coffee and rice
are grown. Cocoa accounts for 50% of men's incomes, which have expanded


greatly in the last twenty years. Food crop sales have expanded women's in-
comes as well in this time period. Guyer (1977), who studied the women's
farming system among Ewordo.near Yaounde, shows that women changed their
farming and marketing patterns to provide surpluses in many crops with few
major innovations in techniques or organization. In the 1950's, only 2% of
the family's total income came from the sale of food stuffs and the rest
came from cocoa. By 1964, 25% came from food stuffs, and by the 1970's, 50%
of the family's income was derived from food stuffs sold by women. Some women
were paying to have their fields cleared when they had no male help available.
Women also purchased tools, utensils and baskets for farming. Guyer notes
that "there has been a steady narrowing of the gap between men's and women's
agricultural incomes since 1954" (1977:73). As women's incomes have risen,
they contribute to the family's welfare, often paying for half of the routine
expenses such as food, soap, kerosene, school supplies and minor medical costs.

Constraints on Innovations Concerning Agricultural Research and Extension

Bryson (1979:81) believes that if extension programs with the various im-
proved inputs could become available to women, then a good potential for women's
positive response to innovations exist. The experience at Yemessoa and Mbankomo
(see below) supports this position. ENSA students were able to work with both
Smen and women in promoting innovations. They noted that women were often re-
luctant to attend meetings or speak in public when men are present. To over-
come these difficulties, other programs (e.g., ZAPI-EST) successfully utilized
teams of extension agents consisting of one woman and one man to cover a dis-

The National Cereals Research argues that the small settlement units, and
the lack of good roads and transport, would hinder change. However, young men
in particular might be intrigued by improved methods and inputs to cultivate
food crops, especially since they are often constrained by custom from owning
cocoa and coffee plantations.

4. Small Holder Interests in Innovations

Small holders, both men and women, are desirous of having their
problems and needs recognized. Farmers whom we talked to articulated their
interests and needs with little hesitation. Food producers consistently noted
that inputs (seeds, fertilizers and pesticides) were not available for food
crops. Export crop producers said inputs were sporadic and allocations politi-
cal at times. In particular, farmers want to control pest problems, as they
perceive pest damage as the single most important factor affecting yields.
Although small holders, by necessity, are expert cultivators, they asked for
technical information concerning optimal intercropping (which crops should be
planted in association with which crops), plant spacing and field utilization
and maintenance of soil fertility. They would receive this information gladly
from a number of sources, e.g., Ministry of Agriculture extension workers,
parastatals such as MIDEVIV, UCA students doing intervention projects and
radio broadcasts.

-.Women farmers articulated their needs for technical information
and inputs. Their needs do not differ from men who farmed. However, their
access to inputs, credit and information is reduced compared to men's. Ferti-
lizers generally go to men for growing coffee and cocoa, and loans are made
for export and certain cash crops only.

All agricultural extension post workers are men and they are sup-
posed to work with farmers indiscriminately. In fact, they work primarily
with men. Most have attended the agricultural training schools for one and
two year programs, and their opportunities for refresher courses are minimal.

There are two categories of women who work at the community level
and are the "female counterparts" of the extension workers community develop-
ment (CD) assistants and animatrices. Community development assistants complete
secondary school or teacher training and then receive a one year course at Kumba
in home economics, self-help and communication methods. A few have attended
the Pan African Institute for Development for short courses and subsequently
become supervisors. Animatrices have primary school backgrounds. They often
are employed to teach specific skills such as sewing or knitting. CD assist-
ants and animatrices generally focus on teaching women domestic skills such as
cooking, house cleaning, embroidery and knitting, hygiene and child care. They
may have some agricultural input In that they are supposed to encourage the
women to implement what extension agents are proporting. Their work was de-
scribed as "psychological" in some areas as far as agriculture is concerned.
But other animatrices received refresher courses and prepared demonstration
plots. Animatrices and CD assistants could be given short sourses on agri-
cultural techniques in order to work with women farmers (see below).

In general, the MOA personnel at the local village level are con-
strained by their lack of technical information, as well as by lack of support
for inputs and transportation. These people, as well as MOA supervisors at the
District and Provincial levels, expressed much Interest in retraining extension
and community development personnel, and cooperating with UCA faculty and stu-
dents in seeking solutions for small holder problems.

B. Interrelations of University Center for Agriculture (UCA) Programs
and the Small Holder and Women

1. General Curricula

Present ENSA and ITA philosophy places teaching as the preeminent
activity even though the goals of UCA, according to Dr. Bol Alima, who is
Director General, include research in collaboration with DGREST (the national
research agency) as its secondary priority and direct support to rural develop-
ment as its third. Considering teaching, classroom instruction focuses mainly
on theoreti.cal.issues and most courses are large lectures with few practical

ENSA students do spend three weeks to a month every year for the
first four years In practical work. The "stage-ouvrier" or practical farm work


which includes cultivation and working with farm animals is given in the
first year. For the second year's "stage de production," students work with
parastatals, private or public organizations. The third year includes the
"stage monographique" in which the students live in a village, often In their
own area, and study the socio-economic characteristics and activities of
farmers. They are taught interviewing techniques and their reports consider
the social system (e.g., political organization, polygyny, bridewealth) and
social constraints. For the fourth year's "stage pre-optional," they go back
to the parastatals and other agencies to consider specific problems. In the
fifth year, the students spend four months in the "stage of pre-specialization"
where they design and carry out a small research project concerned with a de-
velopment problem. Professors visit their students at their field sites,
usually to check on accommodations, but in the later years to help with
project design.

Students are placed all over the country and some students have
experiences in three or four Provinces by the end of their education. Stu-
dents with options in economics and extension and agriculture may go to almost
any Province, whereas students in animal production go to the north and stu-
dents in forestry often go to the east. As a result of these experiences,
students in the third year have a small amount of direct contact with farm
work, small holders and women, but it varies depending on their option in
the fourth and fifth years. It is more likely that these students will have
experiences on research stations and/or using improved agricultural techniques
in controlled settings. One student in animal production noted that he had
to make a special effort to find out about traditional animal production.
He realized his fourth year experience at an animal research station was
limited,and designed his fifth year project as a comparison of research
station and small holder techniques.

Students at ITA schools do relatively little field work. In the
first year of upper ITA ("stage-ouvrier"), students do farm work as agricul-
tural laborers for three weeks. The second year ("stage monographique"),
they live in a rural area and consider the problems of farmers in terms of
their option. In the third year they have ("stage optionnel") in which they
work in parastatals, public or private organizations.

Lower level ITA has the "stage ouvrier" in the first year, "stage
monographique" in the second as well as 100 hours of practical work, but these
hours do not include any contact with small holders. In the third year, they
have 100 hours of practical work and the "stage pre-professional." The exper-
ienice gained in this practical work is mostly manual labor rather than skills

Students are willing to consider small holder needs, but may re-
quire their professors' guidance in this direction. The number and speciali-
zations of professors who are interested in this approach is not known. However,
it is recommended that a group of faculty from various disciplines be asked to
form a farming systems team along the lines of one at the University of Florida group.
A Seminar on Farming Systems by the contracting university faculty is proposed.


-*ln terms of considering whether or not the recipients and the
donor (AID) are of similar mind regarding the goals of this project, it is
important to consider that the recipients do not constitute a single entity.
The faculty and students at UCA constitute one client, the small farmers
(rural poor) constitute another. UCA officials are most desirous of the
physical facilities and training programs that this project can provide.
First on their list of wants is the library. Second, are good demonstration
production farms at Bansoa and Djouttitsa. Finally, UCA wants to train Cam-
eroonians to the Ph.D. level in agriculture, rural sociology and extension,
crop protection and animal science. USAID's interest in small farmers and
women is tangential to UCA's interests. Whereas everyone in the country in-
cluding UCA follows the President's interest in increasing food production,
the University must function to train agricultural scientists, some of whom
will work in ministries and parastatals concerned with food production and
small holder needs. It would be possible to encourage the use of theoretical
materials concerned with small holders and women as well as the use of Cam-
eroonians examples in various courses and at the experimental farms. Up to
now, the course content is more likely to focus on large scale production
techniques and heavy mechanization with little practical application to the
local scene. Many UCA faculty recognize the need for more appropriate theory
and practicums. The move to Dschang, and the restructuring of the University
Center and its training programs would provide the ideal time and context for
curricular and practical emphases on small holder needs. The content and
mechanisms of this new approach needs to be carefully delineated and discussed
with UCA administrators and faculty.

2. Role of Women

Administrators, faculty and students agree that the low number
of women students at UCA is a function of girls in Cameroon entering formal
education at a later time than boys. At the time of independence, girls con-
stituted 30% of the school population and, according to the 1976 census, rep-
resented 44% of those in primary schools. However, at the higher levels the
numbers were lower (secondary, 30%; technical, 36%; and higher, 20% in 1976).
In terms of UCA, Table 4 shows the percentage of women at Lower ITA (5.9%),
Upper ITA (7.7%) and ENSA (7.0%).

Entrance to UCA schools is by examination. Many fewer girls than
boys take the exam. It was estimated that 1700 boys (85%) and 300 girls (15%)
take the exam yearly, but we did not obtain exact figures on the number who
passed. Girls are not represented in UCA in proportion to the number who take
the exam. They either do not do as well as boys on the exam or chose to go
to other institutions.

