Citation
The elements of physical geography

Material Information

Title:
The elements of physical geography for the use of schools, academies, and colleges
Cover title:
Houston's new physical geography
Creator:
Houston, Edwin J ( Edwin James ), 1847-1914
Eldredge & Brother ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Philadelphia (No. 17 North Seventh Street)
Publisher:
Eldredge & Brother
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Rev. ed.
Physical Description:
180 p. : ill. (1 col.), maps (some col.) ; 27 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Physical geography -- Textbooks -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1896 ( rbgenr )
Textbooks -- 1896 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1896
Genre:
Children's literature ( fast )
Textbooks ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia

Notes

General Note:
On cover: Houston's new physical geography.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Edwin J. Houston.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
023732212 ( ALEPH )
16159333 ( OCLC )
AHM0381 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text




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WIE0S MAILILS OF IWMAGAIRA, —

FROM A RECENT PHOTOGRAPH



Ee MENS

ee AL

OF

PEVSICAL GHOGRA PENG

FOR THE USE OF

SCHOOLS, ACADEMIES, AND COLLEGES.

BY
EDWIN J. HOUSTON, A.M. PxD,,

EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE CENTRAL
HIGH SCHOOL OF. PHILADELPHIA; PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS IN THE FRANKLIN
INSTITUTE OF THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA,

REVISED EDITION.









PHILADELPHIA:

PuBLISHED BY ELDREDGE & BROTHER,
No. 17 North Seventh Street.

A896.





>

bo" #2000"
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1891, by

ELDREDGE & BROTHER,
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

ee 28

Copyright, 1895.

¢G

aA





Westcott & THOMSON, THe GEORGE S. FERGUSON CO.,
Electrotypers, Philada. Printers, Philada,







PREFACE
TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION.

——+02e300—_

ie the preparation of this work, an endeavor has been made to supply a concise yet comprehensive
text-book, suited to the wants of a majority of our schools.

The Author, in the course of his teaching, has experienced the need of a work in which unneces-
sary details should be suppressed, and certain subjects added, which, though usually omitted in works
on Physical Geography, seem, in his judgment, to belong properly to the science. The variety of
topics necessarily included under the head of Physical Geography renders it almost impossible to
cover the entire ground of the ordinary text-books during the time which most schoals are able to
devote to the study, and the feeling of incompleted work thus impressed on the mind of both teacher
and scholar is of the most discouraging nature.

To remove these difficulties, the Author, during the past few years, has arranged for his own
students a course of study, which, with a few modifications, he has at last put into book form, thinking
that it may prove beneficial to others.

The division of the text into large and small print has been made with a view of meeting the
wants of different grades of schools, the large type containing only the more important statements, and
the small type being especially designed for the use of the teacher and the advanced student, The
maps have been carefully drawn by the Author according to the standard works and the latest
authorities. Neither time nor expense has been spared to insure accuracy of detail and clearness
of delineation. :

Throughout the work no pains have been spared to insure strict accuracy of statement. Clearness
and conciseness have been particularly aimed at; for which reason the names of authorities for state-
ments which are now generally credited have been purposely omitted.

The Author has not hesitated to draw information from all the standard works on Geonaehy,
Physics, Geology, Astronomy, and other allied sciences; and in the compilation of the Pronouncing
Vocabulary he acknowledges his indebtedness to Lippincott’s Gazetteer of the World.

Acknowledgments are due to Mr. William M. Spackman, of Philadelphia, and Prof. Elihu
Thomson, of the Central High School, for critical review of the manuscript. Also to Mr. M. Benja-
min Snyder, of the Central High School, for revision of the proof-sheets of the chapter on Mathe-
matical Geography. E. J. H.

CENTRAL Hi@H ScHOOL, Philadelphia, Pa.
































{ \Eeet

WW

PREFACE

TO THE REVISED EDITION.

J\HE marked progress which has been made in most of the departments of science embraced

in the study of Physical Geography since the issue of the original edition of “The
Elements of Physical Geography” has rendered the preparation of a revised edition a matter
of necessity.

The study of Physical Geography, including as it does not only the crust of the earth and

2 heated interior, but also the distribution of its land, water, air, plants, and animals, includes,
in its range, a great variety of topics, and necessitates for its proper elucidation many branches
of science. Some knowledge of the elementary principles of these sciences is necessary to the
proper study of Physical Geography. The number of such principles is great, and the temptation
naturally exists to encumber even an elementary text-book with such an abundance of leading
principles as to render it either incomprehensible, or too extended for actual use in the school-
room.

The author has endeavored in the revised edition to avoid undue multiplicity either of ele-
mentary principles or unimportant details. His object has been to develop forcibly the close inter-
dependence of the inanimate features of the earth’s surface, the land, water, and air, with its
animate features, its flora, and fauna, and to show the marked influence which all of these exert
on the development of the human race, and, therefore, on history itself.

Recognizing, from his standpoint of a teacher, the inadvisability of crowding a book with
new matter simply because it is new, the author has carefully avoided the introduction of new
theories unless they have been generally accepted by the best authorities. Old theories are in all
cases given the preference of new ones, unless the latter bear the stamp of general approval.
At the same time the results of recent investigations have been freely given in all cases where

they have been considered sufficiently authoritative.
iv






PREFACE. Vv



In order to avoid confusing the mind of the student, controversial matters have been carefully
avoided. When, however, opinion on any subject is fairly divided, a brief statement is made of the
differing views. ;

The favorable reception accorded by the teaching profession to the earlier editions of the book,
and the flattering increase in the number of schools using it, have satisfied the author of the
inadvisability of changing, to any considerable extent, the order of sequence of topics discussed, or
the general manner of explanation therein adopted.

In the preparation of the revised edition the author has freely consulted the latest standard
authorities in the many sciences represented.

The maps have all been re-drawn according to the best authorities, and are printed and colored
by processes that in point of clearness and beauty leave little room for improvement.

EDWIN J. HOUSTON.

Centrat Hien Scuoot,
PHILADELPHIA, PA.

NOTE.



The first chapter of this book is intended mainly for reference, containing as it does, an abstract.
of the elementary principles of Mathematical Geography, with which most pupils beginning the study
of Physical Geography are familiar. In many schools in which the book is used, it is customary
to begin the formal study of the book with the Syllabus, page 21, which presents a comprehensive
review of the chapter, and in practice and results this plan has proved satisfactory.









































CONTENTS.

Sia
PAGE CHAPTER PAGE
INTRODUCTORY ..... 5 AR 9 ETS AR VRS (seers = sere eiete sirreutewcsoaa ae ene wise 208
IV. TRANSPORTING POWER OF RIVERS ... 65
V. DRAINAGE SYSTEMS .......... 67
PART I. AVA lia By Grantee em at oe See eee eyeawOO
THE EARTH AS A PLANET. SYUGABUS: can cattcey apenas cue seat Seer 71
CHAPTER REVIEW AND MAP QUESTIONS ....... 72
I, MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY ...... 10
SYLLABUS aries ten ielemev earetemreurs ye cces seo z
REVIEW QUESTIONS .......... aol Section II.
OCEANIC WATERS.
PART II. Te THE OGRAN: ai.) sis ai ee eis sis alb laden 118
II. OckaAnic MovEMENTS ....... See LO
THE LAND. ELE OCEANS ©CURRENTSHits scree nee teste 79
Section I. SMA TABUS petaeseree carseat asa ator ye 83
THE INSIDE OF THE EARTH. REVIEW AND MAp QUESTIONS. ....... 84
I. Tot HEATED INTERIOR .........22
II. VOLCANOES ..... ace cunsoe em ae aieae esto
AR THO WAKES Hore: ies ds et fed acorn es rey ae 28 PAS ry:
SWEPABUS ie recs ce cee te mecn ten te te mrut uae 81
REVIEW AND Map QUESTIONS ....... - 82 Oe ee

Section II.
THE OUTSIDE OF THE EARTH,
I, THe Crust oF THE EARTH ...... .33
II. DisTRIBUTION OF THE LAND AREAS... . 87

GA SUAN DS cause ciesiese cu sauce ele ican etic - 39
IV. Revier Forms of THE LAND ..... .42
V. RELIEF FoRMS OF THE CONTINENTS .. .45
SYUMABUS 8) cis +3. 6 ir saeercne aoe oeacer: 54
REVIEW QUESTIONS ...... Ceaiebicie one 55
Map QUESTIONS ....... sure ones O0,
PART ITI.
THE WATER.

Section I.
CONTINENTAL WATERS.
I. PaysicAL PROPERTIES OF WATER... .57
Po DRATNAGES) stce ret ee oes eek Seer NSS 59

vi

‘Section I.
THE ATMOSPHERE.
I. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF THE ATMOSPHERE 85

A © MAE eres lla, cp lace les arnt neuer Maremma ain 87
De BWalINIDS: 37s) clsers: Tours crs need ee tears 90
MVEESTORMS Siesaa sce ce eee eee - 96
SNAG ABU So eetienae ee aiee sr eects See es sar aaa ese 98
REVIEW QUESTIONS ss ccers Sole wees a ane ys Peo)
MUAPEO@) UESTIONSS voptenysaccetsnt nest yeoman eee ees 100

Section ILI.
MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

I, PRECIPITATION OF MOISTURE ...... 101
IJ. Hart, Snow, AND GLACIERS ...... 107
III. ELEcTRICAL AND OPTICAL PHENOMENA . 110
DSWLEABUS we esanss tue ce eres tenon piece miei eae te 115
REVIEW QUESTIONS ........2. Rea eerelelG

MEAPS @UESTIONSiigee suaeiacgees Pollan ts Went wercins eae ae 117
















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PHYSICAL

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sk ay)

ut Geography is a description of the earth.

The earth may be considered in three different
ways:

(1.) In its relations to the solar system ;

(2.) In its relations to government and society ;

(3.) In its relations to nature.

Hence arise three distinct branches of geog-
raphy—Mathematical, Political, and Physical.

2. Mathematical Geography treats of the earth
in its relations to the solar system.

Mathematical Geography forms the true basis for
accurate geographical study, since by the view we thus
obtain of the earth in its relations to the other members
of the solar system, we are enabled to form clearer concep-
tions of the laws which govern terrestrial phenomena,
Here we learn the location of the earth in space, its size,
form, and movements, its division by imaginary lines, and
the methods of representing portions of its surface on maps.

3. Political Geography treats of the earth in
its relations to the governments and societies of
2

[

a
















is

(FÂ¥EOGRA PHY.



INTRODUCTORY.

men, of the manner of life of a people, and of
their civilization and government.

4, Physical Geography treats of the earth in
its relations to nature and to the natural laws by
which it is governed. It treats especially of the

- systematic distribution of all animate and inani-

mate objects found on the earth’s surface. It not
only tells of their presence in a given locality,
but it also endeavors to discover the causes and
results of their existence.

Physical Geography, therefore, treats of, the
distribution of six classes of objects—Land, Water,
Air, Plants, Animals, and Minerals.

Geography deals with the inside as well as with the out-
side of the earth. It encroaches here on the province of
geology. Both treat of the earth: geography mainly with
the earth’s present condition ; geology with its condition
both in the past and present, though mainly during the past.

_ Some authors make physical geography a branch of geol-
ogy, and call it physiographic geology, but we prefer the
word “physical,’”’ or as the etymology would make it,
“natural” geography.

4

9:





ie Awan 1D



THE EARTH. AS A. PLANET.



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig, 1, The Earth in Space,

CHAPTER lL
Mathematical Geography.

5. The Earth moves through empty space
around the sun. The old idea of the earth
resting on, or being supported by something, is
erroneous. The earth rests on nothing.

A book or other inanimate object placed on a
support will remain at rest until something or
somebody moves it, because it has no power of
self-motion. This property. is called iertia.

Inertia is not confined to bodies at rest. If
the book be thrown up through the air, it ought
to keep on moving upward for ever, because it
has no more power to stop moving than to begin
to move. We know, however, that in reality it
stops very soon, and falls to the earth; because—

(1.) The earth draws or attracts it; +

(2.) The falling body gives some of its motion
to the air through which it moves.

Were the book thrown in any direction through
the empty space in which the stars move, it would
continue moving in that direction for ever, unless
it came near enough to some other body which
would attract it and cause it to change its motion.

Our earth moves through empty space on ac-
count of its inertia, and must continue so moving
for eternities. There are ample reasons for believ-

10



ing that all heavenly bodies continue their mo-
tion solely on account of their inertia. The curved
paths in which the earth and the other planets
move are resultant paths produced in a-manner
that will be explained hereafter.

Space is not absolutely empty, but is everywhere filled
with a very tenuous substance called ether, which trans-
mits to us the light and heat of the heavenly bodies.
Wherever the telescope reveals the presence of stars we
must believe the ether also extends.

_ 6, The Stars.—The innumerable points of light
that dot the skies are immense balls of matter
which, like our earth, are moving through empty
space. Most of them are heated so intensely that
they give off heat and light in all directions.
They are so far from the earth that they would
not be visible but for their/immense size. Beyond
them are other balls, also self-luminous, but too
far off to be visible except through a telescope.
Beyond these, again, we have reason to believe
that there are still others. These balls of matter
are called stars.

All the heavenly bodies, however, do not shine
by their own light. A few—those nearest the
earth—shine by reflecting the light of the sun.
These are called planets, and move with the earth
around the sun.

7. The Solar System comprises the sun, eight
large bodies called planets, and, as far as now
known, three hundred .and eighty-four smaller
bodies called planetoids or asteroids, besides nu-
merous comets and meteors. Some of the planets
have bodies called moons or satellites moving
around them. These also belong to the solar
system. s

Fig. 2 represents the solar system. In the
centre is the sun. The circles drawn around
the sun show the paths or orbits of the planets.
These orbits are represented as circular, but in.
reality they are slightly flattened or elliptical.
The elongated orbits mark the paths of the comets.








MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY.





Mi

. . 2 Ye
ui ae

The drawing shows the order of the planets from
the sun their common centre, together with the
satellites or moons of some of the planets, and
the rings of Saturn.

8. Names of the Planets.—The planets, named
in their regular order from the sun, beginning
with the nearest, are as follows—viz.: Mercury,
Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and
Neptune. The first four—Mereury, Venus, Earth,
and Mars—are comparatively small; the second

_four—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune—are







very large, Jupiter being nearly fourteen hun- —

dred times larger than the earth. The initial
letters of the last three planets, Saturn, Uranus,
and Neptune, taken in their order from the sun:
s, u, and n—spell the name of their common
centre.

* Mercury has a mean or average distance of 36,000,000
of miles from the sun; Venus, 67,200,000; Earth, 92,900,000 ;
and Mars, 141,500,000.

Jupiter is 483,000,000; Saturn, 886,000,000; Uranus,
1,781,900,000; Neptune, 2,791,600,000. The asteroids move
around the sun in the space between the orbits of Mars and
Jupiter.



* Calculated in round numbers for the mean svlar distance of
92,897,000 miles, :








12 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



It is difficult to obtain clear conceptions of distances that
are represented by millions of miles. We may learn the
numbers, but in general they convey no definite ideas.
Should a man travel forty times around the earth at the
equator, he would only have gone over about 1,000,000
miles. Now, Mercury, the nearest of the planets, is thirty-
six times farther from the sun than the entire distance the
man would have travelled, while Neptune is nearly three
thousand times the distance he would have travelled.

9. The Satellites—A satellite is a body that
revolves around another body: the planets are
satellites of the sun; the moon is a satellite of
the earth. Mars has two moons. So far as is
known, neither Mercury nor Venus has a satel-
lite. All the planets whose orbits are beyond the
orbit of the earth have moons: Jupiter has five,
Uranus six, Saturn eight, and Neptune one. Be-
sides its moons, Saturn has a number of curious
ring-like accumulations of separate solid or liquid
particles revolving around it. The earth’s moon
is about 240,000 miles from the earth. Its vol-
ume is about one-forty-ninth that of the earth’s.

10. The Sun is the great central body of the
solar system. Around it move the planets with
their satellites, receiving their light and heat
from it. The sun is a huge heated mass about
1,300,000 times the size of the earth. Its diam-
eter is about 866,500 miles. It appears the
largest self-luminous body in the heavens because
it is comparatively near the earth. Many stars
which appear as mere dots of light are much
larger than the sun.

The sun is a body heated to luminosity, and gives out or
emits light and heat like any other highly-heated body.
If no causes exist to maintain its heat, it will eventu-
ally cool and fail to emit light. The sun’s heat is partly
kept up by a variety of causes, the principal of which is
the heat developed by meteoric showers that fall on its
surface. If a meteor fall toward the sun from inter-
planetary space, it will reach the surface with enormous
velocity, and its motion will there be converted into
heat. Since, however, the increase of the sun’s mass so
necessitated’ is not confirmed by astronomical observa-
tions, itis believed that the sun’s heat is not being main-
tained in this way, and that the sun must eventually cool

—an event, however, so remote in time that the life of the
solar system may be regarded as practically infinite.

Size of the Sun.—Were the sun hollow and the earth
placed at its centre, there would not only be sufficient room
to enable the moon to revolve at its present actual distance
around the earth, but it would still, in all parts of its orbit,
be nearly 200,000 miles below the surface of the sun.

All the fixed stars are distant suns, and probably have

worlds like our own moving around them.

From the enormous distances of the fixed stars, we are
obliged, in estimating their distances, to use for our unit
of measurement the velocity of light. Any other common
unit would be too small. Light moves through space at
the rate of about 186,000 miles a second, which is over





11,000,000 miles a minute. Notwithstanding this prodig-
ious velocity, it would take over three thousand years for
light to reach the earth from some of the stars that are
visible to the naked eye. But beyond these stars the tele-
scope reveals myriads of others, whose number is limited
only by the power of the instrument. We may conclude
that the universe is as boundless as space; that is, light
can never reach its extreme limits.

11. Cause of the Harth’s Revolution.—The earth
continues its motion through space solely on account of
its inertia. Its curved path around the sun is a resultant
caused by the constant action of two forces: one, a pro-
jectile force probably imparted to it when it began its
separate existence; the other, the sun’s attraction, which
causes the earth to fall toward the sun. Under the infiu-
ence of the projectile force alone the earth would, in a
given time, move from a to d (Fig. 3); but during this time



Fig. 3, Cause of the Curved Shape of the Barth's Orbit,

it has been continually changing its direction by an
amount equivalent to a direct fall from 6 to ¢ along bd;
hence its real orbit, during this time, is along the curved
line ac.

12. Position of the Solar System in Space—
The sun, with all the bodies which move around
it, is in that portion of the heavens called the
Milky Way. The sun is an insignificant star
among the millions of other stars the telescope
has revealed to us.

It was formerly believed that the sun was stationary, for
it was not then known that the positions of the fixed stars
were undergoing slight variations as regards the earth.
It is now generally conceded that the sun, with all the
planets, is moving through space with tremendous veloc-
ity, the direction at present being toward the constella-
tion Hercules. The astronomer Maedler, however, believes
that the grand centre around which the solar system is
moving is Aleyone, the brightest star in the constellation
of the Pleiades. The estimated velocity of the sun in its
immense orbit is 1,382,000,000 miles per year. As the earth
is carried along with the sun in its orbit, it is continually
entering new realms of space.

13. The Earth.—The-shape of the earth is that
of a round ball or sphere slightly flattened at two
opposite sides. Such a body is termed a spheroid.
There are two kinds of spheroids—oblate and pro-
late; the former has the shape of an orange, the
latter that of a lemon.







MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. 18



The straight line that runs through the centre
of a sphere or spheroid and terminates at the cir-
cumference is called the diameter. If the sphere
rotates—that is, moves around like a top—the



Fig. 4, Oblate Spheroid,

diameter on which it turns is called its awis. In
the oblate spheroid the axis is the shorter diam-
eter ; in the prolate spheroid the axis is the longer
diameter.





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig, 6, Curvature of the Harth’s Surface.

The shape of our earth is that of an oblate
spheroid. The polar diameter is 26.47 miles
shorter than the equatorial diameter.

14. Proofs of the Rotundity of the Earth—





The earth is so large a sphere that its surface
everywhere appears flat. The following simple
considerations will prove, however, that its form
is nearly spherical:

(1.) Appearance of Approaching Objects —If
the earth were flat, as soon as an object appeared
on the horizon we would see the upper and lower
parts at the same time; but if it were curved, the
top parts would first be seen. Now, when a ship
is coming into port we see first the topmasts, then
the sails, and finally the hull; hence the earth
must be curved; and, since the appearance is the
same no matter from what direction the ship is
approaching, we infer that the earth is evenly
curved, or spherical.

(2.) Circular Shape of the Horizon.—The hori-
zon—or, as the word means, the boundary—is the
line which limits our view when nothing inter-
venes. The fact that this is always a circle fur-
nishes another proof that the earth is spherical.

The horizon would still be a circle if the earth were
perfectly flat, for we would still see equally far in all di-
rections; but it would not everywhere be so, since to an
observer near the edges some other shape would appear.
It is on account of the spherical form of the earth that our
field of view on a plain is so soon limited by the apparent
meeting of the earth and sky. As we can see only in
straight lines, objects continue visible until they reach
such a distance as to sink below the horizon, so that a
straight line from the eye will pass above them, meeting
the sky far beyond, on which, as a background, the objects
on the horizon are projected.

(8.) Shape of the Earth’s Shadow.—We can
obtain correct ideas of the shape of a body by
the shape of the shadow it casts. Now, the
shadow which the earth casts on the moon dur-
ing an eclipse of the moon is always circular,
and as only spherical bodies cast circular shad-
ows in all positions, we infer that the earth is
spherical.

(4.) Measurement.—The shape of the earth has
been accurately ascertained by calculations based
on the measurement of an arc of a meridian. We
therefore not only know that the earth is oblately
spheroidal, but also approximately the amount of
its oblateness.

(5.) The Shape of the Great Circle of Ilumi-
nation, or the line separating the portions of the
earth’s surface lighted by the sun’s rays from
those in the shadow, is another evidence of the
rotundity of the earth. rs
\ 15. The Dimensions of the Earth.—The equa-
torial diameter of the earth, or the distance
through at the equator, is, approximately, 7926






14



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.





miles; its polar diameter, or the length of its
axis, is 7899 miles. The circumference is 24,899
miles. The entire surface is equal to nearly
197,000,000 square miles.

The specific gravity of the earth is about 53; that is, the
average weight of all its matter is five and two-third
times heavier than an equal volume of water.

16. Imaginary Circles—In order to locate
places on the earth, as well as to represent por-
tions of its surface on maps, we imagine the earth
to be encircled by a number of curved lines
called great and small circles.

A great circle is one which would be formed
on the earth’s surface by a plane passing through
the earth’s centre, hence dividing it into two
equal parts. All great circles, therefore, divide
the earth into hemispheres.

The formation of a great circle on a sphere by cutting
it into two equal parts is shown in Fig. 7.






The shortest distance between any two places on the
earth is along the arc of a great circle.

All planes passing through the earth’s centre form ap-
proximately great circles on its surface.

A small circle is one formed by a plane which

does not cut the earth into two equal parts.

The formation of a small circle by cutting a sphere into
unequal parts is shown in Fig. 8.



Fig, 8. Small Circle.

The great circles employed most frequently in
geography are the equator and the meridian
circles. The small circles are the parallels,





——,

If we divide the circumference of any circle, whether
great or small, into three hundred and sixty equal parts,
each part is called a degree. The one-sixtieth part of a
degree is a minute; the one-sixtieth part of a minute is a
second. These divisions are represented as follows: 34°,
12!, 38’°; which reads, thirty-four degrees twelve minutes
and thirty-eight seconds.

The Equator is that great circle of the earth
which is equidistant from the poles.

Meridian Circles are great circles of the earth
which pass through both poles.

The Meridian of any given place is that half
of the meridian circle which passes through that
place and both poles. A meridian of any place
reaches from that place to both poles, and there-
fore is equal to one-half of a great circle, and,
with the meridian directly opposite to it, forms
a great circle called a meridian circle. There
are as many meridian circles as there are places
on the equator or on any parallel.

In large cities the meridian is generally assumed to pass
through the principal observatory.



















Fig. 9, Meridians and Parallels,

Parallels are small circles which pass around
the earth parallel to the equator.

The meridians extend due north and@ south, and are
everywhere of the same length; the parallels extend due
east and west, and decrease in length as they approach the
poles.

The Tropics are parallels which lie 23° 27’
porth and south of the equator: the northern
tropic is called the Tropic of Cancer, the south-
ern tropic is called the Tropic of Capricorn.

The Polar Circles are parallels which lie 23°
27’ from each pole. The circle in the Northern
Hemisphere is called the Arctic Circle; that in
the Southern Hemisphere, the Antarctic Cirele.

17. Latitude is distance north or south from

"the equator toward the poles, measured ‘along

the meridians. It is reckoned in degrees. .

The meridian circles are divided into nearly
equal parts by the parallels, and it is the number
of these parts that occur on the meridian of any
place between it and the equator which deter-










MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. 15



mines the value of its latitude. If we conceive
eighty-nine equidistant parallels drawn between
the equator and either pole, they will divide all
the meridians into ninety nearly equal parts; the
value of each of these parts will be one degree
of latitude. Therefore, if the parallel running
through a place is distant from the equator forty-
five of these parts, its latitude is 45°. If more
than eighty-nine parallels be drawn, the value
of each part will be less than one degree.
Places north of the equator are in north lati-
tude; those south of it are in south latitude.
Since the distance from the equator to the poles
is one-fourth of an entire circle, and there are

only 360° in any circle, 90° is the greatest value —

of latitude a place can have. Latitude 90° N.
therefore corresponds to the north pole.

To recapitulate: Latitude is measured on the |
meridians by the parallels. :

18. Longitude is distance east or west of any
given meridian.

Places on the equator have their longitude measured
along it; everywhere else longitude is measured along the
parallels.

The meridian from which longitude is reckoned
is called the Prime Meridian. Most nations take
the meridians of their own capitals for their prime
meridian. The English reckon from the me-
ridian which runs through the observatory at
Greenwich; the French from Paris. In the
United States we reckon from Washington.

Any prime meridian circle divides all the par-
allels into two equal parts. A place situated east
of the prime meridian is in east longitude; west
of it is in west longitude.

Since there are only 180° in half a circle, the greatest
value the longitude can have is 180°; for a place 181° east
of any meridian would not fall within the eastern half of
the parallel on which it is situated, but in the western
half; and its distance, computed from the prime meridian,
would be 179° west. . 3 ¢

It is the meridians that divide the parallels
into degrees; therefore longitude is measured on
the parallels by the meridians. —

19. Value of Degrees of Latitude and Longi-
tude——As latitude is distance measured on the
are of a meridian, the value of one degree must
be the 345th part of the circumference along that
meridian, since there are only 360° in all. This
makes the value of a single degree approximately
equal to 694 miles. Near the poles the flattening
of the earth causes the value of a degree slightly
to exceed that of one near the equator.







The value of a degree of longitude is subject
to great variation. It is equal to the g{oth part
of the earth’s circumference, provided the place
be situated on the equator; otherwise, it is the
gigth part of the parallel passing through the
place that is taken; and as the parallels decrease
in size as we approach the poles, the value of a
degree of longitude must likewise decrease as the
latitude increases, until at either pole the longi-
tude becomes equal to zero.

The value of a single degree of longitude on the equator,

or at lat. 0°, is equal to about 694 miles.
At latitude 45° it is equal to about 49 miles.

“ 60° “ “c 35 “
“ce 80° “ , “c 12 coe
“ 90° 73 “ 0 “

Geographical Mile.—The sztypth of the equatorial
circumference, or the one-siatieth of a degree of longitude
at the equator, is called a nautical or geographical mile.
The statute mile contains 1760 yards; the geographical or
nautical mile, 2028 yards. The nautical mile is sometimes
called a knat.

20. Map Projections—The term projection as
applied to map-drawing means the various methods
adopted for representing portions of the earth’s
surface on the plane of a sheet of paper.

The projections in most common use are Merca-
tor’s, the orthographic, the stereographic, and the
conical projections. Of these the stereographic is
best adapted to ordinary geographical maps, and
Mercator’s to physical maps. All -projections
must be regarded as but approximations.

1. The Orthographic Projection is that by which the
earth’s surface is represented as it would appear to an
observer viewing it from a great distance.

2. The Stereographic Projection is that by which the
earth’s surface is represented as it would appear to an
observer whose eye is directly on the surface, if he looked
through the earth as through a globe of clear glass, and
drew the details of the surface as they appeared projected
on a transparent sheet of paper stretched in front of his
eye across the middle of the earth. There may be an
almost infinite number of such projections, according to
the position of the observer. The two stereographic pro-

jections in most common use are the Equatorial and the
Polar.

Mercator’s Projection represents the earth on
a map in which all the parallels and meridians
are straight lines.

Mercator’s charts are drawn by conceiving the
earth to have the shape of a cylinder instead of
that of a sphere, and to be unrolled from this
cylinder so as to form a flat surface. The me-

ridians, instead of meeting in points at the north
and south poles, are drawn parallel to each other.
This makes them as far apart in the polar regions



16 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



as at the equator, and consequently any portion
of the earth’s surface represented on such a chart,
if situated toward the poles, will be dispropor-

































Fig. 10, The Earth on Mercator's Projection.

tionally large. In order to avoid the distortion
in the shape of the land and water areas, the dis-
tance between successive parallels is increased as



they approach the poles. The dimensions of the
land or water, however, are greatly exaggerated
in these regions. The immediate polar regions
are never represented on such charts, the poles
being supposed to be at an infinite distance.

Mercator’s charts are generally employed for physical
maps, on account of the facility they afford for showing
direction. The distortion they produce in the relative
size of land or water areas must be carefully borne in
mind, or wrong ideas of the relative size of various parts
of the world will be obtained.

Mercator’s charts make bodies of land and
water situated near the poles appear much larger
than they really are.

In an Equatorial Projection of the entire earth
the equator passes through the middle of each
hemisphere, and a meridian circle forms the
borders.

In a Polar Projection of the entire earth the











RE
See

poles occupy the centres of each hemisphere, and
the equator forms the borders.
In a Conical Projection the earth’s surface is



QW

Fig. 11, The Earth on an Equatorial Projection.

represented as if drawn on the frustum of a cone
and afterward unrolled. This projection is. suit-
able where only portions of the earth’s surface,

Fig. 12, The Earth on a Polar Projection.

and not hemispheres, are to be represented. The
cone is supposed to be placed so as to touch the
earth at the central parallel of the country to be
represented.

In maps as ordinarily constructed it is not true that the
upper part is north, the lower part south, the right hand
east, and the left hand west, except in those on Merca-
tor’s projection. Jn all maps due north and south lie along
the meridians, and due east and west along the parallels, since









MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. 17













Fig. 18, The Conical Projection.

in most maps both parallels and meridians are curved lines.
Therefore, in most maps due north and south and due east
and west will lie along the meridians and parallels, and
not directly toward the top and bottom, or the right- and
left-hand side.

. 21, The Hemispheres.—The equator divides the
earth into a Northern and a Southern Hemisphere.

The meridian of long. 20° W. from Greenwich
is generally taken as the dividing-line between
the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

22. The Movements of the Earth; Rotation.—
The earth turns around from west to east on its
diameter or axis. This motion is called its ro-
tation.

That the earth rotates from west to east the following
consideration will show: To a person in a steam-car mov-
ing rapidly in any direction, the fences and other objects
along the road will appear to be moving in the opposite
direction: their motion is of course apparent, and is caused
by the real motion of the car. Now, the motion of the
sun and the other heavenly bodies, by which they appear
to rise in the east and set in the west, is apparent, and is
caused by the real motion of the earth on its axis; this
motion must therefore be from west to east. The sun, the
planets, and their satellites, so far as is known, also turn
on their axes from west to east.

The earth makes one complete rotation in about
every twenty-four howrs—accurately, 23 hours 56
minutes 4.09 seconds. The velocity of its rota-
tion is such that any point on the equator will
travel about 1042 miles every hour. The veloci-
ty of course diminishes at points distant from the
equator, until at the poles it becomes nothing.

23. Change of Day and Night—tThe earth re-
ceives its light and heat from the sun, and, being
an opaque sphere, only one-half of its surface can
be lighted at one time. The other half is in dark-
ness, since it is turned from the sun toward por-

tions of space where it only receives:the dim light °

of the fixed stars. The boundary-line between the

light and dark parts forms approximately a great

circle called the Great Circle of Illumination. Had
3

the earth no motion either on its axis or in its
orbit, that part of its surface turned toward the
sun would have perpetual day, and the other part
perpetual night ; but by rotation different portions
of the surface are turned successively toward and
away from the sun, and thus is occasioned the
change of day and night.

24, The Revolution of the Earth —The earth has
also a motion around the sun, called its revolution.

The revolution of the earth is from west to east;
this is also true of all the planets and asteroids,
and of all their satellites, except those of Uranus,
and probably of Neptune.

The phrases “rotation of the earth on its axis” and
“yevolution in its orbit” are often used in reference to
the earth’s motion; but the simple words “rotation” and
“yvevolution” are sufficient, since the first refers only to
the motion on its axis, and the second only to the motion
in its orbit.

The earth makes a complete revolution in 365
days 6 hours 9 minutes 9.6 seconds.. This time
forms what is called a sidereal year. The tropical
year, or the time from one March equinox to the
next, is somewhat shorter, or 865 days 5 hours 48
minutes 49.7 seconds. The latter value is the one
generally given for the length of the year. It is
nearly 3653 days.

It will be found that the sum of the days in all the
months of an ordinary year is only equal to 365, while the
true length is approximately one-quarter of a day greater.
This deficiency, which in every four years amounts to an
entire day, is met by adding one day to February in every
fourth or leap year. The exact time of one revolution,
however, is some 11 minutes less than 6 hours. These
eleven extra minutes are taken from the future, and are
paid by omitting leap year every hundredth year, except
that every 400 years leap year is counted. In other words,

1900 will not be a leap year, since it is not divisible by 400,
but the year 2000 will be a leap year.

The length of the orbit of the earth is about
577,000,000 miles. Its shape is that of an el-
lipse which differs but little from a circle. The
sun is placed at one focus of the ellipse, and, as
this. is not in the centre of the orbit, the earth
must be nearer the sun at some parts of its revo-
lution than at others.

When the earth is in that part of its orbit which is near-
est to the sun, it is said to be at its perihelion; when in
that part farthest from the sun, at its aphelion. The peri-
helion distance is about 90,259,000 miles; the aphelion dis-
tance, 93,750,000 miles. The earth reaches its perihelion
about January Ist.

The earth does not move with the same rapidity through
all parts of its orbit, but travels more rapidly in perihelion
than in aphelion. Its mean velocity is about 19 miles a
second, which is nearly sixty times faster than the speed
of a cannon-ball.





18 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



25, Laplace’s Nebular Hyp othesis.—The uniformity
in the direction of rotation and revolution of the planets
has led to a very plausible supposition as to the origin of
the solar system, by the celebrated French astronomer La-
place. This supposition, known as Laplace’s nebular hy-
pothesis, assumes that, originally, all the materials of which
the solar system is composed were scattered throughout
space in the form of very tenuous or nebulous matter. It
being granted that this matter began to accumulate around
a centre, and that a motion of rotation was thereby’ ac-
quired, it can be shown, on strict mechanical principles,
that asystem resembling the solar system might be evolved.

As the mass contracted on cooling, the rapidity of its
rotation increased. The equatorial portions bulged out
through the centrifugal force, until ring-like portions
separated, and, collecting in spherical masses, formed the
planets. The planets in a similar manner detached their
satellites. At the time of the separation of Neptune the
nebulous sun must have extended beyond the orbit of this
planet. The temperature requisite for so great an expan-
sion must have been enormous.

Although a mere hypothesis, there are many facts which
tend to sustain it, and it is now generally accepted.

26. The Plane of the Earth’s Orbit is a per-
fectly flat surface so placed as to touch the earth’s
orbit at every point. It may be regarded as an
imaginary plane of enormous extent on which the
earth moves in its journey around the sun.

~~ 27. Causes of the Change of Seasons.—The
change of the earth’s seasons is caused by the
revolution of the earth, together with -the fol-
lowing circumstances:



Fig, 14, Inclination of Axis-to Orbit and Ecliptic.

(1.) The inclination of the earth’s axis to the
plane of its orbit. The inclination is equal to
66° 33’.

The ecliptic is the name given to a great circle whose
plane coincides with the plane of the earth’s orbit. Since
the earth’s axis is 90° distant from the equator, the piane
of the ecliptic must be inclined to the plane of the equator
90° minus 66° 33’, or 23° 27’.

The mere revolution of the earth would be unable to
produce a change of seasons, unless the earth’s axis were
inclined to the plane of its orbit. If, for example, the
axis of the earth stood perpendicularly on the plane of its
orbit, the sun’s rays would so illumine the earth that the
great circle of illumination would always be bounded by
some meridian circle. The days and nights would then
be of equal length, and the distribution of heat the same
throughout the year. Under these circumstances there
could be no change of seasons, since the sun’s rays would



always fall perpendicularly onthe same part of the earth:
on the equator.

(2.) The Constant Parallelism of the Earth’s
Axis.—During the earth’s revolution its axis
always points nearly to the same place in the
heavens, viz. to the north star. It is therefore
always approximately parallel to any former
position.

Unless the axis were constantly parallel to any former
position, the present change of seasons would not occur.

On account of the spherical form of the earth,
only a small part of its surface can receive the
vertical rays of the sun at the same time. This
part can be regarded as nearly a point; and since
only one-half of the earth is lighted at any one
time, the great circle of illumination must extend
90° in all directions from the point which receives
the vertical rays. By rotation all portions of
the surface situated anywhere within the tropics
in the same latitude, at some time or another
during the day, are turned: so as to receive the
vertical rays of the sun, and consequently, the
portion so illumined has the form of a ring or
zone. Other things being equal, this zone con-
tains the hottest portions of the surface, the heat
gradually diminishing as we pass toward either
pole.

On account of the inclination of its axis, the
earth receives the vertical rays of the sun on new
portions of its surface every day during its revo-
lution; and it is because different portions of the

‘surface are constantly being turned toward the sun

that the change of seasons is to be attributed.

As the earth changes its position in its orbit, the
sun’s rays fall vertically on different parts of the
surface, so that during the year one part or an-
other of the surface within 23° 27’ on either side
of the equator receives the vertical rays.

The astronomical year begins on the 20th
of March, and we shall therefore first consider
the position of the earth in its orbit at that
time.

An inspection of Fig. 15 will show that at this
time the earth is so turned toward the sun that
the vertical rays fall exactly on the equator. The
great circle of illumination, therefore, reaches to
the poles, and the days and nights are of an equal
length all over the earth. This time is called the
March equinox. Spring then begins in the North-
ern Hemisvhere, and autumn in the Southern.
This is shown more clearly in Fig. 16, which
represents the relative positions of the illumined
and non-illumined portions at that time.

=







MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. 19



SEPTEMBER
© EQUINOX



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:
AN

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Mt

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So

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ae
°MARCH —
EQUINOX



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-

Fig. 15. The Orbit of the Earth, showing the Change of Seasons,

As the earth proceeds in its orbit, the inclina-

tion of the axis causes it to turn the Northern .

Hemisphere more and more toward the sun. The
vertical rays, therefore, fall on portions farther
and farther north until, on the 2Zst of June, the



Fig. 16, The Earth at an Equinox.

vertical rays reach their farthest northern limit,
and fall directly on the Tropic of Cancer, 28° 27'
N., when the sun is said to be ‘at its summer sol-
stice.

Since the portions receiv'ag the vertical rays
of the sun are now onthe Tropic of Cancer,



the light and heat must extend in the Northern
Hemisphere to 23° 27’ beyond the north pole, or |
to the Arctic Circle; while in the Southern Hemi-
sphere they must fall short of the south pole by
the same number of degrees, or reach to the Ant-



Fig. 17, The Earth at the Summer Solstice,

arctic Circle. The Northern Hemisphere then be-
gins its summer, and the Southern tts winter.

The relative positions of the illumined and
non-illumined portions of the earth at the sum-
mer solstice are more clearly shown in Fig. 17.
Here, as is shown, the great circle of illumination







\20 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



extends in the Northern Hemisphere as far over
the pole as the Arctic Circle.

After the 21st of June the Northern Hemi-
sphere is turned less toward the sun, and the
vertical rays continually approach the equator,
all the movements of the preceding season being
reversed, until on the 22d of September, the time
of the September equinox, the equator again receives
the vertical rays, the great circle of illumination
again coinciding with the meridian circles. The
earth has now moved from one equinox to an-
other, and has traversed one-half of its orbit.
The Southern Hemisphere then begins its spring,
the Northern its autumn.

From the 22d of September until the 20th of
March, while the earth moves through the other
half of its orbit, the same phenomena occur in
the Southern Hemisphere that’ have already. been
noticed in the Northern. Immediately after the
22d of September the inclination of the axis
causes the earth to be so turned toward the sun
_ that its rays begin to fall south of the equator ;
and, as the earth proceeds in its orbit, the South-

ern Hemisphere is turned more and more toward |

the sun, and the vertical rays fall farther and
farther toward. the pole. This continues until
the 21st of December, when the rays fall vertically
on the Tropic of Capricorn, and the December sol-
stice is reached. The great circle of illumination
now extends beyond the south pole as far as the
Antarctic Circle, but falls short of the north pole
93° 27’, reaching only the Arctic Circle. Sum-
mer then commences in the Southern Hemisphere,
and winter in the Northern.

After the 21st of December the Southern
Hemisphere is turned less and less toward the



—'S.FRIGID
Fig. 18, Mathematical Climatic Zones,

gun, and the part receiving the vertical rays
approaches the equator, until on the 20th of



March the equator again receives the vertical
rays, and, with the March equinox, spring com-
mences in the Northern Hemisphere, and with
it a new astronomical year.

The equinoxes and solstices as a rule occur on the dates
named. Occasionally. they occur immediately before or
after said dates. s

28. Mathematical Zones.—The Torrid Zone.—
That belt of the earth’s surface which lies be-
tween the tropics is called the Torrid Zone.
During one time or another throughout the
year every part of its surface receives the ver-
tical rays of the sun.

The Temperate Zones are included between the
tropics and the polar circles. The northern zone
is called the North Temperate Zone, and the south-
ern zone, the South Temperate Zone.

The Polar Zones are included’ between the
polar circles and the poles. The northern zone
is called the North Frigid Zone, and the southern .

’ gone, the South Frigid Zone.

These zones, which are separated by the parallels of lati-
tude, are generally termed the astronomical or mathematical
zones to distinguish them from others called physical zones,
which are bounded by the lines of mean annual temper-

- ature.

It will be noticed that the distance of the tropics from
the equator and of the polar circles from the poles is 23°
27’, or the value of the’inclination of the plane of the
ecliptic to the plane of the equator.

29, Length of Day and Night.— Whenever
more than half of either the Northern or South-
ern Hemisphere is illumined, the great circle of
illumination will divide the parallels unequally,
and the length of the daylight in that hemisphere
will exceed that of the night in proportion as the
length of the illumined part, measured along any
of the parallels, exceeds that of the dark part.

The length of daylight or darkness may exceed
that of one complete rotation of the earth. The
great circle of illumination may at times pass
over the poles as far beyond them as 23° 27’;
and places situated within this limit may remain
during many rotations exposed to the rays of the
sun.

A little consideration will show that the longest day
must occur at the poles, since the poles must continue
to receive the sun’s rays from the time they are first illu.
mined at one equinox until the sun passes through a sol-
stice and returns to the other equinox. Nowhere, outside
the polar circles, will the length of daylight exceed one
entire rotation of the earth.

The length of the longest day at the equator, latitude
0°, is 12 hours. ;

Of the longest day a3; the poles, latitude 90°, is six
months. .





MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. 21 y



‘G

SYLLABUS.

—— 00300 —

There are three kinds of geography—Mathematical, Po-
litical, and Physical.

Physical Geography treats of Land, Water, Air, Plants,
Animals, and Minerals.

Geography deals mainly with the earth as it is; geology
mainly with the earth as it was.

The earth continues its motion around the sun in conse-
quence of its inertia.

The distant stars are balls of fire like our sun, and prob-
ably-have worlds resembling ours revolving around them.

The sun and the bodies that revolve around it consti-
tute the solar system.

The sun is about 1,300,000 times larger than the earth.

The sun is a body heated to luminosity, and gives out or

> emits light and heat like any other highly-heated body.

The shape of the earth is that of an oblate spheroid
whose equatorial diameter is about 26 miles longer than
its polar. That the earth is round and not flat is proved
—Ilst, by the appearance of approaching or receding ob-
jects; 2d, by the circular shape of the horizon; 3d, by the
circular shape of the earth’s shadow; 4th, by actual nieas-
urement; and 5th, by the shape of the great circle of
illumination.

The earth’s diameter is nearly 8000 miles, its circumfer-
ence not quite 25,000 miles, and its area about 197,000,000
square miles,

The imaginary circles used in geography are the Equa-
tor, the Meridian Circles, and the Parallels.

Latitude is measured on the meridians by the parallels.



The greatest number of degrees of latitude a place can
have is 90°; the greatest of longitude, 180°. The latitude
at the equator is 0° N.orS. The longitude at the poles or
on the prime meridian is 0° E. or W.

Longitude is measured on the equator, or on the parallels,
by the meridians.

Maps are drawn on different projections : the Equatorial,
the Polar, and Mercator’s projections are in most general
use. A Mercator’s projection causes places near the poles
to appear larger than they really are.

On all maps due north and south lies along the merid-
ians; due east and west, along the parallels: when these
are curved lines, the top and bottom of the map will not
always represent north and south, nor the right and left
hand east and west.

The inclination of the earth’s axis to the plane of its
orbit, and the constant parallelism of the axis with any
former position, together with the revolution around the
sun, cause the change of seasons.

The astronomical year begins March 20th.

On the 20th of March and on the 22d of September the
days and nights are of equal length all over the earth.
From the 20th of March the days increase in length in the
Northern Hemisphere until the 21st of June, when they
attain their greatest length; they then decrease until the
22d of September, when they again become equal. x

The Torrid Zone is the hottest part of the earth, because,
during one time or another throughout the year, every part
of its surface receives the vertical rays of the sun.

REVIEW QUESTIONS.

———0503 00 ——_.

; The Solar System.

How does the principle of inertia apply to the earth’s
motion around the sun?

What do you understand by the solar system ?

Describe the earth’s position in the solar system. Which
of the planets are between the earth and the sun? Which
are beyond the orbit of the earth?

How does the size of the sun compare with that of the
earth ?

Are any of the distant stars larger than our sun ?

Whatisasatellite? Which of the planets have satellites ?

Explain the cause of the circular shape of the earth’s
orbit.

In what part of space is the solar system ?

Has our sun any motion through space?

Enumerate the proofs of the rotundity of the earth.

State accurately the length of the equatorial diameter
of the earth; of its polar diameter; of its circumference.
What is its area?

How many times heavier is the earth than an equally
large. globe of water? Ra by

Imaginary Circles.

Define great and small circles. Name the circles most
commonly used in geography.

What do you understand by latitude? How is latitude
reckoned? Of what use is latitude in geography? Why





can the value of the latitude never exceed 90°? Of what
use are meridians and parallels in measuring latitude?

What do you understand by longitude? How is longi-
tude reckoned? Of what use is longitude in geography ?
Why can its value never exceed 180°? Of what use are
meridians and parallels in measuring longitude?

Where is the value of a degree of latitude the greatest ?.
Of a degree of longitude? Why?

What effect has a Mercator’s chart on the appearance of
bodies of land or water in high northern or southern lati-
tudes ?

What is an equatorial projection? A polar projection?
A conical projection? What is the position of the poles in
an equatorial projection? In a polar projection ?

Movements of the Earth.

Prove that the earth turns on its axis from west to east.

Explain the cause of the change of day and night.

Define a sidereal year; a tropical year. Which value is
generally taken for the length of the civil year?

Describe Laplace’s nebular hypothesis.

Enumerate the causes which produce the change of
seasons.

On what days of the year will the sun’s rays fall verti-
cally on the equator? On what days will its rays fall ver-
tically on the Tropic of Cancer? On the Tropic of Capri-
corn?





PART II.

PAE AND,



020300



























































































































































ALTHOUGH water occupies much the larger portion of the earth’s surface, yet, when compared with
the entire volume of the globe, its quantity is comparatively insignificant ; for the mean depth of the
ocean probably does not exceed two and one-third miles, and underneath this lies the solid crust,

with its heated interior.

The crust and heated interior are composed of a variety of simple and compound substances. Simple
or elementary substances are those which have never been separated into components. Compound
substances are those which are composed of two or more simple or elementary substances combined

under the influence of the chemical force.

— S. £8 KGW RB $$

SEC rtowe
THE INSIDE OF THE EARTH.

——+070300—

CHAPTER I.
The Heated Interior.

30. The Proofs of the Earth’s Original Fluidity
or fused condition through heat are—

1.) Its Spherical Shape, which is the shape
the earth would have taken had it been placed
in space when in a melted condition. This is
the shape of nearly all the heavenly bodies.

22

.

(2.) The fact that the rocks which were first
formed give evidence by their appearance of
having been greatly heated. These rocks are
generally highly crystalline.

(3.) The general climate of the earth during
the geological past was much warmer than at
present.

Very little of the internal heat now reaches the surface.

According to Poisson, all that escapes would raise the mean
annual temperature only #,th of a degree Fahr.





VOLCANOES.





31, Laplace’s Nebular Hypothesis agrees very well
with the idea of a former igneous fluidity, since, at the

time of its separation from the nebulous sun, the earth .

must have had a temperature sufficient not only to fuse,
but even to volatilize, most of its constituents.

32. Proofs of a Present Heated Interior—The
following considerations show that the inside of
the earth is still highly heated:

(1.) The deeper we penetrate the crust, the
higher the temperature becomes. Moreover, the
rate of increase, though varying in different lo-
calities with the character of the materials of the
crust, is nearly uniform over all parts of the sur-
face, the average value of the inerease being 1°
Fahr. for every 55 feet of descent.

This would seem to indicate that the entire
inside of the earth is heated, and that the heat
increases as we go toward the centre.

We cannot, however, estimate the thickness of the crust
from this fact—

1. Because we have never penetrated the crust more
than a few thousand feet below the level of the sea, and
therefore we do not know that this rate of increase of
temperature continues the same;

2. Even if it did continue uniform, since the melting-
point of solids increases with the pressure, we do not
know what allowance should be made for this increase.

(2.) In all latitudes: prodigious quantities of
melted rock escape from the interior through
the craters of volcanoes. The interior, there-
fore; must be hot enough to melt rock.

83. Condition. of the Interior—We do not
know the condition of the material which fills
the interior of the earth. It might be supposed,
since rock escapes from the craters of volca-
noes in a fluid or molten condition, that the in-
terior is filled with molten matter; but this is
not necessarily so, since the enormous pressure
to which the interior is subjected would prob-
| ably be sufficient to compress it into .a viscous

. or pasty mass, or, possibly, even to render it solid.
The lava which issues from the crater of a vol-
cano is necessarily more mobile than the interior
of the earth; for, coming, as it does, from great
depths, it must grow more and more liquid as it
approaches the surface and is thus relieved of its
pressure. Indeed, the most viscous rock conceiv-
able, if highly heated when ejected from pro-
found depths, would become comparatively fluid
on reaching the surface.

34, Views Concerning the Condition of the
Interior —Considerable difference of opinion ex-
ists as to the exact condition of the interior of
the earth. The following opinions may be men-
tioned ;





(1.) That the earth has a solid centre and
crust, with a heated or pasty layer between.

(2.) That the crust is solid, but the interior
highly heated, so as to be in a fused or pasty

condition.

(8.) That the earth is solid throughout, but
highly heated in the interior.

Of the above views, the second is perhaps the
most tenable, and will be adopted as serving in
the simplest manner to explain the phenomena
of the earth arising from the presence of a highly
heated interior. Admitting the crust to be suf-
ficiently thin, and in such a condition as to per-
mit of but a small degree of warping, then all

the phenomena can be satisfactorily explained.

35. Thickness of the Crust—We cannot as-
sign a definite limit to the thickness of the crust,
since the portions that are solid from having
cooled, most probably pass insensibly into those
that are nearly solid from the combined influence
of loss of heat and increasing pressure. It seems
probable that the portion solidified by cooling is
thin, when compared with the whole bulk of the
earth; in other words, the heated interior lies
comparatively near the surface.

36. Effects of the Heated Interior—As the
crust loses its heat it shrinks or contracts, and,
growing smaller, the materials of the interior are
crowded into a smaller space, and an enormous
force is thus exerted, both on the interior and on
the crust itself, tending either to change the shape
of the crust, to break it, or to force out some of
the interior. The following phenomena are there-
fore caused by the contraction of the crust:

(1.) Volcanoes ;

(2.) Earthquakes ;

(3.) Non-voleanic igneous eruptions ;

(4.) Gradual elevations or subsidences of the
crust.

—0594 00 —_

CHAP DER «Ji

V oleanoes.

37. Voleanoes.—One of the most striking proofs
of the existence of a heated interior is the ejection
of enormous quantities of melted rock through
openings in the crust.

A volcano is a mountain, or other elevation,
through which the materials of the interior escape
to the surface. The opening is called the crater,
and may he either on the top or on the sides of
the mountain.



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

ey,

















































































































































































Fig, 19, An Eruption of Mount Vesuvius,

38. Peculiarities of Craters.—The crater, as its name
indicates, is cup-shaped. The rim, though generally entire,
is sometimes broken by the force of the eruption, as in

Mount Vesuvius, where the eruption in 79 A. D.—the first"

on record—blew off the northern half of the crater. The
material thus detached, together with the showers of ashes
and streams of lava, completely buried the cities of Her-
culaneum and Pompeii, situated near its base.

The crater is often of immense size. Mauna Loa, on the
island of Hawaii, has two craters—one on the summit, and
the other on the mountain-side, about 4000 feet above the
sea. The latter—Kilauea—is elliptical in shape, and about
73 miles in circumference ; its areais nearly 4 square miles,
and its depth, from 600 to 1000 feet.

Volcanic mountains are of somewhat different
shapes, but near the crater the conical form pre-
dominates, and serves to distinguish these moun-
tains as a class. The shape of the volcanic cone
is caused by the ejected materials accumulating
around the mouth of the crater in more or less
concentric layers.

39. The ejected materials are mainly as fol-
lows:

(1.) Melted Rock, or Lava.—Lava varies, not
only with the nature of the materials from which
it was formed, but also with the conditions under
which it has cooled, and the quantity of air or
vapor entangled in it. Though generally of a
dark gray, it occurs of all colors; and its texture
varies from hard, compact rock to porous, spongy
material that will float on water. :

When just emitted from the crater, ordinary lava flows
about as fast as molten iron would on the same slope. On

steep mountains, near the crater, the lava, when very
hot, may flow faster than a horse can gallop; but it soon





cools, and becomes covered with a crust that greatly re-
tards the rapidity of its flow, until its motion can only be

' determined by repeated observations.

At Kilauea, jets of very liquid lava are sometimes
thrown out, which, falling back into the crater, are drawn
out by the wind into fine threads, thus producing what
the natives call Pélé’s hair, after their mythical goddess.

The volume of the ejected lava is often very great. Vol-
canic islands are generally formed entirely by lava streams.
Hawaii and Iceland were probably formed entirely of lava
emitted from numerous volcanic cones.

(2.) Ashes or Cinders.—These consist of minute
fragments of lava that are ejected violently from
the crater; at night they appear as showers of
brilliant sparks. When they fall directly back
on the mountain, they aid in rearing the cone.
More frequently, they are carried by the wind to
points far distant. The destructive effects of
volcanic eruptions are caused mainly by heavy
showers of ashes. The ashes, when exceedingly
fine, form what is called volcanic dust.

At the beginning of an eruption large frag-
ments of rock are sometimes violently thrown
out of the crater.

(3.) Vapors, or Gases—The vapor of water
often escapes in great quantities from the crater,
especially at the beginning of the eruption. On
cooling, it condenses and forms dense clouds, from
which torrents of rain fall. These clouds, lighted
by the glowing fires beneath, appear to be actually
burning, and thus give rise to the erroneous belief
that a volcano is a burning mountain. To the
condensation of this vapor is probably to be as-.
cribed the lightning which often plays around the
summit of the voleano during an eruption. Be-
sides the vapor of water, various gases éscape, of
which sulphurous acid is the most common.

When a large quantity of rain mingles with the ashes,
torrents of mud are formed, which move with frightful
velocity down the slopes of the mountain, occasioning con-
siderable damage. During the eruption of Galungung, in
Java, more than one hundred villages were thus destroyed.

The rock that is formed by the hardening of volcanic mud
is called tufa.

40. The Inclination of the Slopes of the vol-
canic cones depends on the nature of the material
of which they are formed. Where lava is the
main ingredient, the cone is broad and flat. The
inclination of a lava cone ranges from 8° to 10°,

Fig, 20, Lava Cone, Inclination from 3° to 10°





according to the liquidity of the lava. A very
stiff lava will form a much steeper cone.



Pages
20-26
Missing
From
Original







VOLCANOES. 27



45. The number of volcanoes is not accurately
known. The best authorities estimate it at about
672, of which 270 are active. Of the latter, 175
are on islands, and 95 are on the coasts of the con-
tinents.

46. Regions of Voleanoes.—The principal vol-
canic regions of the earth are—*

(1.) Along the Shores of the Pacific, where an
immense chain of volcanoes, with but few breaks,
encircles it in a huge “Sea of Fire.”

On the Eastern Borders, in the Andean range,
are the volcanic series of Chili, Bolivia, and Ecua-
dor; those of Central America and Mexico; in
the United States are the series of the Sierra
Nevada and Cascade ranges and of Alaska; and
finally, connecting the system with Asia, the vol-
canic group of the Aleutian Islands.

On the Western Borders volcanoes occur in the
following districts: the Kamtchatkan Peninsula,
with its submerged ranges of the Kurile Islands;
the Japan, the Loo Choo, and the Philippine
Islands; the Moluccas; the Australasian Island
Chain, terminating in New Zealand ; and finally,

nearly in a line with these, the volcanoes of Ere-’

bus and Terror on the Antarctic continent.

(2.) In the Islands of the Pacifie—Volcanic
activity is not wanting over the bed of the Pa-
cific. The Sandwich Islands, the Society Group,
the Marquesas, Friendly Islands, New Hebrides,
Ladrones, and many others, are volcanic.

(3.) Scattered over the Seas that divide the
Northern and Southern Continents, or in their
Vicinity, viz.: in the neighborhood of the Carib-
bean Sea, in the Mediterranean and Red Seas,
and in the Pacific and Indian Oceans between
Asia and Australia.

In the neighborhood of the Caribbean Sea.—This
region includes the two groups of the Antilles in
the Caribbean Sea, and the Gallapagos Islands in
the Pacific Ocean.

In the neighborhood of the Mediterranean and
Red Seas.—This region includes the voleanoes of
the Mediterranean and its borders, those of Italy,
Sicily, the Grecian Archipelago, of Spain, Central
France, and Germany, together with those near
the Caspian and Red Seas.

Between Asia and Australia.—This region in-
cludes the Sunda Islands, Sumatra, J ava, Sum-
bawa, Flores, and Timor, which contain numerous
craters. In Java there are nearly 50 volcanoes,
28 of which are active, and there are nearly as



* We follow mainly the classification of Dana.

4





many in Sumatra. There ate 169 volcanoes in
the small islands near Borneo.

(4.) In the Northern and Central Parts of the
Atlantic Ocean.

All the islands in the deep ocean which do not
form. a part of the continent are volcanic; as,
for example, the island of St. Helena, Ascension
Island, the Cape Verdes, the Canaries, the Azores,
and Iceland. The Cameroons Mountains, on the
African coast near the Gulf of Guinea, together
with some of the islands in the gulf, are volcanic.

(5.) In the Western and Central Parts of the
Indian Ocean.

Volcanoes are found in Madagascar and in the
adjacent islands. They also occur farther south,
in the island of St. Paul and in Kerguelen Land,
and in Kilimandjaro, near the eastern coast of
Africa.
~ 47, Submarine Volcanoes.—From the difficulty in ob-
serving them, submarine volcanoes are not so well known
as the others. The following regions are well marked:

In the Mediterranean Sea, near Sicily and Greece.

Near the island of Santorin the submarine volcanic en-
ergy is intense. It has been aptly described as a’ region
“Where isles seem to spring up like fungi in a wood.”

In the Atlantic Ocean; off the coast of Iceland; near
St. Michael, in the Azores; and over a region in the nar-
rowest part of the ocean between Guinea and Brazil.

In the Pacific Ocean; near the Aleutian Islands,
where two large mountain-masses have risen from the
water within recent time. Near the Japan Islands, where,
about twenty-one centuries ago, according to native his-
torians, Fusi Yama, the highest mountain in J. apan, rose
from the sea in a single night.

In the Indian Ocean, the island of St. Paul, in the
deep ocean between Africa and Australia, exhibits signs
of submarine activity.

48. Peculiarities of Distribution—Nearly all
volcanoes are found near the shores of continents
or on islands.

The only exceptions are found in the region
south of the Caspian Sea, and in that of the
Thian Shan Mountains. As volcanoes are but
openings in the earth’s crust which permit an es-
cape of materials from the pasty interior, they
will occur only where the crust is weakest. This
will be on the borders of sinking oceans, in the
lines of fracture formed by the gradual separa-
tion of the ocean’s bed from the coasts of the
continent. The floor of the ocean in all latitudes
is covered with a layer of quite cold water, so
that the difference in the amount of the contrac-
tion will in general be most marked on the bor-
ders of the oceans or on the edges of the conti-
nents.

In most regions the volcanoes lie along lines







28 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



more or less straight. Lines joining such a series
may be considered as huge cracks in the crust,
the volcanic phenomena occurring in their weak-
est places.

The frequent occurrence of volcanoes in moun-
tainous districts is caused by the crust being
broken and flexed, so as to admit of an easy
passage for the molten rock.

Where one system of fissures crosses another the
crust becomes weak, the openings numerous, and the
volcanic activity great. The two antipodal points
of the Antilles and the Sunda Islands are excel-
lent examples, and are the most active volcanic
regions on the earth.

Efforts have been made to show some connection be-
tween certain states of the weather and periods of vol-
canic activity; but, so far, these have amounted to mere
predictions of coming changes, based on observations of
the direction of upper currents of air from the clouds
of ashes or smoke ejected by the volcano. No law of
periodicity of eruption has, as yet, been discovered.

49. Other Volcanic Phenomena:

Mud Volcanoes are small hillocks that emit
streams of hot mud and water from their craters,
but never molten rock. They are found in vol-
canic regions.

Solfataras are places where sulphur vapors es-

cape and form incrustations. They occur in vol- |

canic regions.
Geysers are sometimes ranked with volcanic phe-
nomena. They are described under Hot Springs.

09300 —

CLAP PER: Wir

Earthquakes.

50. Earthquakes are shakings of the earth’s
crust, of degrees varying in intensity from
scarcely perceptible tremors to violent agita-
tions that overthrow buildings and open huge
fissures in the ground. They may therefore be
divided into two classes:

(1.) A shaking movement without any perma-
nent change in the surface ;

'(2.) A shaking movement accompanying an
uplift or subsidence.

An earthquake is sometimes called a seismic
shock.

51. Facts concerning Earthquakes—A careful
study of earthquakes appears to establish the fol-
lowing facts:

(1.) The place or origin of the shock is not
deep-seated or far below the earth’s surface, but









Fig, 23, Fissures produced by the Charleston Earthquake of 1886.

is near the surface, probably never deeper than
thirty miles, and often much less.

(2.) ‘The area of disturbance depends not only
on the energy of the shock, but also on the depth
of its origin below the surface: the deeper the
origin, the greater the area.

(3.) The shape of the origin is generally that
of a line, often many miles in length.

(4.) The direction of the motion at the surface
is nearly upward over the origin, and more in-
clined as the distance from the origin increases.

(5.) The shape of the area of disturbance de-
pends on the nature of the materials through
which the wave is moving. If these are of
nearly uniform elasticity in all directions, the
area is nearly circular; if more elastic in one
direction than in another, the area is irregular
in shape.

52. The Varieties of Earthquake Motion at the
Earth’s Surface are—

(1.) A wave-like motion, in which the ground
rises and falls like waves in water.

(2.) An upward motion, somewhat similar to
that which follows an explosion of powder below
the surface. This has been known to occur with
sufficient force to throw heavy bodies considerable
distances up into the air. :

(8.) A rotary motion, which, from its destruc-
tive effects, is fortunately of rare occurrence.

Humboldt mentions an earthquake that happened in
Chili where the ground was so shifted that three great

SS .- sss 0.0








EARTHQUAKES. 29





palm trees were twisted around one another like willow
wands.

There are two kinds of movement transmitted through
the crust during earthquakes: these are the earthquake
motion proper, and the motion that produces the accompanying
sounds.

58. The Velocity of Earthquake Motion varies
according to the intensity of the shock and the na-
ture of the material through which it is trans-
mitted. No average’ result can therefore be
given. Various observers have estimated it at
from 8 to 30 miles per minute.

54. The Sounds Accompanying Earthquakes
vary both in.kind and intensity. Sometimes
they resemble the hissing noises heard when red-
hot coals are thrown into water; sometimes they
are rumbling, but more frequently they are of
greater intensity, and are then comparable to
discharges of artillery or peals of thunder.

The confused roaring and rattling are probably caused

by the different rates of transmission of the sound through
the air and rocks.

55. Duration of the Shocks—When the area
of disturbance is large, shocks of varying intensity
generally follow each other at irregular intervals.
Though, in general, the violence of the shock is
soon. passed, disturbances may occur at intervals
of days, weeks, or even years.

During the earthquake in Calabria in 1783, when nearly
100,000 persons perished, the destructive vibrations lasted
scarcely two minutes, but the tremblings of the crust con-
tinued long afterward. During the earthquake at Lisbon
in 1755, when about the same number perished, the shock
which caused the greatest damage continued but five or

six seconds, while a series of terrible movements followed
one another at intervals during the space of five minutes.

56. Cause of Earthquakes.—It is generally be-
lieved that the principal cause of earthquakes is the
force produced by the contraction of a cooling crust.

During the cooling of the earth the crust con-
tinually contracts, and the pressure so produced,
slowly accumulating for years, at last rends it
in vast fissures, thus producing those violent
movements of its crust called earthquakes. If
this theory be admitted—and it is a probable one
—the earth’s crust must every now and then be
in such a strained condition that the slightest
increase of force from within, or of diminished
resistance from without, would disturb the con-
ditions of equilibrium, and thus result in an
earthquake.

57. Strain Caused by Contraction consequent on
cooling is well exhibited in the so-called “ Prince Ru-
pert’s Drops,” which are made by allowing melted glass
to fall in drops through cold water. The sudden cooling



of the outside produces powerful forces, which tend to
compress the drop; but, since these forces balance one
another, no movement occurs until, by breaking off the
long end of the drop, one set of forces is removed, when
the others, no longer neutralized, tear the drop into almost
countless pieces,

Similar effects are produced by unequal contraction and
expansion. Hot water poured into a tumbler will often
crack it. The crackling sound of a stovepipe when sud-
denly heated or cooled is a similar effect,

58. Other Causes of Earthquakes. — Earth-
quakes may also be occasioned by—
(1.) The sudden evolution of gases or vapors

-from the pasty interior.

This is probably the cause of many of the
slight shocks that occur in the neighborhood of
active volcanic regions.

(2.) Shocks caused by falling masses.

Those who deny ‘the existence of a pasty interior, en-
deavor to explain the production of earthquakes by the
shock caused by the occasional caving in of huge masses
of rocks, in caverns hollowed out by the action of subter-
ranean waters; or by the’gradual settling of the upturned
strata in mountainous districts. There can be no doubt
that even moderately severe shocks are caused by falling
masses; but such a force is utterly inadequate to produce
a shock like that which destroyed Lisbon, when an area
of nearly 7,500,000 square miles was shaken.

59. Periodicity of Earthquakes—It was for-
merly believed that earthquakes occurred with-
out any regularity, but by a comparison of the
times of occurrence of a great number it has been
discovered that they occur more frequently—

(1.) In winter than in summer;

(2.) At night than during the day ;

(3.) During the new and full moon, when the
attractive force of the sun and moon acts simul-
taneously on the same parts of the earth.

Earthquake shocks are more frequent in winter,
and during the night, because the cooling, and
consequent contraction, occur more rapidly at
these times, and therefore the gradually accumu-
lating force is more apt to acquire sufficient inten-
sity to rend the solid crust.

Earthquakes are more frequent during new
and full moon, because the increased force on
the earth’s crust caused by the position of the
sun and moon at these times, is then added to
the accumulated force produced by cooling.

It has been asserted that in the equatorial regions earth-
quakes are especially frequent during the setting in of
periodical winds called the monsoons, at the change of

the rainy season or during the prevalence of hurricanes,
These facts, however, are not well established.

60. Distribution of Earthquakes. — Earth-
quakes may occur in any part of the world, but










30 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



are most frequent in volcanic districts. They are

more frequent in mountainous than in flat coun-

tries. They are especially frequent in the high-

est mountains. According to Huxley, fairly pro-

nounced earthquake shocks occur in some part of
’ the earth at least three times a week.

There is, in many instances, an undoubted connection
between volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Humboldt
relates that during the earthquake at Riobamba, when
some 40,000 persons perished, the volcano of Pasto ceased
to emit its vapor at the exact time the earthquake began.
The same is related of Vesuvius at the time of the earth-
\ quake at Lisbon.

— 61, Phenomena of Earthquakes.—In order to give
some idea of the phenomena by which severe earthquake
shocks are attended, we append a brief description of the
earthquake which destroyed the city of Lisbon, on the 1st
of November, 1755. The loss of life on this occasion was
the more severe, since the shock occurred on a holy day,
when nearly the whole population was assembled in the
churches. A sound like thunder was heard, and, almost
immediately afterward, a series of violent shocks threw
down nearly every building in the city. Many who es-
caped the falling buildings perished in the fires that soon
kindled, or were murdered by lawless bands that after-
ward’ pillaged the city.

The ground rose and fell like the waves of the sea; huge
chasms were opened, into which many of the buildings
were precipitated. In the ocean a huge wave, over 50 feet
high, was formed, which, retreating for a moment, left the
bar dry, and then rushed toward the land with frightful
force. This was repeated several times, and thousands
perished from this cause alone. The neighboring moun-
tains, though quite large, were shaken like reeds, and
were rent and split in a wonderful manner.

This earthquake was especially remarkable for the im-
mense area over which the shock extended. It reached
as far north as Sweden. Solid mountain-ranges—as, for
example, the Pyrenees and the Alps—were severely shaken.
A deep fissure was opened in France. On the south, the
earthquake waves crossed the Mediterranean and destroyed
a number of villages in the Barbary States. On the west,
the waves traversed the bed of the Atlantic, and caused
unusually high tides in the West Indies. In North Amer-
ica the movements were felt as far west as the Great Lakes.
Feebler oscillations of the ground occurred at intervals for
several weeks after the main shock.

62. Non-voleanic Igneous Eruptions.—In re-
gions remote from volcanoes, melted rock has
been forced up from the interior through fissures
in the rocks of nearly all geological formations.
On cooling, the mass forms what is called a dyke.
Dykes vary in width from a few inches to several
yards. They are generally much harder than the
rocks through which they were forced, and, being
less subject to erosion, often project considerably
above the general surface.

From their mode of formation, dykes are gen-
erally without traces of stratification, but by cool-
ing a series of transverse fractures are sometimes





produced. The dykes thus obtain the appearance
of aseries of columns, called basaltic columns.

Igneous rocks of this description are found in
all parts of the continents, but are especially com-
mon near the borders of mountainous districts.
Fingal’s Cave, in Scotland, is a noted example
of basaltic columns.



Fig. 24, Basaltic Columns, Fingal’s Cave, Scotland.

68. Gradual Elevations and Subsidences——Be-
sides the sudden changes of level produced by
earthquakes, there are others that take place
slowly, but continuously, by which large portions
of the surface are raised or lowered from their
former positions. The rate of movement is very
slow—probably never exceeding a few feet in a
century. The following examples are the most
noted : ‘

The Scandinavian peninsula (Norway and Swe-
den) is slowly rising in the north and sinking in
the south.

The southern part of the coast of Greenland is
sinking.

The North American coast, from Labrador to
New Jersey, is rising.

The Andes Mountains, especially near Chili,
are gradually rising.

The Pacific Ocean, near the centre, is sinking
over an area of more than 6000 miles.

The cause of these movements is to be traced
to the warping action caused by gradual contrac-
tion of a cooling crust.







SYLLABDS. . 31



SYLLABUS.

——0r9300—_

The earth was originally melted throughout. It after-
ward cooled on the surface and formed a crust. The earth’s
original fluidity is rendered probable—

(1.) By the spherical shape of the earth;

(2.) By the crystalline rocks underlying all others;
and

(3.) By the greater heat of the earth during geological
time.

The interior is still in a highly-heated condition. This
is proved—Ist. By the increased heat of the crust as we go
below the surface; 2d. By the escape of lava from volca-
noes in all latitudes.

The following opinions are held concerning the condi-
tion of the interior of the earth:

(1.) That the earth has a solid centre and crust, with a
heated layer between.

(2.) That the earth has a solid crust only, and an inte-
rior sufficiently heated to be in a fused or in a pasty con-
dition.

(3.) That the earth is solid throughout, but highly
heated in the interior.

The thickness of the crust is not known. It is probable
that the portions solidified by cooling pass insensibly into
those that are nearly solid from the combined influence
of loss of heat and increasing pressure. The heated
interior, however, must lie comparatively near the sur-
face.

The effects produced by the heated interior on the crust
are—Ist. Volcanoes; 2d. Earthquakes; 3d. Non-volcanic
igneous eruptions ; and 4th. Gradual elevations or subsi-
dences.

Volcanic mountains are of a variety of shapes. Near
their craters the cone shape predominates, and serves to
distinguish these mountains as a class.

The ejected materials of volcanoes are—Ist. Melted rock _

or lava; 2d. Ashes or cinders; 3d. Vapors or gases.

These materials are brought up from great depths into
the volcanic mountain by the force produced by a contract-
ing globe. They may escape from the crater—lst. By the
pressure of highly-heated vapors; or, 2d. By the pressure
of a column of melted lava.

The inclination of the slopes of the volcanic cone de-
pends on the materials of which it is composed. Ash-
cones are steeper than those formed of lava.

Eruptions are of two kinds, ae and non-explo-
sive.

High volcanic mountains are, as a rule, characterized by
non-explosive eruptions.

Volcanoes occur both on the surface of the land and on
the bed of the ocean.

Those on the land occur mainly near the borders of
sinking oceans, where the crust is weakest.

The principal volcanic districts of the world are—1.
Along the shores of the Pacific; 2. On the islands which
are scattered over the Pacific; 3. Scattered over the seas
which divide the northern and southern continents; 4. In
the northern and central parts of the Atlantic Ocean; 5.
In the western and central parts of the Indian Ocean.

The centres of volcanic activity’ are found in the An-
tilles and in the Sunda Islands, where several lines of
fracture cross each other.



Subordinate volcanic phenomena are seen in—1. Mud
volcanoes; 2. Solfataras; 3. Geysers.

Earthquakes are snes of the earth’s crust; they may
occur with or without a permanent displacement.

The following facts have been discovered as to earth-
quakes:

(1.) Their place of origin is not very deep-seated.

(2.) The area of disturbance increases with the energy
of the shock and the depth of the origin.

(3.) The shape of the origin is that of a line, and not
that of a point.

(4.) The shape of the area of disturbance depends on
the elasticity of the materials through which the shock
moves.

(5.) The earthquake motion travels through the earth
as spherical waves which move outward in all directions
from the origin of the disturbance.

The movement at the earth’s surface may be—Ist. In
the form of a gentle wave; 2d. An upward motion; 3d. A
rotary motion.

The velocity with which the earthquake motion is trans-
mitted varies with the intensity of the shock and the
nature of the materials through which it is propagated.

There are two distinct kinds of motion accompanying
earthquake waves: the earthquake motion proper, and
the motion producing the accompanying sounds.

As a rule, the earthquake shocks which ‘produce the
greatest damage are of but short duration, generally but
a few seconds or minutes. Slighter disturbances may fol-
low the main shock at intervals of days, weeks, or even
years.

Earthquake shocks are more frequent—lst. In winter
than in summer; 2d. At night than during the day; 3d.
During the time of new and full moon than at any other
phase.

Earthquakes are. mainly caused by the gradually in-
creasing force produced by the contraction of the crust.

Earthquakes are also to be attributed to the forces which
eject the molten matter from the craters of volcanoes.. |

Slight earthquake shocks may be occasioned by the fall-

ing in of masses of rock from the roofs of subterranean.

caverns, or by the settling of upturned strata.

Earthquakes may occur in any part of the earth, but are
most frequent in volcanic and in mountainous regions.

Dykes are masses of rock formed by the gradual cooling
of melted matter which has been forced up through fis-
sures from. the interior.

Basaltic columns are formed by dykes. They owe their
columnar structure to fractures produced on cooling.

The crust of the earth is subject to gradual as well as to
sudden changes of level.

The Scandinavian peninsula is rising on the north and
sinking on the south.

The southern coast of Geeenland is sinking.

The North American coast, from Labrador to New Jer-
sey, is rising.

The range of the Andes near Chili is rising.

The bed of the Pacific in the neighborhood of the Poly-
nesian island chain is sinking.

These movements are caused by the contraction of a
cooling crust.





32 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



REVIEW QUESTIONS.

——-0£0400—_.

The Heated Interior.

Enumerate the proofs that the interior of the earth is
still in a highly-heated condition.

Name some circumstances which render it probable that
the earth was originally melted throughout.

What is the average rate of increase of temperature
with descent below the surface ?

How can it be shown that the whole interior of the
earth is filled with highly-heated matter?

Why is it so difficult to assign a definite limit to the
thickness of the earth’s crust?

Is the interior of the earth supposed to be in as fluid a
condition as that of the lava which escapes from a volcano?

What four classes of effects are produced in the crust by
the heated interior?

Voleanoes.

What are volcanoes? What connection have they with
the interior of the earth? How do active volcanoes differ
from those which are extinct?

Explain the origin of the conical form of volcanic
mountains,

Which generally produces the more destructive effects,
ashes or lava? Why?

Enumerate the materials which are ejected from the in-
terior of the earth through the craters of volcanoes.

What is tufa? How is it formed?

Which has the greater inclination, a lava-cone or an
ash-cone ?

Explain in full the manner in which the shrinkage, or
contraction of the earth on cooling, produces a pressure
both in the interior and in the crust.

By what forces are volcanic eruptions produced?

Into what two classes may all volcanic eruptions be di-
vided? How are those of each class caused?

Give an example of each of these classes.

What is the highest volcano in the world?

Under what five regions may all the volcanoes in the
world be arranged ?

In what parts of the world are volcanoes most numer-
ous?

Why are volcanoes more numerous here than elsewhere?

Name some of the regions of submarine volcanoes.

Why are all volcanoes found near the coasts of the con-
tinents or on islands? i

What are mud volcanoes? Solfataras?

Earthquakes.

What are earthquakes? Into what two classes may they
be divided ?

Name some facts that have been discovered about earth-
quakes. ‘ n

Name three kinds of earthquake motion. Which is the
most dangerous ?

Describe the sounds which accompany earthquakes.

What is the main cause of earthquakes? To what other
causes may they be attributed?

What facts have been discovered respecting the pericd-
icity of earthquakes ?

Give a short description of the earthquake which de-
stroyed the city of Lisbon.

Are any portions of the earth free from earthquake
shocks?

In what parts of the earth are earthquake shocks most
frequent ?

What are dykes? How were they formed?

Enumerate some of the gradual changes of level which
are now occurring in the crust of the earth. By what are
these changes caused ?

MAP QUESTIONS.

—-059300——.

Trace on the map the five principal volcanic districts of
the earth.

Which contains the greater number of volcanoes, the
Atlantic or the Pacific shores of the continents?

Does the eastern or the western border of the Indian
Ocean contain the greater number of volcanoes?

Name the principal volcanic islands of the Atlantic.
Of the Indian. Of the Pacific.

Locate the following volcanoes: Hecla, Pico, Kilauea,
Sarmiento, Llullayacu, Egmont, Cosiguina, » Teneriffe,
Antisana, Kilimandjaro, Demavend, Peshan, Osorno, Ere-
bus, and Terror. .

y->Name the principal volcanic mountains of North America,

In what part of the Atlantic Ocean are submarine erup-
tions especially frequent ?

Name three noted volcanoes of the Mediterranean
Sea.

Name the portions of the earth which were shaken by
the earthquake of Lisbon. When did this earthquake
occur?

What noted volcanoes are found in the region visited by
the earthquake of Lisbon? 3

In what portions of the Eastern Hemisphere are earth-
quake shocks especially frequent? In what portions of
the Western Hemisphere?









PHEOORUS DL (OR (TEE aA TH: 33



. SECTLON lh



NJ CHAPTER L
The Crust of the Earth.

64. Composition of the Crust.—The elementary
substances are not equally distributed throughout
the earth’s crust. Many of these substances occur
only in extremely small quantities, while others
are found nearly everywhere.

Although the deepest cutting through the earth’s crust
does not extend vertically more than about two miles be-
low the level of the sea, yet the upturning of the strata, or
the outcropping of the different formations, enables us to
study a depth of about sixteen miles of the earth’s crust.

A careful study of the composition of this part of the
crust shows that oxygen constitutes nearly one-half of it,
by weight. Silicon, an element which, when combined
with oxygen, forms silica or quartz, constitutes, either as
sand, or combined with various bases as silicates, one-
fourth; so that these two elements form at least three-
fourths, by weight, of the entire crust. The following are
also prominent ingredients of rocks—aluminium, which,
when combined with oxygen, forms alumina, the basis of
clay; magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, iron, and car-
bon. These nine substances, according. to Dana, form
Zoyoths, by weight, of the entire crust.

Sulphur, hydrogen, chlorine, and nitrogen also occur fre-
quently. The remaining elements are of comparatively
rare occurrence.

65. The Origin of Rocks.——When the earth was
yet a melted globe, the water which now covers
the larger portion of its surface hung over it,
uncondensed, either as huge clouds or as masses
of vapor. After a comparatively thin crust had
formed, the vapor was condensed as rain, and cov-
ered the earth with a deep layer of boiling water.
Occasionally the cooling crust was broken by the
increasing tension, and portions of the molten in-
terior were forced out: and spread over the sur-
face. The muddy waters then cleared by depos-
iting layers of sediment over the ocean’s bed.

When, by long-continued cooling, the crust be-
came thicker, the breaking out of the interior oc-
curred less frequently, and contraction, wrinkling
the surface in huge folds, caused portions to
emerge from the ocean and form dry land. Dur-
ing all this time the waters were arranging the
looser materials in layers or strata wnieh were

ment by water.



THE OUTSIDE OF THE EARTH.

Ri ~ i ——020300——_

originally more or less horizontal; but wher}
ever the contraction forced the melted interior
through the crust or upturned it in huge folds,
the horizontal position of the deposits was de-
stroyed; and even when not so disturbed, the
heat of the interior, escaping through fissures,
often produced such alterations as to confuse or
completely to obliterate all traces of their regu-
lar bedding.

The almost inconceivable extent of geological time may
be inferred from the calculations of Helmholtz, based on
the rapidity of the cooling of lava. These calculations
show that in passing from a temperature of 2000° C. to
200° C. a time equal to three hundred and fifty million years
must have elapsed. Before this a still greater time must
have elapsed, and after it came the exceedingly great ex-
tent of geological time proper.

66. According to their Origin, rocks may be
divided into three distinct classes:

(1.) Igneous Rocks, or those ejected in a melted
condition from the interior, and afterward cooled.

(2.) Aqueous Rocks, or those deposited as sedi-
When mineral matter settles in
water, the coarser, heavier particles reach the bot-
tom first, 80 that a sorting action occurs, which
makes the different layers or strata vary in the
size and density of their particles, and, to a great
extent, in their composition.

Aqueous rocks are sometimes called sediment-
ary rocks.

(3.) Metamorphic Rocks, or those originally
deposited in layers, but afterward so changed by
the action of heat as to lose all traces of stratifi-
cation.

This change, which is called metamorphism, is caused by
heat acting under pressure in the presence of moisture. Under
these conditions a far less intense heat is required to re-
move all traces of stratification. Metamorphism appears

to consist mainly in a rearrangement of the chemical con-
stituents of the rocks,

67. According to their Condition, rocks may
be divided into two classes:

(1.) Stratified Rocks, or those arranged i
regular layers. Aqueous rocks are always ian
fied, and sometimes, though rarely, metamorphic
ori are stratified.



84 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.







WRK





Fig, 25. Stratified Rock,

In Fig. 25 the different layers or strata are shown by
the shadings. Stratified rocks are the most common form
of rocks found near the earth’s surface.

Stratified rocks are largely composed of fragments of
older rocks; for this reason they are sometimes called
fragmental rocks.

(2.) Unstratified Rocks, or those destitute of
any arrangement in layers. They are of two kinds:

(1.) Igneous, or those which were never stratified.

(2.) Metamorphic, or those which were once
stratified, but have lost their stratification by
the action of heat.

Unstratified rocks are sometimes called crystad-
line rocks, because they consist of crystalline
particles.

68. Fossils are the remains of animals or plants
which have been buried in the earth by natural
causes. . Generally, the soft parts of the organism
have disappeared, leaving only the harder parts.
Sometimes the soft parts have been gradually re-
moved, and replaced by mineral matter, generally
lime or silica; thus producing what are called
petrifactions. At times the mere impression of
the animal or plant is all that remains to tell
of its former existence.

4



Fig, 26, Fossil Encrinite,

When the remains of an animal or plant are exposed to
the air or buried in dry earth, they generally decompose
and pass off almost entirely as gases; but when buried
under water or in damp earth, their preservation is more
probable. Therefore, the species most likely to become
fossilized are those living in water or marshes, or in the
‘neighborhood of water or marshes.

69. According to the Presence or Absence of
Fossil Remains, rocks may be divided into two
classes :



(1.) Fossiliferous Rocks, or those which con-
tain fossils. They are stratified and are of
aqueous origin. Metamorphic rocks, in very
rare instances, are found to contain fragments
of fossils.

(2.) Non-fossiliferous Rocks, or those destitute
of fossils. They include all igneous rocks and
most of those that are metamorphic.

70. Paleeontology is the science which treats of fossils. .

Paleontology enables us to ascertain the earth’s condi-
tion in pre-historic times, since by a careful examination
of the fossils found in any rocks we discover what animals
and plants lived on the earth while such rocks were being
deposited. The earth’s strata thus become the pages of a
huge book; and the fossils found in them, the writings
concerning the old life of the world. By their careful
study geologists have been enabled to find out much of
the earth’s past history.

71, Division of Geological Time.—A compari-
son of the various species of fossils found in the
earth’s crust discloses the following facts:

(1.) The fossils found in the lowest rocks bear
but. a slight resemblance to the animals and
plants now living on the earth.

(2.) The fossils found in the intermediate strata
bear a resemblance to existing species, though
this resemblance is not so strongly marked as in
the upper strata.

(3.) ‘The fossils found in the upper strata bear
a decided resemblance to existing species.

It is on such a basis that the immense extent
of geological time is divided into the following
shorter periods or times:

(1.) Archean Time, or the time which wit-
nessed the dawn of life. This time included an
extremely long era, during most of which the con-
ditions of temperature were such that no life could
possibly have existed. Toward its close, however,
the simplest forms of life were created.

The lower Archean rocks resulted from the
original cooling of the molten earth, and cover
its entire surface, including the floor of the ocean.
On these rest less ancient Archean rocks, formed
as sedimentary deposits of the older rocks.

The rocks of the Archean Time in North America in-
clude the Laurentian, the lowest, hamed from the river
St. Lawrence, near which they occur, and the Huronian,
named from their occurrence near Lake Huron.

(2.) Paleozoic Time, or ancient life, included
the time during which the animals and plants
bore but little resemblance to those now living.

(3.) Mesozoic Time, or middle life, included
the time during which the animals and plants
began to resemble those now living.

Ne













/

THE CRUST OF THE EARTH. 35





(4.) Cenozoic Time, or recent life, included the
time during which the animals and plants bore
decided resemblance to those now living.

These times are divided into ages.

Archean Time includes—

(1.) The Azoic Age;

(2.) The Eozoic Age.

Paleozoic Time, or, as it is sometimes called,
the Primary, includes—

(1.) The Age of Invertebrates, or the Silurian ;

(2.) The Age of Fishes, or the Devonian;

(8.) The Age of Coal-plants, or the Carbon-
iferous.

Mesozoic Time, or, as it is sometimes called,
the Secondary, includes the Age of Reptiles.

Cenozoic Time includes—

(1.) The Tertiary, or the Age of Mammals;

(2.) The Quaternary, or the Age of Man.

Where no disturbing causes existed, and the
land remained under the seas, the rocks deposited
during these periods were thrown down in regu-
lar strata, one over the other. The Archean
were the lowest; above them were the Paleozoic,
then the Mesozoic, and finally those of the Ceno-
zoic. Generally, however, frequent dislocations
of the strata have disturbed the regular order
of arrangement.

72. The Azoic Age included all the time from
the first formation of the crust to the appearance
of animal and vegetable life.

The Eozoic Age is that which witnessed the
dawn of life. The sedimentary rocks of this age
are so highly metamorphosed that nearly all traces
of life have been obliterated. Among plants, the
marine alge, or sea-weeds, and among animals,
the lowest forms of the protozoa, were probably
the chief species.

73. The Age of Invertebrates, or the Silurian,
is sometimes called the Age of Mollusks. Among
plants, algw, or sea-weeds, are found; among ani-
mals, protozoa, radiates, articulates, and mollusks,
but no vertebrates. Hence the name, Age of In-
vertebrates. Mollusks were especially numerous.

The name Silurian is derived from the ancient Silures,
a tribe formerly inhabiting those parts of England and
Wales where the rocks abound.

74, The Age of Fishes, or the Devonian.—
During this age all the sub-kingdoms of animals
are found, but the vertebrates first appear, being
represented by fishes, and from this fact the name
has been given to the age. Land-plants are also
found. Immense beds of limestone and red sand-
stone were deposited.

5





The name Devonian is derived from the district of Dev-
onshire, England, where the rocks abound.

75. The Age of Coal-Plants, or the Carbonif-
erous.—The continents during this age consisted
mainly of large, flat, marshy areas, covered with
luxuriant vegetation, subject, at long intervals, to
extensive inundations. The decaying vegetation,
decomposing under water, retained most of its
solid constituent, carbon, and formed beds of coal.
All the sub-kingdoms of animals were represented
and reptiles also existed. The comparatively few

-land-plants of the preceding age now increased

and formed a dense vegetation.

To favor such a luxuriant vegetation the air
must have been warm and moist. Since all the
coal then deposited previously existed in the air
as carbonic acid, the Carboniferous Age was nec-
essarily characterized by a purification of the
atmosphere.



Fig, 27, Carboniferous Landscape, (A restoration.)

Formation of Coal.—In every 100 parts of dry vege-
table matter there are about 49 parts of carbon, 6 of hydro-
gen, and 45 of oxygen. The carbon is a solid; the hydro-
gen and oxygen are gases. Itis from the carbon that coal
is mainly formed. When the decomposition of the vege-
table matter takes place in air, the carbon passes off with
the hydrogen and oxygen as various gaseous compounds;
but when covered by water, most of the carbon is retained,
together with part of the oxygen andhydrogen. Although
every year our forests drop tons of leaves, no coal results,
the deposit of one year being almost entirely removed
before that of the next occurs. F

It has been computed that it would require a depth of
eight feet of compact vegetable matter to form one foot.of
bituminous coal, and twelve feet of vegetable matter to
form one foot of anthracite coal. Anthracite coal differs






36 PHYSICAL



GEOGRAPHY.



from bituminous mainly in the greater metamorphism to
which it has been subjected; it contains a greater propor-
tion of carbon and less hydrogen and oxygen.

76. The Age of Reptiles.—In this age the ani-
mals and plants begin to resemble existing species.
The age is characterized mainly by the prepon-
derance of reptiles, many of which were very
large, as, for example, the plesiosaurus, an animal
with a long, snake-like neck and a huge body, or
the ichthgosaurus, with a head like a crocodile and
short neck and large body. Both of these ani-
mals were furnished with fin-like paddles, and
lived in the water. Huge pterodactyls, or bat-
like saurians, flew in the air or paddled in the
water. Mammals and birds also occur.










































Fig, 28, ‘The Age of Reptiles. (A restoration.)

77. The Age of Mammals, or the Tertiary Age.
—Mammals, or animals that suckle their young,
occurred in great numbers, and, being the highest























== cae

Fig, 29. Mastodon giganteus, An Animal of the Mammalian Age

type of life, gave the name to the age. The ani-
mals and plants of the Mammalian Age closely
resembled existing species, though most of them
were much larger; as, for example, the dinothe-

rium, a huge animal, with a trunk like an ele-
phant, but with downward-turned tusks; the
paleotherium, and many others.

78. The Era of Man, or the Quaternary Age,
witnessed the introduction of the present animals
and plants and the creation of man.

79. Changes Now Occurring in the Earth's
Crust.— Geological time was characterized by ex-
tensive changes, both in the hind and luauriance
of life, and in the nature of its distribution.

The earth is still undergoing extensive changes,
which are caused by the following agencies:

(1.) By the Winds, which often carry sand
from a desert and distribute it over fertile plains:
in this manner the narrow tract of fertile land on
the borders of the Nile, in Egypt, receives much
sand from the Sahara. The winds are also piling
up huge mounds of sand along the sea-coasts,
forming what are called dunes, or sandhills,

(2.) By the Moisture of the Atmosphere, soak-
ing into porous rocks or running into the crevices
between solid ones. This water in freezing ex-
pands with force sufficient to rend the rock into
fragments, which are carried away by the rivers
or, when sufficiently small, by the winds. 2

(8.) By the Action of Running Water.— Rivers
wash away portions of their banks or cut their



i VAT
ENE START

Fig. 30, Curious Effect of Erosion,

their channels. This action is
It occurs even in the hardest

way throug
called erosgon.












DISTRIBUTION OF THE LAND-AREAS. 37



The materials thus carried away are

rocks.
spread over the lowlands near the mouth of the
river or thrown into the sea, where they often

form large deposits. By the constant action of
these causes the mean heights of the continents are
decreasing and their breadths increasing.

The most remarkable instance of erosion is

found in the cafions of the Colorado River, where.

the waters have eaten a channel through the hard
limestones and granites that form the bed of the
stream, until they now run through gorges whose
walls ascend almost perpendicularly to the height
of from 3000 to 6000 feet.

A good idea of this great depth may be obtained by
walking along a straight street for about a mile (5280
feet), and then imagining the street set upright in the air.
On looking down toward the starting-place, we would see
it as it would appear at the bottom of a hole about 6000
feet deep.’ ;

The forms produced by erosion are often extremely fan-
tastic. Tall, slender, needle-like columns, capped by a
layer of harder rock, sometimes occur, thus showing in a
marked manner an effect of erosion.

(4.) By the Action of Ocean Waves, changing
the outlines of coasts; as may be seen in portions
of the coasts of England and Scotland.

(5.) By the Agency of Man, witnessed mainly
in the destruction of the forests over extended
areas.

(6.) By the Contraction of a Cooling Crust,
resulting in—1. Earthquakes; 2. Volcanoes; 3.
Gradual uplifts and subsidences.

2020300

CHAPTER II.
Distribution of the Land-Areas.

80. Geographic Effects of Light, Heat, and
Moisture.—The peculiarities observed in the dis-
tribution of animal and vegetable life are caused
by differences in the distribution of light, heat,
and moisture. Since light, heat, and moisture
* are influenced by the interaction of land, water,
and air, we must first study the distribution and
grouping of these inorganic or dead forms before
we can understand those that are living.

81. The Distribution of the Land—Of the
197,000,000 square miles that make up the
darth’s surface, about 144,000,000 are water and
53,000,000 land. The proportion is about as the
square of 5 is to the square of 8. If, therefore,
we erect a square on a side of five, its entire area
will represent the relative water-area of the globe;







while a square whose side is three will represent
the relative land-area.





Vy
|








































VO QD ===
oe

82. The Distribution of the Land can be best
studied when arranged under two heads:

(1.) The Horizontal Forms of the Land, or the
different shapes produced in the land-areas by the
coast lines, or by the contact of land and water;

(2.) The Vertical Forms of the Land, produced
by the irregularity of the surface of the high
lands and low lands.

83. The Horizontal Forms.—The land-areas
are divided into continents and islands.

The Eastern Hemisphere contains four conti-









‘nents: Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. The

first three form one single mass, which is called
the Eastern Continent.

Though the word “continent” strictly refers to an ex-
tended area of land entirely surrounded by water, usage
has sanctioned the application of the term to the grand
divisions of the land. It is quite correct, therefore, to
speak of the North American Continent, the Asiatic Con-
tinent, ete.

The Western Hemisphere contains two conti-
nents: North and South America; these consti-
tute what is called the Western Continent.

The following are the extremities of the conti:
nents:

In the Hastern Continent—

Most northern point, Cape Chelyuskin, lat. 78° 16’ N.
Most southern point, Cape Agulhas, lat. 34°51’ 8.

Most eastern point, East Cape, long. 170° W.

Most western point, Cape Verd, long. 17° 34’ W.

In the Western Continent—

Most northern point, Point Barrow, lat. 72° N.

Most southern point, Cape Froward, lat. 53° 53’ 8.

Most western point, Cape Prince of Wales, long. 168° W.
Most eastern point, Cape St. Roque, long. 35° W.

~













38 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



84, Peculiarities in the Distribution of the
Land:

(1.) The continents extend farther to the north
than to the south.

(2.) The land masses are crowded together near
the north pole, which they surround in the shape
of an irregular ring.

(3.) The three main southern projections of
the land—South America, Africa, and Australia
—are separated from each other by extensive
oceans.

85. Land and Water Hemispheres.——The ac-
cumulation of the land in the north and its sepa-
ration in the south lead to a curious result—nearly
all the land is collected in one hemisphere.

If one point of a pair of compasses be placed at
the north pole of a globe, and the other stretched
out to reach to any point on the equator, they
will describe on the surface of the globe a great
circle, and consequently will divide the globe into
hemispheres. If, while they are stretched this dis-
tance apart, one of the points be placed at about
the city of London, a cirele swept with the other
point will divide the earth into land and water
hemispheres. Such a great circle would pass
through the Malay Peninsula and the coast of
Peru.

The Land Hemisphere contains all of North
America, Europe, and Africa, and the greater part
of South America and Asia. The Water Hemi-
sphere contains the southern portions of South
America, the Malay Peninsula, and Australia.



Fig. 32, Land and Water Hemispheres.

86. Double Continents.—The six grand divis-
ions or continents may be divided into three pairs,
called Double or Twin Continents.

Each Double Continent consists of a northern
and southern continent, almost separated from
each other, but connected by a narrow isthmus
or island chain.

The three double continents are North and
South America, Europe and Africa, and Asia

[Seis



and Australia. There are, therefore, three north-
ern and three southern continents.

The northern continents lie almost entirely in
temperate latitudes, while the southern lie mainly
%, the tropics.

“87. Lines of Trend—The study of any map
of the world on a Mercator’s projection will dis-
close the following peculiarities in the earth’s
structure :

There are two great systems of courses, trends, or
lines of direction, along which the shores of the con-
tinents, the mountain-ranges, the oceanic basins, and
the island chains extend.

These trends extend in a general north-easterly
and north-westerly direction, and intersect each
other nearly at right angles.

North-east Trends.—A straight ruler can be so placed
along the south-eastern coasts of Greenland and the south-
eastern coasts of North America that its edge will touch
most of their shore lines. Its general direction will be
north-east.

It can be similarly placed along the south-eastern coast
of South America, the north-western coast of Africa, and
most of the western coast of Europe; along the south-
eastern coasts of Africa; the south-eastern coast of Hin-
dostan; and along the eastern coast of Asia, without its
general direction differing much from north-east.

North-west Trends.—A straight ruler can be so placed
as to touch most of the western shores of North America.
and part of the western coast of South America; most
of the western coasts of Greenland, or the north-eastern
coasts of North America, and part of the western coasts
of Africa. All these courses are sensibly north-west.

If placed with one end at the mouth of the Mackenzie
River, and the other on the south-western extremity of
Lake Michigan, it will cut nearly all the great lakes in
Central British America. The direction of the island
chains of the Pacific Ocean in particular is characterized
by these two trends, many of the separate islands being
elongated in the direction of the trend of their chain.

88. Continental Contrasts. — The main pro-
longation of the western continent extends in the
line of the north-western trend, while that of the
eastern continent extends in the line of the north-
eastern trend. The axes of the continents, or
their lines of general direction, therefore, inter-
sect each other nearly at right angles.

The western continent extends far north and
south of the equator, while the eastern lies mainly
north of the equator. The Western Continent,
therefore, is characterized by a diversity of cli-
mates; the Eastern Continent, by a similarity.
The distribution of vegetable and animal life
in each continent is necessarily affected by the .
peculiarities of its climate.

It is from the prevalence of the lines of trend that the











ISLANDS.



389



general shape of the continents is mainly triangular. An
excellent system of map-drawing has been devised on this
peculiarity.

The following peculiarities exist in the coast
lines of the continents:

The coast lines of the northern continents are
very irregular, the shores being deeply indented
with gubfs and bays, while those of the southern con-
tinents are comparatively simple and unbroken.

The continents are most deeply indented near
the regions where the pairs of northern and south-
ern continents are nearly separated from each
‘other. These regions correspond with the lines of
great volcanic activity, and appear to be areas over
which considerable subsidence has occurred.

The continents differ greatly from one another
in their indentations. Europe is the most indented
of all the continents. The area of her peninsulas,
compared with that of her entire area, is as 1 to 4.
Asia comes next in this respect, the proportion
being 1 to 53, while in North America it is but
1 to 14.

The following Table gives in the first column the area
of each of the continents, in the second the length of coast
line, and in the third the number of square miles of area
to one mile of coast line:





Sq. m. of

CONTINENTS. AREA. COAST LINE. ee

of coast.
AGI Alesccessessscesess 17,500,000 sq. miles. |35,000 miles.| 500
AfTICA wecccseeseeees 12,000,000 16,000 750
North America..| 8,400,000 “é 22,800 “ 368
South America...| 6,500,000 . 14,500 “ 449
Europe... 3,700,000 sf 19,500 “ 190
Australia......... «| 3,000,000 s 10,000 “ 300



Europe has, in proportion to its area,
About three times as much coast line as Asia. ©
About four times as much as Africa.
About twice as much as North America.
More than twice as much as South America.
Europe is the most, and Africa the least, deeply
indented of the continents.

—-0503 00 ——_.

CHAPTER III.

Islands.

89. Relative Continental and Insular Areas.—
Of the 53,000,000 square miles of land, nearly
3,000,000, or about one-seventeenth, is composed
of islands.

90. Varieties of Islands.—Islands are either
continental or oceanic.

Continental Islands are those that lie near the







shores of the continents. They are continuations
of the neighboring continental mountain-ranges
or elevations, which they generally resemble in
geological structure. They may, therefore, be re-
garded as projections of submerged portions of the
neighboring continents. Continental islands have,
in general, the same lines of trend as the shores of
the neighboring mainland.

Continental islands, as a rule, are larger than oceanic
islands. This is caused by the shallower water in which
continental islands are generally situated. Papua and
Borneo have each an area of about 250,000 square miles;

either of these islands is more than twice as large as the
combined areas of Great Britain and Ireland.

91. American Continental Island Chains.

(1.) The Arctic Archipelago comprises the
large group of islands north of the Dominion
of Canada. It consists of detached portions of
the neighboring continent.

(2.) The Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
and its neighborhood are apparently the northern
prolongations of the Appalachian mountain-sys-
tem.

(3.) The Bahamas lie off the south-eastern coast
of Florida, to which they belong by position and
structure. Their general trend is north-west.

(4.) The West Indies form a curved range,
which connects the peninsula of Yucatan with
the coast-mountains of Venezuela. Here both
trends appear, though the north-western pre-
dominates.







Fig, 33, West India Island Chain.
1, Cuba; 2, Hayti; 3, Jamaica; 4, Porto Rico; 5, Caribbee Islands;
6, Bahamas.

(5.) The Aleutian Islands form another curved
range, which connects the Alaskan Peninsula with
Kamitchatka; their general trend is north-east.
They are connected with the elevations of the
North American continent.





40 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.





(6.) The Islands west of the Dominion of Can-
ada and Alaska. These are clearly the summits
of submerged northern prolongations of the Pa-
cific coast ranges.

(7.) The Islands of the Patagonian Archi-
pelago are the summits of submerged prolonga-
tions.of the Andes of Chili.

92. Asiatic Continental Island Chains consist
of a series of curved ranges extending along the
entire coast, and intersecting each other nearly at
right angles.

(1.) The Kurile Islands are a prolongation of ,
the Kamtchatkan range.

(2.) The Islands of Japan extend in a curve
from Saghalien to Corea.

(3.) The Loo Choo Islands extend in a curve
from the islands of Japan to the island of For-
mosa.

(4.) The Philippines form two diverging chains,
which merge on the south into the Australasian
Island chain. The eastern chain extends to the
southern extremity of Celebes, and the western
to that of Borneo.

The Asiatic chains belong to a submerged mountain-
range extending from Kamtchatka to the Sunda Islands.
Their general direction is parallel to the elevations of the
coast.

93. The Australasian Island Chain.

The Australasian Island chain is composed of
a number of islands extending along curved
trends over a length of nearly 6000 miles, from
Sumatra to New Zealand. The islands extend
along three curved lines, whose general direction
‘is north-west.





AUSTRALIA





Fig. 34, Australasian Island Chain,
1, Sumatra; 2, Java; 3, Sumbawa; 4, Flores; 5, Timor; 6, Borneo;
7, Celebes; 8, Gilolo; 9, Ceram; 10, Papua; 11, Louisiade Archipel-
ago; 12, New Caledonia; 13, New Zealand; 14, Admiralty Islands ;
15, Solomon’s Archipelago; 16, Santa Cruz; 17, New Hebrides. 4






The Australasian chain was probably connected with the
Asiatic continent during recent geological time, and sepa-
rated from it by subsidence. Its numerous volcanoes and
coral formations prove that subsidence is still taking
place. ,

94. Peculiarity of Distribution—The follow-
ing peculiarity is noticed in the distribution of —
continental islands:

Each of the continents has an island, or a group

of islands, near its south-eastern extremity. For
example, North America has the Bahamas and
the West Indies; Greenland has Iceland; South
America has the Falkland Islands; Africa has
Madagascar; Asia has the East Indies; and
Australia has Tasmania.
95. Oceanic Islands are those situated far away
from the continents. They occur either in vast
chains, which generally extend along one or the
other of the two lines of trend, or as isolated
groups.

Oceanic Island Chains.

The following are the most important:

(1.) The Polynesian Chain ;

(2.) The Chain of the Sandwich Islands;

(8.) The Tongan or New Zealand Chain.











Fig. 35. Polynesian Island Chain.
1, Marquesas; 2, Paumotu; 3, Tahitian; 4, Rurutu group; 5, Her-
vey group; 6, Samoan, or Navigator’s; 7, Vakaafo group; 8, Vaitupu;
9, Kingsmill; 10, Ralick; 11, Radack ; 12, Carolines; 13, Sandwich.

The Polynesian Chain consists of a series of
parallel chains, extending from the Paumotu and
the Tahitian Islands to the Carolines, the Ralick,
and the Radack groups. Their general direction
is north-west; the total length of the chain is
about 5500 miles.

The Chain of the Sandwich Islands extends in
a north-westerly direction. Its length is about
2000 miles.

The New Zealand Chain extends north-east as -





ISLANDS.



far as the Tonga Islands, cutting the Australasian
chain at right angles.

96. Isolated Oceanic Islands are mainly of two
kinds: the Volcanic and the Coral. As a rule, the
Volcanic islands are high, while Coral islands sel-
‘dom rise more than twelve feet above the water.

Volcanic Islands are not confined to isolated
groups, but occur also in long chains. The Poly-
nesian, Sandwich, and New Zealand Chains con-
tain numerous volcanic peaks. But the high, iso-
lated oceanic islands are almost always of voleanie
origin, and, consisting of the summits of subma-
rine volcanoes, are generally small. Some of the
Canary and Sandwich Islands, which are of this
class, rise nearly 14,000 feet above the sea.

97. Coral Islands, or Atolls, though of a great
variety of shapes, agree in one particular:

They consist of a low, narrow rim of coral rock,
enclosing a body of water called a lagoon.



























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig. 36, A Coral Island,

98. Mode of Formation of Coral Islands.—The
reef forming the island is of limestone, derived
from countless skeletons of minute polyps that
once lived beneath the surface of the waters.
The skeletons, however, are not separate. The
polyp propagates its species by a kind of bud-
‘ding; that is, a new polyp grows out of the body
of the old. In this way the skeletons of count-
less millions of polyps are united in one mass and
assume a great variety of shapes.

One of the most common species of reef-forming corals,
the madrepora, is shown in Fig. 37. Many other forms
exist.

The delicate coral structures, together with
shells from various shellfish, are ground into frag-
ments by the action of the waves, and by the in-



Fig, 37, Coral,

filtration of water containing lime in solution,
they become compacted into hard limestone, on
which new coral formations grow.

The growth of the coral mass is directed up-
ward, and ceases when low-water mark is reached,
because exposure to a tropical sun kills the polyps.
But the action of the waves continues, and the
broken fragments are gradually thrown up above
the general level of the water. In this way a reef
is formed, whose height is limited by the force of
the waves, and seldom exceeds twelve feet.

On the bare rock, which has thus emerged, a
soil is soon formed and a scanty vegetation ap-
pears, planted by the hardy seeds scattered over
it by the winds and waves.

The coral island never affords a very comfortable resi-
dence for man. The palm tree is almost the only valuable
vegetable species; the animals are few and small, and the
arable soil is limited. Moreover, the island is subject to
occasional inundations by huge waves from the ocean.

99. Distribution of Coral Islands. —According
to Dana, the reef-forming coral polyp is found
only in regions where the winter temperature
of the waters is never lower than 68° Fahr.
Some varieties, however, will grow in colder
water. Coral islands are confined to those parts
of tropical waters where the depth does not greatly
exceed 100 feet, and which are protected from cold
ocean-currents, from the influence of fresh river-
waters, muddy bottoms, and remote from active vol-
canoes, whose occasional submarine action causes
the death of the coral polyp. Though some coral
polyps grow in quiet water, the greater part thrive
best when exposed to the breakers. The growth ts
therefore more rapid on the side toward the ocean
than on the side toward the island.

‘







42 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



Coral islands are most abundant in the Pacifie Ocean.
The following groups contain numerous coral islands:
the Paumotus, the Carolines, the Radack, the Ralick,
and the Kingsmill groups, and the Tahitian, Samoan,
and Feejee Islands, and New Caledonia.

In the Indian Ocean the Laccadives and the Maldives are
most noted.

In the Atlantic Ocean the West Indies and the Bermudas
are examples.

100. Varieties of Coral Formations.— There
are four varieties of coral formations :
_(.) Fringing Reefs, or narrow ribbons of coral
rock, lying near the shore of an ordinary island.
(2.) Barrier Reefs, which are broader than
Fringing Reefs, and lie at a greater distance
from the shore, but do not extend entirely around
the island.
A barrier reef off the coast of New Caledonia has a
length of 400 miles. One extends along the north-eastern
shore of Australia for over 1000 miles. Barrier reefs are

not continuous, but often have breaks in them through
which vessels can readily pass.

(3.) Encircling Reefs are barrier reefs extend-
ing entirely around the island. As a rule, en-
circling reefs are farther from the shores of the
island than barrier reefs. Tahiti, of the Society
Islands, is an example of an encircling reef.

(4.) Atolls—This name is given to reefs that
encircle lagoons or bodies of water entirely free
from islands.

The varieties of reefs just enumerated mark
successive steps or stages in the progress of for-
mation of the coral island.

When a more careful study of the habits of the reef-
forming coral polyp disclosed the fact of its inability to
live in the ocean at greater depths than 100 or 120 feet,
the opinion, which formerly prevailed, of coral islands
rising from profound depths, had to be abandoned. The
idea had its foundation in the fact that a sounding-line,
thrown into the water near the shore of a coral island,
almost invariably showed depths of thousands of feet, and
yet brought up coral rock. In no case, however, did the
rock contain living polyps. An ingenious hypothesis of
Darwin, which appears well sustained by the extensive
observations of Dana and others, explains the great depth

f coral formations. :

101. Darwin’s Theory of Coral Islands.—Ac-
cording to this distinguished naturalist, the coral
formation begins near the shore of an island that
is slowly sinking. If the growth of the reef up-
ward equals the sinking of the island, the thick-
ness of the reef is limited only by the time during
which the operation continues.

In Fig. 38 is shown, in plan and section, an island with
elevations A, and B, and river a. The coral island begins

as a fringing reef somewhere off the coast of an ordinary
island at c¢, c, c, when the conditions are favorable, The













































SP















































































Fig, 38. Growth of a Coral Island,

coral reef must gradually extend around the island, since its
growth toward the ocean is soon limited by the increasing
depth, and toward the shore of the island by the muddy |
waters near the surf and the absence of the breakers.

Meanwhile, as the island is sinking, the channel sepa-
rating the reef from the coast increases in breadth. A
barrier reef is thus formed, which at last completely sur-
rounds the island, and becomes an encircling reef. The
higher portions of land, which are still above the waters,
form islands in the central lagoon. Opposite the mouth
of the river a, the growth is prevented by the fresh water,
and a break in the reef is thus produced. These breaks
are sometimes sufficient to permit a ship to enter the
lagoon, At last all traces of the old island disappear, and
its situation is marked by a clear lake, surrounded by a
narrow rim of coral which follows nearly the old coast
line.

A coral island, therefore, is always of an ap-
proximately circular or oval form, and encloses a
clear space in the ocean. Extended systems of coral
formations occurring in any region are a proof of
subsidence.

——-050300—.

CHAPTER IV.
Relief Forms of the Land.

102. By the Forms of Relief of the Land is
meant the elevation of the land above the mean
level of the sea.

The highest land in the world is Mount Ever:
est, of the Himalayas; it is 29,000 feet high.
The greatest depression is the Dead Sea, in Pales-
tine, which is about 1812 feet below the level of
the ocean. The sum of these is somewhat less
than six miles.

An elevation of six miles is insignificant when













RELIEF FORMS OF THE LAND. _ 48



compared with the size of the earth. If repre-

sented on an ordinary terrestrial globe, it would
be scarcely discernible, since it would project
above the surface only about the z5,th of the
diameter. The highest elevations of the earth are
proportionally much smaller than the wrinkles on
the skin of an orange.

4000 miles,

2000 miles.

1000 «
500 «
250 «

> Wy ——

Fig. 39, Relative Height of Mountains,

Tf, as in Fig. 39, a sphere be drawn to represent the size
of the earth, its radius will be equal to about 4000 miles.
If, now, the line A B be drawn equal to the radius, it
will represent a height of 4000 miles. One-half this
height would be 2000 miles; one-half of this 1000, and
successive halves 500 and 250 miles. An elevation of 250
miles would not therefore be very marked.

Although the irregularities of the surface are
comparatively insignificant, they powerfully affect
the distribution of heat and moisture, and conse-
quently that of animal and vegetable life. An
elevation of about 350 feet reduces the tempera-
ture of the air 1° Fahr.—an effect equal to a
difference of about 70 miles of latitude. High
mountains, therefore, though under the tropics,
may support on their higher slopes a life similar
to that of the temperate and the polar regions.

103. The Relief Forms of the Land are divided
into two classes :

Low Lands and High Lands.

The boundary-line between them is taken at
1000 feet, which is the mean or average elevation
of the land.

Low Lands are divided into plains ond hills.

High Lands are divided into plateaus and
mountains.

If the surface is: Scoreparaticele flat or level, it
is called a plain when its elevation above the sea
is less than 1000 feet, and a plateau when its ele-
vation is 1000 feet or over.

6



If the surface is diversified, the elevations are
called hills when less than 1000 feet high; and
mountains when 1000 feet. or over.

. Plains and Hills cover about one-half of
the land surface of the earth. In the Eastern
Continent they lie mainly in the north; in the
Western, they occupy the central portions.

Plains generally owe their comparatively level
surface to the absence of wrinkles or folds in the
crust, in which case the general level is preserved,
but the surface rises and falls in long undulations:
these may therefore be called undulating plains.

The flat surface may also be due to the gradual
settling of sedimentary matter. In this case the
plains are exceedingly level. They are called
marine when deposited at the bottom of a sea or
ocean, and alluvial when deposited by the fresh
water of a river or lake. Alluvial plains occur
along the lower course of the river or near its
mouth.

Marine and alluvial plains, from their mode of forma-
tion, are generally less elevated than undulating plains.

105. Plateaus are generally found associated
with the mountain-ranges of the continents. Their
connection with the adjacent plains is either ab-
rupt, as where the plateau of Anahuac joins the
low plains on the Mexican Gulf; or gradual, as
where the plains of the Mississippi Valley join
the plateaus east of the Rocky Mountains.

106. Mountains.—In a mountain-chain the
crest or summit of the range separates into a num-
ber of detached portions called peaks; below the
peaks the entire range is united in a solid mass.

The breaks in the ridge, when extensive, form
mountain-p asses.

The influence of inaccessible mountains, like the Pyr-
enees and Himalayas, in preventing the intermingling of
nations living on their opposite sides, is well exemplified
by history. In the past, mountains formed the boundaries
of different races. Some mountains, like the Alps and the
Appalachians, have numerous passes.

A Mountain-System is a name given to ceveral
connected chains or ranges. Mountain-systems
are often thousands of miles in length and hun-
dreds of miles in breadth.

The Axis of a Mountain-system is a line extend-
ing in the general trend of its chains.

Where several mountain-axes intersect one an-
other, a complicated form occurs, called a Moun-
tain-Knot.

The Pamir Knot, formed by the fo earueationl of the
Karakorum, Belor, and Hindoo-Koosh Mountains, is an
example. It lies on the southern border of the elevated
plateau of Pamir.







44 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.







Fig. 40, A Mountain-Pass,

107. Orology treats of mountains and their
formation.

The force which upheaved the crust into moun-
tain-masses and plateaus had its origin in the
contraction of a cooling globe. There are good

reasons for believing that no extensive mountains’

existed during the earlier geological ages, since
the crust was then very thin, and would have
been fractured before sufficient force could accu-
mulate to upheave it into mountain-masses.

The great mountain-systems of the world are
formed from sedimentary deposits that slowly ac-
cumulated over extended areas until they acquired
very great thickness. The deposits forming the
Appalachians, according to Dana, were, in places,
40,000 feet in depth, and covered the eastern bor-
der of the continent from New York to Alabama,
varying from 100 to 200 miles in breadth.

After the accumulation of these strata they
were, through the contraction of the crust, sub-
jected to the gradual effects of lateral pressure,
by which they were sometimes merely flexed or
folded, but more frequently crushed, fractured, or
mashed together, and thus thickened and thrust
upward. That side of the deposit from which
the thrust came would have a steeper slope than
the opposite side, which received a thrust arising
from the resistance.





This theory of mountain-formation, which is
generally accepted, explains the following facts:

(1.) All mountains have two slopes—a short
steep slope, facing the ocean, and a long gentle
slope, facing the interior of the continent.

(2.) The strata on the short steep slope are
generally highly metamorphosed; those on the
long slope are in general only partially metamor.
phosed, or wholly unchanged.

(3.) The mountain-systems are situated on the
borders of the continents where the sedimentary
strata collected.

(4.) Slaty cleavage, or the readiness with which
so many of the rocks of mountains cleave or split
in one direction, is a proof of these rocks having
been subjected to intense, long-acting, lateral pres-
sure, since such pressure can be made to develop
slaty cleavage in plastic material.

Isolated Mountains.—Nearly all high isolated moun-
tains were formed by the ejection of igneous rocks from

' the interior; that is, they are of volcanic origin and have

been upheaved by a vertical strain or true projectile force,
as in the volcanic range of Jorullo in Mexico.

108. Valleys in mountainous regions are either
longitudinal or transverse.

Longitudinal Valleys are those that extend in
the dire¢tion of the length of the mountains.

Transverse Valleys extend across the moun-
tain. | It is in transverse vaileys that most passes
occur,

Although valleys, like mountains, owe their origin to
the contraction of a cooling crust, yet their present shapes
are modified by the operation of other forces. By the
action of their water-courses, valleys are deepened in one
place and filled up in another. Extensive land-slides often
alter their configuration. During the Glacial Period many
valleys were greatly changed by the action of huge mov-
ing masses of ice. Fiord-valleys were formed in this
manner.

In level countries valleys generally owe their
origin to the eroding power of water.

109. Peculiarities of Continental Reliefs.—
The following peculiarities are noticeable in the
relief forms of the continents:

(1.) The continents have, in general, high bor-
ders and a low interior.

(2.) The highest border lies nearest the deep-
est ocean; hence, the culminating point, or the
highest point of land, lies out of the centre of the
continent.

' (8.) The greatest prolongation of a continent
is always that of its predominant mountain-sys-
tem.

(4.) The prevailing trends of the mountain-











masses are the same as those of the coast lines, and
are, in general, either north-east or north-west. *
In describing the relief forms of the continents
we shall observe the following order:
(1.) The Predominant System, ora system of

RELIEF FORMS OF

THE CONTINENTS. 45

elevations exceeding all others in height, and con-
taining the culminating point of the continent.
(2.) The Secondary System or Systems, inferior
to the preceding in height.
3.) The Great Low Plains.











Fig, 41, Orographic Chart of North America, (Light portions, mountains; shaded portions, plains.)
1, Rocky Mountain System; 2, System of the Sierra N evada and Cascade Ranges; 3, Sierra Madre; 4, Great Interior Plateau; 5, Wahsatch
Mountains; 6, Appalachians; 7, Plateau of Labrador; 8, Height of Land; 9, Arctic Plateau; 10, Mackenzie River; ll, Nelson River; 12, St.

Lawrence River; 13, Mississippi River.

CHAPTER V.

Relief Forms of the Continents.
I. NORTH AMERICA

110. Surface Structure.—The Predominant
Mountain-System lies in the west,

The Secondary Systems lie in the east and north.

The Great Low Plains lie in the centre.

lll. The Pacific Mountain-System, the pre-
dominant system, extends, in the direction of the
greatest prolongation of the continent, from the
Isthmus of Panama to the Arctic Ocean. It con-
sists of an immense plateau, from 800 to 600
miles in breadth, crossed by two nearly parallel

mountain-systems: the Rocky Mountains on the

east and the system of the Sierra Nevada and
Cascade ranges on the west. The eastern moun-
tain-system is highest near the south; the west-
ern range is highest near the north. Between
these lie numerous parallel ranges enclosing lon-





gitudinal valleys, connected in places by trans-
verse ranges forming basin-shaped valleys.

The Rocky Mountain System.—The Rocky
Mountains rise from the summits of a plateau
whose elevation, in the widest part of the system,
varies from 6000 to 7000 feet above the sea;
therefore, although the highest peaks range from
11,000 to nearly 15,000 feet, their elevation above
the general level of the plateau is comparatively
inconsiderable. The plateau on the east rises by
almost imperceptible slopes from the Mississippi
River. The upper parts of the slopes, near the
base of the mountains, form an elevated plateau
called the “Plains,” over which, at one time,
roamed vast herds of buffalo or bison. This ani-
mal is rapidly becoming extinct.

Though the name “ Rocky Mountains” is generally con-
fined to those parts of the chain which extend through
British America and the United States, yet, in connection
with the Sierra Nevada Mountains, it is continued through

Mexico by the Sierra Madre Mountains, and by smaller
ranges to the Isthmus of Panama.









46 PHYSICAL



GEOGRAPHY.





Fig, 42, On the Plains,

The Rocky Mountain System forms the great
watershed of the continent, the eastern slopes
draining mainly through the Mississippi into the
Atlantic, and the western slopes draining through
the Columbia and the Colorado into the Pacific.
It slopes gradually upward from the Arctic Ocean
toward the Mexican plateau, where it attains its
greatest elevation in the volcanic peak of Pepo-
catepetl, 17,720 feet above the sea.

The System of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade)

Mountains extends, in general, parallel to the
Rocky Mountain System. It takes the name of
Sierra Nevada in California and Nevada, and of
the Cascade Mountains in the remaining portions
of the continent. It reaches its greatest eleva-
tion in Mount St. Elias, in Alaska, 19,500 feet
above the sea. This is the culminating point of
the North American continent.

In the broadest part of the plateau of the Pacific system,
between the Wahsatch Mountains on the east, and the
Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges on the west, lies the
plateau of the Great Basin. Its high mountain borders
rob the winds of their moisture, and the rainfall, except
on the mountain-slopes, is inconsiderable. The Great
Basin has a true inland drainage.

The heights of all mountains, except those much fre-
quented, must generally be regarded as but good approxi-
mations, since the methods employed for estimating heights
require great precautions to secure trustworthy results.
Even the culminating points of all the continents have
not, as yet, been accurately ascertained.

_ 112. The Secondary Mountain-Systems of North
America comprise the Appalachian system, the



Plateau of Labrador, the Height of Land, and
the Arctic Plateau. The last three have but an
inconsiderable elevation.

The Appalachian Mountain System consists of
a number of nearly parallel chains extending
from the St. Lawrence to Alabama and Georgia.
It is high at the northern and southern ends, and
slopes gradually toward the middle. The highest
peaks at either end have an elevation of about
6000 feet.

The Appalachian system is broken by two deep depres-
sions, traversed by the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers. Be-
tween the foot of the system and the ocean lies a low coast
plain, whose width varies from 50 to 250 miles.

118. The Great Low Plain of North America
lies between the Atlantic system on the east and
the Pacific system on the west. It stretches from
the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico.

Near the middle of the plain the inconsider-
able elevation of the Height of Land divides it
into two gentle slopes, which descend toward the
Arctic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. tle swell extending from north-west to south-east
divides the northern portion of the plain into
two parts. The eastern and western basins, so
formed, are connected by a break in the water-
shed, through which the Nelson River empties
into Hudson Bay.

The southern part of the plain is traversed, in

its lowest parts, by the Mississippi River.

The tributaries of this river descend the long, gentle
slopes of the Atlantic and Pacific systems.

114. The Relief Forms of a Continent are best
understood by ideal sections, in which the base
line represents the sea-level, and the scale of
heights on the margin represents the elevation
of the various parts.

In all such sections the vertical dimensions of the land
are necessarily greatly exaggerated.



Fig. 48, Section of North America from East to West.
1, St. Elias; 2, Sierra Nevada; 3, Rocky Mountains; 4, Mississippi
Valley; 5, Appalachian System.

115. Approximate Dimensions of North America,
Area of continent, 8,400,000 square miles.

Greatest breadth from east to west, about 3100 miles.
Greatest length from north to south, about 4500 miles,
Coast line, 22,800 miles.

Culminating point, Mount St. Elias, 19,500 feet.





RELIEF FORMS OF THE CONTINENTS. AT



4
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BL EE BE GA

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LB» iz

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Fig, 44, Orographic Chart of South America,
(Light portions, mountains; shaded portions, plains.)
1, System,of the Andes; 2, Plateau of Quito; 3, Plateau of Bolivia;

4, Aconcagua; 5, Plateau of Guiana; 6, Plateau of Brazil; 7, The
Orinoco; 8, The Amazon; 9, The La Platte,
Il. SOUTH AMERICA.

116, Surface Structure. — The Predominant
Mountain-System of South America is in the west.

The Secondary Systems are in the east.

The Great Low Plain lies between them.

117, The System of the Andes, which extends
along the western border of the continent, is the

_“predominant mountain-system. It is composed
mainly of two approximately parallel chains
_ separated by wide and comparatively level val-
leys. On the north there are three chains, and
‘onthe south but one; in the centre, mainly two.
The chains are connected by transverse ridges,
forming numerous mountain-knots.

The Andes System forms a continuation of
the Pacific Mountain-System. A wide depression
at the Isthmus of Panama marks their separation.
From this point the Andes increase in height
toward the south, probably reaching their high-
est point in Chili, where the volcanic peak of
Aconcagua, 28,910 feet, is believed to be the cul-
minating point of South America, and of the West-
ern Continent.

Nevada de Sorata was formerly believed to be the cul-
minating point of South America, but recent recalculations





of the observations have resulted in a loss of nearly 4000
feet of the supposed height of Sorata. Some authorities
still claim that several peaks in Bolivia reach an ele-
vation of nearly 25,000 feet.

The Andes Mountain-System terminates ab-
ruptly in the precipitous elevations of Cape Horn.

Numerous table-lands are included between the parallel
ranges: the most important are—the plateau of Quito, 9543
feet; the plateau of Pasco, in North Peru, 11,000 feet; the
plateau of Bolivia, from 12,000 to 14,000 feet. From most
of these higher plateaus volcanic peaks arise.

118. The Secondary Mountain-Systems of South
America are the plateaus of Brazil and Guiana.
They both lie on the eastern border.

The Plateau of Brazil is a table-land whose
average height is about 2500 feet. Narrow
chains or ridges separate the river-valleys.

The plateau of Brazil forms the watershed between the
tributaries of the Amazon and the La Plata. Along the
Atlantic a moderately continuous range descends in steep
terraces to the ocean. The average altitude is more than
double that of the western portion of the plateau. The
highest peaks are somewhat over 8000 feet.

The Plateau of Guiana, smaller than the Plateau
of Brazil, but about equally elevated, forms the
watershed between the Orinoco and the Amazon.



Fig. 45, Amazon River Scenery.

119. The Great Low Plain of South America
lies between the predominant and the secondary
mountain-systems. It is mainly of alluvial origin,
but slightly elevated, and is much more level than
the great plain of North America.

This plain is drained by the three principal river-sys-





48 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

tems of the continent, by which it is divided into three
parts: the Llanos of the Orinoco, the Selvas of the Amazon,
and the Pampas of the La Platte.

The Llanos are grassy plains which, during the rainy
season, resemble our prairies, but during the dry weather
are deserts.

The Selvas, or forest plains, are covered by an uninter-
rupted luxuriant forest. The vegetation here is so dense
that in some places the broad rivers form the only ready
means of crossing the country. Near the river-banks are
vast stretches of swampy ground.

The Pampas are grassy plains which in some respects
resemble the Llanos. 5

A coast plain lies between the Andes and the
Pacific. It is widest near the Andes of Chili,

Fig. 46, Section of South America from East to West,

1, Volcano Arequipa; 2, Lake Titicaca; 3, Nevada de Sorata; 4,
Central Plain; 5, Mountains of Brazil.

where in some places it is 100 miles in breadth.
Between the parallels of 27° and 23° the plain



is an absolute desert, called the Desert of Ata-
cama. Here rain never falls and vegetation is
entirely absent.

120. Approximate Dimensions of South America.

Area of continent, about 6,500,000 square miles.

Greatest breadth from east to west, 3230 miles.

Greatest length from north to south, 4800 miles.

Coast line, 14,500 miles.

Culminating point, Aconcagua, 23,910 feet.

121. Contrasts of the Americas.—In both North
and South America the predominant system lies in
the west, the secondary systems in the east, and the
low plains in the centre.

They differ in the following respects:

In North America the predominant system is a
broad plateau, having high mountain-ranges; the
principal secondary system is narrow, and formed
of parallel ranges; the low plains are character-
ized by undulations, and contain several deep de-
pressions occupied by extensive lake-systems.

In South America the predominant system is nar-
row; the secondary systems are broad ; the low plain
is alluvial, extremely flat, contains no depressions, —
and consequently no extensive lake-systems.





243



Fig. 47, Orographic Chart of Europe. (Light portions, mountains; shaded portions, plains.)
1, The Alps; 2, Mont Blanc; 3, Pyrenees; 4, Cantabrian; 5, Sierra Estrella; 6, Sierra Nevada; 7, Mountains of Castile; 8, Apennines;
9, Dinaric Alps; 10, Balkan; 11, Pindus; 12, Taurts;.13, Caucasus; 14, Cevennes; 15, Plateau of Auvergne; 16, Vosges; 17, Black Forest; 18,
Jura; 19, Hartz; 20, Bonemian Plateau; 21, Carpathians; 22, Hungarian Forest; 23, Transylvanian Mountains; 24, Kiolen Mountains; 25, Urals.

Ill. EUROPE.
122. Surface Structure.—The Predominant
Mountain-System is in the south.
The Secondary Systems are in thenorth and east.

The Great Low Plain lies between the Pre-
dominant and Secondary Systems.

A line drawn from the Sea of Azoyv to the mouth of the
Rhine River divides Europe into two distinct physical







RELIEF FORMS OF THE CONTINENTS. 49



[NS
regions. The great low plain lies on the north, and the
predominant mountain-system on the south. The coun-
try north of this line is sometimes called Low Europe, and
that south of it, High Europe.

123. The Predominant Mountain-System of Eu-
rope is composed of a highly complex series of
mountain-systems extending along the northern
shores of the Mediterranean in a curve, from the
Straits of Gibraltar to the shores of Asia Minor.
The system is highest in the centre, where the
Alps form the culminating point of the continent.

The average elevation of the Alps ranges from
10,000 to 12,000 feet.
Blane, 15,787 feet, is the culminating point of the
European continent. Matterhorn and Monte Rosa
are but little inferior in height. On the south-
west the system is continued to the Atlantic by
the Cevennes and adjoining ranges in France, and
the Pyrenees and Cantabrian in the northern part
of the Spanish peninsula. The Pyrenees are an
elevated range, with peaks over 11,000 feet high.
On the east the system extends in two curves to
the Black Sea by the Carpathian and Transylva-
nian Mountains on the north, and the Dinaric
Alps and the Balkan Mountains on the south.

124. Divisions of Predominant System.—The
predominant mountain-system of Europe may be
conveniently regarded as consisting of a central
body or axis, the Alps, with six projections or
limbs—three on the north, and three on the south.

The three divisions on the north include—

The Western Division, or the mountains of
France, including the mountains lying west of
the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhone;

The Central Division, or the mountains of Ger-
many, situated between the Western Division and
the upper valleys of the Oder and the Danube ;

The Eastern Division, or the mountains of
Austria-Hungary, situated between the Central
Division and the Black Sea.

These divisions contain a highly complicated system of
minor elevations. Their complexity is' due to the fre-
quent intersection of the north-eastern and north-western
trends. Basin-shaped~ plateaus, like the Bohemian and
Transylvanian, are thus formed. :

The Western Division includes most of the mountains
of France, as the Cevennes, the mountains of Auvergne,
and the Vosges Mountains. i

The Central Division includes the Jura Mountains in
Switzerland, the Swiss and the Bavarian plateaus, the
Black Forest Mountains, the Hartz Mountains, and the
Bohemian plateau.

The Eastern Division includes most of the mountains

of Austria, as the Carpathians, the Hungarian Forest, and
the Transylvanian Mountains.

125, The three projections on the south are the



The highest peak, Mont

three mountainous peninsulas of Southern Eu-
rope:

The Iberian Peninsula, including Spain and
Portugal ;

The Italian Peninsula ; :

The Turco-Grecian Peninsula.

The Iberian Peninsula.The principal mountains are
the Sierra Estrella, the mountains of Castile, and the
Sierra Nevada. The Pyrenees separate the Peninsula from
France. The Cantabrian Mountains extend along the
northern coast.

The Italian Peninsula contains the Apennines, ex-
tending mainly in the direction of the north-western
trend.

The Turco-Grecian Peninsula.—The Dinaric Alps
extend along the coast of the Adriatic; the Balkan Moun-
tains extend from east to west, through Turkey; and the
Pindus from north to south, through Turkey and Greece.

126. The Secondary Mountain-Systems of Eu-
rope comprise the system of the Scandinavian
peninsula, the Ural Mountains, and the Cauca-
sus Mountains.

The System of the Scandinavian Peninsula
includes the elevations of Norway and Sweden.
With the exception of the Kiolen Mountains in
the north, the system does not embrace distinct
mountain-ridges, but consists mainly of a series



Fig. 48, Fiord on Norway Coast,

of broad plateaus that descend abruptly on the
west in numerous deeply-cut valleys called fiords,
through which the sea penetrates nearly to the
heart of the plateaus. Fiords are valleys that
were deeply eroded by slowly moving masses of





50 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



ice, called glaciers, and subsequently partially sub-
merged. On the east the slopes are more gradual,
and are occupied by numerous small lakes.

The System of the Urals is composed of a
moderately elevated range extending from the
Arctic Ocean on the north to the plains of the
Caspian on the south. The elevated island of
Nova Zembla may be considered as forming a
part of its northern prolongation.

The Caucasus Mountains bear peaks exceeding
in elevation those of the Alps. They belong,
however, more properly to the elevations of
Asia.

127. The Great Low Plain of Europe lies be-
tween the predominant and secondary mountain-

!





systems, and stretches north-eastwardly from the
Atlantic to the Arctic. It is remarkably level,
and is highest in the middle, where the Valdai
Hills form the principal watershed of Europe.
Westward the plain is continued under the North °
Sea to the British Isles, where a few inconsider-
able elevations occur.

South of the Alps the large plain of the Po
River stretches across the northern part of Italy.

128, Approximate Dimensions of Europe.

Area of continent, 3,700,000 square miles.

Coast line, 19,500 miles.

Greatest breadth from north to south, 2400 miles.

Greatest length from north-east to south-west, 3370
miles.

Culminating point, Mont Blanc, 15,787 feet.



Fig, 49, Orographic Chart of Asia, (Light portions, mountains; shaded portions, plains.)
1, Himalaya Mountains; 2, Karakorum; 3, Kuen-lun; 4, Belor; 5, Thian Shan; 6, Altai; 7, Great Kinghan; 8, Yablonoi; 9, Nanting;
10, Peling; 11, Vindhya; 12, Ghauts; 13, Hindoo-Koosh; 14, Elburz; 15, Suliman; 16, Zagros; 17, Taurus; 18, Caucasus; 19, Asiatic Island Chain,

IV. ASIA.

129. Surface Structure.—The Predominant
Mountain-System is in the south.

The Secondary Systems surround the Predomi-
nant System.

The Great Low Plain is on the north and west,

and lies between the mountain-systems of Asia
and the secondary system of the Urals.

Europe and Asia are sometimes considered as geographic-
ally united in one grand division called Eurasia.

130. The mountain-systems of Asia are nearly
all connected in one huge mass which extends in





RELIEF FORMS OF THE CONTINENTS. 51



the line of the north-east trend, from the Arctic to
the Indian Ocean. Though in reality one vast
system, yet they are most conveniently arranged
in one predominant and several secondary systems.
The Predominant System is the plateau of
Thibet, the loftiest table-land in the world. It
is between 15,000 and 16,000 feet high, and is
crossed by three huge, nearly parallel, mountain-
“ranges: the Himalayas on the south, the Kuen-
dun on the north, and the Karakorum between
them. The Himalayas, the loftiest mountains

Fig. 50. Himalaya Mountains,

in the world, rise abruptly from the plains of
Northern Hindostan. Like the Alps, their axis
is curved, but in the opposite direction. The
breadth of the system varies from 100 to 200
miles; the length is about 1500 miles. The high-
est point is Mount Everest, 29,000 feet above the
sea; it is the culminating point of the Asiatic con-
tinent and of the world. Kunchinjunga and Dha-
walaghiri are scarcely inferior in height.

131. The Secondary Systems lie on all sides of
the predominant system, though mainly on the
north and east of the predominant system. Like
Europe, the Asiatic continent projects on the
south in the three mountainous peninsulas of
Arabia, Hindostan, and Indo-China.

On the north and east of the plateau of Thibet
is an extended region called the plateau of Gobi,
considerably lower than the surrounding country.
The Kuen-lun and Great Kinghan Mountains
bound it on the south and east, and the Altai

7







Mountains on the north. On the west lie the
Lhian Shan and Altai, which by their open val-
leys afford ready communication with the low
plains on the west.

The plateau of Gobi varies in average height from 2000
to 4000 feet, The greatest depression is in the west, and
is occupied by Lake Lop and the Tarim River. A small
part of the region near the mountain-slopes is moderately
fertile, the remainder is mainly desert.

_ The Altai Mountains are but little known, but some of
their peaks exceed 12,000 feet. They are continued east-
ward by the Yablonoi Mountains. East of the plateau of
Gobi a range extends north-easterly through Mantchooria.

On the south and west of Thibet lie the pla-
teaus of Iran, Armenia, and Asia Minor.

The Plateau of Iran includes Persia, Afehan-
istan, and Beloochistan. It is a basin-shaped
region from 3000 to 5000 feet high. The Elburz
and Hindoo-Koosh Mountains form its borders on
the north, the Suliman on the east, and the Za-
gros on the south and west.

The Suliman Mountains rise abruptly from the plains
of the Indus. Across these mountains occurs the only
practicable inland route between Western Asia and the
Indies.

The Plateaus of Armenia and of Asia Minor
lie west of the Plateau of Iran. Armenia is 8000
feet high, and bears elevated mountains: Mount
Ararat, 16,900 feet, is an example. On the west,
the peninsula of Asia Minor, or Anatolia, extends
between the Black and Mediterranean Seas, and
is traversed by the Taurus Mountains.

The Caucasus Mountains lie north of the pla-
teau of Armenia. They are an elevated range
extending between the Black and Caspian Seas,
and form part of the boundary-line between Eu-
rope and Asia. Mount Elburz, the “Watch-
Tower,” the culminating peak, is 18,493 feet
high.

The Arabian Plateau occupies the entire penin-
sula of Arabia. It is separated from the plateau
of Iran by the Persian Gulf and the valleys of
the Tigris and the Euphrates.

‘The Plateau of Deccan occupies the lower part
of the peninsula of Hindostan. It is crossed on
the north by the Vindhya Mountains, and along
the coasts by the Eastern and Western Ghauts.

The Peninsula of Indo-China is traversed by
a number of mountain-ranges which diverge from
the eastern extremity of the Himalayas. The
Nanling and Peling extend from east to west
through China.

“~~ 182. The Great Low Plain is, in reality, but a
continuation of the European plain. It extends
from the Arctic Ocean south-westerly to the Cas-



52 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



pian and Black Seas. It is hilly on the east, but
level on the west. South of the 60th parallel it
is comparatively fertile. Around the shores of
the Arctic are the gloomy Tundras.

The Tundras are vast regions which in summer are
covered with occasional moss-beds, huge shallow lakes,
and almost interminable swamps, and in winter with thick
ice. The tundras are caused as follows: The rivers that
flow over the immense plain of Asia rise in the warmer
regions on the south. Their upper courses thawing while
the lower courses are still ice-bound, permits large quan-
tities of drift ice to accumulate at their mouths, which,
damming up the water, causes it to overflow the adjoining
country.

Depressions of the Caspian and Sea of Aral.—
Two remarkable depressions occur in the basins
of the Caspian and Sea of Aral, and that of the
Dead Sea. These are all considerably below the
level of the ocean. The waters of the Caspian
and Sea of Aral were probably once connected
in a great inland sea.

20,000 “*







The Smaller Asiatic Plains are drained by
several river-systems. These are the Plain of
Mantchooria, drained by the Amoor; the Plain
of China, drained by the Hoang-Ho and the
Yang-tse-Kiang; the Plain of India, drained by
the Indus, the Ganges, the Brahmapootra, and
the Irrawaddy ; and the Plain of Persia, drained
by the Tigris and the Euphrates.

133. Approximate Dimensions of Asia.

Area of continent, 17,500,000 miles.

Coast line, 35,000 miles.

Greatest length from north-east to south-west, 7500 miles.

Greatest breadth from north to south, 5166 miles.
Culminating point, Mount Everest, 29,000 feet.

184. Comparison of the Relief Forms of Eu-
rope and Asia.—In both Europe and Asia the
chief elevations are in the south and the great low
plains in the north. Asia, like Europe, extends
toward the south in three great peninsulas: Ara-
bia, Hindostan, and Indo-China.

\

5 \ 14,
15,000 «* 3 \\
10,000 « A \
5000 id
GSS eS,



Te

Fig. 61, Section of Asia from North to South,
1, Cape Comorin; 2, Deccan; 3, Plain of India; 4, Himalayas; 5, Everest; 6, Kuen-lun; 7, Karakorum; 8, Thibet; 9, Upper Tartary; 10,
Ararat; 11, Elburz; 12, Thian Shan; 13, Altai; 14, Mountains of Kamtchatka; 15, Arctic Ocean, mouth of Yenesei.



\
\

\\
SN
SN

K



YU)







Fig. 52, Orographic Chart of Africa,
(Light portions represent mountains; shaded portions, plains.)
1, Abyssinian Plateau; 2, 3, Kenia and Kilimandjaro; 4, Lupata;
5. Dragon; 6, Nieuveldt; 7, Mocambe; 8, Crystal; 9, Cameroons; 10,
Kong; 11, Atlas; 12, Lake Tchad; 13, Madagascar.



V. AFRICA.

135. Surface Structure——Nearly the entire con-
tinent of Africa is a moderately elevated plateau.
It therefore has no great low plains; but the in-
terior is lower than the marginal mountain-sys-
tems, and in this respect the true continental type,
high borders and a low interior, is preserved.

136. The Predominant Mountain-System is in
the east.

The Secondary Systems are in the south, west,
and north.

The great interior depression is in the middle,
and is surrounded by the predominant and sec-
ondary systems.
~ A narrow, low plain extends along most of the
coast. It is broadest on the north-west, between
the plateau of the Sahara and the Atlas Moun-
tain-system.

137. The Predominant Mountain-System ex-
tends along the entire eastern shore, from the
Mediterranean Sea to the southern extremity of
the continent. It is highest near the centre, in



,

Neen, TE IEIIEIEEEEEEE EE

RELIEF FORMS OF THE CONTINENTS. 53



the plateaus of Abyssinia and Kajfa. The culmi-
nating point is probably to be found in the vol-
canic peaks of Kenia and Kilimandjaro, whose
estimated heights are taken at about 19,000: feet.
In the Abyssinian plateau, on the north, an aver-
age elevation of from 6000 to 8000 feet occurs.
Upon this, rising in detached groups, are peaks
the highest of which are over 15,000 feet.

From the Abyssinian plateau the system is con-
tinued northward to the Mediterranean by a suc-
cession of mountains which stretch along the
western shores of the Red Sea. Some of the
peaks are from 6000 to 9000 feet. South of the
plateau of Kaffa the system is continued by the
Lupata and Dragon Mountains to the southern
extremity of the continent. The Zambesi and
Limpopo Rivers discharge their waters into the
Indian Ocean through deep breaks in the system.

138. Secondary Systems.—On the south the
Nieuveldt and Snow Mountains stretch from east
to west, with peaks of over 10,000 feet.
Mountain is on the south.

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig. 53, Table Mountain,

On the west the Mocambe and Crystal Mountains
extend from the extreme south to the Gulf of
Guinea. Near the northern end of this range,
but separate from it, are the volcanic peaks of
the Cameroons Mountains, 13,000 feet high.

The Kong Mountains extend along the north-
ern shores of the Gulf of Guinea in a general
east-and-west direction. Some of the peaks are
snow-capped. In the;extreme north of Africa
are the Atlas Mountains, which rise from the
summit of a moderately elevated plateau. Some
of the peaks are 13,000 feet high.

139. The Great Intérior Depression north of
the equator is divided into two distinct regions.
A straight line extending from Cape Guardafui
to the northern shores of the Gulf of Guinea
marks the boundary. The mountain-systems |

Table .



north of this line have a general east-and-west
direction ; those south of it have a general north-
and-south direction.

The Plateau of the Sahara occupies the north-
ern part of the interior depression. Its general
elevation is about 1500 feet, though here and
there plateaus of from 4000 to 5000 feet occur,
and even short mountain-ranges with peaks of
6000 feet. The main portion of the region is cov-
ered with vast sand-fields, with occasional rocky
masses, and is one of the most absolute deserts
in the world.



Fig. 64, Desert of Sahara.

Near long. 14° E. from Greenwich, in the district of
Fezzan, the plateau is divided from north to south by a
broad valley. In this occur many remarkable depressions,
some of which are several hundred feet below the level of
the Mediterranean. Here fertile spots, called oases, are
common. ;

South of the Sahara is the Soudan, a remark-
ably well-watered and fertile region. Lake Tchad
occupies the greatest depression. The interior,
which lies south of this, is but little known. It
is probably a moderately elevated plateau. Ex-
tensive lake-basins—Albert and Victoria Nyan-
zas and Tanganyika—lie near the predominant
mountain-system.

140, Approximate Dimensions of Africa.

Area of continent, 12,000,000 square miles.

Coast line, 16,000 miles.

Greatest breadth from east to west, 4800 miles.

Greatest length from north to south, 5000 miles.

Culminating point, Mount Kenia, or Kilimandjaro,
about 19,000 feet. 7







PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
















Fig. 55. Orographic Chart of Australia.
(White portions, mountains; shaded portions, plains.)

1, Australian Alps; 2, Kosciusko; 3, 4, 5, Secondary Systems; 6,
Murray River.

VI. AUSTRALIA.

141. Surface Structure.—The Predominant
Mountain-System is in the east.

The Secondary Systems are in the west and
north-west. _ -

The Great Low Plain lies between the pre-
dominant and secondary systems, and slopes
gently to the southern coast.

The Predominant System extends along the
entire eastern shore, from Torres Straits to the
southern extremity of Tasmania. It is for the
most part composed of broad plateaus. The
system is highest in the south-east, where the
name Australian Alps is given to the range.
Mount Kosciusko, 7000 feet, probably forms the
culminating point of the Australian continent.

The system descends abruptly on the east, but
on the west it descends by gentle slopes to the
low plains of the interior.

142. The Secondary Systems, on the west and
north-west, are of but moderate elevation.

143. The Great Low Plain lies in the interior. Ac-
curate information as to its peculiarities is yet wanting.
A moderate elevation on the north connects the eastern
and western systems, The south-eastern portion, which
is the best known, is well watered and remarkably fertile.

Basin-shaped valleys are found in the west. The lower
parts are occupied by Lake Eyre, Torrens, and Gairdner.

144, Approximate Dimensions of Australia.
Area of continent, 3,000,000 square miles.

Coast line, 10,000 miles.

Greatest length from east to west, 2400 miles.
Greatest breadth from north to south, 2000 miles.
Culminating point, Mount Kosciusko, 7000 feet.

145. Contrasts of Africa and Australia—In
the north, the African continent resembles Europe
and Asia in the arrangement of its forms of
relief. In the south, it resembles the Americas.
As a whole, the African continent resembles
Australia more closely than any other. In both





Fig. 56, Australian Scenery.

Africa and Australia the predominant system is
in the east, and extends along the entire coast.
In each the secondary systems are in the west
and north. But Africa terminates in a plateau
which descends abruptly to the sea, while Australia
is terminated by a great low plain which descends
by long, gentle slopes from the interior.



RRR IAS

SYLLABUS.



—.079300—.

Rock-masses are divided, according to their origin, into
{gneous, aqueous, and metamorphic. According to their con-
dition, into stratified and unstratified. According to the
presence or absence of organic remains, into fossiliferous
and non-fossiliferous. Stratified rocks are sometimes called.





fragmental. Unstratified rocks are sometimes called crys-
talline. Aqueous rocks are sometimes called sedimentary.

Aqueous rocks are stratified. Igneous rocks are un-
stratified. Metamorphic rocks were originally stratified,
but lost their stratification through metamorphism.









REVIEW

SS Se

Aqueous rocks may contain fossils. Igneous rocks never
contain fossils. Metamorphic rocks, in rare instances, may
contain fragments of fossils.

Geological time is divided into Archxan, Palzozoic, Meso-
zoic, and Cenozoic. _

Archean Time includes the Azoic and the Eozoic Ages.

Paleozoic Time, or, as it-is sometimes called, the Pri-
mary, includes the Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous

Ages.

Mesozoic Time, or the Secondary, includes the Age of

Reptiles.

Cenozoic Time includes the Age of Mammals, or the Ter-
tiary, and the Era of Man, or the Quaternary Age.

~ he changes to which the earth’s crust is now subject
are produced by the following agencies:

1. By the winds; 2. By the moisture of the atmosphere;

3. By the action of running water; 4. By the action of

ocean waves; 5. By the agency of man; 6. By the con-

traction of a cooling crust.

ss. There is more water than land surface on the earth, in

proportion of 25: 9, or as 57: 3”.

The land-masses surround the north pole in the shape
of an irregular ring.

Nearly all the land-areas are collected in one hemi-
sphere, and the water-areas in another.

The Land Hemisphere comprises the whole of North
America, Europe, and Africa, all of Asia except a small
part of the Malay Peninsula, and the greater part of South
America.

The Water Hemisphere comprises the whole of Australia
and the southern portions of South America and the Ma-
lay Peninsula. :

The northern continents are almost entirely in the tem-
perate latitudes; the southern are mainly in the tropics.

The land-masses may be divided into three doublets,
consisting of pairs of northern and southern continents,
almost or entirely separated from each other.

There are two great systems of trends or lines of direc-
tion, along which the continents, the coast lines, the
mountain-ranges, the oceanic basins, and the island chains
are arranged. These trends are north-east and north-west.

The northern continents are characterized by deeply in-
dented coast lines; the southern are comparatively simple
and unbroken. Europe is the most, and Africa the least,
deeply indented of the continents.

In proportion to her area, Europe has three times as
much coast line as Asia, and four times as much as Africa.

One-seventeenth of the land-area is composed of islands.

Islands are either continental or oceanic.

There are four successive stages in the formation of a
coral island or atoll: 1. The fringing reef; 2. The barrier
reef; 3. The encircling reef; 4. The coral island or atoll.

The greatest elevations and depressions in the earth’s
surface are small when compared with its size.



QUESTIONS. 55

Low lands are either plains or hills.

High lands are either plateaus or mountains.

Plains are—l. Undulating; 2. Marine; 3. Alluvial.

- Mountains were produced by the contraction of the
crust, producing a lateral pressure on thick, extended de-
posits of sedimentary rocks. Slaty cleavage was caused
by this tateral pressure.

Valleys are either longitudinal or transverse.

All continents have high borders and a low interior.
The highest border faces the deepest ocean.

The greatest prolongation of a continent is that of its
predominant mountain-system. The culminating point is
always out of the centre.

North and South America resemble each other in the
arrangement of their relief forms. Their predominant
systems are in -the west; their secondary systems are in
the east; their great low plains are between the predomi-
nant and secondary systems.

The predominant system of North America is the Pa-
cific mountain-system. The secondary systems are—the
Appalachian system, the plateau of Labrador, the Height
of Land, and the Arctic plateau.

The predominant system of South America is the sys-
tem of the Andes. The secondary systems are—the pla-
teaus of Guiana and Brazil. The great low plains are—
the Llanos of the Orinoco, the Selvas of the Amazon, and
the Pampas of the La Plata.

Europe and Asia resemble each other. . Their predomi-
nant systems are in the south; their great low plains are
north of their predominant systems. The predominant
system of Europe is in the south.

The secondary systems are—the mountains of the Scan--
dinavian Peninsula, the Ural Mountains, and the Caucasus
Mountains. ;

The predominant mountain-system of Asia is the pla»
teau of Thibet.

The secondary systems are—the plateau of Gobi, the
Thian-Shan and Altai Mountains, the plateau of Indo-
China, the plateau of Deccan, the plateau of Iran, the pla-
teau of Asia Minor, and the plateau of Arabia.

Africa and Australia resemble each other. Their pre-
dominant systems are in the east; their secondary systems
are in the west and north; their depressed areas are be-
tween the two.

The predominant mountain-system of Africa includes
the mountains of the eastern coast.

The secondary systems include the Nieuveldt and Snow
Mountains in the south, the Mocambe, Crystal, Cameroons,
and Kong Mountains in the west, and the Atlas Mountains
in the north.

The predominant mountain-system of Australia includes
the mountains of the eastern coast.

The secondary systems include those found in the south,
west, and north.

REVIEW QUESTIONS.

——-05G5 0o ——_.

What two elementary substances form the greater part
by weight of the earth’s crust?

Into what classes may rocks be divided according to
their condition? According to their origin? According
to the presence or absence of fossils?

What is paleontology?

Define Archean Time, Paleozoic Time, Mesozoic Time,
and Cenozoic Time.

Explain the nature of the changes, which the atmo-
sphere is now effecting in the earth’s surface. Which the
water is effecting. Which man is effecting.

What must be the areas of two squares whose areas



56 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



represent the relative land- and water-areas of the earth?
What are the actual areas in square miles?

How would you draw a circle around the earth which
will divide it into land and water hemispheres?

Do the continents extend farther to the north pole or to
the south pole?

What do you understand by lines of trend?

Which have the more diversified coast lines, the north-
ern or the southern continents?

Define continental and oceanic islands, and give exam-
ples of each. Why are continental islands to be regarded
as detached portions of the neighboring mainland ?

Name the American island chains. The Asiatic chains.
“Describe the Australasian island chain. The Polynesian
chain.

Which are the ieher volcanic islands or coral islands?
Why? i ;

Name the four principal steps or stages in the progress
of formation of a coral island.

Is the coral island built by the coral animalcule or by
the waves? Explain your answer.

What is Darwin’s theory for the presence of a lagoon

within the reef? 5

What is the difference between a plain and a plateau?
A mountain and a hill? :

Define mountain-system. A chain. A knot.

What is the name of the highest plateau in the world?
Of the largest plain ?

In what different ways were plains formed ?

Distinguish between a longitudinal and a transverse
valley. Explain the manner in which mountains were
formed.

eo“ Give-a short account of the surface structure, or the
arrangement of the high and low lands, of North America.-
Of Asia. Of Africa, and -

Of South America. Of Europe.
of Australia. Which of these resemble each other? In
what respect do they all resemble one another?

Name the culminating points of each of the continents.

Name the predominant and secondary mountain-systems
of each of the continents.

How many times larger is Asia uaa Than
Europe? oo NY North America? South America?

wa 4 ¥
Wane \ ee ay ne
orth America. ef”

Name the principal mountains of the Pacific mountain-
system. Which contains the culminating point of the
continent?

Where is the Great Basin? By what mountains is it
surrounded ?

Name the principal mountains of the Appalachian sys-
tem.

Is the greater portion of the area of North America
above or below 1000 feet?

What rivers drain the great low plain of North Amer-
ica?

South America.

Name the principal plateaus of the Andes. Through
which does the equator pass? Which contains Lake Titi-
caca? ‘

. Where is the plateau of Guiana? Of Brazil?

What three large river-systems drain the great low plain
of South America? What resemblances can you find be-
tween the directions of these rivers and those which drain
North America ? :

Europe.

Describe the chain of the Alps.

What river-systems divide its northern slope into three
divisions? Name the principal mountains of each division.

What three peninsulas project southward from the south
ern slopes of the predominant mountain-system?

Name the principal mountains of each peninsula.

Name the great low plains of Europe.

Asia.

What mountains form the northern boundary of the
plateau of Thibet? The southern boundary? The north-
ern boundary of the plateau of Mongolia? The eastern
boundary? What mountains extend through China?

What mountains form the boundaries of the plateau of
Iran? Is Arabia a plateau or a plain?

Is the land north of the Sea of Aral high or low?

In which line of trend do the mountainous elevations

of Asia extend?
Africa.

What portions of Africa are high? What portions are
low?

Where is the predominant system? Where is the cul-
minating point? What part of the interior is low?

Where are the Mocambe Mountains? The Crystal Moun-
tains, the Cameroons, the Atlas, the Kong, the eae and

the Dragon?
Australia.

Where is the predominant mountain-system? The sec-

‘ ondary system ?

Where is Mount Kosciusko? The Murray River?



































































































































































































































































































PART ae

THE WATER.

2078300






















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































By contact. of air with the water-areas, an immense quantity of invisible vapor passes into the
atmosphere, from which, when sufficiently cooled, it re-appears and descends as fog, dew, rain, hail, sleet,
or snow. It then, in greater part, drains through various lake- and river-systems into the ocean, where
it is either again evaporated, or carried about'in waves, tides, or currents. T'his circulation of water
never ceases, and upon it depends the existence of all life on the earth.

SSS eee

SECTION

CHAP EER «1.

Physical Properties of Water.

146. Composition Water is formed by the
combination: of oxygen and hydrogen, in the pro-
portion, by weight, of eight parts of oxygen to
one part of hydrogen; or, by volume, of one part
of oxygen to two parts of hydrogen.

147. Properties. — Pure water is a colorless,
transparent, tasteless, and inodorous liquid. It

CONTINENTAL WATERS.

208300 —_

freezes at 82° Fahr., and, under the ordinary
pressure of the atmosphere, boils at 212° Fahr.

Water exists in three states: solid, liquid, and gaseous. |
Under ordinary circumstances it freezes at 32°. It evapo-
rates, or passes off from the surface as vapor, at all tempera-
tures, even at 32°; but it is only at the boiling-point that
the vapor escapes from the mass of the liquid. as well as
from the surface.

Heated in open vessels, under the ordinary pressure of
the atmosphere, its temperature cannot be raised higher than
212°, any increase of heat only causing it to boil more rap-
idly. Heated in closed vessels, which prevent ne escape







58 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.





of steam, its temperature can be raised very high. In
such cases great pressure is exerted on the walls of the
vessel. Conversely, on high mountains, where the pres-
sure of the atmosphere is lower than at the level of the
sea, water boils at temperatures lower than 212° Fahr.

148. Maximum Density of Water.—A pint of
cold water is heavier than a pint of warm water,
because as water is cooled it contracts and grows
denser. The coldest pint of water, however, is
not the heaviest. -The heaviest pint of water is
water at the temperature of 39.2° Fahr, This
temperature is therefore called the temperature
of the maximum density of water. If water at
this temperature be heated, it becomes lighter, or
expands; if water at this temperature be cooled,
it also becomes lighter or expands until ice is
formed, which Aone on the water. When at the
temperature of its maximum density, water is
7.2° warmer than the freezing-point.

149. Effect of the Maximum Density of Water
on its Freezing.—If water continued to contract
indefinitely while cooling until freezing began,

the ice first formed would sink to the bottom, and, :

this process continuing, the entire mass would soon
become solid. In this manner all bodies of fresh
water, in times of great cold, might freeze through-
out; when, not even the heat of a tropical sun
could entirely melt them.

But for this curious exception in the physical ponenics
of water, at least three-fourths of the globe would be in-
capable of sustaining its present life.

The entire floor of the ocean, both in the tropics and in
the temperate and the polar regions, is covered with a layer

of cold, salt water at nearly the temperature of its maxi-"

mum density. In the tropics the surface-water is warmer
and lighter than this dense layer, and in the polar re-
gions it is colder and lighter.

150. Specific Heat of Water.— Another re-
markable property of water—its specific heat—
enables it to play an important part in the
economy of the world.

The specific heat of a body is the quantity of
heat-energy required to produce a definite in-
crease of temperature in a given weight of that
body.

Water has a very great specific heat; that is,
a given quantity of water requires more heat-energy
to warm it, and gives out more heat-energy on cool-
ing, than an equal quantity of any other common
substance.

The quantity of heat required to raise a pound of ice-
cold water to 212°, would heat a pound of ice-cold iron to a
bright red heat, or to about 1600° Fahr.; or, conversely, a
pound of boiling water cooling to the freezing-point, would

give out as much heat as a pound of red-hot iron cooling
to 32° Fahr.







The enormous capacity of water for heat is of
great value to the life of the earth. The oceanic
waters are vast reservoirs of heat, storing heat in
summer and giving it out in winter. The great
specific heat of water prevents it from either heat- ‘
ing or cooling rapidly. Large bodies of water,
therefore, prevent great extremes of heat and
cold.

151. Heat Absorbed or Emitted during Change
of State—During the conversion of a solid into
a liquid, or a liquid into a vapor, a large quantity
of heat-energy is absorbed. This heat-energy does
not increase the temperature of the body, and
therefore cannot be detected by the thermometer.
The heat-energy is then in the condition of stored
or potential energy, sometimes called latent heat.
When the vapor condenses into a liquid, or the
liquid freezes, the stored heat- energy again becomes
sensible as heat.

In freezing, water gives out heat and raises the
mean temperature of the atmosphere.

In melting, ice takes in heat and lowers the mean
temperature of the atmosphere.

Water has a higher latent heat than any other
common substance. ;

Stored Heat-Energy of Ice-Cold Water—In
order to heat a pound of water 1° Fahr. an
amount of heat called a heat-unit, or a pound
degree is required. Before one pound of ice at
32° Fahr. can melt and form one pound of water
at 32° Fahr., zt must take in 142 heat units; and
yet a thermometer plunged in the water from
melting ice will indicate the same temperature as
when entirely surrounded by lumps of the un-
melted material.

The great latent heat of ice-cold water has an important
influence on the freezing of large bodies of water, since,
after the surface-layers have reached the temperature of
the freezing-point, they have still 142 heat-units to lose be-
fore they can solidify. Again, when ice reaches a tempera-
ture of 32° Fahr., it has still 142 heat-units to absorb before
it can melt. Were it not for this fact destructive floods
would often result from the rapid melting of the winter’s
accumulation of snow and ice.

Stored Heat-Energy of Water-Vapor.—Before
one pound of water can pass off as vapor, it
must take in sufficient heat to raise nearly 1000
pounds of water'1° Fahr. The vapor which then
escapes is still at the same temperature as the
water from which it came. The 1000 heat-units,
or pound-degrees of heat, have been rendered latent,
and have no influence on the thermometer.

When the vapor in the air is condensed as rain,

_ snow, hail, fog, or cloud, the stored heat-energy





DRAINAGE. 59



again becomes sensible. Much of the vapor
which is formed in the equatorial regions is car-
ried by the winds to high northern latitudes,
where, on condensing, it gives out its heat and
moderates the intense cold which would otherwise
exist. -

152. Solvent Powers.— Water is one of the best
solvents of all common substances. During the
constant washings to which the continents are
subjected by the rains, their surfaces are cleansed
from decaying animal and vegetable matters,
which are partly dissolved and carried by the
rivers into the ocean. The atmospheric waters
in the same way cleanse the air of many of its
impurities.

153. Water is the Main Food of Animals and
Plants.—By far the greater part of the bodies of
animals and plants is composed of water. With-
out large quantities of water no vigorous life can
be sustained in any locality.

Deserts are caused entirely by the absence of
_ water.

——o-089400—_

CHAPTER II.

Drainage.

154. Drainage.— The atmospheric waters, or
those which fall from the atmosphere as rain,
hail, or snow, either sink through the porous
strata and are drained under ground, or run
directly off the surface. Thus result two kinds
of drainage—Subterranean and Surface.