In fact, students may take several examinations (for Medical
School, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Technical Schools, etc.). Many of the
women students wanted to go to medical school, but passed the exams for ITA
or ENSA. Their preferences were based on knowing more about physicians' jobs
than agricultural jobs. ENSA students said that before entering the school
they thought higher agricultural education was only for men because they


Student Enrollments for 1979-80

by sex, year and option





Lower ITA,

% Women

(93.7) 8

(93.1) 7

(97.6) 1

(94.1) 16














Upper ITA

% Women

(89.9) 10

(94.2) 6

(91.8) 6

(92.3) 22








Ist year

2nd year

3rd year

4th year
Agronomic Option

Forestry Option

5th year
Agronomic Options
Animal Science

Plant Protection

Economics and




















( 4.1)







( 7.0)











Ist year

2nd year

3rd year











believed that it involved heavy machinery and "tramping through the bush."
In terms of their secondary school training, students noted that they had
very little information about the course of study in agriculture colleges,
and most girls thought it better to work in an office than "with the soil."
Once they got to UCA, their opinions changed and they became dedicated agri-
cultural scientists.

At UCA, the girls do as well as the boys and their drop-out rate
is lower. There is occasional jealousy and harassment on the boys' part
when the girls do well. But generally a congenial relationship is maintained.
Many professors go out of their way so as not to discriminate against women
students. There are no women in forestry or animal science options1 because
women believe that forestry deals with hunting and going through the bush
which are men's jobs. The traditional Cameroonian association of men with
the ownership of large animals may inhibit women from choosing animal science.

The number of ENSA women students was restricted in the early
years of its formation because there were no dormitory facilities and a
special exception was made so they could live outside the campus. The situa-
tion has been remedied and eleven women live in the dorms. There are women's
dorms at ITA as well. Table 5 shows the number of ENSA graduates by year of
graduation and sex. Five percent of the alumni are women.

There is only one ENSA faculty member who is a women (she is in
the United States for graduate training presently). Most ENSA graduates are
placed in MOA extension administration positions in the urban areas. With an
increase in women graduates, it is suggested that they fulfill a variety of
positions and be selected in greater frequency for graduate training. In
terms of increasing the number of women on the teaching faculty, this number
will increase in direct proportion to the number of women students selected
for graduate training. It was noted that several of the wives of UCA faculty
have Master's degrees in relevant fields and could be employed.

1The present group of fifth year women have chosen the Economics and Exten-
sion option, some fourth year women students are planning to take the plant
production option in their fifth year.



E.N.S.A. Graduates by Year and Sex




















14 (5.0%)

3. Department of Rural Education

The Department of Rural Education is composed of two Divisions:
the Division of Rural Sociology and Extension and the Division of Rural

a. Division of Rural Sociology and Extension

The topics of rural sociology and extension are linked together
since the founder of the Department studied rural sociology and worked as an
extension agent. The current Head of the Department was asked to do both of
these topics in his studies (60% rural sociology and 40% extension); the two


266 (95.0%)



other Departmental members have focused primarily on extension, with a few
courses in'rural sociology. It is fortuitous that the founder linked these
topics, as rural sociology is indispensable for a sound extension component.
The professors in this Department are interested in small holders' attitudes,
problems and motivational needs. They are constrained by a shortage of per-
sonnel and the small number of hours allotted to rural sociology in the

Although the list of courses (Appendix B) in rural sociology
is substantial, few are taught. Presently there are only two professors who
teach--one Cameroonian who is completing his doctorate and one Dutch professor
who is scheduled to leave this year. The Cameroonian professor goes to Dschang
for short periods to give lectures to ITA students and he also chairs the De-
partment consisting of both Divisions. With an increase in staff, it would
be possible to increase the theoretical and practical focus on small holder
problems in the Department.

Extension courses within the Division of Rural Sociology and
Extension are in Appendix B also. Presently there are two staff members with
Master's degrees who teach these courses; one is at ENSA and the other at ITA.
There also are two enumerators who follow the daily operations of farmers in the
extension site, collect data on yields, field size, crops marketed, etc. The
course in "Extension Education" has a practical, outreach activity connected
with it. The class goes to the rural areas on Saturdays to carry out survey
research and interview small holders. Small groups of students are assigned
to a particular village, extension post worker, model farm, farmers' group or
individual farmer to obtain information on the area, and social and farming
systems. They write reports on their findings and on the basis of these re-
ports, the professor prepares questions for the next group of students to
answer. The students obtain some experience in a variety of situations and
sites as a result of this class.

a-l. Mbankomo (about ten km from Nkolbisson) is the present
area where students are working; the professor has arranged seven contact points
in this area. The current situation at Mbankomo is one in which students prac-
tice their interviewing techniques and information gathering in terms of the
small holder. The students are finding that the farmers main concerns are
inputs and yields. Students have been well received by the farmers and seem
to enjoy the opportunity to deal with "real" issues. Whether or not Mbankomo
becomes -the site of a full scale research and farming project will depend on
the support from ENSA and USAID and the availability of the faculty.

a-2. Yemessoa

From 1970 to 1978, an "intervention zone" with an exten-
sion training component was located at Yemessoa (sixty-five km from Yaounde).
The goals of the project were to 1) provide practical, rural experiences for
the students, 2) provide an experimental area for departments to do research
and 3) aid the people of the area with their agricultural production (Cornell
Report 1979:53). It was hoped the work would aid the students in their future
careers as well.


The zone was selected based on three considerations:
that 1) it not be too far, 2) the population would accept technical assis-
tance and 3) it was located in an area that did not have parastatal services
operating. The reason for the last criterion was to prevent outside forces
from influencing the diffusion of innovation. There were nine hamlets and
1700 people in the area. The average family held one hectare of cocoa, .5
hectare of food fields and several dozen ares of fruit trees (Tchala-Abina

The students tried to operate as agricultural agents or
rural delegates to provide technical information and motivate the farmers to
adopt their innovations. There was intensive work on ten topics: production
problems and increasing yields of cocoa, food crops (tubers and grains), fruits,
vegetables, bananas and plantains, swine, poultry and fishing; and infrastruc-
tural problems concerned with village roads and water supply, and formation
of a cooperative.

Studies were carried out during the first three years
of the intervention program. The first report on the project (Tchala-Abina
1974) notes that nearly all of the target population had adopted some of the
food production techniques that were recommended. A second report (Van Gils
1978) noted that they had abandoned many practices because of the high costs
in relation to returns. The Cornell Report argues that ENSA's extension
training effort "was substantially undercut by the structure of food prices.
(The lack of success may also be attributed in part to the attempt to intro-
duce monoculture)" (1979:62). The Report also notes that this project was one
of the few extension projects to address the issue of women farmers effectively.
The program did not focus on women specifically, but a clear attempt was made
to assure that all benefitted and students worked with the entire village.

Tchala-Abina (1980) considers the final Impact of the
project in terms of carrying out long lasting technical assistance to the
farmer as being minimal, a "half success." Most of the recommendations the
students and faculty made were not adhered to in the long run with exception
of poultry breeding. He cited some reasons for failure and it is useful to
discuss them in some detail here as they directly address the direct impact
of UCA programs on small holders. The reasons the peasants gave for rejecting
innovation were:

1) The difficulties the new methods presented--in particular
farmers disliked row cultivation. They cited fatigue, old
age and health problems as interfering with adoption of
new methods.

2) They experienced the opposition of their neighbors.

3) They lacked money to purchase the necessary materials.

4) The cultivation of cassava was not integrated into the


-5) They thought the new methods were unnecessary, were
against fertilizers ("they burn the soil") and feared
risk due to uncertainty of the new methods.

The interventionists came to the conclusion that the
partial failure of the program was due also to lack of logistical, technical
and economic support. In terms of technical support, none of the recommenda-
tions made were based on research carried out in the area. According to
Tchala-Abina, recommendations were taken from general agronomy and specialized
agriculture courses, research in the school garden and an experimental program
on fertilizers carried out by FAD. Some of the technical advice was not applic-
able to the particular type of ecology found in the zone.

Although a number of problems concerning plant protection
were delineated, they could not be solved as ENSA's specialists were not always
available and multidisciplinary links were not well established. This was
partly because of the small size of ENSA faculty who had their own interests
and could not solve the zone's problems. Lack of economic support put serious
constraints on the intervention. ENSA could not supply the farmers with credit,
inputs or marketing boards. The peasants had to take it upon themselves to
sell their produce in nearby urban markets.

One conclusion that Tchala-Abina draws is that the train-
ing of students was of much pedagogical significance but that such programs
have difficulty in increasing small holder production and upgrading their
standards of living. He argues that such objectives would become possible if
UCA's interventionism were built on the model of a development agency which
could provide specialists and financial support. He suggests that by working
through an agency, the students and faculty could contribute their knowledge
and skills without taking the whole responsibility for the diffusion of inno-
vations. Along these lines, the project might be started by UCA and USAID
and then continue in conjunction with parastatal organizations in order to
assure funds on a long-term basis.

b. Division of Rural Pedagogy

In 1970, the MOA decided to house a unit in the University
which would prepare curricula and training for MOA technical schools. The
basis of this decision was that ENSA was concerned with national agricultural
education, and provided a scholarly atmosphere for developing curricula.
Between 1970 and 1975, the Division prepared curricula for the schools and
teaching materials (posters, pamphlets, audio-visuals) for teachers. It
also was involved in the training of teachers at technical schools and ENSA.
Its primary method was to video-tape the teacher in the classroom situations
and then analyze the teaching in terms of "style." It helped individual
teachers and professors prepare slides and classroom materials. Funds for
these activities were provided by the Bureau Pour le D6veloppement de la
Production Agricole (Parrot and Bauchau, 1973-74, 1974-75). The Division
also aided other African countries (e.g., Chad, CAR, Congo, Gabon) in terms
of curricula and agricultural teaching.


Its stated goals were as follows:

1) Assure the educational instruction of the ENSA students.

2) Retrain teachers of secondary agricultural education.

3) Organize internships for training and upgrading agri-
cultural extension agents, animateurs and the community
development workers.

4) Elaborate and work with the teachers on the program for
secondary agricultural schools.

5) Aid agricultural training in Chad, CAR, Congo and Gabon.
(Parrot and Bauchau, 1973-74)

In 1975 the project ended and there was difficulty in funding
and staffing. The expatriates left and only one Cameroonian remained and he
was subsequently appointed to the MOA. As a result, the training of teachers
and the preparation of technical training college curricula have not been
functioning. However, the MOA Deputy Director of Agriculture continues to
teach the course on "Psychopedagogy" at ENSA and ITA. This course is con-
cerned with note taking, report writing, the use of audio-visual materials
in training extension workers and basic psychology.

This Division is severely constrained in terms of personnel at
the present time. Given the links it has already to the MOA, and the possibil-
ity of focusing the curricula of agricultural training colleges in Cameroon and
neighboring countries towards small holder agriculture, the Division's staff
should be increased.

The Cornell Report encourages this Division in terms of peda-
gogical communication and technical training. By pedagogical training the report
meansshort-course development. The recommendations here (see Section III-B)
place these short courses within the Department of Rural Education with input
from both Divisions. By communication training, the report means interview tech-
niques which find out about the peasants' needs. The recommendation here is
that the Division of Rural Sociology and Extension should focus on these aspects
since they will be working with small holders directly, as well as considering
theoretical materials on this topic. In terms of technical training, the Cor-
nell Report argues that only additional technical training is necessary for MOA
secondary school teachers as they received technical information as part of
their formal education. In fact, it is recommended that additional agricul-
tural training be given in light of new scientific findings, as well as the
increased emphasis on small scale, peasant agriculture.

The Cornell Report recommends that separate facilities "be con-
structed at ENSA for the purpose of providing in-service training" so as not to
interfere with the regular University program. At present, this aspect has not
yet been fully considered.

In addition to MOA related activities, some comments must be
made about the Division's printing and photographic operations. There are
five technicians--one to do duplication, two for offset printing, one for
drawing and one for photography. These people prepare maps and diagrams,
covers for ENSA publications and the like. They are being supervised by the
professors in extension, as well as the Department Head.' The professors are
continually interrupted in their own work to make decisions on design and lay-
out. The recommendation here is that these printing and media functions be
removed from the Division'and Department to a centralized printing/media center.

4. UCA Farms

The farms are located near the present Nkolbisson and Dschang
campuses and are used for student and faculty projects. Students learn tech-
niques of cultivation and may work on research projects of their own or their
professors'. The small plots cultivated here are located close to the main
buildings and are easily accessible. There is an animal production unit which
houses swine, poultry and rabbits.

The Technical Paper on Research and Experimental Farm Development
deals with UCA farms at length. Because of the farms constant usage and prox-
imity to the UCA, they would be ideal places to include sections on small
holder techniques and production problems. However, implementing this may
be constrained by the perspective of the agricultural faculty who were trained
in Europe and the United States where university farms are seen as research
units for large scale commercial agriculture.

a. Bansoa farm is located forty-five minutes by car from the
Dschang campus. This farm was started in 1977-78. Twenty hectares are under
cultivation at present, but there are plans to expand it ultimately to 300
hectares. The crops now cultivated are maize and plantains and there are some
experiments on beans. The farm manager would like to start coffee, fruit trees
(orange, guava and mango), and a vegetable garden (tomatoes, carrots, etc.).
Although primarily focused on cash crops at present, there are plans to do
more work on food crops in terms of varieties, tests with pesticides and
herbicides and agronomic practices. Farm projects are constrained by the
fact that much of the UCA staff is still in Yaounde.

The major goal of Bansoa is to provide a work place for stu-
dents to do manual labor (weeding is chemical, harvesting mechanical and
these are carried out by men hired by the farm manager, not by the students),
and eventually to sell produce and animal feeds to UCA. The farm manager ex-
pressed the thought that Bansoa would be a good place to try out ideas on the
plots before presenting them to village small holders, as expertise in culti-
vating and research on new ideas would be necessary to maintain credibility.
There is the desire to build facilities to house fifty workers and.four to
five staff members and to hire temporary workers from the villages in order
to expand the farm into a viable production unit.


.b. Djouttitsa farm.for animal production is housed in an old MOA
extension unit and has two barns for cattle and pigs, a cold storage unit and
pastures. The Research and Experimental Farm Development Technical Paper did
not find large scale dairying to be a viable option here. Problems of small
holder cattle and goat breeders could be investigated at this facility and
should be considered in addition to the commercial endeavors that are planned.

C. Ministry of Agriculture (MOA)

1. Use of UCA Graduates

The MOA is one of the largest and most important ministries, and
is the largest employer of agriculturally trained personnel in the country.
The MOA has been responsible for agricultural extension work, although re-
cently parastatal organizations have been doing some of these activities.
(MIDEVIV is concerned with food stuffs, SEMRY and SODERIM with rice, SOCOPALM
with palm oil, SODECAO with cocoa and SODECOTON with cotton.)

MOA technical staff are classified into cadres based on qualifica-
tions and/or seniority. The highest cadre, A2, are "Ing6nieurs de Conception"
who conceive, direct and control agricultural policy and rural production.
Next are Al or "Ing6nieurs des Travaux" who conduct and control agricultural
operations. The "Techniciens d'Agriculture" are cadre B and they execute
agricultural programs. ENSA graduates are accepted into cadre A2, Upper ITA
graduates go to Al; ITA cycle des technicians go to cadre B. Other lower-
level agricultural schools train C cadres who are "Agents Techniques d'Agri-
cultures" and D cadres who are "Agents Techniques Adjoint." C and D cadres
are in charge of on-the-Job extension work.

Of the 258 Cameroonians who graduated from ENSA from 1965-1978,
the majority now work for the MOA (15.5% directly and 15.9% in extension),
or parastatals (26.7%). Table 7 gives the breakdown by category and per-
centages and is taken from the more detailed "Tableau Recapitulatif des
Effectifs de Depl6mes Formes par I'ENSA" (Table 6) prepared by Mr. Jacob
Foko, the registrar at ENSA.

The MOA would like to fill positions from Technical Advisors to
Divisional Delegates with A2 cadre, and Divisional Chiefs of Sections and
Principal Chiefs of post-position with Al. This would require 140 for A2
cadre and 341 for Al cadre. Table 8 gives the exact breakdown of positions.
It is obvious from the positions requested that ENSA and ITA graduates will
be in strong supervisory positions with potential for directing their staffs
to impact on small holders. The Cornell Report notes that there is now a
more specific demand for specialized positions within MOA as previous graduates
have filled most of the upper level administrative posts. Hence, ENSA and
ITA graduates will have "to implement projects at a more local level than
their predecessors" (1979:44). MOA officials state they want students to
study more extension related topics to meet these needs.








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centraux du Ministere


du Minis there

+ Delegations
+ Delegations

de I



de 1'Agriculture






et Organismes




Autres S

et Missions



au Developpemedt


des activity

En formation a









es Minis






Affectation non

et sports,






by M.





= garcons
= filles




1965 1978

No. ENSA Graduates %

MOA 40 15.5

MOA Extension 41 15.9

Parastatals 69 26.7

Other Rural Development
Societies 3 1.2

ENSA/ITA 24 9.3

Secondary Agricultural
Education 5 1.9

Research 23 8.9

Financial Organizations
(e.g. FONADER) 7 2.7

Graduate training abroad 8 3.1

Other Ministries 9 3.5

Other 29 11.3

TOTAL (Cameroonlans) 258 100.0

Foreigners 22

TOTAL (ENSA Graduates) 280


Stock of Manpower

in the

Came roon

MOA by







Di rectors

Deputy Directors






Charge of


of Servi



of Bureaux

Provinci a





Chi efs










Other Positions


of Post




of Manpower






I AZ AlI u U j I 1 A2 Cac

i- -- -I I I ---







Total .1/ 73 66 382 445 42 1,008 140



3/Because of

service of Personnel


in MOA.



the ChM



from Al





41 -

ENSA graduates now working for the MOA were interviewed about their
ENSA trainlng,and its relation to their present positions. Several themes emerge
in terms of their opinions of ENSA training. First, the graduates thought that
ENSA training was too general. This is especially true since in the past the
course of study was 4 years; the 5th year specialization commenced in 1979. Sec-
ond, they noted that there were no classes concerned with management, yet many of
them are involved in managerial posts presently, and all expect they will be at
some time. Almost all MOA positions involve supervising people or organizing a
post, and therefore, managerial/organizational skills and techniques are important.
Third, the graduates felt they were ill-prepared to organize information on their
own. They said that at ENSA the materials were all prepared for them and they
subsequently had difficulty in solving new problems on their own; they did not
know where to get the information or how to approach the problem. Fourth, they
remarked that ENSA training provided them with little opportunity to observe
farming or participate in practical exercises. The main exception was the exten-
sion course in which students worked at Yemessoa. On the basis of these points,
training at UCA in 1) management, especially in communication techniques and
budget preparation, 2) use of the library and information gathering of research
materials and 3) writing skills would be particularly useful.