155. Subterranean Drainage-—The water which
sinks through the porous strata continues descend-
ing until it meets impervious layers, when it either
runs along their surface, bursting out as springs
at some lower level, where the layers outcrop, or
it collects in subterranean reservoirs. The origin
of all springs is to be traced to subterranean
drainage.

Underground streams sometimes attain considerable size.
In portions of the Swiss Jura streams burst from the sides
of hills in sufficient volume to turn the wheels of moder-
ately large mills. In a few instances the subterranean
stream can be navigated for considerable distances, as in

the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, or in the Grotto of
Adelsberg, near Trieste.

156. Surface Drainage—The water which is
drained directly from the surface, either runs
down the slopes in rivulets and rills, which,
uniting with larger streams, are poured directly
into the ocean, or it collects in the depressions of

8



basin-shaped valleys, where, having no connection
with the ocean, it can be discharged by evapora-
tion only. Thus arise two kinds of surface drain-
age—oceanic and inland.

157. Springs are the outpourings of subterra-
nean waters. The waters, having soaked through
the porous strata, again emerge at the surface,
either—

(1.) By running along an inclined, impervious
layer of clay, hard rock, or other material until



ri Mere iy
Fig. 67, Origin of Springs.

they emerge at some lower level, where the strata
outcrop; or, :

(2.) By being forced upward out of the reser-
voirs into which they have collected by the pres-
sure of compressed gas, highly heated steam, or,
more commonly, by the pressure of a communi-
cating column of water.

It is in the first way that most of the springs of moun-
tainous districts discharge their waters. The tilted and
broken condition of the strata is such as to favor the es-
cape along some of the many layers that crop out on the
mountain-slopes. The springs of plains, which are at some
distance from mountains, discharge their waters mainly by
the methods mentioned under the second heading.

When a well is dug in most porous soils, the water from
the porous strata on the sides runs in and partially fills
the opening. z

158. Classification of Springs—Springs are
most conveniently arranged in different classes
according to peculiarities in the size, shape, and
depth of their reservoirs, and the nature of the
mineral substances composing the strata over which
the waters flow, or in which they collect.

The Reservoirs of springs are the places where





60 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



the waters that sink into the ground collect.
Reservoirs are sometimes large subterranean
basins, but more frequently are merely porous
strata, such as beds of sand or gravel, whieh lie
between impervious layers of clay or hard rock.
The water collects in the spaces between the par-
ticles of sand or gravel.

159. Size of Reservoir—When the reservoir
is large, the spring is constant; when smail, the
spring is temporary.

Constant Springs are those which flow continu-
ally, and are but little affected in the volume of
their discharge even by long-continued droughts.

Temporary Springs are those which flow only
for a short time after wet weather, drying up on
the appearance of even moderate droughts.

The quantity of water discharged by a spring depends on the
size of the orifice or outlet tube, and the depth of the outlet be-
low the surface of the water in the reservoir. The flow is
proportional to the square root of the depth. That is to
say, if with a given depth of orifice the velocity be one
foot per second, in order to make the water escape with
twice the velocity the depth must be increased fourfold.

The actual velocity is somewhat less than this, being di-
minished by friction.

Since the volume discharged by some springs
is very considerable, we must infer that their
reservoirs are of great size. Many springs prob-
ably receive the drainage from hundreds of
square miles of surface.

160. Shape of the Reservoir—When the out-
let tube of the reservoir is siphon-shaped, the dis-
charge of the spring becomes periodical. The



SY SS



Fig. 58 A Periodical Spring.

spring continues to discharge its waters for a
time, and then stops flowing, even during wet
weather. After a certain interval it again dis-





charges. The times during which the spring con-
tinues to discharge are always practically the
same. Hence the spring is called a periodical

spring.

The cause of periodical springs is due to the siphon-
shape of the outlet tube. A siphon is a tube so bent as to
have two vertical arms of unequal length. When filled,
it will continue to discharge as long as its shorter arm is
below the water and the longer arm free. If a large cav-
ernous reservoir be in connection with the surface of the
earth by a tube of this shape, it will begin to discharge its
water when, by infiltration, the level reaches the highest
bend of the tube, as at a, in Fig. 58, since the water will then
drive out the air and fill the entire tube. The discharge
will then continue until the water-level falls below the
mouth of the tube, or at 0, in the figure. The time of the
discharge is always practically the same, since the same
quantity is discharged each time under exactly similar
conditions. :

Springs are common on the shores of the ocean. Their
waters are fresh because the outflow of the fresh water
prevents the inflow of the salt water. This is the case
even on coral islands, where the height of the land is
but ten or twelve feet above the sea. A comparatively
shallow well, on such islands, generally yields fresh water,
derived, of course, from the rainfall.

161. Depth of Reservoir—According to the
distance the reservoir is situated below the sur-
face of the earth, springs are divided into Cold,
and Hot or Thermal.

Cold Springs are those whose temperature does
not exceed 60° Fahr. Their waters are sometimes
much colder than 60° Fahr.

Very cold springs owe their low temperatures
to the sources whence they draw their supplies.
In mountainous districts these can generally be
traced to the melting of huge snow-fields, or
masses of ice called glaciers. The temperature
in such cases is often nearly that of ordinary ice-
water.

The reservoirs of all springs the temperature
of whose waters ranges from 50° to 60° are, in
general, comparatively near the surface. They
are colder than surface waters—

(1.) Because they are shielded from the sun ;

(2.) Because evaporation occurs in their cav-
ernous reservoirs. ;

The temperature of springs of this kind is, in
general, but slightly affected by changes in the
temperature of the outer air. Since the reservoirs —
of ordinary springs are shielded from the hot air
in summer and from the cold air in winter, their
waters are colder than river-water in summer, and
warmer than river-water in winter. Their waters
average, in their temperature, that of the strata
over which they flow in their subterranean course.











DRAINAGE. 61






































The mean annual temperature of the strata over

which the waters flow can, therefore, be ascertained
by plunging a thermometer into the water as tt
comes out of the spring.
\ Hot or Thermal Springs range in temperature
from 60° Fahr. to the boiling-point. In geysers
the temperature of the water far down in the tube
is considerably above the boiling-point at the sur-
face.

Hot springs which occur in the neighborhood
of active -volcanoes owe their high temperature to
the vicinity of their reservoirs to beds of recently-
ejected lava.

Hot springs, however, are common in regions
distant from volcanic disturbance. In such cases
their high temperature must be attributed to the dis-
tance of their reservoirs from the earth’s surface, the
heat being derived directly from the interior.

In some cases the source of the heat is to be attributed
to chemical action in neighboring strata.

Thermal springs, whose reservoirs are at comparatively
moderate depths, may discharge their waters by ordinary
hydrostatic pressure; but where, from the great depth of
the reservoirs, this force would be insufficient, the waters
are probably raised to the surface by the pressure of super-
heated steam or compressed gas.

Since the temperature rises 1° for about every 55 feet of
descent, in cases where the increased temperature is due
solely to depth, if the issuing waters have a tempera-
ture of 149° Fabr., the reservoirs must be about one mile
below the surface, or fifty-five times the difference between
149° and 60°, the temperature of ordinary springs. In
many cases the waters probably rise from profound depths
as columns of steam, condensing in reservoirs that are less
profound.

Source of Deep-seated Waters.—Deep-seated waters
are probably derived by infiltration from the bed of the
’ ocean. The natural porosity of large areas is greatly in-
creased by the immense pressure of the water, which in
the deep ocean is equal to thousands of pounds per square
inch.

Mees

a






















Fig, 69, Artesian Well.



pressure on their reservoirs, so that pumping is
not necessary to raise the water. Such wells are
therefore true springs.

The reservoirs are basin-shaped, and generally
consist of several water-logged, porous strata, con-
tained between two, curved, impervious strata. If
the upper porous layer be pierced, the waters will
flow out by reason of the pressure of the liquid
inthe higher parts. The reservoirs of many
natural springs are of this kind, the upper im-
pervious strata being broken in one or more
places by some natural force.

Artesian wells have been sunk to great depths, and it is
a significant fact that the temperature of the issuing
waters is always proportional to the depth, showing a
nearly constant increase of 1° above the temperature of
ordinary springs—viz. about 60° Fahr.—for every 55 feet
of descent. In the case of the artesian well of Grenelle,
Paris, the successful boring of which was accomplished
only after many years of the most discouraging labor,
and which reached a depth of nearly 1800 feet, the tem-
perature of the water was 92° Fahr. A well at Neusalz-
werk, Prussia, has penetrated 2200 feet; its temperature
is 91° Fahr.

163. Geysers are boiling springs which, at in-
tervals more or less regular, shoot out huge col-
umns of water with great violence. They are





Fig. 60. Geyser in Eruption.

confined to the neighborhood of volcanic dis-
tricts, and, by some, are classed with subordinate
voleanic phenomena. The jets of water some-




162. Artesian Wells differ from ordinary wells
in that their waters are discharged by natural









62 PHYSICAL

GEOGRAPHY.



times reach a height of more than two hundred
feet.

The geyser issues from the summit of a conical hillock
of silicious material deposited by the water. A broad,
shallow basin generally surmounts the hillock and forms
the mouth of a deep, funnel-shaped tube. The sides of
both tube and basin are lined with a smooth incrustation
of silica. In the Great Geyser of Iceland, the basin is 52
feet wide and the tube 75 feet deep.

Both the tube and basin are the work of the spring,
being deposited from the silica contained in the highly
heated waters. It is only when the tube has reached a
eertain depth that the spring becomes a true geyser.

hen the depth becomes too great the geyser eruptions
cease, the waters forcing their way through the walls of

the tube to some lower level. Hence, in all geyser re--

gions, numerous deserted geyser-tubes, and simple ther-
mal springs occur.

The waters of some geyser regions are calcareous. In
this case the tube of the geyser is, of course, formed of
limestone.

164, Bunsen’s Theory of Geysers.—Bunsen explains
the cause of geyser eruptions as follows: The heat of the
volcanic strata, through which the geyser-tube extends,
causes the water which fills it to become highly heated.
The water at the bottom of the tube, having to sustain
the pressure of that above it, gradually acquires a tem=
perature far above the boiling-point at the surface. The
temperature of the water in the tube will, therefore, de-
crease from the bottom to the surface.

If now, when the tube is filled, the water, near the mid-
dle, is brought to its boiling temperature, the steam thus
formed momentarily lifts the water iri the upper part of
the tube, when the water in the lower part, released from
its pressure, bursts into steam and forcibly ejects the con-
tents of the tube.

Bunsen succeeded in lowering a thermometer into the
tube of the Great Geyser in Iceland just before an erup-
tion. At the depth of 72 feet he found the temperature
of the water to be 261° Fahr., or 49° above the ordinary
boiling-point.
~ 165. Geyser Regions——There are three exten-
sive geyser regions:

(1.) In Iceland, in the south-western part of
the island, where over one hundred occur in a
limited area.

(2.) In New Zealand, about the centre of the
northern island, where, near the active volcano
Tongariro, over one thousand mud springs, hot
springs, and geysers burst from the ground.

(3.) In Yellowstone National Park, in Wyoming,
where numerous large geysers occur, mostly near
the head-waters of the Madison and Yellowstone
Rivers, at heights often as great as 8000 feet
above the sea-level. Here the boiling-point of

the water at the surface of the geyser, owing to
the diminished atmospheric pressure, is as low
as about 200° Fahr.

A small geyser region is found in California,
near San Francisco.





166. Nature of the Mineral Substances form-
ing the Reservoir.—The subterranean waters dis-
solve various mineral matters either from the
strata over which they flow, or from their reser-
voirs; this is especially true of thermal springs,
owing to the greater solvent powers of the heated
waters.

The waters of mineral springs generally contain
a number of mineral ingredients: Mineral springs
are divided into various classes according to the
predominating material.

(1.) Caleareous Springs are those whose waters
contain lime in solution.

Thermal waters charged with carbonic acid usually con-

.tain large quantities of lime, which they have dissolved

from subterranean strata. On reaching the surface the
waters cool and part with some of their carbonic acid, and
deposit layer after layer of hard limestone, called travertine.
In this way immense quantities of limestone are brought
to the surface from great depths, leaving huge subterra-
nean caverns.

In portions of Tuscany, Italy, beds of travertine occur
more than 250 feet thick.

(2.) Silicious Springs are those whose waters
contain silicon.

(3.) Sulphurous Waters are those whose waters
contain sulphuretted hydrogen and various metal-
lic sulphides or sulphates.

Sulphurous springs are found in Baden, near Vienna,
and in Virginia.

(4.) Chalybeate Springs are those whose waters
contain iron.

(5.) Salt Springs or Brines are those whose
waters contain common salt.

The springs of Halle, in the Alps of Salzburg, yield
15,000 tons of salt annually. The artesian well of Neu-
salzwerk, Prussia, yields about 28,000 tons annually. In
the United States the springs of Salina and Syracuse are
among the most important. The water in the springs of
Salina is ten times salter than ocean-water. The salt is
obtained from these springs by the evaporation of the
water.

(6.) Acidulous Springs are those whose waters
contain large quantities of carbonic acid gas, as
the Seltzer springs in Germany, and those of
Vichy in France.

167. Petroleum and Bituminous Springs.—Be-
sides the springs above mentioned, there are two
others, closely connected, but which can scarcely
be included in any of the above classes. These
are petroleum and bituminous springs.

Petroleum Springs are those containing rock- or coal-
oil. They rise from large reservoirs containing oil instead

of water. The oil is derived from the slow decomposition,
in the. presence of heat, of various animal and vegetable











RIVERS. 63



matters which are found in the strata of nearly all the
geological formations. The reservoirs are of the same
nature as those of artesian wells, the oil being obtained
by boring.

Petroleum springs are numerous, The most extensive
regions in the world are found in the great oil districts of
Western Pennsylvania and the neighboring States.

Bituminous Springs, or those from which pitch or
bitumen issue. Their origin is the same as that of oil
springs, the decomposition, however, occurring in a some-
what different way. The famous pitch lake on the island
of Trinidad, north-east of South America, probably owes
its origin to the large quantities of trees and other vege-
table matters, which have been rolled down the Orinoco
and buried in the delta formation on the eastern shores
of the island.

—-0205 00 ——_.

a CLAP Ere ls
a Rivers.

168. Definitions——The water that issues from
the ground as springs, that is derived from the
melting of ice or snow, or that drains directly
from the surface after rainfall, runs down the
slopes of the land and collects in the depressions
formed by the intersection of the slopes, forming
rills or rivulets, which at last combine in larger
streams called rivers.

The source of a river is the place where it
rises; the mouth, the place where it empties; the
channel, the depression through which it flows.
Rivers generally rise in mountains, where the
rainfall is greater than elsewhere, and where
vast beds of snow and ice occur.

In reality, all rivers have three mouths, or places where
they discharge their waters:

(1.) Where the river empties directly into some other
body of water;

(2.) Where the river empties by evaporation into the
air; that is, its entire upper surface ;

(3.) Where the river empties into the earth through the
porous strata of its bed or channel.

Since the downward motion of a river is caused by the
inclination of its channel from the source to the mouth, a
sorrect idea of the general inclination of any country can
be obtained by a careful study of a map in which the di-
rections of the rivers are represented. In studying the
various river-systems the student should endeavor to ob-
tain in this way clear ideas of the general directions of the
continental slopes.

The River-System is the main stream, with all
its tributaries and branches.

The Basin is the entire area of land which
drains into the river-system.

The Water-shed is the ridge or elevation which



separates two opposite slopes. The streams flow
in opposite directions from the water-shed.

The Velocity of a river depends on the inclina-
tion or pitch of the channel and the volume or
depth of the water. .

169. River-Courses-The river-channel, from
its source to its mouth, is, for ease of description,
conveniently divided into three parts or courses:
the upper, middle, and lower.

The Upper Course of a river is that part which
is situated in the mountainous or hilly country
near its source.. In this course the river has a
great velocity, and its channel is characterized by
sharp, sudden turns, alternating with long, straight
courses. In the upper course erosion occurs
almost entirely along the bottom of the channel,
so that the river runs between steep, and some-
times almost vertical, banks. In this way river-
valleys are formed, generally with narrow and
overhanging, precipitous sides. In the upper and
middle courses rapids and waterfalls occur.

Rapids and Waterfalls—During the erosion of
the channel, where harder rocks occur in the bed
of the stream, the softer strata, immediately adjoin-
ing them down stream, are rapidly worn away, and
the obstruction becomes at last the head of a
waterfall. The height grows rapidly from the
increased force of the falling water, and continues
until stopped by some similar obstruction below.





Fig, 61, Erosion of Waterfall.

Thus, suppose a a, Fig. 61, is the bed of a river, the di-
rection of flow of which is shown by the arrow. The softer
rock being worn away more rapidly, the bed reaches the
Jevel 1,1. A fall, and consequent increase in the velocity
of the river, soon causes the level of the bed to reach 2, 2,
3, 3, and 4, 4, successively. At the same time the falling
water eats away the vertical wall of the precipice, causing
the waterfall to move up stream. The water then cuts the
precipice away in steps, as shown at 5, 6, 7, thus changing
the fall into cascades. These are finally worn away, as
shown at 8, changing the cascades to rapids, when, finally,
the fall disappears entirely, or the erosion of the hard
rock is completed.

When the water falls perpendicularly—that is,
when it does not slip or slide—it forms a water-
fall or cataract; in all other cases of swift de-
scent it forms rapids.







64 PHYSICAL

GEOGRAPHY.







Fig, 62, The Falls of Niagara.

The grandest falls in the world are those of the Niagara,
160 feet high. Though greatly inferior to many others in
height, yet their volume of water is so great that they
surpass all others in grandeur. The Victoria Falls of the
Zambezi in Africa nearly equal in volume those of the
Niagara. Their height is 360 feet.

The highest falls in the world are those of the Yosemite,
in California. Two projecting ledges break the sheet into
three falls, whose total height exceeds 2000 feet. One of
the highest falls in Europe is the Staubbach or Dust-brook,
in the valley of the Lauterbriinnen in Switzerland. The
water makes one sheer fall of 959 feet, and is lost in a
sheet of mist before it reaches the ground.

The Middle Course extends from where the
river emerges from the mountainous or hilly dis-
tricts to the low plains near the mouth. The
descent is comparatively slight, and the velocity
small. The erosion of the bottom of the channel
is insignificant, but at the sides, especially during
freshets, the river undermines its banks and thus
widens its valley. Here the river is divided into
two distinct portions: the channel proper and the
alluvial flats or flood-grounds.

The Lower Course extends from the middle
course to the mouth. The fall is slight, and the
velocity small.

170. Changes in River-courses.—During floods, when
the velocity and eroding power are greatly increased, ex-
tensive changes often occur in river-courses. After the
floods have subsided the water is found running through
new channels, its old ones being either completely filled
with deposits of mud, or occupied by slender streams.

Along the Mississippi these partially deserted channels
are called bayous, and, in places, widen out into large lakes.





(See Fig. 63.) The Red River appears to have formerly
emptied into the Mexican Gulf through a separate chan-
nel. In the basins of the Amazon, the Ganges, and the
Po, the old deserted channels are numerous on both banks
of the streams.

~ 171, River Mouths—A wide, open river-mouth
is called an Estuary; the accumulation of mud
or sand which occurs in the mouths of certain
rivers is called a Delta.

172, Inundations.—During certain seasons of
the year, the amount of water drained into the
river-channel is greater than it can discharge; it
then overflows its banks and inundates the sur-
rounding country.

Inundations of rivers are caused—

(1.) By excessive rainfall ;

(2.) By periodical rains ;

(3.) By the melting of ice and snow.

In the tropics, where the rainfall is more or

- less periodical, the inundations of the rivers are -

also periodical. The melting of the ice and snow,
which occurs regularly at the beginning of the
warm weather, also causes periodical inundations.
The Nile rises annually on account of the period-
ical rainfall of its upper sources; the Mississippi
semi-annually, once from the melting of snow,
and once from the winter rainfall.

When both the area of the river-basin and the rainfall
in inches are known, experience permits of a calculation,
by means of which the probable time and extent of rise of
water in a river can be approximately predicted. In times
of heavy rainfall, the Weather Bureau of the United
States is enabled to predict the probable rise of the im-
portant rivers.

Influence of the Destruction of the Forests on In-
undations.—When the forests are removed from a large
portion of a river-basin, the rains are no longer absorbed
quietly by the ground, but drain rapidly off its surface into
the river-channels, and thus in a short time the entire
precipitation is poured into the main channel, causing an
overflow. It is from this cause that the disastrous effects
of otherwise harmless storms are produced. The inunda-
tions are most intensified by this cause in the early spring,
when the ice and snow begin to melt. The destructive
effects of the floods are increased by masses of floating ice,
which, becoming gorged in shallow places in the stream,
back up the waters above. The increased frequency of
jinundations in the United States is, to a great extent, to
he attributed to the rapid destruction of the forests.

173. The Quantity of Water Discharged by a
River depends principally—

(1.) On the size of the basin ;

(2.) On the amount of the rainfall.

The quantity of water in a river also depends—

(1.) On the climate of the basin, a dry, hot air diminish-
ing the quantity by evaporation ;

(2.) On the physical features of the basin, whether wooded
or open;





TRANSPORTING POWER OF RIVERS. 65





(3.) On the nature of the bed or channel, whether leaky
or not.

It will be noticed that these three circumstances are
connected with the two additional river-mouths already
alluded to: the air-surface of the river, and the channel-
surface. :

Keith Johnston estimates the daily discharge of all the
rivers of the world at 229,000,000,000 cubic yards, or over
2,620,000 cubic yards per second.

——20ia30e—_

na CHAPTER IV.

Transporting Power of Rivers.

174. Silt or Detritus—Rivers are ceaselessly
at work carrying the eroded materials, called silé
or detritus, from their upper to their lower courses.
Valleys are thus formed, miles in width and thou-
sands of feet in depth, and lofty mountains greatly
reduced in height.

The amount of silt transported by rivers is almost in-
credible. According to the careful estimates of Hum-
phreys and Abbot, the silt brought down every year by
the Mississippi and thrown into the Mexican Gulf, if
collected in one place, would cover a field one square mile
in area to the depth of 268 feet. According to Lyell, the
deposits, in the Bay of Bengal, of the Ganges and the
Brahmapootra, are nearly as great.

The rivers are carrying the mountains seaward,
and the continents are thus decreasing im mean
height and increasing in mean breadth.

175. Deposition of Silt—Since the silt or
eroded mineral matter is-heavier than water, it
will settle in all parts of the river-course. It. will,
however, remain in those places only where the
velocity of the river is comparatively small.
These places are as follows:

(1.) In the channel of the river;

(2.) On the banks, over the alluvial flats or
flood-grounds ;

(3.) At the mouth ;

(4.) Along the coast near the mouth.

176. In the Channel—lIn rivers that traverse
great plains, the inclination near the mouth is
slight, and the diminished velocity allows the ma-
terial to accumulate in the channel, thus raising
the general level of the stream. When the rivers
traverse settled districts, the inhabitants are com-
pelled to erect huge river-walls to prevent the
flooding of the adjacent lands; and, in some places,
the channel has been filled to such an extent that
the ordinary level of the river is higher than that
of the plains along its banks.

The levees or banks of the Mississippi are of this nature.
On the level plain of Lombardy the surface of the Po, in



some places, is higher than the tops of the neighboring

_ houses. When floods occur in such districts, the breaking

of a levee or river-wall is generally attended by much
loss.

177. Rafts.—Drift timber, thrown into the stream by
the undermining of the banks, is common in rivers that
traverse wooded districts. Portions of such’ timber, be-
coming imbedded in shallow parts of the channel, form
obstructions which prevent the passage of subsequent
masses. The impediment so formed checks the velocity
of the stream, and mud deposits occur between the trees.
Such accumulations are called rafts. The raft of the Red
River, previous to its removal, was thirteen miles in length.
A large raft exists near the mouth of the Mackenzie River
in British America.

178. On the Alluvial Flats or Flood-grounds.
—The low flat plains on the sides of the river,
which are formed by the erosion of the banks in
the middle and lower courses, are covered by the
water when the river overflows its banks. In the
shallow water over these parts the velocity of the
water is slight, and the silt is deposited, thus
forming rich alluvial plains.

In large rivers the flood-grounds often attain consider-

able size. In. the Mississippi at Vicksburg the width of
the alluvial plain is over 60 miles.

In the lower courses of a river, the velocity
being small, comparatively slight obstacles suffice
to turn the waters from their course. The river-
channel is therefore characterized by wide bends

















Fig. 68, Alluvial Flats of the Mississippi.
(Showing deserted courses and fluviatile islands and lakes.)

or curves. At the bend of a river the main cur-
rent is directed against one of the banks, where
rapid erosion takes place, the eroded material ac-







66 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



cumulating lower down the river, in the bed of
the stream, where the velocity issmall. The river
is thus continually damming
up portions of its old chan-
nel and cutting new ones.
The rapid excavation of
these portions of the alluvial

materials which compose it.
Sometimes the river cuts a
new channel across the nar-
row neck of a bend, part of
its waters running through
the old channel and part
through the new.. In this
way fluviatile islands are
formed. One of the chan-
nels is sometimes separated
from the other by a deposi-
tion of mud or sand. The
water fills the old channel
by soaking through the soil,
and thus fluviatile lakes are
formed. Numerous fluviatile
lakes occur near the banks of the Lower Missis-
sippi and the Red River.



Fig, 64. Formation of
Fluviatile Islands and
Lakes,

plain is favored by the loose



Thus, suppose the river flows in the direction of the
arrow at S, Fig. 64, and its channel has the bends shown.
A new channel may be formed at a,b, the river either
flowing through both channels, thus converting the neck
of land I, into a fluviatile. island, or the old channel may
fill up and form a fluviatile lake, L, by bars forming in
the old channel at a and 0.

“179. At the Mouth—Delta Formations—In

sheltered parts of the ocean, where the tides are
weak and the ocean-currents feeble, or in inland
seas and lakes, where they are entirely absent, the
eroded material accumulates at the mouth of the
river in large, triangular-shaped deposits, called
delias, from their resemblance to the Greek letter
(4).of that name.

The Delta of the Mississippi is the largest in the
Western Continent. Its entire area is about 12,300 square
miles, though but two-thirds of it are permanently above
the water, the remainder being a sea-marsh. It begins a
little below the mouth of the Red River. The stream cuts
through the delta in one main channel, but near the ex-
treme end of the delta forms several mouths. On all sides
of the main stream, numerous smaller streams force their -
way into the Gulf through the soft material.

The Delta of the Nile, at its outlet into the Mediter-
ranean, occupies an area of nearly 9000 square miles. A
large portion of the sediment of the river is deposited over
the flood-grounds during inundations. The fertility of the
land is largely dependent on these deposits.





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig. 65. Delta of the Mississippi, (After Dana.)

The Delta of the Ganges and the Brahmapootra,
jn the Bay of Bengal, is considerably larger than the Delta
of the Nile. Between the Hoogly and the main branch
of the Ganges, numerous streams force their way between
countless islands, called the Sunderbunds, inhabited by
tigers and crocodiles. The Po, the Rhone, the Rhine, and the
Danube in Europe, the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Yang-tse-
Kiang and Hoang-Ho in Asia, and the Senegal and the Zam-
bexi in Africa, have extensive deltas.

180. Along the Coast, near the Mouth.—Fluvio-
Marine Formations are deposits of silt that form
along the coast near and opposite the mouths of
rivers, under the combined action of the river-
current and the tides of the ocean. A sand-bar
is formed at some little distance from the mouth
of the river, where the outflowing river-current









DRAINAGE SYSTEMS. 67





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig. 66. Fluvio-Marine Formations,

and the inflowing tide neutralize each other. The
impediment so formed permits of the rapid de-
position of silt, which fills up the portions of the
ocean so shut off; and converts them into shallow
bodies of water called sounds. These sounds, by
gradual rising of the land, are afterward con-
verted into river-swamps, According to Dana,
the eastern and southern coasts of the United
States, from Virginia to Texas, are an almost con-
tinuous fluvio-marine formation. Albemarle and
Pamlico Sounds and the Great Dismal, Alligator,
and Okefinoke Swamps are but different stages in
the formation of these deposits.

—— 070300

CELALPITIGRE Vs.

Drainage Systems.

181. Continental Drainage is dependent on the
position of the mountain-systems and the direc-
tion of their slopes. The mountain-ridges or
peaks, or the high plateaus, form the water-sheds.
In some cases, from a single peak or plateau, the
water drains into distinct river-systems, emptying
into different oceans.

182. North America——The central plain of
North America is drained by four large river-
systems: the Mackenzie into the Arctic Ocean;
the Saskatchewan and the Nelson into Hudson
Bay ; the St. Lawrence into the Gulf of St. Law-









rence; and the Mississippi into the Gulf of Mex-
ico. The basin of the Mississippi occupies the
long slopes of the Rocky Mountains and the
Appalachians. The Missouri and the Ohio are
the principal tributaries of the Mississippi.

Numerous streams descend the eastern slopes
of the Appalachian system into the Atlantic.

Owing to the position of the predominant sys-
tem, the streams which empty into the Pacific are
comparatively small. The principal are the Yu-
kon, the Columbia, and the Colorado.

There are several remarkable isolated water-sheds or
drainage-centres in North America. These are—

(1.) In the central part of the Rocky Mountain system,
where the land drains in different directions into the sys-
tems of the Mississippi, the Columbia, and the Colorado
Rivers.

(2.) In the northern part of the Rocky Mountains,
where the drainage is received by the systems of the
Yukon, the Mackenzie, and the Saskatchewan Rivers.

“. 183. South America resembles North America

in its drainage systems. The long, gentle slopes
of the Andes, and those of the systerns of Brazil
and of Guiana, are occupied at their intersections
by the three great river-systems of the continent:
that. of the Orinoco, in the north; that of the

- Amazon, near the centre; and that of the La

Plata, in the south. Nearly the entire continent
is drained by these rivers and their tributaries
into the basin of the Atlantic.

The Pacific receives no considerable streams.
Only impetuous mountain-torrents are found.

The Magdalena, which drains north, corresponds to the
Mackenzie; the Orinoco and the Amazon, which drain
east, to, the Nelson and the St. Lawrence; and the La
Platte, which drains south, to the Mississippi.

184, Europe forms an exception to the other
continents as regards its drainage. Though some
of its large rivers rise in its predominant moun-
tain-system, yet the majority rise in the incon-
siderable elevations of the Valdai Hills. The
Alps are drained by four large rivers—the Rhone,
the Rhine, the Danube, and the Po. These all
have large deltas.

Although in this part of the continent the frequent in-
tersection of the two lines of trend produces numerous
basin-shaped valleys, yet, owing to breaks in the enclosing
mountains, none of any size have an inland drainage, but
discharge their waters through numerous tributaries into
one or another of the principal river-systems.

The Great Low Plain of Europe is drained
toward the north and west by the Petchora and
Dwina into the Arctic; by the Duna, the Mie-
men, the Vistula, and the Oder into the Baltic;









TROPIC 0)




-& HUDSON



























EQUATOR




IBBEAN
SEY

















































































_{

0
_tpopicorlcapmiconn || ef:
B A Nr , i Cayje of Good Hope
pe letnn, | ,
40
Z
CapéHorn 4
Bs 6 De Frowara
es ss es : 60
: REFERENCES.
HYDROGRAPHICAL MAP
showing the [DAtlantic System. LD Indian System
OCEANIGAREAS & RIVER SYSTEMS. Pacitic System. | Arctic System .
OF THE EARTH . J nland System.
fee 2 Lanpirube WEST FROM GAEENWICH. LONG}TUDE EAST FROMIGREENWICH.
140 120 80 60 40 20 0) “180

99 ony







LAKES. 69



- and by the Elbe and the Weser into the North
Sea. It is drained toward the south and east by
the Ural and the Volga into the inland basin of
the Caspian; and by the Don, the Dnieper, and
the .Dniester into the Sea of Azov and the Black
Sea.

All the peninsulas have streams traversing them. The
Seine, the Loire, and the Garonne from France, and the
Douro, the Tagus, and the Gaudiana from Spain and Por-
tugal, empty into the Atlantic. The Ebro from Spain,
and the Po from Italy, empty into the Mediterranean.

185. Asia possesses the most extensive inland
drainage of all the-continents. The plateaus are
surrounded by lofty mountains containing but
comparatively few breaks, and their waters, there-
fore, can find no passage to the sea. The outer
slopes, however, are-drained by some of the
largest rivers in the world.

The Great Northern Plain drains into the
Arctic, mainly through the Lena, the Yeniset,
and the Obe.

~The Eastern Slopes drain into the Pacific
through the Amoor, the Hoang-Ho, the Yang-tse-
Kiang, and the Cambodia.

The Southern Slopes drain into the Indian
Ocean through the Irrawaddy, the Brahmapootra,
the Ganges, the Indus, the Tigris, and the Eu-
phrates.

The principal drainage-centre in Asia is the Plateau of
Thibet, from which descend the Hoang-Ho, the Yang-tse-
Kiang, the Cambodia, the Irrawaddy, the Ganges, the
Brahmapootra, and the. Indus.

186. Africa, being low in the interior, with
high mountain-walls on her borders, is charac-
terized, like the Americas, by the union of her
smaller river-systems into a few large streams,
which drain nearly the entire continent.. These
embrace the Nile, emptying into the Mediterra-
nean; the Zambezi, into the Indian Ocean; and
the Orange, the Congo, the Niger, and the Senegal,
into the Atlantic.

187. Australia —The Murray, which drains the
south-eastern part of the continent into the Indian
Ocean, is the only considerable stream.

188. Principal Oceanic Systems—A careful
study of the river-basins of the different oceans
discloses the following fact: v

The Atlantic and Arctic. Oceans receive the
waters of nearly all the large river-systems of the
world.

The cause of this is as follows: The predomi-
nant systems being situated nearest the deepest
ocean, the long, gentle slopes descend foward the

9 |

smaller, shallower oceans (the Atlantic and the -
Arctic), which thus receive the greatest drainage.

For details of the various river-systems—such as the
length, area of basin, etc.—see Table, page 174.

—026400—_

CHAPTER VI.
Lakes.

189. Lakes are bodies of water accumulated in
depressions of the surface of the land.

They are connected either with the systems of
oceanic or of inland drainage. The waters of
lakes draining into the ocean are fresh; those
having no connection with the ocean are salt.

Depth—From their mode of formation lakes
which occur in mountainous districts are, as a
class, deeper than those found on the great low
plains, since the former occupy the basins of nar-
row but deep valleys, and the latter the depres-
sions of the gentle undulations of the plain.

In mountainous districts the depths of the depressions
are sometimes so great that the bottom of the lake is con-

siderably below the sea-level. Lake Maggiore in the Swiss
Alps extends about 2000 feet below the level of the sea.

Lake Superior. ‘
Lake Huron.




600 feet.
500 feet.
400 feet.
300 feet.
200 feet.



100 feet.



Sea Level. 4

WN 7b
100 feet.
200 feet.
300 feet.
400 feet.



Fig, 67.- Elevations and Depressions of Lakes,

One of the most remarkable series of depressions in the
general land-surface of the world is that occupied by the
waters of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and On-
tario. Superior and Huron, though some 600 feet above
the level of the ocean, reach, in their greatest depths, far
below its surface ; the former being 270 feet, and the latter
about 400 feet, below the general level of the Atlantic.

When a lake is connected with a river-system,
the place where the principal stream enters is
called the head of the lake; the place where it
empties is called the foot of the lake.

190. Geographical Distribution. — The large





70 : PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.





lake-regions of the world are almost entirely
confined to the northern continents.
191. Oceanic Drainage Systems.—North Amer-

ica contains the most extensive lake-system in the.

world. The lake-region surrounds Hudson Bay,
and drains into the Arctic through the Mac-
kenzie; into Hudson Bay through the Sas-
katchewan; or into the Atlantic through the
St. Lawrence. To it belong the Great Lakes—
Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario—















































embracing a combined area of nearly 100,000
square miles—and the numerous lakes of Brit-
ish America. —

Athabasca, Great Slave, and Great Bear Lakes drain
into the Arctic through the Mackenzie; Lake Winnepeg,
into Hudson Bay through the Nelson; and the Great
Lakes, into the Atlantic through the St. Lawrence.

Europe contains two extensive systems of fresh-
water lakes. The larger region is in Low Europe,
and surrounds the Baltic Sea and its branches;
to it belong Lakes Ladoga and Onega in Russia,
Wener and Wetter in Sweden, with numerous
smaller lakes. The smaller region is found in
the Alps in High Europe.

Africa contains an extensive system of lakes
west of the predominant system. Victoria ‘and
Albert Nyanzas, which drain into the Nile, Lake
Tanganyika, which drains into the Livingstone







or the Congo, and Lake Nyassa, which drains
into the Zambezi, are the principal lakes.

The remaining continents contain but few large
fresh-water lakes. In South America we find Lake
Maracaybo, with brackish water from its vicinity
to the sea; and in Asia, Lake Baikal.

192. The Inland Drainage Systems are inti-

mately connected with that of inland rivers. The
term Steppe Lakes and Rivers is generally applied .
to those which have no outlet to the ocean.

Cause of the Saltness of Inland Waters.—All river-
water contains a small quantity of common salt and other
saline substances. Since lakes which have no outlet, or,
as they are generally called, inland lakes, lose their waters
by evaporation only, the saline ingredients must be con-
tinually increasing in quantity; the water of such lakes
is therefore generally salt.

The Dead Sea in Syria is remarkable for the quantity
of its saline ingredients. In every one hundred pounds
of its waters there are over twenty-six pounds, or more
than one-fourth, of various saline ingredients.

North America.—The largest inland drainage-
system is in the Great Basin, containing Great
Salt, Walker, Pyramid, and Owen Lakes.

South America.—The largest.region of inland
drainage includes the plateau of Bolivia, contain-
ing Lake Titicaca. The waters of this lake are .
fresh, but have no outlet to the sea, the river form-
ing the outlet being lost in a salty, sandy plain.

Europe and Asia contain a vast region of in-
land drainage extending from the Valdai Hills
eastward to the Great Kinghan Mountains, em-
bracing most of the Asiatic plateaus.

The region contains Lake Elton in Russia, and the Cas-
pian and Aral Seas. The combined area of the last two
is 175,000 square miles. They receive the waters of the
Volga, the Ural, the Sir, and the Amoo, all large streams.
Numerous Jakes occur on the plateaus. Lake Lop, in the

depression north of Thibet, receives the Tarim, and Lake
Hamoon, on the Iranian plateau, the Helmund River.

Africa contains Lake Tchad in the Soudan, re-
ceiving the Komadagu and the Shirwa, and Lake
Ngami in Southern Africa. —

Australia contains Lakes Eyre, Torrens, Gaird-
ner, and Amadeo near the southern coast.

193. Utility of Lakes.—By offering extended basins
into which the rivers, when swollen, can disgorge them-—
selves, lakes greatly diminish the destructive effects of
jnundations, often checking them entirely. They afford
extended surfaces for evaporation, and, collecting the finer
sediment of the rivers when deserted by their waters,
form fertile plains.

$$ or SR YS



SYLLABUS.



SYLLABUS.

——-0 900

Water is formed by the union of oxygen and hydrogen.

The waters of the earth may be divided into two classes
—the continental and the oceanic.

Water is asolid at and below 32° Fahr., a liquid from
32° to 212°, and a vapor above 212°. It passes off as vapor,
however, at all temperatures.

A pint of water is heaviest at the temperature of 39.2°
Fahr. Hence in deep lakes, covered with ice, the lower
layers of water are 7.2° Fahr. above the freezing-point.

Large bodies of water moderate the extremes of tem-
perature, because water takes in more heat while warming
and gives out more.on cooling than any other common
substance. 5

During the freezing of a body of water, or the condensa-
tion of a mass of vapor, considerable stored heat-energy
appears, or latent heat becomes sensible and warms the
surrounding air.

After a body of water has been cooled to the tempera-
ture of 32° Fahr., it has still 142 heat-units, or pound-de-
grees, to lose before it can turn into ice.

After a body of ice has been warmed to the temperature
of 32° Fahr., it has still 142 heat-units, or pound-degrees,
of heat to gain before it can turn into water.

Therefore, both freezing and melting are gradual pro-
cesses.

The rains cleanse the surface of the earth and purify
the atmosphere.

Water is necessary for the existence of life. It forms
the main food of both animals and plants.

The atmospheric waters are drained into the ocean
either by surface or subterranean drainage.

Springs are the outpourings of the subterranean waters.

Springs may be classified according to peculiarities in
the size, shape, and depth of their reservoirs, and the

-nature of the mineral substances composing the strata
over which the waters flow or in which they collect.

According to the size of their reservoirs, springs are
either constant or temporary.

If their reservoirs have siphon-shaped outlet tubes,
their discharges are periodical.

When their reservoirs are superficial, springs are cold ;
when deep-seated, they are hot or thermal.

Springs whose waters are moderately cold have their
reservoirs near the surface. Their lower temperature is
due to their waters being shielded from the sun.

Springs with very cold waters have their sources in the
melting of large masses of ice or snow.

Hot or thermal springs owe their high temperature to
the heat they receive from the interior of the earth.

Geysers are boiling springs, which, at irregular intervals,
shoot out huge columns of water with great violence.

The most extensive geyser regions are those of Iceland,

- New Zealand, and Wyoming.

Calcareous springs contain lime; silicious, silex; sul-
phurous, sulphuretted hydrogen and metallic sulphides or
sulphates; chalybeate, iron; brines, common salt; acidu-
lous, carbonic acid ; petroleum, coal oil; bituminous, pitch.

Rivers are fed both by surface and subterranean drain-
age. :

The main stream with all its tributaries and branches
is called the river-system. The territory drained into the
river-system is called the river-basin. The ridge or ele-
vation separating opposite slopes is called the water-shed.

In the upper courses of rivers erosion occurs mainly on
the bottom of the channel; in the lower courses, at the
sides.

In the lower courses of rivers extensive flats or plains
are found. They are caused by the erosion of the banks
and the subsequent deposition of fine mud during inunda-
tions.

Rivers are constantly at work carrying the mountains
toward the sea. Through their agency the mean height
of the continents is decreasing, and their mean breadth.
increasing.

The eroded material, or silt, may accumulate—1. In the
channel of the river; 2, Along the banks, on the alluvial
flats or flood-grounds; 3. At the river’s mouth; and 4.
Along the coast, near the mouth.

The accumulations in the channel of the lower Missis-
sippi have so raised the bed of the stream as to necessitate
the erection of levees or embankments along the sides.

Where the tides are weak and the ocean currents absent
or feeble, the eroded material, or silt, accumulates at the
mouths of rivers in masses termed deltas.

The Alps are drained by the Rhine, the Rhone, the Po,
and the Danube; these rivers have extensive delta-forma-
tions.

The plateau of Thibet is drained by the Hoang-Ho, the
Yang-tse-Kiang, the Ganges, the Brahmapootra, and the
Indus; all these rivers have extensive delta-formations.

Among other extensive deltas are those of the Missis-
sippi, which drains the long slopes of the Pacific and
Appalachian mountain-systems; the Nile, the Tigris, the
Euphrates, and the Zambezi.

Fluvio-marine formations occur along the coasts; they
are caused by the combined action of the river and tides.

The destruction of forests, by increasing the rapidity of
drainage, increases the violence of floods. Lakes along
the river-courses decrease their violence, by allowing the
torrents to discharge their waters.

The direction of the drainage of a country is dependent
on the direction of its slopes.

The central plain of North America is drained north
into the Arctic Ocean through the Mackenzie; east into
the Atlantic through the Nelson and the St. Lawrence;
and south into the Gulf of Mexico through the Mississippi.

The central plain of South America is drained north
into the Caribbean Sea through the Magdalena, east, into
the Atlantic through the Orinéco and the Amazon, and
south, into the Atlantic through the Rio de la Plata.

The. rivers draining the great low plain of Europe rise
either in the Valdai Hills or on the northern slopes of the
predominant system.

Asia possesses the most extended system of inland
drainage of the continents. Extended systems are also
found in. North America and Europe.

The Atlantic and the Arctic Oceans drain about three-
fourths of the continental waters. 3

The largest systems of fresh-water lakes occur in North
America and Europe.

The Great Lakes of North America occupy remarkable
depressions in the continent. The beds of some of them
are several hundred feet below the level of the sea.

Lakes without an outlet are salt, because the waters
they receive contain small quantities of saline ingredients,
while the waters they lose contain none,

i 4 ~~

\





72 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

REVIEW QUESTIONS.

—0-0£9300——_.

What is the composition of water?

Enumerate the physical properties which enable water
to play so important a part in the economy of the earth.

What effect has the temperature of the maximum den-
sity of water on the freezing of large bodies of fresh water?
Why?

How do large bodies of water moderate the extremes of
heat and cold?

Why are freezing and melting necessarily gradual pro-
cesses ?

What effect has a heavy rainfall on the temperature of
the atmosphere?

Explain the cause of deserts.

Define subterranean drainage. Surface drainage.

Upon what does the quantity of water discharged by a
spring in a given time depend?

Explain the cause of periodical springs.

What is the temperature of cold springs? Of hot or
thermal springs?

What is the probable cause of the high temperature of
hot springs?

' How can the probable depth of the reservoir of an arte-
sian spring be ascertained from the temperature of its
waters?

What are geysers? Explain the cause of their erup-
tion.

What is the origin of the tube and basin of the geyser?

Name the three largest geyser regions of the world.

What is travertine? How is it formed?

Name some of the most- important springs from which
large quantities of salt are obtained.

What is believed to be the origin of petroleum or coal
oil?

How are the precipices of waterfalls caused? In what
courses of a river are they most common?

Name the highest waterfall in the world. The grand-
est.

Distinguish between an estuary and a delta.

How does the destruction of the forest increase the
severity of inundations?

Upon what does the quantity of water in a river. o- :

pend?

In what different portions of a stream may the silt or
detritus be deposited?

What are rafts? How are they caused ?

Explain the formation of fluviatile islands and lakes.

Name some of the most extensive delta-formations in
North America. In Europe. In Asia. In Africa.

What is the probable origin of the swamp-lands of the
Atlantic seaboard?

How may a tolerably accurate notion of the direction
of the slopes of a country be obtained by a study of the
direction of its rivers?

In what respects do the drainage of North and South
America resemble each other?

Name the principal systems of inland drainage of the
world.

Explain the cause of the saltness of inland waters.

MAP QUESTIONS.

—.0593,00——_.

Which ocean drains the largest areas of the continents?
Which the smallest?

Name the important rivers which drain into the Asian
tic from North America. From South America. From
Europe. From Africa.

Name the important rivers which drain into the Pacific
from North America. From Asia.

Name the important rivers which drain into the Indian
Ocean from Africa. From Asia. From Australia.

What two systems of inland drainage are there in North
America? What large region in South America?

Name an important steppe lake and river in each of the
continents.

Describe the region of inland drainage of Europe and
Asia. What large lakes and rivers belong to this region?

Describe the regions of inland drainage of Africa. Of
Australia. Name the important lakes found in each
region.

What South American river corresponds in the aiection
of its drainage with the St. Lawrence? With the Mac-
kenzie? With the Mississippi?

Name the large rivers which drain the predominant
mountain-system of Asia. Of Europe. Of Africa. Of
North America. Of South America. Of Australia.

Describe the fresh-water lake-region of North America. ~

Of South America. Of Europe. Of Africa.

In which line of trend are most of the fresh-water lakes
of North America found ?

Name the Atlantic rivers which have large deltas The
Pacific rivers.

The Indian rivers.



.






THE OCEAN.





S Bec rrowsolk

eee SCEUNP EEE. I.
The Ocean.

194. Composition. —The water of the ocean

- contains a number of various saline ingredients,

which give it a bitter taste and render it heavier

. than fresh water in the proportion of 1.027 to 1.

Every hundred pounds of ocean-water contains

about three and one-third pounds of various
saline ingredients.

Chloride of sodium, or common salt, chloride of magne-
sium, sulphates and carbonates of lime, magnesia, and
potassa, and various bromides, chlorides, and iodides, are
the principal saline ingredients,

195. Origin of the Saltness of the Ocean.—The
rivers are constantly dissolving from their channels large
quantities of mineral matters, and pouring them into the
ocean. Besides this, fully three-fourths of the earth’s sur-
face is covered permanently by the oceanic waters. In
this way immense quantities of mineral ingredients have
been dissolved out from the crust. The latter cause was
especially active during the geological past, when frequent
convulsions brought fresh portions of the crust into con-
‘tact with the warm waters.

The ocean is salter in those parts where the evaporation
exceeds the rainfall, or at about the latitude of the tropics;
where the rainfall exceeds the evaporation, the water is
slightly fresher than at the equator.

In inland seas, like the Mediterranean or the Red Sea,

which, though connected with the ocean, yet lose much"

more of their waters by evaporation than by outflow, the
proportion of salt is slightly greater than in the ocean.
In such cases a current generally flows into the sea from
the ocean. In colder latitudes, inland seas, like the Bal-
tic, receiving the waters of large rivers, contain rather
less salt than the open sea, and a current generally flows
from them into the ocean.

196. Color—Though transparent and colorless
in small quantities, yet in large masses the color
of sea-water is.a deep blue. The same is true
of fresh water. Over limited portions of the
ocean the waters are sometimes of a reddish or
a greenish hue, from the presence of numberless
minute organisms.

Sometimes a pale light or phosphorescence,
visible only at night, and due to the presence of
animalcule, appears where the air comes into con-

. tact with the water, as in the wake of a vessel or
on the crests of the waves.



OCEANIC WATERS.

——050300——_

197. Temperature.—The salts dissolved in
ocean-water lower the temperature of its freez-
ing-point. Ordinary ocean-water freezes at about
27° F. In places where the water is salter, the
temperature of its freezing-point is lower.

Ice formed from ocean-water is comparatively
fresh, nearly all the salt being separated as the
water freezes or crystallizes. The salt, thus thrown
out from the frozen water, is dissolved by the
water below, lowers the temperature of its freez-
ing-point, and thus increases its density. In this
manner the water below the ice may have a tem-
perature lower than that at which the surface-
water freezes, and yet remain liquid.

In the polar regions the water below the sur-
face is at a temperature lower than that of the
freezing-point of the surface-water. This cold
water, from its greater density, spreads over the
floor of the ocean in all latitudes, so that, except
where stirred by deep currents, the entire bottom
of the ocean is covered with a layer of dense,
heavy water, the temperature of which is nearly
constant.

The temperature of this water is about 35° F. Near
the poles it is somewhat lower : about 29°, or a little higher
than its maximum density of the surface-waters.

The upper limit of this line of invariable temperature
varies with the latitude. Near the equator, where the
waters are heated to great depths, it is found at about
10,000 feet below the surface. Toward the poles, it comes
nearer the surface, reaching it at about Lat. 60°, from
which point it again sinks, being found at Lat. 70° at
about 4500 feet below the surface.

In the tropics the temperature of the surface-water
is about 80° F.; in the polar regions it is near the
freezing-point. The ice which forms in the polar
regions collects in vast ice-fields or floes.

198. Shape of the Bottom of the Ocean.—The
bed of the ocean, though diversified like the sur-
face of the land, contains fewer irregularities,
Numerous soundings show that it extends for
immense distances in long undulations and slopes.
Its plateaus and plains, therefore, are of great
size, compared with those of the continents.
Submerged mountain-ranges occur both in the
deep ocean and along the shores. The latter





panies 7
Dey ek rtd Lut

74 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

belong, properly, to the continental systems of

elevations.
' 199, The Oceanic Areas. _The ocean is one
continuous body of water, but for purposes of
description and study it is generally divided into
five smaller bodies: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian,
Aretic, and Antarctic Oceans. The last two are
separated from the preceding by the polar circles ;
. the others are separated mainly by the continents.
As the continents do not extend to the Antarctic
Circle, the meridians of Cape Horn, Cape of
Good Hope, and South Cape in Tasmania, are
taken as the ocean boundaries south of these
points. .
The following table gives the relative size of the oceanic
areas:
The Pacific occupies aed
“ Atlantic “
“ Indian “ ft

Antarctic
« Arctic sf we

200. Articulation of Land and Water—The
indentations of the oceans, or the lines of junc-
tion between the water and the land, may be
arranged under four heads:

(1.) Inland Seas, or those surrounded by a
nearly continuous or unbroken land-border; as
the Gulf of Mexico, Hudson Bay, the Baltic, and
the Mediterranean, in the Atlantic; the Red Sea
and the Persian Gulf, in the Indian; and the
Gulf of California, in the Pacific.

(2.) Border Seas, or those isolated from the
rest of the ocean by peninsulas and island chains ;
as the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of St. Lawrence,
and the North Sea, in the Atlantic; and Bering
Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan, and
the North and South China Seas, in the Pacific.

(3.) Gulfs and Bays, or broad expansions of
the water extending but a short distance into
the land; as the Gulf of Guinea and the Bay of
Biscay, in the Atlantic; and the Bay of Bengal
and the Arabian Sea, in the Indian.

(4.) Fiords, or deep inlets, with high, rocky
headlands, extending often from 50 to 100 miles

the entire water-area,
“cc “a
“cs “

“

“ce “cc &“ “

“cs “

he gins

into the land. One of the best instances of this

form of indentation is off the Norway coast. Ac-
cording to Dana, fiords are valleys that were ex-
cavated by vast ice-masses called glaciers, but
which have since become partially submerged by
the gradual subsidence of the land.

Fiord valleys occur on the Norway coast, on
the coasts of Greenland, Labrador, Nova Scotia,
and Maine, on the western coast of Patagonia





then) aA, wlAn MA BAR

Ges

and Chili, and on the western coast of North
America north of the Straits of Fuca. On parts
of the coast of Greenland the glaciers are now
cutting out their partially submerged valleys,
and forming what will probably become fiord
valleys.

The Atlantic Ocean is characterized by inland
seas; the Pacific, by border seas; the Indian, by
gulfs and bays; the Atlantic and the Pacific, by
fiords.

201. Depth of the Ocean The mean depth of
the ocean is about 12,000 ft.,.or nearly 23 miles.
Recent soundings give the greatest depth of the
Atlantic, in the neighborhood of the island of
St. Thomas of the West Indies, as- 27,000 feet.
The greatest depth in the Pacific, as reported by
recent careful soundings, ocems=ea
qudeis BECO These give a edi of shout

} miles, or less than the greatest elevation of the
inca It is probable, however, that some portions .
of the ocean are much deeper.

The greater depressions of the ocean are called
deeps, the shallower portions are called rises.

202. The Pacific Ocean—The shape of the
shore-line of the Pacific is that of an immense
oval, nearly closed at the Ho) but broad and
open at the south.



As indicated by the island chains, a number of shallow
places, or rises, extend in the direction of the north-west
trend: the summits of those on the north form the Sand-
wich Islands, and the summits of those on the south form
the Polynesian Island chain.

208. The Atlantic Ocean—The shape of the
shore-line of the Atlantic is that of a long,

-trough-like valley, with nearly parallel sides.

The Atlantic has a broad connection with both
the polar oceans, and forms the only open chan-
nel for the intermingling of the warm and cold
waters.

Shape of the Bed.—Recent soundings in the Atlantic show
the presence of a submarine plateau extending in mid-
ocean parallel to the coasts of the continents from the lati-
tude of the southern point of Africa to Iceland, thus di-
viding the basin into eastern and western valleys. The
western valley is the deeper; the average depths of the two
being respectively 18,000 and 13,000 feet. A remarkable

Feet. Level of the sea.



Fig. 69, The ToleeaNaib Plateau.

plateau extends across these valleys, from Newfoundland
to Ireland. Its depth ranges from 10,000 to nearly 13,000
feet. It is called the Telegraphic Plateau, and bears a
number of telegraphic cables. The eastern and western’



OCEANIC MOVEMENTS. 75



valleys, though less marked in this region, are still dis-
tinguishable.

The true bed of the ocean begins at a considerable dis-
tance from the eastern coast of North America. For dis-
tances of from 75 to 100 miles, the depth scarcely exceeds
600 feet ; but from this point it descends, by steep terraces,
to profound depths.

The British Isles are connected with the continent of
Europe by a large submerged plateau, which underlies
nearly the whole North Sea, and extends for considerable
distances off the western and southern coasts. The depth
of this part of the ocean is nowhere very great.

204. The Indian Ocean.—The shape of the
shore-line is, in general, triangular. This ocean
has no connection with the Arctic, but is entirely
open on the south, where it merges into the great
water-area of the globe: the basins of the Ant-
arctic and Pacific.

Shape of the Bed.—A submarine plateau extends to the
south off the western coast of Hindostan. Its summits
form the Laccadive, Maldive, and Chagos Islands, and pos-

sibly extends in the same direction as far as Kerguelen
Island.

205. The Antarctic and Arctic Oceans.—The
shore-line of the Arctic has the shape of an ir-
regular ring. The shore-line of the Antarctic is
probably of the same shape.

But little is known concerning the beds of these
oceans. From the very limited land-areas south
of lat. 50° S., the bed of the Antarctic is presum-
ably deeper than that of the Arctic, except toward
the south pole, where it is probably shallower.

206. Ooze Deposits—Foraminiferal Land.—
The reef-forming coral polyps are not the only
animalcule the accumulation of whose bodies
after death add to the land-masses of the earth.
Deep-sea soundings show that over extended areas

Fig. 70. Foraminifera,

the floor of the ocean is evenly covered with a
creamy layer of mud or ooze, which, like the
deposits of the coral animalcula, is composed
principally of carbonate of lime. This ooze con-
sists almost entirely of microscopic skeletons of a



group of animalcule known as the Foraminifera,
from the great number of perforations or open-
ings in their hard parts. These animalcule are
so small that 1,000,000 are equal in bulk to only
one cubic inch. They appear to live in the layers
of water near the surface, and after death to
fall gradually to the bottom of the sea. Sound-
ings show their presence over very extended
areas.

Many of the very deep parts of the ocean’s bed
are covered, not with foraminiferal deposits, but

‘with a layer of red mud composed of finely-di-

vided clay. Its origin is probably as follows:
In very deep parts of the ocean before the fora-
miniferal deposits reach the bottom their limey
matters are dissolved, and the undissolved parts
form the deposits of fine red mud.

—0 Stoo

xX CHAPTER IL.

Oceanic Movements. ~

207. The Oceanic Movements can be arranged
under three heads: waves, tides, and currents.
Waves are swinging motions of the water,
caused by the action of the wind. Their height
and velocity depend on the force of the wind, and
the depth of the basin in which they occur. The
stronger the wind, and the deeper the ocean, the
‘higher the waves and the greater their velocity.

















































































































































Fig. 71, Ocean Waves,

Height of Waves.—Scoresby measured waves in the
North Atlantic 43 feet above the level of the trough.
Waves have been reported in the South Atlantic, off the
Cape of Good Hope, between 50 and 60 feet high. Navi-





76 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



gators have occasionally reported higher waves, but the
accuracy of their measurements is, perhaps, to be doubted.
In the open sea, with a moderate wind, the height of
ordinary waves is about 6 feet.

The distance between two successive crests varies from
10 to 20 times their height. Waves 4 feet high have
their successive crests 40 feet apart; those 33 feet high,
about 500 feet apart.

208. No Progressive Motion of Water in
Waves.—In wave motion, the water seems to be
moving in the direction in which the wave is ad-
vancing, but this is only apparent; light cbjects,
floating on the water, rise and fall, but do not
move forward with the wave. In shallow water,
however, the water really advances. The for-
ward motion of the wave is retarded, so that the
waves following reach it, thus increasing its
height. The motion at the bottom is lessened,
and the top curls over and breaks, producing
what are called breakers.

On gently sloping shores, the water which runs down
the beach, after it has been thrown upon it by the breakers,

forms, at a little distance from the shore, the dreaded
“undertow” of our bathing-resorts.

Force of the Waves.—When high, and moving
in the direction of the wind, the waves dash
against any obstacle, such as a line of coast, with
great force, and may thus cut it away and change
the coast-line. This action occurs only on ex-
posed, shelving coasts. The wave-motion is, in
general, very feeble at 40 feet below the surface.
The eroding action of the ocean waves is, there-
fore, far inferior to that of the continental waters.

209. Tides are the periodical risings and fall-
ings of the water, caused by the attraction of the
sun and moon. The alternate risings and fallings
succeed each other with great regularity, about
every six hours. Unlike waves, in which the
motion is confined practically to the surface
waters only, tides affect the waters of the ocean
from top to bottom.

The rising of the water is called flood tide; the
falling, ebb tide. When the waters reach their
highest and lowest points, they remain stationary
for a few minutes. These points are called, re-
spectively, high and low water. Corresponding
high or low water, at any place, occurs fifty-two
minutes later each successive day.

210. Theory of the Tides.—If the earth were
uniformly covered with a layer of water, the pas-
sage of the moon over any place, as at a, Fig. 72,
would cause the water to lose its globular form,
become. bulged at a, and 0, and flattened at ¢,
and d. In other words, the water would become

. greatest.

deeper at a, and 6, at the parts of the earth near-
est and farthest from the moon, and shallower in

“ ss,

ee
g
ao

Twieaee ss

Fig. 72. Lunar Tide,

all places 90° or at right angles to these points,
such, for example, as at c, and d.

This deepening and shallowing of the water is
caused by the attraction of the moon. As the
moon passes over a, the water is drawn toward
the moon, thus deepening the water directly under
the moon, and shallowing it at ¢, and d.

The cause of the deepening of the water at b,
on the side farthest from the moon, is as follows:
the solid earth being, as a whole, nearer the moon
than the water at 6, but farther from it than that
at a, must take a position which will be nearly
midway between a, and 8, leaving a protuberance
at 6, nearly equal to that at a.

The protuberances a, and b, mark the position
of high tides. At all points of the earth 90° from
the protuberances, as at c, and d, the depression is
These mark the position of low tides.

High tides, then, occur at those points of the
earth’s surface which are cut by a straight line,
which passes through the centre of the earth and
that of the attracting body, as the sun or moon.
Low tides are found at right angles to these
points.

Had the earth no rotation, the tidal waves, so
formed, would slowly follow the moon in its mo-
tion around the earth. But, by the rotation of
the earth, different parts of its surface are rapidly
brought under the moon, and the tidal waves,

consequently, move rapidly from one part of the
. ocean to’another.

Had the moon no motion around the earth, there would
be two high tides and two low tides every 24 hours.
While, however, the earth is making one complete rota-
tion, the moon, in its motion around the earth, has
changed its position, and the earth rotates for 52 minutes
longer before the same point again comes directly under
the moon.

Since the uniformity of the water surface is
broken by the elevations of the land, the progress
of the tidal wave is greatly affected by the size,
shape, and depth of the oceanic basin, and the



OCEANIC MOVEMENTS.

position of the continents. Owing to the obstruc-
tions offered by the continents, and by inequalities
in the bed of the ocean, a very considerable re-
tardation of the tidal wave is effected, so that a
high tide may not occur at a place until long
_after the moon has passed over it.

Solar Tides—The sun also produces a system
of tidal waves, but owing to its greater distance
from the earth, the tides thus produced are much
smaller than those of the moon, upon which, there-
fore, they exert but a modifying influence. The
tide-producing power of the moon is greater than
that of the sun, in about the proportion of 800
to 855. That is, the tide produced by the moon
is about 24 times greater than that produced by
the sun.

‘The tidal wave moves, in general, from east to west, or in
the opposite direction to the rotation of the earth. The motion
of so large a mass of water thus opposed to the earth’s ro-
tation, must gradually diminish the axial velocity, and,
eventually, entirely stop the rotation of the earth; in this
way an increase in the length of day and night should be
produced, but so far, however, no increase has been de-
tected, although astronomical observations extend back-
ward for long periods. The increased axial velocity, pro-
duced by the contraction of the globe, probably balances
the retarding influence of the tides.

In the deep ocean, and near the mouths of rivers, the
duration of the flood and ebb are about equal; but in most
rivers, at some distance from the mouth, the ebb is longer
than the flood. The cause is to be found in the fact that
the outflowing river current meets and temporarily neu-
tralizes the inflowing flood tide, thus diminishing its dura-
tion, and afterward, adding its motion to the ebb, makes
the difference between the two still greater.

The tidal wave often ascends a stream to a much greater
elevation above the level of its mouth than the height of
the tide at the river’s mouth. In large rivers, like the
Amazon, the tidal wave advances up the river as much as
100 feet above the sea-level.

Neap Tid
flood and eb!
moderate.



Some of the proofs of the connection between the tides
and the attraction of the moon and sun are as follows:

(1.) The interval between corresponding high tides at
any place is the same as the interval between two succes-
sive passages of the moon over that place: 24 hours, 52
minutes,

(2.) The tides are higher when the moon is nearer the
earth.

(8:) The tides are higher when the sun and moon are
simultaneously acting to cause high tides in the same

places.
“D /

Quarter.

Fig. 78, Cause of the Phases of the Moon,

Phases of the Moon.—An inspection of Fig. 73 will
show, that during new and full moon, the earth, moon,
and sun are all in the same straight line, but, that during
the first and last quarters, they are at right angles. The
portions of the earth and moon turned toward the sun are
illumined, the shaded portions are in the darkness. To
an observer on the earth, the moon, at a, appears new,
since the dark part is turned toward him; at b, however,
it must appear full, since the illumined portions are toward
him. At, and d, the positions of the quarters, only one-
half of the illumined half, or one quarter, is seen.

Spring Tides,
flood and ebb
excessive.

Fig. 74, Position of the Earth, Moon, and Sun during Spring and Neap Tides.

211. Spring and Neap Tides.——When the sun
and moon act simultaneously, on the same hemi-
sphere of the earth, as shown in Fig. 74, the tidal
waye is higher than usual.
then h‘ghest, and the ebb tides lowest.
are called spring tides.

These
They occur twice during

The flood tides are’

every revolution of the moon—once at full, and
once at new moon. The highest spring tides oc-
cur a short time before the March and the Sep-
tember equinoxes, when the sun isover the equa-
tor.

When, however, the sun and moon are 90°







78 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



apart, or in quadrature, each produces a tide on
the portion of the earth directly under it, dimin-
ishing somewhat that produced by the other body.
High tide, then, occurs under the moon, while the
high tide caused by the sun, becomes, by compari-
son, a low tide. Such tides are called neap tides.
During their prevalence, the flood is not. very
high, nor the ebb very low. They occur twice
during each revolution of the moon, but are low-
est about the time of the June and December
solstices.

The average relative height of the spring tide to that
of the neap tide is about as 7 to 4.

212. Birthplace of the Tidal Wave——Although
a tidal wave is formed in all parts of the ocean
where the moon is overhead, yet the “ Cradle of
the Tides” may properly be located in the great
southern area of the Pacific Ocean. Here the
combined attraction of the sun and moon origin-















































ate a wave, which would travel around the earth
due east and west, with its crests north and south;
but, meeting the channels of the oceans, it is
forced up them toward the north. ts progress is
accelerated in the deep basins, and retarded in the
shallow ones. On striking the coasts of the con-
tinents, deflected or secondary waves move off in
different directions, thus producing great com-
plexity in the form of the parent, wave.

213. Co-Tidal Lines——The progress of the tidal
wave, in each of the oceans, is best understood by
tracing on a map, lines connecting all places
which receive the tidal wave at the same time.
These are called co-tidal lines. The distance be-
tween two consecutive lines represents the time, in
hours, required for the progress of the tidal wave.
In parts of the ocean where the wave travels rap-
idly the co-tidal lines are far apart; when its prog-
ress is retarded, they are crowded together.





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































The figures on the lines
show the time of flood tide;
the lines show the path of
the tidal wave.















Fig. 75. Qo-Tidal Chart,

Since it is only possible to. take the height of the tide
on the coasts of islands and of the continents, the tracks
of the co-tidal lines must be to a.considerable extent con-
jectural.

214. The Pacific Ocean.—Twice every day a
tidal wave starts in the south-eastern part of the
Pacific Ocean, west of South America, somewhere
between the two heavy lines marked x1 on the

chart. It advances rapidly toward the north-
west in the deep valley of this ocean;. reaching~
Kamtchatka in about 6 hours. Toward ‘the west
its progress is retarded by the shallower water,
and by the numerous islands, so that it only
reaches New Zealand in about 6 hours and enters
the Indian Ocean in about 12 hours. {

215. The Indian Ocean.—The 12-hour-old tidal

}







OCEAN CURRENTS. 79
a er A ee oe LP Be Smee eee

wave from the Pacific, meets and moves along
with a wave started in this ocean by the moon,
and advances in the direction indicated by the
co-tidal lines entering the Atlantic Ocean about
12 hours afterward.

216, The Atlantic Ocean.—The tidal wave from
the Indian joins two other waves, one formed by
the moon in this ocean, and the other a deflected
wave that has backed into the Atlantic from the
Pacific. The tidal wave thus formed advances
rapidly up the deep valley of the Atlantic, reach-
ing Newfoundland 12 hours afterward, or 48 hours
after it started in the Pacific. It then advances
rather less rapidly toward the north-east, reach-
ing the Loffoden Islands 12 hours afterward, or
60 hours after leaving its starting-place in the
Pacific.

217. Tides in Inland Seas and Lakes are very
small and, consequently, difficult to detect. In
the Mediterranean Sea the tides on the coasts
average about 18 inches. The tide in Lake
Michigan is about 1% inches.

218. Height of Tidal Wave.—Ocean tides are
lowest in mid-ocean, where they range from two
to three feet. Off the coasts of the continents,
especially when forced up narrow, shelving bays,
deep gulfs, or broad river mouths, they attain
great heights. The cause of these unusual heights
is evident. When the progress of the tidal wave
is retarded, either by the contraction of the chan-
nel or by other causes, the following part of the
wave overtakes the advanced part, and thus, what
the wave loses in speed it gains in height, from the
heaping up of the advancing waters. Where the
co-tidal lines, therefore, are crowded together on the
chart, high tides are likely to occur; for example,

-the Arabian Sea-and Bay of Bengal, the North
and South China Seas, the eastern coasts of Pata-
gonia, the Bay’ of Fundy, the English Channel,
and the Irish Sea, have very high tides.

Near the heads of the Persian Gulf and China
Seas, the tides sometimes rise about 36 feet. At
the mouth of the Severn, the spring tides rise
from 45 to 48 feet; on the southern coast of the
English Channel, 50 feet; and in the Bay of
Fundy, near the head, the spring tides, aided by
favoring winds, sometimes reach 70 feet, and, oc-
casionally, even 100 feet.

A strong wind, blowing in the direction in which the
tidal wave is advancirig, causes an increase in the height
of the tide.

A low barometer is attended by a higher tide than
usual; a high barometer, by a lower tide.





219, Other Tidal Phenomena.

The Bore or Hager.—On entering the estuary of a
river, the volume of whose discharge is considerable, the
onward progress of the tidal wave is checked; but, piling
up its waters, the incoming tide at last overcomes the re-
sistance of the stream, and advances rapidly, in several
huge waves. The tides of the Hoogly, the Elbe, the
Weser, and the Amazon, are examples. In the latter

river, the wave is said to rise from 30 to 50 feet.

Races and Whirlpools.—When considerable differ-
ences of level are caused by the tides, in parts of the ocean.
separated by narrow channels, the waters, in their effort
to regain their equilibrium, move with great velocity, pro-
ducing what are called races. At times, several races meet
each other obliquely, thus producing whirlpools. Near the
Channel Islands, and off the northern coasts of Scotland,
races are numerous. The Maélstrom, off the coasts of Nor-
way, isan instance of a whirlpool, though the motion of
the waters is not exactly a whirling one. The main phe-
nomenon is a rapid motion of the waters, alternately back-
ward and forward, caused by the conflict of tidal currents
off the Loffoden Islands.

Ete ee ee
CHAPTER Iii.

Ocean Currents.

220. Constant Ocean Currents—Besides tidal
currents, the waters of the ocean are disturbed
to great depths, by currents, moving with consid-
erable regularity to and from the equatorial and
polar regions, and thus producing a constant in-
terchange of their waters. These movements are
called constant currents, and, unlike waves, con-
sist in a real, onward movement of the water.

Constant currents resemble rivers, but are im-
mensely broader and deeper. As a rule, their
temperature differs considerably from that of the
waters through which they flow. They are not
confined to the surface, but exist as well at great
depths, when they are called under or counter cur-
rents, and flow in a direction opposite to that of the
surface currents.

221, The Principal Cause of Constant Ocean
Currents is the difference of density of the water
produced by the differences of temperature be-
tween the equatorial and the polar regions.

As the waters of the polar regions lose their
heat they become denser, and, sinking to the bot-
tom, form a mountain-like accumulation of dense,
cold water, which, as rapidly as formed, spreads
over the floor of the ocean underneath the lighter
waters. The consequent lowering of the level of
the polar waters causes an influx of the surface
waters from the equatorial regions.. In this man-
ner a constant interchange is effected between the





80 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.







equatorial and polar regions, which, for the greater
part, takes place along the bottom from the poles
to the equator, and along the surface from the
equator to the poles. Since, however, the pole is
a mere point, this interchange occurs mainly be-
tween the equator and the polar circles.

>> \
Jaa























Fig. 76, Currents caused by Difference of Temperature.

Thus in Fig. 76, the mountain-like accumula-
tion is shown as having its crest at about the lati-
tude of the polar circle. The arrows show the
direction of the currents. At the equatorial re-
gions, the surface water is warmer and lighter,
and at the polar regions, probably, colder and
lighter.

As a rule, the warm currents are on the surface, and the,

cold currents, from their greater density, are underneath
them. In shallow oceans, however, the cold currents come
to the surface, thus displacing the warm currents and de-
flecting them to deeper parts of the ocean.

Had the earth no rotation on its axis, this in-
terchange would be due north and south, or would
take place directly between the equatorial and
polar regions. On account of the earth’s rota-
tion, however, and a variety of other causes,
these north-and-south directions are consider-
ably changed. The principal of these deflecting
causes are—

(1.) The earth’s rotation ;

(2.) The position of the land masses

(8.) The winds ;

(4.) Differences of density caused by evapora-
tion ;

(5.) Differences of level caused by evapora-
tion.

The changes in direction caused by the earth’s rotation
and the position of the land masses are as follows: as the
waters are in constant motion, the polar waters reach the
equatorial regions with an eastward motion less than that
of. the earth. In the equatorial regions, therefore, the
waters are unable to acquire the earth’s motion toward the
east, and are left behind; that is, the earth, slipping from
under them, causes them to cross the ocean at a, a’, Fig.
77, from east to west, although they are in reality moving
with the earth toward the east.

Reaching the western borders of the oceans, near J, b’,
the continents prevent their going farther west, and de-
fiect them into northern and southern branches, and they
begin to move toward the poles.

» From ¢, to d, and from ec’, to d’, the poleward-moving
waters are deflected toward the east in both hemispheres.





The waters on reaching ¢, from a, and J, still retain the
eastward motion they acquired while moving with the



—z_d
y
ry Ke eee re errr
Wee ae
Zz Su

SoZ

d’
Fig. 77. Deflections of Ocean Currents.

earth. This motion is greater than that of the earth be-
tween c,and d. Betweén these points, therefore, the water
is acted on by two forces, one tending to carry it toward
the poles, and the other tending to carry it eastward.
The resultant of these forces carries the water from ¢, to
d, and from c’, to d’, or toward the north-east in the North-
ern, and toward the south-east in the Southern Hemisphere.

Between d, and e, and d’, and e’, the waters still retain
this excess of eastward motion, and, therefore, move in
the directions shown.

Between e, and a, and e’,and a’, the waters in both hemi-
spheres are deflected toward the west because they are
unable to acquire the earth’s motion toward the east.
Another, and perhaps the main, cause of this westward.
deflection is the depression caused by the westward move-
ment of the equatorial waters at a, and a’.

The action of the winds is to tend to move the surface
waters in the direction in which they are blowing. This
action is by some authorities regarded as the principal
cause of constant currents. :

The difference in the density of the water, caused by
evaporation, leaving the water salter and denser in some
parts, and fresher and lighter in others, probably acts to
some extent as a deflecting cause. For example, the water
evaporated near the equator, and precipitated, for the
greater part, in regions near the borders of the tropics,
renders the regions salter and denser from which it was
evaporated, and fresher and less dense where it is precipi-
tated.

The difference in level caused by the greater evapora-
tion in the equatorial regions north of the equator than
in corresponding latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere

' has been ascribed as one of the causes of the flow of Ant-

arctic waters toward the equator.

222. General Features of Constant Currents.—
The following motions of the surface currents are
common to all the three central oceans:

(1.) A movement of the equatorial waters, a, a,
from east to west ;

(2.) Their deflection into northern and south-
ern branches (6 and c), on reaching the western
borders of the ocean ;

(3.) A movement of the waters beyond the
equator from west to east (d, e);





Page 67.



160 140 120 100 80 60

ae 1a se ee
te
leg

CG

Ses tte

4

SS
g

MAP OF THE WORLD “ REFERENCES. Al eee

me

showing the direction : Pa iacetor i
of the ~ » Sea Weed.

OCEAN CURRENTS. | Z Ocean Currents. ee Ce ae

LONIGITUDE WEST FROM GREENWICH LONG}TUDE EAST FROMIGREENWICH.





160 * 140, 120 100 80 60 20 0 +0 60 100 120 160







82 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.





(4.) A separation of these latter currents into
two branches (f, g and h, 7), one continuing toward

a—Equator.



Fig. 78. Chart of Constant Currents,

- the poles, and the other toward the equator, where
they join with the equatorial currents, thus com-
pleting a circuit in the shape of a vast ellipse ;

(5.) A flow of the Arctic waters along the
western border of the ocean (j), and of the Ant-
arctic along the eastern (k).

Since the Indian Ocean is completely closed on the
north, only part of the above movements are observed.

In the Pacific, an equatorial counter-current crosses the
ocean from west to east.

223. Currents of the Atlantic—The equatorial
current crosses the ocean, from east to west, in
two branches: a south equatorial current, which
comes from the Antarctic, and a north equatorial
current, which comes mainly from regions north
of the equator.

The north equatorial current flows along the
northern coast of South America, and, separating,
part of it enters the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of
Mexico, and part flows north, passing east of the
Bahamas.

The Gulf Stream flows along the eastern coast
of North America, with a velocity of from four to
five miles per hour, and in mid-ocean, between
Newfoundland and Spain, divides, one branch
flowing toward Norway, Spitzbergen, and Nova
Zembla, the other flowing southward, down the
coasts of Africa, where it forms the main feeder
of the north equatorial current.

The south equatorial current, after crossing the
| ocean, flows south along the Brazilian Goast, and
| divides near Rio Janeiro, the main part flowing
,eastward and mingling with the Antarctic cur-
\vent, and the remainder continuing down the east-







ern coast of South America. Cold currents from
the Arctic flow down the coasts of Greenland and
Labrador. A broad polar current sweeps from
the Antarctic Ocean, and forms the main feeder
of the south equatorial current, but passes in
greater part eastward, south of Africa’

A small elliptical current flows near the equator,
between the north and south equatorial currents.

224. Currents of the Pacific—North and south
equatorial currents flow from east to west, and
between them a smaller, less powerful equatorial
counter-current, from west to east. The south
equatorial current, fed by the broad Antarctic
current, is the larger of the two.

The-north equatorial current, on reaching the
Philippine Islands, divides into northern and
southern branches; a portion of its southern
branch returns with the equatorial counter-cur-
rent, while the northern branch, the main por-
tion, flows north-east along the Asiatic coast as
the Kuro Sivo, the counterpart of the Gulf
Stream. At about Lat. 50°, this flows east-
wardly as a North Pacific current, and off the
shores of North America it returns, in an ellip-
tical path, southerly to the north equatorial cur-
rent, forming its main feeder. A small current
flows through the eastern side of Bering Strait,
into the Arctic Ocean.

The south equatorial ewrrent of the Pacific is
broken into numerous branches during its passage
through the islands in mid-ocean. Reaching the
Australian continent and the neighboring archi-
pelagoes, it sends small streams toward the north,
but the main portion flows south, along the Aus-
tralian coast, when, flowing eastward, it merges
with the cold Antarctic current.

The Antarctic current moves as a broad belt
of water toward the north-east, when, flowing up
the western coast of South America, it turns to
the west, and forms the main feeder of the south
equatorial current. A part of the Antarctic cur-
rent flows eastward, south of South America, and
enters the Atlantic as the Cape Horn current.

A small cold current from the Arctic flows
through Bering Strait, down the Asiatic coast,

225. Currents of the Indian Ocean.—Only a
south equatorial current exists, which flows down
the eastern and western coasts of Madagascar, and
down the African. coast to Cape Agulhas, when,
turning eastward, it merges with the Antarctic
current, and flows up the western coast of Aus-
tralia, where it joins the equatorial current.











SYLLABUS. 83

The north equatorial current in this ocean is indistinct—

(1.) Because the ocean has no outlet to the north;

(2.) Powerful seasonal winds, called the monsoons, move
the waters alternately in different directions, as huge drift
eurrents.

Sargasso Seas.—Near the centre of the ellip-
tical movement in each of the central oceans,
masses of seaweed have collected where the water

is least disturbed. These are called sargasso seas,

226. Utility of Currents:

(1.) They moderate the extremes of climate by
carrying the warm equatorial waters to the poles,
and the cold polar waters to the equator;

(2.) They increase materially the speed of ves-
sels sailing in certain directions ;

(3.) They transport large quantities of timber
to high northern latitudes.

OSE III

SYLLABUS.

2020400

Ocean water contains about three and one-third pounds
of various saline ingredients, in every one hundred. ‘Chlo-
ride of sodium; sulphates and carbonates of lime, mag-
nesia, and potassa; and various chlorides, bromides, and
iodides, are the principal saline ingredients.

The salt of the ocean is derived either from the
washings of the land, or is dissolved out from the por-
tions of the crust which are continually covered by its
waters.

The ocean is salter in those parts where the evaporation
exceeds the rainfall. Seas like the Mediterranean, which
are connected with the ocean by narrow channels, and in
which the evaporation is greater than the rainfall, are
salter than the ocean. Others, like, the Baltic, in which
the rainfall exceeds the evaporation, are fresher than the
ocean.

Most of the bed of the ocean is covered with a layer of
dense water, at about the temperature of its maximum
density.

The Pacific and Atlantic Oceans occupy about three-
fourths of the entire water-area of the earth.

South of the southern extremities of South America,
Africa, and Australia, the meridians of Cape Horn, Cape
Agulhas, and South Cape in Tasmania, are assumed as
the eastern boundaries of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian
Oceans.

The articulation of land and water assumes four distinct
forms: Inland Seas, Border Seas, Gulfs and Bays, and Fiords.
Inland Seas characterize the Atlantic; Border Seas, the Pa-
cific; Guifs and Bays, the Indian Ocean; and Fiords, the
Atlantic and Pacific.

The telegraphic plateau lies between Ireland and New-
foundland. Its average depth is about two miles.

The bottom of the ocean is not as much diversified as
tne surface of the land. Its plateaus and plains are be-
lieved to be much broader than are those of the land. The
profound valleys of the ocean are called deeps, its shallow
parts, rises.

The greatest depth of the ocean that has as. yet been
accurately sounded is about 5% miles. ae is probably deeper
than this in some places.

Over extended areas, the floor of the ocean is uniformly
covered with a deposit of fine calcareous mud or ooze,
formed of the hard parts of the bodies of minute animal-
cule.

The movements of the oceanic waters may be arranged |

under the three heads: waves, tides, and currents.