ENSA graduates who are now in directorships discussed courses which
the MOA holds for its employees. MOA personnel believe that ENSA students need
training for one year (and the Director of Studies and Projects has plans for a
training program which will last upwards of four years). The reasons for this
training are to make graduates cognizant of the Ministry's philosophy and to give
them practical training lacking at UCA. An example of this training is the three
level approach used by the Department of Studies and Projects. First, it gives
a theoretical course in rural economy and project analysis. (Interestingly, the
lecturers come from ENSA, University of Yaounda and elsewhere.) Second, trainees
visit agricultural projects and prepare or read evaluation papers. The aim is to
view the relationship of the theoretical and practical aspects of projects. Fi-
nally, the trainees are given instruction by World Bank personnel on communications
techniques and working with groups.

It is important to note that this Social Soundness Analysis and the
other technical papers all note that the integration of theory and practice is
indeed lacking at UCA and make recommendations for its implementation. The Depart-
ment of Rural Education has a course on project analysis and works with communi-
cation techniques but apparently this is not known by the MOA. There seems to be
a serious problem in that the MOA has been excluded from having input in the curri-
culum, and as a result does not find ENSA training adequate. Since the UCA train-
ing program is supposed to prepare its graduates for MOA positions, some mechanism
should be found for greater MOA input into UCA programs.

2. MOA Extension and Community Development Services

The MOA and UCA are visibly linked all through the country through adminis-
trative and extension services. Directors, Advisors, Inspectors and Provincial
Delegates (A2 cadre), Divisional Delegates (A2 and Al cadres) and Sub-Divisional

Posts (B and C cadres) are UCA graduates (Table 8). People in these positions
supervise extension and community services at the local level i.e., extension
posts, community development assistants (C and D cadres) and animatrices.
One provincial delegate felt that UCA students who fill these positions 1)
lack adequate preparation in dealing with farmers; 2) need more practical farm
work so they will be credible farmers; and 3) lack technical information.
Curricular suggestions for UCA course content clearly need to address these
inadequacies (see Curricula Evaluation and Instructional Program Technical

In the agricultural section of extension, the post workers are the
lowest level (under the section chiefs) and are D cadres (completed primary
school and given training for 3 months). These men actually live in villages
and small towns where they have some land for demonstration farms and a build-
ing for storage of materials. The agricultural census notes that each post
worker has 900 farmers in his area but In actuality there may be several
thousand. Their operating funds are minute and they do not have vehicles.
Post workers have infrequent contact with farmers and some seemed out-of touch
with the farmers' real needs.

The community development part of the MOA has a women's service
division, with Provincial and Divisional level delegates, and community
development assistants (animatrices)who work at the village level. These women
work with the male extension post workers to provide access to women farmers.
In one area in Northwest Province, they were able to get women to change from
cultivating slopes vertically to horizontal contouring. In another area,
South Central Province, they provided "motivational help" in encouraging women
to grow groundnuts. The CD assistants/animatrices appeared to have good rap-
port with women in their areas, one reason being that they were able to teach
skills (e.g., kintting, embroidery, baking) that the women were desirous of

CD assistants at the village should have 4-5 groups of women whom
they visit at least once a week. The 1979-1980 policy paper urges that they
focus on improving food production, small animal breeding, conservation and
storage of food, and child care, health and sanitation, marketing techniques,
and home crafts and management. In terms of agriculture, one aim is to intro-
duce farm tools and home equipment, such as improved hoes and chemical pesti-
cides/fertilizers, in order to increase production.

The staff of Women's Service in the Department of Community
Development is given in Table 9 by rank and province. There are more CD
Assistants in the Northwest and Southwest Provinces (anglophone Cameroon)
than elsewhere and the Community Development training school at Kumba is
located in Southwest Province. The Service is severely constrained by a
small budget and lack of personnel and transport.

The extension agent or CD assistant at the village level is an
all purpose individual who is called upon to answer all types of questions.
He or she must be able to do the agricultural work him/herself, understand
the constraints on farmers and provide technical information. There are some
refresher courses which are given, but those who come in for training are
primarily from the areas close to where the course is given and training is


sporadic. There is some discussion of increasing the agricultural training
for community development assistants and this move should be supported.


Staff of the Women's Service, MOA, 1980


Chief of

Chief of




National Level 1 2 1

Central South 2 30








1 2 1 14 161

It would seem that extension post and community development workers
would be an ideal combination for reaching small holders. They are already
located within the villages. Many have good rapport with the local people.
Their acceptance may be predicated on belonging to the same ethnic group,
speaking the same language, being from the area, as well as for their personal
attributes and skills. Nevertheless, given that the MOA has already placed
these people in the villages, they would form a convenient and ready group
for reaching the small holders. As such, training in small farmer problems
and technical solutions is highly recommended for extension post and community
development assistants in the area of UCA (see Section 111-B).


III. Suggestions to Improve UCA's Commitment to Small Holders and Women

A. General University

1. Creation of a Position for Extension and Research and Farming
Systems Seminar

It is important that curriculum, research and outreach activities
at the university be geared to Cameroonian needs and especially to problems of
small holder agricultural production. Two mechanisms are suggested to facili-
tate this end. First, the position of Director for Research and Extension
should be created in order to add a practical outreach component and a research
focus which could be channeled to study Cameroonian agricultural problems and
programs. The Research and Experimental Farm Technical Paper details this
position and the Administration Technical Paper sets up the articulation of
the various departments to this office. It is suggested that one publication
series handled through the Director be reserved entirely for small holder
research and extension activities.

Second, it is suggested that the faculty at UCA needs to become
knowledgeable ab. t current theory, research and outreach activities on the
farming systems' approach geared to the small holder. If the University of
Florida is the contracting university, it has an interdisciplinary group of
faculty who have prepared courses, lectures and practical exercises. They
would be requested to prepare a four week course for UCA faculty which would
utilize Cameroonian examples. The team would consist of an agricultural
economist, social scientist, vegetable crops specialist, extension specialist
and perhaps, an animal scientist. It is suggested that one short course seminar
be given at the initial phase of USAID involvement in the UCA project to pro-
vide impetus to new theoretical and research interests. A second seminar
should be given after ENSA moves to Dschang.

2. Recruitment of Women Students and Faculty

There are only three suggestions regarding women students and
faculty at UCA.

First, a program should be started in which ENSA and ITA students
visit secondary schools and inform the students of what is involved in an
agricultural education. If girls (as well as boys) understand the jobs that
UCA graduates will do, they may change their attitudes towards careers in
agriculture. A special information campaign should be carried out using media
(radio), information brochures and visits to secondary schools to inform girls
about agricultural careers. The campaign should be handled through the general
administration at UCA (but further study and discussion is necessary to deter-
mine which office would be best suited to handle this assignment).

Second, women as well as men students should be selected for
graduate training. In choosing ENSA students, it is likely that women would
be selected from the options of economics and extension and plant production,


as they are options that women are studying at present. Candidates from the
University of Yaounde'~Department of Sociology would be available also for

Finally, faculty wives who have masters degrees (or higher) in
fields taught at UCA could be employed as lecturers. The possibility of hir-
ing qualified faculty wives needs to be considered.

B. Department of Rural Education

1. Training of Staff

In order to constitute a fully functioning teaching and research
Department, the staff needs to be upgraded and its numbers increased. Appendix
A provides a budget and time table for training and technical assistance. The
goal is eleven faculty members by 1986, six of whom have Ph.D.'s1 The Head of
Department will receive his Ph.D. in rural sociology in 1981 independent of
AID financing. One Ph.D. rural sociologist may be hired next year. Two exten-
sion professors have Master's degrees and need to be trained to the Ph.D.
level. The remaining seven can be trained to Ph.D. or M.A. levels depending
on USAID's goals and commitment to this Department and small holder agriculture.
It is suggested that a minimum of three others be trained to the Ph.D. level
(one in rural sociology, one in extension and one in agricultural education),
and that four be trained to the M.A. level (one in rural sociology, two in
extension and one in agricultural education).

Although people with Master's degrees would be capable of teach-
ing some of the courses, they would not be able to provide 1) the instruction
in research design and methodology needed to handle the intervention zone, 2)
curricula design for MOA extension personnel and 3) curricula preparation for
MOA training schools. Concerning the latter, the opportunity to structure
and influence all agricultural training schools in the country should not be
lost because of unqualified and untrained personnel. The MOA placed the
responsibility for this task in UCA because it expected academic soundness.
In terms of rural sociology, it will be necessary to train a minimum of two
Cameroonians in applied social science and agriculture. It is suggested that
the first student begin in 1981 with six months of language training and then
proceed through the Masters and Ph.D. course work (1981-1984), research in
Cameroon (1984-1985) and dissertation write up (1985-1986). One student should
begin a masters program in 1984 and complete it in 1985. In the selection of
students for this specialization, the large pool of graduates from the Depart-
ment of Sociology at the University of Yaounde should be considered. The
student should take the Certificate in Tropical Agriculture along with a degree
in applied sociology/anthropology, the contracting university should send one
Ph.D. rural sociologist/anthropologist to Cameroon in 1982-1984.

1The Department of Rural Education would prefer that all eleven be trained to
the Ph.D. level, but USAID would prefer fewer because of budget considerations.


In terms of the extension component, there are two professors
with master'-s degrees in extension who will need to go abroad for their Ph.Ds.
To handle the increased emphasis on extension courses, MOA training and
research, there should be three trained to the Ph.D. level and two trained
at the master's level. It is suggested that the first trainee carry out
the program in 1981 through 1984 and the second 1982 through 1985. Another
student should commence his or her training in 1981 and complete both master's
and Ph.D. by 1985. Two additional students should be trained to the MA level,
one commencing in 1983, the other in 1984, each taking two years to complete
the program. The contracting university needs to provide one Ph.D. agricul-
tural extension professor for 1981-83, and one for 1983-85. Of the five
proposed for training in rural sociology and extension, two or three should
be women.

In terms of Rural Pedagogy, the primary function of preparing
curricula for MOA training colleges needs to be resurrected, since it is
critical for the linkages between UCA and the MOA. The only way to accomplish
this aim is to build up the division.which presently has only a part-time
staff and one course. Therefore, as soon as the USAID project commences,
students should be sent to the States for training in agricultural education.
One Cameroonian should be selected to begin language training in 1981, go to
the U.S. for training to the Ph.D. level in agricultural education, and com-
plete the degree in 1985. The second could begin in 1984 in order to finish
a master's degree in 1985. The first contract university Ph.D. in agricul-
tural education should come in 1982-1984, the second should come in 1984-1985.
This timetable would provide for setting up the program, maintaining conti-
nuity and working with Cameroonian counterparts.

2. Curricula suggestions

Given the nature and content of rural sociology and extension
courses, it would be possible to incorporate information on the small holder
and food production into the curriculum. To do this, it is suggested that
"Rural Institutions" be increased by 5 to 10 hours at each level to handle
this topic.

The special problems of women and economic development could
be developed into a separate course (optional special topic in the fifth
year). However, it would probably be a better idea to incorporate the prob-
lems of women and agricultural development (in general and in Cameroon) into
existing Courses. So all students could be educated in this topic, the
"Rural Sociology" course should be increased by 5 10 hours at all levels.

There is no problem with the extension curriculum for ENSA
students, but ITA students need to have an outreach component in which they
work with small holders. To facilitate this end, two vehicles are budgeted
for Dschang. The Saturday schedule of taking students to interview farmers
should be followed.


As more faculty are added the Department intends to offer the
following courses:

Rural Sociology
"Research Design and Evaluation."
"Extension Administration."
"Extension Program Evaluation."
"Women and Youth Extension Programs."
Rural Pedagogy
"Social Psychology."
"Educational Materials and Programming."

With the increase in faculty, changes in curriculum and outreach
activities and the new office of the Director for Research and Extension,
research interests on small holders by American and Cameroonian professors
should be stimulated.

Appendix A also lists equipment necessary for the Department of
Rural Education to house its personnel, set up its laboratories and carry out
the training and curricular changes discussed above and below.

3. UCA Intervention Zone

It is important to keep in mind that the University Center for
Agriculture, Dschang is not an intervention structure and is therefore limited
in dealing with the small holder directly. Nevertheless there are several
ways that UCA can impact on the small holder. UCA should have its own exten-
sion area similar to Yemessoa. It is suggested that the present site, Mbankomo,
become an intervention zone similar to Yemessoa in the years before the move to
Dschang. This site has the advantage of being quite close to Nkolbisson. How-
ever, It will be necessary to change the purpose of the site. It is now used
to give students general practice in interviewing, but a research design based
on intervention goals and strategies would need to be developed. This would
require working together with the Departments of Agriculture, Plant Protection
and Soil Science to provide technical information; the Department of Rural
Education, Division of Rural Sociology and Extension would be concerned with
communication of technical information. To carry out this project the follow-
ing are necessary:

1) The Director of Research and Extension to coordinate
the effort (see III-A-2)

2) The faculty to design the project, instruct the
students and do research on the impact

3) Vehicles for faculty and student transport

4) Funds for inputs


The major constraint at Yemessoa was inputs. In the initial
phases of the Yemessoa project, inputs (fertilizers, seeds, pesticides) were
supplied by FAO and a Dutch project. When the funds were unavailable,
expatriate faculty continued to purchase inputs from their own funds to keep
the project going. This situation must be avoided. There are several ways
to solve the problem. One possibility is for USAID to provide funds for
inputs on a per capital, per annum basis for a limited group of small holders
and demonstration units involved in cash and food crop production. Another
is to work in coordination with parastatals, which should have the
inputs already.

ENSA faculty voiced some problems along these lines. In
particular, they are concerned with differences in approach between the
university and parastatal agency. University innovators, they believe,
try to encourage farmers to adopt innovations by participatory methods which
are optative. They take an educational approach which involves extensive
discussions with farmers and hope for long term results. Parastatals, ENSA
faculty argue, are more autocratic and tell farmers to use certain inputs
and methods; they thereby gain immediate results. Furthermore, the profes-
sors note that allowing both UCA and parastatals in the same area would set
up a situation where the methods and results of each would be compared; this
might engender criticism and hostility.

Although It is rare to find an area completely free of
parastatal involvement, the agricultural university faculty are wary of
contaminating their "pure research" on innovation by having the parastatals
in the area. (A criterion for selection of Yemessoa was that no parastatal
be operative in the area.) Yet, this constraint must be overcome for a
variety of reasons. First, the parastatals are mandated to cover all regions.
Second, they have the inputs and should supply them. When development funds
end, they will be the remaining source, and it is better for them to provide
inputs all along. Third, the students need to consider the constraints and
benefits of parastatals so that when they work in these agencies they will
understand the problems.

These issues are particularly germane to setting up an extension
intervention zone in the Dschang area. The World Bank, in conjunction with
the International Development Association, is considering a $25 million
project in Western Province to work on "balanced rural development." The
project would organize all extension activities into a single service under
UCCAO, the coffee marketing cooperative. The problems connected with this would
be serious; the Cornell Report argues:

1) It is unclear how farmers who are not members would
receive extension services.
2) The extension program planned is not participatory
but rather is of the top-down type where there are
systematic visits to farmers coordinated with short
training sessions of extension staff. "It presumes

that the extension organization has all the certi-
fied knowledge and merely needs to pass it on to
the farmers" (Cornell Report 1979:63).
3) UCCAO is a successful local operation not because
of extension activities or grassroot support, but
because of its monopoly on coffee marketing. Large
farmers dominate the organization and it was neces-
sary to have marketed a ton of coffee in a two year
period to be a candidate for a section post. So it
Is unclear how small holders would benefit (World
Bank 1977; 1979).
4) Food crops are quite secondary to coffee in terms of
the focus on pest control, and the village water
supplywould be developed primarily to provide coffee
washing facilities.

The Cornell Report concludes:

"It appears highly unlikely that ENSA would be able to effec-
tively operate the extension and practical training programs
in the face of such a massive infusion of capital and orga-
nization oriented toward non-participatory Involvement"

Yet, this assessment may be turned around with some careful planning. First,
it is always possible to increase the scope of research to include the change
agent's influence. Second, there is no such thing as "pure research" when
studying the diffusion of innovation because contributions to innovations come
from a variety of sources. Third, the very fact that the food producers will
be by-passed by this development project, means that they may be interested in
other projects. Food production is not likely to dwindle because of the pro-
ject and small farmers will want to receive technical information. Also, it
is possible that new strategies to market food stuffs will develop independent
of UCCAO-and that university-based interventionists can help organize these.
In any case, small holder's problems will occur and students can obtain
valuable experience working with farmers. Faculty and students can carry out
research in the area, if they expand their theoretical horizons.

In order to implement an intervention zone in the Dschang area,
the three-criteria used in the Yemessoa Project must be modified. It still is
important for the zone to be close-by and for the people to accept the inter-
ventionists. However, the criterion that it be located In an area without
parastatals must be dropped. It is suggested that the intervention zone focus
on small farmers who are involved in intercropping (as opposed to large mono-
cropping establishments).