The height and velocity pf a wave depend upon the
force of the wind and the depth of the oceanic basin.

In ordinary wave motion, the water rises and falls, but
does not move forward.

Tides are the periodical risings and fallings of the water,
caused by the attraction of the sun and moon.

The rising of the water is called flood tide; the falling,
ebb tide.

If the earth were uniformly covered with a layer
of water, two high tides would occur simultaneously;
one on the side of the earth directly under the sun
or moon, the other on the side farthest from the sun
or moon.

The tidal wave crosses the ocean from east to west, fol-
lowing the moon in the opposite direction to that in which
the earth passes under it while rotating. Its progress is
considerably retarded by the projections of the continents,
and the shape of the oceanic beds. Had the moon no real
motion around the earth, there would be two high and
two low tides every twenty-four hours, or the high and

~ low tides would be exactly six hours apart.

Spring Tides are caused by the combined attractions of
the sun and moon on the same portions of the earth. Neap
tides by their opposite attractions.

The parent tidal wave is considered as originating in
the great water-area of the Pacific on the south.

Co-tidal lines are lines connecting places which have
high tides at the same time.

When the progress of the tidal wave is retarded by the
shelving coast of a continent, what the tide loses in speed,
it gains in height. The highest tides, therefore, occur
where the co-tidal lines are crowded together.

Bores, Races, and Whirlpools are tidal phenomena.

Oceanic currents are either temporary, periodical, or
constant.

The heat of the sun and the rotation of the earth are
the main causes of constant oceanic currents.

The following peculiarities characterize the constant
currents in the three central oceans:

(1.) A flow in the equatorial regions from the east to
the west;

(2.) A flow in extra-tropical regions from the west to
the east;

(3.) A division of the eastwardly flowing extra-tropical
waters in mid-ocean into two branches; one of which
flows toward the poles, and the other toward the equator,
where it merges into the equatorial currents.





84 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



The principal cause of constant ocean currents is the
difference in the density of the equatorial and polar
waters, produced by differences of temperature.

The cold, dense waters of the polar regions tend to mix
with the warm, light waters of the equatorial regions
along due north-and-south lines. This tendency to north
and south direction is prevented by the following causes:

(1.) The rotation of the earth ;

(2.) The position of the continents;

(3.) The direction of the winds;

(4.) The difference in the saltness of the water;

(5.) The inequality of the evaporation and rainfall.

In the Pacific, a counter-current crosses the ocean in the
equatorial region, from west to east,

In the Indian Ocean, the directions of the currents are
modified by the land masses, which surround the northern
part of its bed.

In the northern hemispheres, the western borders of the
oceans are colder than the eastern borders in the same lati-
tude, because the former receive the polar currents and the
latter the equatorial.

Currents moderate the extremes of climate, by carry-
ing the warm equatorial waters to the poles, and the cold
polar waters to the equator.

REVIEW QUESTIONS.

——0be300——_

How much heavier is salt water than fresh water ?

What is the freezing-point of ocean water? |

Explain the origin of the saltness of the oceanic waters.

In the equatorial region, where is the water the colder,
at the surface or near the bottom of the ocean ?

How do the areas of the Pacific and Atlantic compare
with each other in size? Of the Antarctic and Arctic?

Define inland sea; border sea; gulf or bay; fiord; give
examples of each.

Define deeps; rises.

What, most probably, is the shape of the bed of the At-
lantic? Of the Pacific? Of the Indian Ocean ?

Describe the Telegraphic Plateau.

How does the greatest depth of the ocean compare with
the greatest elevation of the land?

Upon what does the height of a wave depend? On what
does its velocity depend?

What proof is there that during wave motion in deep
water there is no continued onward motion of the water?

Distinguish between ebb and flood tides.

What proofs have we that tides are occasioned mainly
by the attraction of the moon?

What are spring tides? Neap tides? During what
phases of the moon do they each occur?



Why should the moon, which is so much smaller than
the sun, exert a more powerful influence in producing
tides?

Where does the parent tidal wave originate?

What are co-tidal lines?

Why does the tidal wave progress from east to west?

Explain the nature of the influence which the tidal
wave exerts on the rotation of the earth.

In what parts of the ocean will unusually high tides
occur? Why?

By what are races and whirlpools occasioned ?

Distinguish between temporary, periodical, and constant
oceanic currents.

Explain the origin of constant currents. How are the
directions of constant currents affected by the rotation of
the earth and the shapes of the continents?

What features of constant currents are common to each

" of the three central oceans?

On which side of the northern oceans do the polar cur-
rents flow? On which side of the southern oceans?

What are sargasso seas? How are they formed?

What effect is produced by ocean currents on the ex-
tremes of climate?

Of what value are ocean currents to navigation?

MAP QUESTIONS.

——-093.00——_

Point out, on the map of the river-systems, the inland
seas of the Atlantic; of the Pacific; of the Indian Ocean.

Point out the border seas of the Atlantic; of the
Pacific.

Point out the gulfs or bays of the Atlantic; of the In-
dian Ocean.

Point out the principal regions of fiords.

How many hours does it take the tidal wave to progress
from Tasmania to the Cape of Good Hope? From Tasma-
nia to Newfoundland? From Tasmania to the British
Isles? (See map of the co-tidal lines.)

In what parts of the Atlantic does the tidal influence

progress most rapidly ?

If the velocity of any kind of wave motion in water in-
creases with the depth of the basin, what parts of the At-
lantic appear to be the deepest? What portions of the
Pacific? What portions of the Indian Ocean?

Trace on the map of the ocean currents, the motion
of the Antarctic currents in each of the three central
oceans.



Where is the Cape Horn current? Is it hot or cold?
What points ef resemblance exist between the north
and south equatorial currents in the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans? 3

Trace the progress of the Gulf Stream.

What points of resemblance exist between the Gulf
Stream and the Japan current?

How far to the north-east do the waters of the Gulf
Stream extend?

What distant shores are warmed by the waters of the
Gulf Stream? By those of the Japan current?

Why do not the heated waters of the Gulf Stream exert
amore powerful influence on the climate of the eastern
sea-board of the United States?

Point out the, principal cold currents; the principal
warm currents.

Which currents would aid, and which would retard, the
progress of a vessel in sailing from New York to San Fran-
cisco? From America to Europe? -From America to India
or Australia?



PART IN.

THE ATMOSPHERE.

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































We live at the bottom of a vast ocean of air, which, like the ocean of: water, is subject to three
general movements—waves, tides, and currents. By means of waves, its upper surface is heaved in
huge mountain-like masses in one place, and hollowed out in deep valleys in another. By means of
currents, circulatory movements are set up, which effect a constant interchange between the air of the
equatorial and the polar regions. By means of tides, the depth of the atmosphere is increased in some
places and decreased in others.

Of these three movements of the atmosphere, currents are of the greatest importance. Aérial cur-
rents, or winds, are similar to oceanic currents, but are more extensive and rapid, owing to the greater
mobility of air.

By retaining and modifying the solar: heat, absorbing ri distributing moisture, supplying animals
with oxygen and plants with carbonic acid, the atmosphere plays an Important part in the economy
of the earth.

Meteorology is the science which treats of the atmosphere and its phenomena.

Oe ee

Seer rhoO NL:
THE ATMOSPHERE.

——n$¢00—_

CHAPTER I. proportion, by weight, of nearly 77 per cent. of
nitrogen to 23 per cent. of oxygen.. To these
must be added a nearly constant quantity of car-
bonie acid, about 5 or 6 parts in every 10,000

227. Composition.— The atmosphere is a me- parts of air, or about a cubic inch of carbonic acid
chanical mixture of nitrogen and oxygen, in the to every cubic foot of air, and a very variable pro-

85

General Properties of the Atmo-
sphere.





86 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



portion of watery vapor. The gaseous ingredients,
though of different densities, are found in the
_ same relative proportions at all heights, owing
to a property of gases called diffusion.

The oxygen and carbonic acid are the most important
of the gaseous constituents. Oxygen supports combustion
and respiration, and is thus necessary to the existence of
animal life. Carbonic acid, composed of carbon and oxy-
gen, is the source from which vegetation derives its woody
fibre, and is thus necessary to the existence of plant life.
In respiration, animals take in oxygen and give out car-
bonic acid; in sunlight, plants take in carbonic acid and
give out oxygen. In this way the relative proportions of
the substances necessary to the existence of animal and plant
life are kept nearly constant.

228. Elasticity.—The atmosphere is eminently
_ elastic; that is, when compressed, or made to oc-
cupy a smaller volume, it will regain its original
volume on the removal of the pressure. Air also
expands when heated and contracts when cooled.

229. Pressure.—So evenly does the atmosphere
press on all sides of objects that it was long be-
fore it was discovered that air possesses weight.
The discovery was made by Torricelli, an Italian
philosopher and pupil of the famous Galileo. The
instrument Torricelli employed is called a Ba-
rometer.

Fig. 79. Barometer,

230, The Barometer.—The principle of the barometer
is as follows: A glass tube, about 33 inches in length, is
closed at one end and filled with pure mercury. Placing
a finger over the open end, the tube is reversed and dipped
below the surface of mercury in a cup or other vessel.
On removing the finger, a column of mercury remains in
the tube, being sustained there by the pressure of the at-
mosphere. Near the sea-level this column is about 30
inches high; on mountains it is much lower; in all cases,
the weight of the mercurial column being equal to that
of an equally thick column of air, extending from the
level of the reservoir to the top of the atmosphere.

Any variation in the pressure of the atmosphere is
marked by a corresponding variation in the height of the
mercury in the barometer, the column rising with in-
creased, and falling with diminished, pressure.

The entire atmosphere presses on the earth

with the same weight as would a layer of mer-
cury about 80 inches in depth. A column of
mercury 80 inches high, and one square inch in
area of cross section, weighs about 15 pounds.
Therefore, the pressure which the atmosphere exerts
on the earth’s surface, at the level of the sea, is equal
to about 15 pounds for every square inch of surface.
The entire weight of the atmosphere, in pounds,
is equal to 15 times the number of square inches
in the earth’s surface.

The atmospheric pressure is not uniform on all parts of
the earth at the same level. From a few degrees beyond
the equator the pressure increases in each hemisphere up
to about lat. 35°, where it reaches its maximum, decreasing
in the northern hemisphere to lat. 65°, when it again in-

_ ereases toward the poles.

231, Height-of the Atmosphere.—If the air
were everywhere of the same density, its height
could be easily calculated ; but, on account of its
elasticity, the lower layers are denser than the
others, because they have to bear the weight of
those above them. The density must, therefore,
rapidly diminish as we ascend.

If by pressure on a gas we diminish its volume one-
half, its density will be doubled; conversely, if the den-
sity be diminished one-half, the volume will be doubled.
The following table, calculated from the law of increase
in volume with diminished pressure, gives the barometric
height, the volume, and the density of the air at different
elevations above the sea. The elevation of 3.4 miles is the
result of observation; the other distances are estimated.

Estimated Distance
ab. Sea, in Miles.

Barometric Vol. of Given

Height in Inches.} Weight of Air, | Density.

30.00
15.00
7.50
3.75
1.87
.93





It appears from the above table that by far the
greater part of the air by weight lies within a few
miles of the surface, nearly three-fourths being
below the level of the summits of the highest
mountain-ranges.

The height of the upper limit of the atmosphere
has been variously estimated. Calculations based
upon the. diminution of pressure with the height,
place it at from 45 to 50 miles above the level of
the sea; others, based on the duration of twilight,
place it at distances varying from 35 to 200 miles.

The form of the atmosphere is that of an ob-
late spheroid, the oblateness of which is greater
than that of the earth.









CLIMATE. 87



By carefully observing the decrease in pressure with the
elevation, at different altitudes, and making proper correc-
tions, the heights of mountains can be readily determined
by the barometer. The measurement of heights by the
barometer, or similar means, is called Hypsometry.

——00 $f,0-0—_—_.

CHAPTER. il,

Climate.

282. The Climate of a country is the condi-
tion of its atmosphere as regards heat or cold.

The climate of a country also embraces the con-
dition of the air as regards moisture or dryness,
and healthiness or unhealthiness, which are de-
pendent on the temperature. ;

233. Temperature——The temperature of the
atmosphere is determined by means of an instru-
ment called a thermometer.

The thermometer consists of a glass tube of very fine
bore, furnished at one end with a bulb. The tube is care-
fully dried and the bulb filled with pure mercury and
heated in the flame of a spirit-lamp; the mercury expands,
and, filling the fine capillary tube, a portion runs out
from the open end, thus effectually expelling the air. A
blowpipe flame is then directed against the open end and
the tube hermetically sealed. As the bulb cools, the mer-
cury contracts, and leaves a vacuum in the upper part of
the tube. The instrument will now indicate changes in
temperature; for, whenever the bulb grows warmer, the
column of mercury expands and rises; and when it grows
colder, it contracts and falls.

In order to compare these changes of level they are
referred to certain fixed or standard points: the freezing-
and boiling-points of pure water. These are obtained by
marking the respective heights to which the mercury rises
when the thermometer is plunged into melting ice and
into the steam escaping from boiling water. In Fuhren-
heit’s scale the freezing-point is placed at 32°, the boil-
ing-point at 212°, and the space between these two points
divided into 180, (212 —32) equal parts, called degrees. In
the Centigrade scale the freezing- and boiling-points are re-
spectively 0° and 100°. Fahrenheit’s degrees are repre-
sented by an F., thus, 212° F.; Centigrade’s by a C., as
100° C.

234. Astronomical and Physical Climates—
Astronomical climate is that which would result
were the earth’s surface entirely uniform and of
but one kind: all land or all water.

Physical climate is that which actually exists.

Since the physical climate is only a modification of the
astronomical, we shall briefly review the causes which
tend to produce a regular decrease in temperature from
the equator to the poles.

Astronomical Climate—The sun is practically
the only source of the earth’s heat. On account
of the earth’s spherical shape, those portions of



the surface are most powerfully heated. which re-
ceive the vertical rays, and these are confined to
a zone reaching 23° 27’ on each side of the equa-
tor. Beyond these the rays fall with an obliquity
which increases as we approach the poles.

235. Causes of the greater heating power of
the vertical rays of the sun than of the oblique
rays.

Je Id e ke Ja ! te ik



WE \
80. Causes of the Greater Heating Power of the Vertical
than of the Oblique Rays,

(1.) The vertical rays are spread over a smaller
area, Equal areas of the sun’s surface give off
equal quantities of heat. If, therefore, the bun-
dle of rays a 6, and ¢ d, come from equal areas,
the amounts of heat they emit will be equal; but
while the heat given off from a 0, the more ver-
tical rays, is spread over the earth’s surface from
J, to g, that from e d, is spread over the greater
area hi; the area f g, therefore, which receives
the more vertical rays, is much warmer than h j,
where the obliquity is greater.

(2.) The vertical rays pass through a thinner
layer of air. Only a part of the sun’s heat
reaches the surface of the earth; about 28 per
cent. of the vertical rays are absorbed during their
passage through the atmosphere. The amount of
this absorption must increase as the length of
path increases. In the figure, the light shading
represents the atmosphere. It is clear that the
oblique rays pass through a thicker stratum of
air than the more direct ones, and, therefore, are
deprived of a greater amount of heat.

According to Laplace, the thickness of the stratum of air
traversed by the rays when the sun is at the horizon is
35.5 times greater than when it is directly overhead. A

similar absorption of light affects the comparative bright-
ness of daylight in different latitudes.

(3.) The vertical rays strike more directly,
and, therefore, produce more heat. The heating















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een _--|_ANTaRoTICLoIRCLE

showing the BEBE Torr: ac aoa ere aaa aa Se ; Z|
ISOTHERMAL LINES Pe 5 Cire are Note. The figures after the names of Citves, give the average .
and the boundaries of the 7) Pemperate Zones. temperatures tor Jannaryand July.thus, Quebec 10°67 indicates that
POS ICATS ZONES: ; : [7] Frigid Zones. the average temperature for January ts 10‘and tor July 67°

80 & : 40 20 0 6 Oia 80 100 120 140
{ :

















CLIMATE.



89



power of the more nearly vertical rays is greater
than that of the rays which strike obliquely.

236. Variations in Temperature.—The differ-
énces in the heating power of the vertical and ob-
lique rays of the sun. cause the temperature of
the earth’s surface to decrease gradually from the
equator toward the poles. The differences of tem-
perature thus effected are further increased by the
difference in the length of daylight and darkness.
While the sun is shining on any part of the earth
the air is gaining heat; when it is not shining the
air is losing heat.. When the length of daylight
exceeds that of the darkness, the gain exceeds
the loss; when the darkness exceeds the day-
light, the loss exceeds the gain.

The excessively low temperatures that would
result from the oblique rays in high latitudes are
prevented by the great length of daylight during
the short summers, thus allowing the sun to con-
tinue heating the surface during longer periods.
The warmest part of the day in high latitudes
sometimes equals that in the equatorial regions.
During the long winters, however, the continued
loss of heat makes the cold intense.

Hence in the tropics we find a continual sum-
mer; in the temperate-zones, a summer and winter
of nearly equal length; and in the polar zones,
short, hot summers, followed by long, intensely cold
winters.

The true temperature of the air is ascertained by hang-
ing a thermometer a few feet above the ground, so as to be
shielded from the direct rays of the sun, and yet be in free
contact on all sides with the air.

237. Manner in which the Atmosphere re-
ceives its Heat from the Sun.—The atmosphere
receives ‘its heat from the sun—

(1.) Directly. As the sun’s rays pass through
‘the air, about 28 per cent. of the vertical rays
are directly absorbed, thus heating the air. The
remainder pass on and either heat the earth, or
are reflected from its surface.

(2.) From the heated earth. The sun’s rays
heat the earth and the heated earth heats the air.
It does this in three ways:

(a.) By the air coming in contact with the
heated earth.

(b.) By the heated earth radiating its heat, or
sending it out through the air in all directions.

After the sun’s heat has been absorbed by the
earth and radiated from it, a change occurs. which
renders the rays much more readily absorbed by
the air.

(¢.) By the heat being reflected from the earth

11 :

®







and again sent through the air. But little heat
is imparted to the air in this way.

It is mainly the aqueous vapor the atmosphere
contains that absorbs the sun’s heat. Dry air
allows the greater part of the heat to pass through
it; therefore variations in the quantity of vapor in
the air must necessarily produce corresponding
variations in the distribution of heat.

238. Isothermal Lines are lines connecting
places on the earth which have the same mean
temperature.

The Mean Daily Temperature of a place is ob-
tained by taking the average of its temperature
during twenty-four consecutive hours.

The Mean Annual Temperature of a place is
the average of its mean daily temperature
throughout the year.

If the physical climate were the same as the
astronomical, the isothermal lines would coincide
with the parallels of latitude.

An inspection of the map of the isothermal lines shows
that their deviations from the parallels, though well

/~marked in all parts of the earth, are greatest in the north-

ern hemisphere. Wherever, from any cause, the mean tem-
perature of a place is higher, the isothermal lines are found
nearer the-poles ; when lower, nearer the equator. The former
effects are noticed~particularly in portions of the ocean
traversed by warm currents; the latter, in crossing por-
tions of the ocean traversed by cold currents. In the map
of the isothermal lines the influence of elevation is re-
moved by adding 1° for every 1000 feet of elevation.

239. Physical Zones.—The Physical Torrid
Zone lies on both sides of the equator, between -
the annual isotherms of 70° Fahr.

The Physical Temperate Zones lie north and
south of the Physical Torrid Zone, between the
annual isotherms of 70° and 30° Fahr.

The Physical Frigid Zones lie north and south
of the Physical Temperate Zones, from the an-
nual isotherms of 30° Fahr. to the poles.

The greatest mean annual temperature in the

‘eastern hemisphere is found in portions of North

Central Africa, and in Arabia near the Red Sea,
in the southern part of Hindostan, and in the
northern part of New Guinea and the neighbor-
ing islands; in the western hemisphere, in the
northern parts of South America and in Central
America.

‘240. Modifiers of Climate:— The principal
causes which prevent the isothermal lines from
coinciding with the parallels of latitude are:

(1.) The Distribution of the Land and Water
Areas.—Land heats or cools rapidly, absorbing or
emitting but little heat. This is because the land





90 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

—



has a small capacity for heat, and also because
the heat passes through but a comparatively thin
layer. Therefore,a comparatively short exposure
of land to heat produces a high temperature, and
a comparatively short exposure to cooling, a low
temperature. Water heats or cools slowly, ab-
sorbing or emitting large quantities of heat. This
is because water has a great capacity for heat.
The heat penetrates a comparatively deep layer,
and then, too, as soon as slightly heated, the warm
water is replaced by cooler water. Therefore, the
water can be exposed to either long heating or
long cooling without growing very hot or very
cold. Hence, the land is subject to great and
sudden changes of temperature; the water, to
small and gradual changes.

Places situated near the sea have, therefore, a
more equable, uniform climate than those in the
same latitude in the interior of the continent.
The former are said to have an oceanic climate ;
the latter, a continental climate.

In the polar regions, a preponderance of moder-
ately elevated land areas causes a colder climate than
an equal arew of water, because land loses heat
more rapidly than water.

In the tropics, a preponderance of land areas
causes a warmer climate than an equal area of water,
because land gains heat more rapidly than water.

(2.) The Distribution of the Relief Forms a
the Land Masses.

(1.) Elevation.—The temperature of the atmo-
sphere rapidly decreases with the elevation. The
decrease is about 3° Fahr. for every 1000 feet.

The increased cold is caused as follows:

(1.) Since the air receives so much of its heat indirectly
from the earth’s surface, the farther we go upward from
the surface, the colder it grows.

(2.) In the upper regions of the atmosphere the de-
creased density and humidity of the air prevent it from ab-
sorbing either the direct rays of the sun, or those reflected
or radiated from the earth. The effect of elevation is so
powerful that on the sides of high tropical mountains the

same changes occur in the vegetation that are observed in
passing from the equator to the poles.

(2.) Direction of the Slopes—That slope of
an elevation on which the sun’s rays fall in a di-
rection the more nearly at right angles to its sur-
face will be the warmest. ~

In the northern hemisphere the southern slope of a hill
is warmer in winter than the northern slope, because the
rays fall more nearly at right angles to its surface,

(3.) Position of the Mountain-Ranges,— A
mountain-range will make the country near it
warmer if the wind from which it shields it is



cold; it will one it colder if such wind is
warm.

The position of the mountain-ranges of a country also
greatly affects the distribution of its rainfall. Thus, the
tropical Andes are well watered and fertile on their east-
ern slopes, but dry and barren on their western. The pre-
vailing moist trade winds, forced to ascend the slopes,
deposit all their moisture on them in abundant showers,
and are dry and vaporless when they reach the other side.

(4.) Nature of the Surface—The temperature
of a tract of land is greatly affected by the nature
of its surface. If covered with abundant vege-
tation, like a forest, or if wet and marshy, its sur-
face heats and cools slowly, and has a compara-
tively uniform temperature; but if destitute of
vegetation, and dry, sandy, or rocky, it both
heats and cools rapidly, and is sup ject to great
extremes of temperature.

(8.) Distribution of Winds and Moisture —The
principal action of the winds, and their accom-
panying moisture, is to moderate the extremes of
temperature by the constant interchange between
the heat of the equatorial and the cold of the
polar regions. Both wind and vapor absorb and
render latent large quantities of heat in the equa-
torial regions, and give it out, in higher latitudes,
on cooling. In cold countries the climate is ren-
dered considerably warmer by the immense quan-
tity of heat thus emitted by the condensed vapor.

(4.) Ocean Currents.—Since the warm waters
move to the polar regions, and the cold waters to
the equatorial regions, the general effect of ocean
currents on climate is to reduce the extremes of
temperature.

The combined effects of the action of the winds,
moisture, and ocean currents are seen in the north-
ern continents, whose western shores, under the in-
fluence of the prevailing south-westerly winds,
copious rains, and tropical currents, are consider-
ably warmer than the eastern shores in the same
latitude.

The coasts of Great Britain are warm and fertile, while
Labrador, in the same latitude, is cold and sterile. The
island of Sitka, in the Pacific, is warmer than Kamtchatka
from similar causes,

—_c0t94 0o—_—_.

CHAPTER III.
The Winds.

241. Origin of Winds—Winds are masses of
air in motion. They resemble currents in the
ocean, and result from the same causes—differ-





THE WINDS. 91

ences of density. caused by differences of tem-
perature.
d

eee

v

— Md
HEATED AREAZ
yy LY jy

Fig, 81. Origin of Winds,

The equilibrium of the atmosphere is disturbed
by differences of temperature as follows: When
any area becomes heated, as at a a, Fig. 81, the
air over it, expanding and becoming lighter, is
pressed upward by the colder air which rushes
in from all sides. Thus result the following
currents: ascending currents, b 6, over the heated
area ; lateral, surface currents, ¢ c, from all sides
toward the heated area; upper currents, d d, from
the heated area; and descending currents, ¢ e.

It is the lateral currents which flow toward or
from the heated area that are felt mainly as

winds. The ascending currents rise until they
reach a stratum of air of nearly the same den-
sity as their own, and then spread laterally in
all directions toward the areas where the air
has been rarefied by the movements of the lat-
eral surface currents, until they finally descend,
and recommence their motion toward the heated
area. These circulatory motions continue as long
as the heated area remains warmer than surround-
ing regions.

In speaking of winds, reference is always made to the
surface currents, unless otherwise stated.

242. Origin of the Atmospheric Circulation. —
The hottest portions of the earth are, in general,
within the tropics; hence in the equatorial regions
ascending currents continually prevail. To sup-
ply the partial vacuum so created, lateral sur-
face currents blow in toward the equator from
the poles, while the ascending currents, after
reaching a certain elevation, blow as upper. cur-
rents toward the poles. Thus result currents by
which the entire mass of the atmosphere is kept in
constant circulation, and an interchange effected
between the air of the equator and the poles.

The most important of these currents are the
following:

(1.) Polar currents, or the lateral surface cur-



rents, which flow from the poles to the equator;
and
(2.) Equatorial currents, or the upper currents,

‘which flow from the equator toward the poles.

It will be noticed that wherever the surface
wind blows in any given direction, the upper
wind blows in the opposite direction.

In several instances the ashes of volcanoes have been
carried great distances in directions opposite to that in which
the surface wind was blowing. The smoke from tall chim-
neys at first takes the direction of the surface wind, but
rising, is soon carried in the opposite direction by the
upper currents. The clouds are often seen moving in a
direction opposite to that indicated by vanes placed on
the tops of the houses.

A current of air is named according to the di-
rection from which tt comes; a current of water,
according to the direction in which it is going.
Thus, a north-east wind comes from the north-
east; a north-east current of water goes toward
the north-east.

243, Effect of the Earth’s Rotation on the
Direction of the Wind.—Were the earth at rest,
the equatorial and polar currents would blow due
north and south in each hemisphere; but by the
rotation of the earth they are turned out of their
course in a manner similar to the oceanic currents
already studied.

The polar currents, as they approach the equa-
tor, where the. axial velocity toward the east is
greater, are left behind by the more rapidly moy-
ing earth, and thus come, as shown in Fig. 83,
from the north-east in the northern hemisphere,
and from the south-east in the southern.

The equatorial currents, under the influence of
the earth’s eastward motion, are carried toward
the east as they approach the poles, and thus
come, as shown in Fig. 83, from the south-west in
the northern hemisphere, and from the north-west
in the southern.

Wherever the polar winds prevail, their direc-
tion, when unaffected by local disturbances, will
be north-east in the northern hemisphere, and south-
east in the southern. Near the equator their di-
rection is nearly due east.

Wherever the equatorial currents prevail, their
direction will be south-west in the northern hemi-
sphere, and north-west in the southern.

In Fig. 82, the equatorial currents are repre-
sented as continuing to either pole as upper cur-
rents, and the polar winds as surface currents to
the equator. If this were so, constant north-east-
erly winds would prevail in the northern hemi-





92 PHYSICAL




N. WIND.






S. WIND.



N. WIND.





Fig. 82, Direction of Wind as Affected by Rotation.

sphere, and constant south-easterly winds in the
southern. Several causes, however, exist to pre-
vent this simple circulation of the air between the
equatorial and polar regions.

The equatorial currents do not continue as upper
eurrents all the way to the poles, but fall and become
surface currents, replacing the polar winds, which
rise and continue for a while toward the equator as
upper currents.

244, Causes of Interchange of Surface. and

Upper Currents.—The causes which produce this”

shifting of the equatorial and polar currents are:

(1.) The equatorial currents become cold—

(a.) By the cold of elevation ;

(6.) By expansion ;

(c.) By change of latitude.

The equatorial currents therefore fall and are
replaced by the polar currents, which have been
gradually ‘growing warmer by continuing near
the surface of the earth.

(2.) As the equatorial currents approach the
poles they have a smaller area over which to
spread, and, being thereby compressed, are caused
to descend and become surface currents.

This interchange between the equatorial and polar cur-
rents takes place at about lat. 30°. It varies, however,

with the position of the sun, moving toward the poles ©

when the sun is nearly overhead, and toward the equator
when the sun is in the other hemisphere.

The interchange in the position of the equatorial and
polar currents is represented in Fig. 83.

As the equatorial currrents fall, they divide,

GEOGRAPHY.





Zone of Variable Winds.





Calms of Cancer.

Zone of the North-east Trades.

Zone of the Calms.

A | Zone of the South-east Trades.

* Calms of Capricorn.

Zone of Variable Winds. y
Zone of Polar Winds,

s













Fig. 88. Interchange of the Equatorial and Polar Currents, Wind Zones.

part going to the poles, and part returning to the
equator.

The general system of the aérial circulation
thus indicated is more regular over the oceans
than over the land. Over the continents the
greater heat of the land during summer causes
a general tendency of the wind to blow toward
the land; similarly, the greater cold of the land
during winter causes a tendency of the wind to
blow toward the sea.

245. Classification of Winds.—Winds are di-
vided into three classes:

(1.) Constant, or those whose direction remains
the same throughout the year.

(2.) Periodical, or those which, for regular pe-
riods, blow alternately in opposite directions.

(8.) Variable, or those which blow in any di-
rection.

~ 246, Wind Zones.—The principal wind zones

are the zone of calms, the zones of the trades, the
zones of the calms of Cancer and Capricorn, the
zones of the variable winds, and the zones of the

‘polar winds.

Zone of Calms.—In parts of the ocean near the
equator the ascending currents are sufficiently
powerful to neutralize entirely the inblowing
polar currents, and thus produce a calm, which,
however, is liable at any moment to be disturbed
by powerful winds. The boundaries,of the zone
vary with the season; they extend from about 2°
to 11° north latitude.



THE WINDS. : 93

Zones of the Trades.—From the limits of the
zone of calms to about 30° on each side of the
equator the polar currents blow with great steadi-
ness throughout the year. The constancy in their
direction has caused these winds to be named
“trade winds,” from their great value to com-
merce. Their direction is north-east in the north-
ern hemisphere, and south-east in the southern.

Zones of the Calms of Cancer and Capricorn.
—Between the zones of the trades and the vari-
ables, where the interchange takes place between
the equatorial and polar currents, zones of calms
occur. Their boundaries are not well defined,
and. are dependent on the position of the sun.

Zones of the Variable Winds—Beyond the
limits of the preceding zones to near the latitude
of the polar circles, the equatorial and polar cur-
rents alternately prevail. Here the equatorial
and polar currents are continually striving for
the mastery, sometimes one and sometimes the
other becoming the: surface current. During
these conflicts the wind may blow from any
quarter; but when either current is once estab-
lished it often continues constant for some days.
This is especially the case over the ocean, where
the modifying influences are less marked.

Though the winds in these zones are variable,
still two directions predominate: south-west and
north-east in the northern hemisphere, and north-
west and south-east in the southern. Westerly
winds, however, occur the most frequently in
nearly all parts of these zones.

The equatorial currents are sometinfes called the Return
Trades, or the Anti-trades, because they blow in the oppo-
site direction to the trades.

Between about lat. 25° and 40°, N. and S., over parts of
the ocean, the winds are nearly periodical, blowing during
the hotter portions-of the year in each hemisphere from
the poles, and during the remainder of the year from the
equator. This zone is often called the Zone of the Sub-
tropical winds.

Polar Zones.—From the limits of the zones of
the variables to the poles, there are regions of pre-
vailing polar winds. These winds are most fre-
quently north-east in the northern hemisphere,
and south-east in the southern.

247. Dove’s Law of the Rotation of the Winds.—
The equatorial and polar currents usually displace each
other, and become surface winds in a regular order, first
discovered by Prof. Dove of Berlin.

In the northern hemisphere, before the polar current is
permanently established from the north-east, the wind
blows in regular order from the west, north-west, and north.
.The displacement of the polar by the equatorial currents
occurs in the opposite direction: from the east, south-east,



and south, before the general south-west current is perma-
nently established.

In the southern hemisphere these motions are reversed.

This rotation of the winds, together with the effects
produced on the thermometer and barometer, is indicated
in the following diagram. Since the equatorial currents
are warm, moist, and light, when they prevail the ther-
mometer rises and the barometer falls. On the establish-
ment of the polar currents, however, the thermometer
falls and the barometer rises.

NORTHERN HEMISPHERE,

SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE.



S. S.
Fig. 84. Rotation of the Winds (after Dove),

The “warm waves” of the zones of the variable
winds are caused by the prevalence of the equa-
torial currents. Similarly, the “cold waves” are
caused by the prevalence of the polar currents.

248. Land and Sea Breezes——During the day
the land near the coast becomes warmer than the
sea. An ascending current, therefore, rises over
the land, and a breeze, called the sea breeze, sets
in from the sea. At night the land, from its
more rapid cooling, soon becomes colder than the
water; the ascending current then rises from the





water, and a breeze, called the land breeze, sets in
from the land. The strength of these winds de-
pends upon the difference in the temperature of
the land and water; they are, therefore, best de-
fined in the tropical and extra-tropical regions,
though they may occur in higher latitudes during
the hottest parts of the year. Land and sea
breezes are periodical winds.

, 249. Monsoons are periodical winds, which dur-
ing part of the year blow with great regularity in
one direction, and during the remainder of the





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MAP OF THE WORLD 76 REFERENCES.
ee 7 ae nA Gee | | BES Lquatorial Calms. (HEY Zones of the Variables.
ae Lager with, c (=) Calms of tanceré Capricorn|__\ Zones of the Polarwinds.

QCEAN ROUTES. 1 Zones of the Trades. (GMB) Monsoon Regions.

LON|GITUDE WEST me GREENWICH LONGITUDE EAST FROM GREENWICH.



























80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60








THE WINDS.



95





year in the opposite direction. They are in real-
ity huge land and sea breezes, caused by the dif-
ference in temperature between the warmer and
colder halves of the year. They occur mainly in
the regions of the trades, and are in reality trade
winds which have been turned out of their course
by the unequal heating of land and water.

During winter, in either hemisphere, the oceans,
being warmer than the land, cause a greater
regularity in the trades; but during summer, the
tropical continents become intensely heated, and
their powerful ascending currents cause the equa-
torial currents to blow toward the heated areas
as surface winds, and thus displace the trades.
The interval between the two monsoons is gener-
ally characterized by calms, suddenly followed by
furious gales, that may blow from any quarter.

250. Monsoon Regions.—There are three well-
marked regions of monsoons—the Indian Ocean,
the Gulf of Guinea, and the Mexican Gulf and
Caribbean Sea. The first is the largest and most
distinctly marked.

Monsoons of the Indian Ocean.—Here the
trades are deflected by the overheating of the
continents of Asia, Africa, and Australia.







































In the northern hemisphere the north-east trades prevail
with great regularity over the Indian Ocean during the
cooler half of the year: from October to April, but during
the warmer half: from April to October, the heated Asiatic
continent deflects the trades, and the equatorial currents
prevail from the south-west. The same winds also pre-
vail south of the equator, on the western border of the
ocean, along the eastern coast of Africa as far south as
Madagascar.

In the southern hemisphere, in the south-eastern portion
of the ocean, the south-east trade is similarly deflected by
the Australian continent. Here the winds blow south-
east during the southern winter, and north-west during
its summer.

Monsoons of the Gulf of Guinea.—Here the
north-east trades are deflected by the intensely
heated continent of Africa. The south-west sum-
mer monsoon blows over the land as far inland
as the Kong Mountains.

Monsoons of the Mexican Gulf and Caribbean
Sea.—In this region the north-east trade winds
are deflected by the overheating of the Missis-
sippi Valley.. The Northers of Texas, which are
cold winds blowing for a few days at.a time over
the Texan and Mexican plains, may be considered
as connected with the winter monsoons.

Besides the preceding well-marked regions, nearly all
the coasts of the continents in and near the tropics have
small monsoon regions, as, for example, the western coasts

of Mexico, the eastern and western coasts of South Amer-
ica, and the western and northern coasts of Africa,







251, Desert Winds.—The rapid heating and
cooling of deserts make them great disturbers
of the regular system of winds. Currents al-
ternately blow toward and from the heated area.
The latter are intensely hot and dry.

The Etesian Winds During summer the barren
soil of the Desert of Sahara, becoming intensely
heated, causes strong north-east winds to blow
over the Mediterranean Sea. These are called
the Etesian winds, and continue from July to
September; they are strongest during the day-
time.

Hot Desert Winds.—F rom the Sahara a period-
ical wind, called the Harmattan, blows on the south-
west, over the coasts of Guinea; on the north, the
Solano blows over Spain, and the Sirocco blows
over Southern Italy and Sicily. Though some-
what tempered during their passage across the
Mediterranean, these winds dre still exceedingly
hot and oppressive.

From the deserts of Nubia and Arabia in-
tensely hot, dry winds blow in all directions over
the coasts of Arabia, Nubia, Persia, and Syria.
These winds are known under the general name
of the simoom or samiel. From their high tem-
perature and the absence of moisture, they often
cause death from nervous exhaustion.

During the prevalence of the simoom, particles of fine
sand are carried into the atmosphere and obscure the light
of the sun. Becoming intensely heated, these particles,
by their radiation, increase the temperature of the air,













Fig. 86. “Sand Storm in the Desert,

which sometimes rises as high as 120° or 130° Fahr. When
powerful winds prevail, dense clouds of sand are carried
about in the atmosphere, producing the so-called sand
storms. The sand-drifts which are thus formed constantly
change their position.










96 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



The Khamsin blows at irregular intervals over
Egypt from the south; but when established,
generally continues for fifty days. It is intensely
hot and dry, like the simoom, and is loaded with
fine sand. :

252. Mountain Winds.—During the day the
elevated slopes of mountains heat the air over
them hotter than at corresponding elevations over
the valleys. Currents, therefore, ascend the val-
leys toward the mountains during the day. During
the night, however, the air near the summits be-
comes colder than that near the base. Currents,
therefore, descend the valleys from the mountains
during the night.

—.09300——
CHAPTER bv;

Storms.

2538. Storms are violent disturbances of the
ordinary equilibrium of the atmosphere by wind,
rain, snow, hail, or thunder and lightning.

During storms the wind varies in velocity from
that of a scarcely perceptible breeze to upwards
of 200 miles per hour.

VELOCITY AND POWER OF WINDS.



Velocity of Wind in

Miles, per hour. Common Names of Winds.
5 3

1 Hardly Perceptible Breeze,

_ 4605 Gentle Wind.
10 to 15 Pleasant Brisk Gale.
20 to 25 Very Brisk.
30 to 35 High Wind.
40 Very High.
50 Storm.
60 Great Storm.
80 Hurricane.
100 Violent Hurricane.
80 to 200 Tornado.



254. Cyclones are storms of considerable ex-
. tent, in which the velocity of the wind is much
greater than usual, and the air moves in eddies or
whirls, somewhat similar to whirlwinds, but of
vastly greater power and diameter.

In all such storms the wind revolves around a
calm centre; over the calm centre the barometer
is low, but on the sides, and especially on that side
toward which the storm is moving, it is high.

Besides the rotary motion of the wind, there is
also a progressive motion, which causes the storm

to advance bodily, moving rapidly in a parabolic

path. The general term Cyclone has been ap-
plied to these storms on account of their rotary
motion. They have also various local names.

Cyclones originate in the tropical regions, but
frequently extend far into the temperate zones,



Fig, 87, A Storm at Sea,

255. Regions of Cyclones.—The following are
the most noted regions:

The West Indies, where they are generally .

called hurricanes.

The China Seas, where they are known as
typhoons.

The Indian Ocean.

In each of these regions the storms occur about
the time of the change of the regular winds, and
have their origin in marked differences of tem-
perature; thus in the Indian Ocean and the China
Seas, they generally occur at the change of the mon-
soon, after the great heat of summer. They are at-
tended with the condensation of moisture and in-
tense electrical disturbance.

256. Cause of Cyclones.—Cyclones originate in

an area of low barometer caused by the ascending.

current of air that follows the overheating of any
region. As the air rushes in from all sides it is
deflected by the earth’s rotation, and assumes a
rotary or whirling motion around the heated area.
The centrifugal force generated by this rotation
causes the barometric pressure of the area to be-
come lower and the area to grow larger. Mean-
while the inflowing air, ascending, is chilled by
the cold of elevation and by expansion sufficiently
to condense its vapor rapidly. The heat energy,
previously latent in the vapor, is now disengaged,
and causes the air to mount higher and condense
still more of its vapor. It is to the energy thus
rapidly liberated by the condensation of the vapor
that the violence of the cyclone is due. Cyclones,
therefore, acquire extraordinary violence only
when an abundance of vapor is present in the
air.




























STORMS. 97





As the inblowing winds come near the heated
area, they must blow with increased violence in
order to permit the same quantity of air to pass
over the constantly narrowing path.

Besides the rotary motion of the wind, the
storm moves or progresses over a parabolic path,
which in the tropics is generally toward the west,
and in the temperate zones toward the east. This
progressive motion of the storm is like'the similar








July to October.

Q5° “
30° “
35°
40° «

45° “ce





Fig. 88. Chart showing Path and Direction of Cyclone.

motion often noticed in a rapidly spinning top.
It is due to the combined influences of the inrush
of air, the earth’s rotation, and centrifugal force.

257. Peculiarities of Cyclones.—Cyclones rage
most furiously in the neighborhood of islands and
along the coasts of continents. They are most
powerful near their origin. As they advance the
spiral increases in size and the fury of the wind
gradually diminishes, because the amount of moist-
ure in the air is less. The rotary motion varies









from 80 to 100 miles an hour. The progressive
motion of the calm centre is more moderate—
from 20 to 50 miles an hour. This progressive
motion is least in the tropics and greatest in the
temperate regions.

The wind invariably rotates in the same direc-
tion in each hemisphere; in the northern, it ro-
tates from right to left, or in the direction oppo-
site to that of the hands of a watch ; in the south-
ern, from left to right, or in the same direction as
the hands of a watch. The cause of the regu-

NORTHERN HEMISPHERE,

°%,
te,

0
x +
2 Yor 0} yoo¥

SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE.

R,
Rag,
°

burn ous e



x
40 Suan 04 ae
“Pig, 89, Cause of the Rotation of the Wind,

larity of rotation is seen, from an inspection of
Fig. 89, tb, be due to the rotation of the earth.
The wind, blowing in from all sides toward the
heated area, is so deflected by the rotary motion
of the earth as to move in vast circles, from right
to left in the northern hemisphere, and from left
to right in the southern.

The force of the wind in these storms is tremendous.
So furiously does the wind lash the water that its tem-
perature is often sensibly raised by the friction.

The intelligent navigator always endeavors to avoid the
centre of the storm, since it is the most dangerous part.
This he can do by remembering the direction of the rota-
tion of the wind in the hemisphere he may be in; for if,
in the northern hemisphere, he stands so that the wind
blows directly in his face, the calm centre is on his right,
while in the southern hemisphere #¢ és on his left; and in-
stead of running with the storm, hoping to outsail it, he
will boldly steer toward its circumference.

258. Tornadoes and Whirlwinds are the same
as cyclones, except that they are more limited in
area. Their violence, however, often exceeds that