4. Training for MOA Extenion Posts and Community Development


Through in-service training of MOA extension workers and by pre-
paring curricular materials used in agricultural training colleges, it is
possible to have a sizeable impact on small holders. It is suggested that
the Department of Rural Education prepare a model program consisting of short
courses and appropriate materials for MOA local post and community development
assistants who are working in the Dschang area and adjoining Northwestern
Province. It is suggested that participants come from the Districts of Menoua
and Bamboutos in Western Province, and Manyu and Mezam in Northwestern Province
to assure that community development assistants and animatrices, and anglophone
and francophone extension personnel are represented. The course could provide
technical information about pest management (both chemical and manual) inter-
cropping strategies, fertilizers and the like, extension communication tech-
niques, and financial management information for small holders. It is hoped
that this could begin as a small program that would serve as a model for
training extension workers, both men and women.

There may be difficulties in selecting people who are already
in situ because they may have established a certain position or reputation
in the community (which may be positive or negative). However, it seems more
appropriate to begin with individuals already occupying these positions.
This is especially true for the community development assistants and anima-
trices. If other women were recruited, they might not be able to relocate
because of marital and family responsibilities. But if they are already in
the position, it is likely they will be able to remain there to implement
what is learned. Some may argue that pregnancy will constrain CD assistants/
animatrices from effective extension work because they are entitled to
maternity leave. The women's service deals with this problem regularly and
still manages to function. Fertility is high for Cameroonian women, yet they
still manage to farm for family and surplus sales. It is hoped that by limit-
ing participation to local extension personnel, transport and housing costs can
be minimized. Furthermore, the model of information radiating from university
specialists on the campus to local areas is one that has been used successfully
elsewhere as a means of establishing good rapport with the local community,
(see the Agricultural Extension/Student Training Technical Paper).

5. Radio Tapes

Along these lines, the short course materials used for in-
service training could be used to prepare tapes for radio broadcasts. In
the U.S., Guatemala and elsewhere, radio messages on agricultural problems
have been used extensively as a way of reaching large number of farmers.
In Cameroon there was an early morning agricultural program called
"Operation 100,000 tons of Cocoa" that was extremely popular some years
ago. It is suggested that the Department of Rural Education coordinate
the radio taping, but subsequently any other Department may prepare tapes
on technical subjects. It should be remembered that the method and level
of presentation must be appropriate, and pre-testing the tapes on some
farmers is recommended. The tapes should be recorded using both male
and female narrators (depending on the audience). The tapes should


be in French, English, Pidgin and in a variety of local languages e.g.;
Bamileke, Ewondo, Fulani, etc. From the information gathered from farmers
in the South Central Province, tapes need to be broadcast around 6:00 PM in
the evening. Unlike American farmers who listened to early morning shows
(6:00 AM) while they ate breakfast and before going to the fields and barns,
Cameroonians'leave early for their fields or church activities. They can
listen tO the radio after they have returned and completed their household
tasks (obtaining water and firewood, completing food preparation) or palavars
in the early evening. Programs need to end before 8:00 PM as farmers retire
early. The farmers were desireous of having radio broadcasts and noted that
transistor radios were common households items and people listened to broad-
cast in the early evening. In order to prepare the programs well and broad-
cast them at appropriate times, a small study needs to be made of listening
practices and radio ownership.

6 Media Center

Media functions, such as the preparationof audio-visual materials
and printing, have been carried out by this Division using technicians and
professors from the Division of Rural Sociology and Extension as supervisors.
- As the media work takes up a great deal of their time and is tangential to
their work, it is suggested that printing and photographic functions, and some
audio-visual services be removed to a centralized media center. The move would
provide better access to equipment and services for all faculty at UCA. The
media center will be linked to the Director of Research and Extension as
detailed in the Administrative Technical Paper. The mechanisms for access and
use would fall under the Director's provenience. The Building Construction
Report sets aside a special area near the Library for the media center.

In order to set up this media and offset printing center, USAID
needs to hire a consultant in this fields) to cost out the equipment and set
up the facility. The media center needs trained staff to operate it and main-
tain the equipment. It is suggested that the media consultant deals with
staffing and training needs as well.

C. Other University Components

1. Departments of Agriculture, Animal Science and Rural Engineering

In order for UCA to have an impact on small holder agriculture,
there must be an effort to focus the agricultural and animal science depart-
ments on small holders problems. The training of good agricultural scientists
should include the theory and practice of small scale agriculture. However,
at the present time, UCA courses and faculty do not include enough local exam-
ples and mostly focus on large scale export crop agriculture. To remedy this
situation, it is suggested that the faculty in the Departments of Agricultural
Economics, Plant Protection, Soil Science and Animal Science attend the Seminar
on "The Farming Systems Approach" to be given by contracting university
professors. (See Section III-A-1). It is hoped that participation in the


seminar will emphasize the need to change course content and orient research
to local problems. Additionally, this emphasis will be facilitated by the
creation of the Director for Extension and research who would coordinate tech-
nical input from agricultural and animal scientists. With the increase in
staff, it should be possible for faculty to work on small holder problems such
as those brought back to UCA by students working in the intervention zones.
Agricultural and animal scientists should participate in preparing the short
courses for MOA extension workers and radio tapes in their fields of expertise.
In order to do this, they will need to work on food crops and small as well
as large producers in terms of production and marketing. The emphasis on
practical and laboratory work in conjunction with lectures is discussed in
Curriculum Evaluation and Instructional Program Technical Paper, and the empha-
sis on research on small holders is discussed in the Research and Experimental
Farm Development Technical Paper.

With the creation of a new Department of Rural Engineering, the
introduction of "Appropriate Technology" in the UCA curriculum and extension
program will be possible. The Rural Engineering program Technical Paper
acknowledges the need to orient the program's endeavors to the needs of small
holders and rural people regarding such items as potable water, sanitation,
storage facilities and energy production. The aim of the Rural Engineering
Program is to offer the students research and outreach training so that when
they work for CENEEMA or other agencies, they will be able to address
Cameroonian needs.

At the present time there is great interest among national and
international agencies in utilizing small capital investment and technology
that is responsive to local needs. Proper input in terms of the contract
university personnel and curriculum changes can add this dimension to UCA and
it is highly recommended that the Rural Engineering Department be formulated
as outlined in the technical paper.

2. UCA Farms

The UCA farms at Bansoa, Doujittitsa and the Dschang campus
itself should provide the research areas for both faculty and students on
small and large scale agricultural and livestock problems. The interest of
USAID in setting up these farms should provide the impetus for a focus on
small holder needs.

a. Bansoa

UCA administrators first aim for Bansoa is that it be a
production farm that is commercially viable. This would be desirable in and
of itself, but it is critical that the farms attached to the agricultural
university have teaching and research functions as well. The Research and
Experimental Farm Development Technical Paper sets out the mechanisms for the
production unit. It is proposed that facilities for thirty students, a few
faculty and farm manager, and fifty families be constructed. However, the
mechanisms for the focus on the smaller holders needs to be strengthened. It


is recommended that a section of the farm be devoted to traditional farming
techniques e.g., tuber crops, intercropping, hoe-cultivation, non-chemical
weeding and harvesting.

b. Doujittitsa
The livestock farm could provide an opportunity for
faculty and students to consider problems and commercial viability of small
and large holder livestock raising. It Is recommended that the opportunity
to consider the small livestock owner not be lost. Attention should be paid
to traditional patterns of ownership and care of animals by older and younger
men, and women and children.

c. UCA, Dschang farms

Adjacent to the campus are the farms where students
practice their agricultural techniques and livestock management. The recom-
mendation for this area is that food crops as well as export crops be grown
and that studies on problems of small holders be carried out. Of particular
interest would be experiments on pest management, crop spacing and associa-
tions and fertilizer mixtures. In terms of livestock, the poultry unit, in
particular, should consider the technology for family and commercial produc-
tion at the village level. Almost every family keeps a few chickens and is
interested in minimizing poultry loss and disease. It is recommended that
the Department of Animal Science address this interest.

D. Ministry of Agriculture and Parastatals

1. MOA

The MOA is concerned with agricultural production at all levels.
Up to now more emphasis has been placed on export crops than food crops and
MOA recognizes the need to consider both. The difficulty is that there is
the expectation that structures that have been used for large scale and/or
export crops in terms of the distribution of inputs and credit can be used
for small scale agriculture too. So far this has been problematic. Either
the persons directing the MOA projects will have to change their focus or new
structures will have to be set up. Cameroon can ill afford duplication of
services so the former is more viable economically. Many UCA graduates will
be employed by the MOA In middle and upper management positions and in train-
ing extension personnel. If UCA training focuses on small holder issues, then
we can expect to have an impact on MOA policies and services.

For a more direct impact, USAID should consider funding a pro-
ject directly through the MOA. One such project might consider the training
of female extension workers which this and other USAID projects (e.g.,
National Cereals Research 1979) have pointed to as a necessary and direct way
to reach women agriculturalists. Another is direct training and funding of
MOA extension and community development workers 6n small scale agriculture

2. Parastatals

It is useful to review the fact that 69/258 or 27% of ENSA
graduates work in parastatal agencies. The training of UCA students in the
Department of Rural Education intervention zone which would work in conjunc-
tion with parastatals, should prepare the students for some of the obstacles
they can expect to encounter in their future careers. The students would
study the problem of lack of inputs and credit to the small holder. For
example, hopefully they would notice that women are often not allowed credit
and loans because they do not grow the "right" crop or are not heads of house-
holds. The expectation is that the extension experience would inspire them
to create remedies to the problems. The action is indirect, the UCA can
influence the parastatals only through its graduates.