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describe
'178837' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQG' 'sip-files00001.jpg'
e86236eeca8532901ae085af0210a038
5c8aa555f49810b1037d9a3965db043d254d8805
'2011-08-20T02:44:37-04:00'
describe
'217' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQH' 'sip-files00001.pro'
44d39eeb2126314b32ea34c16c5d4c1b
b5147fa5f94995e70887f015d27b063b4f4a1348
'2011-08-20T02:48:45-04:00'
describe
'36146' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQI' 'sip-files00001.QC.jpg'
4ae1951bdd0556e6ea8e14398a5396fe
6e683be98d3f0e374ca4b4f2446c8b79dbc44140
'2011-08-20T02:51:48-04:00'
describe
'21299516' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQJ' 'sip-files00001.tif'
598b91ac004141504d1791cee2d4c4d1
8a1cf04cff02cd42ce8c6680ff1053b428ea320c
'2011-08-20T02:44:14-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQK' 'sip-files00001.txt'
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
'2011-08-20T02:50:04-04:00'
describe
'7065' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQL' 'sip-files00001thm.jpg'
810456ccc134a6aed410b2db982c4294
5e5cfe77ff3ddd9c19a104595fdd16104bc59b99
'2011-08-20T02:45:59-04:00'
describe
'900608' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQM' 'sip-files00002.jp2'
7500800cfb16e27feb8f199e35adf9d3
e64e0c55496951f02319c2f4ac1d5cbc00c3dcca
'2011-08-20T02:45:06-04:00'
describe
'276908' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQN' 'sip-files00002.jpg'
f9e4a5364d836ba40274a15138b18d3b
fce6f8197ef37988579cd8657bf13ba52ca94ca2
'2011-08-20T02:44:00-04:00'
describe
'4142' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQO' 'sip-files00002.pro'
df5805a7d6eeb6de15568d4371d7d91d
dcdb3aa502ea9b8f3bc293b5a5604733b040437a
'2011-08-20T02:46:04-04:00'
describe
'61134' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQP' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
1f7d4f7407e9fea6a3c50c8c76fae721
b641958e777d689b3b7a8b3a979b4ae98081bd33
'2011-08-20T02:43:02-04:00'
describe
'21630156' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQQ' 'sip-files00002.tif'
4544f3db334bc902a6333ade32606cf6
130dd52e4480898bd0e7f5af3e86a6557d92feca
'2011-08-20T02:47:39-04:00'
describe
'273' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQR' 'sip-files00002.txt'
d1b0a8a2fe86243fd6f7bcaa19634a5f
9987d3c3325894bf6659a50764153b3a33bf69f7
'2011-08-20T02:51:20-04:00'
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'12991' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQS' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
2cec7d52b0c46bf9922c81ebe16bafde
6f8fdce99fd129075d5b52744f8b0b0a40fdcf9e
'2011-08-20T02:46:19-04:00'
describe
'732558' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQT' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
15fa952876f10a09d6ce683bf91554fc
f3eb208890894aa27ee94dae2d511645dbc783e5
'2011-08-20T02:50:31-04:00'
describe
'296093' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQU' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
cc3dadd01404bcf876a274514bc64a9c
54c66c83e73ee8f59ff06bb4c8a6c2cc14f3dad0
'2011-08-20T02:45:46-04:00'
describe
'65626' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQV' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
6fa4314d98dd8cc9dfc5d429ccdc5706
f3379d172d7871c4dedf6b4c1e304387d5d2b356
'2011-08-20T02:48:39-04:00'
describe
'17598816' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQW' 'sip-files00003.tif'
6291de7a7d5ac2a16d2fdf8cbcb2a15e
b6c4ed2b5007a3383feecd9fb4e0facfc9f216ac
'2011-08-20T02:46:24-04:00'
describe
'13905' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQX' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
e951083c920a1e736576a59b6abca0cd
7863fb25eed3e8fd1d633d6dbd19f27736ee8f16
'2011-08-20T02:51:29-04:00'
describe
'806827' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQY' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
a664cc980ada67e443feacd72fd6b00b
d2f72b0e6d7fd26964d7e45bb6d270a8ed5a19dc
'2011-08-20T02:51:35-04:00'
describe
'40927' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJQZ' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
8fa93a2c98503ed8d0e09b3fc3e97b10
983fa1130bb701081601c5e60c41d908434773b4
'2011-08-20T02:44:17-04:00'
describe
'7206' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRA' 'sip-files00006.pro'
ffb0cc672e7fd3c9567d6a97d8b06939
d6b2a4b0c45bc8167b073ec202a852d5cc723894
'2011-08-20T02:50:05-04:00'
describe
'12338' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRB' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
3de4a79b0a5cf0e130b94fc02155c306
276a62b982c30651fdf6acc6eadb9fd8986ec83b
'2011-08-20T02:45:52-04:00'
describe
'6471224' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRC' 'sip-files00006.tif'
0ad94c0c7d5d2a580b24cddacaf3d1fc
e875d69be307ecc68ce39aa4fc6e14457ced93d9
'2011-08-20T02:45:24-04:00'
describe
'344' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRD' 'sip-files00006.txt'
04f944a95840ec48114d9c0b93c08e25
14c2b5c4f02d204d85bbb1264a1c4f693ba1d9a3
'2011-08-20T02:46:11-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'3441' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRE' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
edd54f93e8412cb54c03bea7302246cb
6affa27b83a15cfb2259466f81f7c205e1303e60
'2011-08-20T02:50:12-04:00'
describe
'773796' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRF' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
74ec2bc5de745d19a43bb997209b7177
ca9a39cde428a08361dd77941ebe3a15e80ee7c6
'2011-08-20T02:44:07-04:00'
describe
'62758' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRG' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
a2832b3fbf1e1b36bf6010f247e57f8d
6d024ab1ef0edbecc0f9fa6db0fbba186b458e93
'2011-08-20T02:48:30-04:00'
describe
'15403' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRH' 'sip-files00007.pro'
5d9e57fcea1e0344c0e77340ea51f3cc
b48d13c93632d5233d08d88a910332a9a49ab33c
describe
'17116' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRI' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
f6a7df70521bedd129ffd1fe0f6e4d61
22d37287a7a106804e75199bbee3e0948eb340a6
'2011-08-20T02:49:03-04:00'
describe
'6206712' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRJ' 'sip-files00007.tif'
6cb0f2e168633a72f754b6b536f89ce9
394ab7b451d57a19cf14a32b9ff6d749a5bfe58e
'2011-08-20T02:46:39-04:00'
describe
'768' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRK' 'sip-files00007.txt'
0725c91d60ab3391248c0e385a83579b
aa1f4f8ce556f94a10ba5e53b736a69d1f4d048e
'2011-08-20T02:44:56-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'4278' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRL' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
9d7f8be12ba2b4db07e3c25b4000add4
7c3080b1b7ad800a2c9713f1cb42044c9443511d
'2011-08-20T02:45:56-04:00'
describe
'789818' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRM' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
3fe37bea4b61b71f9a9f2b8a34259b1d
ccbf9f4d2494639b7deffea8ae4109593cef9016
'2011-08-20T02:49:45-04:00'
describe
'143457' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRN' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
dd9cba5bde710099a907d083a2bce0a1
4b7eab3cb08d99000c2b2540fdbe19e1c7534039
'2011-08-20T02:48:18-04:00'
describe
'3173' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRO' 'sip-files00012.pro'
47be439b52b6cadec0e2f72eb891c029
e0af3ac58bd2a3de925c4d93e7cdbe96ad8d850f
'2011-08-20T02:44:09-04:00'
describe
'31371' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRP' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
773b8e2844ca6f6cc0946eae436dcb63
6a64f422f6f1f9840bc8237b0f9b05932fd6ed5d
'2011-08-20T02:43:44-04:00'
describe
'18973332' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRQ' 'sip-files00012.tif'
a6c4236340368ff08f2b2bfcf0a50bd7
1e3760a74093e68ceab61ac2c4a4ae9342028c03
'2011-08-20T02:47:49-04:00'
describe
'191' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRR' 'sip-files00012.txt'
6839d3f475dabc554137a2c79f7d44de
a50f2c5312346060bdfeab385e2ca5ea13d2442a
'2011-08-20T02:46:05-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'7966' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRS' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
f1f48d303a68ad0026565cb6d6a8793b
03766e8c521b5683c89d9521a3a0a2dd5155d754
'2011-08-20T02:46:57-04:00'
describe
'773764' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRT' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
0bdd2d1176345f1cb6f727bed72c014a
18796cf0bfd39d1627b4d58888e6f3ccaee1be32
'2011-08-20T02:44:39-04:00'
describe
'77375' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRU' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
8c61d345a065c8fe6c2c0402b99d0d6a
886c97dcd9c7a6379e3cfc75063aa9f5d1ad0dc5
'2011-08-20T02:45:28-04:00'
describe
'11849' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRV' 'sip-files00013.pro'
871ff45f805a2935b1619e313799865a
f7d32ce1251ddf2a90fe0a1a29ba2ec727286ba2
'2011-08-20T02:49:43-04:00'
describe
'21142' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRW' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
6a9248f86630e8c137f764a970453209
57c7f9c8b600c2a417d014c780b9d9e0858963ea
'2011-08-20T02:44:59-04:00'
describe
'6207692' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRX' 'sip-files00013.tif'
717473d454483e0db32bf788fd9869a4
3a12b267b6b9a0e6682c8d12dd299f2fb24fa208
'2011-08-20T02:45:33-04:00'
describe
'649' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRY' 'sip-files00013.txt'
d640a222c4d886f0f834864a9a57361f
47daa0343ec5f0934c88a3c07c848a1c740ad59c
'2011-08-20T02:48:22-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'6653' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJRZ' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
4fbfd19bab2cd23777dd16bd69c3d14b
c0412e990ae82e2af9ca85414ef90ca69f7f0339
'2011-08-20T02:51:36-04:00'
describe
'773748' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSA' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
4d031be1222ba8d6119d4760e997a6e9
c1969631a9fee4254521ffb6df5a29ca11017a3c
'2011-08-20T02:45:13-04:00'
describe
'27821' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSB' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
bfaf64d39175cf64135f7144d58ad061
6688369728f545c3da95e349cc9c568683d90432
'2011-08-20T02:51:18-04:00'
describe
'6960' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSC' 'sip-files00014.pro'
c7a56c7e9656d8e695ed87a98e2977c2
59f6db3d84163ad7b18facf803717d68f0c55e68
'2011-08-20T02:44:23-04:00'
describe
'7328' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSD' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
6ee037fee7637a30f33caccad3df68c4
1ec0353a8e45b4d095b835b59ac03859e7401434
'2011-08-20T02:45:05-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSE' 'sip-files00014.tif'
fa7a3c78227f6042c8fb49a1a97a5f30
503fe2291086413ff599f69d0f3922bd60050282
'2011-08-20T02:44:02-04:00'
describe
'370' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSF' 'sip-files00014.txt'
c513def836b7ee770829bada47537304
ec8ec2b3fe1badbb7498098800b28f1b98b8efdb
'2011-08-20T02:48:37-04:00'
describe
'2372' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSG' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
6ce825fde183d33b9729b9d7a950d9fb
91ec131cd99296068e1e3fd36365d41e4b11e69b
'2011-08-20T02:51:44-04:00'
describe
'773685' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSH' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
3a3d14715a7c9ca6a091757c8aaa9871
d32226ce267cf32c8e5a9712b59d0a6b62c44bad
'2011-08-20T02:43:17-04:00'
describe
'124711' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSI' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
14ec7ea37845ee1d0a6ec874a112d8e2
0721fc78ed1139a2eb80bd8573a9c2af3b9a0b73
'2011-08-20T02:51:02-04:00'
describe
'65772' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSJ' 'sip-files00015.pro'
7880c9a0a3c11e8627715778ff35b8bc
67990d1e838a586d7d4df2e3f35290b6201723fd
'2011-08-20T02:43:57-04:00'
describe
'34815' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSK' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
58083942c0aa98719a39ec48523f9084
b3222f381ae6fddb214d19d770a68b0c05c9b3c0
'2011-08-20T02:46:06-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSL' 'sip-files00015.tif'
44859ea3206cf81095b558afb9974117
bb3d6cdfed6254b6745ee7a1a6617ed0c81aa831
'2011-08-20T02:48:47-04:00'
describe
'2786' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSM' 'sip-files00015.txt'
0fdadea5b3a001da79a7c091c10d4b4d
331a21b76a5e3e87ed6810ceece459a02cba957a
'2011-08-20T02:44:45-04:00'
describe
'806065' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSN' 'sip-files00015a.jp2'
e61aec1e5e6d9806f83d0cf38e1fc504
99a7d6162b8882b7e33b5325c6019a5ffc84e292
'2011-08-20T02:48:56-04:00'
describe
'102299' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSO' 'sip-files00015a.jpg'
023aef7dbff8ddf49c12a1ab3c1d2703
c4d078d8c922bbd119d6b7451f68c3a543c76e5d
'2011-08-20T02:51:30-04:00'
describe
'52474' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSP' 'sip-files00015a.pro'
49dfd96c92a2caf2498ef8a4b10e2de0
42d69e78c7f4ee7cc16099922fc3d2049e13ff3f
'2011-08-20T02:48:11-04:00'
describe
'30460' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSQ' 'sip-files00015a.QC.jpg'
0dfe390e14919df7b9405dff2fe15e4a
66e18efa9b43680340919fa4fd6ad918c508cfdc
'2011-08-20T02:43:08-04:00'
describe
'6470760' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSR' 'sip-files00015a.tif'
72bb570eae18b9fbddbbae331d1e48b4
1c1c35fe2e12862d047cc6829d6127b53d49df09
'2011-08-20T02:44:04-04:00'
describe
'2157' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSS' 'sip-files00015a.txt'
4929e26e3ab98e47eb05a4266f6d9111
a69ef01f159aee192d00d00a33539139d01828e3
describe
'7361' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJST' 'sip-files00015athm.jpg'
5f4ac93d7dce7f664554d92a56abac02
6f58ef42031d3d27cd3d431b2e85816e76610aa2
'2011-08-20T02:45:19-04:00'
describe
'807484' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSU' 'sip-files00015b.jp2'
215c3dac84521d38e2ef729443d31a5c
c22120383554205e03b71b8567891ac0446686b3
'2011-08-20T02:44:41-04:00'
describe
'77035' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSV' 'sip-files00015b.jpg'
5e936bc45d2a61a86ea0324234790ae6
0f0fd157a7abbc749e61bc7318c778cb1000d1b4
'2011-08-20T02:49:55-04:00'
describe
'38327' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSW' 'sip-files00015b.pro'
ab3573ff062b6fb79f128177f9e63d0c
57ceea4187e739ff8543cf129b9b09d10c1ebe2c
'2011-08-20T02:49:40-04:00'
describe
'22946' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSX' 'sip-files00015b.QC.jpg'
160c1df794f523962422982814e8ca46
4078ea494590972cf677681b1c785a9bfec55696
describe
'6481272' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSY' 'sip-files00015b.tif'
50681c8d98a91acdbb22b7e97df3f02b
d3c82b35f5c14ba98c6e73f4f21f3f4110c558cf
'2011-08-20T02:49:01-04:00'
describe
'1709' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJSZ' 'sip-files00015b.txt'
979861c474000292f331bc63d02e632e
b194e62ce07bcb9ef132a549f2f8c8c45c283d63
'2011-08-20T02:45:57-04:00'
describe
'5937' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTA' 'sip-files00015bthm.jpg'
645d700d43092f8978150b2a516e9084
7db9d5f82e9218799ac6be2ba88c89342fc83160
'2011-08-20T02:43:29-04:00'
describe
'8426' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTB' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
526f41e1cac3005e9c56e02d9c62e694
db6db9873ef410a65f5ea76924e954cdf4f07577
'2011-08-20T02:50:26-04:00'
describe
'773769' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTC' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
e7cce1af7afcf0322c604389dec6a60e
e7fad6103c0472068c078957b55a6d540deda365
'2011-08-20T02:50:10-04:00'
describe
'98455' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTD' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
7c99587b3c879ed6dcdb4647b0e0e33d
8533e678cd2527213b60238db99384fa5248ffd2
'2011-08-20T02:49:16-04:00'
describe
'50612' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTE' 'sip-files00016.pro'
09fd3f98fbe353136448272071791cbd
57ee9c67c4d1b40434c6185293662cd0af2f3d0f
'2011-08-20T02:47:53-04:00'
describe
'28699' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTF' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
887cc05b3229b6d333d329f717a23da6
873eafd3f651d89b641d898b599d0ca5e09de5f1
'2011-08-20T02:49:18-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTG' 'sip-files00016.tif'
bf09420ce555e1a9f54173758fa4f100
c8ed716729cea2b7399408c1a438ce75c6fff96e
'2011-08-20T02:44:58-04:00'
describe
'2294' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTH' 'sip-files00016.txt'
fae8be52258f850bac1e354716a03e56
648cde2e73d3bb3e14068521441d5ffabf3f81c3
'2011-08-20T02:44:46-04:00'
describe
'7300' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTI' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
48aeee7f65ea5e9543eea8f8beb5628d
d938f6af9d2e0226f45007828cfa65d6dfcba983
'2011-08-20T02:49:08-04:00'
describe
'773799' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTJ' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
584a3d362cd7506d709ebea924bb88d8
64fe30a84c1fd87a9e841124637a5a9ddfa8e896
'2011-08-20T02:49:07-04:00'
describe
'154519' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTK' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
328d12e0e278521c80a840f594588fac
3054ce16f296201488e9a89633bc847e3fcb006c
'2011-08-20T02:50:46-04:00'
describe
'54671' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTL' 'sip-files00017.pro'
19f6fad64cbb4acb06308535747bc51f
76c8f365f84d4a27c26da2fe9bb3e5f5774222dc
'2011-08-20T02:48:42-04:00'
describe
'39439' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTM' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
f16e66cf368f51ba5121d88444e0b682
25c4f980717d4ccc89775f62ebfc32659c047bd0
'2011-08-20T02:47:40-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTN' 'sip-files00017.tif'
63eb6820f952e14a22c112a07501ffe1
0eb85ad936a07902decc6a117c93950f4372ba79
'2011-08-20T02:50:54-04:00'
describe
'2281' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTO' 'sip-files00017.txt'
461625bf2918441371b0489001d5fe02
794ca637a60de01829afb4d0e7d421762b0d145b
'2011-08-20T02:45:03-04:00'
describe
'9447' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTP' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
6c8516273d63e3e93cc106fc911c5df3
57361a75d01998018b85a67efc73b2f31921f745
'2011-08-20T02:43:55-04:00'
describe
'773800' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTQ' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
ad0f627fefc3fe283b7ee5d98894fcd8
f3d1fc8dc2dd64848ab3a791562ee8103ad5be6e
'2011-08-20T02:45:10-04:00'
describe
'140785' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTR' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
449d34aa8456cc4243d679fba22e180c
50f2cdaedaaef43164e9698bd13b45df76595124
'2011-08-20T02:49:46-04:00'
describe
'83015' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTS' 'sip-files00018.pro'
1611b71451c6e3d6cac3514f62aaa65f
38de93e25f8c24179147781e3fcfa2753c7332c3
'2011-08-20T02:50:36-04:00'
describe
'37820' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTT' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
ac79fc6949c1d84a72d607ab8921fd3a
be7d1e67a15c3e8a57579368a08b62ff4d7abf80
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTU' 'sip-files00018.tif'
b30918b75f9e6519d029c18974ec31fc
438ea260184c4eaec6816a58f96c7753d4f5275f
describe
'3314' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTV' 'sip-files00018.txt'
3bbf5d0161562be1b8fe437af1e53989
4ece6f190356de827ab6ef0c49e7800c37a81773
'2011-08-20T02:50:25-04:00'
describe
'8942' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTW' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
2eee7f9acc290fd388ff634462d627a0
fcdcfeb3738b37fb6bab06325cdc3ab164103910
'2011-08-20T02:43:06-04:00'
describe
'773752' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTX' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
88cef80e77ffc78cdbb866b8a9592963
379215956b95828a70a8a68bd8093a6fc11dc8c3
'2011-08-20T02:49:35-04:00'
describe
'144668' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTY' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
be055ca062777483a14abfff278d4760
379e53c7eb8df481282423ef0c56358d8025b5d3
describe
'34969' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJTZ' 'sip-files00019.pro'
8bddf02a4e8c205b45ef1a9ce7a52eb9
886c6af4748ee7b453453dc86412683005b80004
'2011-08-20T02:47:57-04:00'
describe
'34031' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUA' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
3d3781cbe0e8eb94ca8ecc011ead2957
eb2f1458672342ee34f1a110cac408e60458de69
'2011-08-20T02:46:16-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUB' 'sip-files00019.tif'
4eca8b58d867365739f546f4c4dcc8d9
0dbaee7f9d6d19bc8a6064087552bf1d6d9886ef
'2011-08-20T02:46:21-04:00'
describe
'1402' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUC' 'sip-files00019.txt'
c7fc1bcd591c2428dece6b2a58cdcbfe
e08dcdc289c2d0a2e386866c390edeee51e4e813
'2011-08-20T02:51:27-04:00'
describe
'8037' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUD' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
cc223f5b91249e25fae06fb4b5501c0b
c98369f22b068f25d88bc1a1d00a220bf9659041
'2011-08-20T02:51:00-04:00'
describe
'773795' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUE' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
3946d1e8055fe3f4d896f32998ce3fa1
70ea101b89e1caf4bcf081c068b822d224d18cf0
'2011-08-20T02:43:10-04:00'
describe
'176225' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUF' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
36d9edb9f35754ac6fb44c8210ae5b1b
c6edb70f3d857d496bc84b2a517667875a2df0ea
describe
'141671' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUG' 'sip-files00020.pro'
e3ec1ccd5c8325daba8670d054e41420
90e64d9af3ea94155082f3a16fbf2a450b32dbc3
'2011-08-20T02:43:39-04:00'
describe
'43601' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUH' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
169a7b9ff3f2864e53fadfa953dc2e05
c22653db7b0422b42aab4674218653b80f6dee50
'2011-08-20T02:47:19-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUI' 'sip-files00020.tif'
4b2fd6161bdb7957625ed409171bb0e9
dd165c5548d767e1aefd9b10970619b2b1cfe81f
describe
'5776' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUJ' 'sip-files00020.txt'
77eae0cfd9f7f8cd7fb5bd515e8c3d50
603a1e55f10ed2f1a0f520d55c69829184bfe32c
'2011-08-20T02:43:40-04:00'
describe
'10067' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUK' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
a150be698d8e6d1dca44ec472402ee36
c487fc3481ae75fbe24b7a59b38de9cf125fdeaf
'2011-08-20T02:44:05-04:00'
describe
'773785' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUL' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
e7352d5bf74130673100e0506ff9309d
6f937944c97d0e645414111062dff3692f800bda
'2011-08-20T02:45:08-04:00'
describe
'166931' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUM' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
6ba851d7dc9fe749959d608745ebec34
f45ded87db2c67561217ef85bb3e0ba7cc8e0f1f
'2011-08-20T02:47:20-04:00'
describe
'86886' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUN' 'sip-files00021.pro'
bf2bbe25c13c9b5040be4461dfa175e8
276608c32a49ef8f2037793d66e9338b35966433
'2011-08-20T02:46:27-04:00'
describe
'42472' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUO' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
4958884b4c9c0437a2d73e7572a24714
43991a346d86254e8050852f928c96936a725eee
'2011-08-20T02:49:39-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUP' 'sip-files00021.tif'
e8b459671cbbb1bdb2c26fdc20ccbd46
7f6342c4f7374f972aeebeb358f6689511326021
'2011-08-20T02:50:07-04:00'
describe
'3707' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUQ' 'sip-files00021.txt'
e675e5808979a5852fb933f51ed8330a
99d39cf3a24574080cafa2ff3661813acfd2a395
'2011-08-20T02:45:40-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'10063' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUR' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
a10452cd932b823dce64368f58bd54f9
d189c9c964114930f472fd89abadb4d077ad3821
'2011-08-20T02:44:01-04:00'
describe
'761160' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUS' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
52ddba03b1a1f671d1916313e17dfb55
d1241f1ab49beb45df6a50bf0ee90262af83ae61
'2011-08-20T02:45:47-04:00'
describe
'142795' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUT' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
44456b6f991cff77a8a2b6cb71e0ebbb
6aab133be387700c848c83e10cec000cf9807e67
'2011-08-20T02:43:03-04:00'
describe
'90994' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUU' 'sip-files00022.pro'
f88b87f97bab44c2b791be59f2ceaaf2
224c5b50c6a43553513c3898c6c75dd69c1a783c
'2011-08-20T02:48:14-04:00'
describe
'37767' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUV' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
4dbd67521c88652148d5fafbdcbcbf9c
63ebcfbc25e0ca4885cdcaea8a36d6541eb5afd6
describe
'6105624' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUW' 'sip-files00022.tif'
a9f3a50a6127840c536e66b8fb7cccd0
0d13d4c29b99aabdebb0a289be38f73baa47b110
'2011-08-20T02:50:35-04:00'
describe
'3897' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUX' 'sip-files00022.txt'
a09cdc169b1d38e95df46d188991e8ff
d0cf72de674616d6497c24e9a1e49cf31eb4078a
'2011-08-20T02:51:01-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'8999' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUY' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
54f29e7858536b940a023a122d493161
d9093646a199fe2aad4f2d95bb2fb94861788741
'2011-08-20T02:48:48-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJUZ' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
a210d3a7ced03ef38b98416baaaa58b9
b5d161b240b5726fed851412805d933b0b65af7d
'2011-08-20T02:49:25-04:00'
describe
'179367' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVA' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
b701caae252037143c7f3e15f034dd5a
60fdf9457723e61eed43e5be8abcd6791f2e712b
describe
'129506' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVB' 'sip-files00023.pro'
60b059aedc4a41b4cc8a0519a4fae6b6
6aa51f777846622f4e93dd47bf496280fc3e248f
'2011-08-20T02:46:13-04:00'
describe
'45203' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVC' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
32fa1cb30225a34eaee45ff5e1e2cdc4
a03e2a38d6ffb446eb96bd35316e97f4a75de113
'2011-08-20T02:46:22-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVD' 'sip-files00023.tif'
3958eb5798ae44a95883bca07e219a6d
3974b07825a2298d79f062f6f71f5fb3e2f8ed1d
'2011-08-20T02:43:01-04:00'
describe
'5364' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVE' 'sip-files00023.txt'
a095b7e9251838dac6b885c6580bc65a
2dfe1809f728d1c95a0034bc83a3769a6c730dcf
describe
Invalid character
'10362' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVF' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
56a6f88df6c05f1fb3f36f6ae611733a
a65d71e840196cf13cdb801bbaa4784340bf2204
'2011-08-20T02:44:42-04:00'
describe
'759565' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVG' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
ad1597fbb9d56ba460538aa15d347021
5111b3fdc330db4fd81f9ed66662700570bc3c0c
'2011-08-20T02:43:15-04:00'
describe
'129602' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVH' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
ae27027745d3011539ce4a1e824b9359
c2de9019932a15245406a4ea6178d68b8218cbb0
'2011-08-20T02:43:51-04:00'
describe
'56123' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVI' 'sip-files00024.pro'
f0cc9f9382bb785a50c283e5f0240fc0
a10c623b01d4970891e7ed3058fbfdb8a31d9737
'2011-08-20T02:51:22-04:00'
describe
'34956' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVJ' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
7ba3bb4d6099e803a4ad1c1a2a1d992b
f1e3ea683e185b40ad428df8cc84194b255c1315
describe
'6092988' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVK' 'sip-files00024.tif'
427ba59bd0775fc1e9fb1eb58178077e
7c798f3b6690e58b6eb2b26ec7ac2718b1ae6552
'2011-08-20T02:49:19-04:00'
describe
'2459' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVL' 'sip-files00024.txt'
f9af24173db8d7d34805293724a27eb5
ad24d6281667dd2f0c5e23644e21c76481c62f71
'2011-08-20T02:43:33-04:00'
describe
'8664' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVM' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
835dc9ce00d5ab713f92b71cde42cdfc
e4b179b42df4bab11013992dd7d21134f3a308cd
'2011-08-20T02:50:15-04:00'
describe
'773668' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVN' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
3f83e817ccba22be85068ea0bc307485
d1c05298f5be3537df977b8a2722c67976eb11a1
'2011-08-20T02:46:02-04:00'
describe
'176281' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVO' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
e660740ec663e183973a04e516091f5d
89a01286e85a8415a70702dfaa474142a5385943
'2011-08-20T02:50:47-04:00'
describe
'128567' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVP' 'sip-files00025.pro'
4e5cf027444ae7add08eb31bd55e72d4
ee9c94cd2a9ed16c27b07e07e5067f84f98f1a59
'2011-08-20T02:44:32-04:00'
describe
'44806' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVQ' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
5f45b1c93ea6b52c8250db3d9139f357
8c5a4720666012d3a84206575f714b328ea2b0d3
'2011-08-20T02:49:27-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVR' 'sip-files00025.tif'
0b151d9291c27cd5e817b77b10eb7306
93f0785bacb3f1918163d8ed8382475dd032fb7a
'2011-08-20T02:50:49-04:00'
describe
'5293' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVS' 'sip-files00025.txt'
bdc18ee633bec6a2b9a84de14bc879d2
fa04a0f5e31327550f005fc6ab8163eec226b773
'2011-08-20T02:50:39-04:00'
describe
'10134' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVT' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
8b1bfb3edb4af11054318ca7ace59530
98866cf1144ebfe7a4bd5802d93197c91ef8cd04
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVU' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
186889f1ddfcc1eb029f38d31e606dbd
54e805cce6a4ef8c3a3240e306e5c5136cc9d33d
'2011-08-20T02:51:21-04:00'
describe
'179241' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVV' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
8e1b6a488de47cb08e3bfa7ef3eda30a
b7e11dd42ac1937283096a431a1598de1ed0f22d
'2011-08-20T02:48:43-04:00'
describe
'133625' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVW' 'sip-files00026.pro'
b73d4da45a13c4fcd17dfef11929b13a
64f6322c619f7baf9beeb1eecaa5f1c9eee3026a
describe
'44962' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVX' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
81c66245f7ec2c76cf2fdca7f69b51a3
95e5c4478c2dbd53a37e2bcee9f1dc30d8dff6ad
'2011-08-20T02:51:45-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVY' 'sip-files00026.tif'
7b7b079e2939c2b8035c1665719f2041
18681e98ad0511018b2e5e0cd4544e5dfd821832
describe
'5428' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJVZ' 'sip-files00026.txt'
bacae778498ff2efd100aa1870f4ac47
4884bea62ba22f21d14ee549573722e61afef78d
'2011-08-20T02:49:12-04:00'
describe
'10158' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWA' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
a65eb3b3f8200ad867f1808f1ddd2666
abe65674c9821668ebd33935a178f3e8d4aca415
describe
'773489' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWB' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
570c4b6927d9f3b1584a8967dc03624b
14d49e708f8be3a9485bc26c9d8f3177b9c1ad06
describe
'142222' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWC' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
582e2d76b31534a4decc9310d8d88433
ab826a3985f848edd7e1a20e7bdf5ae863656163
describe
'31721' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWD' 'sip-files00027.pro'
933ba38b0c770fd4399eb2fb0fb7cec9
62952da03b865ba6a720aa75ea4c6dbd73234506
'2011-08-20T02:51:32-04:00'
describe
'35007' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWE' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
6a992d7d410b078e1e0c2541350be13b
2b95531807efa06058a9cf551cdec16ef2f2bec1
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWF' 'sip-files00027.tif'
e45024f167d0da2d51e52981e08c1ae7
b4a245637515fe8c47042a27a9af89dc1cda7e3e
'2011-08-20T02:48:29-04:00'
describe
'1371' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWG' 'sip-files00027.txt'
99a8b98f98a94733b709be601a3ede95
134e32f65f83116850075d90d43953415cfa3971
'2011-08-20T02:44:36-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'8535' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWH' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
5fe7bb863c039a36e56b8c80f7ba7fcb
0c0d7a4b5e6031129b8e6c51664acb9ca3edd935
'2011-08-20T02:46:28-04:00'
describe
'773753' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWI' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
95e02e0902c5a7498177ea213d517169
db6a628a7bb9f821719468394dc19cc6ed050c77
'2011-08-20T02:43:43-04:00'
describe
'169905' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWJ' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
28b51c27a5e71a9f796042e940637bf7
4daa8cc3e873ba0756993c7e42a1dd5d1bb05c62
'2011-08-20T02:43:16-04:00'
describe
'114167' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWK' 'sip-files00028.pro'
dbbb0bfdad14fb6175b9bbc50d044a89
e5324cfdfb6f5db1020d1366698f7d4e2ae3b536
describe
'43660' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWL' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
ca611f92f035647d684c47f6b8f94684
73396226085bf21d85d543bb5f977c81665b161e
'2011-08-20T02:45:42-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWM' 'sip-files00028.tif'
6ad57800df9c2ddd7ee9f94a46745e12
74a484cc173c7022ae39be1521c54c4809b0b8c8
'2011-08-20T02:48:13-04:00'
describe
'4811' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWN' 'sip-files00028.txt'
a94a045f7c64589a42c03671444b3499
06a8625b265dc7137214446fce38c016c5c5833d
describe
Invalid character
'9799' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWO' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
a755c8ce24363ae2b3f0f328b422fe2e
ce20a10a81febd98d4f268957df17ab10e8f32a8
describe
'773802' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWP' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
3b2b8b816e347048b598dcdfb38fd457
f40457ec85751d5a86498209ba9d98a080152b85
'2011-08-20T02:48:02-04:00'
describe
'156070' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWQ' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
3e977f86446c225bdd4b0e8416f3312d
2d6d1cab8aadbcd59ca05b40ada1f77b4c442d53
'2011-08-20T02:44:53-04:00'
describe
'133404' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWR' 'sip-files00029.pro'
b663e1db585057591d7c9e11dbb8ee2e
8af51b369951ff9cb0f1642c18ab631bb4fc6e63
'2011-08-20T02:44:22-04:00'
describe
'39299' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWS' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
d1263caf600af1d58a150ca3893c664b
b40bd0f97137fcba316ab34d270109fc5b15e222
'2011-08-20T02:49:26-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWT' 'sip-files00029.tif'
2647c932edf89e16b95667f6f4c4846c
99964cd2f91d1ee60d9aaf051c26beeea35b58c4
'2011-08-20T02:47:30-04:00'
describe
'5530' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWU' 'sip-files00029.txt'
a43d8056557c70b4fc9928b47d1b0fbb
a7e743f0a05d364c72e940b6e778cc18109bede1
'2011-08-20T02:46:14-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'9318' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWV' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
aee244a52063cbda800eba80404557eb
8f19cdc85f2b43283e77c44653ed0726ae79c0e0
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWW' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
cb4c6bf353039b8ef61911fcd4faa39a
6c3a4dacd45aea9cebf0de6160944654ce5f1e9a
'2011-08-20T02:49:47-04:00'
describe
'128345' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWX' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
dadb1ac42c74bfcb3b7357b7e828a9fa
175106a932f49092cf876974a0746c9ad7bc18f6
'2011-08-20T02:43:21-04:00'
describe
'38892' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWY' 'sip-files00030.pro'
9544957c3e14ab772edcf32446f603eb
00463df038303df53792863f21bc8a8732b56b0e
'2011-08-20T02:43:59-04:00'
describe
'33989' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJWZ' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
6424fc07306f4e913f4ac197018af92d
e04983d6d66cf5251622ce4bad4290a404e4c076
'2011-08-20T02:51:13-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXA' 'sip-files00030.tif'
12601d85790de7568d08cc67f469c470
ab653a2468d680b37a7a246d2182a1cea01480c7
describe
'1606' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXB' 'sip-files00030.txt'
db6989c81ed50750c9a0b2bb859fd939
185f2614d3afbbf001653ca5eb2c92b88d186fa3
'2011-08-20T02:50:53-04:00'
describe
'8527' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXC' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
31bc231c510269061b383363841bfb68
6561661bf951c1444bbe9e48f30cfd88f8925aea
describe
'760531' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXD' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
572962957120cd22bee29d5fb97e49bb
e5413a8d68a5b3c6016656aa902bbba57af734fe
'2011-08-20T02:42:57-04:00'
describe
'180555' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXE' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
a2dccb94dc751f62d4da04dc4f1f79cf
83d851c7b1dc3d509304220e15cc8113796c9681
describe
'122583' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXF' 'sip-files00031.pro'
b433f60fb2b56de9db4879e15595a6ee
9f4b3a57692077260057f95c598b0330ae00dae9
'2011-08-20T02:44:28-04:00'
describe
'46387' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXG' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
032a6b099d1305459d709ee33464b2f7
fd4e97d1b664085cf5b9a40aad508e071d40f626
describe
'6100908' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXH' 'sip-files00031.tif'
aca46fabc9bb26fc4b4e18a4cdc935d0
084ace59305b843d4b1d59eb50cc54622b932979
'2011-08-20T02:42:58-04:00'
describe
'4961' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXI' 'sip-files00031.txt'
3773238b870295e74464ca7de3925088
37d5322e441820164777d8929757f15228ca16f4
describe
'10585' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXJ' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
be59bd2036f41b46c068a1f62e0e4727
bb11f17730656e39cc7062cc7e7a786c6c7d284d
'2011-08-20T02:50:23-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXK' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
f87c2d70270f5fa67af299c06ae9de74
2c73966b31a2a7d0b24edd2cf1e4a21018826e96
'2011-08-20T02:43:58-04:00'
describe
'173947' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXL' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
5653386f6ed744b5a96506cf1ac8d5dd
725dca2f715e345298ac169bfad8c3b1fa8ad52f
describe
'111963' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXM' 'sip-files00032.pro'
1c3bed2e58e33118e51733392ee8cb46
3390bc744dcf55319ceb67806dd179829f184752
'2011-08-20T02:44:20-04:00'
describe
'44839' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXN' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
9d1fce877d22bea3da66b74adb27ddbb
7c99d6349ed1c674d1729d88f4d20600f09bf3ea
'2011-08-20T02:50:00-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXO' 'sip-files00032.tif'
dde7f7e0806e071b0e726ebae260f320
6db89c6cc2229f4ddba2653c6eec6af68ddb6063
describe
'4700' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXP' 'sip-files00032.txt'
12afb56bf154246348b3d954ada7d660
e95cf7c4e6ecd273fbfe50103b5c47a8a873f601
'2011-08-20T02:50:51-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'184068' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXQ' 'sip-files00032a.jp2'
970d93b565be57c6bc9125150a7c95cd
54f052274223f9cfb8d5e3e2e9b48982024c3536
'2011-08-20T02:46:40-04:00'
describe
'29984' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXR' 'sip-files00032a.jpg'
093d4332bfb4b5d2adb446b2de48f326
d1df6114413958239b1b22fb364c2ef5071f99c5
'2011-08-20T02:43:56-04:00'
describe
'1246' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXS' 'sip-files00032a.pro'
fac5f724321771e72d2992386a22a5df
dd80e16cd72a09f6e62bb008134d14c059bcb6c6
'2011-08-20T02:45:50-04:00'
describe
'10858' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXT' 'sip-files00032a.QC.jpg'
b4c6cc769a3e3799d8e89db5962068d5
d358c254e023d3bbfd5c8d15d9e2a1c14bc5946a
describe
'6456760' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXU' 'sip-files00032a.tif'
3b3017df52676dae71b6dd0a3a8fc6eb
06bf86e66d154e8afdaf0b7c9aa7d01534d1b36f
'2011-08-20T02:48:34-04:00'
describe
'46' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXV' 'sip-files00032a.txt'
3db37f24e04b21ae71732594250e2017
b7b77f62cbb944de97a4eb9a1a23356fc26137bc
'2011-08-20T02:48:35-04:00'
describe
'4208' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXW' 'sip-files00032athm.jpg'
e3da7383f2e6c7b6c41c37314d01be09
42ac0901824f89c000bc75758ce97f95abdecf73
'2011-08-20T02:49:54-04:00'
describe
'10155' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXX' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
ba33566ea0d82248ae5157fbf1883f9d
7640054db1279c87c523d75b7c1d5746e3cfb811
'2011-08-20T02:45:38-04:00'
describe
'773798' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXY' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
3c86e5acafc11ef978bf7e8cb7fc12b8
0f6f50d79fa02cdbfbf8da772e182791c28de1ac
'2011-08-20T02:48:10-04:00'
describe
'181439' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJXZ' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
c24397598f5c85172219ff598741f16d
d9c3a6d29a1cec59346bd571329db5579032cba2
describe
'128579' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYA' 'sip-files00033.pro'
de55b85f287b27e78f1dbbfe95958bb0
adfa1c726764c30e51f994cfef2faa9328bc40bc
describe
'46965' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYB' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
dbc19e167880849774bc486ac7768eb1
83089d64d408fb1ac3bcbfceaa6fecc595affd3e
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYC' 'sip-files00033.tif'
bff8f9f687411155f7448ff4050baf53
759556555ed673f0b759416fc93b1c141a97d214
describe
'5208' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYD' 'sip-files00033.txt'
6761d541a560a82b0bed29690f15695d
a9e9df94d871980de665785460b34932aa630353
'2011-08-20T02:44:11-04:00'
describe
'10675' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYE' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
3df7488f4ac5f694677547569d7e8969
f422dcf0a1aaf62775f4d6dad9dbbed49863f294
'2011-08-20T02:50:27-04:00'
describe
'773741' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYF' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
206e061854581b48d1d8128f84a86115
4b2af6a6e2c24625719992668be0065c1a0fff5f
describe
'165875' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYG' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
b3fdf90d98734716dc1ee83e1cb4fa2a
4e73f8892ced36807024468344cabbfe16e1f74e
'2011-08-20T02:49:52-04:00'
describe
'89483' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYH' 'sip-files00034.pro'
3e467ac065cbdbf81b01acd2eb240fef
e5d6c9da62e73144848eeecdfb449e8f3cb1adac
describe
'43309' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYI' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
1ad386c70b635969f0e92022f61f3afb
320f133833bc7a5fc55afe59d01bec7390152633
'2011-08-20T02:49:51-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYJ' 'sip-files00034.tif'
2872e8bb56377c54012b6d6dbbe02574
a1a662a73b36503d4b616ef3d28b2f05af081eed
describe
'3741' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYK' 'sip-files00034.txt'
f89e0be3646fe3a8fe1fc4cdb1a74ad8
09adca32e39a0e15eed99aa83be2545a19ff0160
'2011-08-20T02:51:14-04:00'
describe
'9987' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYL' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
2cf77347d37757ec8d489615ffa77134
ae8c1941c0aa18048bf6fc1d6b39ebce67517586
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYM' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
ef7dd0c42ec858ae3265bdc5994398f2
718e89b3c4fdd9b2be73037644333d57bb8c0f3a
describe
'184774' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYN' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
96baf9a368c31fc511a178df92b9c54d
b66a2ca01df60008012ae9457a35653e117f1513
'2011-08-20T02:50:17-04:00'
describe
'136068' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYO' 'sip-files00035.pro'
076c1924846c8107517cb420243e3263
25c25a64f27ead83938a10599e6b7c29633b5998
describe
'47064' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYP' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
03c7777139125ae362aaf52c27ab7f91
b829873092d7b63e9c144f2c09914c053daa5702
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYQ' 'sip-files00035.tif'
208ace35ab01a78ee14c08efa706ec17
2a01251fdfacf4044f13c675717de2900a241e0e
'2011-08-20T02:49:05-04:00'
describe
'5566' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYR' 'sip-files00035.txt'
22d933d02b286791c8d38708fa67e360
1f396cc0b38081332212b1b63828d343d0234fde
'2011-08-20T02:45:51-04:00'
describe
'10917' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYS' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
d1c0d8904ded617c4feae37768772e40
8798c1d6497af4c155cedc9baad4a7d5b66e2c5e
'2011-08-20T02:51:12-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYT' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
e4028fe2c938765b710700fd10e4b06c
f14b4967747802c465d1296053d377f760cff5a1
describe
'175218' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYU' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
e7063d68730788b4cda7d46912bf9de8
8d7e4be8e3935f1cfe5447355294021956d5d385
'2011-08-20T02:44:43-04:00'
describe
'111878' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYV' 'sip-files00036.pro'
a65d73b18f9a8d0016e18b16b5ea978b
0cd5454da21015e3663a87691219182c4fc3b31f
'2011-08-20T02:43:14-04:00'
describe
'43945' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYW' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
df94668a3450a9cd2e2d9be7610056ff
952af775ab1443011c4f09e3f549ef2cd6a9b5da
'2011-08-20T02:46:20-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYX' 'sip-files00036.tif'
c688cf58e7a24b8e90e5c61eb8f5ba24
ff4f3db0090701698bc4738bc27b5c33b495d612
'2011-08-20T02:49:36-04:00'
describe
'4652' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYY' 'sip-files00036.txt'
da0a03f8284b2844a0ff32c6450663fc
36a0eeeb0d1db59c0c4109a7c56854a6f867838e
'2011-08-20T02:44:30-04:00'
describe
'9874' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJYZ' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
cf80bab50b8dde6340e4c44348386992
4f045a403e988861dfd6d0552445adfd1dfcf8ba
'2011-08-20T02:48:58-04:00'
describe
'773771' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZA' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
ab4a4dff3c876401bb7676266c555906
132843aa6ebafdc354498cb19916a6968f0a2b27
'2011-08-20T02:43:09-04:00'
describe
'159524' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZB' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
39dbeef809bb144b449e1a28975220a8
463641f0a6fc42ffadc498d1ce7fe922263a4b55
describe
'142926' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZC' 'sip-files00037.pro'
7a756e933f2a9a13ede535e5e76c72ff
455cbbf4822facc50434658182e71c144c25d65d
'2011-08-20T02:43:13-04:00'
describe
'40500' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZD' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
13788b48d740cb858b20495b752310c4
fb998ce65d6b4f07d28436a5d6fc466efbdf0d27
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZE' 'sip-files00037.tif'
803afdd29a766ceaf0a595d728129cdf
343f15ecd99bf0598bfa5a0fa4cdc6f86cc673b8
'2011-08-20T02:51:25-04:00'
describe
'5889' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZF' 'sip-files00037.txt'
0db3a5c554a4cc3da0bdd04e345ca463
51239a1ff6c7835e75105e805e8004e3d314e1b2
describe
'9495' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZG' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
5f3607907561689068113387679c487f
e8f0e825bff5b04f99ceaa25ec475bae63d25dad
'2011-08-20T02:46:07-04:00'
describe
'773731' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZH' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
528865deb9c29e49f36771c39653ceb1
fb1ac9df2b2fb69cf7e8eb64432642bb1dd51a48
describe
'134855' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZI' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
c3c9388ec2d25d8a5725205bb5f6ec23
2047427d73fdb0f2f6a6d80b9a4dce140ca9ba7d
'2011-08-20T02:47:34-04:00'
describe
'97000' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZJ' 'sip-files00038.pro'
e677be68e05685d3f2218d801eda3a10
c22d8065b29d9fdfea7c9057acb4f50ce0316586
'2011-08-20T02:44:49-04:00'
describe
'36232' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZK' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
ea8f95448eb1a7b54524eaf13204241b
8e7f71825501a660742816f34ae2d9a8ce21d78d
'2011-08-20T02:43:23-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZL' 'sip-files00038.tif'
d79e6e05bcca23aedb0a5bf203b01ddb
7167be43e636a4927f9b6461c28377d052a18836
'2011-08-20T02:45:09-04:00'
describe
'4181' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZM' 'sip-files00038.txt'
ee8ceb28b58b928c41038f8b2a613d49
5eac88283c4d04df83d2a504a964df9799f28b84
'2011-08-20T02:44:50-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'8940' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZN' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
4fab274de317df40f4816a5649f9625c
3c80dd0b14acc760548ea2537593fe3d931f0d23
describe
'773692' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZO' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
6206544ba2eff32e98be9422be594e20
6586e4f97c83202b9ca1acb6b7487e41eb992025
'2011-08-20T02:48:53-04:00'
describe
'160095' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZP' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
613946808f7e2e6e9ff3cf138df08022
d5e2ae5c18df007826445025f4f5c609b456213b
describe
'115847' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZQ' 'sip-files00039.pro'
13ed345f234c7cdb17bf18635c3a394a
e2dd7cb5135e5c4c804a47290b9a91846ded1001
'2011-08-20T02:43:12-04:00'
describe
'40968' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZR' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
d6abcff2bd7636a956dd33b888d09fc9
dc5132de8ca6be06e1c8356823e9397cb2061bda
'2011-08-20T02:49:50-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZS' 'sip-files00039.tif'
380180f3a57436425600d4b6fe41e94e
ae0fd15a7b2c13e829761be5b0e049b9de929d5c
describe
'4730' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZT' 'sip-files00039.txt'
22806ba48bff0a1a184f59149fb1b749
cf555393fcc4d996712d3fcbdb584a3c3ba66842
'2011-08-20T02:44:47-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'9866' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZU' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
66e46a7d0cfa811e8dded0f1f982c6cd
934f0824458f709957c74f46049d2921dfc2c985
describe
'773786' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZV' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
7b7fede76b184a4734ec1b8c355a5b00
1146ffa763c02eea17403bb09395809fce3cc86a
'2011-08-20T02:49:44-04:00'
describe
'163190' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZW' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
4cd45fc9ddca92c491a202c5bf0fd420
088520c52bc8ded884479c94ec7838a5b7b592f6
'2011-08-20T02:50:48-04:00'
describe
'108599' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZX' 'sip-files00040.pro'
1ed63d2a56fa84df7c47562963f11734
e8f615a2b4b6e13c00553ba305080ef7ccf8d862
'2011-08-20T02:49:58-04:00'
describe
'41919' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZY' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
12b6167aee97d913c0b5f7adb88ab86e
7f1a40efaa6fbf670f909826c29bcafe7b31098b
'2011-08-20T02:45:30-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAJZZ' 'sip-files00040.tif'
cb116ce5ba3cc2eaecbc22d372c82dd9
2f6634ad1ceb410ee050ce57b4bee8f53b220a15
'2011-08-20T02:43:37-04:00'
describe
'4405' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAA' 'sip-files00040.txt'
02b130ea9dff36682b1ec23268b68519
a5bb1ae8eadf1a6bbdf2b6c78ced033c83793718
'2011-08-20T02:42:54-04:00'
describe
'9649' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAB' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
7a0b76abea802234785eddbfeb80d11b
191375053d36ded44c87ee6796bafc6136f5c89e
'2011-08-20T02:44:31-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAC' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
41caa1320dad00485462892c3c5693c9
fc97340cc2d7aa8d876253c7ee3c6d397fd54e8e
'2011-08-20T02:46:58-04:00'
describe
'179121' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAD' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
413ceada174b67ba71adfda201d1d9c2
af8dae2fe9cd0415f1bcde02449b00bd4a8b29b8
'2011-08-20T02:49:17-04:00'
describe
'107116' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAE' 'sip-files00041.pro'
badd812ea316bd62a4109b84f0961e64
7c9605c460ed32056d655103be859c1000339099
'2011-08-20T02:45:23-04:00'
describe
'44926' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAF' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
4be5ef0ace51da3d0e0df21e31e55df6
938f687b923f44ec6aebdcaee09330cbb8720b9f
'2011-08-20T02:46:51-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAG' 'sip-files00041.tif'
c0560137ee19aa2ac2330b6c3d352586
6a35d579d6df10dcba8f376096ac8722b3795d66
'2011-08-20T02:44:06-04:00'
describe
'4302' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAH' 'sip-files00041.txt'
c44d586e06135c16eb24cf4346b8b7c6
55b553581fa0ab3a1eb5fdfa0d042ac6fa6c0eb3
describe
'9985' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAI' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
c985056c3a1187969861342c348e7cca
cfba443e42be05ba1ff75d207f5c5b6d21974b80
describe
'773751' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAJ' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
cc168a55ffd528abe084b5bb3a9d8008
7aa1e6efce595961b8f0ef45ccfe6b96d551a7f3
describe
'174054' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAK' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
c1c2e3831a739429178dc379c7aebb2d
59e772e4c085439227d6b2b85239b857252b4e85
'2011-08-20T02:50:33-04:00'
describe
'70235' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAL' 'sip-files00042.pro'
f856654a80195ba799cc26cd466d6750
cc01a72daff2bda0ebf33b7876678b7132db3436
'2011-08-20T02:44:35-04:00'
describe
'43961' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAM' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
b7003d83d26f2580cacc72b21f36a7c0
d1ca481907f9f5ce8786fb0bfc97a9824d577ff4
'2011-08-20T02:46:18-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAN' 'sip-files00042.tif'
cc033775af1288f5e76917484a13909e
3c306d73c731748cef15ac9d38a523f799b72923
'2011-08-20T02:47:16-04:00'
describe
'2946' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAO' 'sip-files00042.txt'
9e14b24a58cf2cd200e58ae78084f58b
64c86d1afc9d27c70a89e956ea6d447b2c4af241
describe
Invalid character
'10407' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAP' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
413d21b70debce7a0ea0f4c8bc301452
53991bc91a55baf54223efc37b7fa74bf919b853
'2011-08-20T02:50:45-04:00'
describe
'773677' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAQ' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
d8222e24f4f7e6f5b369db620fba3359
e9a699f21284e98c0cec6ca978d25b9753dc57f7
describe
'170323' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAR' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
2fb3412bad2a2511a0065ceca640eda4
f9561baf4ff21f3010a487a1473bd5623c60c751
'2011-08-20T02:51:06-04:00'
describe
'104161' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAS' 'sip-files00043.pro'
ecd71565946d4a1760a90a513403fefc
e6859afc0bfc356dc8bf3f1db48329bfe64798e1
'2011-08-20T02:44:51-04:00'
describe
'43686' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAT' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
1f96be10c4e848b39fb1481f51b5a4b4
f74f63e3e808a500db016a15807bea2c009d278a
'2011-08-20T02:46:12-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAU' 'sip-files00043.tif'
7830ea7065bc4a31bf8cb2d3687691db
ca8dfa99d47fcb04f5530b80ce63c09ccc218d80
describe
'4511' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAV' 'sip-files00043.txt'
89f51bf431acfa6a60507f87d159736a
3f993311ad1f33106ba8e25852bd38e8df8d5074
'2011-08-20T02:51:05-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'10239' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAW' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
8192b5217690e9df1ea6d21f82b61a41
61fe68a7e058ca73fcefe56cdbc3c9151c1f9de7
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAX' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
e670a30a50622e70b521f0607af82451
b6bc1017e0ceb93837824adb7ef0719ae12c62b6
'2011-08-20T02:49:09-04:00'
describe
'174223' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAY' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
8becb0e8216d4035429bb396e7b850dd
c4f574f30bfee6846802b8174255d30b9b3d75c0
'2011-08-20T02:43:05-04:00'
describe
'117553' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKAZ' 'sip-files00044.pro'
7b1324eda890ddd7e79d572b1736d8f7
54082f2c121526cd07db02d5f1489db5a8ebd24a
'2011-08-20T02:47:17-04:00'
describe
'45368' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBA' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
2a3c8cad56d02269176c4f9a40ebd178
113d97fd6b11acea9ec6e56e5083f8998e4dae5b
'2011-08-20T02:45:27-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBB' 'sip-files00044.tif'
afdda4dd6be946e4ec10d2c94d6085c7
42049cfd69823dcaa8a27932902801c5eb048953
describe
'4693' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBC' 'sip-files00044.txt'
fee996e0b43554336ea3e2f25bdaa8bd
7cc69c0d1a73f231434e5de3a7d5e565141df3f6
describe
'10396' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBD' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
6cd86cf997b3c13fc6162c167ee53655
876a38b56b03986d47de333a262cd3c9981103f4
describe
'773747' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBE' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
9cf1702652d4fd832228321ca9c3ed15
e2c271deaa066ae9eaecc63f3137f53e7a49fb6c
'2011-08-20T02:46:00-04:00'
describe
'149462' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBF' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
6c6dd20d2e8a447fa6d34800757a356b
2db194f9441e272986d7372092f0ad3b5bc001b2
'2011-08-20T02:51:28-04:00'
describe
'98929' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBG' 'sip-files00045.pro'
9a8111e44f617b208580101d17c62a15
79bfad8e2a210409867dd1a341d274ccb7632c7c
describe
'38982' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBH' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
21257ccd77325f588aeeb38d0d487d95
868101251e742551593a9a28d32725055623bbe9
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBI' 'sip-files00045.tif'
083884522a7b89a3bef5d223ecb686e3
7c8f7f9e625445063e08beb995a157ce1807e1e7
'2011-08-20T02:43:19-04:00'
describe
'4316' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBJ' 'sip-files00045.txt'
cd6baf6ffd85cf919ba2f250553062a9
2c4ee84ef153dceaad3314821f46255e9d0cf612
'2011-08-20T02:45:15-04:00'
describe
'9156' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBK' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
88f30eb39761bdb9df2b95fa1790f0be
949cf0b6c0ca99a13d44fb35fe46c56dd8d64508
describe
'773779' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBL' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
3cb3e1976343d295188f87736f2cb1db
a17aaaf1eee22d1eddf45785c422a58f2f6e8e3a
'2011-08-20T02:49:15-04:00'
describe
'145175' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBM' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
0d03dcccda304dae16defc8db004386a
c5eaaf63e167d3e1a91f359b91eb18dae8d85f1c
'2011-08-20T02:42:51-04:00'
describe
'86600' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBN' 'sip-files00046.pro'
00935b4dedb45cd085c634f678725e1a
608d2310126965167093692f4ec4aa6216c0beb2
describe
'39927' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBO' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
295b5b3da1c021ac5733365821a19a5a
660fc9c213d5a9182e10ac0985f8c83dc5eb37c5
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBP' 'sip-files00046.tif'
98b9ac7d3e97f29f2499749c656c896b
8dcca59a0a150a9eadf8d56825cdef6e897589b6
'2011-08-20T02:51:15-04:00'
describe
'3571' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBQ' 'sip-files00046.txt'
624099fcbcbb0be5815be50b2ab94d22
552d45b11154661dce833255fe3d5df396951043
'2011-08-20T02:44:13-04:00'
describe
'9546' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBR' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
f818ac9004afcb1d2f07af8fa93bb81a
a39603806573234e3bf54b080c9430274ab77dab
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBS' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
45efe80d4302110346673d5fe26f55e9
c85f00418bd4679f904a60be2cb4a3148cd4e6a3
'2011-08-20T02:43:48-04:00'
describe
'168520' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBT' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
363ba75cdcf855112211cedfc8153376
b2c47a62e9beab2564217ed8837f6a5f353c97db
'2011-08-20T02:48:44-04:00'
describe
'87505' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBU' 'sip-files00047.pro'
7357e1c2ecbdb58fcd724cb54933c5d3
25f7face4ff6d27e376fbed0d7b50162ba2f4832
describe
'42535' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBV' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
9aa059c280f617d440c3b598f140b041
96bcd47210c7e46aaacea28b2f018171a0f8ddcc
'2011-08-20T02:49:20-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBW' 'sip-files00047.tif'
03128216d97ad596cab0993abec99af8
ce57453aa7acdc89023de87bed9f97166ed2268e
'2011-08-20T02:49:48-04:00'
describe
'3655' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBX' 'sip-files00047.txt'
367511a2d30d48aa3316af16fdc76f52
8ab29d6559fb18990654a0beb94ec5e0bcd3d80a
'2011-08-20T02:45:02-04:00'
describe
'9996' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBY' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
4d866e41c97abe7e92e94fae34ccfd61
d02faf543c74ba88de139bff21b204be80934ab2
'2011-08-20T02:50:22-04:00'
describe
'773792' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKBZ' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
9d6b505962c069f05b6267f2bb1d6588
964af92b03ed24bd0411d0a65226775a0e7f4d62
describe
'182443' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCA' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
7c2b8d690897de430af25363e3b2bc4a
7e903c56ff347164343bba014641627b3e78620b
'2011-08-20T02:49:42-04:00'
describe
'111443' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCB' 'sip-files00048.pro'
aa3204a12f27063627210625f9c8e1ab
736badaa7baaae698c0983d01b8ac1e474b5f0b3
'2011-08-20T02:46:09-04:00'
describe
'46018' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCC' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
603b21b6113adbffbe015ed95db9194b
664ac85f276830d646ee5f58e3291b9224f7be22
'2011-08-20T02:44:33-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCD' 'sip-files00048.tif'
0a433029cbb0b42e3695d94fdb84db83
8a6230b0012f92074ded0cc41c67f145ef653450
'2011-08-20T02:51:17-04:00'
describe
'4605' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCE' 'sip-files00048.txt'
d8c8a4fbc199bf2b6731d74643112cd6
b1f907ff7edd11f48d257efe80f883a010e62a4a
'2011-08-20T02:50:43-04:00'
describe
'11360' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCF' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
f88b6c1a5464526758c7e2fca2af0d53
b9e262bd4f255674b9287bfe52951e9be36827c2
'2011-08-20T02:50:55-04:00'
describe
'769051' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCG' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
3153ed0f2e994954e97796851363c6bf
a046464e18e2c7c4d9a9f2ca80a8a31c38e9dcd3
'2011-08-20T02:45:35-04:00'
describe
'172150' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCH' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
fc78cb040202dd0c377f389a44e64fd4
d80c449be939ea3bed10936aa8c816ab69c21b23
'2011-08-20T02:42:53-04:00'
describe
'109163' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCI' 'sip-files00049.pro'
3968d93e2cc512296c0037f0a4fe3263
22f179dd4e73e76b8ff9ad5f0ecee502a439639d
'2011-08-20T02:43:52-04:00'
describe
'43477' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCJ' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
adc07181566b2a5bd2448757527e066d
620ba4fcd068be00c6c12d0242e309a3eccd4864
'2011-08-20T02:49:56-04:00'
describe
'18473588' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCK' 'sip-files00049.tif'
d225543cafa272122ca3c9ce8ecaf6aa
09e4315a63ca7a41179959d0437cf3cd38c1df22
'2011-08-20T02:48:15-04:00'
describe
'4474' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCL' 'sip-files00049.txt'
b5605eebcac4f2905df1e99fd66442cd
6a12a0b981241af731c9d75a9b601d0bf6b23641
describe
'10231' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCM' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
3927822ca775ba98a8d7e93d0e268195
815d241b07fc70a6fc8b00b4bb118a2798d2794d
describe
'773778' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCN' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
ff5c731b5ffae3b3e72cec1f6d97d471
233ced3b808ad600803e3eb4c65fd6b5dce8c0fc
describe
'182168' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCO' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
10242917ccbc718f9f03ddff4a42103d
14f4d3abf3f99a9aca802d4437d93c5062878d80
'2011-08-20T02:45:17-04:00'
describe
'98381' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCP' 'sip-files00050.pro'
2063b8ad1ad2b7c6ee7228cc65899d03
118a53348403a6d6fcbf8ab4a7c15067a86613fe
describe
'45108' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCQ' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
a7b4ff27252480022324eb5fc22bf2dd
800ef9a1aa8b5b071d084791f14843bcc81a9a3a
'2011-08-20T02:48:17-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCR' 'sip-files00050.tif'
89148db709a7e2361afddde64b0efe6a
826e9ab825862e5e3f5f4c812e77de4404492878
'2011-08-20T02:49:24-04:00'
describe
'3940' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCS' 'sip-files00050.txt'
e8996b3ff3b00ee169d83c466bdec99a
ce94e9f1a2e194e75690589728b5c614edcb40fe
'2011-08-20T02:49:49-04:00'
describe
'10465' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCT' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
f38feae6d59583b1c2a0a5a12d41bace
8f1dac0d7e7caeba1a466708efc6af5a00f1e829
'2011-08-20T02:48:33-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCU' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
cd675b92caacd0302e2ade0871eff7ce
c3ade8d2106e1af477db060bd332612726e55262
describe
'135313' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCV' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
7450682d1b3fa93188e34dd6b93a311a
8393e977234c6f783d9979f8baa5a1b36aca8777
describe
'72388' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCW' 'sip-files00051.pro'
421b23315287d628a47e42df45dd2a89
606268f90860be551175ca00b22ba92c77e6ffd0
'2011-08-20T02:49:06-04:00'
describe
'35343' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCX' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
7faefed1874b788e27072873fccb1d42
c27d9aeae6d2f86a876dadd8fe0fe098648a29af
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCY' 'sip-files00051.tif'
dc54260d507389450295786c99c93635
705a7d9a3168386896c3c9e5e5dda68c1ab516a4
'2011-08-20T02:43:35-04:00'
describe
'2930' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKCZ' 'sip-files00051.txt'
6f4cd9b115147872bcaf31a20bc58ba2
9a98c53b2989b0b4948b77af0c7f9c16ba687208
describe
'8635' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDA' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
32a3e508e3c4ac8153c77c26ef968f04
ab4c41a3654f059312a13714b0427690e7334e00
describe
'773744' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDB' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
e23f6899f17898f18dcb56303fe39c5c
92fd0dc3668c88f610d4e7d1c168ffc028a42e90
describe
'171155' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDC' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
b7e0feb8ad5ec128c40c6dccfee767b2
4ef32d6fcf747d8c506ddd5bcc4ec1df8b349dd6
'2011-08-20T02:48:21-04:00'
describe
'100532' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDD' 'sip-files00052.pro'
ca82d59e8e4b1a7beeb9f834b410b742
061f9eb234ce31ba9b38515fbf323f8de4ea5fc5
'2011-08-20T02:43:00-04:00'
describe
'44005' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDE' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
b6966c9ae0cd40b5cb164b04deb44ddf
d1ef87e5134b28c73f98239a2c0eea65901b1801
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDF' 'sip-files00052.tif'
a1c667d3b8862767916a32ca3a81eadf
31d872a85d52f769c5c21cd0dffcde26482a7d15
'2011-08-20T02:51:38-04:00'
describe
'4069' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDG' 'sip-files00052.txt'
a2b29d48dd36201ce6204c0ae79215e2
d08f59981fc380ecc1216eeee0637ffc3cfec8a6
describe
'10250' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDH' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
17db7baff09fdc9c40deddeb3ce7281c
349c7b96f92a770f0da9e6d76138702b0aa0fe52
'2011-08-20T02:45:41-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDI' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
aacafba254fa8ee4fdf5e57e57d0417f
7a3f8283183f52b7809cb05972e83a00077a47c8
describe
'159618' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDJ' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
27e8677d18662e0a09d9b936a8348ab7
ecf8527a605b44ac38f670c0d25da96f4d679ace
'2011-08-20T02:51:37-04:00'
describe
'78567' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDK' 'sip-files00053.pro'
950a44ccdc3ef0ab1c525ff7dd4198a6
0e4cd6536e7e36da6bd6c8d1ed46071f974b9b7d
describe
'41033' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDL' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
652727d3f00e87ecf8d55e8b59dba7dc
8ee796e015cc826045c5602bd03c7fb20fd15f1e
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDM' 'sip-files00053.tif'
520c4a0a4ae48efaf58d0b3ea1db5fd2
4ef2dd3ffb6f8640cc6787cb6b22929818900089
'2011-08-20T02:49:21-04:00'
describe
'3309' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDN' 'sip-files00053.txt'
8b5ab20490bab5aedfeec9f5f03e7615
0b4ee94e1280f2981a497c9734a0477634f5882d
describe
'9759' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDO' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
13f6c19bad0b988bc80dc02583381944
9ba519dcf15c02e275b35e2339bc50d2e1272a10
'2011-08-20T02:51:43-04:00'
describe
'773780' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDP' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
009f62f9eb584d2fcd6d38423ea3fa43
2632e537941460eb154c5b5a5958a9dfddb77815
describe
'151993' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDQ' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
01dd23c6e60f163fdf167e91e6baaa3a
a62f0af96cefab88bd261fdb8ceaa1eba14eab92
describe
'78659' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDR' 'sip-files00054.pro'
fe5dfd755edfe441b40e849e89a18ee3
d3fa375e659bc1315cb0a4866a3de5bee89d4977
describe
'38922' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDS' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
3fc48880dc39fdb34cb58c75c0f60da7
928598797b6825f02ac13588b884d433fb525d52
'2011-08-20T02:43:18-04:00'
describe
'6207688' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDT' 'sip-files00054.tif'
f2b0d862c7a6004538c2f254b6abf452
dbcc3118268ef50fb28367379b038f738b573726
'2011-08-20T02:45:36-04:00'
describe
'3421' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDU' 'sip-files00054.txt'
362e250104b836dd8cbed87a138f7e03
9c93462e1fd2c0bff5c1b480253769d3a686db11
describe
'10177' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDV' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
4ad6fc7a7e74d39a26ef3870a1d95b73
2b15a8a1ed88b608b253812c62ccb9ea3356ad58
'2011-08-20T02:46:10-04:00'
describe
'769285' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDW' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
a8aaf517cb9dc92680aba333cbebf37b
68a345f5fb1ff68b629dc96ae6542a5d045310f7
describe
'188377' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDX' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
b679c1f0bbf39a08cb395d4d25ee1ef8
942fb6d5f84036de47c670a7f18c98adf2aac89f
'2011-08-20T02:44:10-04:00'
describe
'102521' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDY' 'sip-files00055.pro'
ad658181e22d93fe3441f23c92912c15
109475bb67bd339243b41c66b6fd0611e60b652e
'2011-08-20T02:44:44-04:00'
describe
'46567' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKDZ' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
11e85c2028ef942e369482dfbd42c743
d1629f2935fd9dbdc48c0bc9b6cb5161ec67511d
'2011-08-20T02:43:25-04:00'
describe
'18480068' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEA' 'sip-files00055.tif'
f8b20cd1e789ea41de929e2dd14a86fc
c5aedb623756089ebcbf6d304e034979439d797d
'2011-08-20T02:48:26-04:00'
describe
'4259' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEB' 'sip-files00055.txt'
0787ac71e8da38a91762ded396417f19
c3ecf60325027e924cec8b238e240369f41b5840
'2011-08-20T02:51:41-04:00'
describe
'10698' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEC' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
84331871cdafc00b4aeaacde178714c6
ec0c51867f65953f54269ff19344d334df597dfc
describe
'773791' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKED' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
d0761eab0b64c059754ab4f1f8ce37d6
f214b0b51f67da30c1a0c4b52841d9fd18bbe11e
describe
'140818' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEE' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
718ef69cab98a573063c568346ad4250
67302e9932ec66b36f7f4c9e70fc41dd1ac3b1fd
'2011-08-20T02:45:25-04:00'
describe
'56957' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEF' 'sip-files00056.pro'
f28ed5a5fb3f9962e625f487a219ff90
7ce4ad1fc6eedbb2898eb5ee84e0d3acbf7da04a
'2011-08-20T02:44:15-04:00'
describe
'36950' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEG' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
ff5664d0fafbeb02043b2b1e8e468f22
56363f69ed2831c07d08a3674b5917d5064fff2c
'2011-08-20T02:51:26-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEH' 'sip-files00056.tif'
989f3076590ee810964b4e234b3f5047
6f662aad3a8f53648dc684243c4912c674bdf747
'2011-08-20T02:49:59-04:00'
describe
'2330' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEI' 'sip-files00056.txt'
75442d432cda0155ebb3be6f9e30f229
6ba640786b83dc653fa5c18bf011e32d2fc3acf8
'2011-08-20T02:49:13-04:00'
describe
'9119' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEJ' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
aaa170baeb6a8fbbf14e82793cf5aef9
0d1ba131075055cc2c3cda9fe88a30525181bc40
'2011-08-20T02:50:19-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEK' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
1047fd4dcbdab8ce7fa4d929b0b23dbd
7d774f76a3c57ae15f1cc4253dd7354a9f812ecf
'2011-08-20T02:48:57-04:00'
describe
'181020' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEL' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
165d0dceb43cb3110bece4c0d171def5
21ee452ac2a2b0036272ceee61bb59d63943a40e
'2011-08-20T02:46:45-04:00'
describe
'104655' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEM' 'sip-files00057.pro'
a1568fdbcd9c9ce398c52c4679c24f3a
e981aa1a9cd2a924023653024f20adcde353f48d
describe
'46019' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEN' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
1e7e32f760620ea85ef1c9d31b11c009
823a7899d20efae932988de2926533746ec04f0d
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEO' 'sip-files00057.tif'
9957dc11f91dfaf06c5f7f5290d2edbe
7dc1c9387c2ca5a96b93a58b19dbc1c736d836c1
'2011-08-20T02:50:38-04:00'
describe
'4244' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEP' 'sip-files00057.txt'
36b5c78a9621bdda0caea66cf0238418
6700b09827812755d23d554ad32b5e61ffa94603
describe
Invalid character
'10456' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEQ' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
72dccfc8ab210edba81cca58f60d0c4a
b137d99fc28d8abcf4ef499bffb7ed7e71ea9655
describe
'773788' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKER' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
acc379414d193b5a026d9bcf22ba537b
93dc73211b8e6be6fb0dc8c16669a8e6497a7103
'2011-08-20T02:43:11-04:00'
describe
'147068' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKES' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
de8da98cd856dc6c3862da090c6d80df
f1c23cadef0091c5ff61a2fdb159b2edfc595472
'2011-08-20T02:51:23-04:00'
describe
'93718' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKET' 'sip-files00058.pro'
edfc9da3c5108e112e8c17c00facd913
4197128ebb9363ce6e7d6ea7430e983a498833ed
'2011-08-20T02:49:10-04:00'
describe
'38661' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEU' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
d87c5f267ae41cc9f2fefac4f875b06c
cac94921cb0d060c998b0bc2730443d23386e10e
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEV' 'sip-files00058.tif'
53b5b801a30e96cf619cbb4a6e423204
d64df26909330bd108dec5c43d7ea7ca41c2a971
describe
'4565' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEW' 'sip-files00058.txt'
c1ddcb61ed2bed449d85167b479d0e9a
db8b215a5f93567f80b1f98c1c08ae995aedf396
describe
'9489' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEX' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
6bdd422afc2e419594f374cf1e5d902c
4aa38b20d2c4fbc9b51e4835afde5d0c7de44fde
'2011-08-20T02:49:11-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEY' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
af6c89df13d3f3d62dab3be2940d829b
5692bbd7bb9b49a35d04d541126b1928c893437e
'2011-08-20T02:51:10-04:00'
describe
'172474' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKEZ' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
fdfd56e756c43036198409f563d41bee
9ad11ad24f292b36d002d73f56874e6b5d7c5e14
'2011-08-20T02:50:41-04:00'
describe
'85762' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFA' 'sip-files00059.pro'
82d317f85f786fc7b2827902ac6e7c72
062793ec1e06910540d21311eff05793fa6112b5
describe
'44003' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFB' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
e1d39838c50897a920db62f8bf309909
29532023edda53973c81017aa4a9b17cf6aa3679
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFC' 'sip-files00059.tif'
ba3cfc1a29050f46d64c148625c5ace1
c7177b206a8e53196f9621420044abf1af2b6dd7
'2011-08-20T02:48:16-04:00'
describe
'3536' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFD' 'sip-files00059.txt'
63818bdf2fdbfe9a6ea6ae0cebd8797c
1a9eaa728887b0386e90566240f3d325a48c0721
describe
Invalid character
'10280' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFE' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
86d5be51ade73a2ee5b1e90d0e9f81c3
d39ea02a96a91b5d5082c0180489cbe99cab7714
'2011-08-20T02:48:28-04:00'
describe
'773756' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFF' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
f30188a1a5cc9dcd422d43dc09b21442
5d1fe6140c9ca02bb7e9e365fc30927824e4eb7d
'2011-08-20T02:45:31-04:00'
describe
'150233' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFG' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
78c4b5b3232b9c5da35cba72156b59b9
6dd95688a840c4e62db783963373e3d786208f81
describe
'76223' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFH' 'sip-files00060.pro'
a472bffb4d4bf88959332c60481bd894
b6c06ed70dade78e6d9957f15c81e79a6ffbdd34
describe
'38817' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFI' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
9aa1a55af3b4f24d9b8f6f6b8f05c063
b44d548a3a807d6cfb5d194cdb228c4e4ebda0a8
'2011-08-20T02:45:54-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFJ' 'sip-files00060.tif'
b862761286560586e4467c0ea72cfaac
f6d258cb2e3e61e2d402dc7a028a23b498a0de1c
'2011-08-20T02:49:29-04:00'
describe
'3235' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFK' 'sip-files00060.txt'
ee07dd8af0f4ffe5ccaea446d3a7bb41
c073e59b55934f5cb16fd9466125474aea414e7f
describe
'9470' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFL' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
8dd5d7282168c582736f30e3f27c1a36
57f575efc0fc69082e58b5817d90bba44198bdc8
'2011-08-20T02:43:07-04:00'
describe
'773762' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFM' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
a43fc44e4e06e4f2175d45219a3ad5fb
e29bab6a2f0cb949a4c2247fc61d089407cb56d7
'2011-08-20T02:43:53-04:00'
describe
'164830' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFN' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
64c67d7ccaf69c515f8946415dee62a4
863ea05f6bea4f38b09eb91a3e71b7bf7c1c1a19
'2011-08-20T02:45:18-04:00'
describe
'144839' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFO' 'sip-files00061.pro'
9525a760f06dc91c50e963c26e512aaf
5db36f88cb73936853bb8a9075cdd37c71426c7e
describe
'41304' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFP' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
5478aaf281e7ff204207de94b063ca9f
4e140017b13ae44787347d4a51adf13c681378f3
'2011-08-20T02:44:55-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFQ' 'sip-files00061.tif'
00cce2817e4d668db11ec6f4e7c22737
9e34b00714a13b28d20bfead3443e34e39626d1c
'2011-08-20T02:45:49-04:00'
describe
'6182' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFR' 'sip-files00061.txt'
ee0066b29e6415557047dfb170418420
e03306fcdded7f2c0eb1651a138edc2c1d4338b6
'2011-08-20T02:46:44-04:00'
describe
'9621' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFS' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
c0761011a5f0e8445546a40fe84ac9c3
76f4591edc2e96c8769c8f1c4f9bf54e5730dd31
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFT' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
dcc4fbdcf30e840da099cbd91bd64d46
42dd6e1fc8cee7a1bd66404fea240b5570c27256
'2011-08-20T02:43:26-04:00'
describe
'148845' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFU' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
8f2a05a37cd5e48a61948957cca2b38b
f0ec43230caea890b71ca3d886d12087715d0660
describe
'96032' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFV' 'sip-files00062.pro'
ddadad2084edbc453332e643133354bf
73fa7f6e6ac38815a7e216bd5ff231961592afce
describe
'39314' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFW' 'sip-files00062.QC.jpg'
9e6f19ba08275a1050ba7dab58b627c1
6d11c15393d68a81599f5f5e9e1691fbcd26df34
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFX' 'sip-files00062.tif'
27838c6493433a48a4cdaa9cdea90161
b483bab0d3ab5883d59d8422b70801fef59aee87
describe
'4287' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFY' 'sip-files00062.txt'
fd687cca1e294db35d2d5dca514056a6
f0971351a7c0de201e1b647e7d9288bc74399280
'2011-08-20T02:48:12-04:00'
describe
'10255' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKFZ' 'sip-files00062thm.jpg'
6728da82f700fa59aa7012061416bbcc
75822f1f7e2ad19ef99253816f94c41a75a559bc
'2011-08-20T02:46:46-04:00'
describe
'773142' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGA' 'sip-files00063.jp2'
f2c536ae5249530556947a0fb7c006c3
b3f623cce4420f6957dcc6b0774670b0f89bffb0
describe
'138599' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGB' 'sip-files00063.jpg'
84b4da0b419a40a8349a8fa02d426b4d
331b2df2f80eb6ee0fb5beb8f3b5316911e16c0a
describe
'41519' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGC' 'sip-files00063.pro'
dfe47bde97bd0398e2acecae1ab6f2e9
7a727e99fef6021de5b7ec26dbb36a175bcea142
describe
'34701' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGD' 'sip-files00063.QC.jpg'
ab5a846a59af477783ad0bfacb43d63c
a5544e6a1d9a9238e9fa0cc7dfd7fd2e021fee1c
'2011-08-20T02:51:24-04:00'
describe
'18570696' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGE' 'sip-files00063.tif'
e03b91f84a10e90250e9ac06238fc766
f42d09faccc1a93e326be36f33f29ba3f43e2a94
describe
'1716' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGF' 'sip-files00063.txt'
3af6573b8f5b7c968f7099c5e1be01fa
979c385bc20fee25e31479151c147b54a05a15b0
describe
'8378' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGG' 'sip-files00063thm.jpg'
669a581a83f2e19add3f53e3f3a7b399
eadbab437f9be6dad2699031ea436ca8b3ca4de7
'2011-08-20T02:46:55-04:00'
describe
'773789' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGH' 'sip-files00064.jp2'
6e362ea4f418d795d9e223fca00ca85b
44fa5611e60eac3f4ab708996de3c2a1c1c3242f
'2011-08-20T02:44:24-04:00'
describe
'186238' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGI' 'sip-files00064.jpg'
53ad9f8124d89b43253015d3dc75d3de
013230e8c9123f40ff8aabdb0cb9986d8fe4b13e
describe
'135482' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGJ' 'sip-files00064.pro'
9438e83d70c89d1136a6b642544e79fd
417f2077af6585572516b843799371e5e4ca4599
'2011-08-20T02:44:12-04:00'
describe
'47308' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGK' 'sip-files00064.QC.jpg'
4a277efef4eec6822750c90bf6ed152c
c93f01e881961469534ac0e34a65c05ebbd3e4a1
'2011-08-20T02:45:39-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGL' 'sip-files00064.tif'
0b92d75f6fb910e227e0374245a16878
9520328ae4ecce43cb923e09fd5ca8597d2d7742
'2011-08-20T02:44:19-04:00'
describe
'5421' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGM' 'sip-files00064.txt'
14762e8a0aec8708a1fce7504d5b8286
af8273ce33af9d11a65c9b49c7736ecb803331be
describe
Invalid character
'10708' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGN' 'sip-files00064thm.jpg'
40d32dee591ec2fb3306b91d516e4d18
51b524552eab55655d1dea5fe1ac08a8d220b880
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGO' 'sip-files00065.jp2'
f1f9c5d5920d139639fbb4048df6e644
ed6dfe8f0da1893d96f27e7092c6daa2409dbab2
describe
'172356' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGP' 'sip-files00065.jpg'
646f290c8428a6e2d63b6293de8d8d64
031d6dbf27b213c3b0bc786155a309a577d85666
'2011-08-20T02:49:23-04:00'
describe
'97937' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGQ' 'sip-files00065.pro'
a71aaf2c6fea7f305fee91764463d60d
08674d13f58c0c8ec0efb36343314d20ac30e4ac
describe
'43892' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGR' 'sip-files00065.QC.jpg'
24f2d85b9a0663738607a17ed3d04a41
1afc885bb357bce3490d8c7502b288e59d95480d
'2011-08-20T02:49:57-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGS' 'sip-files00065.tif'
5c057e298bb2087f48978359f963e808
88a4262a0010f81389262e801aa4a11366080cf4
'2011-08-20T02:44:16-04:00'
describe
'3997' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGT' 'sip-files00065.txt'
743d6c98818815734078e387a04e10e9
aaa8f6db5870f7b6cafa9e7043e6ddf3660899f7
describe
'10219' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGU' 'sip-files00065thm.jpg'
8b690d78359ba9929e9989bb00f26194
ee2d74c745033d0827ffc3fefbd185db3d596dd4
'2011-08-20T02:51:31-04:00'
describe
'773783' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGV' 'sip-files00066.jp2'
adca9429131d1997c0be76bdc4dfe07a
e26349b7443e345d6bea2acbd61670835ffb61cf
'2011-08-20T02:49:33-04:00'
describe
'177785' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGW' 'sip-files00066.jpg'
94ff7eb7ab1b5e900429a8c21bf35357
4153574b93447a76cd6cf7bee13acba4c13597d0
'2011-08-20T02:50:24-04:00'
describe
'115078' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGX' 'sip-files00066.pro'
bf5e8b32296cd804e80ad8f83ebf98b4
cd747314856cb11692bee9f31574c3c97dbfe983
describe
'45477' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGY' 'sip-files00066.QC.jpg'
348f3217a6a3d9bd6b49151081b92ee8
ca051f472513108e59ab3efae4042c1017e3d805
'2011-08-20T02:48:23-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKGZ' 'sip-files00066.tif'
2ebfe67250528a4ba8a6a7cd9ce98cf9
274c60f08f3fbaf2be62d2070683fcdb2053512f
'2011-08-20T02:50:03-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHA' 'sip-files00066.txt'
59ca311f6fcd1581a9a72c2e2bd84d07
8437fab218401e1716e5e6edecc62a03ef52b5ea
'2011-08-20T02:48:01-04:00'
describe
'10405' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHB' 'sip-files00066thm.jpg'
60b9d6024dada2bc7a57e9880a587bba
2b8e7e0170050cf59e70277fa5a4e4b0a28f44e5
describe
'773743' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHC' 'sip-files00067.jp2'
7a01e46f4333872b3b5833d035c4e940
beb9b4731050270ef954d854036132d817f8b68b
'2011-08-20T02:44:27-04:00'
describe
'180565' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHD' 'sip-files00067.jpg'
63e93b4483420963de0d5813252c0a9a
fe68ba8031a82854caf88289e959dc4a540c3edf
describe
'93224' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHE' 'sip-files00067.pro'
750e9989a503f7731a4c399bb0c61880
6a0594a5cc0fd3573060e0e5a1baa699d31d172e
describe
'45231' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHF' 'sip-files00067.QC.jpg'
1b8ab22138c22f592d3eb465ed95481d
df55d97fa36332fbe94f5912ae03a4ced9ae1cb0
'2011-08-20T02:42:55-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHG' 'sip-files00067.tif'
ed8492b5f4671c2407b9b01bbad64160
36b79cfc3ec060e20509e9b31800a9c7c02f4d1b
describe
'4057' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHH' 'sip-files00067.txt'
5b49d8fc40a0f50e24682e9fdc79feef
b6fd264eb5a2a1e28fcf311e41b3992fa8a05312
describe
Invalid character
'10422' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHI' 'sip-files00067thm.jpg'
ac0aed1a44c7e238fc83199e8cf314e3
3e1c1d806845fe33478b06c7642b8d5968288bd9
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHJ' 'sip-files00068.jp2'
b0fac3ace38c27f0cd4eb431ab696073
bdf2062e0bee8cc5e773bd757270122a0ccd61a0
describe
'173989' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHK' 'sip-files00068.jpg'
7fc8f303da22719f88f856d437ec0aa3
76dc09deac636d33ddfa1783fe90556b46e7d97c
describe
'135970' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHL' 'sip-files00068.pro'
e8da7720e0ade4184d7d3ba75d0d5c0c
b6dd6ab62d62937b2db6a0959f8798464a96e2db
'2011-08-20T02:45:32-04:00'
describe
'44458' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHM' 'sip-files00068.QC.jpg'
accd7a490248d1ce798f2807dea7b1db
33fa767a1cb639b1b890c799be0df3638fc088c8
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHN' 'sip-files00068.tif'
10e2e5c2f15c478c099f5f1fe15d1f64
1a48f1d2780f2c86ab1ee139185e9d310946b82d
describe
'5608' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHO' 'sip-files00068.txt'
c51e0929c791febd9d306df1d842664c
512e49997fed1ce7968d60aa10cdb3387aa5bd87
'2011-08-20T02:46:01-04:00'
describe
'10180' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHP' 'sip-files00068thm.jpg'
ee58066e09f93f489f6b7c401e8842ee
fdd49d8fe780b99ec228262239f81e2c32d1aa11
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHQ' 'sip-files00069.jp2'
908b4453b07d802c107ea9d78fc06135
9bb40a56b38505c836d3c1353caf8ce011ddf3cb
'2011-08-20T02:43:31-04:00'
describe
'164528' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHR' 'sip-files00069.jpg'
23b55969a281fbf5f9f97110f757aae3
7bfd82509c2d8643ca707398363fc6fa949c302b
describe
'120307' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHS' 'sip-files00069.pro'
58cb547ae72a9baa5250fd0d1f783b06
888f584eaf5921068e7e380aac9122851896394e
'2011-08-20T02:49:37-04:00'
describe
'41899' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHT' 'sip-files00069.QC.jpg'
462992b248ca48537b58fb280d25be09
2128e7ba9cf8e07a62b1c520314235b89c198ce6
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHU' 'sip-files00069.tif'
ac5f5216bdae7147b98a438d23d211ee
8066110d6ce5879f39397f6ffeb7e9b2273937fd
'2011-08-20T02:48:41-04:00'
describe
'5031' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHV' 'sip-files00069.txt'
6fe4843e8df2a0c7af9e6174472b31c2
00672abd4aabc29b8f1024480a3aa8ef4230bfd6
'2011-08-20T02:43:04-04:00'
describe
'9832' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHW' 'sip-files00069thm.jpg'
0567c48b2f9252be4c8879569dc7ddfe
117823bf7cd4ed7c8e29afbaee98ed8fc2063b9d
'2011-08-20T02:43:22-04:00'
describe
'773738' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHX' 'sip-files00070.jp2'
12302b98ec7a4aee31be493d3178313c
5b0511c8ec3325599f70b6d0f8402041cc421495
describe
'175174' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHY' 'sip-files00070.jpg'
127660c9b70e1af447dfac899f5bec4a
3166312ef8fbb9c58af14c99f15a078f7eea6e62
describe
'114535' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKHZ' 'sip-files00070.pro'
7308fadde41aa98c8777069a81b4d06c
a19a72d33fef1cfeb9a8fb19b60245f1a7a65b37
describe
'43671' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIA' 'sip-files00070.QC.jpg'
7d463815ddb601d2280c36b7a26ac5b8
c2f9ee2c733b96afb6187c9022166c992a5d20cc
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIB' 'sip-files00070.tif'
9f912807f34df3f7bdb342b836a38b43
444c609dbe97178338f08615eae65637a5c3179a
'2011-08-20T02:49:28-04:00'
describe
'4686' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIC' 'sip-files00070.txt'
edae360831104ad5d6d432b832d78642
44e20640a0a81b19f7ba819f2845da14b92dbe69
describe
'10011' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKID' 'sip-files00070thm.jpg'
c9c76177db881d61dca293c7ab1b9aab
f2c0c0b639cfb25e2a741805f1ae657d1d18a774
'2011-08-20T02:47:02-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIE' 'sip-files00071.jp2'
acee90a551f7c6e018431781b25ae4be
b50da61e50177a19a669775bc1a00064b0a05802
describe
'170206' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIF' 'sip-files00071.jpg'
4d7dcefcc569d3751c4bfed23ab536de
b583b831cc3416a7232bc925434281b77bda69d7
describe
'106373' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIG' 'sip-files00071.pro'
86417d5051fcbfa2ca4473f4299c5175
52477416163870f37932356bb58b2b981247ef67
'2011-08-20T02:44:52-04:00'
describe
'43984' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIH' 'sip-files00071.QC.jpg'
d7fc3d5944e806b0c24e133813ecf303
55d63a652beac777994cbfeadce92d969a7b135f
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKII' 'sip-files00071.tif'
6d75847b932dc5bcdd9eee0a813da6ce
3ff4f615142baffeec2442935508df969aad35ee
describe
'4363' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIJ' 'sip-files00071.txt'
3ffa3026fa0f1105374f3168947849e8
af24b4683d0a16f2e415dfe9b06c5d55fe7132c6
'2011-08-20T02:43:27-04:00'
describe
'10377' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIK' 'sip-files00071thm.jpg'
249637abfac65205556be9ed977a5eee
459efd5da03f659610aad8da38572228af98a9f1
'2011-08-20T02:48:49-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIL' 'sip-files00072.jp2'
3b27715bdc81e966e2eb8f7fe25cfa81
5370ff8a0d74f845dab135762c49e3e36ddd722c
describe
'160124' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIM' 'sip-files00072.jpg'
ecc412b9aa52268a78476c2eb445bd1d
6a409e3181f12e8b2b38dce1e6afcc0a3cb68fca
'2011-08-20T02:43:30-04:00'
describe
'84601' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIN' 'sip-files00072.pro'
f4ecd28efb7412601df40f1b8c728bb1
2278266556ce8f65d9b7dbf4a5cacc4f3d0fc89f
describe
'39930' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIO' 'sip-files00072.QC.jpg'
7b3fc58fd64eed740643d75bbbd06408
1a84b932d315ffa2e2c2a035d2bda8b5545eb232
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIP' 'sip-files00072.tif'
ae3819c9d2431c2f5c83532d63eba5f1
3fc0dd6c47b85d805a1a76e885473313543cc82f
'2011-08-20T02:45:55-04:00'
describe
'3708' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIQ' 'sip-files00072.txt'
8565725e24c205e03a83f732f8434e83
7e89e18827064f4435661961e3de03fada439524
describe
Invalid character
'9569' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIR' 'sip-files00072thm.jpg'
d8b1f1046af07c888dd393197224da18
de2b9f766411725dd75357b93e7ef8952c7e0099
describe
'773773' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIS' 'sip-files00073.jp2'
a3c435cc838395806553e860e64072b8
cd28847881f73e3e25630af377f6190c6d3af78f
describe
'168623' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIT' 'sip-files00073.jpg'
917508b09fed965d8f1a0ec8b3790f47
a8fecf24376b7552a4fbf4f6ef694077440f8347
describe
'98310' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIU' 'sip-files00073.pro'
3bdc56e258334baf584458a819ce1bb9
b6a0068ff595af563fca6842b9165d54460b9f9d
describe
'44015' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIV' 'sip-files00073.QC.jpg'
b708c9057ef67e5c54af391b4caf1823
3ffe477f26435ebac30baad3da50b625670a39f0
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIW' 'sip-files00073.tif'
d243d5879a6937a7a8d08d31aea0ec16
16addc036a7a51ac67eb3da63d2c33d668c7bd94
describe
'4016' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIX' 'sip-files00073.txt'
1f9476937da16fa651e493ce2804bb9b
38bf2d9e76f9e4ee4df1962bc30ea5fc5973f488
describe
'10507' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIY' 'sip-files00073thm.jpg'
76bec5089a9e44e68fe3bad8f547b791
de4fecb96171581007b82fae4e0206cb9d1118d1
'2011-08-20T02:45:16-04:00'
describe
'790726' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKIZ' 'sip-files00074.jp2'
ca3e9fc2da61b1fbac87e7627b935259
d3188b3c96eabaed13cbe50f834ae6d823475e68
describe
'84532' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJA' 'sip-files00074.jpg'
0b6318b3e61e597347a764253d3142dc
18ce3b50e31a17033ae7f91aa723537c3a03e492
'2011-08-20T02:48:06-04:00'
describe
'6727' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJB' 'sip-files00074.pro'
226e425d7c48ff44128c687f8a04e008
5fc6cd8c509a54220272ab09de35fb074a324dec
'2011-08-20T02:49:53-04:00'
describe
'21638' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJC' 'sip-files00074.QC.jpg'
ac66630b851ebd036725398a4d8cf57c
cf7520c15badf35d08fa2f05a8e3d6e845a1519f
describe
'18992244' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJD' 'sip-files00074.tif'
5fb7dec2b6bb49dceb0593c9a55ec8e8
53e1e459e677d6f533151f2a9190ba5b8b23d808
'2011-08-20T02:50:44-04:00'
describe
'369' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJE' 'sip-files00074.txt'
0f2004ea6366f5694505bc0096309735
c08b30f9322c41a6fb42e11fba1c83e8d22edd2c
describe
'5736' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJF' 'sip-files00074thm.jpg'
67c25fd49fb31c45303e989ea0868d64
9ceedf3141fe806f4dd932dfae7a203ee1f8b777
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJG' 'sip-files00075.jp2'
ce2d49ba1f8183bb4475c9b4f1fade44
89795dd44859e5cd81972fde752e98cf0212cce5
describe
'180204' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJH' 'sip-files00075.jpg'
d904594ba3911799083f9dc0d527ed40
c2d8dd0f8d64c3e23a7e1b159bb3c40a08896abc
describe
'107385' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJI' 'sip-files00075.pro'
5b6ea7c568d5f52e6aee49c935982fe3
9adab068d7b10517a1ef3327a5975ab35e1b63d5
describe
'47079' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJJ' 'sip-files00075.QC.jpg'
ef6237f1f3246059b7462f4e3fb28286
05614642c285efbb4145f4fd3e93b4d3d6110690
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJK' 'sip-files00075.tif'
ac85c63930b544c2c6e0525afd1187a3
c3a6dcc1aabc17fb9a9ab8395a29c30f102b1fbe
describe
'4507' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJL' 'sip-files00075.txt'
0ef14c307cce4e39fc67b05a3f06ceb8
3fa94ec4119b52e04224944e73a9c13c1358c4b0
describe
'11633' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJM' 'sip-files00075thm.jpg'
09ac3a73bd48a74833771a98f73ec500
6b25947bab7cb128c56f7b165b9a5cc8d72e89e6
'2011-08-20T02:50:08-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJN' 'sip-files00076.jp2'
7e377d774cf6d1577d4f14b710c521a3
f75826a0859f946dee4c3921440ce5435be8da67
describe
'172317' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJO' 'sip-files00076.jpg'
e775e88c56dcffc0e935d121321ddf8f
68c6c4879b320469a124868a0c61b2746135d10a
'2011-08-20T02:48:51-04:00'
describe
'99676' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJP' 'sip-files00076.pro'
30b8af305da9c3685e68af4a92ced0b8
8741788d6ff869d4f12e15d2e23d37e985f0d72d
describe
'43891' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJQ' 'sip-files00076.QC.jpg'
dd6c4bffc06e2ea7fcbf0c26070321c9
524abc471d788b362feae04a1fdaff7bef328855
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJR' 'sip-files00076.tif'
7255db158cb012df3934cc83cd8ffbc3
2c45ec4c23c7c88e29c25d162dc94d7054aac5e5
'2011-08-20T02:48:46-04:00'
describe
'4104' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJS' 'sip-files00076.txt'
c241ffe2f05f3017f2f129e7e5d214bc
a24718b37a4772bdc13b4ca5a43dc96b12a7738c
describe
'10019' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJT' 'sip-files00076thm.jpg'
3df049d0396f3bc5bf936d1424e0b29a
d7e9bbba695c076a6992e0cbd73b9534cce81ab9
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJU' 'sip-files00077.jp2'
deb5616042b9a698db792037e1c64298
102a65c6aa91f6ac2b625c0f6aa037598ade6c9d
'2011-08-20T02:48:59-04:00'
describe
'183672' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJV' 'sip-files00077.jpg'
d6844dc32b8c24a7686a474098366468
16bb2c3f06fc032779adb2f32bee6fdad7801c6e
describe
'157797' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJW' 'sip-files00077.pro'
75b42db3dc248f2143660f05f439d553
826af9ac175d3ee5d30a167a7e23e8fe06c1d122
'2011-08-20T02:47:24-04:00'
describe
'45859' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJX' 'sip-files00077.QC.jpg'
72150b3cc30249047cd08d95f03513a9
816b052fbeaa58789f8fc0e1e2ebb9ac85302aac
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJY' 'sip-files00077.tif'
661589a4a00d03ba7550360b33713bc5
9951d8230836b76256f9b558aca0336c543de7da
describe
'6508' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKJZ' 'sip-files00077.txt'
686cca039f50c74fb12292106c10e701
257b80e335fd432e56017ff7df3c472e52c82f3d
describe
'10494' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKA' 'sip-files00077thm.jpg'
b23ff53e16bbaeb75e35e9d5b51cd64d
e0ddf157b4dcd1313287b30e99a20a8e63c72bc5
describe
'764307' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKB' 'sip-files00078.jp2'
8e4a613a07268311397002d8a333c139
853d242ad4384d6d7b1e67f0714b0aca5c24991d
describe
'131899' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKC' 'sip-files00078.jpg'
31abbca9252bb290f47ec9927918657d
d25a805df9bc358ae968d04f62527ab4c8814e48
describe
'93378' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKD' 'sip-files00078.pro'
16dd811cfa5fbceb8737eae8bb2550f8
5355018e8686612e3e6985e7f034b0fc2c365fa1
'2011-08-20T02:50:02-04:00'
describe
'34839' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKE' 'sip-files00078.QC.jpg'
714de7c614606ac96b9e275b1c9417b4
418a23145bd2041fcdeab80c390d4693b252f7fb
describe
'6130896' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKF' 'sip-files00078.tif'
640f3c08ffe6239cda57287f07205a4f
1eba26e301ae0866f1d6207a16d261748416e7fc
describe
'3911' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKG' 'sip-files00078.txt'
8aadbb83b7fb47836c67981eb1eaa88f
116542d79201384e75e5cfd9831720787e20d271
describe
'8409' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKH' 'sip-files00078thm.jpg'
5f2d9c4ce3a0772b35b2fd7e281d8fde
a9283612df5f77b45759eeab1fabda0e78bf83d7
describe
'773715' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKI' 'sip-files00079.jp2'
b103eba5b51df73ebbc7e46d556f6bad
312c32468039f77b757e33bfa3ff481778e18e54
'2011-08-20T02:48:50-04:00'
describe
'166149' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKJ' 'sip-files00079.jpg'
998ceabe4763669e793e9814011748d1
a9664a41f42452f90853fc414152ae026d313817
'2011-08-20T02:50:56-04:00'
describe
'119468' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKK' 'sip-files00079.pro'
086fdc7fa00736c96964d0f34265cdc5
7a5a458feb56ac8e3a0d274edbe8f063d1680634
describe
'42352' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKL' 'sip-files00079.QC.jpg'
8fcc87477f0fce76350d4bcd49125931
343f263ede634130ed088b796474ab19118487a8
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKM' 'sip-files00079.tif'
e3c13acb735e113eb9c7a743495aaac5
a64f07a9fc5dde104e1cd063d31876dce016a610
describe
'4870' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKN' 'sip-files00079.txt'
18b95df0238e57931bc26e02de7f3c3b
fd8e1f4819e535f373645019f8fc92609b6ba03c
'2011-08-20T02:51:08-04:00'
describe
'9728' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKO' 'sip-files00079thm.jpg'
8c4b9ad892d1f448e79d541f8bbc6770
cc10b5f52e5da77e2b04ddaf6f484c2a2fa605a5
describe
'765905' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKP' 'sip-files00080.jp2'
e9390fad0e4af1687e13f337d393bcfa
c4a7b6890fc98b42f3b90c14e1ff0d2556492838
describe
'185212' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKQ' 'sip-files00080.jpg'
29221cf6fb5062398c358377ae90e2f4
aba1d88c0190e55ce17c83bbda9ff51745b6a45c
describe
'122883' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKR' 'sip-files00080.pro'
b363966a0374a6e36586f6fa4b3cc192
4fe6a30daf436d2e0664e9e287e68e3cb66fa960
describe
'48128' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKS' 'sip-files00080.QC.jpg'
8355b72fdb46ca87cca26efc9442bfdf
ff6e6ca384ca83910f94db9d71b7fd7f3242367e
describe
'6143532' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKT' 'sip-files00080.tif'
38a9281d97b3a754ff7987340fadd14d
19a8e6264cb843c3cbd999b7e5781f7f9643e5fe
describe
'5015' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKU' 'sip-files00080.txt'
cb492e70ae958ac1211db430b2416c8a
6663ff89bf97ea852a4a96d5f8f9ed4664a3de19
describe
Invalid character
'10895' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKV' 'sip-files00080thm.jpg'
f3dace18da616764d5c436842ffe50b0
6d9e3853f064a748e70112a9d91b989bc312faca
describe
'773553' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKW' 'sip-files00081.jp2'
f9a776a54275a05406408d8ee1eaf6bb
51c9bfdb52ed2a4b4a92af1cfddf2a6294aeb727
describe
'159140' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKX' 'sip-files00081.jpg'
ffa37d3c8b302ef5f02caa965ed8b3ea
3023d6b477b32172d4ec7b537a47c1ce82a99a2a
'2011-08-20T02:48:27-04:00'
describe
'88895' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKY' 'sip-files00081.pro'
5ceae442e11f2ac18aee76842d320254
4002abc0963bf2b6a64d615f211b1394bdf3d9f1
'2011-08-20T02:50:18-04:00'
describe
'41089' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKKZ' 'sip-files00081.QC.jpg'
9d84a292f8443a170e954114bd2dad54
7ca23d98ff489c0e6da79c12e0e0a2ae597bc0ed
describe
'6206708' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLA' 'sip-files00081.tif'
f800402c03eea0665c79829bc4c81e80
017e3268a9aed4ca14a16b1d8e89491fa9a7321b
'2011-08-20T02:47:18-04:00'
describe
'3719' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLB' 'sip-files00081.txt'
56d5898f7ba593c038d6b58ef1269098
17a24b68afbc48ff2d70620eb52338e73723c7ce
describe
'9953' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLC' 'sip-files00081thm.jpg'
0c410a381ec7064ee4e4059eeee0857e
f8d7b826da63539ed352f13eebc8710c817a9102
describe
'761365' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLD' 'sip-files00082.jp2'
499a87f895e5c70033cac761ea0461e0
c1ea1f92b1a92492a1765995a224507f9dc74554
describe
'187694' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLE' 'sip-files00082.jpg'
9439cc1bb8c330ed29be442fee5277e9
b530841ef958d18599ec3edcc64e53d9db372d08
describe
'121989' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLF' 'sip-files00082.pro'
00752718b1877635cc50fbde99db723f
61acd1520043536f6f11aeb7b638d84c551a39b2
'2011-08-20T02:49:41-04:00'
describe
'48311' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLG' 'sip-files00082.QC.jpg'
da2edeb0cfc964051c59b99e6df42df7
00a40a3d2dae91600d9314e082e5bc9b5fc4024a
'2011-08-20T02:44:38-04:00'
describe
'6108704' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLH' 'sip-files00082.tif'
03042bbe02732d4ae7d2f40d114b821f
9476a80ffa252317c978243a0e5ebbe5e77db617
'2011-08-20T02:45:22-04:00'
describe
'4951' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLI' 'sip-files00082.txt'
dcfcd13f8127ca27c9492640a978d912
2f86af66cde3e50d3661dd02e5674faf91af0642
describe
'11744' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLJ' 'sip-files00082thm.jpg'
538c16d149d0b55f6542527a1b04a99a
fa5e92ba6249958f941623e84291220b521459cf
describe
'777689' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLK' 'sip-files00083.jp2'
662cb2bff7d4417d92d864edc459012b
fbb764bbc8722d0ac1722732ba77e962b502da9b
'2011-08-20T02:48:54-04:00'
describe
'157822' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLL' 'sip-files00083.jpg'
c3727203627bd47052fc15cd003bc97b
bb1666891699a2600002be6debc300432f46eaed
'2011-08-20T02:44:18-04:00'
describe
'100300' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLM' 'sip-files00083.pro'
4581d857db28b63ea508d8cf4f890c53
06e99d98b7f46ce4d51edeb5a3b2db3e3501c04b
'2011-08-20T02:50:16-04:00'
describe
'38871' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLN' 'sip-files00083.QC.jpg'
05e175aaad05e2304dfc10a19e020a57
16171f6f2b73abe84ad2086de0a5c90995f258cb
'2011-08-20T02:43:54-04:00'
describe
'18679544' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLO' 'sip-files00083.tif'
f990676e164ed59867aa8e9b05fd7885
ec54f8c2f0b7f75ab2603061b36718ae4a9b8648
describe
'4123' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLP' 'sip-files00083.txt'
2eccee29b4af8a1c01d26ba51740262e
8e12b520968751de5474422ea48037bb81fd5d34
describe
'9203' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLQ' 'sip-files00083thm.jpg'
436da1d8fb3e8b1d17d9053ce6186445
03547473e03b678312018b27633fa6e128345754
'2011-08-20T02:48:31-04:00'
describe
'773759' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLR' 'sip-files00084.jp2'
0ee77b6e707015ebab76171b9f19d723
73c2d86b2ca6b996b8052d675390c94323eb7252
describe
'169784' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLS' 'sip-files00084.jpg'
9e4d0611ed644f18606fbdedc0c9c832
775ff7ce6b55f20fdfa4b061278e34464679444e
describe
'69423' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLT' 'sip-files00084.pro'
677f0632608c95f2a31103739db66e9e
c837a7b8965cf5ba553305d632175a68267abab7
'2011-08-20T02:50:09-04:00'
describe
'44663' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLU' 'sip-files00084.QC.jpg'
e37d3896ef79011596a271d823028e0e
9f8c5d88e88c28954a9b4f1abef03aad21b14ce7
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLV' 'sip-files00084.tif'
23544aa1d3419a2aa449b564b8e49ae2
f650329ce79c22cac2663768a8aea5e809e0b63a
'2011-08-20T02:45:43-04:00'
describe
'2736' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLW' 'sip-files00084.txt'
a8da1af94a8ba5fbd6bf1f16da173cac
b8a35105f015fd746c0089da67be0824e6814f38
'2011-08-20T02:43:36-04:00'
describe
'10265' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLX' 'sip-files00084thm.jpg'
7b6ba3fe5a1a5664848f2bc604322793
2b6a8188dbb7ca20a2ecc0414fa2389e124768ab
'2011-08-20T02:51:42-04:00'
describe
'773782' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLY' 'sip-files00085.jp2'
6328006e3d484eb3a31d36f2ebe2eb8e
5c2c8547d428b4b31f68f5094139bdbb7e1ed4b4
describe
'185145' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKLZ' 'sip-files00085.jpg'
8d515fe094ace6e1e9a91619324e1f02
940d2750fdff9cf647e9302b62e53fa90832ca61
'2011-08-20T02:50:01-04:00'
describe
'131573' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMA' 'sip-files00085.pro'
7032d2952053b4a0cca1072398fa9534
23489fbe6c834334ac7266f700685e85cf4f40fe
describe
'46724' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMB' 'sip-files00085.QC.jpg'
37fe2c0fdc71fa6609d00bafcc7ee45c
4dd4106ecff2e3c83dcd4caf7b87c5efbd90c920
'2011-08-20T02:46:03-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMC' 'sip-files00085.tif'
1f22425d65c2378201ea8ca167d3dfe5
8685dc05532d4772f41f0dfa84f752bd2d7e31a8
describe
'5317' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMD' 'sip-files00085.txt'
b99a48c4a902c5f4490e8d94d4e619e9
260b157051139990442aa349915831f3862db583
describe
'10655' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKME' 'sip-files00085thm.jpg'
7e7bf4defc543d083423414e4dc5bede
37e3e2827841ad7c2b8b88bdf578d6b204c80b76
'2011-08-20T02:49:04-04:00'
describe
'773697' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMF' 'sip-files00086.jp2'
33e2d9dbe810fad7bd175b55a23b7e29
0575c79f68fdfbdf063cff03d47106e44165c0dd
describe
'175840' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMG' 'sip-files00086.jpg'
578a5f3a5df815e7983bb0c95b9bb638
27fb1d0f4f51daa2fca2ffc924ee7bf407c75d8f
'2011-08-20T02:43:24-04:00'
describe
'119614' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMH' 'sip-files00086.pro'
c7d213853cd465272bdd46b93fabd534
3efb4c72f6fd684052e6e055cdf2450983e389da
'2011-08-20T02:43:45-04:00'
describe
'45329' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMI' 'sip-files00086.QC.jpg'
91ba77016930098ea4478408c7f3f217
5d18c42c80d609e7bf428a6f8a2720ec5353a132
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMJ' 'sip-files00086.tif'
0a387385c49706de1dd349997f987418
b1c82269b7d2e1c57a438e10d68b2e4c4d989cc0
describe
'4952' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMK' 'sip-files00086.txt'
3d5de2273c1cb647b557a4bcd63c9e2d
fa76929813c9a4e1ffcb137436ed1c4bc72f6793
describe
'11220' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKML' 'sip-files00086thm.jpg'
93244106ef4018210621591df86c7128
ddda86aec75c800a611f7ff5755402bc76c432fe
describe
'787379' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMM' 'sip-files00087.jp2'
ac319233100b3eeb8e3afcefdfde135d
5373693851760c254233629bafe71268216d912a
'2011-08-20T02:51:39-04:00'
describe
'102967' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMN' 'sip-files00087.jpg'
3f003ac4b824813ce7994bf305cbb269
20cc39481093737a1699760bbeebde90b7af838c
'2011-08-20T02:45:26-04:00'
describe
'41946' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMO' 'sip-files00087.pro'
06e6e31d6a5d3643a42385648646c0f7
3a20d66efb10a7a2a900ca4e216fa97d7d529623
describe
'25366' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMP' 'sip-files00087.QC.jpg'
bfac73f2b7d8f2fb614b8cd824b1de28
893174c317d896f21832f02853fb2828fabcc8e9
describe
'18912216' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMQ' 'sip-files00087.tif'
6990adfbe54d7247abd5b9a6df4cb4f7
6c3c5d8a129f19880dae85e16219965a09adc44c
'2011-08-20T02:45:58-04:00'
describe
'2179' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMR' 'sip-files00087.txt'
e92448242455782d904a96bd043a9f8a
98b5772bf65636208fca9e608f96ea482c09dd94
describe
Invalid character
'6340' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMS' 'sip-files00087thm.jpg'
60aa7277037a681ddd3e8d4f84df1789
516c3bdc7ace131389253b62204a9dde4d933865
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMT' 'sip-files00088.jp2'
995a392765ea7d5371ee0d05eaf3c928
e40686f0f64f68d8ae511c424e69270fd87a242d
describe
'166597' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMU' 'sip-files00088.jpg'
5b875fddeadf2fd4656a7e156cae40dc
693e1f58de155e3dbce1982d8d5c089b3f4b2248
describe
'114472' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMV' 'sip-files00088.pro'
0337301900188fedaf34443176b180a8
7dc2dab53c2324da1ee9bb3c84168c142f9284a8
describe
'43053' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMW' 'sip-files00088.QC.jpg'
653d4d1ffba07fe3a8dbde9b3983a64e
abe4c744c34f7e118ce6f64583eb4d408e90bde3
'2011-08-20T02:50:37-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMX' 'sip-files00088.tif'
ce4d932053982ba57ffdba04990aa4ae
55676b5fe2234d850d84139b6f879185442affc3
describe
'4825' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMY' 'sip-files00088.txt'
ab86442c578884d25e3e7e78d0169422
e0154e49fd4ac21c4e2c569409a17c931c24d1bd
describe
'9981' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKMZ' 'sip-files00088thm.jpg'
6fd0deaba1a6aa09f256df118427c74a
68896ee144fdc0f7222f6ddbafe56788faea726f
describe
'773761' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNA' 'sip-files00089.jp2'
6b73fdca489a393a9746be86461383be
33f9f284abde177bea8d70a1382ecb4f0777162b