E. Monitoring and Evaluation

The impact of UCA programs on small holders and women needs to be
monitored and evaluated. It is suggested that the monitoring and evaluation
process be part of the conditions for USAID's involvement in training and
facilities for UCA. The progress of UCA programs can be evaluated through:

1) A detailed consideration of curricular changes. In terms of
the formal curricula, have the recommendations for courses, numbers of hours,
year given and course format be carried out? Which courses have Cameroonian
examples? Use practical exercises? Have outreach components? Informally,
it will be possible to interview faculty about the course content.

2) The success in training of extension personnel. The extension
program of UCA can be monitored and evaluated in terms of the a) participants-
Who are they? Where do they come from? What training did they receive? What
did they do with their training? b) faculty-who participated? What materials
did they utilize? c) the small holder client-Did he/she receive any benefits
from extension personnel? Have technical information and inputs changed small
holders practices?

3) Research on the small holder. Do faculty focus on problems of
small holder agriculture? Do they try to solve the problems through research?
Do they try to disseminate the knowledge gained? What research was coordinated
through the office of the Director for Research and Extension? What was
published? How were publications distributed? Were the UCA farms utilized
in the research? What interdisciplinary research was undertaken?

4) An evaluation of extension and intervention activities by the
Department of Rural Education. What kind of zone was set up? What methods
and procedures are being used? What are the results in terms of the student's
experience, the impact on the farmer and the rural area? What research has
come from this effort? Was there interdisciplinary cooperation so that tech-
nical information was received and utilized?


It is suggested that there be an evaluation every two years and
that a report be written to discuss the progress that UCA is making toward
small holder needs. Only if small holder needs are continuously stressed,
will USAID fulfill its goal and assure an impact. The team to evaluate
progress in this direction should consist of the following members:

1. one member USAID/Yaoundg Education

2. three members contracting university one sociologist,
one agricultural economist, and one agriculturalist

3. two members UCA one rural sociologist and one agri-

4. one member Ministry of Agriculture for policy input.



Appendex A


UCA Program and Evaluation Funding

Contracting University

Short-Term Personnel for Short Seminar on
Farming Systems

Salary 42 days at $150/day

Overhead 100% of salary

Per diem 42 days at $85/day

In country travel

International travel
1 round trip at $4000 trip

4 consultants at $17,670


Salary 10 days at $150/day

Overhead 10 days at $150/day

Per diem 10 days at $85/day

In country travel

International travel

3 evaluators at $9350

3 evaluators at $9350

MOA Personnel Short Courses1

Per diem at $40/day for 90 days














($ 9,350)








20 to be trained $73,000

ISalary to paid by MOA

1984 20 to be trained 73,000

1985 20 to be trained 73,000

1981 UCA visits to secondary schools to recruit women students

transportation 500

per diem at $50/day for 10 days 500

Supplies 200


4 recruiters $4800

1982 4800

1983 4800

1984 4800

1985 4800


Department of Rural Education

A. Training of Cameroonians

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

All Costs are in $US x 103

Extension: MA to PhD 13.5 27 27 27 27
13.5 27 27 27

MA and PhD 13.5 27 27 27 27

MA only 27 27

MA only 27 27

Rural Sociology MA and PhD 13.5 27 27 27 27

MA only 27 27

Agricultural Education
MA and PhD 13.5 27 27 27 27

Agricultural Education
MA only 27 27

162 243 189


54 121.5


B. Technical Assistance:

The contracting university needs to provide technical assistance

to set up programs, teach courses and work with counterparts.

Actions by Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

All Costs are in $US x 103

Technical Assistance
funded by AID

PhD in Extension -
2 years

PhD in Extension -
2 years

PhD in Rural
in Rural Soc. 1 year

PhD in Agricultural
Education 2 year

PhD or MA in Ag. Ed. -
2 years

67.5 125


67.5 125


250 192.5


375 375



The following tabulates the furniture and equipment needed for the
Department of Rural Education. Eleven faculty will be teaching by 1986
and furniture for 8 is budgeted since 3 already have furniture. Furni-
ture for the office staff of 2 secretaries and 2 enumerators as well as
for the office operation is budgeted. The Department will need the capa-
bility of a copier, ditto and stencil machines for classroom materials.
The audio-visual/conference room and research laboratory will need capa-
bility in

a) overhead transparences
b) slide and motion projection
c) video taping

The latter will be used to record interactions with extension personnel
in the laboratory and small holders in the field. Two vehicles are
budgeted, but these are to be used by the entire University. It is sug-
gested that the equipment be purchased in two installments, the first
being in 1983 and the second in 1985. Maintenance costs figured at 10%
of value per year need to be figured in starting in 1983.

Office Equipment: Furniture for Professor's Offices

--0desks at $400 each $ 3200

8 desk chairs at $75 each 600

16 book cases at $100 each 1600

16 file cabinets at $125 each 2000

16 side chairs at $60 each 960

6 small wall black boards at
$40 each 240

Furniture for Department Office and Enumerators

6 side chairs at $60 each 360

2 secretarial desks at $450 each 900

2 secretarial chairs at $75 each 150

4 file cabinets at $125 each 500

4 book cases at $100 each 400

2 small desk at $300 each



2 IBM electric typewriters at $1750 each' 3500

2 small..electric typewriters at $700 each+ 1400

2 typing stands at $50 each 100

1 Ditto machine at $350 35U

1 Electronic stencil maker+ 450

1 Ronograph stencil machine+ 550

1 small copier 3000

2 supply cabinets at $200 400

4 calculators at $40 160

8 transformers at $30 240

$ 22,360

60% for freight 13,416

$ 35,776

+Maintenance on Electrical Equipment (10% of value) $925 per year.


Furniture for Teaching/Extension Laboratory

1 Conference table $ 600

12 side Chairs at $60 each 720

1 16mm Motion Picture Projector
Singer Education Systems 2110+ $ 959 950

2 side projectors
Eastman Kodak AF-2 310 620

Case 34.95 75

2 overhead projectors
Bell and Howell 301 KA+ 225 450

Storage cover 7 14

3 projection tables
Advance projects Comp. AV-444A 77 231

2 projection screens
Knox Manufacturing Co.
60 x 60 lenticular 75.00 75

70 x 70 90.00 90

Carrying case 60" 17.50 18

70" 18.50 19

2 video cameras, monochrome+
JVC Industries GS-4600 U 697 1394

1 video tape recorder (portable)+
JVC CR-4400 U 2850 2850

Adaptor and battery charger +
JVC AA-P44 U 250 250

2 video receiver/monitor, monochrome +
Electronome Limited EMB-23 Monitor 549 1098

2 Camera Tripods 100 200

1 video tape recorder
JVC Industries Vid star HR-3300 U 1050 1050

TOTAL 10,704

Shipping 60% 6,422


+Maintenance (tO0 year)



The building modules necessary for this
Department are:

NO of modules

Department Chairperson's 1

Office for 2 secretaries
and space for office
equipment (e.go copier,
ditto, etc.) 2

Office for enumerators 1

Audio-Visual/Conference Room 2

Research Laboratory 2

Professors offices
(2 per office) 5



Total Actions by Year


Technical Assistance



Farming Syto mn


MOA Personnel short

UCA recruiting of
women students




























- 70.7

28 56

4.8 4.8

73 219

4.8 24



Appendex B

Department of Rural Education1

Courses in Rural Sociology in the Division of Rural Sociology and


One week proseminar at ENSA, (2nd year)i l0h (Upper ITA) and
20h (Lower ITA 2nd year) Rural Institutions:
The main focus is on the following aspects:
(a) Interventionism as development strategy in Agriculture; (b) a
typology of parastatal organizations in Cameroon's agricultural
sector; (c) the internal dynamic of bureaucratic organizations;
(d) the interaction of bureaucrats and farmers in relations to
agricultural production activities; (e) case studies, (a coopera-
tive, a development society, a plantation complex, etc...) with
special guests speakers from these organizations.


502 Methodology I: An Introductory course
Fifth year, common to all Options 10h
Discussions are centered around the following:
(1) science is a source of truth; (2) characteristics of scientific
knowledge; (3) analysis of the major steps in scientific method
with special emphasis on the statement of the problem and the
formulation of hypotheses; (4) an introduction to research project

EV. 505 Sociological Theory and Rural Development: Fifth year Option
A comparative analysis of some major theorical approaches to the
study of development and the related rural development strategies.
Particular attention is given to issues of conceptual clarification and
conceptual frameworks (1) evolutionist; (2) behavioral; (3) diffusionist;
(4) human ecology and; (5) structural dependency.

Rural Sociology: Introductory course
3rd year, 35 hours; 5 mornings practical training
What is sociology? Some basic concepts institutions; rural institutions;
economic institutions especiallyy in the context of the Cameroonian
countryside). Political institutions at the village level. Social
change; social development.

Practical training: interview exercise in villages near Nkolbisson.
The present site is Mbankomo.