'2011-08-20T02:51:19-04:00'
describe
'164100' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNB' 'sip-files00089.jpg'
683aacda4483802fce4941c692aabc0e
1b5e5d63f4ff2a50a2dafd06ac2da914caed9402
'2011-08-20T02:49:38-04:00'
describe
'134729' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNC' 'sip-files00089.pro'
2d3941b5ecb0e1090a6cbe96661213f0
c26146c0add513af27a2e5598e9fa6703b167b86
describe
'41481' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKND' 'sip-files00089.QC.jpg'
943f032b361a0a8188bdd235389b2631
a2b4e4312a98e8e1e11ed7fcbd74be38427521c3
'2011-08-20T02:50:57-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNE' 'sip-files00089.tif'
f411c84c70e11861087b32a4ae1f00fe
0a31d585d45074e577ea42e7f5a4205bfeebcb5f
'2011-08-20T02:42:59-04:00'
describe
'5531' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNF' 'sip-files00089.txt'
002da336bb1082e759bcc075ee5b1ec8
b04e744c631830f6c4884937ffba1aeb492d438c
'2011-08-20T02:46:25-04:00'
describe
'9626' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNG' 'sip-files00089thm.jpg'
dadb0e6d584a4bf65acd23a8f1963402
23f09339c44b9d06bd3909d4d52b7afa9c8d0d6c
describe
'773698' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNH' 'sip-files00090.jp2'
d714d130fe1111070736e957a6554e04
11c284c47ae948093048c4f53e1582b94f13bb9e
describe
'158783' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNI' 'sip-files00090.jpg'
3bb673d7fe71032489d4351bf02c4e0d
f110121c33c114d811ac3f8cecc0649dbbe0d7c9
describe
'129358' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNJ' 'sip-files00090.pro'
dbf9c0dcd4ba3a5c3fefede30fb8c6a9
c82c0d723a5319a402fa5a186e4e5b158224de6c
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNK' 'sip-files00090.QC.jpg'
6cf3c6f4872c4be099bc4bda6d4499c5
0b9b36f24c230b92346293262ddde43034200f54
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNL' 'sip-files00090.tif'
458906d43be5aee91eae63e7d4282894
77f537929319bf5986677a57b01261dee5d409b4
'2011-08-20T02:48:20-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNM' 'sip-files00090.txt'
a775cf57378042b4c76a70469cb77898
cd790f191580b2c41f9d757d58016bc60cf51eee
describe
Invalid character
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNN' 'sip-files00090thm.jpg'
9d1e564b6323aa59b955c6080a64638b
f9ea20587e078cd0b9e059b35b96aee262678b87
'2011-08-20T02:50:29-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNO' 'sip-files00091.jp2'
7f2282723880c0051dc4c6f76c9c7ad5
75ba34cb03cdbd631f04277d927d2acefed50a4d
'2011-08-20T02:44:34-04:00'
describe
'135605' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNP' 'sip-files00091.jpg'
355a74f35f6ddcb76ff07b3c769accb9
d05df96856ed4abe1cb95355295b760bc7307752
describe
'40338' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNQ' 'sip-files00091.pro'
abc1eb8667773c4618f82386c87f69de
e7da47bf86c5b05e01048ae565e54e33aa5c7a2e
describe
'34934' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNR' 'sip-files00091.QC.jpg'
0ee15a30e19b199fdce03fbd04237d79
90aae42ccb58055c4381d98c752732faa7ff881b
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNS' 'sip-files00091.tif'
5ad00570cf02a61eb40fe24d91c2f40d
051c8e588c3ecdd71fde512b9e5d37e4caab1bb9
'2011-08-20T02:49:14-04:00'
describe
'1696' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNT' 'sip-files00091.txt'
d4768035b3694ceea74eb64539f35011
612fe387a84521dedd296c624b1ffa6f09472e98
'2011-08-20T02:43:41-04:00'
describe
'8796' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNU' 'sip-files00091thm.jpg'
8f03bdd859e84f14c574c2dd937d1946
fd52fbc39c49a2d1904dd5f23e59722043f1b44e
describe
'773793' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNV' 'sip-files00092.jp2'
d96d36c7756466999a69c54db1973d74
a418ce327de5a6d9e9c3f31ead35858aebb5a855
describe
'167048' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNW' 'sip-files00092.jpg'
f45fcbeddd611170076a3d4a6c6a704d
43f7c2bc283cc03a31dbd873aefbcefbc342e118
describe
'123172' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNX' 'sip-files00092.pro'
b6f6b12387e3c8e458369b9e4cbad5cf
8a5dd8abc681119daec45e846b5ca41e44fcc0dc
'2011-08-20T02:44:21-04:00'
describe
'42755' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNY' 'sip-files00092.QC.jpg'
19e7f03d6a2b1fe6904e69452871d12c
0b35815be195e59fbdd27024aeb31dcb5ca924cf
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKNZ' 'sip-files00092.tif'
2277a01ecf4e4909c0f0712fd5cccc16
f7b630ec4ce93c004c561614b7df5d8dfdb37899
'2011-08-20T02:44:29-04:00'
describe
'5104' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOA' 'sip-files00092.txt'
bec77c29df5eda30a6daa20883e7575d
7c7609cd46372052677b1c4edbb7052b7f974d6f
'2011-08-20T02:50:21-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOB' 'sip-files00092thm.jpg'
6b15d5af2587fb3935e50b785917c2b9
e942cab968b163072e80962b13fb95f48bcd8000
describe
'773732' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOC' 'sip-files00093.jp2'
ff6988e751a297961deb0e3ff1827553
1280c8cc9659d14a6813d49034e327d2a164675f
describe
'164230' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOD' 'sip-files00093.jpg'
32d452b21d4c30074f1173b034db483c
866fcba1b22cc888becdcfd7f4eed36f3b62b7a6
'2011-08-20T02:47:29-04:00'
describe
'118186' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOE' 'sip-files00093.pro'
ca9375c6ccd3ddc55fcca06cdef39e57
d848f67a1e7d2e43fe1c1ae54787184f94ae27f1
describe
'42440' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOF' 'sip-files00093.QC.jpg'
3b54da7d35af2a56ddf4b4f491263181
cd21e5072cc98fc7a0672cb50873e5c307fb69af
'2011-08-20T02:50:13-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOG' 'sip-files00093.tif'
3bcbda206d11810ecc2d652a3a118772
2f77434191d7441aff1e99fef3df74a8d0a6535b
describe
'5014' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOH' 'sip-files00093.txt'
52a402a6eb72abc4497854ac96f58d89
cf6b6ee59b0fecbdeab3e45acbc823e5c571bbe3
describe
Invalid character
'9960' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOI' 'sip-files00093thm.jpg'
61fdb04ef098897d37de9a58495da316
404b88d0092c6a2d1d41b97b34dd19675797412a
describe
'811891' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOJ' 'sip-files00094.jp2'
b2ef05781bc23ebe8699f7699f1a64ba
f70fc249e562ae1023ef637bd87052a922b5f94f
'2011-08-20T02:50:34-04:00'
describe
'93365' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOK' 'sip-files00094.jpg'
577059a6031633d39f007813520dd60c
382a2c5db0cbb1abcbb07457886ffcff9e10b823
'2011-08-20T02:43:32-04:00'
describe
'43512' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOL' 'sip-files00094.pro'
2eb6589a8b2cfd69502db23afc642d5b
77276355ac88db1d49081c9e9dfd913a2d388761
describe
'24009' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOM' 'sip-files00094.QC.jpg'
c17cbe56d639a32ef8c2bf7a7451571e
f6c210d62ad58080a990326a54f0659536813d88
'2011-08-20T02:45:34-04:00'
describe
'19500308' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKON' 'sip-files00094.tif'
7405f9cf7750369fdf2a930462729b6d
cf7e3ecc45dff3758ac7ff411a7be7d86d369117
describe
'2087' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOO' 'sip-files00094.txt'
f96fa312b751b3db6dfba64794e77c6d
ca2bdc54116b098d5f9c2b2f10ff432c136ea3a5
describe
Invalid character
'5935' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOP' 'sip-files00094thm.jpg'
1111d40d02029faef590816f36cf852c
eef0b8c83e0c35dd056a5fc143641ea9e302f2bb
'2011-08-20T02:44:26-04:00'
describe
'773708' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOQ' 'sip-files00095.jp2'
4e3ac190e3513217c45c24e69644d3c0
924c75b09611f36e1524199121a4c7ebc58fefe5
describe
'193362' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOR' 'sip-files00095.jpg'
41e8b7436cbcb4d170daf105e488f307
79f70a7a92a5c94ae81dcd062876acc819ea1f10
describe
'128914' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOS' 'sip-files00095.pro'
405018cd57299ae768cc9b87a99c6279
9ef7999088f5953a07aa263ec3d4e8573fcaecd9
describe
'49902' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOT' 'sip-files00095.QC.jpg'
fb867f5606d90f66ce7e3ab5867d1e83
46aebbfce3e977263ada79d9b957cca64b35ecdb
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOU' 'sip-files00095.tif'
25d5fa08f3ef2f8f7b88c5444bb85136
5f22112939bff9672a8e10be94254a67d6c40f29
'2011-08-20T02:43:47-04:00'
describe
'5198' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOV' 'sip-files00095.txt'
9af01b3d8d11820bdf8e6969e6353e0e
a51c985853d237d231659be725c2294f7405f9ca
describe
'12018' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOW' 'sip-files00095thm.jpg'
3a256ae499d6042e6445d93b0651ca38
44ace6b42ae183cdeb7f72d1b1d66696ab9f62d6
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOX' 'sip-files00096.jp2'
c377baff85797f6d897db70544b60036
b9f12b0c07303cc4d836ede473e73502dfeff5a0
describe
'181260' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOY' 'sip-files00096.jpg'
77cf233b6e5b91fc26c9c371bc3cbdfa
91a61ec23266e0b9ab32b73d94d4d7e9eed25389
describe
'125734' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKOZ' 'sip-files00096.pro'
ef540d5bad841335132492b61219b335
559394c14ff2eb944015732235873b19d292e5d7
'2011-08-20T02:43:28-04:00'
describe
'45579' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPA' 'sip-files00096.QC.jpg'
8314d1149d18f370fa523cdee42f0a86
5e316f6def6d4c5dd3e371a1d8754b3206068d88
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPB' 'sip-files00096.tif'
fa3b550f0c1ccfb4e86ce6d10a487c6b
5465b928c8b874517345338ff9ead09bd32e52f1
describe
'5162' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPC' 'sip-files00096.txt'
ff90815e18fc4e3ebd6002d0ca6f9285
4653dbd0bf017f51e7de0e8757a59f6f68e35711
describe
'10580' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPD' 'sip-files00096thm.jpg'
bf01310b1398c7f140ffb6977b616b22
aa73bd75babe50929fd26f71154cd0941391bcca
'2011-08-20T02:45:04-04:00'
describe
'773739' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPE' 'sip-files00097.jp2'
baee6d9d689ec3e1e1b476d34bf64e1b
ff46071ad46f95efa28c19414169ed62a38ac537
describe
'169546' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPF' 'sip-files00097.jpg'
d23c3076f4d9aac7a89edd14e8b08c2e
1896a1cce1a4b4ac41575467b8ed854a89fb7a11
'2011-08-20T02:48:19-04:00'
describe
'112158' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPG' 'sip-files00097.pro'
6c3f6e6195ebab3754e206a0308a1781
2a283a51927fafae8db9fda5043bd588e49adf70
describe
'44854' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPH' 'sip-files00097.QC.jpg'
c59f54a889c02ec0507a28476b655719
b2cb6c33b0f588de7f1751197b05f15404b60613
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPI' 'sip-files00097.tif'
f13a1d5d88675617eb95735373feb19b
00771a3e54ffe7db89f06d771a1412c5c58cabc5
describe
'4680' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPJ' 'sip-files00097.txt'
3e9c6edf38aa006774d546070e159a0c
f84fb0b1510a20f29e6e92d25040f82e641acce1
describe
'10307' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPK' 'sip-files00097thm.jpg'
fa04a3851bc638cefc75b7dbeb42227e
a8d726d47b32e8f4856905d9e5bd7397e4a5c079
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPL' 'sip-files00098.jp2'
f2ca5c95e85c57615dae92898f1698f5
88710e5effffe4cddf76ac14ee6abb5496249871
describe
'148961' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPM' 'sip-files00098.jpg'
391caa71ca766e90aa7baa75107e04d8
4e4e75d8c46f84ad936bdfd877e1a305b8f677fb
describe
'75280' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPN' 'sip-files00098.pro'
f80d6fa5b5c82ff162a91efcf644d882
657994cc80d2943875531eda6fb3512cb953f8d3
describe
'40022' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPO' 'sip-files00098.QC.jpg'
68c65f103c5fae4aa337c7c80ae17ebb
f7b7b6d26984872631cc46148f0661abbd7afde7
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPP' 'sip-files00098.tif'
e9edcf40fc48ee636a0defd85974d800
a372b895743b6df2e5b2c4cf7545c569f3e05c31
'2011-08-20T02:51:46-04:00'
describe
'3047' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPQ' 'sip-files00098.txt'
aaffc1f59508aa8f0d10bcb84f885490
c5d6a936adb24d6dffc472fa9df8ae025433a24a
describe
'9523' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPR' 'sip-files00098thm.jpg'
1c189a5eb7191e970bc736984e22a740
51ef88b0345665ca2690effab3e3dc612d6f14fb
'2011-08-20T02:47:38-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPS' 'sip-files00099.jp2'
a82aeb9fe98e434972bb67255c778129
b71df570b2e621207f8274c103d570c9b15c9a90
describe
'170422' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPT' 'sip-files00099.jpg'
181b8d5addf642bc200d7ed96cbe1d30
397f6cf0c349ec3c7e45bd1e27b1e036504e8830
describe
'113605' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPU' 'sip-files00099.pro'
b6c30fb4aa6029b0892b7cf10ca21271
9d1484ed7fe59f1ade8f4f0905c68dcc199e734a
'2011-08-20T02:49:30-04:00'
describe
'43057' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPV' 'sip-files00099.QC.jpg'
c66c80d2c02b68e909f063e1bc28a4a6
0c257010a3a82d16a18a0658b851c173edec8edd
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPW' 'sip-files00099.tif'
e3676f59d45307397cb267cc3e56c400
2df17fa9d5554d380ef4115ade32271a886727a1
describe
'4649' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPX' 'sip-files00099.txt'
3873876639be19121dfe889127a5e07e
d85bac7a40ab8c23751c9d5c05adb899e98a63c6
'2011-08-20T02:42:52-04:00'
describe
'10009' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPY' 'sip-files00099thm.jpg'
d3d15c3fa31321d505c780c2921aa9fa
db757584cce1a825de1f0a770b85512ae3aa3f41
describe
'798813' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKPZ' 'sip-files00100.jp2'
fcbb16ce1876bde393292a895060e137
0a2c002245105c47d091255e37bfe748a99f977f
'2011-08-20T02:49:02-04:00'
describe
'94372' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQA' 'sip-files00100.jpg'
8ce5596a11048405d604781f8abdcd76
643b8cc9368903f3ab64e11bfa2be3a2d40d896e
describe
'42015' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQB' 'sip-files00100.pro'
d17d809988119f80e6e2750e93bbb60a
f5f44579be8c24173b73f0907db5a464ee789f92
describe
'24222' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQC' 'sip-files00100.QC.jpg'
cb4f5a76acfd507fdb1dc97e794eacad
227f162ed26b7790aaf74350bb178cc66eef0bfe
'2011-08-20T02:48:52-04:00'
describe
'19186568' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQD' 'sip-files00100.tif'
1a79e09070a8f28d7a554e7f264e202c
c058afe2a972cf8ec1b6c4989a187280c8fa7325
'2011-08-20T02:51:11-04:00'
describe
'2151' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQE' 'sip-files00100.txt'
41c87d871c32d5a37550eaa7309c1245
67fdf82d05b4aeb2234dbe598ba1038e944eda7d
describe
Invalid character
'6109' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQF' 'sip-files00100thm.jpg'
e26f2c487ab331127cc073dac9f1330a
9a549bf60262bd87f1510e74879be31516b74f11
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQG' 'sip-files00101.jp2'
4b5fa2fdea74c1cd1f649b97685c503d
81712650e487dc4ce6ab3f880488ab8691cce0d0
describe
'195635' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQH' 'sip-files00101.jpg'
984d8d562ab1c959cb8f3dbe2e2ae6e1
c0ffb66babadd745c987bcf775fea709cc30451f
'2011-08-20T02:45:48-04:00'
describe
'115385' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQI' 'sip-files00101.pro'
baa7ce20995a7ceece0cb671a3cff087
ec9dcb47e25814c53341311d2ca534d19cd2e1ae
'2011-08-20T02:45:14-04:00'
describe
'47887' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQJ' 'sip-files00101.QC.jpg'
7875ff96a05e3695b3f48f08e19e1305
6694f693f3c0fd1b1c0bcf5299c8ec3a91d7758c
'2011-08-20T02:48:40-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQK' 'sip-files00101.tif'
8c10bef493c94ea8c48c06a1c7962f42
b1f88b649dd713333c1170c6940d4346f549ff11
'2011-08-20T02:50:59-04:00'
describe
'4619' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQL' 'sip-files00101.txt'
7d89224b0f99e0f78d4c4a9ef8e110f4
d000720b713ed578bcf3f6bd244b0fa1c3fcf108
describe
Invalid character
'11898' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQM' 'sip-files00101thm.jpg'
0c1dcc518e149d366f124c52100c03d4
06be58e6f17a6f1b27bd5ebf7aa11eb059a5c5bb
describe
'773768' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQN' 'sip-files00102.jp2'
4352a4ac34cc11f7e312d0b193f9eb3f
ca55a34f3abcd3f839e973d95b5d1ce7d2a2829f
describe
'164655' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQO' 'sip-files00102.jpg'
b1e778116868620201ea1f9abd45f136
d7e1c388896c55a403dcf73348e02a09006e55ec
'2011-08-20T02:50:28-04:00'
describe
'95304' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQP' 'sip-files00102.pro'
c5054b6e362c629093de08f70684c398
59379a3a9b2d3fd720108c176050cf2488285abb
'2011-08-20T02:51:47-04:00'
describe
'42626' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQQ' 'sip-files00102.QC.jpg'
cce996ef29af802a82caaf4290f96495
93256ed04549096d995c2153a47d975743ef07e9
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQR' 'sip-files00102.tif'
215f8276f28753c2f36ed30ec348a77a
07956bf17495b5ab5f2da7a90d18b9ca786e04a6
describe
'3925' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQS' 'sip-files00102.txt'
9aa2220c02f98386bd3527764b3580d8
5d6a6d6a26a8c5b25629a36014c43d12de5640cf
describe
'9922' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQT' 'sip-files00102thm.jpg'
f893aac3555c6f30eb8d2ef3fd220e32
aa5ceb64d358a2ea322275943e8c82ac3582c107
'2011-08-20T02:50:42-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQU' 'sip-files00103.jp2'
007a922cd6be43f9d212978a9ef4491d
bed9d932642cb47a2341b49ba162c6205cf02d85
describe
'141502' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQV' 'sip-files00103.jpg'
94e78661016ecbaa7448d7cc6b899a06
4c3a0b67ef544f9ab5c8cf786998d5a5b9ff5792
describe
'76016' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQW' 'sip-files00103.pro'
71896ead0485762921e94450b783a663
41080f59a2ad7ded9690d1360e6fb2bce7a34483
describe
'38791' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQX' 'sip-files00103.QC.jpg'
30e56424b8586d2595d49bc8c598c689
1d96c6fd0b228f8b2054211db8729e3fe9a448ef
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQY' 'sip-files00103.tif'
ee280dcfbe8f7000f5adb0ed42358187
abf4bda49f2b394e8691893d85ed1da933acb258
describe
'3196' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKQZ' 'sip-files00103.txt'
922e86ba690c0325a80970c1d2eb65c9
5b94f18bd1ae0bbd039bd003fd42cb836ad01895
describe
Invalid character
'9522' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRA' 'sip-files00103thm.jpg'
8bafb5ea734506195b0dd147124e0e32
b977bdc8ba0d470c11265b1bedfe415c8e7406b6
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRB' 'sip-files00104.jp2'
befd50a6cd885e09f2b56edeee944d1b
1a0368b8f623e7c1cdc1e4c685369df89e33f6e8
'2011-08-20T02:43:38-04:00'
describe
'168240' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRC' 'sip-files00104.jpg'
de12c96e0018a0a332c3fd6942f823af
df4a3be05cc8734c84a2169479f1653b88231b69
describe
'128129' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRD' 'sip-files00104.pro'
a87ab2e07783186de6a12793d8cc0309
7aa66369831fc0267f5694d0075877297532bdbe
'2011-08-20T02:48:32-04:00'
describe
'42955' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRE' 'sip-files00104.QC.jpg'
f36987807c31a33d35545c9515078ac6
23a55191cf08b98703f83b9b69da3e370e910dc7
'2011-08-20T02:48:38-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRF' 'sip-files00104.tif'
a3c3b28b83f559185e2992068b141066
fc4aaecc8c225fae81b4979333ba3d67bf8a7604
'2011-08-20T02:49:34-04:00'
describe
'5148' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRG' 'sip-files00104.txt'
94692ef5e86cbba94940023d484bf5c6
4f8a19e9c41e9c3ac83a4a6e146b2088d0380f8b
describe
'10085' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRH' 'sip-files00104thm.jpg'
e9b7f46805a5a96c20876e809768f4de
629a38ea663868f5a55ea8aee7e834ff5ba24e0e
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRI' 'sip-files00105.jp2'
8f125bf3ad5b1edff601d3870c25bac1
eff9a71f9057bf99ebfbd682cb2ad037674af3a3
describe
'168032' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRJ' 'sip-files00105.jpg'
916ef7d491cf302e604a82833420ae85
2df5de75a76fed68ad14058bcde8ae0ff1ebb6f3
describe
'145690' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRK' 'sip-files00105.pro'
41110dd8dbf235efe132832cb2674d72
f38974fa062b2593798843fb60b30b58e80614fd
'2011-08-20T02:43:49-04:00'
describe
'42218' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRL' 'sip-files00105.QC.jpg'
708e7d042307b35f503adef1145c11d1
f5e3481c090c2eabe2131c5fb733f6fcfb0651f9
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRM' 'sip-files00105.tif'
00fe9cbe1695181e8136572155dd293b
47a8f2dd9a23314b7700a3be0c9c08bf77b55c06
describe
'6002' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRN' 'sip-files00105.txt'
8fafdc43ea0f5546a276009ab508b52c
a65b85ce5467a662303a6736e10043c6c2d1be5c
describe
'9725' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRO' 'sip-files00105thm.jpg'
3349ee6fb2d985ff4ec78177b14631d7
7e157adf300f80e34ada971b4e278603f7f1c43a
describe
'757868' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRP' 'sip-files00106.jp2'
b61e8af3f3e9b056fe9721c7187c2850
20d8352b87cadb453826366aa3d48f7c460c1876
describe
'112965' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRQ' 'sip-files00106.jpg'
e74cd320c56ab78853ef2080b8b1f19e
3657fb074c8af0c5a860505f8d57ec0512cfc8de
'2011-08-20T02:47:07-04:00'
describe
'68242' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRR' 'sip-files00106.pro'
7505c9e56e59ed6c962b810373ad07ce
364349bb5ea824ba02d0310e1698dbeb82bf0e9e
describe
'29430' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRS' 'sip-files00106.QC.jpg'
8671c37b6c7685a53ab6893ea532737e
cf6e72b39670db4b22c7cd5fda943207f4b4b0f7
'2011-08-20T02:45:29-04:00'
describe
'6080352' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRT' 'sip-files00106.tif'
8168b7738106b37e9c9e1242a08b1137
30e6af63ccaceceec697ea049bda91aac9f44bb2
describe
'2857' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRU' 'sip-files00106.txt'
4a9af1f6c26e4efcc8e651dfc44e37a4
f1335c154e92237e3066155c7bef9f00fc03f719
describe
'7086' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRV' 'sip-files00106thm.jpg'
a7849a58426a202644e43598f3fb89ee
b292d2c897f2502000a4ac69f0d73e51f969942f
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRW' 'sip-files00107.jp2'
2339c0321d1b2ecc5ea8a3e4c0f0af8f
a11896503b6919fd0f1940855cb7b4aca446e763
describe
'150275' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRX' 'sip-files00107.jpg'
6dc3e44512ef40c1f11b1a7f39a91c86
625c1ab9f511e2e3c9146d6f16990b83ca46151c
describe
'104229' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRY' 'sip-files00107.pro'
8c17a6b2d96e35cc462369352b8588b6
f6ef0a860d6313715634f40f0e38480838355754
'2011-08-20T02:46:26-04:00'
describe
'39983' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKRZ' 'sip-files00107.QC.jpg'
5277f487b47c4e550f2a5cdf94390447
61766ba4b9ac07b71103ded684a3453ec7687b57
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSA' 'sip-files00107.tif'
0de86092ba2dc08de0c299b1c4f71b4d
3bac993fd2ed97a28a3463486a49cf6f5e8b9c0e
'2011-08-20T02:47:25-04:00'
describe
'4464' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSB' 'sip-files00107.txt'
7cea29ff976b2e79de534e732d7a4412
4aa9edc9fabed4b083c494771c30022f2fbd3be7
describe
'9463' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSC' 'sip-files00107thm.jpg'
2f5570792ba261ddb216c6434668dbd4
13190351fed3e479f42e69e3e8e0845668447091
describe
'746159' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSD' 'sip-files00108.jp2'
bcdf05d3cfca6cabe5348a4667cf852d
0925de03c193da884bbf1147fc25909ee75e41dd
describe
'183851' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSE' 'sip-files00108.jpg'
7d1738693e76948566c0447e60699751
641dc5d10a0db60074afd629838af7e39761a244
describe
'109930' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSF' 'sip-files00108.pro'
658d887a737bdcf26ad3a979e7e065b7
dfc469078d4426bd37dccce0da451b79ba97fe55
describe
'47396' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSG' 'sip-files00108.QC.jpg'
e25d2d8e7a8e846c25f9ca2596ec7313
da03767032a71f33b9ea9eba6f94e90299416ba8
describe
'5985588' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSH' 'sip-files00108.tif'
9dcf0f33f66adc06d45245011cf46e70
aa0c3c0319b54136ed6e247f8a2eb8b118c3bd08
'2011-08-20T02:51:33-04:00'
describe
'4711' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSI' 'sip-files00108.txt'
e0b4961d881d46a6226877e91b02d994
f8f43bef4abb3fcc94b8af5d139ec8a7f5d6b930
describe
Invalid character
'11117' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSJ' 'sip-files00108thm.jpg'
11b54b722af39f9aac030a99e029f16d
485f961b633cf9b411a080fa90d0fb9422df7c25
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSK' 'sip-files00109.jp2'
0faba33dcc38a582f76463f390d5ae70
fb580d48f20cd799d13c50ac016cc88766f3c220
'2011-08-20T02:51:07-04:00'
describe
'172577' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSL' 'sip-files00109.jpg'
31b6503642235e5ad7c66881e5e26c59
dcd69e197ab09ec413c9a964291c88828d2cd14a
describe
'78854' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSM' 'sip-files00109.pro'
9590653faba58b5d0caf2f70c7453076
fff348e977766b0e071ab4ead2eee694907c6d28
describe
'44347' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSN' 'sip-files00109.QC.jpg'
723ac5cc79413ca41980d4d3b30dbf8d
929ee9de83c0ee8d54e6e2185be25e4ed4e92357
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSO' 'sip-files00109.tif'
64f1a7da1b94ccf901ac49b953d5ec62
58d33b1f778bf1a38232237dbf0223e6bef44cc2
describe
'3324' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSP' 'sip-files00109.txt'
f549d37bbb950756a5ec747f773c84f9
2a60465be5c4916bbc78cca9af9c2845753ae811
describe
Invalid character
'10487' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSQ' 'sip-files00109thm.jpg'
73598ea70a2313179d32a0500c2b5edd
4ef501ed380c1b783ced445fc5a40ff1b7e9ec4f
describe
'762631' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSR' 'sip-files00110.jp2'
a74347e5a381dbd5acfc86c9abe76a5f
d1bb9581b4b5aa88810bc468b4354de6517eb340
describe
'184637' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSS' 'sip-files00110.jpg'
1f4d07e138c4e59708a68764457a112d
c2401065001452bc2c496c025ac4602861b53449
describe
'131752' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKST' 'sip-files00110.pro'
4facf62710f603c839ceb749633d54c2
5973a1466183119f1e56fcb5b7de61b54206605b
describe
'46763' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSU' 'sip-files00110.QC.jpg'
0e2c89822076a20e1f5d762b89c3f816
a05801840edc43baebf4785c49edd6e5eed95dcc
describe
'6118260' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSV' 'sip-files00110.tif'
f6a6d69de23f33aa92e889de30064961
1865deaf287d78f2222c47d9be90c65fcfcfc090
describe
'5366' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSW' 'sip-files00110.txt'
598080984aa3e698bc62b632d67bd413
faba406f82870b18837830c3845a86d20f8da7cd
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSX' 'sip-files00110thm.jpg'
c361c9d5e4af1f619180eedb0f4235cf
67bcb51c50c11a88a10e59cb851926ed09b6f234
'2011-08-20T02:51:09-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSY' 'sip-files00111.jp2'
0c54106232ac1f8cd031ab061da31e98
0bf39ba06229374b27a43d0ba66b47882966c1b7
describe
'172752' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKSZ' 'sip-files00111.jpg'
59c4aafda222a065a8e7077f512cba6f
5e73ee4e6400f08689e600dd05bc61bd6a44ff47
describe
'130261' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTA' 'sip-files00111.pro'
011b7cdc9f69c7b0690a411e33b4c46b
25fe9e50823d53d37d94c5234b33646d3747fb13
describe
'45490' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTB' 'sip-files00111.QC.jpg'
22b9e87176fd87dbc865ae7b1491c943
cede5835ddaac9b2671c5c300abec342e3313c34
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTC' 'sip-files00111.tif'
a2089481c4e41f6722d73104816b3a72
e0efe4b6f680b27edf262190a929efa59b4d0e67
'2011-08-20T02:50:30-04:00'
describe
'5286' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTD' 'sip-files00111.txt'
60953008eff158ec929b3916dd8a430e
14b405a77ace4edba2ca6cb1aed5c7d3aa1bf0f6
describe
'10373' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTE' 'sip-files00111thm.jpg'
fce6f50dc1da21e6ce1fa5d4014e0f07
005204ef93ba4c43b2864d0cb4caac5954d3b670
'2011-08-20T02:44:03-04:00'
describe
'773797' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTF' 'sip-files00112.jp2'
accf5c6d39a9aedc603b6f2c4f38fe4b
8840323afaa9d0ff7b4bafc0315a4bb65245fc3c
describe
'139451' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTG' 'sip-files00112.jpg'
514cc712aa6a70ef0529168efdca5c02
cce469e64c16b49b573d55f37318ac0714d36e5c
describe
'107692' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTH' 'sip-files00112.pro'
55bc34a65e61899ee38941afe4796ef9
e96eff38c672d5872227d6daacb2b7bb23200783
describe
'36639' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTI' 'sip-files00112.QC.jpg'
01c16a70344303a3462c78cc50a3f410
7a4b08e6d6119682cba5c1ed3536e4c40dc1ab20
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTJ' 'sip-files00112.tif'
3bbe976f378e6e6eaebdaf0c2d4aec37
0b9abf56a51f571260edb13eac62ef9d409b6abc
describe
'4720' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTK' 'sip-files00112.txt'
4323dd86d1618f6682bb8ef4aa44701c
8bab046979f493bb2c65621363afada3652af2d3
describe
'8765' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTL' 'sip-files00112thm.jpg'
4d9a9b23fbd68e1de85757db638f8b79
0fe5c45be6bb300ad69885e73d3106ecd2f72742
'2011-08-20T02:43:50-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTM' 'sip-files00113.jp2'
fa9ded7182c87f18a723a0c3d5ab675b
96b708bb2aa348d8e29dea89fd52b4f188d7d585
describe
'159028' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTN' 'sip-files00113.jpg'
f9b787b91743c1b6a64ba49c7632c22b
2d175d0cc2268c8547d0a105117566f91ada842a
describe
'91607' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTO' 'sip-files00113.pro'
b6d6829f5f81cc47699f17380fa5702f
cfc4fce8cfd5759baf1ea0a5ec861ac79f3ad4ba
describe
'41554' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTP' 'sip-files00113.QC.jpg'
a57f1a0b2f95839b4e9b5c6786753348
76ab067a2926521e26a6c5008f5225f97ab3768b
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTQ' 'sip-files00113.tif'
3a2a4a7b7735afbb3819ae32846077a1
0ec0b13ba51685ebfbf60e6332de9486985ea0df
'2011-08-20T02:45:21-04:00'
describe
'3753' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTR' 'sip-files00113.txt'
eb45352d496adc7bdc52656b43c1ce2a
0154371b2f7330fe262cef9883776bd3466e53b6
describe
Invalid character
'9885' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTS' 'sip-files00113thm.jpg'
db95a5bc4b227067d47349b308056ae0
a60c5b53b9c9a48d7c0991ab6bed970c68728cbc
'2011-08-20T02:43:34-04:00'
describe
'773755' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTT' 'sip-files00114.jp2'
c912456409900aa464461cae6c827640
0cc5e98b24d36794105c2b4e0773e03cb2195c7f
'2011-08-20T02:47:22-04:00'
describe
'182329' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTU' 'sip-files00114.jpg'
fdea800dee9a20cee9a65718cc51514b
b66e05b65d430eff6a89df51a9d7754a36ea1a6b
describe
'139601' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTV' 'sip-files00114.pro'
2a978b265a44cfb0e9229445f951c65e
46b9d58f2341e7a3e50bbc9bb0814a5c6db9de68
describe
'46424' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTW' 'sip-files00114.QC.jpg'
cde92398f23971360f3939f057ccf2e3
7d549461d7f8d1b8b43cfce4c56c0b8cce43ffbb
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTX' 'sip-files00114.tif'
e9680529bdc25a7c4724bf70b406efc6
4cc131cf350f4c150dbf4322ee33fc1d51c8d98d
describe
'5751' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTY' 'sip-files00114.txt'
c9e32586083ba3594d3c7a71e57b3b91
bd8126c3cdf028c0d58d995591c13018b256aea3
describe
Invalid character
'10281' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKTZ' 'sip-files00114thm.jpg'
bdf0519ff65cbc2494b4779cc0b3eaf6
7f9849e58685d318354290529c6552cf33e6bb43
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUA' 'sip-files00115.jp2'
af1a1eefaa79284d46ba8978bed0be96
fad26701daa1dab4a9e2509e45f555303ec463b0
describe
'181033' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUB' 'sip-files00115.jpg'
0928d342ae3cc131059d43dfc2523a8d
2f8a64da698861e6599de7d87a004d729fb24f4f
describe
'107624' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUC' 'sip-files00115.pro'
032ea9dd5deb5078ff4a21f339d483e2
99d93af1874557f65ac8be77de5c8814d8cb066a
describe
'45693' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUD' 'sip-files00115.QC.jpg'
5410d5edf3e119842be4344c819a5341
0273e5b2b6418f96a09e2d9dd447712299f1422c
'2011-08-20T02:43:20-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUE' 'sip-files00115.tif'
293e741278d4fd8672bdbafbd49f696a
30c37d073698ae31c3b687932d2224774317bac7
describe
'4402' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUF' 'sip-files00115.txt'
cce20b4ec2f5a199cc8d02baa779e743
51d272e6f7bac29b85590548c173f48d0327932b
describe
'10401' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUG' 'sip-files00115thm.jpg'
11af6199678ba4b11a1a408da3efd062
b85376cab82a0c3f553a205464c007126c7e65ec
'2011-08-20T02:50:40-04:00'
describe
'773794' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUH' 'sip-files00116.jp2'
e699cda32efac004579a31d099246f17
81986b56a5fef0fe83d17cd9bf2c5b31b50599bb
describe
'170088' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUI' 'sip-files00116.jpg'
d46b69625fa85466c4a169cefab373db
e3f50e664eb35e2ac50a6e2557d866973d7eef9f
'2011-08-20T02:44:25-04:00'
describe
'105273' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUJ' 'sip-files00116.pro'
3e4fa6bf02ce0d9062da35c08c3bcd27
94e3d1e293ca4b10bdde61e5cb7b20d742db06f0
describe
'43611' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUK' 'sip-files00116.QC.jpg'
114817cf8682563fea51e83499cea295
a344f69f6fc5356fed448cf593d418a05ea55de2
'2011-08-20T02:50:50-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUL' 'sip-files00116.tif'
7af2116b4f24d01318a47e0704803fbf
f69834745d1151c25f55df40c95e0b2ec5308127
'2011-08-20T02:50:14-04:00'
describe
'4254' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUM' 'sip-files00116.txt'
b6efce43857b47663e79a06e3bf6a7a8
b6c7a9ac50c49303d86d33ad5d8ae84cbf8feff1
describe
'10104' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUN' 'sip-files00116thm.jpg'
b6460580a2904ccca8d390de132277fb
c1f41fdd17e481d881c9c2b5429db03813b4a348
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUO' 'sip-files00117.jp2'
20b4866bc8f881f832d99bfac3a17089
4fd178f2265e48b5b66c326b913ebd55ca627819
describe
'175975' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUP' 'sip-files00117.jpg'
5a49f98603ee09e150d4f2c8bf9918c2
38aeaa1ea8252fccd8bd674c6414b9b78875a5ea
describe
'112816' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUQ' 'sip-files00117.pro'
773cb4d030a789ad6c788a5c2b3b6322
95ef7da815c2af6360883a83b7c98d481ab10020
describe
'43707' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUR' 'sip-files00117.QC.jpg'
65496065438cbd6c69ce4a233cdbb5c5
f496121ace007686a0cfd1ac7f8011d34d7bfde3
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUS' 'sip-files00117.tif'
198a7c3498e272493e1416b4be060782
1541c0bbe1270989c785618260731efdc7967e42
describe
'4569' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUT' 'sip-files00117.txt'
4c5c8d9cb33c4ef1b5007fbb7d4f9e27
aede0c359e07bd1f66a8bcf82c2915163d4eb56a
describe
'10299' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUU' 'sip-files00117thm.jpg'
b0ac0cf26f53333f6d5c42a3cc590be2
5e0fb89e52b3433bef39a5f76b35911de2387089
describe
'773760' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUV' 'sip-files00118.jp2'
e3ab80f94094a4d4c48ec44d3a5492eb
0e75b648c0f647ef9ba825b686e1c4f9d7f4cc2f
describe
'162379' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUW' 'sip-files00118.jpg'
c113bf1eae8c34c8c780f6ca545a4620
07b769ffa86ebd80828816ecc15528059108cd7c
describe
'96181' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUX' 'sip-files00118.pro'
04625f1d670e5ac099272bad9e9dd8ee
5b91a40a3b58759ef10fe3bad67a9b5ceb94e6fa
'2011-08-20T02:42:56-04:00'
describe
'41701' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUY' 'sip-files00118.QC.jpg'
6f37593b7b247508796e3494e1bf77dc
6c6329c6733d44415261907c206fad842086bdae
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKUZ' 'sip-files00118.tif'
7fb7a98466702f6bb043e514925d96f0
3a236dfee64225a8075df1f234ff54a8946f73a0
describe
'3829' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVA' 'sip-files00118.txt'
ec911e10301de36247962d077366e117
5f6861e0a331df04e0b64e2cd1afe9231dd7bfeb
describe
'9984' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVB' 'sip-files00118thm.jpg'
7c85bcd06d00889b81509e5df0779d0d
5993cfffdf40d3d671ab844d64ddb487f0a4b2cd
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVC' 'sip-files00119.jp2'
16449b2feb30396ae53217e32a9f814a
a6ca43ea4f3f7e212ffe4a989cbf0aa009c23317
describe
'162900' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVD' 'sip-files00119.jpg'
7662796bd41cb54bcf511d8b8aebce84
51946e6caa4c96d69fe8dc41f8b8f251fc6d990a
describe
'80958' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVE' 'sip-files00119.pro'
1786b09b5f873318ad970078b2e88b0b
daaf0836d3e80416054b2f48634883afed11d79a
describe
'42948' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVF' 'sip-files00119.QC.jpg'
918987a81d781a335cd7e076fd7eecaa
048c3497f910b5de75a367b59bdddc40a96c9c18
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVG' 'sip-files00119.tif'
e0e43b8deda0469fc86b7c18fecdf570
de8db959ea82c6570ebee63a7ac742c2442dd806
describe
'3295' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVH' 'sip-files00119.txt'
f42cb2b9490bc2b12daccfa3523326ff
b2de0c5c70bc92f19e8d0c83b095b4d0718ea38d
describe
'9708' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVI' 'sip-files00119thm.jpg'
f40d6698efa1399a5fbfedd75a665b5f
c4567232ab36eb2e5de848f3faaf81fec290463e
'2011-08-20T02:50:58-04:00'
describe
'773631' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVJ' 'sip-files00120.jp2'
2f311d0c1e41ca3166ee5a848a51278b
ba0f8643d61f825d3a6a71e52315669ea5844687
describe
'180591' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVK' 'sip-files00120.jpg'
be8e2bd21312ab94f2b504d507f6f038
575e8f374d7d970f1c7a29eb6e3b36f95309351f
describe
'120036' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVL' 'sip-files00120.pro'
00ce14a445abd0955f3e7a900149f183
494e8c959e9e62aed00ebd6f0347acb526e2a17b
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVM' 'sip-files00120.QC.jpg'
19e41a58c1a871a2d2c2e911e6be638d
b4aa95b67af1a132b6f399fbc5ce3e87f81a7607
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVN' 'sip-files00120.tif'
8df7d384fd7c36be7747fec793f896b0
cfc727ff58d0fdee40a23af50b42408a6b5ae09f
describe
'4801' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVO' 'sip-files00120.txt'
4492ebea187f796e61847625cfa50c2b
9602acba4a9d6712afcab367077710df11f69973
describe
'10559' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVP' 'sip-files00120thm.jpg'
2d3f85c73a5c07bbd2fc6e3f87d4a80c
79abc2e248cfff67f9d09b1fb4e5039353e9087a
describe
'773691' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVQ' 'sip-files00121.jp2'
64a5c61b885d47b3ccfa9bd971e85d41
886583cbac6953f167418434b9f8fb466650027a
'2011-08-20T02:47:03-04:00'
describe
'159555' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVR' 'sip-files00121.jpg'
95615b7adc309bc9ba18e44a19f744c8
8b0079686343cab990a1a9e110a9625f13ab2cb4
describe
'130091' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVS' 'sip-files00121.pro'
b58d6416552c5c401bd8e0fc44b27548
193373fb97ba51df6d9318e905decaf778bf049e
describe
'41905' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVT' 'sip-files00121.QC.jpg'
267e09aebbe52f6ce0c37fde235edea4
c3347f16915806d74b6d23b456fbad0da19f69a6
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVU' 'sip-files00121.tif'
1929424f5add88b70c83cfbe74914e50
54d046f7035ede6aa2269a3e1df2e3ea61babbb6
describe
'5253' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVV' 'sip-files00121.txt'
f1a283bec4c611515e67ceb8c1fddb3a
7796c08258587d28874f9c1fd7fcf9e3bf6c26ea
describe
'9730' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVW' 'sip-files00121thm.jpg'
0abe2b315f862fe87f0896c3e71c2bb5
f79ccfa0a46c8f60eef08bb6cabd6861b06cc8ac
'2011-08-20T02:45:07-04:00'
describe
'773673' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVX' 'sip-files00122.jp2'
b515ebb142430e903b0d0ca6d318b64e
ccfe1eed080e94c53721115c231f8eb1533edd8b
describe
'165440' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVY' 'sip-files00122.jpg'
ebf6a7f112c009e78b156959e237c57e
95abb5fb453ab3e3b30bf64d7181e65b98829340
describe
'146462' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKVZ' 'sip-files00122.pro'
a777b84e93979578d604cf1e351cad08
38bf62c704dcb4c64de10b0750562e31d6df6822
describe
'42540' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWA' 'sip-files00122.QC.jpg'
0b5a2f65997b0edd4e330078a8ff9fb7
fb36a486926f4e2fa5eb31a3f7f0c826db78abc7
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWB' 'sip-files00122.tif'
c6dcced3da8362901fa13a8325b489b2
2785aafe101bdd54ae0d5aa07082b4424dd661ac
describe
'6098' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWC' 'sip-files00122.txt'
dccc0403af801ccf9c2d1fa1bcb3d28c
85f33a23d18c16735a1fd1312a9171aa119c1a1d
describe
'10012' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWD' 'sip-files00122thm.jpg'
5ec22c7d7e00196404322b9db64d039d
65a95ae1daf9b92bd4b317c2b346d73bb3b51247
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWE' 'sip-files00123.jp2'
b4ce5d297a5b52ea1178d22ff4178736
db14d285b29a479a8943a0636162428667366399
describe
'120691' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWF' 'sip-files00123.jpg'
a90a30289b70dd7de0f578fc3d040aa3
f0e78bf93e7e8ca607d09f9b9d43ddd5b22531af
'2011-08-20T02:50:52-04:00'
describe
'81618' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWG' 'sip-files00123.pro'
da73660bf0c114fbf573d76ed08c97c6
1f5c1d402a98e7a263303e73a1288120cff572a2
'2011-08-20T02:49:00-04:00'
describe
'31711' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWH' 'sip-files00123.QC.jpg'
683a1ea328ad870f5c5b6c915f634773
eef0492e36c6e1143378891a23d7a0989162c7fe
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWI' 'sip-files00123.tif'
902c3e8e4563599975ca082a7a346dd9
f5eb84148ae1b7bbc06f6d127faedb2aec18721f
describe
'3521' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWJ' 'sip-files00123.txt'
06c8870063ee460f1724b9eec02b4ebd
5be82b0d711347361d8696f228929b6f983a1160
describe
'7906' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWK' 'sip-files00123thm.jpg'
2d537161d842aafafbadf9aaa39625c1
0ec46d0c3a18da3efbce11353520f897f8b1ee23
describe
'773772' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWL' 'sip-files00124.jp2'
ffc27ed4474b347f44de1015525b8e2d
103ea906b2097401dc229834cffad98dddd15a31
describe
'131531' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWM' 'sip-files00124.jpg'
f9d6fcd685bcc0a68eb14ec2c8804639
9853590db0f0e6e7077871c1f841f9f49ee724d3
describe
'39447' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWN' 'sip-files00124.pro'
1f066327def01afde25d33f2cd879e3e
8b4799849ecb72c1c37e9f3d642a62ba6e6c382e
describe
'35109' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWO' 'sip-files00124.QC.jpg'
09546d76fd48979b25c5565fd32470cb
d1f58f461cd66365b5f25d22e96166f43b29e687
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWP' 'sip-files00124.tif'
f46a58dec3f6d15df056d4ac923eebb4
100237e4756291fb9848afc46ea57bc424d5397b
describe
'1592' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWQ' 'sip-files00124.txt'
42d5db586666b8d98301a16c5296464d
c8d9247c030a016344a211a0ea1b4e0e4c9d86b8
'2011-08-20T02:47:12-04:00'
describe
'8394' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWR' 'sip-files00124thm.jpg'
5d97e17a975de43026a8eaf1fe4a0a48
0fd694185f44ccbbf080ed5965e8713e926b1c21
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWS' 'sip-files00125.jp2'
2eaef306b98b1d88eb3345c46bbd0e71
939c26304782cf825285acbf8d56a93726063894
describe
'185405' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWT' 'sip-files00125.jpg'
8d4d5e3db7a7eaed0c66a712d8652ba5
85115470970551722ba581e417b2327263ebdf1c
'2011-08-20T02:47:47-04:00'
describe
'133513' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWU' 'sip-files00125.pro'
921d3c40e63f1396d8215e08b99e4e09
617584a878b4dfc9b3591c0311e06b50e6223ab7
describe
'46341' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWV' 'sip-files00125.QC.jpg'
cf3bd8b918b68048bbf7446107043a55
a6dba1c1d85002ccb7e4eacb2f9a98f824ddcfb8
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWW' 'sip-files00125.tif'
3add97556c2f9651f9817dba08d1fb82
f694d82c6ec6bbc597cd6c733b5aae566cb847ab
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWX' 'sip-files00125.txt'
5d0b3bca3c5446994d8659a6a8ac0524
539f0292a7e96b1bfeb56d76b9dc48f3a69aa712
describe
'10358' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWY' 'sip-files00125thm.jpg'
83994d973e6b9acca62705f2f4c7fd69
c142d4011bca13e6551b36953b448936edf3acba
describe
'773737' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKWZ' 'sip-files00126.jp2'
a8c6ff729752768c3562e2fe604e85af
d3be69d4209ff99311cb5b6ca0d5b974a5c233ca
'2011-08-20T02:43:46-04:00'
describe
'186353' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXA' 'sip-files00126.jpg'
96a80132d84cc8c3ab5930a23953d525
23daf5897d9c912e5014b5a0c5bab02a12bc2412
describe
'82983' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXB' 'sip-files00126.pro'
ac37789d14e11734bb4ec5ad120b44a8
02a3d8343a7a52b1dd83e98d649101377eae66b6
describe
'46692' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXC' 'sip-files00126.QC.jpg'
d5754fb165dc605ebccf74cd1ea040e0
9cd58aee97f3782651874dc4169a2e596bd6311f
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXD' 'sip-files00126.tif'
4bcd872cae69cb75b98beea12d967c77
98a0dfd814bd04d7d6a8f6337fe0018e55912237
describe
'3467' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXE' 'sip-files00126.txt'
155a982c39b22f084d453095e209e83d
6bbd02903cae647e6f9c5ff820a81cebd3ff7b8d
describe
'11566' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXF' 'sip-files00126thm.jpg'
49461ae4babb65045829155a07ab66a2
1a284c497edfc82501b83d8ce6f19abb3af701c6
describe
'782662' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXG' 'sip-files00127.jp2'
5de7b297dbf20ab652f22eac6021d1b1
f6f615f61e472974189e199fca9f665cea86876f
describe
'90246' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXH' 'sip-files00127.jpg'
d0f4e9704bcbe76af1fa4699a14920d1
174a0de5d6b3e4569a07d0435614e83d46fb3356
describe
'41085' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXI' 'sip-files00127.pro'
2c77b4aa87c730a3e87853a7585c0dcb
4a8f83f7be378da805abc54294ba0184e8f282dc
describe
'23249' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXJ' 'sip-files00127.QC.jpg'
cbe57ba5af548dbcf18a54df38d76e87
1588fe3eb0489ad980e62098cc10fec7a43be872
'2011-08-20T02:50:06-04:00'
describe
'18799892' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXK' 'sip-files00127.tif'
e624e1d80c1abe014c0fdc2663607fc8
57a30f720fd189531ef46d02708c9e46340fec49
describe
'1783' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXL' 'sip-files00127.txt'
36709fff62214472ff8878a4c7244105
8df4c3de4b362b317f9323e4e862541443cd062b
describe
Invalid character
'5913' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXM' 'sip-files00127thm.jpg'
df1a4afe148eb519ee748d3c8437807b
37d038678755119adc462b76bbaaa398392c8b6b
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXN' 'sip-files00128.jp2'
9f788422259a6a6fcf9ce4348a86e794
0c6bf637186a4f0e6161c5b5c93faebb65456414
describe
'175267' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXO' 'sip-files00128.jpg'
c78d94e34445eede1e3a8680a2ccb8e7
f932f56127dedad4d516c0ad25046fff1f5254da
describe
'106614' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXP' 'sip-files00128.pro'
a078fc5e2e11fdf2f70de67c95c623e6
a49d92bf9b08d5a0234d62bb5078628936767196
describe
'44974' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXQ' 'sip-files00128.QC.jpg'
713147311f1c0da9ea4ce3663d7e533c
d7498df6695cc1a2ca2c149693f9dd52408aefb4
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXR' 'sip-files00128.tif'
5bcc8291a96422751b2f518e14ab134f
7c9d6340495c6a3994678416cbf7f5720e2acce8
describe
'4455' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXS' 'sip-files00128.txt'
c86a221578dbcfceb9a29f7609cbc36f
cfc888ab7998b4e245f2e741eb87bd63fccb713f
describe
Invalid character
'10365' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXT' 'sip-files00128thm.jpg'
328552c556c4d9d6604a52212a83c0c4
624816a5142c352e72b6e7ca4f85b3e08b4ebdec
'2011-08-20T02:45:37-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXU' 'sip-files00129.jp2'
f0389f581c14f9f0bee04be4ba360a39
c70286c9da34cd199f9a857ea0e7da808eeb5c91
describe
'169332' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXV' 'sip-files00129.jpg'
3dc557cf76fd832d1507fc5afda4005c
b12e120777a9c29c9e9c8e9eb4156e1ba91ba054
describe
'110962' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXW' 'sip-files00129.pro'
babf056c37f7472e8fd0b0488979fba4
af8e006be7e13bbc89f64565956c329df98e2bc3
describe
'42930' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXX' 'sip-files00129.QC.jpg'
dea10946283ba4d57eefcef36ccc25b6
402bb3439a1f4542c3ed30bae7b3f4657b506389
'2011-08-20T02:47:44-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXY' 'sip-files00129.tif'
0a378493cd2491a3e8600e81aa13a7c5
a24b5d8f325964d01f1d60b377fa6b0ecb018e60
'2011-08-20T02:43:42-04:00'
describe
'4709' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKXZ' 'sip-files00129.txt'
00b17f793c58055c317149be63291fb7
68b847d8c3b745ca8a574bda7551dce5c7bd4e31
describe
'9911' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYA' 'sip-files00129thm.jpg'
144a44b39fb38b805e23f55bc2983481
4de9610b0fe058192dfe8d9d741e03c4afeed794
'2011-08-20T02:47:04-04:00'
describe
'773730' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYB' 'sip-files00130.jp2'
5d476379cb797f54760e4ff829cc5870
c59eb271b6cb8427c931cd979f828cb700025857
describe
'159440' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYC' 'sip-files00130.jpg'
b675d51ddd601a353bf12eec159b2898
40b1a376ac0260b20746bf5ec93f1f8334deb913
describe
'74676' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYD' 'sip-files00130.pro'
b0be0688c316229356db013762b3df78
bd8f8fde436b1386b49aa8b69c80c7b3fde70df4
describe
'42136' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYE' 'sip-files00130.QC.jpg'
6b25b2795453cf75869b925ef0ef64b9
2158f9e97172744305cc4dae9a1bb5ffbd2b4a08
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYF' 'sip-files00130.tif'
f9f05c52ba148d226170bf0763a67d1b
74e9b84d256c10eeedd5bcde8e77e11d6ffc8429
describe
'3081' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYG' 'sip-files00130.txt'
d83af702b34bc17da7f1c9bfe99d8cef
34fbd408a727d4a455f1d986344f5b80225b0d02
describe
Invalid character
'9720' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYH' 'sip-files00130thm.jpg'
8c17b60add86ce5adac2599fcabb27c5
00d1b9bf620f6e994b66bb423321e43c5490464d
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYI' 'sip-files00131.jp2'
6fc0f6e21bdf6b9c1e9858022dd272b0
242ca8764c8efc692100c4ceb03b30aa780f6b7a
describe
'174514' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYJ' 'sip-files00131.jpg'
166b8480c72de43e32d7504825aa3524
179a4e01a7b33089206014c86d91726acdb6a1de
describe
'78366' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYK' 'sip-files00131.pro'
edbbc1418f20d4c63e3e0bd8a580f71b
939d668460ba851e09dd38126bfc5522e2479cc5
describe
'44468' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYL' 'sip-files00131.QC.jpg'
e07477e6c8a36f2f2caa2bdfa95bb7c9
d1d952788249f1933f35086b16b111fbc7214c1e
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYM' 'sip-files00131.tif'
dcb4c5df2dc30223df38ada7a387d9ac
69cfbb7305df1569581df9d3f41d580283538d46
describe
'3219' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYN' 'sip-files00131.txt'
abb5e8190a1b30331e93b70c99d31b14
78006d399025e748a5372af42a960888ed5115b2
describe
'10333' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYO' 'sip-files00131thm.jpg'
76d4440bad2849c83fca8d630888dba4
e4e85343e7212ec535255e77fd2022442e983423
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYP' 'sip-files00132.jp2'
45e6ea5066e41a421f3a51d9bd419b75
ccc745df301a9bf6c75e09e55dc0bc9487575782
describe
'146764' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYQ' 'sip-files00132.jpg'
ac3fd6a6727b46ea65618e94878a9536
9f89738f275961cac8d64d20673d371e0df4f7c4
describe
'71894' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYR' 'sip-files00132.pro'
c8fe830d7d960d6cd93b6d621e551a8b
c01e430c759a536ede2a238502e94eb09094cd86
describe
'38563' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYS' 'sip-files00132.QC.jpg'
13a269e2c57de628edf8686adb64fa02
43c8f9c7eadf3fe35be726ca29fd970a0844a9fb
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYT' 'sip-files00132.tif'
d0a40640959de0ca6378fbee893b50ab
a0433a0a62c6739fe627944f3b7ff20745251dc0
describe
'3530' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYU' 'sip-files00132.txt'
648ba664b40b6412ee8fdb950e32df6d
77350fb8cc5fa4a40a19947da53784ec1d1ac8ad
describe
Invalid character
'9413' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYV' 'sip-files00132thm.jpg'
1b537580c151178b428046ca484b7586
9c5a5d2dc18a0e498708cca5c48441551567be5d
describe
'773767' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYW' 'sip-files00133.jp2'
2b4ea404935ba29ac433230aa53338fc
040df613ceb16e6cc22fe8804e5ad41c83c0882f
describe
'160119' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYX' 'sip-files00133.jpg'
73fb974814606f094bc4a21c1f2491e8
ce514ac36f52cd02201431ccc7b1541dab5c4035
describe
'117201' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYY' 'sip-files00133.pro'
1c6508a158e4ea2bfb2f2877f3b57dc9
b2bc9ebfd50facc415c693732e835a19218a8e53
describe
'41611' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKYZ' 'sip-files00133.QC.jpg'
348ebb7559d0cfe2042d3bfbc82425c7
a7a5df33a38759a914de3a674b8d4e41f7bf7764
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZA' 'sip-files00133.tif'
cddfe1cdb7d93cb0867bb103e3b14c78
cf6da1d7b744c5305dd6a56ff244bb6872e9597b
describe
'4751' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZB' 'sip-files00133.txt'
ddd4c66efc4bb5ded94d886d320a92bf
42ef52a2a9f8faf73ce820c5d33172c370f02d48
describe
'9782' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZC' 'sip-files00133thm.jpg'
84a77d226e3989986b50bde1ced8674f
69f7e0a396be6519c2ee197de32c33152b3bd4f4
describe
'773787' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZD' 'sip-files00134.jp2'
0cda1008bb15348239dfd4f91f2d375d
7067244d1a18829fbae9d12af336b28d8e6cfccd
describe
'153362' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZE' 'sip-files00134.jpg'
6de967c68f63ac2690a632007d35f1bb
68b668c2f94b605289de286093583a6f5f0251aa
describe
'127974' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZF' 'sip-files00134.pro'
2039117be464fc8db12724e3ae2a62ae
c9cd7f6f786f30402001d8f73a40b380374d843d
describe
'39524' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZG' 'sip-files00134.QC.jpg'
0174ef2dc0b56d642d3ce3121dd8b350
3fe6ab7b69bda12fbb8788bf0e8281143bb93d52
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZH' 'sip-files00134.tif'
0b72266f79f29b6b47071e3ba6dc1657
2ad7a63485edb54a55134d8c082c6d8c81329b0e
describe
'5296' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZI' 'sip-files00134.txt'
172b22c8cf739f13a879eeb6d697e812
085fd5018f79b05e94d5eae84cadbab372a5bd79
'2011-08-20T02:44:08-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'9594' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZJ' 'sip-files00134thm.jpg'
bfcd106db8aa8ed58f8d74103f7afeda
70dedf1dd876e9fc78382934b712c706538e5117
describe
'773581' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZK' 'sip-files00135.jp2'
c4dd09771563f871c1194147addbbe5d
3a27e623b53e49e94fe06f6d795c1991ef9b074a
describe
'142658' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZL' 'sip-files00135.jpg'
948c0034f893193dd7524321ac048fff
0db48f13449974a3866f4988d87c60b3362eb444
describe
'74761' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZM' 'sip-files00135.pro'
81abfbaee789d987104af243225489c0
6c80a149e5ea9e5334b227088a31c715fcca54de
describe
'38247' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZN' 'sip-files00135.QC.jpg'
ba6567915175dd7c745c606e5adb4ce6
9935cb63f3503713cbaaaf586873269cc3d0ad89
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZO' 'sip-files00135.tif'
a0f2e5052769f7366d5eb40f0e8c7451
ca8ecd0b1dbc9d6f73f5d3f5b0c08a01ecbbdc51
describe
'3165' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZP' 'sip-files00135.txt'
9bf9fab9c3fad4793281f036b104e1f6
7736ae8e1fc253cc3caff82e1e9ccd54389568b3
describe
'8657' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZQ' 'sip-files00135thm.jpg'
2e53fe47d8fc46e3d20d04e52f0c8ee8
df3b3743429c0c48cc77b36d746b838023143f75
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZR' 'sip-files00136.jp2'
3aa3487c9555c9b15a8c5488050a9e80
69522f3c889cf2e6ebf2cc2a63b599e6bc11b73a
describe
'191467' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZS' 'sip-files00136.jpg'
34cec366974d66a205fdfbd410e17371
e6820c585af2f4b0552487a25271a492f671fae2
describe
'108234' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZT' 'sip-files00136.pro'
95c9f74edfd1d0f6160d3f16fd98824c
861cb1cbd5e32916885f4bb35555e11c9cdf2240
describe
'49514' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZU' 'sip-files00136.QC.jpg'
df80cc9ea3e95424934c33ca08d23d28
2a61f7a7353a486094c3e7256de31ec97e9d7d50
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZV' 'sip-files00136.tif'
fd97ea21d128bfffec8c74e25231d434
dd362de183f27eb9a0dcdd31a3a373f4eca50159
'2011-08-20T02:45:20-04:00'
describe
'4473' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZW' 'sip-files00136.txt'
46d78740d28a05e4e59221cf1e771323
818766c81d56c0661e80a41982c61c16332b6126
'2011-08-20T02:47:11-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
'11993' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZX' 'sip-files00136thm.jpg'
dac6e793c7cabc51030c0cb78406a7ef
68f7702bcf6166d5fd6d728b2b5d088855988c34
'2011-08-20T02:46:50-04:00'
describe
'793885' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZY' 'sip-files00137.jp2'
0ab764d4b7b885a7612764e382455a09
1ac98a04bf47649cc65588b11ba9fe9e7ecc8ea3
describe
'89522' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAAKZZ' 'sip-files00137.jpg'
d9895cdbcd7ad9722ab1b7b35f3f37bd
ef8fc0f09dbe00fd6843e53bf491eab2fdfd7185
describe
'20717' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAA' 'sip-files00137.pro'
4e6dd15a739bc655cb616c0c18208f9c
d93f9468d2ecc4fcb536b0888ff1f988d35dcfbd
'2011-08-20T02:49:31-04:00'
describe
'22232' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAB' 'sip-files00137.QC.jpg'
929bafa465eb38a746b0689a67458a1c
a5691f4db618525703dad5d9e1c56e16ad542239
describe
'19068092' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAC' 'sip-files00137.tif'
f66674f147f47f1033e65e11f831586e
115fc1dcdd41d13ea3d4bd7fcd8bc52719b0846b
'2011-08-20T02:50:11-04:00'
describe
'889' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAD' 'sip-files00137.txt'
1d03fe176a0052f8caf9055247eaca16
d018cd4ebf9d30ffc1d3c4c13b99a31258ac31f6
describe
'5742' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAE' 'sip-files00137thm.jpg'
b9ddddbd86140f8e7797cc62398089a4
e4c79370b301aa33cb22528c8ac05a7dba17406f
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAF' 'sip-files00138.jp2'
fc93659f0de2c3c3972dcd7790de41d4
c10fa443a8e49fa5f1732bce9a7406899109d38c
describe
'175442' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAG' 'sip-files00138.jpg'
01ca9d8192625f8ed4a8f042de683f65
cd7d132f882415d6b22cf5ee81216f66059f0043
describe
'78177' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAH' 'sip-files00138.pro'
41cd318436138850fcc25788ff746fd4
ec4bcea324e5e57191ebb7b94a02c8c36183fbc7
describe
'44731' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAI' 'sip-files00138.QC.jpg'
14bf59873d8784d91e0c8ba79c84bc97
d77d64c4a9ec5f48ef967548bfa01f4c9e9c52e0
'2011-08-20T02:45:53-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAJ' 'sip-files00138.tif'
21e1261e9b741d6ddd89febda2ac118e
f4dd43f039def144c740befb3dcbead0edff9798
describe
'3283' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAK' 'sip-files00138.txt'
5831a8ac1a5c032466e08028894c21ef
c392e91290cbdc7dc1710cf38499e5329a1c925c
describe
'10435' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAL' 'sip-files00138thm.jpg'
e5028c5dabe02f11a872c19501802f9b
0defd57986dab9881ae63339acb975f1e17e66cb
describe
'773758' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAM' 'sip-files00139.jp2'
d8cea3a880b72ff7ae59b63e9df05a8b
ea07f92f99a5c34424ecbad7652802fd21691a0a
describe
'168245' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAN' 'sip-files00139.jpg'
e527ab9f80123dc927bb41d556e56e18
cfdae58f41268ca5787de98ba66a9e6250523c92
describe
'98091' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAO' 'sip-files00139.pro'
32ee266f72a1fe1e20426ee89abb7eb3
0b492c4d876ee6f198081d1848a4299c0ea26ddd
describe
'43413' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAP' 'sip-files00139.QC.jpg'
862b397d7f583c57f92e126a05399284
06ac020c0d84fab272fb9fa641dab2098aebea5e
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAQ' 'sip-files00139.tif'
0eecc5995bc983903860e8624580d0d7
b131c4510dc282f953cdd9550b2751a0148bc32e
describe
'4041' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAR' 'sip-files00139.txt'
6bc2ab766a3c30984ce1b11e8c440fd3
4e85a45235ace72a69df34d1062b5d7d7a26817c
describe
Invalid character
'10097' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAS' 'sip-files00139thm.jpg'
b8d398c7bda3d6f146a4551d4294bb8a
c0bf11f910453bf8f8bf1210fbe943f2b65f63e7
describe
'773801' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAT' 'sip-files00140.jp2'
32a0e3a697e0546109ec4cf865fff715
378303894bd937febedd5226df51a90c2575acbd
describe
'179868' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAU' 'sip-files00140.jpg'
f1f8bc90b4c88eaa02e128972a7b4ccd
e09059e47e72034c753c8e46f891abe2a459a718
describe
'98737' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAV' 'sip-files00140.pro'
53a0046f3e8f5b4bcf18ab71a4ae6aca
835de34226733aa75667ce88038afaf54d1459e9
describe
'45965' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAW' 'sip-files00140.QC.jpg'
bb3aa12e8e7eb4fd90d8b338390c52f8
f676a595763aa703023bb6971c8fb0df1a0aa2a8
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAX' 'sip-files00140.tif'
da1deea68157cfcd92c1c4986c1e3392
20cfe60e78e59cf6c23fc799ee4f08cff67b849b
describe
'3957' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAY' 'sip-files00140.txt'
8be940f61e3a1da97a8f4ac9455daa66
eb895906ab2d625e1729e85dc4c6a11a63ecaa36
describe
'10603' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALAZ' 'sip-files00140thm.jpg'
cd14e4fada43305ca3435c43427bc8c1
e751565a278fc81de2281a9440d33c7bf08b0d8e
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBA' 'sip-files00141.jp2'
396e643f64ee3a504a41bc2ff873ac1d
8f30fc6114d79bfc15ed63d4aeec4b37e67bbd91
describe
'169499' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBB' 'sip-files00141.jpg'
c18c5ad44e9898905a8a6196f496fb1f
8c0fc3b599e46e378afdc9781702d40d5048048f
describe
'97941' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBC' 'sip-files00141.pro'
695d0531dec9dc620b7b6e47fba560b4
0853384ea34f56f9787c4e75d3f134020b9c5151
describe
'43661' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBD' 'sip-files00141.QC.jpg'
b7ebf276982d3b0f06d37b6fd7bf0660
be2cf6f83a4dbdf09c44e291d6d102a1ac5c98b1
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBE' 'sip-files00141.tif'
69f9bc5a50b0a5ed2e8875109a1fcea4
bc90a6e8cf4697c359187e3135d8c04a7586c3e9
'2011-08-20T02:44:54-04:00'
describe
'4087' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBF' 'sip-files00141.txt'
e0d0d3fe2ada5e647343592a6f82b621
c9c6fcee1e60f40fc4dd2dbb6445667ddb9252c4
describe
'10042' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBG' 'sip-files00141thm.jpg'
106efed94ee7833765900d49e2e164d5
f9273e750748778508c37e63c8f19d0b967f15b3
describe
'798358' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBH' 'sip-files00142.jp2'
30f1bbd23aae7ebafd3316833e863d45
25d0bbd0f42c0de11f0337cee0d0d5a7fbdf4527
describe
'84660' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBI' 'sip-files00142.jpg'
0ba62c6aa641fd127d5f70df3f0741ec
d35b9b7c17aec926a8a6d4fa4cf972e3005048ca
describe
'28559' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBJ' 'sip-files00142.pro'
6e23e745ac6bb21fa96d488c2a41d1d3
82a756989c7543d90532ac69f7f7a27084e9439a
describe
'22394' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBK' 'sip-files00142.QC.jpg'
36b2563c45333342ef26b5082af2ad13
65a8d8a80d0e1bb56f865f1a004eafabd09f92e3
describe
'19175480' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBL' 'sip-files00142.tif'
b9abd4a65b2b3ed16fb222b2d4559794
8b21bffbbd2f471d72af9d3157f05ae23a6f505a
describe
'1459' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBM' 'sip-files00142.txt'
a82cf18dc961a4109649d7e53579fff8
b1566f45c907c1b54f6353ed90fff862f7c7c61d
describe
'5649' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBN' 'sip-files00142thm.jpg'
7771c32caf7cd00d2ff256c1e59b5499
019802037ab141234eaf104daad9121b3c80e19d
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBO' 'sip-files00143.jp2'
a22bd2ca5f1a4acad444872ae7357c61
c31109be1d9967cb96501a9ba2f283a17a8af67f
describe
'189251' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBP' 'sip-files00143.jpg'
ef59e9450d082a2301f5c6449f48a3ff
b3b464698d473b01c18488977d51b6a07da84e3e
describe
'130834' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBQ' 'sip-files00143.pro'
36fb66b77224b14ddb872921f81a638e
4ea88a519753d0994ff957490a4c50ac8df2b6d6
describe
'49158' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBR' 'sip-files00143.QC.jpg'
8b7f3de17913d5038b3126c43165673e
977d0bd9b997113803c1cc9c520efdfe163364ea
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBS' 'sip-files00143.tif'
8ced031ffd13521038ed2f86e88b5e34
3e28918eeeeda2007bd6746b6c0dbc69907a11b5
describe
'5386' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBT' 'sip-files00143.txt'
0113e59645d461b2988304cbdffda480
ef29197b29e89ac5a66487d64c7441c506c93ddb
describe
'11850' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBU' 'sip-files00143thm.jpg'
d8f4d24314204a6cba68c1fb0616b069
7b54df394e5f1004c0bb0e2e8a3d1cc290a386ba
describe
'773777' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBV' 'sip-files00144.jp2'
b1bceea01c033e72e61b6b9ea5307b99
f170f5fbb6d1937daba8d59384814ef1a24c12e5
describe
'153289' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBW' 'sip-files00144.jpg'
d7202cc5cd0a11c64e873315a58ff795
f22039a164aab230660531df9bf1a3fb94c45f35
describe
'95559' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBX' 'sip-files00144.pro'
6e0af62e100dccbec3eaa97250487cfa
d788fa74a3b980d030b61600711b3cbd367f9e55
describe
'40180' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBY' 'sip-files00144.QC.jpg'
0e10fec35ec3386aa4a611a7d2922063
5dcd858eb2c4e62c1c54285ae6a14abca1826234
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALBZ' 'sip-files00144.tif'
d3dec75e692b97634ab5b690ca2f0c29
15c9254c1dcae8e4faa0cad4bdca146ef03527cf
describe
'3899' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCA' 'sip-files00144.txt'
6322bf0ad7d8d854dd6b96be27a77298
d081f04d1cdd2f8a9d83037667023b8cf5c850f5
describe
'9356' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCB' 'sip-files00144thm.jpg'
f704965218c1454cd181740ab2451bdf
b610d443e203e841b5fe2cbf832f586f4a1d8cee
'2011-08-20T02:47:33-04:00'
describe
'773757' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCC' 'sip-files00145.jp2'
6b1863658cc17c5ce0b1d8f75ebc6f55
afadfec200dc61e72910cf25f4de5c07866cfb9f
'2011-08-20T02:46:17-04:00'
describe
'165747' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCD' 'sip-files00145.jpg'
091ea28db92f1cc564cb80b6e9308dad
29d005d46dfe836fdc9b47a67645b01045f1a889
describe
'140071' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCE' 'sip-files00145.pro'
4d3b434dddd04d038ccbd6bbe72d4caf
a0c9ecf2d215f65ee22e8263f60219ac8ae0e124
describe
'42418' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCF' 'sip-files00145.QC.jpg'
e421a2068acea34ab5299129a192d25f
1bec427c07ec38148dd5af302df6bdc5d57dc5d8
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCG' 'sip-files00145.tif'
c137733d66d23da0d476a52e4431a30f
c382aec817bccef73afa3045fc7413024fbaf698
describe
'5748' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCH' 'sip-files00145.txt'
fb3955abae5dc42431718cb90372f147
3efe59d896c1f87f01cf799e7503862b097cd55c
describe
'9929' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCI' 'sip-files00145thm.jpg'
911a4597335d9ad225aadbbfc175a706
2d7b7f6c459146e9ee73b4c019012e43d38edbaf
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCJ' 'sip-files00146.jp2'
aab732f03cb2552b1500472be85845c5
ec93033d14fe812ee19f312a98aa5ae9117c400e
describe
'117393' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCK' 'sip-files00146.jpg'
1cb28ccaefe6c53484354368058c4d4f
5b8191fd92e5a62d40b70d4f0d7722ccbc04f537
describe
'75717' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCL' 'sip-files00146.pro'
2e35d69b11ce8a74001a22f55da3b03e
ff6f9d45307983da38638a10d1add999988721a6
describe
'30942' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCM' 'sip-files00146.QC.jpg'
3fb21362f705fb5f3c85b83a76a35492
05211dfed5fc1cd3e4001cea2712ac7a37c1ab61
'2011-08-20T02:46:56-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCN' 'sip-files00146.tif'
9bf17bef9892a9128035bc15e1a21fe7
7574b6bb1dba8e41853b67d8867211a68dd50f7b
'2011-08-20T02:51:40-04:00'
describe
'3172' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCO' 'sip-files00146.txt'
f622e22169615cb22b622dc0719b0ba5
98fc5b2f17b38e6ec2228f8def184e4e17eb2cd6
'2011-08-20T02:46:08-04:00'
describe
'7605' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCP' 'sip-files00146thm.jpg'
d720b1d87d417aa5223bbd581af13404
030c23e94f9c6447d0ecadcc36b842faad57a0d0
describe
'773718' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCQ' 'sip-files00147.jp2'
c6de21e00e8146fbce164bbdf7a29b14
27ef8dc068008a6ecad357179e2d431cba009e70
'2011-08-20T02:46:15-04:00'
describe
'157931' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCR' 'sip-files00147.jpg'
978a115f8f845e371ed3f202cbb3cb6a
faf66e37a70d1ba2f25a18250c6fb1157d1dded5
describe
'110691' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCS' 'sip-files00147.pro'
0548a6ee8b31090fb9fd333898e422a2
388871830f0c54ce2c8c5e5e81a825808803d4ab
describe
'39385' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCT' 'sip-files00147.QC.jpg'
e3f3a44c2675a08df4dd76f4afc54711
b4786eca4f5544ec885ed8028b48e996d6de8f2b
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCU' 'sip-files00147.tif'
f234cf29a231c700ec428c11f1cccd17
bea6d6fd946efc95e5002aaa1abedcac35acd972
describe
'4466' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCV' 'sip-files00147.txt'
f151916313ffda7600239ac87e7f2466
277154b3c9484a6adea777a6b7239c11494a6818
'2011-08-20T02:45:12-04:00'
describe
'9152' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCW' 'sip-files00147thm.jpg'
20d038ea7ea2916eac6ad3b84ec42428
3cd26ee2537d5aecdf96eea068a963c4b5607e40
describe
'773678' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCX' 'sip-files00148.jp2'
5cdd50773526015701002dcf1e47251b
b61446171eadbab9d10a33e59f281e399226dbab
describe
'180792' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCY' 'sip-files00148.jpg'
6081c4755986b97ff9d619c35fc12cf6
40912fa3470b37fee4cc3d53532d4edf194d950d
describe
'130145' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALCZ' 'sip-files00148.pro'
e03a8aeb81914da053c837401f26f201
c00c9c0722b26412c3eba54bc6700df9fc03696c
describe
'46793' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDA' 'sip-files00148.QC.jpg'
4f3dd571f42df7bfe0f1cd9d4b98e11f
417ff2f844a80d76a091b43b262e59d312c0db85
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDB' 'sip-files00148.tif'
7931313525b1b359976fd49804fe3c49
95d4b64ac90ff5bceea7fc604292dd325b0eb1d8
'2011-08-20T02:44:40-04:00'
describe
'5203' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDC' 'sip-files00148.txt'
c6ed94c911fb6915e899642939fff311
ce2b0944ad8b47e1141c01aaa64a68e65c0676ca
describe
'10439' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDD' 'sip-files00148thm.jpg'
8c8f81d80ea7f2bf6067adb771acd631
fb0762014bb649716bcb29030d6a09a110eb72d1
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDE' 'sip-files00149.jp2'
c4bdfbfa9f428c5555e5c5d53b0392ab
ab51a08c213cf688706539ca479f5ede188b7d6d
describe
'185033' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDF' 'sip-files00149.jpg'
b93c3fe93e4b647477e2c65c747d2d7b
3b8901abe04b5a3c925777f37386202074b01d1f
describe
'152422' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDG' 'sip-files00149.pro'
c4570ba457092c6fa915c54bdfddd060
1675840f0d4bf6de6c50382db7d05a642ddbf2d2
describe
'45583' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDH' 'sip-files00149.QC.jpg'
36b046385e3c759db9887c6f413d4a51
db754d89b42225275d22d9c6ade4e6f620120415
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDI' 'sip-files00149.tif'
3a51bcb0dfbe83aff6c44dbe50a4c6c0
4b406898b4906fdaa3997924742153669fc21dee
describe
'6124' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDJ' 'sip-files00149.txt'
15d3c5200e2b3cc2326412a2c6abcb55
f2949e4bdece51536faba9ab95709d4d305ebb9c
describe
'10059' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDK' 'sip-files00149thm.jpg'
5dc9a1925b82488ce85b4af600656f7d
28b10dae93516381a4832445a40cd0971329fd07
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDL' 'sip-files00150.jp2'
e3fae6cd1f2e2ed4c7c5f340fe936d34
1a8ddda464c6e3a2a6d28d15df9ecd916821c8b4
describe
'107244' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDM' 'sip-files00150.jpg'
f4426a1049068c6295a37ccb5d39a83b
4147fe62470f7afddb590f8f3b6de50be937d1da
describe
'53952' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDN' 'sip-files00150.pro'
c9b51f030d709832e03f74eaa40ab75d
c8a67ec4089bbf4876d2ade4e9ac21f97b5b2ad6
describe
'27262' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDO' 'sip-files00150.QC.jpg'
b09726bb34b576dec5e5099f99fb4491
17d530447fad149f93b2eae81630fb1651d59b2c
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDP' 'sip-files00150.tif'
5ef28dd69d0dd5c43965a75e64846d80
86a78e34ecd571ae04d77996a6af779818be60b6
'2011-08-20T02:45:45-04:00'
describe
'2264' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDQ' 'sip-files00150.txt'
5414d7bb7936ff73bcf60a8cf06ed1f3
1dd0bdb23f17c7988c6062fa02b95c2fc99b9ddd
describe
'7501' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDR' 'sip-files00150thm.jpg'
e92c4c895c82f8b76e05a27381ba0e50
3c817dc57c68f999a9d8682b39ae3f70fb4b44ed
describe
'800704' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDS' 'sip-files00151.jp2'
ab5c3d8804c5ba906ddd467b13d03095
c709ef4bb53701b63ecc15b4381182bbf732c7dd
describe
'95922' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDT' 'sip-files00151.jpg'
d685f0da2d09fa9da08e14df88876886
a297299b98aee261c368d28cd24ba9d333bf79c2
describe
'3630' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDU' 'sip-files00151.pro'
a9921dec47daacef0991e35dcff0d644
8cfa6de01ecc3efb229100e5b2134c3fb9ab4320
describe
'23534' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDV' 'sip-files00151.QC.jpg'
4e59d2aa10c7ca6f082890bb20ca320f
6df5336c07ed3f53f4c3352b633f4f4fe9f9435f
describe
'19233152' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDW' 'sip-files00151.tif'
dce1c66da27d2b1526a0e43b930896f9
4de2f04554152f6e7e5ddbc5b7c72c53e95c2623
'2011-08-20T02:44:48-04:00'
describe
'223' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDX' 'sip-files00151.txt'
26492cec632e767c7b0d5bfd0c7cd1ab
f8fbce2a810c09d8503a12b083c36041fdc374a9
describe
'5735' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDY' 'sip-files00151thm.jpg'
c1b284d1e5aba2c2d8dd909e366058fb
784b5258c56ff7832cd30d751e725a047e077c49
describe
'773784' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALDZ' 'sip-files00152.jp2'
a7579ae3257ad1811f85c5beacac3c0b
d619882fc5cc635115887c416582b49f0c8b13da
describe
'133096' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEA' 'sip-files00152.jpg'
737675cbab3f59e2deaf0b17f6033473
b3de9a610a2562df192ec2e94202b94f7c36d86e
'2011-08-20T02:46:35-04:00'
describe
'48457' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEB' 'sip-files00152.pro'
977b91347e063c4aa55bf33ab9cceac5
cf555e84a63a08718b4cfdb9c551252ed040de5d
describe
'34504' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEC' 'sip-files00152.QC.jpg'
a9686acb77323e7ecb3c8e6d6e8d92e5
364c964e858807f57e67b309da92a7d9d7f542e4
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALED' 'sip-files00152.tif'
bbe566178d8b1df931c68ccf3b8ebaf2
711b6c93811ec7170d2afc8a2713ab396db135c7
describe
'2012' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEE' 'sip-files00152.txt'
e0843440d7bc1db30bdb5fd56f46ce38
5f984906cdc88d4043c705f42b53b15260720f78
describe
'8419' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEF' 'sip-files00152thm.jpg'
b4a9d8efbb62d9a477400fa8ea9cf487
aeaf7b5e26634344962861bf8fef90783183dab8
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEG' 'sip-files00153.jp2'
60bc637141efeed7099f5e76461e2108
cca6a99e9e76644ae6b87e03375e06d000ff06ad
describe
'166569' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEH' 'sip-files00153.jpg'
3d229397242c42c84d959a8f64175864
cbdddd4d59a50e1f85c44690b30ef9f1071dec93
'2011-08-20T02:51:03-04:00'
describe
'96786' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEI' 'sip-files00153.pro'
2293482449cc4b9781354b097b53daf2
92f99fa43bfbe2217aa4cbb5d8a980adb854ce6a
describe
'41842' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEJ' 'sip-files00153.QC.jpg'
ed45c375d927044ac6a4fa52aefc5ba8
10f240ffbe4e569ad76ae7e6e0c46daa35e65046
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEK' 'sip-files00153.tif'
eab720b86f9d1a714b5fa38ba4582784
bdda7e63508f49f43a24e757ce95050c4e0323e0
describe
'4124' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEL' 'sip-files00153.txt'
97cd6edc150d78ff022417b1a6a2539f
af333e2b9d91efc551441c723f7fe6ebcf5b5eb4
describe
Invalid character
'9971' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEM' 'sip-files00153thm.jpg'
85234628299d5a8f34de1100e7e383a5
10596492fd524f3f830e2afe3078814584da6ce8
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEN' 'sip-files00154.jp2'
254a1f56cfd6338a9272249a93822887
940dcd3878da6a774f27b4cefb68fe9c65297128
describe
'185581' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEO' 'sip-files00154.jpg'
1ae759ab317144f793313df4df3b2d97
83f9db3467783ceec538e002ad3f0ddf0ae40d42
describe
'93217' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEP' 'sip-files00154.pro'
684872e9408b1303864aa94ac80f74c5
74dedcfe12a6b3cee3227231c3eb889adc7d340b
'2011-08-20T02:51:34-04:00'
describe
'47479' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEQ' 'sip-files00154.QC.jpg'
2731def9bc1c5773d8faa523c583cc77
eda60edf2ddedb26057696700abe28b786a3647f
'2011-08-20T02:45:11-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALER' 'sip-files00154.tif'
29e7f10e3c167e123e867ae0441d0ed3
f18e07823ffd1818b82b2209259dfe250346482a
'2011-08-20T02:49:32-04:00'
describe
'3876' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALES' 'sip-files00154.txt'
1e07327163e26d16ea7148b55755d796
99fb327ee222a0f7ebbeb700a0484f476187d895
describe
'10795' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALET' 'sip-files00154thm.jpg'
c1f5bc31fc0f26fedd86ec749b4eb9cd
4234c14d56da41598783cb1fed27d42b0883ade0
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEU' 'sip-files00155.jp2'
ed2465141464f2e103d225fbc7c02062
4d21020d2851cf973e604b28c3912b1222222b02
describe
'179816' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEV' 'sip-files00155.jpg'
335b96530b8c7d38c168c002acc0b355
dbaf8e7af63de6baefd599f93a9c72947c8256b8
'2011-08-20T02:45:44-04:00'
describe
'82250' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEW' 'sip-files00155.pro'
bc2149e55b8e23a43bc159453a4043cd
fc31ba5b6da1b2bfbba15806c9d3d2796af1ce24
describe
'45515' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEX' 'sip-files00155.QC.jpg'
3c9eec549a742f75d30eda74aa677e26
9470ca04c733f94fca06faa10ae7e08eeeb0f17b
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEY' 'sip-files00155.tif'
7cce059559a0a500a0f0f240884f43ce
5a000beb4b12c194c3f275a9671585c1b2f488a9
describe
'3323' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALEZ' 'sip-files00155.txt'
d74f95c40825fa88cc51b611f4e4c0b7
5ce8e1e096d1153e5937b47f1d60b5cbdbe68d36
describe
'10697' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFA' 'sip-files00155thm.jpg'
7f33d6020590086401530beb0db7d914
d140f3e44f0b361f23065afd4505a164bb6f3c2d
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFB' 'sip-files00156.jp2'
efaa1c029fa5b073f0839e454dded1af
6f8da5a71d77800fcc2a5e5eaadb7df0bea3976d
describe
'176425' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFC' 'sip-files00156.jpg'
2eee9e8a9aa4cb3852199568730a9795
bdb8dc23199addd20ad34e80400b08b3888def7f
describe
'136913' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFD' 'sip-files00156.pro'
4893a09f508282f72dac76e07ab03237
2f8b9693906c17d8f360df998402e6463ecd84a0
describe
'45279' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFE' 'sip-files00156.QC.jpg'
7a0c5b7e6d15e85a49dae08f2dfd4fbf
5c0fbea5255866192fcdc89298f2149f77ea4182
'2011-08-20T02:50:32-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFF' 'sip-files00156.tif'
0ca6b0289e986feb4886234d27e27354
d3f9bcac390dc087aac00d25e78920afbf306aae
describe
'5691' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFG' 'sip-files00156.txt'
1ba4f58c0e83dbac01025e8439100cee
507c0bd6fd94cf205e29a8fb646b1b46b6c8bbed
describe
Invalid character
'10269' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFH' 'sip-files00156thm.jpg'
1be3034878f707b9820db0d3c8386b6c
bde38a12d77bcc431e3ee8a86f524dcc9062b98a
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFI' 'sip-files00157.jp2'
a36532a262f8285b9bc2fdd9a301c4ba
3be7e5aa2131dbe5d90e3211320dc4e62c638fcd
describe
'185125' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFJ' 'sip-files00157.jpg'
f5a1781e1bfaee4e593dbbbb58aebb5a
af1707d5d67276da7881ed7ab7afd8393c00ae71
describe
'130063' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFK' 'sip-files00157.pro'
bc87ca81d9137284f4757e474f59ad5f
91b32244e61d53326beefba1810b5a539e743b78
describe
'47378' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFL' 'sip-files00157.QC.jpg'
f7e9907a47f52ea02eac313309620318
14ac928f32cf367d5304a535a951bf8752b72306
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFM' 'sip-files00157.tif'
a469d395814a6e27e8dd2a8c124b5953
7b451dcb8ba0534ec0fc48aaed44ddefb412b886
describe
'5250' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFN' 'sip-files00157.txt'
a18b950861d642016658d890f7c06505
964e9929ab91c14f6aeb4410abfba6a0fe30e412
describe
Invalid character
'10751' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFO' 'sip-files00157thm.jpg'
91266fd10e7bcfb6a15128fb447cb1d0
36675dfdeb77d37b5a1982930945ea93da7354e8
describe
'815047' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFP' 'sip-files00158.jp2'
ff8dd1fc78b749a7ffbd845defc98279
249b85c566ecea22941f5f460dfb37bce5214193
describe
'168378' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFQ' 'sip-files00158.jpg'
79e8973c58250b3872528ee0b847cf23
385e6e29681cafc345bb048db5fed17651afdeea
describe
'8720' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFR' 'sip-files00158.pro'
970f7ac9dbad5d4e79086d3dcf6ae752
a76a0cdb027036af77e014aa8fb3a159b2c74ff3
describe
'43492' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFS' 'sip-files00158.QC.jpg'
eb9c2337bc57e0f2fbd6d701bd95e42a
9c58608d807b15bab4a8743170534ade26c7dfcb
'2011-08-20T02:47:08-04:00'
describe
'19576356' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFT' 'sip-files00158.tif'
c471e029480b61d52216532869995471
4ff7238f3a90f801c4e2fb274f78a9942e133793
describe
'402' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFU' 'sip-files00158.txt'
31bc134446d2246150be088eefc6a806
4c3712bc22adffbb4fcdfc09f757e3b50c35d1d9
describe
Invalid character
'10740' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFV' 'sip-files00158thm.jpg'
d05c3670f8fb3c0183b4081bd4c6bd21
837114761e3d030a960181a55b4494644793fdf2
describe
'773754' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFW' 'sip-files00159.jp2'
930a09932d77e9bcd914347850c8c556
e335f0a86431783e9e63836c0846f8e55aa81cac
describe
'202454' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFX' 'sip-files00159.jpg'
4c1b8bcdb69f01fa823fe736b12dd22a
ee0affd15c304dee9f0b6985e85eb587ef0575dc
describe
'150646' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFY' 'sip-files00159.pro'
3dde44a6e609b41d30dfda86c4f955c4
7804adf5b57537b8ea0fcee5bf8f71013e886d26
'2011-08-20T02:51:04-04:00'
describe
'50647' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALFZ' 'sip-files00159.QC.jpg'
7b9f7127b472acfd951826b5583eaec4
6b3fcec83e21d0157e8ab1a4c0c6f8675e83e7cd
describe
'6207684' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGA' 'sip-files00159.tif'
09a320a660a22be1d7b25e69b2b30e84
27539362953b21d85b3d0de7dafd65d8616275ae
describe
'6170' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGB' 'sip-files00159.txt'
c00355a3e0171cf9e363c3e6076fca37
13155341bc0e30997b3721e41c6f7ef1b8c37a2f
describe
'12089' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGC' 'sip-files00159thm.jpg'
67c5db0451230d423eb4650a790f51ea
a6c825fa88a78993c038cc98c7003c7a19f4f923
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGD' 'sip-files00160.jp2'
6e5eb8afd838c1d7a15a229702dd8606
5f724ae1d8b14504ef2a7266f78bc2bc87e49dbc
describe
'173854' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGE' 'sip-files00160.jpg'
4491eb838956fd7c5d4995d5ab6a3411
20c3174c9bc6884e768a0ac690268afb3b5ee3d8
describe
'117916' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGF' 'sip-files00160.pro'
625cd80af70efccfe222755200cef58c
f69b922b9e045ea04e15e7aba158fdb13500ad9a
describe
'45133' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGG' 'sip-files00160.QC.jpg'
e0339ee1427ee8ed52cb4d6e8203a63e
4bff30ecbbe72a56da4097c64cbda50dda9c5373
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGH' 'sip-files00160.tif'
9c692c03ca325c33b5736356e81d97e8
d568f327ef66f712a3b454e1bc0cc30248543f98
describe
'4887' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGI' 'sip-files00160.txt'
de70ebd9068c85efaf0344d609885790
32d0b6446fd28646407f181cd13f528420449c5d
describe
'10411' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGJ' 'sip-files00160thm.jpg'
d250ece007c05bcf9a234682fc557d29
6f25349e312443574e21455501cc15332edc2a0b
describe
'773641' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGK' 'sip-files00161.jp2'
e4361b6995bcb5cf522e2e73ea6cd8f5
d5996972b93c9ca805f13c4645f15a67a30c4746
describe
'171005' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGL' 'sip-files00161.jpg'
e59290fe27e21d5915a401b59a21c1f4
b3acaf24df8f4d031f61456e7a71628403b387d5
describe
'87982' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGM' 'sip-files00161.pro'
1ad117b77db91cc5f59a515245443c16
b46d719e127d5d524f65201c4a3b224daf3f0c1c
describe
'42775' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGN' 'sip-files00161.QC.jpg'
ffd06a9a266a4a7acbdec4c533585d30
55c326867116ced3ada53ffc74c3f8e63dfbb655
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGO' 'sip-files00161.tif'
9faef2f310ef946913b7580a9bbb8ac9
2336d3fde97f87e92b3c0cda0e3c569d88d18bcf
describe
'3658' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGP' 'sip-files00161.txt'
fefb7115397d973f7059fe74a3b31423
5061c9d5b4767fe930900fa0a26eb23973ac9367
describe
'10090' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGQ' 'sip-files00161thm.jpg'
6b99c125da331be412c7c8b1eca0e552
e113988418aee58c836443d5ecfeccd72d36f656
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGR' 'sip-files00162.jp2'
3789a808ca341b0cd8f950903d2fe32e
59be9a26e76993282c4cbe8de25811cebf6b8dd9
describe
'168470' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGS' 'sip-files00162.jpg'
fb714e518158ce0a1c0be89c1b4de84f
725b8ab66b5b19234fd7e0b9c9bb22a29533f9ae
describe
'98195' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGT' 'sip-files00162.pro'
7689275c10b0e0b36522e1680dd85778
2fb7cb7a40ebb32f206220c78036bbd8fe97de39
describe
'43314' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGU' 'sip-files00162.QC.jpg'
c6216759275780b2bcdd657b9c0cfc1a
6dd0b5291271ace4221ed6d468e34703cd5d7711
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGV' 'sip-files00162.tif'
00107016b2774f302ba145ff405831a3
e7d0e7d5ecf77ae16dbe1ed9d1936daa4bbf9499
'2011-08-20T02:45:01-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGW' 'sip-files00162.txt'
b07c6b1a8ee952647c191ec88a7f5040
8ae6c6063ee1752a420df93d35b6a7f3bddd3fc6
describe
'9975' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGX' 'sip-files00162thm.jpg'
79d040ece7d574413d935d53b257308a
081ed8a41c6cf2ebddeff3075021f5f116bc36e3
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGY' 'sip-files00163.jp2'
2b22ca532d57839486e3b6767070c5b4
d01818c3eb1b74f0a4bb73519bf1370892f1cb05
describe
'159182' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALGZ' 'sip-files00163.jpg'
5d32731a4856b5b89445622f2a33828e
5b29eb2f31f758e7bf09846ebf5ea681a0d22264
describe
'37700' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHA' 'sip-files00163.pro'
ea48a3c72dd250ec21f9173edca9e003
ceb7f4e83add97247928894d37e11859cffb13d9
describe
'40457' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHB' 'sip-files00163.QC.jpg'
f06e3a9d4999c9956a83bb047f9b72b0
c4b5b221d8173a15674379946437e5c724448fed
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHC' 'sip-files00163.tif'
9a3f11d6a8cdceed316b431fa5ebba4d
ed46a24fa7c1813160e2b3318c17ea974484710c
'2011-08-20T02:46:32-04:00'
describe
'1584' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHD' 'sip-files00163.txt'
112ffcc16eab58425841f4f4043c2e1f
c8e83198270d6f46fef618dde07d4f3065705b69
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHE' 'sip-files00163thm.jpg'
1ec43f9665d2900aefbac0ec99198e4a
6f9f89fe8d708000165b5af8bf6ec183225113f9
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHF' 'sip-files00164.jp2'
1b268960f2af43a380c13bb26b8bf652
567103c5e7f68f50c2e35ff49de1813c43f7d5fe
describe
'183106' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHG' 'sip-files00164.jpg'
7ce9f1374a14770fd4b05e7613834ce5
7de0c1a0674893ea946ac705c62f0343bfb62f58
describe
'102355' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHH' 'sip-files00164.pro'
cac54bfb2822bea84c1543762bd17209
da8a42743a70a149199e43db77736bd3903a2e56
describe
'45450' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHI' 'sip-files00164.QC.jpg'
120e852690d5a99b877397ac504fdbcd
9466512e0a6206412f4150c556ac6c7f456a4679
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHJ' 'sip-files00164.tif'
021ba298b9eb94f56f549718aff12faa
576650a3209c9121206a630f6bf2c52b41d85e0f
describe
'4160' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHK' 'sip-files00164.txt'
9d62de18f25f88d1df56f61c8ee8cfe7
3fbc42ca55bbe13ee59f5bfc132b71571dbf31ab
describe
'10303' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHL' 'sip-files00164thm.jpg'
410fc4ce6327cb7d96f8f36af8e73194
b3bee655c7904c9b785872b0a4afbd933da57338
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHM' 'sip-files00165.jp2'
5a16ce054e9b62c94ff02eeb2bbc2a0d
595f338489a425a0359c1cd8c40edfb6d61bc9d5
describe
'185407' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHN' 'sip-files00165.jpg'
ed6eed4e4fb1c2a351910d5aac622508
c73825d59e1563e66239ea301493d784e5b575ec
describe
'109481' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHO' 'sip-files00165.pro'
90437844b53134ed032df4ae1b45aedf
957678319c5f7d980023d29258817cf931c7da63
describe
'46507' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHP' 'sip-files00165.QC.jpg'
1d9651478bb419903f09b0e2bc889694
65f76e2a0e00f083e5960b444d34697c7da0109c
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHQ' 'sip-files00165.tif'
c2aebf0312c59436217f8784d5ad92aa
c8d8a97447e02b8e3f2074b43f364670ccba867c
describe
'4345' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHR' 'sip-files00165.txt'
b5dde588fd263538c0cad1da35b8a406
87bec47a5aa155a4ca59a738f720de43059dfcf0
describe
'10607' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHS' 'sip-files00165thm.jpg'
6baaff5385d9b85e0e87d6d4ecb493e2
e64f10e61aecb734d82c35b6e4baf479c565bf4f
describe
'793538' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHT' 'sip-files00166.jp2'
abb3d87879e80880d52489cb4fe1189a
31b5f2a2d50c52e034d7275fef2fd393a0c1e3a3
describe
'172922' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHU' 'sip-files00166.jpg'
03b2b1aae0d9c21582bbeb5e705beef8
521ec6a1b58daf266bc75183c96d97dee02a7b34
describe
'117598' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHV' 'sip-files00166.pro'
deb1ef83563335257365d05963fd440f
dcda3f9634a38524b366fc4fd297578f8ed25a5a
describe
'43440' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHW' 'sip-files00166.QC.jpg'
fb220f0e61fe97de519477e266c6bf4b
59a6e1c4edf3e658ff47a390af1cbbd2207165ab
describe
'6365420' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHX' 'sip-files00166.tif'
dde97f207022c0ea6d0d289a3deb06e7
253d3125f9b4ef61d39180deb6122f53dddb4eb5
describe
'4659' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHY' 'sip-files00166.txt'
a9a6a305e711e0710531ff4462822273
ed88d7b1c626a733f47b3dd15a1e014a24190bfa
describe
'9729' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALHZ' 'sip-files00166thm.jpg'
a818719ebadf78334cfc3f805bd2c5f1
a889d1921dbc22ba58d1eabd919d295e1782da63
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIA' 'sip-files00167.jp2'
d03efa34b4027feadf4003918c984729
8d4fd859dcb12ee97ff6315b6e2a8269b2c3eebc
describe
'163790' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIB' 'sip-files00167.jpg'
555d0f2c6e9549f99de3cebc3dae94c9
dd0e960791298865cb1e9581e65313ac8ad03b00
describe
'128841' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIC' 'sip-files00167.pro'
242863742bd479233da4bac426e4e8f5
c3ba1931e8d68e0c6237276f36013352be27bb15
describe
'41007' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALID' 'sip-files00167.QC.jpg'
038b17083ef002efe749037f21ab2277
1cbb31d98b9646e80e869aa4b8eecd326139ae14
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIE' 'sip-files00167.tif'
532256fd9d8e0a4187b8d1ed1db5730b
7269cc9b4dff2b2ebccc2d7391ecf914537b516b
'2011-08-20T02:47:21-04:00'
describe
'5275' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIF' 'sip-files00167.txt'
2ff95f0e258a142d02e16025f2e5dc7e
d428a2f78d994f2d4313e734320b8b4b0285c8e6
describe
'9727' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIG' 'sip-files00167thm.jpg'
19e3d49aba0f96ba512f585e7bb56297
af937c66924ad44abdc59530b027dd2cdc4a7ca4
describe
'773763' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIH' 'sip-files00168.jp2'
f991b99124c753250b0894f8ad5447fe
0061f36328e1d66d51ec0800b59fdf29335fd53e
describe
'168882' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALII' 'sip-files00168.jpg'
56dbc72fb1dc4f89a4ab0314cce63c85
ce017abdb1446f466a347ec47788fbd06a67c9d2
describe
'144483' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIJ' 'sip-files00168.pro'
b27f396296de3e09f73c69874766c892
80f1c2a786531030817c5e8162093e6cec9fa652
describe
'42862' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIK' 'sip-files00168.QC.jpg'
d336dd3852e42012d1cc5cb2b6763364
31c8b71b44a529826832bc4ffe9d43a5ed18c4e6
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIL' 'sip-files00168.tif'
b5ec51700d2a3d52045d9a48c885c2e2
bfe5607427b6695cff61a3d92315f4e4a67a8dbc
describe
'5973' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIM' 'sip-files00168.txt'
d523abc1ccf7e920776aa9dbb6dfb290
cd9dff9d58e6d0f85e360e9df00a7f1fd1417f0b
describe
Invalid character
'10076' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIN' 'sip-files00168thm.jpg'
76d9ab2ec6b7a3a3e2f98e722596bbf6
7257ce718addeae95feafe3adbb23c42e2fb7921
describe
'773669' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIO' 'sip-files00169.jp2'
a84671620f69df2ad03a0f9631fdb604
f99c8343c1913b3a313056ee699b0f843c6b546f
describe
'141080' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIP' 'sip-files00169.jpg'
a4520fcf6609adc3589849f68f50ba24
be6b55c0cf2d8506ec468cf46ea0614bd1317ba7
describe
'117146' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIQ' 'sip-files00169.pro'
7c3c89f2da75366d997846810e204fb4
c3b508e98f2b2b9c4eb593f52abc40489af00051
describe
'37233' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIR' 'sip-files00169.QC.jpg'
59dded0325265cebb2ae6ff28b11d876
8dfedfb5007988bba2dce4f660e9365f8312fa98
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIS' 'sip-files00169.tif'
4fc5a26c4d75fa1d9ea59edac369ff20
a494b058e7e8f29f98e98c57849d03c7b01a5e63
describe
'4791' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIT' 'sip-files00169.txt'
b61c7cb4dfe95a3f8c3776bd563c08b9
c7bee819d1220a319e000e6aab3eda0bdcaa6494
describe
'8814' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIU' 'sip-files00169thm.jpg'
28aec04178768176da139ce36dd49aa4
68a0ba1e64fa7538035d12cbf8f1b399d6b8102f
describe
'773790' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIV' 'sip-files00170.jp2'
d094283836533608870c8775243b5016
b9587d8ae01719042a0b996fb71ab4142fc2e81b
describe
'176593' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIW' 'sip-files00170.jpg'
95d1496f520758547454035d84d6114e
78497c0c94e94723cf6203b6338f3d68a3c84a3d
describe
'153980' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIX' 'sip-files00170.pro'
47a411bb4a2794b911b030f096531398
9bcbfeda1ccf0b8b210da17253799f9e6157a28e
describe
'45692' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIY' 'sip-files00170.QC.jpg'
8aef1567952ec104b9965fc18f856228
0a3b6ee62ef9bf98efee7a101b35af2ad258082d
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALIZ' 'sip-files00170.tif'
fabc675234e0c7bc8ce547456d0213c1
c0d8e687a3c78650e82325e75fd386dc194994f3
'2011-08-20T02:45:00-04:00'
describe
'6402' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJA' 'sip-files00170.txt'
0ec5f19ec2eed769748c316ac9b4d62b
f16e6f8931c161bce14d52980db5cb9160e2e4f7
describe
'10300' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJB' 'sip-files00170thm.jpg'
a44768f46046748e70064e2ce33c79d7
85774308060a9baf60b2bec1988b9822f879b4bb
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJC' 'sip-files00171.jp2'
3955760e21222e679a7eca70e6b61a0e
2ceb3d0c003e34e8cbffb6e95580741a12ea8341
describe
'177076' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJD' 'sip-files00171.jpg'
08f7152531316cb33952575900dd7656
6feb87802d8806512095899f1980e345f848abba
describe
'164992' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJE' 'sip-files00171.pro'
392a92a64e5bd173169fa07478030b8a
007bc4da85d3937a5cc230832e8ce5d783d6a76d
describe
'44603' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJF' 'sip-files00171.QC.jpg'
2359f6c6f12be4eb995f162beb026d9d
ab726e52783f1fa88c9438c9db0338af3f7a0558
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJG' 'sip-files00171.tif'
cfc985935d48c19650917f07bc32195e
6fb4f8aebed2f450912bd39c8f1e9b66249122a7
describe
'6757' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJH' 'sip-files00171.txt'
c8edc26f4d489414a2a3b27489c40f36
7ef93debf9303ed7f15fc0164884a0322904b6df
describe
'10050' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJI' 'sip-files00171thm.jpg'
f1746852d01af26c220d32cc43729e38
98d8dc7fc9e6bf0b2fe69d1e53dcad6e15b28958
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJJ' 'sip-files00172.jp2'
bebd293c8fbb81d1367110d302bb0f55
8489468f82fc67ff4b9ca40941a88d00e08ccd28
describe
'158818' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJK' 'sip-files00172.jpg'
41017a5e1d2d5f480e7e7bd5097b08cf
57726cd27c7f7c4918b16bbd3244b854e3749cb5
describe
'133370' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJL' 'sip-files00172.pro'
24218bba8c808e5db275be01f2ee7bb3
bdcf26718be8a78525f4383c2dcdb53d3a474b96
describe
'41367' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJM' 'sip-files00172.QC.jpg'
31c433a71dc2a3c84918f0e220761ef6
bd138820c3da42300ab9866b665c44559ab1fd50
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJN' 'sip-files00172.tif'
20dca580dbf5372d187ab94957d77386
f82ca7078330152f1d595f1348f8f28ebc0b807a
describe
'5565' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJO' 'sip-files00172.txt'
c81c285db8546388368f4bf72fde171f
28c021eac0b1f5d84e7724897559827b0bd99c6c
describe
'9800' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJP' 'sip-files00172thm.jpg'
a58aaa28c8629fdddbce2e546a6cf853
94a8061d586a945945ce85ec8f93618bd970b87c
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJQ' 'sip-files00173.jp2'
1efb34a775603b0463e2fa07c5d889b8
0ae5622a5fe886a86f2e71e70f9f1b051790924d
describe
'146592' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJR' 'sip-files00173.jpg'
8c173d9d7875ac66c3de6d0c327aa48b
66a834817b06973f224a571ec2f0d05f3abfb08f
describe
'121353' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJS' 'sip-files00173.pro'
1ffcf75913ab53215557665703a3da7a
85eb6de2eec79b4da2fd69c02b0e4d42ba8e25e8
describe
'38489' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJT' 'sip-files00173.QC.jpg'
094483d1c8437d5be907178281f37af0
f1c52e08facc377436f15a82ec295d2c67a42278
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJU' 'sip-files00173.tif'
95790bbe1b7ba0a3130127f3db979dd9
3a9731cca3a76a2c279e90c09e6301b52dc09ee2
describe
'5164' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJV' 'sip-files00173.txt'
2092a17f37a5b58ca670a83b7827a8a1
2af595f94b9e4ab1f11f4647ca5d8e783623d0e5
describe
'9320' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJW' 'sip-files00173thm.jpg'
c6ee0bd4e5f956b0c39b2277239d6830
b00a710939bfef62957cb24886e549979f9c6bf5
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJX' 'sip-files00174.jp2'
57b511f5bd37e0296a0d5e6c8dda1b49
f136036876136a08ab173979f7d18ff514c50dec
describe
'145110' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJY' 'sip-files00174.jpg'
b9476812c94b9086827319b7e66fe399
0f1d41a1414cf4cc0b1133255324d81d2b075564
describe
'123796' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALJZ' 'sip-files00174.pro'
e511fc29fc96f574b4377c21b9b8e023
a1596d6c3fa49b4ca5b1038a16c73ff2636e86c9
describe
'38048' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKA' 'sip-files00174.QC.jpg'
9c557bdc07e5accae8d585d043c1598d
4dd4d09c9870d19198a592a003c94dd8b2e88922
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKB' 'sip-files00174.tif'
bc06b8dafa04de579fc8d99e557ea354
103008e1b06e50b68afec10031cc35328e10b2d7
describe
'5215' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKC' 'sip-files00174.txt'
0c5b8b8a07b2766fe286ec3f9238a2ea
732392a1cf075188d297ff1d09d9240386cb9d89
describe
Invalid character
'9177' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKD' 'sip-files00174thm.jpg'
5ecd5dbe57e097a120227ab66fee9ce1
318761cd2fb2584382af35dd24f4c065b018fb68
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKE' 'sip-files00175.jp2'
d19c0d08352b46f910b80930a13a0249
71f01ac890237933119ac6281a229519bfdd243b
describe
'121491' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKF' 'sip-files00175.jpg'
8befdd4855fdb8141452a6110b8d5849
04ca9df49b9d369b3ec7f3876ced3c50bd1a603f
describe
'83605' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKG' 'sip-files00175.pro'
e8b134047c65da19faa6ab5e2894df34
2f7b518d8fa9673384922bcddf52d00a2841501e
describe
'32292' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKH' 'sip-files00175.QC.jpg'
581de4be6f891dcacff921cbf4641360
0dc038dbad572f3ce4d7ad508cd69277a41c9a08
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKI' 'sip-files00175.tif'
8daa4265638a4c6fa7ef462c53834c6e
94c8352eea638ff8385764756cb581d9c1f481c5
describe
'3656' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKJ' 'sip-files00175.txt'
91c3f69ea16371a0d7499907be4ee28a
a43416246e5e95db20a0bef44b75a70a03adf5c1
'2011-08-20T02:48:36-04:00'
describe
'8156' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKK' 'sip-files00175thm.jpg'
fdc9a54f07e8a3b2544a0e129ff9268e
d3bcbe05a055a28492f301072d73cf189addd775
describe
'773695' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKL' 'sip-files00176.jp2'
f8f2fcf16b6766f18df53e58e6defc64
e47b198565f0a92299cadb96f87891a9b5abeda1
describe
'118830' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKM' 'sip-files00176.jpg'
966531dbe93c545fae57d9f69b248857
10b41260e8f32483692dfb781aea45025f54ed01
describe
'82613' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKN' 'sip-files00176.pro'
3dd9569182971fa9b5ebfb63f9d6631c
81ec7e564155e8dc87564837bf50e1a59990410b
describe
'32073' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKO' 'sip-files00176.QC.jpg'
6b18c6bc51700f28f3ef0ca2689e4c6f
f6ace356be035e197116407d5c5d19efebdf3dba
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKP' 'sip-files00176.tif'
39ebb467971d0b1d02ce315cd165e7fa
8ee8ff90815af89de93ee9b110be81d48121512a
describe
'3503' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKQ' 'sip-files00176.txt'
ec37d6ec347c98ee1a170231b0ebb997
aef87c1ce44c8a42fd861be20f133b245c972e69
describe
'8106' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKR' 'sip-files00176thm.jpg'
4e29f05cac6bad08f0c2a15605581591
818921e9c2c98567cafe59b0f2ecba7af8a4040c
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKS' 'sip-files00177.jp2'
31c03896e65ff035c0f4c2bf7be5945b
30623a3ac6706cdac7f2f7e564b7963a9ed3900d
describe
'116406' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKT' 'sip-files00177.jpg'
b4651b93a86862bee01ac1fc00c6ef0b
50df772979edb339fb65b3b5383c55dfbe4791b1
describe
'91576' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKU' 'sip-files00177.pro'
7b18d4d6c34c504a2b70d79fbd17cbe3
c30f951a211f82c14af331282411718363497b2d
describe
'30956' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKV' 'sip-files00177.QC.jpg'
98df8dbc94c108b6f1a853b092a5aa36
398758bdc53331333f92c457416a0ba60b3d74a8
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKW' 'sip-files00177.tif'
fb7a67aa5a006b9f0434dc7b5decfe2d
51f22c5b248c9167dd02196c5aa5de7d912d6592
describe
'3972' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKX' 'sip-files00177.txt'
2500060013354140f3a692781f9a4d0d
702a025eb4c30dc287e0c8f065fa6c34c30377d0
describe
'8149' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKY' 'sip-files00177thm.jpg'
261d0aa7b8dd3dc4ffcaf992a3220190
7520808c028b73ee2029043e6bf9531b0640f929
describe
'773765' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALKZ' 'sip-files00178.jp2'
b6f9f3106aafdf377bdb4ce05214c526
ebe416905c9da2f3aafcc307e9bcaf641dce2aa1
describe
'127769' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLA' 'sip-files00178.jpg'
c7977e1db7df4b8df19e7fd28f9f264d
2e711bf32b0608886fa21d2c8211e93cae08d65f
describe
'103502' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLB' 'sip-files00178.pro'
9593855d7c4bf47280b10034855b6f2a
c426ffca9cc2e6da98b2ef364bc40209750263b8
describe
'33203' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLC' 'sip-files00178.QC.jpg'
f324e3e234e3f89dd31ed26bece273ca
f135ce84ca70caf2954cf19d198d3bbb7a0836ac
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLD' 'sip-files00178.tif'
bb314ad35054d0e167a4bbd800a031bc
7d753d92c61dd5ae606f4bdda0bae780deebbc40
describe
'4472' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLE' 'sip-files00178.txt'
dd6aa48c3a7ce70ae8a30676758d76fb
dd263a0aca3172315ff15bc66e35b381968f2317
describe
'8724' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLF' 'sip-files00178thm.jpg'
ac867d1ade4a678174f69c1d0f2db77e
35a593622644db19c4a18054bd9fcde83a984117
describe
'773533' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLG' 'sip-files00179.jp2'
74242e739289d67b03e3ad61468c670a
aa52e4b79a3bd671d295afaea626c6e7e99cbbf3
describe
'92816' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLH' 'sip-files00179.jpg'
f9a4bbc48a42bbc1416855820a1239c0
d0e4e740fdbfbc1655e9d16466db5a2ae8d6f2c7
describe
'55045' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLI' 'sip-files00179.pro'
700bc91eb525bbf7bd0a657f1c1fa53f
50df706685dad5206820a35adde2bdcb2b1a1851
describe
'24396' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLJ' 'sip-files00179.QC.jpg'
aa8da1979f3cb96585ab8b1846b542b4
e011bfcad81734ac01b67990e758d55b831e51c2
'2011-08-20T02:48:25-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLK' 'sip-files00179.tif'
f542077e23576fa920144ad46baefb45
5751c67bb29ddd6610088dbc63c6e1b6958c4087
describe
'2359' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLL' 'sip-files00179.txt'
be2c957e18f32386cc79ee85dea1ea20
1cc6c71555d0a8694656a19f1a4e52051d9f8875
describe
'6682' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLM' 'sip-files00179thm.jpg'
fca195228ca914a09baa518a580cdceb
37423e5344be5165481cf64b19112110b36a031d
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLN' 'sip-files00180.jp2'
8805ee43c7ba3f0d666bb0b5a3341b0d
53415def07e0a4e72db790f9b0449f6d7330d55f
describe
'115370' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLO' 'sip-files00180.jpg'
dfa1e1783b0573aa7623373d1bc28aa1
37a4459342f9e5b73060bc55eca41abe35553534
describe
'90430' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLP' 'sip-files00180.pro'
88c99206bc5741f6ea44487e79c71f2a
f01ebf72a632f14e934668988d1bb87625b56cea
describe
'31032' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLQ' 'sip-files00180.QC.jpg'
d7426c5b03d95df389f9e2ef97150556
4cb09b3cca170dd3ad3d8fafd00d7388b0e96158
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLR' 'sip-files00180.tif'
fcb37341b4009632419c94f6f7fddddd
a0737b81a8833cf4ca87d5af132eca484ae1d04b
describe
'3921' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLS' 'sip-files00180.txt'
fab62f03472e4b68f823bb1318291770
f880dceb485c897e386a10ceafb018d71e27290f
describe
'7846' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLT' 'sip-files00180thm.jpg'
492e4984c86074b0951e8b69b8149b93
fff96670883e54ecef5597f2e76f2bbe6b0fd50a
describe
'773775' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLU' 'sip-files00181.jp2'
54cb77079cfac491f760766257a22dc6
7ebf0128144be2a8fe325617d045d7a5b79dcdfd
describe
'156095' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLV' 'sip-files00181.jpg'
81714ee4f530c6f2554d9a7b7282f611
cd2e52a6a7cc21a933b8dea7c1e26ac6b78420bf
describe
'168106' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLW' 'sip-files00181.pro'
0acfc3928007c37f6f709a909f35ae62
9a577879c95ffd2e6839dce493247dc22737f974
describe
'39547' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLX' 'sip-files00181.QC.jpg'
6208fb47ad4e4301e732466f53629ea9
455aaf1374e3e60b82054dec4de32e5ac3c38a05
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLY' 'sip-files00181.tif'
10040a657aa02942cbf2e8b0ffb25a04
ebb869bd62c9a0fa43200330611bc848110874f2
describe
'7175' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALLZ' 'sip-files00181.txt'
f83e52fa6196dca87209eb7226cead37
df2d23f7bdcd12fab65ab27f3eedcc5d28e88057
describe
'8891' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMA' 'sip-files00181thm.jpg'
341ce3f9c2522bb8c4f76fc10a804bb6
42bfed73180715f7ecc12ed75a0ea2e5dc8fc9a3
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMB' 'sip-files00182.jp2'
f00bcf3788c4fd552fbdf7566f2f08e7
acbb43078210375a92fbc3e00467dd2ba2db50d0
describe
'127948' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMC' 'sip-files00182.jpg'
307466d31145c6806299c9359a65d8e1
0c70a31163db28aba5eeeb31c51a3d5898ffef08
describe
'128751' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMD' 'sip-files00182.pro'
8927c8b86546215f677a6a6982947a2d
a9f054cc16261675fae987fe190785311a5c6b51
describe
'33148' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALME' 'sip-files00182.QC.jpg'
3d1b1013719139ee5bed35acee0ba4f5
8ae860df130fda964a346ee949574619bfc5dab8
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMF' 'sip-files00182.tif'
84d10112cb52bc0d91fb7b28e8c422b9
c0d3884e4ec3d078bf7050103427c01f54df7168
describe
'5482' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMG' 'sip-files00182.txt'
e886c453d9ff5ceafde66452c3099312
a691ee0b3c29211492c28e53bce33d86a8d0cfbf
describe
'7990' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMH' 'sip-files00182thm.jpg'
2379e50e929a67565ccd02d24667d6c4
6750b2dd804d981a483937afeab90a26a39b23a0
describe
'773727' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMI' 'sip-files00183.jp2'
0e8506727f2e9782752aa6f4cc19a4c3
1647abaccf69d383cb62a4be0320e3422c971b65
describe
'135545' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMJ' 'sip-files00183.jpg'
5c2ecd900343b06e52931dbb1511491e
bf8a330fe2bc0e17562d9d8fce52b8b7b9a2282e
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMK' 'sip-files00183.pro'
f3f8c949b8a58f2c08ec87a5f77331d7
138f37ebaffc027df7aecc5b49907a369bdf7e34
describe
'35507' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALML' 'sip-files00183.QC.jpg'
2b1deb5d333468a0474c2da25c4468eb
7ddbf715c59a172f716a0368b01d0d02973a6ff5
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMM' 'sip-files00183.tif'
5f0a6bab99719e53e37e77e88486e7e8
92b294995be7ba1978ebee4007139b9ef9a50184
describe
'5680' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMN' 'sip-files00183.txt'
09721a3f63471ad7605d9ca2ec4de81f
59f5f07c19033b5d1c37ea2344b24f4f3ce9091d
describe
'8875' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMO' 'sip-files00183thm.jpg'
052917440b293a75104e392c9e754568
2570761cd1b2b519e70b8d8c94f38f86db9a9422
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMP' 'sip-files00184.jp2'
394406d04256bf5d3dedb7f87759d665
54c801bc4b8d161e95343d03b9adc8903f415229
describe
'128066' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMQ' 'sip-files00184.jpg'
d30076b9b0ff78de229ef5466e26d72e
90901ae8c767e4660020ac41c029c308d7bc150a
describe
'109554' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMR' 'sip-files00184.pro'
1fa4ca0dd9f57c3d0f5a1c7b8b2dac99
63ed04b8fc04d9deca40a140c7ac70ce27efbed4
describe
'33409' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMS' 'sip-files00184.QC.jpg'
eb2839360e22f287376fe8e2048d23b1
2569641badd9735a7a0bffb99c29ea99fa123904
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMT' 'sip-files00184.tif'
de8a7936a052fe2f7fd9f71891f7263c
8033d2500eaf2c28723d210d0aa0498ae12af28e
describe
'4942' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMU' 'sip-files00184.txt'
c74b2d019546ca0a8bf9cf85f1b5c68f
abdd6a2206569c74c28e699445069c658f2288b3
describe
'8533' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMV' 'sip-files00184thm.jpg'
bc98854b3edca4fbcc5ed5ab02c9584b
8e424e38cee90e510703e8a1c5d755d8ff5a7f47
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMW' 'sip-files00185.jp2'
07370f955f72f16d7352f073ca3b9f69
ba7901639032f9e1e99e27f8d7b045c3e7697adc
describe
'129999' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMX' 'sip-files00185.jpg'
a8a52c3812f077e0518d8d16e949c975
3f4e2df799b0845e8afca4385670618b85a922ad
describe
'110942' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMY' 'sip-files00185.pro'
f31f6b0ea682e8bf7c9dc1c7b0f99ecb
afaefc061271d28c67b4c0c950a858cbdca2b33e
describe
'34437' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALMZ' 'sip-files00185.QC.jpg'
528760627e4b0aa4f933d9b0715e0067
5e12176337fff09be9c8945d470018cd3fc89944
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALNA' 'sip-files00185.tif'
97302190a7d9451eb29f93b2034b403a
5d8b0f38f76bb6cf02db729e52fbefbbd3fb0f27
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALNB' 'sip-files00185.txt'
a12c067ec5b330f0cbd7d72024110cd0
51a704678889138175673afae6f9e4c9896ed061
describe
'8745' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALNC' 'sip-files00185thm.jpg'
32bb6519c56b6a689e45a1e9393d901a
3369555150aaa110784e57bda380ba3d82f47d6d
describe
'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALND' 'sip-files00186.jp2'
bc9cc30de77f7207999b81478e110573
d3daa98f4ca27c2de81a46533adb11955d6dbcc4
describe
'99311' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALNE' 'sip-files00186.jpg'
b83edd72bc338c37c39fb04ac09f44c5
608c71389362d1c4e2bd610f07fbbedea86cb70a
describe
'69316' 'info:fdaE20080801_AAAAHMfileF20080803_AAALNF' 'sip-files00186.pro'
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WIE0S MAILILS OF IWMAGAIRA, —

FROM A RECENT PHOTOGRAPH
Ee MENS

ee AL

OF

PEVSICAL GHOGRA PENG

FOR THE USE OF

SCHOOLS, ACADEMIES, AND COLLEGES.

BY
EDWIN J. HOUSTON, A.M. PxD,,

EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE CENTRAL
HIGH SCHOOL OF. PHILADELPHIA; PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS IN THE FRANKLIN
INSTITUTE OF THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA,

REVISED EDITION.









PHILADELPHIA:

PuBLISHED BY ELDREDGE & BROTHER,
No. 17 North Seventh Street.

A896.


>

bo" #2000"
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1891, by

ELDREDGE & BROTHER,
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

ee 28

Copyright, 1895.

¢G

aA





Westcott & THOMSON, THe GEORGE S. FERGUSON CO.,
Electrotypers, Philada. Printers, Philada,




PREFACE
TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION.

——+02e300—_

ie the preparation of this work, an endeavor has been made to supply a concise yet comprehensive
text-book, suited to the wants of a majority of our schools.

The Author, in the course of his teaching, has experienced the need of a work in which unneces-
sary details should be suppressed, and certain subjects added, which, though usually omitted in works
on Physical Geography, seem, in his judgment, to belong properly to the science. The variety of
topics necessarily included under the head of Physical Geography renders it almost impossible to
cover the entire ground of the ordinary text-books during the time which most schoals are able to
devote to the study, and the feeling of incompleted work thus impressed on the mind of both teacher
and scholar is of the most discouraging nature.

To remove these difficulties, the Author, during the past few years, has arranged for his own
students a course of study, which, with a few modifications, he has at last put into book form, thinking
that it may prove beneficial to others.

The division of the text into large and small print has been made with a view of meeting the
wants of different grades of schools, the large type containing only the more important statements, and
the small type being especially designed for the use of the teacher and the advanced student, The
maps have been carefully drawn by the Author according to the standard works and the latest
authorities. Neither time nor expense has been spared to insure accuracy of detail and clearness
of delineation. :

Throughout the work no pains have been spared to insure strict accuracy of statement. Clearness
and conciseness have been particularly aimed at; for which reason the names of authorities for state-
ments which are now generally credited have been purposely omitted.

The Author has not hesitated to draw information from all the standard works on Geonaehy,
Physics, Geology, Astronomy, and other allied sciences; and in the compilation of the Pronouncing
Vocabulary he acknowledges his indebtedness to Lippincott’s Gazetteer of the World.

Acknowledgments are due to Mr. William M. Spackman, of Philadelphia, and Prof. Elihu
Thomson, of the Central High School, for critical review of the manuscript. Also to Mr. M. Benja-
min Snyder, of the Central High School, for revision of the proof-sheets of the chapter on Mathe-
matical Geography. E. J. H.

CENTRAL Hi@H ScHOOL, Philadelphia, Pa.





























{ \Eeet

WW

PREFACE

TO THE REVISED EDITION.

J\HE marked progress which has been made in most of the departments of science embraced

in the study of Physical Geography since the issue of the original edition of “The
Elements of Physical Geography” has rendered the preparation of a revised edition a matter
of necessity.

The study of Physical Geography, including as it does not only the crust of the earth and

2 heated interior, but also the distribution of its land, water, air, plants, and animals, includes,
in its range, a great variety of topics, and necessitates for its proper elucidation many branches
of science. Some knowledge of the elementary principles of these sciences is necessary to the
proper study of Physical Geography. The number of such principles is great, and the temptation
naturally exists to encumber even an elementary text-book with such an abundance of leading
principles as to render it either incomprehensible, or too extended for actual use in the school-
room.

The author has endeavored in the revised edition to avoid undue multiplicity either of ele-
mentary principles or unimportant details. His object has been to develop forcibly the close inter-
dependence of the inanimate features of the earth’s surface, the land, water, and air, with its
animate features, its flora, and fauna, and to show the marked influence which all of these exert
on the development of the human race, and, therefore, on history itself.

Recognizing, from his standpoint of a teacher, the inadvisability of crowding a book with
new matter simply because it is new, the author has carefully avoided the introduction of new
theories unless they have been generally accepted by the best authorities. Old theories are in all
cases given the preference of new ones, unless the latter bear the stamp of general approval.
At the same time the results of recent investigations have been freely given in all cases where

they have been considered sufficiently authoritative.
iv



PREFACE. Vv



In order to avoid confusing the mind of the student, controversial matters have been carefully
avoided. When, however, opinion on any subject is fairly divided, a brief statement is made of the
differing views. ;

The favorable reception accorded by the teaching profession to the earlier editions of the book,
and the flattering increase in the number of schools using it, have satisfied the author of the
inadvisability of changing, to any considerable extent, the order of sequence of topics discussed, or
the general manner of explanation therein adopted.

In the preparation of the revised edition the author has freely consulted the latest standard
authorities in the many sciences represented.

The maps have all been re-drawn according to the best authorities, and are printed and colored
by processes that in point of clearness and beauty leave little room for improvement.

EDWIN J. HOUSTON.

Centrat Hien Scuoot,
PHILADELPHIA, PA.

NOTE.



The first chapter of this book is intended mainly for reference, containing as it does, an abstract.
of the elementary principles of Mathematical Geography, with which most pupils beginning the study
of Physical Geography are familiar. In many schools in which the book is used, it is customary
to begin the formal study of the book with the Syllabus, page 21, which presents a comprehensive
review of the chapter, and in practice and results this plan has proved satisfactory.






































CONTENTS.

Sia
PAGE CHAPTER PAGE
INTRODUCTORY ..... 5 AR 9 ETS AR VRS (seers = sere eiete sirreutewcsoaa ae ene wise 208
IV. TRANSPORTING POWER OF RIVERS ... 65
V. DRAINAGE SYSTEMS .......... 67
PART I. AVA lia By Grantee em at oe See eee eyeawOO
THE EARTH AS A PLANET. SYUGABUS: can cattcey apenas cue seat Seer 71
CHAPTER REVIEW AND MAP QUESTIONS ....... 72
I, MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY ...... 10
SYLLABUS aries ten ielemev earetemreurs ye cces seo z
REVIEW QUESTIONS .......... aol Section II.
OCEANIC WATERS.
PART II. Te THE OGRAN: ai.) sis ai ee eis sis alb laden 118
II. OckaAnic MovEMENTS ....... See LO
THE LAND. ELE OCEANS ©CURRENTSHits scree nee teste 79
Section I. SMA TABUS petaeseree carseat asa ator ye 83
THE INSIDE OF THE EARTH. REVIEW AND MAp QUESTIONS. ....... 84
I. Tot HEATED INTERIOR .........22
II. VOLCANOES ..... ace cunsoe em ae aieae esto
AR THO WAKES Hore: ies ds et fed acorn es rey ae 28 PAS ry:
SWEPABUS ie recs ce cee te mecn ten te te mrut uae 81
REVIEW AND Map QUESTIONS ....... - 82 Oe ee

Section II.
THE OUTSIDE OF THE EARTH,
I, THe Crust oF THE EARTH ...... .33
II. DisTRIBUTION OF THE LAND AREAS... . 87

GA SUAN DS cause ciesiese cu sauce ele ican etic - 39
IV. Revier Forms of THE LAND ..... .42
V. RELIEF FoRMS OF THE CONTINENTS .. .45
SYUMABUS 8) cis +3. 6 ir saeercne aoe oeacer: 54
REVIEW QUESTIONS ...... Ceaiebicie one 55
Map QUESTIONS ....... sure ones O0,
PART ITI.
THE WATER.

Section I.
CONTINENTAL WATERS.
I. PaysicAL PROPERTIES OF WATER... .57
Po DRATNAGES) stce ret ee oes eek Seer NSS 59

vi

‘Section I.
THE ATMOSPHERE.
I. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF THE ATMOSPHERE 85

A © MAE eres lla, cp lace les arnt neuer Maremma ain 87
De BWalINIDS: 37s) clsers: Tours crs need ee tears 90
MVEESTORMS Siesaa sce ce eee eee - 96
SNAG ABU So eetienae ee aiee sr eects See es sar aaa ese 98
REVIEW QUESTIONS ss ccers Sole wees a ane ys Peo)
MUAPEO@) UESTIONSS voptenysaccetsnt nest yeoman eee ees 100

Section ILI.
MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

I, PRECIPITATION OF MOISTURE ...... 101
IJ. Hart, Snow, AND GLACIERS ...... 107
III. ELEcTRICAL AND OPTICAL PHENOMENA . 110
DSWLEABUS we esanss tue ce eres tenon piece miei eae te 115
REVIEW QUESTIONS ........2. Rea eerelelG

MEAPS @UESTIONSiigee suaeiacgees Pollan ts Went wercins eae ae 117













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PHYSICAL

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ut Geography is a description of the earth.

The earth may be considered in three different
ways:

(1.) In its relations to the solar system ;

(2.) In its relations to government and society ;

(3.) In its relations to nature.

Hence arise three distinct branches of geog-
raphy—Mathematical, Political, and Physical.

2. Mathematical Geography treats of the earth
in its relations to the solar system.

Mathematical Geography forms the true basis for
accurate geographical study, since by the view we thus
obtain of the earth in its relations to the other members
of the solar system, we are enabled to form clearer concep-
tions of the laws which govern terrestrial phenomena,
Here we learn the location of the earth in space, its size,
form, and movements, its division by imaginary lines, and
the methods of representing portions of its surface on maps.

3. Political Geography treats of the earth in
its relations to the governments and societies of
2

[

a
















is

(FÂ¥EOGRA PHY.



INTRODUCTORY.

men, of the manner of life of a people, and of
their civilization and government.

4, Physical Geography treats of the earth in
its relations to nature and to the natural laws by
which it is governed. It treats especially of the

- systematic distribution of all animate and inani-

mate objects found on the earth’s surface. It not
only tells of their presence in a given locality,
but it also endeavors to discover the causes and
results of their existence.

Physical Geography, therefore, treats of, the
distribution of six classes of objects—Land, Water,
Air, Plants, Animals, and Minerals.

Geography deals with the inside as well as with the out-
side of the earth. It encroaches here on the province of
geology. Both treat of the earth: geography mainly with
the earth’s present condition ; geology with its condition
both in the past and present, though mainly during the past.

_ Some authors make physical geography a branch of geol-
ogy, and call it physiographic geology, but we prefer the
word “physical,’”’ or as the etymology would make it,
“natural” geography.

4

9:


ie Awan 1D



THE EARTH. AS A. PLANET.



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig, 1, The Earth in Space,

CHAPTER lL
Mathematical Geography.

5. The Earth moves through empty space
around the sun. The old idea of the earth
resting on, or being supported by something, is
erroneous. The earth rests on nothing.

A book or other inanimate object placed on a
support will remain at rest until something or
somebody moves it, because it has no power of
self-motion. This property. is called iertia.

Inertia is not confined to bodies at rest. If
the book be thrown up through the air, it ought
to keep on moving upward for ever, because it
has no more power to stop moving than to begin
to move. We know, however, that in reality it
stops very soon, and falls to the earth; because—

(1.) The earth draws or attracts it; +

(2.) The falling body gives some of its motion
to the air through which it moves.

Were the book thrown in any direction through
the empty space in which the stars move, it would
continue moving in that direction for ever, unless
it came near enough to some other body which
would attract it and cause it to change its motion.

Our earth moves through empty space on ac-
count of its inertia, and must continue so moving
for eternities. There are ample reasons for believ-

10



ing that all heavenly bodies continue their mo-
tion solely on account of their inertia. The curved
paths in which the earth and the other planets
move are resultant paths produced in a-manner
that will be explained hereafter.

Space is not absolutely empty, but is everywhere filled
with a very tenuous substance called ether, which trans-
mits to us the light and heat of the heavenly bodies.
Wherever the telescope reveals the presence of stars we
must believe the ether also extends.

_ 6, The Stars.—The innumerable points of light
that dot the skies are immense balls of matter
which, like our earth, are moving through empty
space. Most of them are heated so intensely that
they give off heat and light in all directions.
They are so far from the earth that they would
not be visible but for their/immense size. Beyond
them are other balls, also self-luminous, but too
far off to be visible except through a telescope.
Beyond these, again, we have reason to believe
that there are still others. These balls of matter
are called stars.

All the heavenly bodies, however, do not shine
by their own light. A few—those nearest the
earth—shine by reflecting the light of the sun.
These are called planets, and move with the earth
around the sun.

7. The Solar System comprises the sun, eight
large bodies called planets, and, as far as now
known, three hundred .and eighty-four smaller
bodies called planetoids or asteroids, besides nu-
merous comets and meteors. Some of the planets
have bodies called moons or satellites moving
around them. These also belong to the solar
system. s

Fig. 2 represents the solar system. In the
centre is the sun. The circles drawn around
the sun show the paths or orbits of the planets.
These orbits are represented as circular, but in.
reality they are slightly flattened or elliptical.
The elongated orbits mark the paths of the comets.





MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY.





Mi

. . 2 Ye
ui ae

The drawing shows the order of the planets from
the sun their common centre, together with the
satellites or moons of some of the planets, and
the rings of Saturn.

8. Names of the Planets.—The planets, named
in their regular order from the sun, beginning
with the nearest, are as follows—viz.: Mercury,
Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and
Neptune. The first four—Mereury, Venus, Earth,
and Mars—are comparatively small; the second

_four—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune—are







very large, Jupiter being nearly fourteen hun- —

dred times larger than the earth. The initial
letters of the last three planets, Saturn, Uranus,
and Neptune, taken in their order from the sun:
s, u, and n—spell the name of their common
centre.

* Mercury has a mean or average distance of 36,000,000
of miles from the sun; Venus, 67,200,000; Earth, 92,900,000 ;
and Mars, 141,500,000.

Jupiter is 483,000,000; Saturn, 886,000,000; Uranus,
1,781,900,000; Neptune, 2,791,600,000. The asteroids move
around the sun in the space between the orbits of Mars and
Jupiter.



* Calculated in round numbers for the mean svlar distance of
92,897,000 miles, :





12 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



It is difficult to obtain clear conceptions of distances that
are represented by millions of miles. We may learn the
numbers, but in general they convey no definite ideas.
Should a man travel forty times around the earth at the
equator, he would only have gone over about 1,000,000
miles. Now, Mercury, the nearest of the planets, is thirty-
six times farther from the sun than the entire distance the
man would have travelled, while Neptune is nearly three
thousand times the distance he would have travelled.

9. The Satellites—A satellite is a body that
revolves around another body: the planets are
satellites of the sun; the moon is a satellite of
the earth. Mars has two moons. So far as is
known, neither Mercury nor Venus has a satel-
lite. All the planets whose orbits are beyond the
orbit of the earth have moons: Jupiter has five,
Uranus six, Saturn eight, and Neptune one. Be-
sides its moons, Saturn has a number of curious
ring-like accumulations of separate solid or liquid
particles revolving around it. The earth’s moon
is about 240,000 miles from the earth. Its vol-
ume is about one-forty-ninth that of the earth’s.

10. The Sun is the great central body of the
solar system. Around it move the planets with
their satellites, receiving their light and heat
from it. The sun is a huge heated mass about
1,300,000 times the size of the earth. Its diam-
eter is about 866,500 miles. It appears the
largest self-luminous body in the heavens because
it is comparatively near the earth. Many stars
which appear as mere dots of light are much
larger than the sun.

The sun is a body heated to luminosity, and gives out or
emits light and heat like any other highly-heated body.
If no causes exist to maintain its heat, it will eventu-
ally cool and fail to emit light. The sun’s heat is partly
kept up by a variety of causes, the principal of which is
the heat developed by meteoric showers that fall on its
surface. If a meteor fall toward the sun from inter-
planetary space, it will reach the surface with enormous
velocity, and its motion will there be converted into
heat. Since, however, the increase of the sun’s mass so
necessitated’ is not confirmed by astronomical observa-
tions, itis believed that the sun’s heat is not being main-
tained in this way, and that the sun must eventually cool

—an event, however, so remote in time that the life of the
solar system may be regarded as practically infinite.

Size of the Sun.—Were the sun hollow and the earth
placed at its centre, there would not only be sufficient room
to enable the moon to revolve at its present actual distance
around the earth, but it would still, in all parts of its orbit,
be nearly 200,000 miles below the surface of the sun.

All the fixed stars are distant suns, and probably have

worlds like our own moving around them.

From the enormous distances of the fixed stars, we are
obliged, in estimating their distances, to use for our unit
of measurement the velocity of light. Any other common
unit would be too small. Light moves through space at
the rate of about 186,000 miles a second, which is over





11,000,000 miles a minute. Notwithstanding this prodig-
ious velocity, it would take over three thousand years for
light to reach the earth from some of the stars that are
visible to the naked eye. But beyond these stars the tele-
scope reveals myriads of others, whose number is limited
only by the power of the instrument. We may conclude
that the universe is as boundless as space; that is, light
can never reach its extreme limits.

11. Cause of the Harth’s Revolution.—The earth
continues its motion through space solely on account of
its inertia. Its curved path around the sun is a resultant
caused by the constant action of two forces: one, a pro-
jectile force probably imparted to it when it began its
separate existence; the other, the sun’s attraction, which
causes the earth to fall toward the sun. Under the infiu-
ence of the projectile force alone the earth would, in a
given time, move from a to d (Fig. 3); but during this time



Fig. 3, Cause of the Curved Shape of the Barth's Orbit,

it has been continually changing its direction by an
amount equivalent to a direct fall from 6 to ¢ along bd;
hence its real orbit, during this time, is along the curved
line ac.

12. Position of the Solar System in Space—
The sun, with all the bodies which move around
it, is in that portion of the heavens called the
Milky Way. The sun is an insignificant star
among the millions of other stars the telescope
has revealed to us.

It was formerly believed that the sun was stationary, for
it was not then known that the positions of the fixed stars
were undergoing slight variations as regards the earth.
It is now generally conceded that the sun, with all the
planets, is moving through space with tremendous veloc-
ity, the direction at present being toward the constella-
tion Hercules. The astronomer Maedler, however, believes
that the grand centre around which the solar system is
moving is Aleyone, the brightest star in the constellation
of the Pleiades. The estimated velocity of the sun in its
immense orbit is 1,382,000,000 miles per year. As the earth
is carried along with the sun in its orbit, it is continually
entering new realms of space.

13. The Earth.—The-shape of the earth is that
of a round ball or sphere slightly flattened at two
opposite sides. Such a body is termed a spheroid.
There are two kinds of spheroids—oblate and pro-
late; the former has the shape of an orange, the
latter that of a lemon.




MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. 18



The straight line that runs through the centre
of a sphere or spheroid and terminates at the cir-
cumference is called the diameter. If the sphere
rotates—that is, moves around like a top—the



Fig. 4, Oblate Spheroid,

diameter on which it turns is called its awis. In
the oblate spheroid the axis is the shorter diam-
eter ; in the prolate spheroid the axis is the longer
diameter.





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig, 6, Curvature of the Harth’s Surface.

The shape of our earth is that of an oblate
spheroid. The polar diameter is 26.47 miles
shorter than the equatorial diameter.

14. Proofs of the Rotundity of the Earth—





The earth is so large a sphere that its surface
everywhere appears flat. The following simple
considerations will prove, however, that its form
is nearly spherical:

(1.) Appearance of Approaching Objects —If
the earth were flat, as soon as an object appeared
on the horizon we would see the upper and lower
parts at the same time; but if it were curved, the
top parts would first be seen. Now, when a ship
is coming into port we see first the topmasts, then
the sails, and finally the hull; hence the earth
must be curved; and, since the appearance is the
same no matter from what direction the ship is
approaching, we infer that the earth is evenly
curved, or spherical.

(2.) Circular Shape of the Horizon.—The hori-
zon—or, as the word means, the boundary—is the
line which limits our view when nothing inter-
venes. The fact that this is always a circle fur-
nishes another proof that the earth is spherical.

The horizon would still be a circle if the earth were
perfectly flat, for we would still see equally far in all di-
rections; but it would not everywhere be so, since to an
observer near the edges some other shape would appear.
It is on account of the spherical form of the earth that our
field of view on a plain is so soon limited by the apparent
meeting of the earth and sky. As we can see only in
straight lines, objects continue visible until they reach
such a distance as to sink below the horizon, so that a
straight line from the eye will pass above them, meeting
the sky far beyond, on which, as a background, the objects
on the horizon are projected.

(8.) Shape of the Earth’s Shadow.—We can
obtain correct ideas of the shape of a body by
the shape of the shadow it casts. Now, the
shadow which the earth casts on the moon dur-
ing an eclipse of the moon is always circular,
and as only spherical bodies cast circular shad-
ows in all positions, we infer that the earth is
spherical.

(4.) Measurement.—The shape of the earth has
been accurately ascertained by calculations based
on the measurement of an arc of a meridian. We
therefore not only know that the earth is oblately
spheroidal, but also approximately the amount of
its oblateness.

(5.) The Shape of the Great Circle of Ilumi-
nation, or the line separating the portions of the
earth’s surface lighted by the sun’s rays from
those in the shadow, is another evidence of the
rotundity of the earth. rs
\ 15. The Dimensions of the Earth.—The equa-
torial diameter of the earth, or the distance
through at the equator, is, approximately, 7926



14



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.





miles; its polar diameter, or the length of its
axis, is 7899 miles. The circumference is 24,899
miles. The entire surface is equal to nearly
197,000,000 square miles.

The specific gravity of the earth is about 53; that is, the
average weight of all its matter is five and two-third
times heavier than an equal volume of water.

16. Imaginary Circles—In order to locate
places on the earth, as well as to represent por-
tions of its surface on maps, we imagine the earth
to be encircled by a number of curved lines
called great and small circles.

A great circle is one which would be formed
on the earth’s surface by a plane passing through
the earth’s centre, hence dividing it into two
equal parts. All great circles, therefore, divide
the earth into hemispheres.

The formation of a great circle on a sphere by cutting
it into two equal parts is shown in Fig. 7.






The shortest distance between any two places on the
earth is along the arc of a great circle.

All planes passing through the earth’s centre form ap-
proximately great circles on its surface.

A small circle is one formed by a plane which

does not cut the earth into two equal parts.

The formation of a small circle by cutting a sphere into
unequal parts is shown in Fig. 8.



Fig, 8. Small Circle.

The great circles employed most frequently in
geography are the equator and the meridian
circles. The small circles are the parallels,





——,

If we divide the circumference of any circle, whether
great or small, into three hundred and sixty equal parts,
each part is called a degree. The one-sixtieth part of a
degree is a minute; the one-sixtieth part of a minute is a
second. These divisions are represented as follows: 34°,
12!, 38’°; which reads, thirty-four degrees twelve minutes
and thirty-eight seconds.

The Equator is that great circle of the earth
which is equidistant from the poles.

Meridian Circles are great circles of the earth
which pass through both poles.

The Meridian of any given place is that half
of the meridian circle which passes through that
place and both poles. A meridian of any place
reaches from that place to both poles, and there-
fore is equal to one-half of a great circle, and,
with the meridian directly opposite to it, forms
a great circle called a meridian circle. There
are as many meridian circles as there are places
on the equator or on any parallel.

In large cities the meridian is generally assumed to pass
through the principal observatory.



















Fig. 9, Meridians and Parallels,

Parallels are small circles which pass around
the earth parallel to the equator.

The meridians extend due north and@ south, and are
everywhere of the same length; the parallels extend due
east and west, and decrease in length as they approach the
poles.

The Tropics are parallels which lie 23° 27’
porth and south of the equator: the northern
tropic is called the Tropic of Cancer, the south-
ern tropic is called the Tropic of Capricorn.

The Polar Circles are parallels which lie 23°
27’ from each pole. The circle in the Northern
Hemisphere is called the Arctic Circle; that in
the Southern Hemisphere, the Antarctic Cirele.

17. Latitude is distance north or south from

"the equator toward the poles, measured ‘along

the meridians. It is reckoned in degrees. .

The meridian circles are divided into nearly
equal parts by the parallels, and it is the number
of these parts that occur on the meridian of any
place between it and the equator which deter-







MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. 15



mines the value of its latitude. If we conceive
eighty-nine equidistant parallels drawn between
the equator and either pole, they will divide all
the meridians into ninety nearly equal parts; the
value of each of these parts will be one degree
of latitude. Therefore, if the parallel running
through a place is distant from the equator forty-
five of these parts, its latitude is 45°. If more
than eighty-nine parallels be drawn, the value
of each part will be less than one degree.
Places north of the equator are in north lati-
tude; those south of it are in south latitude.
Since the distance from the equator to the poles
is one-fourth of an entire circle, and there are

only 360° in any circle, 90° is the greatest value —

of latitude a place can have. Latitude 90° N.
therefore corresponds to the north pole.

To recapitulate: Latitude is measured on the |
meridians by the parallels. :

18. Longitude is distance east or west of any
given meridian.

Places on the equator have their longitude measured
along it; everywhere else longitude is measured along the
parallels.

The meridian from which longitude is reckoned
is called the Prime Meridian. Most nations take
the meridians of their own capitals for their prime
meridian. The English reckon from the me-
ridian which runs through the observatory at
Greenwich; the French from Paris. In the
United States we reckon from Washington.

Any prime meridian circle divides all the par-
allels into two equal parts. A place situated east
of the prime meridian is in east longitude; west
of it is in west longitude.

Since there are only 180° in half a circle, the greatest
value the longitude can have is 180°; for a place 181° east
of any meridian would not fall within the eastern half of
the parallel on which it is situated, but in the western
half; and its distance, computed from the prime meridian,
would be 179° west. . 3 ¢

It is the meridians that divide the parallels
into degrees; therefore longitude is measured on
the parallels by the meridians. —

19. Value of Degrees of Latitude and Longi-
tude——As latitude is distance measured on the
are of a meridian, the value of one degree must
be the 345th part of the circumference along that
meridian, since there are only 360° in all. This
makes the value of a single degree approximately
equal to 694 miles. Near the poles the flattening
of the earth causes the value of a degree slightly
to exceed that of one near the equator.







The value of a degree of longitude is subject
to great variation. It is equal to the g{oth part
of the earth’s circumference, provided the place
be situated on the equator; otherwise, it is the
gigth part of the parallel passing through the
place that is taken; and as the parallels decrease
in size as we approach the poles, the value of a
degree of longitude must likewise decrease as the
latitude increases, until at either pole the longi-
tude becomes equal to zero.

The value of a single degree of longitude on the equator,

or at lat. 0°, is equal to about 694 miles.
At latitude 45° it is equal to about 49 miles.

“ 60° “ “c 35 “
“ce 80° “ , “c 12 coe
“ 90° 73 “ 0 “

Geographical Mile.—The sztypth of the equatorial
circumference, or the one-siatieth of a degree of longitude
at the equator, is called a nautical or geographical mile.
The statute mile contains 1760 yards; the geographical or
nautical mile, 2028 yards. The nautical mile is sometimes
called a knat.

20. Map Projections—The term projection as
applied to map-drawing means the various methods
adopted for representing portions of the earth’s
surface on the plane of a sheet of paper.

The projections in most common use are Merca-
tor’s, the orthographic, the stereographic, and the
conical projections. Of these the stereographic is
best adapted to ordinary geographical maps, and
Mercator’s to physical maps. All -projections
must be regarded as but approximations.

1. The Orthographic Projection is that by which the
earth’s surface is represented as it would appear to an
observer viewing it from a great distance.

2. The Stereographic Projection is that by which the
earth’s surface is represented as it would appear to an
observer whose eye is directly on the surface, if he looked
through the earth as through a globe of clear glass, and
drew the details of the surface as they appeared projected
on a transparent sheet of paper stretched in front of his
eye across the middle of the earth. There may be an
almost infinite number of such projections, according to
the position of the observer. The two stereographic pro-

jections in most common use are the Equatorial and the
Polar.

Mercator’s Projection represents the earth on
a map in which all the parallels and meridians
are straight lines.

Mercator’s charts are drawn by conceiving the
earth to have the shape of a cylinder instead of
that of a sphere, and to be unrolled from this
cylinder so as to form a flat surface. The me-

ridians, instead of meeting in points at the north
and south poles, are drawn parallel to each other.
This makes them as far apart in the polar regions
16 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



as at the equator, and consequently any portion
of the earth’s surface represented on such a chart,
if situated toward the poles, will be dispropor-

































Fig. 10, The Earth on Mercator's Projection.

tionally large. In order to avoid the distortion
in the shape of the land and water areas, the dis-
tance between successive parallels is increased as



they approach the poles. The dimensions of the
land or water, however, are greatly exaggerated
in these regions. The immediate polar regions
are never represented on such charts, the poles
being supposed to be at an infinite distance.

Mercator’s charts are generally employed for physical
maps, on account of the facility they afford for showing
direction. The distortion they produce in the relative
size of land or water areas must be carefully borne in
mind, or wrong ideas of the relative size of various parts
of the world will be obtained.

Mercator’s charts make bodies of land and
water situated near the poles appear much larger
than they really are.

In an Equatorial Projection of the entire earth
the equator passes through the middle of each
hemisphere, and a meridian circle forms the
borders.

In a Polar Projection of the entire earth the











RE
See

poles occupy the centres of each hemisphere, and
the equator forms the borders.
In a Conical Projection the earth’s surface is



QW

Fig. 11, The Earth on an Equatorial Projection.

represented as if drawn on the frustum of a cone
and afterward unrolled. This projection is. suit-
able where only portions of the earth’s surface,

Fig. 12, The Earth on a Polar Projection.

and not hemispheres, are to be represented. The
cone is supposed to be placed so as to touch the
earth at the central parallel of the country to be
represented.

In maps as ordinarily constructed it is not true that the
upper part is north, the lower part south, the right hand
east, and the left hand west, except in those on Merca-
tor’s projection. Jn all maps due north and south lie along
the meridians, and due east and west along the parallels, since






MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. 17













Fig. 18, The Conical Projection.

in most maps both parallels and meridians are curved lines.
Therefore, in most maps due north and south and due east
and west will lie along the meridians and parallels, and
not directly toward the top and bottom, or the right- and
left-hand side.

. 21, The Hemispheres.—The equator divides the
earth into a Northern and a Southern Hemisphere.

The meridian of long. 20° W. from Greenwich
is generally taken as the dividing-line between
the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

22. The Movements of the Earth; Rotation.—
The earth turns around from west to east on its
diameter or axis. This motion is called its ro-
tation.

That the earth rotates from west to east the following
consideration will show: To a person in a steam-car mov-
ing rapidly in any direction, the fences and other objects
along the road will appear to be moving in the opposite
direction: their motion is of course apparent, and is caused
by the real motion of the car. Now, the motion of the
sun and the other heavenly bodies, by which they appear
to rise in the east and set in the west, is apparent, and is
caused by the real motion of the earth on its axis; this
motion must therefore be from west to east. The sun, the
planets, and their satellites, so far as is known, also turn
on their axes from west to east.

The earth makes one complete rotation in about
every twenty-four howrs—accurately, 23 hours 56
minutes 4.09 seconds. The velocity of its rota-
tion is such that any point on the equator will
travel about 1042 miles every hour. The veloci-
ty of course diminishes at points distant from the
equator, until at the poles it becomes nothing.

23. Change of Day and Night—tThe earth re-
ceives its light and heat from the sun, and, being
an opaque sphere, only one-half of its surface can
be lighted at one time. The other half is in dark-
ness, since it is turned from the sun toward por-

tions of space where it only receives:the dim light °

of the fixed stars. The boundary-line between the

light and dark parts forms approximately a great

circle called the Great Circle of Illumination. Had
3

the earth no motion either on its axis or in its
orbit, that part of its surface turned toward the
sun would have perpetual day, and the other part
perpetual night ; but by rotation different portions
of the surface are turned successively toward and
away from the sun, and thus is occasioned the
change of day and night.

24, The Revolution of the Earth —The earth has
also a motion around the sun, called its revolution.

The revolution of the earth is from west to east;
this is also true of all the planets and asteroids,
and of all their satellites, except those of Uranus,
and probably of Neptune.

The phrases “rotation of the earth on its axis” and
“yevolution in its orbit” are often used in reference to
the earth’s motion; but the simple words “rotation” and
“yvevolution” are sufficient, since the first refers only to
the motion on its axis, and the second only to the motion
in its orbit.

The earth makes a complete revolution in 365
days 6 hours 9 minutes 9.6 seconds.. This time
forms what is called a sidereal year. The tropical
year, or the time from one March equinox to the
next, is somewhat shorter, or 865 days 5 hours 48
minutes 49.7 seconds. The latter value is the one
generally given for the length of the year. It is
nearly 3653 days.

It will be found that the sum of the days in all the
months of an ordinary year is only equal to 365, while the
true length is approximately one-quarter of a day greater.
This deficiency, which in every four years amounts to an
entire day, is met by adding one day to February in every
fourth or leap year. The exact time of one revolution,
however, is some 11 minutes less than 6 hours. These
eleven extra minutes are taken from the future, and are
paid by omitting leap year every hundredth year, except
that every 400 years leap year is counted. In other words,

1900 will not be a leap year, since it is not divisible by 400,
but the year 2000 will be a leap year.

The length of the orbit of the earth is about
577,000,000 miles. Its shape is that of an el-
lipse which differs but little from a circle. The
sun is placed at one focus of the ellipse, and, as
this. is not in the centre of the orbit, the earth
must be nearer the sun at some parts of its revo-
lution than at others.

When the earth is in that part of its orbit which is near-
est to the sun, it is said to be at its perihelion; when in
that part farthest from the sun, at its aphelion. The peri-
helion distance is about 90,259,000 miles; the aphelion dis-
tance, 93,750,000 miles. The earth reaches its perihelion
about January Ist.

The earth does not move with the same rapidity through
all parts of its orbit, but travels more rapidly in perihelion
than in aphelion. Its mean velocity is about 19 miles a
second, which is nearly sixty times faster than the speed
of a cannon-ball.


18 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



25, Laplace’s Nebular Hyp othesis.—The uniformity
in the direction of rotation and revolution of the planets
has led to a very plausible supposition as to the origin of
the solar system, by the celebrated French astronomer La-
place. This supposition, known as Laplace’s nebular hy-
pothesis, assumes that, originally, all the materials of which
the solar system is composed were scattered throughout
space in the form of very tenuous or nebulous matter. It
being granted that this matter began to accumulate around
a centre, and that a motion of rotation was thereby’ ac-
quired, it can be shown, on strict mechanical principles,
that asystem resembling the solar system might be evolved.

As the mass contracted on cooling, the rapidity of its
rotation increased. The equatorial portions bulged out
through the centrifugal force, until ring-like portions
separated, and, collecting in spherical masses, formed the
planets. The planets in a similar manner detached their
satellites. At the time of the separation of Neptune the
nebulous sun must have extended beyond the orbit of this
planet. The temperature requisite for so great an expan-
sion must have been enormous.

Although a mere hypothesis, there are many facts which
tend to sustain it, and it is now generally accepted.

26. The Plane of the Earth’s Orbit is a per-
fectly flat surface so placed as to touch the earth’s
orbit at every point. It may be regarded as an
imaginary plane of enormous extent on which the
earth moves in its journey around the sun.

~~ 27. Causes of the Change of Seasons.—The
change of the earth’s seasons is caused by the
revolution of the earth, together with -the fol-
lowing circumstances:



Fig, 14, Inclination of Axis-to Orbit and Ecliptic.

(1.) The inclination of the earth’s axis to the
plane of its orbit. The inclination is equal to
66° 33’.

The ecliptic is the name given to a great circle whose
plane coincides with the plane of the earth’s orbit. Since
the earth’s axis is 90° distant from the equator, the piane
of the ecliptic must be inclined to the plane of the equator
90° minus 66° 33’, or 23° 27’.

The mere revolution of the earth would be unable to
produce a change of seasons, unless the earth’s axis were
inclined to the plane of its orbit. If, for example, the
axis of the earth stood perpendicularly on the plane of its
orbit, the sun’s rays would so illumine the earth that the
great circle of illumination would always be bounded by
some meridian circle. The days and nights would then
be of equal length, and the distribution of heat the same
throughout the year. Under these circumstances there
could be no change of seasons, since the sun’s rays would



always fall perpendicularly onthe same part of the earth:
on the equator.

(2.) The Constant Parallelism of the Earth’s
Axis.—During the earth’s revolution its axis
always points nearly to the same place in the
heavens, viz. to the north star. It is therefore
always approximately parallel to any former
position.

Unless the axis were constantly parallel to any former
position, the present change of seasons would not occur.

On account of the spherical form of the earth,
only a small part of its surface can receive the
vertical rays of the sun at the same time. This
part can be regarded as nearly a point; and since
only one-half of the earth is lighted at any one
time, the great circle of illumination must extend
90° in all directions from the point which receives
the vertical rays. By rotation all portions of
the surface situated anywhere within the tropics
in the same latitude, at some time or another
during the day, are turned: so as to receive the
vertical rays of the sun, and consequently, the
portion so illumined has the form of a ring or
zone. Other things being equal, this zone con-
tains the hottest portions of the surface, the heat
gradually diminishing as we pass toward either
pole.

On account of the inclination of its axis, the
earth receives the vertical rays of the sun on new
portions of its surface every day during its revo-
lution; and it is because different portions of the

‘surface are constantly being turned toward the sun

that the change of seasons is to be attributed.

As the earth changes its position in its orbit, the
sun’s rays fall vertically on different parts of the
surface, so that during the year one part or an-
other of the surface within 23° 27’ on either side
of the equator receives the vertical rays.

The astronomical year begins on the 20th
of March, and we shall therefore first consider
the position of the earth in its orbit at that
time.

An inspection of Fig. 15 will show that at this
time the earth is so turned toward the sun that
the vertical rays fall exactly on the equator. The
great circle of illumination, therefore, reaches to
the poles, and the days and nights are of an equal
length all over the earth. This time is called the
March equinox. Spring then begins in the North-
ern Hemisvhere, and autumn in the Southern.
This is shown more clearly in Fig. 16, which
represents the relative positions of the illumined
and non-illumined portions at that time.

=




MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. 19



SEPTEMBER
© EQUINOX



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EQUINOX



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Fig. 15. The Orbit of the Earth, showing the Change of Seasons,

As the earth proceeds in its orbit, the inclina-

tion of the axis causes it to turn the Northern .

Hemisphere more and more toward the sun. The
vertical rays, therefore, fall on portions farther
and farther north until, on the 2Zst of June, the



Fig. 16, The Earth at an Equinox.

vertical rays reach their farthest northern limit,
and fall directly on the Tropic of Cancer, 28° 27'
N., when the sun is said to be ‘at its summer sol-
stice.

Since the portions receiv'ag the vertical rays
of the sun are now onthe Tropic of Cancer,



the light and heat must extend in the Northern
Hemisphere to 23° 27’ beyond the north pole, or |
to the Arctic Circle; while in the Southern Hemi-
sphere they must fall short of the south pole by
the same number of degrees, or reach to the Ant-



Fig. 17, The Earth at the Summer Solstice,

arctic Circle. The Northern Hemisphere then be-
gins its summer, and the Southern tts winter.

The relative positions of the illumined and
non-illumined portions of the earth at the sum-
mer solstice are more clearly shown in Fig. 17.
Here, as is shown, the great circle of illumination




\20 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



extends in the Northern Hemisphere as far over
the pole as the Arctic Circle.

After the 21st of June the Northern Hemi-
sphere is turned less toward the sun, and the
vertical rays continually approach the equator,
all the movements of the preceding season being
reversed, until on the 22d of September, the time
of the September equinox, the equator again receives
the vertical rays, the great circle of illumination
again coinciding with the meridian circles. The
earth has now moved from one equinox to an-
other, and has traversed one-half of its orbit.
The Southern Hemisphere then begins its spring,
the Northern its autumn.

From the 22d of September until the 20th of
March, while the earth moves through the other
half of its orbit, the same phenomena occur in
the Southern Hemisphere that’ have already. been
noticed in the Northern. Immediately after the
22d of September the inclination of the axis
causes the earth to be so turned toward the sun
_ that its rays begin to fall south of the equator ;
and, as the earth proceeds in its orbit, the South-

ern Hemisphere is turned more and more toward |

the sun, and the vertical rays fall farther and
farther toward. the pole. This continues until
the 21st of December, when the rays fall vertically
on the Tropic of Capricorn, and the December sol-
stice is reached. The great circle of illumination
now extends beyond the south pole as far as the
Antarctic Circle, but falls short of the north pole
93° 27’, reaching only the Arctic Circle. Sum-
mer then commences in the Southern Hemisphere,
and winter in the Northern.

After the 21st of December the Southern
Hemisphere is turned less and less toward the



—'S.FRIGID
Fig. 18, Mathematical Climatic Zones,

gun, and the part receiving the vertical rays
approaches the equator, until on the 20th of



March the equator again receives the vertical
rays, and, with the March equinox, spring com-
mences in the Northern Hemisphere, and with
it a new astronomical year.

The equinoxes and solstices as a rule occur on the dates
named. Occasionally. they occur immediately before or
after said dates. s

28. Mathematical Zones.—The Torrid Zone.—
That belt of the earth’s surface which lies be-
tween the tropics is called the Torrid Zone.
During one time or another throughout the
year every part of its surface receives the ver-
tical rays of the sun.

The Temperate Zones are included between the
tropics and the polar circles. The northern zone
is called the North Temperate Zone, and the south-
ern zone, the South Temperate Zone.

The Polar Zones are included’ between the
polar circles and the poles. The northern zone
is called the North Frigid Zone, and the southern .

’ gone, the South Frigid Zone.

These zones, which are separated by the parallels of lati-
tude, are generally termed the astronomical or mathematical
zones to distinguish them from others called physical zones,
which are bounded by the lines of mean annual temper-

- ature.

It will be noticed that the distance of the tropics from
the equator and of the polar circles from the poles is 23°
27’, or the value of the’inclination of the plane of the
ecliptic to the plane of the equator.

29, Length of Day and Night.— Whenever
more than half of either the Northern or South-
ern Hemisphere is illumined, the great circle of
illumination will divide the parallels unequally,
and the length of the daylight in that hemisphere
will exceed that of the night in proportion as the
length of the illumined part, measured along any
of the parallels, exceeds that of the dark part.

The length of daylight or darkness may exceed
that of one complete rotation of the earth. The
great circle of illumination may at times pass
over the poles as far beyond them as 23° 27’;
and places situated within this limit may remain
during many rotations exposed to the rays of the
sun.

A little consideration will show that the longest day
must occur at the poles, since the poles must continue
to receive the sun’s rays from the time they are first illu.
mined at one equinox until the sun passes through a sol-
stice and returns to the other equinox. Nowhere, outside
the polar circles, will the length of daylight exceed one
entire rotation of the earth.

The length of the longest day at the equator, latitude
0°, is 12 hours. ;

Of the longest day a3; the poles, latitude 90°, is six
months. .


MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. 21 y



‘G

SYLLABUS.

—— 00300 —

There are three kinds of geography—Mathematical, Po-
litical, and Physical.

Physical Geography treats of Land, Water, Air, Plants,
Animals, and Minerals.

Geography deals mainly with the earth as it is; geology
mainly with the earth as it was.

The earth continues its motion around the sun in conse-
quence of its inertia.

The distant stars are balls of fire like our sun, and prob-
ably-have worlds resembling ours revolving around them.

The sun and the bodies that revolve around it consti-
tute the solar system.

The sun is about 1,300,000 times larger than the earth.

The sun is a body heated to luminosity, and gives out or

> emits light and heat like any other highly-heated body.

The shape of the earth is that of an oblate spheroid
whose equatorial diameter is about 26 miles longer than
its polar. That the earth is round and not flat is proved
—Ilst, by the appearance of approaching or receding ob-
jects; 2d, by the circular shape of the horizon; 3d, by the
circular shape of the earth’s shadow; 4th, by actual nieas-
urement; and 5th, by the shape of the great circle of
illumination.

The earth’s diameter is nearly 8000 miles, its circumfer-
ence not quite 25,000 miles, and its area about 197,000,000
square miles,

The imaginary circles used in geography are the Equa-
tor, the Meridian Circles, and the Parallels.

Latitude is measured on the meridians by the parallels.



The greatest number of degrees of latitude a place can
have is 90°; the greatest of longitude, 180°. The latitude
at the equator is 0° N.orS. The longitude at the poles or
on the prime meridian is 0° E. or W.

Longitude is measured on the equator, or on the parallels,
by the meridians.

Maps are drawn on different projections : the Equatorial,
the Polar, and Mercator’s projections are in most general
use. A Mercator’s projection causes places near the poles
to appear larger than they really are.

On all maps due north and south lies along the merid-
ians; due east and west, along the parallels: when these
are curved lines, the top and bottom of the map will not
always represent north and south, nor the right and left
hand east and west.

The inclination of the earth’s axis to the plane of its
orbit, and the constant parallelism of the axis with any
former position, together with the revolution around the
sun, cause the change of seasons.

The astronomical year begins March 20th.

On the 20th of March and on the 22d of September the
days and nights are of equal length all over the earth.
From the 20th of March the days increase in length in the
Northern Hemisphere until the 21st of June, when they
attain their greatest length; they then decrease until the
22d of September, when they again become equal. x

The Torrid Zone is the hottest part of the earth, because,
during one time or another throughout the year, every part
of its surface receives the vertical rays of the sun.

REVIEW QUESTIONS.

———0503 00 ——_.

; The Solar System.

How does the principle of inertia apply to the earth’s
motion around the sun?

What do you understand by the solar system ?

Describe the earth’s position in the solar system. Which
of the planets are between the earth and the sun? Which
are beyond the orbit of the earth?

How does the size of the sun compare with that of the
earth ?

Are any of the distant stars larger than our sun ?

Whatisasatellite? Which of the planets have satellites ?

Explain the cause of the circular shape of the earth’s
orbit.

In what part of space is the solar system ?

Has our sun any motion through space?

Enumerate the proofs of the rotundity of the earth.

State accurately the length of the equatorial diameter
of the earth; of its polar diameter; of its circumference.
What is its area?

How many times heavier is the earth than an equally
large. globe of water? Ra by

Imaginary Circles.

Define great and small circles. Name the circles most
commonly used in geography.

What do you understand by latitude? How is latitude
reckoned? Of what use is latitude in geography? Why





can the value of the latitude never exceed 90°? Of what
use are meridians and parallels in measuring latitude?

What do you understand by longitude? How is longi-
tude reckoned? Of what use is longitude in geography ?
Why can its value never exceed 180°? Of what use are
meridians and parallels in measuring longitude?

Where is the value of a degree of latitude the greatest ?.
Of a degree of longitude? Why?

What effect has a Mercator’s chart on the appearance of
bodies of land or water in high northern or southern lati-
tudes ?

What is an equatorial projection? A polar projection?
A conical projection? What is the position of the poles in
an equatorial projection? In a polar projection ?

Movements of the Earth.

Prove that the earth turns on its axis from west to east.

Explain the cause of the change of day and night.

Define a sidereal year; a tropical year. Which value is
generally taken for the length of the civil year?

Describe Laplace’s nebular hypothesis.

Enumerate the causes which produce the change of
seasons.

On what days of the year will the sun’s rays fall verti-
cally on the equator? On what days will its rays fall ver-
tically on the Tropic of Cancer? On the Tropic of Capri-
corn?


PART II.

PAE AND,



020300



























































































































































ALTHOUGH water occupies much the larger portion of the earth’s surface, yet, when compared with
the entire volume of the globe, its quantity is comparatively insignificant ; for the mean depth of the
ocean probably does not exceed two and one-third miles, and underneath this lies the solid crust,

with its heated interior.

The crust and heated interior are composed of a variety of simple and compound substances. Simple
or elementary substances are those which have never been separated into components. Compound
substances are those which are composed of two or more simple or elementary substances combined

under the influence of the chemical force.

— S. £8 KGW RB $$

SEC rtowe
THE INSIDE OF THE EARTH.

——+070300—

CHAPTER I.
The Heated Interior.

30. The Proofs of the Earth’s Original Fluidity
or fused condition through heat are—

1.) Its Spherical Shape, which is the shape
the earth would have taken had it been placed
in space when in a melted condition. This is
the shape of nearly all the heavenly bodies.

22

.

(2.) The fact that the rocks which were first
formed give evidence by their appearance of
having been greatly heated. These rocks are
generally highly crystalline.

(3.) The general climate of the earth during
the geological past was much warmer than at
present.

Very little of the internal heat now reaches the surface.

According to Poisson, all that escapes would raise the mean
annual temperature only #,th of a degree Fahr.


VOLCANOES.





31, Laplace’s Nebular Hypothesis agrees very well
with the idea of a former igneous fluidity, since, at the

time of its separation from the nebulous sun, the earth .

must have had a temperature sufficient not only to fuse,
but even to volatilize, most of its constituents.

32. Proofs of a Present Heated Interior—The
following considerations show that the inside of
the earth is still highly heated:

(1.) The deeper we penetrate the crust, the
higher the temperature becomes. Moreover, the
rate of increase, though varying in different lo-
calities with the character of the materials of the
crust, is nearly uniform over all parts of the sur-
face, the average value of the inerease being 1°
Fahr. for every 55 feet of descent.

This would seem to indicate that the entire
inside of the earth is heated, and that the heat
increases as we go toward the centre.

We cannot, however, estimate the thickness of the crust
from this fact—

1. Because we have never penetrated the crust more
than a few thousand feet below the level of the sea, and
therefore we do not know that this rate of increase of
temperature continues the same;

2. Even if it did continue uniform, since the melting-
point of solids increases with the pressure, we do not
know what allowance should be made for this increase.

(2.) In all latitudes: prodigious quantities of
melted rock escape from the interior through
the craters of volcanoes. The interior, there-
fore; must be hot enough to melt rock.

83. Condition. of the Interior—We do not
know the condition of the material which fills
the interior of the earth. It might be supposed,
since rock escapes from the craters of volca-
noes in a fluid or molten condition, that the in-
terior is filled with molten matter; but this is
not necessarily so, since the enormous pressure
to which the interior is subjected would prob-
| ably be sufficient to compress it into .a viscous

. or pasty mass, or, possibly, even to render it solid.
The lava which issues from the crater of a vol-
cano is necessarily more mobile than the interior
of the earth; for, coming, as it does, from great
depths, it must grow more and more liquid as it
approaches the surface and is thus relieved of its
pressure. Indeed, the most viscous rock conceiv-
able, if highly heated when ejected from pro-
found depths, would become comparatively fluid
on reaching the surface.