The course descriptions were prepared by Mr. Francois Tchaln-Abina,


EV. 500 Methodology II: 20 hours: ENSA 5th year, for students
taking Option in Economics and Extension. Practical training
mixed with courses: case study research; methods of sampling;
how to.,make a questionnaire; codification and conclusions from

EV. 502 Elaboration and Analysis of Projects: ENSA 5th year
Case study analysis of 5 or 6 rural development projects. What
is social feasibility? Evaluation of social effects of rural
development projects. Prefeasibility studies and the role of
the sociologist in project appraisal.

EV. 507 Peasant Organizations and Rural Development: 20 h, 5th year,
for students taking Option in Economics and Extension
An analysis of selected types of peasant organizations. Theoretical
and policy aspects of modernization of peasant communities, with
special references to group farming, community development,
collectivization, resettlement programs, etc.

Optional Courses: (5th year)
To be arranged each year on special topics, after discussion with

"Upper ITA"

Rural Sociology: Introductory course, 20h
The first part deals with the importance of human factors in
agricultural development. The second part is devoted to the
definition of sociology and of some basic concepts. The third
part is concerned with the analysis of major social institutions
with specific reference to the Cameroonian context.

Applied Sociology: 1st year 20h
A : a brief introduction on (1) the implication of sociological
theory in the analysis of rural development project and (2)
sociological methods. B : case studies in small groups of some
applications of sociology to development programs (social feasibility
and sociopsychological evaluation of agricultural and rural
development projects).

"Lower ITA"

Rural Sociology: Introductory course 40 h
The focus here is twofold (1) on the examination of some basic
sociological concepts, social institutions and their implications
to agricultural programs and (2) on the use of sociological research
to agricultural extension programs. (Identification of local opinion
leaders, situation analysis and program evaluation).

Extention Courses in the Division of Rural Sociology and Extension.


Extension Education 4th year: 35 hours
Examination of the basic theories and concepts of Extension approach.


Philosophy and Extension methods. Administration, planning and
evaluation of Extension programs. Case studies.

Outreach Activities: Every Saturday
Allows students to be in contact with the rural environment and
help small holders in their agricultural activities. Provides
information for research activities.

Applied Research and Extension 5th year: (for students taking
Option) 20 hours
Overview of the basic approaches to research and extension.
The planning of research and the diffusion of research findings.
Articulation of the needs of small holders in extension services.

Upper ITA

Extension Methodology: 10 hours
No clear content has yet been underlined. In this case there is
no outreach activity.

Rural Animation Techniques (10 hours)

Lower ITA

Extension Education: 60 hours
Program content is similar to the one at ENSA with special
emphasis on programing. Up until now, there is no outreach activity.

Courses in the Division of Rural Pedagogy


ENSA and ITA: 35 hours
Emphsis on reporting techniques, use of audio-visuals, preparation of
training sessions in rural areas and introductory psychological concepts.



Mrs. Elizabeth Balepa, Deputy Chief of Services (Agricultural Statistics)MOA

Dr. Gibering Bol Alima, Director General, UCA

Mr. Muzong Boyomo, Chief of Services, UCA

Mr. Joseph Djoukam, Director, ITA, UCA

Ms. Hildegrade Ebakisse, Inspectrice Pedagogie Nationale Enseignement
Menager et Couture, Ministry of Education

Ms. Rose Elive, Community Development Supervisor, Bamenda, MOA

Mr. Simon Essomba-Abamba, MOA

Mr. Jacob Foko, Deputy Director ENSA, UCA

Mr. Christian Fomy, MOA

Mr. Charles Forsham, External Relations, UCA

Mr. Joseph Gamga, Department of Studies and Projects, MOA

Dr. Solomon Gwei, Vice Minister, MOA

Dr. Stanley Handleman, USAID, Yaounde

Mr. Paul Jiekak, Chief, Bureau of Soils, MOA

Mr. Jules Kome, Deputy Director, ITA, UCA

Mr. Dean Mahon, USAID/Coop/Mut, Yaounde

Mrs. Malaga, Deputy Director of Training, MOA

Mr. Ricahrd Molu, Director ENSA, USDA

Mr. Jean Momo, Assistant Chief of Agriculture, Dschang, MOA

Mr. Phillip Moumie, Deputy Director, Department of Agriculture, MOA

Mr. Antoine Mvogo, MOA

Mr. Ernest Ndongo, Community Development Officer, Mbankomo, MOA

Mrs. Lydia Nengom, MOA

Mrs. Mara Ngando, Assistance Chief of Services (Surveys), MOA

Mrs. Agatha Ngi, Chief of Women's Services, MOA


Dr. Dorothy Njema, Vice Minister, MOE

Mr. Jean Nyemba, Department of Rural Education ENSA, UCA

Dr. Jean Ongla, Secretary General, UCA

Mr. Joseph Oyono-Owondo, MOA

Mr. Phillippee Sayette (de la), Professor ITA

Dr. Martin Schulman, USAID, Yaounde

Mr. Bill Scott, USAID, Yaounde

Mr. S. S. Shang, Director, Department of Cooperation and
Mutuality, MOA

Mr. Thomas Tata, Provincial Delegate, Bamenda, MOA

Mr. Francois Tcala-Abina, Head,Department of Rural Education, ENSA, UCA

Mr. Thomas Tchemeza, Extension Officer Bafou

Mr. Emmanuel Toze, MOA

Mr. Hans van der Belt, Department of Rural Education, ENSA

ENSA students

ITA students

Bafou, Dschang farmers

Mbankomo farmers



Ahidjo, Ahmadou

1974 "Green Revolution and Agricultural Show". Grand Agricultural
Show, Ngaoudere Dec. 10-11 pp 7-11.

1980 "General Policy Report Presented by the National President
of the Cameroon National Union". Bafoussam 13 February.

Bryson, Judy

1979 "Women and Economic Development in Cameroon". Contract NO RDO
78/8, USAID/Yaounde.

Cornell Report
(Cornell University and E.N.S.A.)

1979 "A Study of the Development of the University Center for
Agriculture at Dschang, Cameroon: Agricultural Manpower
Needs Assessment and Implications for Participatory
Development" for USAID/Yaounde, mimeo.

Delancey, Mark

n.d. "Cameroon National Food Policies and Organizations: the Green
Revolution and Structural Proliferation", mimeo.

E.N.S.A. (Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique)

1975-76 Livret de 1'Etudiant. Yaounde: Universite de Yaounde.

1975-76 "Department of Rural Education, Rapport d'activites."

1976-77 "Department of Rural Education, Rapport d'activites."

Guyer, Jane

1977 The Women's Farming System: the Lekie, Southern Cameroon.
Yaounde: E.N.S.A.


n.d. "Cycle des Ingenieurs des Travaux Agricoles and Cycle
des Techniciens". Course Catalog.


Kaberry, Phyllis

1952 Women of the Grassficlds: A Study of the Economic Position
of Women in Bemenda, British Cameroon. London: Her Majesty's
Stationery Office.

Koenig, Dolores

1977 Sex, Work and Social Class in Cameroon. Ph.D. dissertation,
Northwestern University.

Mahaffey, Miriam

n.d. "Market Participation and the Organization of Land and Labor
in the Northwest Province, Cameroons" in Agricultural
Marketing in the Northwest Province, United Republic of
Cameroon. USAID, mimeo. pp 172-257.

National Cereals Research

1979 "Project Paper". No. 631-0031, USAID/Yaounde.
(Bureau for Africa, Cameroon).

Nelson, Harold et al,

1974 Area Handbook for the United Republic of Cameroon.
Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office

Nyemba, Jean Ambela

1979 A Study of Factors Associated with the Viability
of Farm Groups in the Lekie Division of the United
Republic of Cameroon. Master thesis, University of
Ibadan, Nigeria.

Parrot M. and M. Bauchau

1973-74 Division de Pedagogie Rurale: Rapport d'Activites.
Yaounde: Bureau pour le Developpement de la
Production Agricole.

1974-75 Division de Pedagogie Rurale: Rapport d'Activites.
Yaounde: Bureau pour le Developpement de la
Production Agricole.


Report of Group C

1978 "Policy Issues Relating to Access of Small-Scale Farmers
to Production Inputs and Services which Affect their
Viability". Paper presented at the Policy Workshop on
the Future Viability of Small-Scale Farming, the Hague:
Institute of Social Studies, mimeo.

Tchala-Abina, Francois

1974 "Contribution a une experience de Vulgarisation Agricole:
Yemessoa", Vol. I et II, Etude Technique N01, E.N.S.A.,

1980 "Une Experience d'Intervention Direct d'une Faculte
d'Agriculture dans le Developpement Rural: Etude du
Cas de L'E.N.S.A. au Cameroun". Paper prepared for
Conference of the Association of African Agronomists,
Egypt. University of Alexandria.


1977 United Nations Development Program/Food and Agriculture
Organization. Recensement Mondial de l"Agriculture et
Etablissement d'un Systeme Permanent de Statistiques
Courantes: Resultats du Recensement Agricole 1972-73
pour le Cameroun. Rome.

Van Gils, Lambert

1978 "La Zone d'Application et de Vulgarisation de 1'E.N.S.A.
(1971-78)," Etude Technique N020. September, E.N.S.A.,

World Bank

1977 Appraisal of Western Highlands Rural Development Project,
Cameroon, Report No 1780-CM.

1979 "Agricultural Projects Reconnaissance Mission: Main Report".
August, mimeo.

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