34, Views Concerning the Condition of the
Interior —Considerable difference of opinion ex-
ists as to the exact condition of the interior of
the earth. The following opinions may be men-
tioned ;





(1.) That the earth has a solid centre and
crust, with a heated or pasty layer between.

(2.) That the crust is solid, but the interior
highly heated, so as to be in a fused or pasty

condition.

(8.) That the earth is solid throughout, but
highly heated in the interior.

Of the above views, the second is perhaps the
most tenable, and will be adopted as serving in
the simplest manner to explain the phenomena
of the earth arising from the presence of a highly
heated interior. Admitting the crust to be suf-
ficiently thin, and in such a condition as to per-
mit of but a small degree of warping, then all

the phenomena can be satisfactorily explained.

35. Thickness of the Crust—We cannot as-
sign a definite limit to the thickness of the crust,
since the portions that are solid from having
cooled, most probably pass insensibly into those
that are nearly solid from the combined influence
of loss of heat and increasing pressure. It seems
probable that the portion solidified by cooling is
thin, when compared with the whole bulk of the
earth; in other words, the heated interior lies
comparatively near the surface.

36. Effects of the Heated Interior—As the
crust loses its heat it shrinks or contracts, and,
growing smaller, the materials of the interior are
crowded into a smaller space, and an enormous
force is thus exerted, both on the interior and on
the crust itself, tending either to change the shape
of the crust, to break it, or to force out some of
the interior. The following phenomena are there-
fore caused by the contraction of the crust:

(1.) Volcanoes ;

(2.) Earthquakes ;

(3.) Non-voleanic igneous eruptions ;

(4.) Gradual elevations or subsidences of the
crust.

—0594 00 —_

CHAP DER «Ji

V oleanoes.

37. Voleanoes.—One of the most striking proofs
of the existence of a heated interior is the ejection
of enormous quantities of melted rock through
openings in the crust.

A volcano is a mountain, or other elevation,
through which the materials of the interior escape
to the surface. The opening is called the crater,
and may he either on the top or on the sides of
the mountain.
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

ey,

















































































































































































Fig, 19, An Eruption of Mount Vesuvius,

38. Peculiarities of Craters.—The crater, as its name
indicates, is cup-shaped. The rim, though generally entire,
is sometimes broken by the force of the eruption, as in

Mount Vesuvius, where the eruption in 79 A. D.—the first"

on record—blew off the northern half of the crater. The
material thus detached, together with the showers of ashes
and streams of lava, completely buried the cities of Her-
culaneum and Pompeii, situated near its base.

The crater is often of immense size. Mauna Loa, on the
island of Hawaii, has two craters—one on the summit, and
the other on the mountain-side, about 4000 feet above the
sea. The latter—Kilauea—is elliptical in shape, and about
73 miles in circumference ; its areais nearly 4 square miles,
and its depth, from 600 to 1000 feet.

Volcanic mountains are of somewhat different
shapes, but near the crater the conical form pre-
dominates, and serves to distinguish these moun-
tains as a class. The shape of the volcanic cone
is caused by the ejected materials accumulating
around the mouth of the crater in more or less
concentric layers.

39. The ejected materials are mainly as fol-
lows:

(1.) Melted Rock, or Lava.—Lava varies, not
only with the nature of the materials from which
it was formed, but also with the conditions under
which it has cooled, and the quantity of air or
vapor entangled in it. Though generally of a
dark gray, it occurs of all colors; and its texture
varies from hard, compact rock to porous, spongy
material that will float on water. :

When just emitted from the crater, ordinary lava flows
about as fast as molten iron would on the same slope. On

steep mountains, near the crater, the lava, when very
hot, may flow faster than a horse can gallop; but it soon





cools, and becomes covered with a crust that greatly re-
tards the rapidity of its flow, until its motion can only be

' determined by repeated observations.

At Kilauea, jets of very liquid lava are sometimes
thrown out, which, falling back into the crater, are drawn
out by the wind into fine threads, thus producing what
the natives call Pélé’s hair, after their mythical goddess.

The volume of the ejected lava is often very great. Vol-
canic islands are generally formed entirely by lava streams.
Hawaii and Iceland were probably formed entirely of lava
emitted from numerous volcanic cones.

(2.) Ashes or Cinders.—These consist of minute
fragments of lava that are ejected violently from
the crater; at night they appear as showers of
brilliant sparks. When they fall directly back
on the mountain, they aid in rearing the cone.
More frequently, they are carried by the wind to
points far distant. The destructive effects of
volcanic eruptions are caused mainly by heavy
showers of ashes. The ashes, when exceedingly
fine, form what is called volcanic dust.

At the beginning of an eruption large frag-
ments of rock are sometimes violently thrown
out of the crater.

(3.) Vapors, or Gases—The vapor of water
often escapes in great quantities from the crater,
especially at the beginning of the eruption. On
cooling, it condenses and forms dense clouds, from
which torrents of rain fall. These clouds, lighted
by the glowing fires beneath, appear to be actually
burning, and thus give rise to the erroneous belief
that a volcano is a burning mountain. To the
condensation of this vapor is probably to be as-.
cribed the lightning which often plays around the
summit of the voleano during an eruption. Be-
sides the vapor of water, various gases éscape, of
which sulphurous acid is the most common.

When a large quantity of rain mingles with the ashes,
torrents of mud are formed, which move with frightful
velocity down the slopes of the mountain, occasioning con-
siderable damage. During the eruption of Galungung, in
Java, more than one hundred villages were thus destroyed.

The rock that is formed by the hardening of volcanic mud
is called tufa.

40. The Inclination of the Slopes of the vol-
canic cones depends on the nature of the material
of which they are formed. Where lava is the
main ingredient, the cone is broad and flat. The
inclination of a lava cone ranges from 8° to 10°,

Fig, 20, Lava Cone, Inclination from 3° to 10°





according to the liquidity of the lava. A very
stiff lava will form a much steeper cone.
Pages
20-26
Missing
From
Original




VOLCANOES. 27



45. The number of volcanoes is not accurately
known. The best authorities estimate it at about
672, of which 270 are active. Of the latter, 175
are on islands, and 95 are on the coasts of the con-
tinents.

46. Regions of Voleanoes.—The principal vol-
canic regions of the earth are—*

(1.) Along the Shores of the Pacific, where an
immense chain of volcanoes, with but few breaks,
encircles it in a huge “Sea of Fire.”

On the Eastern Borders, in the Andean range,
are the volcanic series of Chili, Bolivia, and Ecua-
dor; those of Central America and Mexico; in
the United States are the series of the Sierra
Nevada and Cascade ranges and of Alaska; and
finally, connecting the system with Asia, the vol-
canic group of the Aleutian Islands.

On the Western Borders volcanoes occur in the
following districts: the Kamtchatkan Peninsula,
with its submerged ranges of the Kurile Islands;
the Japan, the Loo Choo, and the Philippine
Islands; the Moluccas; the Australasian Island
Chain, terminating in New Zealand ; and finally,

nearly in a line with these, the volcanoes of Ere-’

bus and Terror on the Antarctic continent.

(2.) In the Islands of the Pacifie—Volcanic
activity is not wanting over the bed of the Pa-
cific. The Sandwich Islands, the Society Group,
the Marquesas, Friendly Islands, New Hebrides,
Ladrones, and many others, are volcanic.

(3.) Scattered over the Seas that divide the
Northern and Southern Continents, or in their
Vicinity, viz.: in the neighborhood of the Carib-
bean Sea, in the Mediterranean and Red Seas,
and in the Pacific and Indian Oceans between
Asia and Australia.

In the neighborhood of the Caribbean Sea.—This
region includes the two groups of the Antilles in
the Caribbean Sea, and the Gallapagos Islands in
the Pacific Ocean.

In the neighborhood of the Mediterranean and
Red Seas.—This region includes the voleanoes of
the Mediterranean and its borders, those of Italy,
Sicily, the Grecian Archipelago, of Spain, Central
France, and Germany, together with those near
the Caspian and Red Seas.

Between Asia and Australia.—This region in-
cludes the Sunda Islands, Sumatra, J ava, Sum-
bawa, Flores, and Timor, which contain numerous
craters. In Java there are nearly 50 volcanoes,
28 of which are active, and there are nearly as



* We follow mainly the classification of Dana.

4





many in Sumatra. There ate 169 volcanoes in
the small islands near Borneo.

(4.) In the Northern and Central Parts of the
Atlantic Ocean.

All the islands in the deep ocean which do not
form. a part of the continent are volcanic; as,
for example, the island of St. Helena, Ascension
Island, the Cape Verdes, the Canaries, the Azores,
and Iceland. The Cameroons Mountains, on the
African coast near the Gulf of Guinea, together
with some of the islands in the gulf, are volcanic.

(5.) In the Western and Central Parts of the
Indian Ocean.

Volcanoes are found in Madagascar and in the
adjacent islands. They also occur farther south,
in the island of St. Paul and in Kerguelen Land,
and in Kilimandjaro, near the eastern coast of
Africa.
~ 47, Submarine Volcanoes.—From the difficulty in ob-
serving them, submarine volcanoes are not so well known
as the others. The following regions are well marked:

In the Mediterranean Sea, near Sicily and Greece.

Near the island of Santorin the submarine volcanic en-
ergy is intense. It has been aptly described as a’ region
“Where isles seem to spring up like fungi in a wood.”

In the Atlantic Ocean; off the coast of Iceland; near
St. Michael, in the Azores; and over a region in the nar-
rowest part of the ocean between Guinea and Brazil.

In the Pacific Ocean; near the Aleutian Islands,
where two large mountain-masses have risen from the
water within recent time. Near the Japan Islands, where,
about twenty-one centuries ago, according to native his-
torians, Fusi Yama, the highest mountain in J. apan, rose
from the sea in a single night.

In the Indian Ocean, the island of St. Paul, in the
deep ocean between Africa and Australia, exhibits signs
of submarine activity.

48. Peculiarities of Distribution—Nearly all
volcanoes are found near the shores of continents
or on islands.

The only exceptions are found in the region
south of the Caspian Sea, and in that of the
Thian Shan Mountains. As volcanoes are but
openings in the earth’s crust which permit an es-
cape of materials from the pasty interior, they
will occur only where the crust is weakest. This
will be on the borders of sinking oceans, in the
lines of fracture formed by the gradual separa-
tion of the ocean’s bed from the coasts of the
continent. The floor of the ocean in all latitudes
is covered with a layer of quite cold water, so
that the difference in the amount of the contrac-
tion will in general be most marked on the bor-
ders of the oceans or on the edges of the conti-
nents.

In most regions the volcanoes lie along lines




28 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



more or less straight. Lines joining such a series
may be considered as huge cracks in the crust,
the volcanic phenomena occurring in their weak-
est places.

The frequent occurrence of volcanoes in moun-
tainous districts is caused by the crust being
broken and flexed, so as to admit of an easy
passage for the molten rock.

Where one system of fissures crosses another the
crust becomes weak, the openings numerous, and the
volcanic activity great. The two antipodal points
of the Antilles and the Sunda Islands are excel-
lent examples, and are the most active volcanic
regions on the earth.

Efforts have been made to show some connection be-
tween certain states of the weather and periods of vol-
canic activity; but, so far, these have amounted to mere
predictions of coming changes, based on observations of
the direction of upper currents of air from the clouds
of ashes or smoke ejected by the volcano. No law of
periodicity of eruption has, as yet, been discovered.

49. Other Volcanic Phenomena:

Mud Volcanoes are small hillocks that emit
streams of hot mud and water from their craters,
but never molten rock. They are found in vol-
canic regions.

Solfataras are places where sulphur vapors es-

cape and form incrustations. They occur in vol- |

canic regions.
Geysers are sometimes ranked with volcanic phe-
nomena. They are described under Hot Springs.

09300 —

CLAP PER: Wir

Earthquakes.

50. Earthquakes are shakings of the earth’s
crust, of degrees varying in intensity from
scarcely perceptible tremors to violent agita-
tions that overthrow buildings and open huge
fissures in the ground. They may therefore be
divided into two classes:

(1.) A shaking movement without any perma-
nent change in the surface ;

'(2.) A shaking movement accompanying an
uplift or subsidence.

An earthquake is sometimes called a seismic
shock.

51. Facts concerning Earthquakes—A careful
study of earthquakes appears to establish the fol-
lowing facts:

(1.) The place or origin of the shock is not
deep-seated or far below the earth’s surface, but









Fig, 23, Fissures produced by the Charleston Earthquake of 1886.

is near the surface, probably never deeper than
thirty miles, and often much less.

(2.) ‘The area of disturbance depends not only
on the energy of the shock, but also on the depth
of its origin below the surface: the deeper the
origin, the greater the area.

(3.) The shape of the origin is generally that
of a line, often many miles in length.

(4.) The direction of the motion at the surface
is nearly upward over the origin, and more in-
clined as the distance from the origin increases.

(5.) The shape of the area of disturbance de-
pends on the nature of the materials through
which the wave is moving. If these are of
nearly uniform elasticity in all directions, the
area is nearly circular; if more elastic in one
direction than in another, the area is irregular
in shape.

52. The Varieties of Earthquake Motion at the
Earth’s Surface are—

(1.) A wave-like motion, in which the ground
rises and falls like waves in water.

(2.) An upward motion, somewhat similar to
that which follows an explosion of powder below
the surface. This has been known to occur with
sufficient force to throw heavy bodies considerable
distances up into the air. :

(8.) A rotary motion, which, from its destruc-
tive effects, is fortunately of rare occurrence.

Humboldt mentions an earthquake that happened in
Chili where the ground was so shifted that three great

SS .- sss 0.0





EARTHQUAKES. 29





palm trees were twisted around one another like willow
wands.

There are two kinds of movement transmitted through
the crust during earthquakes: these are the earthquake
motion proper, and the motion that produces the accompanying
sounds.

58. The Velocity of Earthquake Motion varies
according to the intensity of the shock and the na-
ture of the material through which it is trans-
mitted. No average’ result can therefore be
given. Various observers have estimated it at
from 8 to 30 miles per minute.

54. The Sounds Accompanying Earthquakes
vary both in.kind and intensity. Sometimes
they resemble the hissing noises heard when red-
hot coals are thrown into water; sometimes they
are rumbling, but more frequently they are of
greater intensity, and are then comparable to
discharges of artillery or peals of thunder.

The confused roaring and rattling are probably caused

by the different rates of transmission of the sound through
the air and rocks.

55. Duration of the Shocks—When the area
of disturbance is large, shocks of varying intensity
generally follow each other at irregular intervals.
Though, in general, the violence of the shock is
soon. passed, disturbances may occur at intervals
of days, weeks, or even years.

During the earthquake in Calabria in 1783, when nearly
100,000 persons perished, the destructive vibrations lasted
scarcely two minutes, but the tremblings of the crust con-
tinued long afterward. During the earthquake at Lisbon
in 1755, when about the same number perished, the shock
which caused the greatest damage continued but five or

six seconds, while a series of terrible movements followed
one another at intervals during the space of five minutes.

56. Cause of Earthquakes.—It is generally be-
lieved that the principal cause of earthquakes is the
force produced by the contraction of a cooling crust.

During the cooling of the earth the crust con-
tinually contracts, and the pressure so produced,
slowly accumulating for years, at last rends it
in vast fissures, thus producing those violent
movements of its crust called earthquakes. If
this theory be admitted—and it is a probable one
—the earth’s crust must every now and then be
in such a strained condition that the slightest
increase of force from within, or of diminished
resistance from without, would disturb the con-
ditions of equilibrium, and thus result in an
earthquake.

57. Strain Caused by Contraction consequent on
cooling is well exhibited in the so-called “ Prince Ru-
pert’s Drops,” which are made by allowing melted glass
to fall in drops through cold water. The sudden cooling



of the outside produces powerful forces, which tend to
compress the drop; but, since these forces balance one
another, no movement occurs until, by breaking off the
long end of the drop, one set of forces is removed, when
the others, no longer neutralized, tear the drop into almost
countless pieces,

Similar effects are produced by unequal contraction and
expansion. Hot water poured into a tumbler will often
crack it. The crackling sound of a stovepipe when sud-
denly heated or cooled is a similar effect,

58. Other Causes of Earthquakes. — Earth-
quakes may also be occasioned by—
(1.) The sudden evolution of gases or vapors

-from the pasty interior.

This is probably the cause of many of the
slight shocks that occur in the neighborhood of
active volcanic regions.

(2.) Shocks caused by falling masses.

Those who deny ‘the existence of a pasty interior, en-
deavor to explain the production of earthquakes by the
shock caused by the occasional caving in of huge masses
of rocks, in caverns hollowed out by the action of subter-
ranean waters; or by the’gradual settling of the upturned
strata in mountainous districts. There can be no doubt
that even moderately severe shocks are caused by falling
masses; but such a force is utterly inadequate to produce
a shock like that which destroyed Lisbon, when an area
of nearly 7,500,000 square miles was shaken.

59. Periodicity of Earthquakes—It was for-
merly believed that earthquakes occurred with-
out any regularity, but by a comparison of the
times of occurrence of a great number it has been
discovered that they occur more frequently—

(1.) In winter than in summer;

(2.) At night than during the day ;

(3.) During the new and full moon, when the
attractive force of the sun and moon acts simul-
taneously on the same parts of the earth.

Earthquake shocks are more frequent in winter,
and during the night, because the cooling, and
consequent contraction, occur more rapidly at
these times, and therefore the gradually accumu-
lating force is more apt to acquire sufficient inten-
sity to rend the solid crust.

Earthquakes are more frequent during new
and full moon, because the increased force on
the earth’s crust caused by the position of the
sun and moon at these times, is then added to
the accumulated force produced by cooling.

It has been asserted that in the equatorial regions earth-
quakes are especially frequent during the setting in of
periodical winds called the monsoons, at the change of

the rainy season or during the prevalence of hurricanes,
These facts, however, are not well established.

60. Distribution of Earthquakes. — Earth-
quakes may occur in any part of the world, but







30 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



are most frequent in volcanic districts. They are

more frequent in mountainous than in flat coun-

tries. They are especially frequent in the high-

est mountains. According to Huxley, fairly pro-

nounced earthquake shocks occur in some part of
’ the earth at least three times a week.

There is, in many instances, an undoubted connection
between volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Humboldt
relates that during the earthquake at Riobamba, when
some 40,000 persons perished, the volcano of Pasto ceased
to emit its vapor at the exact time the earthquake began.
The same is related of Vesuvius at the time of the earth-
\ quake at Lisbon.

— 61, Phenomena of Earthquakes.—In order to give
some idea of the phenomena by which severe earthquake
shocks are attended, we append a brief description of the
earthquake which destroyed the city of Lisbon, on the 1st
of November, 1755. The loss of life on this occasion was
the more severe, since the shock occurred on a holy day,
when nearly the whole population was assembled in the
churches. A sound like thunder was heard, and, almost
immediately afterward, a series of violent shocks threw
down nearly every building in the city. Many who es-
caped the falling buildings perished in the fires that soon
kindled, or were murdered by lawless bands that after-
ward’ pillaged the city.

The ground rose and fell like the waves of the sea; huge
chasms were opened, into which many of the buildings
were precipitated. In the ocean a huge wave, over 50 feet
high, was formed, which, retreating for a moment, left the
bar dry, and then rushed toward the land with frightful
force. This was repeated several times, and thousands
perished from this cause alone. The neighboring moun-
tains, though quite large, were shaken like reeds, and
were rent and split in a wonderful manner.

This earthquake was especially remarkable for the im-
mense area over which the shock extended. It reached
as far north as Sweden. Solid mountain-ranges—as, for
example, the Pyrenees and the Alps—were severely shaken.
A deep fissure was opened in France. On the south, the
earthquake waves crossed the Mediterranean and destroyed
a number of villages in the Barbary States. On the west,
the waves traversed the bed of the Atlantic, and caused
unusually high tides in the West Indies. In North Amer-
ica the movements were felt as far west as the Great Lakes.
Feebler oscillations of the ground occurred at intervals for
several weeks after the main shock.

62. Non-voleanic Igneous Eruptions.—In re-
gions remote from volcanoes, melted rock has
been forced up from the interior through fissures
in the rocks of nearly all geological formations.
On cooling, the mass forms what is called a dyke.
Dykes vary in width from a few inches to several
yards. They are generally much harder than the
rocks through which they were forced, and, being
less subject to erosion, often project considerably
above the general surface.

From their mode of formation, dykes are gen-
erally without traces of stratification, but by cool-
ing a series of transverse fractures are sometimes





produced. The dykes thus obtain the appearance
of aseries of columns, called basaltic columns.

Igneous rocks of this description are found in
all parts of the continents, but are especially com-
mon near the borders of mountainous districts.
Fingal’s Cave, in Scotland, is a noted example
of basaltic columns.



Fig. 24, Basaltic Columns, Fingal’s Cave, Scotland.

68. Gradual Elevations and Subsidences——Be-
sides the sudden changes of level produced by
earthquakes, there are others that take place
slowly, but continuously, by which large portions
of the surface are raised or lowered from their
former positions. The rate of movement is very
slow—probably never exceeding a few feet in a
century. The following examples are the most
noted : ‘

The Scandinavian peninsula (Norway and Swe-
den) is slowly rising in the north and sinking in
the south.

The southern part of the coast of Greenland is
sinking.

The North American coast, from Labrador to
New Jersey, is rising.

The Andes Mountains, especially near Chili,
are gradually rising.

The Pacific Ocean, near the centre, is sinking
over an area of more than 6000 miles.

The cause of these movements is to be traced
to the warping action caused by gradual contrac-
tion of a cooling crust.




SYLLABDS. . 31



SYLLABUS.

——0r9300—_

The earth was originally melted throughout. It after-
ward cooled on the surface and formed a crust. The earth’s
original fluidity is rendered probable—

(1.) By the spherical shape of the earth;

(2.) By the crystalline rocks underlying all others;
and

(3.) By the greater heat of the earth during geological
time.

The interior is still in a highly-heated condition. This
is proved—Ist. By the increased heat of the crust as we go
below the surface; 2d. By the escape of lava from volca-
noes in all latitudes.

The following opinions are held concerning the condi-
tion of the interior of the earth:

(1.) That the earth has a solid centre and crust, with a
heated layer between.

(2.) That the earth has a solid crust only, and an inte-
rior sufficiently heated to be in a fused or in a pasty con-
dition.

(3.) That the earth is solid throughout, but highly
heated in the interior.

The thickness of the crust is not known. It is probable
that the portions solidified by cooling pass insensibly into
those that are nearly solid from the combined influence
of loss of heat and increasing pressure. The heated
interior, however, must lie comparatively near the sur-
face.

The effects produced by the heated interior on the crust
are—Ist. Volcanoes; 2d. Earthquakes; 3d. Non-volcanic
igneous eruptions ; and 4th. Gradual elevations or subsi-
dences.

Volcanic mountains are of a variety of shapes. Near
their craters the cone shape predominates, and serves to
distinguish these mountains as a class.

The ejected materials of volcanoes are—Ist. Melted rock _

or lava; 2d. Ashes or cinders; 3d. Vapors or gases.

These materials are brought up from great depths into
the volcanic mountain by the force produced by a contract-
ing globe. They may escape from the crater—lst. By the
pressure of highly-heated vapors; or, 2d. By the pressure
of a column of melted lava.

The inclination of the slopes of the volcanic cone de-
pends on the materials of which it is composed. Ash-
cones are steeper than those formed of lava.

Eruptions are of two kinds, ae and non-explo-
sive.

High volcanic mountains are, as a rule, characterized by
non-explosive eruptions.

Volcanoes occur both on the surface of the land and on
the bed of the ocean.

Those on the land occur mainly near the borders of
sinking oceans, where the crust is weakest.

The principal volcanic districts of the world are—1.
Along the shores of the Pacific; 2. On the islands which
are scattered over the Pacific; 3. Scattered over the seas
which divide the northern and southern continents; 4. In
the northern and central parts of the Atlantic Ocean; 5.
In the western and central parts of the Indian Ocean.

The centres of volcanic activity’ are found in the An-
tilles and in the Sunda Islands, where several lines of
fracture cross each other.



Subordinate volcanic phenomena are seen in—1. Mud
volcanoes; 2. Solfataras; 3. Geysers.

Earthquakes are snes of the earth’s crust; they may
occur with or without a permanent displacement.

The following facts have been discovered as to earth-
quakes:

(1.) Their place of origin is not very deep-seated.

(2.) The area of disturbance increases with the energy
of the shock and the depth of the origin.

(3.) The shape of the origin is that of a line, and not
that of a point.

(4.) The shape of the area of disturbance depends on
the elasticity of the materials through which the shock
moves.

(5.) The earthquake motion travels through the earth
as spherical waves which move outward in all directions
from the origin of the disturbance.

The movement at the earth’s surface may be—Ist. In
the form of a gentle wave; 2d. An upward motion; 3d. A
rotary motion.

The velocity with which the earthquake motion is trans-
mitted varies with the intensity of the shock and the
nature of the materials through which it is propagated.

There are two distinct kinds of motion accompanying
earthquake waves: the earthquake motion proper, and
the motion producing the accompanying sounds.

As a rule, the earthquake shocks which ‘produce the
greatest damage are of but short duration, generally but
a few seconds or minutes. Slighter disturbances may fol-
low the main shock at intervals of days, weeks, or even
years.

Earthquake shocks are more frequent—lst. In winter
than in summer; 2d. At night than during the day; 3d.
During the time of new and full moon than at any other
phase.

Earthquakes are. mainly caused by the gradually in-
creasing force produced by the contraction of the crust.

Earthquakes are also to be attributed to the forces which
eject the molten matter from the craters of volcanoes.. |

Slight earthquake shocks may be occasioned by the fall-

ing in of masses of rock from the roofs of subterranean.

caverns, or by the settling of upturned strata.

Earthquakes may occur in any part of the earth, but are
most frequent in volcanic and in mountainous regions.

Dykes are masses of rock formed by the gradual cooling
of melted matter which has been forced up through fis-
sures from. the interior.

Basaltic columns are formed by dykes. They owe their
columnar structure to fractures produced on cooling.

The crust of the earth is subject to gradual as well as to
sudden changes of level.

The Scandinavian peninsula is rising on the north and
sinking on the south.

The southern coast of Geeenland is sinking.

The North American coast, from Labrador to New Jer-
sey, is rising.

The range of the Andes near Chili is rising.

The bed of the Pacific in the neighborhood of the Poly-
nesian island chain is sinking.

These movements are caused by the contraction of a
cooling crust.


32 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



REVIEW QUESTIONS.

——-0£0400—_.

The Heated Interior.

Enumerate the proofs that the interior of the earth is
still in a highly-heated condition.

Name some circumstances which render it probable that
the earth was originally melted throughout.

What is the average rate of increase of temperature
with descent below the surface ?

How can it be shown that the whole interior of the
earth is filled with highly-heated matter?

Why is it so difficult to assign a definite limit to the
thickness of the earth’s crust?

Is the interior of the earth supposed to be in as fluid a
condition as that of the lava which escapes from a volcano?

What four classes of effects are produced in the crust by
the heated interior?

Voleanoes.

What are volcanoes? What connection have they with
the interior of the earth? How do active volcanoes differ
from those which are extinct?

Explain the origin of the conical form of volcanic
mountains,

Which generally produces the more destructive effects,
ashes or lava? Why?

Enumerate the materials which are ejected from the in-
terior of the earth through the craters of volcanoes.

What is tufa? How is it formed?

Which has the greater inclination, a lava-cone or an
ash-cone ?

Explain in full the manner in which the shrinkage, or
contraction of the earth on cooling, produces a pressure
both in the interior and in the crust.

By what forces are volcanic eruptions produced?

Into what two classes may all volcanic eruptions be di-
vided? How are those of each class caused?

Give an example of each of these classes.

What is the highest volcano in the world?

Under what five regions may all the volcanoes in the
world be arranged ?

In what parts of the world are volcanoes most numer-
ous?

Why are volcanoes more numerous here than elsewhere?

Name some of the regions of submarine volcanoes.

Why are all volcanoes found near the coasts of the con-
tinents or on islands? i

What are mud volcanoes? Solfataras?

Earthquakes.

What are earthquakes? Into what two classes may they
be divided ?

Name some facts that have been discovered about earth-
quakes. ‘ n

Name three kinds of earthquake motion. Which is the
most dangerous ?

Describe the sounds which accompany earthquakes.

What is the main cause of earthquakes? To what other
causes may they be attributed?

What facts have been discovered respecting the pericd-
icity of earthquakes ?

Give a short description of the earthquake which de-
stroyed the city of Lisbon.

Are any portions of the earth free from earthquake
shocks?

In what parts of the earth are earthquake shocks most
frequent ?

What are dykes? How were they formed?

Enumerate some of the gradual changes of level which
are now occurring in the crust of the earth. By what are
these changes caused ?

MAP QUESTIONS.

—-059300——.

Trace on the map the five principal volcanic districts of
the earth.

Which contains the greater number of volcanoes, the
Atlantic or the Pacific shores of the continents?

Does the eastern or the western border of the Indian
Ocean contain the greater number of volcanoes?

Name the principal volcanic islands of the Atlantic.
Of the Indian. Of the Pacific.

Locate the following volcanoes: Hecla, Pico, Kilauea,
Sarmiento, Llullayacu, Egmont, Cosiguina, » Teneriffe,
Antisana, Kilimandjaro, Demavend, Peshan, Osorno, Ere-
bus, and Terror. .

y->Name the principal volcanic mountains of North America,

In what part of the Atlantic Ocean are submarine erup-
tions especially frequent ?

Name three noted volcanoes of the Mediterranean
Sea.

Name the portions of the earth which were shaken by
the earthquake of Lisbon. When did this earthquake
occur?

What noted volcanoes are found in the region visited by
the earthquake of Lisbon? 3

In what portions of the Eastern Hemisphere are earth-
quake shocks especially frequent? In what portions of
the Western Hemisphere?






PHEOORUS DL (OR (TEE aA TH: 33



. SECTLON lh



NJ CHAPTER L
The Crust of the Earth.

64. Composition of the Crust.—The elementary
substances are not equally distributed throughout
the earth’s crust. Many of these substances occur
only in extremely small quantities, while others
are found nearly everywhere.

Although the deepest cutting through the earth’s crust
does not extend vertically more than about two miles be-
low the level of the sea, yet the upturning of the strata, or
the outcropping of the different formations, enables us to
study a depth of about sixteen miles of the earth’s crust.

A careful study of the composition of this part of the
crust shows that oxygen constitutes nearly one-half of it,
by weight. Silicon, an element which, when combined
with oxygen, forms silica or quartz, constitutes, either as
sand, or combined with various bases as silicates, one-
fourth; so that these two elements form at least three-
fourths, by weight, of the entire crust. The following are
also prominent ingredients of rocks—aluminium, which,
when combined with oxygen, forms alumina, the basis of
clay; magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, iron, and car-
bon. These nine substances, according. to Dana, form
Zoyoths, by weight, of the entire crust.

Sulphur, hydrogen, chlorine, and nitrogen also occur fre-
quently. The remaining elements are of comparatively
rare occurrence.

65. The Origin of Rocks.——When the earth was
yet a melted globe, the water which now covers
the larger portion of its surface hung over it,
uncondensed, either as huge clouds or as masses
of vapor. After a comparatively thin crust had
formed, the vapor was condensed as rain, and cov-
ered the earth with a deep layer of boiling water.
Occasionally the cooling crust was broken by the
increasing tension, and portions of the molten in-
terior were forced out: and spread over the sur-
face. The muddy waters then cleared by depos-
iting layers of sediment over the ocean’s bed.

When, by long-continued cooling, the crust be-
came thicker, the breaking out of the interior oc-
curred less frequently, and contraction, wrinkling
the surface in huge folds, caused portions to
emerge from the ocean and form dry land. Dur-
ing all this time the waters were arranging the
looser materials in layers or strata wnieh were

ment by water.



THE OUTSIDE OF THE EARTH.

Ri ~ i ——020300——_

originally more or less horizontal; but wher}
ever the contraction forced the melted interior
through the crust or upturned it in huge folds,
the horizontal position of the deposits was de-
stroyed; and even when not so disturbed, the
heat of the interior, escaping through fissures,
often produced such alterations as to confuse or
completely to obliterate all traces of their regu-
lar bedding.

The almost inconceivable extent of geological time may
be inferred from the calculations of Helmholtz, based on
the rapidity of the cooling of lava. These calculations
show that in passing from a temperature of 2000° C. to
200° C. a time equal to three hundred and fifty million years
must have elapsed. Before this a still greater time must
have elapsed, and after it came the exceedingly great ex-
tent of geological time proper.

66. According to their Origin, rocks may be
divided into three distinct classes:

(1.) Igneous Rocks, or those ejected in a melted
condition from the interior, and afterward cooled.

(2.) Aqueous Rocks, or those deposited as sedi-
When mineral matter settles in
water, the coarser, heavier particles reach the bot-
tom first, 80 that a sorting action occurs, which
makes the different layers or strata vary in the
size and density of their particles, and, to a great
extent, in their composition.

Aqueous rocks are sometimes called sediment-
ary rocks.

(3.) Metamorphic Rocks, or those originally
deposited in layers, but afterward so changed by
the action of heat as to lose all traces of stratifi-
cation.

This change, which is called metamorphism, is caused by
heat acting under pressure in the presence of moisture. Under
these conditions a far less intense heat is required to re-
move all traces of stratification. Metamorphism appears

to consist mainly in a rearrangement of the chemical con-
stituents of the rocks,

67. According to their Condition, rocks may
be divided into two classes:

(1.) Stratified Rocks, or those arranged i
regular layers. Aqueous rocks are always ian
fied, and sometimes, though rarely, metamorphic
ori are stratified.
84 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.







WRK





Fig, 25. Stratified Rock,

In Fig. 25 the different layers or strata are shown by
the shadings. Stratified rocks are the most common form
of rocks found near the earth’s surface.

Stratified rocks are largely composed of fragments of
older rocks; for this reason they are sometimes called
fragmental rocks.

(2.) Unstratified Rocks, or those destitute of
any arrangement in layers. They are of two kinds:

(1.) Igneous, or those which were never stratified.

(2.) Metamorphic, or those which were once
stratified, but have lost their stratification by
the action of heat.

Unstratified rocks are sometimes called crystad-
line rocks, because they consist of crystalline
particles.

68. Fossils are the remains of animals or plants
which have been buried in the earth by natural
causes. . Generally, the soft parts of the organism
have disappeared, leaving only the harder parts.
Sometimes the soft parts have been gradually re-
moved, and replaced by mineral matter, generally
lime or silica; thus producing what are called
petrifactions. At times the mere impression of
the animal or plant is all that remains to tell
of its former existence.

4



Fig, 26, Fossil Encrinite,

When the remains of an animal or plant are exposed to
the air or buried in dry earth, they generally decompose
and pass off almost entirely as gases; but when buried
under water or in damp earth, their preservation is more
probable. Therefore, the species most likely to become
fossilized are those living in water or marshes, or in the
‘neighborhood of water or marshes.

69. According to the Presence or Absence of
Fossil Remains, rocks may be divided into two
classes :



(1.) Fossiliferous Rocks, or those which con-
tain fossils. They are stratified and are of
aqueous origin. Metamorphic rocks, in very
rare instances, are found to contain fragments
of fossils.

(2.) Non-fossiliferous Rocks, or those destitute
of fossils. They include all igneous rocks and
most of those that are metamorphic.

70. Paleeontology is the science which treats of fossils. .

Paleontology enables us to ascertain the earth’s condi-
tion in pre-historic times, since by a careful examination
of the fossils found in any rocks we discover what animals
and plants lived on the earth while such rocks were being
deposited. The earth’s strata thus become the pages of a
huge book; and the fossils found in them, the writings
concerning the old life of the world. By their careful
study geologists have been enabled to find out much of
the earth’s past history.

71, Division of Geological Time.—A compari-
son of the various species of fossils found in the
earth’s crust discloses the following facts:

(1.) The fossils found in the lowest rocks bear
but. a slight resemblance to the animals and
plants now living on the earth.

(2.) The fossils found in the intermediate strata
bear a resemblance to existing species, though
this resemblance is not so strongly marked as in
the upper strata.

(3.) ‘The fossils found in the upper strata bear
a decided resemblance to existing species.

It is on such a basis that the immense extent
of geological time is divided into the following
shorter periods or times:

(1.) Archean Time, or the time which wit-
nessed the dawn of life. This time included an
extremely long era, during most of which the con-
ditions of temperature were such that no life could
possibly have existed. Toward its close, however,
the simplest forms of life were created.

The lower Archean rocks resulted from the
original cooling of the molten earth, and cover
its entire surface, including the floor of the ocean.
On these rest less ancient Archean rocks, formed
as sedimentary deposits of the older rocks.

The rocks of the Archean Time in North America in-
clude the Laurentian, the lowest, hamed from the river
St. Lawrence, near which they occur, and the Huronian,
named from their occurrence near Lake Huron.

(2.) Paleozoic Time, or ancient life, included
the time during which the animals and plants
bore but little resemblance to those now living.

(3.) Mesozoic Time, or middle life, included
the time during which the animals and plants
began to resemble those now living.

Ne










/

THE CRUST OF THE EARTH. 35





(4.) Cenozoic Time, or recent life, included the
time during which the animals and plants bore
decided resemblance to those now living.

These times are divided into ages.

Archean Time includes—

(1.) The Azoic Age;

(2.) The Eozoic Age.

Paleozoic Time, or, as it is sometimes called,
the Primary, includes—

(1.) The Age of Invertebrates, or the Silurian ;

(2.) The Age of Fishes, or the Devonian;

(8.) The Age of Coal-plants, or the Carbon-
iferous.

Mesozoic Time, or, as it is sometimes called,
the Secondary, includes the Age of Reptiles.

Cenozoic Time includes—

(1.) The Tertiary, or the Age of Mammals;

(2.) The Quaternary, or the Age of Man.

Where no disturbing causes existed, and the
land remained under the seas, the rocks deposited
during these periods were thrown down in regu-
lar strata, one over the other. The Archean
were the lowest; above them were the Paleozoic,
then the Mesozoic, and finally those of the Ceno-
zoic. Generally, however, frequent dislocations
of the strata have disturbed the regular order
of arrangement.

72. The Azoic Age included all the time from
the first formation of the crust to the appearance
of animal and vegetable life.

The Eozoic Age is that which witnessed the
dawn of life. The sedimentary rocks of this age
are so highly metamorphosed that nearly all traces
of life have been obliterated. Among plants, the
marine alge, or sea-weeds, and among animals,
the lowest forms of the protozoa, were probably
the chief species.

73. The Age of Invertebrates, or the Silurian,
is sometimes called the Age of Mollusks. Among
plants, algw, or sea-weeds, are found; among ani-
mals, protozoa, radiates, articulates, and mollusks,
but no vertebrates. Hence the name, Age of In-
vertebrates. Mollusks were especially numerous.

The name Silurian is derived from the ancient Silures,
a tribe formerly inhabiting those parts of England and
Wales where the rocks abound.

74, The Age of Fishes, or the Devonian.—
During this age all the sub-kingdoms of animals
are found, but the vertebrates first appear, being
represented by fishes, and from this fact the name
has been given to the age. Land-plants are also
found. Immense beds of limestone and red sand-
stone were deposited.

5





The name Devonian is derived from the district of Dev-
onshire, England, where the rocks abound.

75. The Age of Coal-Plants, or the Carbonif-
erous.—The continents during this age consisted
mainly of large, flat, marshy areas, covered with
luxuriant vegetation, subject, at long intervals, to
extensive inundations. The decaying vegetation,
decomposing under water, retained most of its
solid constituent, carbon, and formed beds of coal.
All the sub-kingdoms of animals were represented
and reptiles also existed. The comparatively few

-land-plants of the preceding age now increased

and formed a dense vegetation.

To favor such a luxuriant vegetation the air
must have been warm and moist. Since all the
coal then deposited previously existed in the air
as carbonic acid, the Carboniferous Age was nec-
essarily characterized by a purification of the
atmosphere.



Fig, 27, Carboniferous Landscape, (A restoration.)

Formation of Coal.—In every 100 parts of dry vege-
table matter there are about 49 parts of carbon, 6 of hydro-
gen, and 45 of oxygen. The carbon is a solid; the hydro-
gen and oxygen are gases. Itis from the carbon that coal
is mainly formed. When the decomposition of the vege-
table matter takes place in air, the carbon passes off with
the hydrogen and oxygen as various gaseous compounds;
but when covered by water, most of the carbon is retained,
together with part of the oxygen andhydrogen. Although
every year our forests drop tons of leaves, no coal results,
the deposit of one year being almost entirely removed
before that of the next occurs. F

It has been computed that it would require a depth of
eight feet of compact vegetable matter to form one foot.of
bituminous coal, and twelve feet of vegetable matter to
form one foot of anthracite coal. Anthracite coal differs



36 PHYSICAL



GEOGRAPHY.



from bituminous mainly in the greater metamorphism to
which it has been subjected; it contains a greater propor-
tion of carbon and less hydrogen and oxygen.

76. The Age of Reptiles.—In this age the ani-
mals and plants begin to resemble existing species.
The age is characterized mainly by the prepon-
derance of reptiles, many of which were very
large, as, for example, the plesiosaurus, an animal
with a long, snake-like neck and a huge body, or
the ichthgosaurus, with a head like a crocodile and
short neck and large body. Both of these ani-
mals were furnished with fin-like paddles, and
lived in the water. Huge pterodactyls, or bat-
like saurians, flew in the air or paddled in the
water. Mammals and birds also occur.










































Fig, 28, ‘The Age of Reptiles. (A restoration.)

77. The Age of Mammals, or the Tertiary Age.
—Mammals, or animals that suckle their young,
occurred in great numbers, and, being the highest























== cae

Fig, 29. Mastodon giganteus, An Animal of the Mammalian Age

type of life, gave the name to the age. The ani-
mals and plants of the Mammalian Age closely
resembled existing species, though most of them
were much larger; as, for example, the dinothe-

rium, a huge animal, with a trunk like an ele-
phant, but with downward-turned tusks; the
paleotherium, and many others.

78. The Era of Man, or the Quaternary Age,
witnessed the introduction of the present animals
and plants and the creation of man.

79. Changes Now Occurring in the Earth's
Crust.— Geological time was characterized by ex-
tensive changes, both in the hind and luauriance
of life, and in the nature of its distribution.

The earth is still undergoing extensive changes,
which are caused by the following agencies:

(1.) By the Winds, which often carry sand
from a desert and distribute it over fertile plains:
in this manner the narrow tract of fertile land on
the borders of the Nile, in Egypt, receives much
sand from the Sahara. The winds are also piling
up huge mounds of sand along the sea-coasts,
forming what are called dunes, or sandhills,

(2.) By the Moisture of the Atmosphere, soak-
ing into porous rocks or running into the crevices
between solid ones. This water in freezing ex-
pands with force sufficient to rend the rock into
fragments, which are carried away by the rivers
or, when sufficiently small, by the winds. 2

(8.) By the Action of Running Water.— Rivers
wash away portions of their banks or cut their



i VAT
ENE START

Fig. 30, Curious Effect of Erosion,

their channels. This action is
It occurs even in the hardest

way throug
called erosgon.









DISTRIBUTION OF THE LAND-AREAS. 37



The materials thus carried away are

rocks.
spread over the lowlands near the mouth of the
river or thrown into the sea, where they often

form large deposits. By the constant action of
these causes the mean heights of the continents are
decreasing and their breadths increasing.

The most remarkable instance of erosion is

found in the cafions of the Colorado River, where.

the waters have eaten a channel through the hard
limestones and granites that form the bed of the
stream, until they now run through gorges whose
walls ascend almost perpendicularly to the height
of from 3000 to 6000 feet.

A good idea of this great depth may be obtained by
walking along a straight street for about a mile (5280
feet), and then imagining the street set upright in the air.
On looking down toward the starting-place, we would see
it as it would appear at the bottom of a hole about 6000
feet deep.’ ;

The forms produced by erosion are often extremely fan-
tastic. Tall, slender, needle-like columns, capped by a
layer of harder rock, sometimes occur, thus showing in a
marked manner an effect of erosion.

(4.) By the Action of Ocean Waves, changing
the outlines of coasts; as may be seen in portions
of the coasts of England and Scotland.

(5.) By the Agency of Man, witnessed mainly
in the destruction of the forests over extended
areas.

(6.) By the Contraction of a Cooling Crust,
resulting in—1. Earthquakes; 2. Volcanoes; 3.
Gradual uplifts and subsidences.

2020300

CHAPTER II.
Distribution of the Land-Areas.

80. Geographic Effects of Light, Heat, and
Moisture.—The peculiarities observed in the dis-
tribution of animal and vegetable life are caused
by differences in the distribution of light, heat,
and moisture. Since light, heat, and moisture
* are influenced by the interaction of land, water,
and air, we must first study the distribution and
grouping of these inorganic or dead forms before
we can understand those that are living.

81. The Distribution of the Land—Of the
197,000,000 square miles that make up the
darth’s surface, about 144,000,000 are water and
53,000,000 land. The proportion is about as the
square of 5 is to the square of 8. If, therefore,
we erect a square on a side of five, its entire area
will represent the relative water-area of the globe;







while a square whose side is three will represent
the relative land-area.





Vy
|








































VO QD ===
oe

82. The Distribution of the Land can be best
studied when arranged under two heads:

(1.) The Horizontal Forms of the Land, or the
different shapes produced in the land-areas by the
coast lines, or by the contact of land and water;

(2.) The Vertical Forms of the Land, produced
by the irregularity of the surface of the high
lands and low lands.

83. The Horizontal Forms.—The land-areas
are divided into continents and islands.

The Eastern Hemisphere contains four conti-









‘nents: Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. The

first three form one single mass, which is called
the Eastern Continent.

Though the word “continent” strictly refers to an ex-
tended area of land entirely surrounded by water, usage
has sanctioned the application of the term to the grand
divisions of the land. It is quite correct, therefore, to
speak of the North American Continent, the Asiatic Con-
tinent, ete.

The Western Hemisphere contains two conti-
nents: North and South America; these consti-
tute what is called the Western Continent.

The following are the extremities of the conti:
nents:

In the Hastern Continent—

Most northern point, Cape Chelyuskin, lat. 78° 16’ N.
Most southern point, Cape Agulhas, lat. 34°51’ 8.

Most eastern point, East Cape, long. 170° W.

Most western point, Cape Verd, long. 17° 34’ W.

In the Western Continent—

Most northern point, Point Barrow, lat. 72° N.

Most southern point, Cape Froward, lat. 53° 53’ 8.

Most western point, Cape Prince of Wales, long. 168° W.
Most eastern point, Cape St. Roque, long. 35° W.

~










38 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



84, Peculiarities in the Distribution of the
Land:

(1.) The continents extend farther to the north
than to the south.

(2.) The land masses are crowded together near
the north pole, which they surround in the shape
of an irregular ring.

(3.) The three main southern projections of
the land—South America, Africa, and Australia
—are separated from each other by extensive
oceans.

85. Land and Water Hemispheres.——The ac-
cumulation of the land in the north and its sepa-
ration in the south lead to a curious result—nearly
all the land is collected in one hemisphere.

If one point of a pair of compasses be placed at
the north pole of a globe, and the other stretched
out to reach to any point on the equator, they
will describe on the surface of the globe a great
circle, and consequently will divide the globe into
hemispheres. If, while they are stretched this dis-
tance apart, one of the points be placed at about
the city of London, a cirele swept with the other
point will divide the earth into land and water
hemispheres. Such a great circle would pass
through the Malay Peninsula and the coast of
Peru.

The Land Hemisphere contains all of North
America, Europe, and Africa, and the greater part
of South America and Asia. The Water Hemi-
sphere contains the southern portions of South
America, the Malay Peninsula, and Australia.



Fig. 32, Land and Water Hemispheres.

86. Double Continents.—The six grand divis-
ions or continents may be divided into three pairs,
called Double or Twin Continents.

Each Double Continent consists of a northern
and southern continent, almost separated from
each other, but connected by a narrow isthmus
or island chain.

The three double continents are North and
South America, Europe and Africa, and Asia

[Seis



and Australia. There are, therefore, three north-
ern and three southern continents.

The northern continents lie almost entirely in
temperate latitudes, while the southern lie mainly
%, the tropics.

“87. Lines of Trend—The study of any map
of the world on a Mercator’s projection will dis-
close the following peculiarities in the earth’s
structure :

There are two great systems of courses, trends, or
lines of direction, along which the shores of the con-
tinents, the mountain-ranges, the oceanic basins, and
the island chains extend.

These trends extend in a general north-easterly
and north-westerly direction, and intersect each
other nearly at right angles.

North-east Trends.—A straight ruler can be so placed
along the south-eastern coasts of Greenland and the south-
eastern coasts of North America that its edge will touch
most of their shore lines. Its general direction will be
north-east.

It can be similarly placed along the south-eastern coast
of South America, the north-western coast of Africa, and
most of the western coast of Europe; along the south-
eastern coasts of Africa; the south-eastern coast of Hin-
dostan; and along the eastern coast of Asia, without its
general direction differing much from north-east.

North-west Trends.—A straight ruler can be so placed
as to touch most of the western shores of North America.
and part of the western coast of South America; most
of the western coasts of Greenland, or the north-eastern
coasts of North America, and part of the western coasts
of Africa. All these courses are sensibly north-west.

If placed with one end at the mouth of the Mackenzie
River, and the other on the south-western extremity of
Lake Michigan, it will cut nearly all the great lakes in
Central British America. The direction of the island
chains of the Pacific Ocean in particular is characterized
by these two trends, many of the separate islands being
elongated in the direction of the trend of their chain.

88. Continental Contrasts. — The main pro-
longation of the western continent extends in the
line of the north-western trend, while that of the
eastern continent extends in the line of the north-
eastern trend. The axes of the continents, or
their lines of general direction, therefore, inter-
sect each other nearly at right angles.

The western continent extends far north and
south of the equator, while the eastern lies mainly
north of the equator. The Western Continent,
therefore, is characterized by a diversity of cli-
mates; the Eastern Continent, by a similarity.
The distribution of vegetable and animal life
in each continent is necessarily affected by the .
peculiarities of its climate.

It is from the prevalence of the lines of trend that the








ISLANDS.



389



general shape of the continents is mainly triangular. An
excellent system of map-drawing has been devised on this
peculiarity.

The following peculiarities exist in the coast
lines of the continents:

The coast lines of the northern continents are
very irregular, the shores being deeply indented
with gubfs and bays, while those of the southern con-
tinents are comparatively simple and unbroken.

The continents are most deeply indented near
the regions where the pairs of northern and south-
ern continents are nearly separated from each
‘other. These regions correspond with the lines of
great volcanic activity, and appear to be areas over
which considerable subsidence has occurred.

The continents differ greatly from one another
in their indentations. Europe is the most indented
of all the continents. The area of her peninsulas,
compared with that of her entire area, is as 1 to 4.
Asia comes next in this respect, the proportion
being 1 to 53, while in North America it is but
1 to 14.

The following Table gives in the first column the area
of each of the continents, in the second the length of coast
line, and in the third the number of square miles of area
to one mile of coast line:





Sq. m. of

CONTINENTS. AREA. COAST LINE. ee

of coast.
AGI Alesccessessscesess 17,500,000 sq. miles. |35,000 miles.| 500
AfTICA wecccseeseeees 12,000,000 16,000 750
North America..| 8,400,000 “é 22,800 “ 368
South America...| 6,500,000 . 14,500 “ 449
Europe... 3,700,000 sf 19,500 “ 190
Australia......... «| 3,000,000 s 10,000 “ 300



Europe has, in proportion to its area,
About three times as much coast line as Asia. ©
About four times as much as Africa.
About twice as much as North America.
More than twice as much as South America.
Europe is the most, and Africa the least, deeply
indented of the continents.

—-0503 00 ——_.

CHAPTER III.

Islands.

89. Relative Continental and Insular Areas.—
Of the 53,000,000 square miles of land, nearly
3,000,000, or about one-seventeenth, is composed
of islands.

90. Varieties of Islands.—Islands are either
continental or oceanic.

Continental Islands are those that lie near the







shores of the continents. They are continuations
of the neighboring continental mountain-ranges
or elevations, which they generally resemble in
geological structure. They may, therefore, be re-
garded as projections of submerged portions of the
neighboring continents. Continental islands have,
in general, the same lines of trend as the shores of
the neighboring mainland.

Continental islands, as a rule, are larger than oceanic
islands. This is caused by the shallower water in which
continental islands are generally situated. Papua and
Borneo have each an area of about 250,000 square miles;

either of these islands is more than twice as large as the
combined areas of Great Britain and Ireland.

91. American Continental Island Chains.

(1.) The Arctic Archipelago comprises the
large group of islands north of the Dominion
of Canada. It consists of detached portions of
the neighboring continent.

(2.) The Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
and its neighborhood are apparently the northern
prolongations of the Appalachian mountain-sys-
tem.

(3.) The Bahamas lie off the south-eastern coast
of Florida, to which they belong by position and
structure. Their general trend is north-west.

(4.) The West Indies form a curved range,
which connects the peninsula of Yucatan with
the coast-mountains of Venezuela. Here both
trends appear, though the north-western pre-
dominates.







Fig, 33, West India Island Chain.
1, Cuba; 2, Hayti; 3, Jamaica; 4, Porto Rico; 5, Caribbee Islands;
6, Bahamas.

(5.) The Aleutian Islands form another curved
range, which connects the Alaskan Peninsula with
Kamitchatka; their general trend is north-east.
They are connected with the elevations of the
North American continent.


40 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.





(6.) The Islands west of the Dominion of Can-
ada and Alaska. These are clearly the summits
of submerged northern prolongations of the Pa-
cific coast ranges.

(7.) The Islands of the Patagonian Archi-
pelago are the summits of submerged prolonga-
tions.of the Andes of Chili.

92. Asiatic Continental Island Chains consist
of a series of curved ranges extending along the
entire coast, and intersecting each other nearly at
right angles.

(1.) The Kurile Islands are a prolongation of ,
the Kamtchatkan range.

(2.) The Islands of Japan extend in a curve
from Saghalien to Corea.

(3.) The Loo Choo Islands extend in a curve
from the islands of Japan to the island of For-
mosa.

(4.) The Philippines form two diverging chains,
which merge on the south into the Australasian
Island chain. The eastern chain extends to the
southern extremity of Celebes, and the western
to that of Borneo.

The Asiatic chains belong to a submerged mountain-
range extending from Kamtchatka to the Sunda Islands.
Their general direction is parallel to the elevations of the
coast.

93. The Australasian Island Chain.

The Australasian Island chain is composed of
a number of islands extending along curved
trends over a length of nearly 6000 miles, from
Sumatra to New Zealand. The islands extend
along three curved lines, whose general direction
‘is north-west.





AUSTRALIA





Fig. 34, Australasian Island Chain,
1, Sumatra; 2, Java; 3, Sumbawa; 4, Flores; 5, Timor; 6, Borneo;
7, Celebes; 8, Gilolo; 9, Ceram; 10, Papua; 11, Louisiade Archipel-
ago; 12, New Caledonia; 13, New Zealand; 14, Admiralty Islands ;
15, Solomon’s Archipelago; 16, Santa Cruz; 17, New Hebrides. 4






The Australasian chain was probably connected with the
Asiatic continent during recent geological time, and sepa-
rated from it by subsidence. Its numerous volcanoes and
coral formations prove that subsidence is still taking
place. ,

94. Peculiarity of Distribution—The follow-
ing peculiarity is noticed in the distribution of —
continental islands:

Each of the continents has an island, or a group

of islands, near its south-eastern extremity. For
example, North America has the Bahamas and
the West Indies; Greenland has Iceland; South
America has the Falkland Islands; Africa has
Madagascar; Asia has the East Indies; and
Australia has Tasmania.
95. Oceanic Islands are those situated far away
from the continents. They occur either in vast
chains, which generally extend along one or the
other of the two lines of trend, or as isolated
groups.

Oceanic Island Chains.

The following are the most important:

(1.) The Polynesian Chain ;

(2.) The Chain of the Sandwich Islands;

(8.) The Tongan or New Zealand Chain.











Fig. 35. Polynesian Island Chain.
1, Marquesas; 2, Paumotu; 3, Tahitian; 4, Rurutu group; 5, Her-
vey group; 6, Samoan, or Navigator’s; 7, Vakaafo group; 8, Vaitupu;
9, Kingsmill; 10, Ralick; 11, Radack ; 12, Carolines; 13, Sandwich.

The Polynesian Chain consists of a series of
parallel chains, extending from the Paumotu and
the Tahitian Islands to the Carolines, the Ralick,
and the Radack groups. Their general direction
is north-west; the total length of the chain is
about 5500 miles.

The Chain of the Sandwich Islands extends in
a north-westerly direction. Its length is about
2000 miles.

The New Zealand Chain extends north-east as -


ISLANDS.



far as the Tonga Islands, cutting the Australasian
chain at right angles.

96. Isolated Oceanic Islands are mainly of two
kinds: the Volcanic and the Coral. As a rule, the
Volcanic islands are high, while Coral islands sel-
‘dom rise more than twelve feet above the water.

Volcanic Islands are not confined to isolated
groups, but occur also in long chains. The Poly-
nesian, Sandwich, and New Zealand Chains con-
tain numerous volcanic peaks. But the high, iso-
lated oceanic islands are almost always of voleanie
origin, and, consisting of the summits of subma-
rine volcanoes, are generally small. Some of the
Canary and Sandwich Islands, which are of this
class, rise nearly 14,000 feet above the sea.

97. Coral Islands, or Atolls, though of a great
variety of shapes, agree in one particular:

They consist of a low, narrow rim of coral rock,
enclosing a body of water called a lagoon.



























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig. 36, A Coral Island,

98. Mode of Formation of Coral Islands.—The
reef forming the island is of limestone, derived
from countless skeletons of minute polyps that
once lived beneath the surface of the waters.
The skeletons, however, are not separate. The
polyp propagates its species by a kind of bud-
‘ding; that is, a new polyp grows out of the body
of the old. In this way the skeletons of count-
less millions of polyps are united in one mass and
assume a great variety of shapes.

One of the most common species of reef-forming corals,
the madrepora, is shown in Fig. 37. Many other forms
exist.

The delicate coral structures, together with
shells from various shellfish, are ground into frag-
ments by the action of the waves, and by the in-



Fig, 37, Coral,

filtration of water containing lime in solution,
they become compacted into hard limestone, on
which new coral formations grow.

The growth of the coral mass is directed up-
ward, and ceases when low-water mark is reached,
because exposure to a tropical sun kills the polyps.
But the action of the waves continues, and the
broken fragments are gradually thrown up above
the general level of the water. In this way a reef
is formed, whose height is limited by the force of
the waves, and seldom exceeds twelve feet.

On the bare rock, which has thus emerged, a
soil is soon formed and a scanty vegetation ap-
pears, planted by the hardy seeds scattered over
it by the winds and waves.

The coral island never affords a very comfortable resi-
dence for man. The palm tree is almost the only valuable
vegetable species; the animals are few and small, and the
arable soil is limited. Moreover, the island is subject to
occasional inundations by huge waves from the ocean.

99. Distribution of Coral Islands. —According
to Dana, the reef-forming coral polyp is found
only in regions where the winter temperature
of the waters is never lower than 68° Fahr.
Some varieties, however, will grow in colder
water. Coral islands are confined to those parts
of tropical waters where the depth does not greatly
exceed 100 feet, and which are protected from cold
ocean-currents, from the influence of fresh river-
waters, muddy bottoms, and remote from active vol-
canoes, whose occasional submarine action causes
the death of the coral polyp. Though some coral
polyps grow in quiet water, the greater part thrive
best when exposed to the breakers. The growth ts
therefore more rapid on the side toward the ocean
than on the side toward the island.

‘




42 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



Coral islands are most abundant in the Pacifie Ocean.
The following groups contain numerous coral islands:
the Paumotus, the Carolines, the Radack, the Ralick,
and the Kingsmill groups, and the Tahitian, Samoan,
and Feejee Islands, and New Caledonia.

In the Indian Ocean the Laccadives and the Maldives are
most noted.

In the Atlantic Ocean the West Indies and the Bermudas
are examples.

100. Varieties of Coral Formations.— There
are four varieties of coral formations :
_(.) Fringing Reefs, or narrow ribbons of coral
rock, lying near the shore of an ordinary island.
(2.) Barrier Reefs, which are broader than
Fringing Reefs, and lie at a greater distance
from the shore, but do not extend entirely around
the island.
A barrier reef off the coast of New Caledonia has a
length of 400 miles. One extends along the north-eastern
shore of Australia for over 1000 miles. Barrier reefs are

not continuous, but often have breaks in them through
which vessels can readily pass.

(3.) Encircling Reefs are barrier reefs extend-
ing entirely around the island. As a rule, en-
circling reefs are farther from the shores of the
island than barrier reefs. Tahiti, of the Society
Islands, is an example of an encircling reef.

(4.) Atolls—This name is given to reefs that
encircle lagoons or bodies of water entirely free
from islands.

The varieties of reefs just enumerated mark
successive steps or stages in the progress of for-
mation of the coral island.

When a more careful study of the habits of the reef-
forming coral polyp disclosed the fact of its inability to
live in the ocean at greater depths than 100 or 120 feet,
the opinion, which formerly prevailed, of coral islands
rising from profound depths, had to be abandoned. The
idea had its foundation in the fact that a sounding-line,
thrown into the water near the shore of a coral island,
almost invariably showed depths of thousands of feet, and
yet brought up coral rock. In no case, however, did the
rock contain living polyps. An ingenious hypothesis of
Darwin, which appears well sustained by the extensive
observations of Dana and others, explains the great depth

f coral formations. :

101. Darwin’s Theory of Coral Islands.—Ac-
cording to this distinguished naturalist, the coral
formation begins near the shore of an island that
is slowly sinking. If the growth of the reef up-
ward equals the sinking of the island, the thick-
ness of the reef is limited only by the time during
which the operation continues.

In Fig. 38 is shown, in plan and section, an island with
elevations A, and B, and river a. The coral island begins

as a fringing reef somewhere off the coast of an ordinary
island at c¢, c, c, when the conditions are favorable, The













































SP















































































Fig, 38. Growth of a Coral Island,

coral reef must gradually extend around the island, since its
growth toward the ocean is soon limited by the increasing
depth, and toward the shore of the island by the muddy |
waters near the surf and the absence of the breakers.

Meanwhile, as the island is sinking, the channel sepa-
rating the reef from the coast increases in breadth. A
barrier reef is thus formed, which at last completely sur-
rounds the island, and becomes an encircling reef. The
higher portions of land, which are still above the waters,
form islands in the central lagoon. Opposite the mouth
of the river a, the growth is prevented by the fresh water,
and a break in the reef is thus produced. These breaks
are sometimes sufficient to permit a ship to enter the
lagoon, At last all traces of the old island disappear, and
its situation is marked by a clear lake, surrounded by a
narrow rim of coral which follows nearly the old coast
line.

A coral island, therefore, is always of an ap-
proximately circular or oval form, and encloses a
clear space in the ocean. Extended systems of coral
formations occurring in any region are a proof of
subsidence.

——-050300—.

CHAPTER IV.
Relief Forms of the Land.

102. By the Forms of Relief of the Land is
meant the elevation of the land above the mean
level of the sea.

The highest land in the world is Mount Ever:
est, of the Himalayas; it is 29,000 feet high.
The greatest depression is the Dead Sea, in Pales-
tine, which is about 1812 feet below the level of
the ocean. The sum of these is somewhat less
than six miles.

An elevation of six miles is insignificant when










RELIEF FORMS OF THE LAND. _ 48



compared with the size of the earth. If repre-

sented on an ordinary terrestrial globe, it would
be scarcely discernible, since it would project
above the surface only about the z5,th of the
diameter. The highest elevations of the earth are
proportionally much smaller than the wrinkles on
the skin of an orange.

4000 miles,

2000 miles.

1000 «
500 «
250 «

> Wy ——

Fig. 39, Relative Height of Mountains,

Tf, as in Fig. 39, a sphere be drawn to represent the size
of the earth, its radius will be equal to about 4000 miles.
If, now, the line A B be drawn equal to the radius, it
will represent a height of 4000 miles. One-half this
height would be 2000 miles; one-half of this 1000, and
successive halves 500 and 250 miles. An elevation of 250
miles would not therefore be very marked.

Although the irregularities of the surface are
comparatively insignificant, they powerfully affect
the distribution of heat and moisture, and conse-
quently that of animal and vegetable life. An
elevation of about 350 feet reduces the tempera-
ture of the air 1° Fahr.—an effect equal to a
difference of about 70 miles of latitude. High
mountains, therefore, though under the tropics,
may support on their higher slopes a life similar
to that of the temperate and the polar regions.

103. The Relief Forms of the Land are divided
into two classes :

Low Lands and High Lands.

The boundary-line between them is taken at
1000 feet, which is the mean or average elevation
of the land.

Low Lands are divided into plains ond hills.

High Lands are divided into plateaus and
mountains.

If the surface is: Scoreparaticele flat or level, it
is called a plain when its elevation above the sea
is less than 1000 feet, and a plateau when its ele-
vation is 1000 feet or over.

6



If the surface is diversified, the elevations are
called hills when less than 1000 feet high; and
mountains when 1000 feet. or over.

. Plains and Hills cover about one-half of
the land surface of the earth. In the Eastern
Continent they lie mainly in the north; in the
Western, they occupy the central portions.

Plains generally owe their comparatively level
surface to the absence of wrinkles or folds in the
crust, in which case the general level is preserved,
but the surface rises and falls in long undulations:
these may therefore be called undulating plains.

The flat surface may also be due to the gradual
settling of sedimentary matter. In this case the
plains are exceedingly level. They are called
marine when deposited at the bottom of a sea or
ocean, and alluvial when deposited by the fresh
water of a river or lake. Alluvial plains occur
along the lower course of the river or near its
mouth.

Marine and alluvial plains, from their mode of forma-
tion, are generally less elevated than undulating plains.

105. Plateaus are generally found associated
with the mountain-ranges of the continents. Their
connection with the adjacent plains is either ab-
rupt, as where the plateau of Anahuac joins the
low plains on the Mexican Gulf; or gradual, as
where the plains of the Mississippi Valley join
the plateaus east of the Rocky Mountains.

106. Mountains.—In a mountain-chain the
crest or summit of the range separates into a num-
ber of detached portions called peaks; below the
peaks the entire range is united in a solid mass.

The breaks in the ridge, when extensive, form
mountain-p asses.

The influence of inaccessible mountains, like the Pyr-
enees and Himalayas, in preventing the intermingling of
nations living on their opposite sides, is well exemplified
by history. In the past, mountains formed the boundaries
of different races. Some mountains, like the Alps and the
Appalachians, have numerous passes.

A Mountain-System is a name given to ceveral
connected chains or ranges. Mountain-systems
are often thousands of miles in length and hun-
dreds of miles in breadth.

The Axis of a Mountain-system is a line extend-
ing in the general trend of its chains.

Where several mountain-axes intersect one an-
other, a complicated form occurs, called a Moun-
tain-Knot.

The Pamir Knot, formed by the fo earueationl of the
Karakorum, Belor, and Hindoo-Koosh Mountains, is an
example. It lies on the southern border of the elevated
plateau of Pamir.




44 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.







Fig. 40, A Mountain-Pass,

107. Orology treats of mountains and their
formation.

The force which upheaved the crust into moun-
tain-masses and plateaus had its origin in the
contraction of a cooling globe. There are good

reasons for believing that no extensive mountains’

existed during the earlier geological ages, since
the crust was then very thin, and would have
been fractured before sufficient force could accu-
mulate to upheave it into mountain-masses.

The great mountain-systems of the world are
formed from sedimentary deposits that slowly ac-
cumulated over extended areas until they acquired
very great thickness. The deposits forming the
Appalachians, according to Dana, were, in places,
40,000 feet in depth, and covered the eastern bor-
der of the continent from New York to Alabama,
varying from 100 to 200 miles in breadth.

After the accumulation of these strata they
were, through the contraction of the crust, sub-
jected to the gradual effects of lateral pressure,
by which they were sometimes merely flexed or
folded, but more frequently crushed, fractured, or
mashed together, and thus thickened and thrust
upward. That side of the deposit from which
the thrust came would have a steeper slope than
the opposite side, which received a thrust arising
from the resistance.





This theory of mountain-formation, which is
generally accepted, explains the following facts:

(1.) All mountains have two slopes—a short
steep slope, facing the ocean, and a long gentle
slope, facing the interior of the continent.

(2.) The strata on the short steep slope are
generally highly metamorphosed; those on the
long slope are in general only partially metamor.
phosed, or wholly unchanged.

(3.) The mountain-systems are situated on the
borders of the continents where the sedimentary
strata collected.

(4.) Slaty cleavage, or the readiness with which
so many of the rocks of mountains cleave or split
in one direction, is a proof of these rocks having
been subjected to intense, long-acting, lateral pres-
sure, since such pressure can be made to develop
slaty cleavage in plastic material.

Isolated Mountains.—Nearly all high isolated moun-
tains were formed by the ejection of igneous rocks from

' the interior; that is, they are of volcanic origin and have

been upheaved by a vertical strain or true projectile force,
as in the volcanic range of Jorullo in Mexico.

108. Valleys in mountainous regions are either
longitudinal or transverse.

Longitudinal Valleys are those that extend in
the dire¢tion of the length of the mountains.

Transverse Valleys extend across the moun-
tain. | It is in transverse vaileys that most passes
occur,

Although valleys, like mountains, owe their origin to
the contraction of a cooling crust, yet their present shapes
are modified by the operation of other forces. By the
action of their water-courses, valleys are deepened in one
place and filled up in another. Extensive land-slides often
alter their configuration. During the Glacial Period many
valleys were greatly changed by the action of huge mov-
ing masses of ice. Fiord-valleys were formed in this
manner.

In level countries valleys generally owe their
origin to the eroding power of water.

109. Peculiarities of Continental Reliefs.—
The following peculiarities are noticeable in the
relief forms of the continents:

(1.) The continents have, in general, high bor-
ders and a low interior.

(2.) The highest border lies nearest the deep-
est ocean; hence, the culminating point, or the
highest point of land, lies out of the centre of the
continent.

' (8.) The greatest prolongation of a continent
is always that of its predominant mountain-sys-
tem.

(4.) The prevailing trends of the mountain-








masses are the same as those of the coast lines, and
are, in general, either north-east or north-west. *
In describing the relief forms of the continents
we shall observe the following order:
(1.) The Predominant System, ora system of

RELIEF FORMS OF

THE CONTINENTS. 45

elevations exceeding all others in height, and con-
taining the culminating point of the continent.
(2.) The Secondary System or Systems, inferior
to the preceding in height.
3.) The Great Low Plains.











Fig, 41, Orographic Chart of North America, (Light portions, mountains; shaded portions, plains.)
1, Rocky Mountain System; 2, System of the Sierra N evada and Cascade Ranges; 3, Sierra Madre; 4, Great Interior Plateau; 5, Wahsatch
Mountains; 6, Appalachians; 7, Plateau of Labrador; 8, Height of Land; 9, Arctic Plateau; 10, Mackenzie River; ll, Nelson River; 12, St.

Lawrence River; 13, Mississippi River.

CHAPTER V.

Relief Forms of the Continents.
I. NORTH AMERICA

110. Surface Structure.—The Predominant
Mountain-System lies in the west,

The Secondary Systems lie in the east and north.

The Great Low Plains lie in the centre.

lll. The Pacific Mountain-System, the pre-
dominant system, extends, in the direction of the
greatest prolongation of the continent, from the
Isthmus of Panama to the Arctic Ocean. It con-
sists of an immense plateau, from 800 to 600
miles in breadth, crossed by two nearly parallel

mountain-systems: the Rocky Mountains on the

east and the system of the Sierra Nevada and
Cascade ranges on the west. The eastern moun-
tain-system is highest near the south; the west-
ern range is highest near the north. Between
these lie numerous parallel ranges enclosing lon-





gitudinal valleys, connected in places by trans-
verse ranges forming basin-shaped valleys.

The Rocky Mountain System.—The Rocky
Mountains rise from the summits of a plateau
whose elevation, in the widest part of the system,
varies from 6000 to 7000 feet above the sea;
therefore, although the highest peaks range from
11,000 to nearly 15,000 feet, their elevation above
the general level of the plateau is comparatively
inconsiderable. The plateau on the east rises by
almost imperceptible slopes from the Mississippi
River. The upper parts of the slopes, near the
base of the mountains, form an elevated plateau
called the “Plains,” over which, at one time,
roamed vast herds of buffalo or bison. This ani-
mal is rapidly becoming extinct.

Though the name “ Rocky Mountains” is generally con-
fined to those parts of the chain which extend through
British America and the United States, yet, in connection
with the Sierra Nevada Mountains, it is continued through

Mexico by the Sierra Madre Mountains, and by smaller
ranges to the Isthmus of Panama.






46 PHYSICAL



GEOGRAPHY.





Fig, 42, On the Plains,

The Rocky Mountain System forms the great
watershed of the continent, the eastern slopes
draining mainly through the Mississippi into the
Atlantic, and the western slopes draining through
the Columbia and the Colorado into the Pacific.
It slopes gradually upward from the Arctic Ocean
toward the Mexican plateau, where it attains its
greatest elevation in the volcanic peak of Pepo-
catepetl, 17,720 feet above the sea.

The System of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade)

Mountains extends, in general, parallel to the
Rocky Mountain System. It takes the name of
Sierra Nevada in California and Nevada, and of
the Cascade Mountains in the remaining portions
of the continent. It reaches its greatest eleva-
tion in Mount St. Elias, in Alaska, 19,500 feet
above the sea. This is the culminating point of
the North American continent.

In the broadest part of the plateau of the Pacific system,
between the Wahsatch Mountains on the east, and the
Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges on the west, lies the
plateau of the Great Basin. Its high mountain borders
rob the winds of their moisture, and the rainfall, except
on the mountain-slopes, is inconsiderable. The Great
Basin has a true inland drainage.

The heights of all mountains, except those much fre-
quented, must generally be regarded as but good approxi-
mations, since the methods employed for estimating heights
require great precautions to secure trustworthy results.
Even the culminating points of all the continents have
not, as yet, been accurately ascertained.

_ 112. The Secondary Mountain-Systems of North
America comprise the Appalachian system, the



Plateau of Labrador, the Height of Land, and
the Arctic Plateau. The last three have but an
inconsiderable elevation.

The Appalachian Mountain System consists of
a number of nearly parallel chains extending
from the St. Lawrence to Alabama and Georgia.
It is high at the northern and southern ends, and
slopes gradually toward the middle. The highest
peaks at either end have an elevation of about
6000 feet.

The Appalachian system is broken by two deep depres-
sions, traversed by the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers. Be-
tween the foot of the system and the ocean lies a low coast
plain, whose width varies from 50 to 250 miles.

118. The Great Low Plain of North America
lies between the Atlantic system on the east and
the Pacific system on the west. It stretches from
the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico.

Near the middle of the plain the inconsider-
able elevation of the Height of Land divides it
into two gentle slopes, which descend toward the
Arctic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. tle swell extending from north-west to south-east
divides the northern portion of the plain into
two parts. The eastern and western basins, so
formed, are connected by a break in the water-
shed, through which the Nelson River empties
into Hudson Bay.

The southern part of the plain is traversed, in

its lowest parts, by the Mississippi River.

The tributaries of this river descend the long, gentle
slopes of the Atlantic and Pacific systems.

114. The Relief Forms of a Continent are best
understood by ideal sections, in which the base
line represents the sea-level, and the scale of
heights on the margin represents the elevation
of the various parts.

In all such sections the vertical dimensions of the land
are necessarily greatly exaggerated.



Fig. 48, Section of North America from East to West.
1, St. Elias; 2, Sierra Nevada; 3, Rocky Mountains; 4, Mississippi
Valley; 5, Appalachian System.

115. Approximate Dimensions of North America,
Area of continent, 8,400,000 square miles.

Greatest breadth from east to west, about 3100 miles.
Greatest length from north to south, about 4500 miles,
Coast line, 22,800 miles.

Culminating point, Mount St. Elias, 19,500 feet.


RELIEF FORMS OF THE CONTINENTS. AT



4
cs

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BL EE BE GA

MUA

We

LB» iz

\

iy
Y

4

oH HA
\ ili









Fig, 44, Orographic Chart of South America,
(Light portions, mountains; shaded portions, plains.)
1, System,of the Andes; 2, Plateau of Quito; 3, Plateau of Bolivia;

4, Aconcagua; 5, Plateau of Guiana; 6, Plateau of Brazil; 7, The
Orinoco; 8, The Amazon; 9, The La Platte,
Il. SOUTH AMERICA.

116, Surface Structure. — The Predominant
Mountain-System of South America is in the west.

The Secondary Systems are in the east.

The Great Low Plain lies between them.

117, The System of the Andes, which extends
along the western border of the continent, is the

_“predominant mountain-system. It is composed
mainly of two approximately parallel chains
_ separated by wide and comparatively level val-
leys. On the north there are three chains, and
‘onthe south but one; in the centre, mainly two.
The chains are connected by transverse ridges,
forming numerous mountain-knots.

The Andes System forms a continuation of
the Pacific Mountain-System. A wide depression
at the Isthmus of Panama marks their separation.
From this point the Andes increase in height
toward the south, probably reaching their high-
est point in Chili, where the volcanic peak of
Aconcagua, 28,910 feet, is believed to be the cul-
minating point of South America, and of the West-
ern Continent.

Nevada de Sorata was formerly believed to be the cul-
minating point of South America, but recent recalculations





of the observations have resulted in a loss of nearly 4000
feet of the supposed height of Sorata. Some authorities
still claim that several peaks in Bolivia reach an ele-
vation of nearly 25,000 feet.

The Andes Mountain-System terminates ab-
ruptly in the precipitous elevations of Cape Horn.

Numerous table-lands are included between the parallel
ranges: the most important are—the plateau of Quito, 9543
feet; the plateau of Pasco, in North Peru, 11,000 feet; the
plateau of Bolivia, from 12,000 to 14,000 feet. From most
of these higher plateaus volcanic peaks arise.

118. The Secondary Mountain-Systems of South
America are the plateaus of Brazil and Guiana.
They both lie on the eastern border.

The Plateau of Brazil is a table-land whose
average height is about 2500 feet. Narrow
chains or ridges separate the river-valleys.

The plateau of Brazil forms the watershed between the
tributaries of the Amazon and the La Plata. Along the
Atlantic a moderately continuous range descends in steep
terraces to the ocean. The average altitude is more than
double that of the western portion of the plateau. The
highest peaks are somewhat over 8000 feet.

The Plateau of Guiana, smaller than the Plateau
of Brazil, but about equally elevated, forms the
watershed between the Orinoco and the Amazon.



Fig. 45, Amazon River Scenery.

119. The Great Low Plain of South America
lies between the predominant and the secondary
mountain-systems. It is mainly of alluvial origin,
but slightly elevated, and is much more level than
the great plain of North America.

This plain is drained by the three principal river-sys-


48 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

tems of the continent, by which it is divided into three
parts: the Llanos of the Orinoco, the Selvas of the Amazon,
and the Pampas of the La Platte.

The Llanos are grassy plains which, during the rainy
season, resemble our prairies, but during the dry weather
are deserts.

The Selvas, or forest plains, are covered by an uninter-
rupted luxuriant forest. The vegetation here is so dense
that in some places the broad rivers form the only ready
means of crossing the country. Near the river-banks are
vast stretches of swampy ground.

The Pampas are grassy plains which in some respects
resemble the Llanos. 5

A coast plain lies between the Andes and the
Pacific. It is widest near the Andes of Chili,

Fig. 46, Section of South America from East to West,

1, Volcano Arequipa; 2, Lake Titicaca; 3, Nevada de Sorata; 4,
Central Plain; 5, Mountains of Brazil.

where in some places it is 100 miles in breadth.
Between the parallels of 27° and 23° the plain



is an absolute desert, called the Desert of Ata-
cama. Here rain never falls and vegetation is
entirely absent.

120. Approximate Dimensions of South America.

Area of continent, about 6,500,000 square miles.

Greatest breadth from east to west, 3230 miles.

Greatest length from north to south, 4800 miles.

Coast line, 14,500 miles.

Culminating point, Aconcagua, 23,910 feet.

121. Contrasts of the Americas.—In both North
and South America the predominant system lies in
the west, the secondary systems in the east, and the
low plains in the centre.

They differ in the following respects:

In North America the predominant system is a
broad plateau, having high mountain-ranges; the
principal secondary system is narrow, and formed
of parallel ranges; the low plains are character-
ized by undulations, and contain several deep de-
pressions occupied by extensive lake-systems.

In South America the predominant system is nar-
row; the secondary systems are broad ; the low plain
is alluvial, extremely flat, contains no depressions, —
and consequently no extensive lake-systems.





243



Fig. 47, Orographic Chart of Europe. (Light portions, mountains; shaded portions, plains.)
1, The Alps; 2, Mont Blanc; 3, Pyrenees; 4, Cantabrian; 5, Sierra Estrella; 6, Sierra Nevada; 7, Mountains of Castile; 8, Apennines;
9, Dinaric Alps; 10, Balkan; 11, Pindus; 12, Taurts;.13, Caucasus; 14, Cevennes; 15, Plateau of Auvergne; 16, Vosges; 17, Black Forest; 18,
Jura; 19, Hartz; 20, Bonemian Plateau; 21, Carpathians; 22, Hungarian Forest; 23, Transylvanian Mountains; 24, Kiolen Mountains; 25, Urals.

Ill. EUROPE.
122. Surface Structure.—The Predominant
Mountain-System is in the south.
The Secondary Systems are in thenorth and east.

The Great Low Plain lies between the Pre-
dominant and Secondary Systems.

A line drawn from the Sea of Azoyv to the mouth of the
Rhine River divides Europe into two distinct physical




RELIEF FORMS OF THE CONTINENTS. 49



[NS
regions. The great low plain lies on the north, and the
predominant mountain-system on the south. The coun-
try north of this line is sometimes called Low Europe, and
that south of it, High Europe.

123. The Predominant Mountain-System of Eu-
rope is composed of a highly complex series of
mountain-systems extending along the northern
shores of the Mediterranean in a curve, from the
Straits of Gibraltar to the shores of Asia Minor.
The system is highest in the centre, where the
Alps form the culminating point of the continent.

The average elevation of the Alps ranges from
10,000 to 12,000 feet.
Blane, 15,787 feet, is the culminating point of the
European continent. Matterhorn and Monte Rosa
are but little inferior in height. On the south-
west the system is continued to the Atlantic by
the Cevennes and adjoining ranges in France, and
the Pyrenees and Cantabrian in the northern part
of the Spanish peninsula. The Pyrenees are an
elevated range, with peaks over 11,000 feet high.
On the east the system extends in two curves to
the Black Sea by the Carpathian and Transylva-
nian Mountains on the north, and the Dinaric
Alps and the Balkan Mountains on the south.

124. Divisions of Predominant System.—The
predominant mountain-system of Europe may be
conveniently regarded as consisting of a central
body or axis, the Alps, with six projections or
limbs—three on the north, and three on the south.

The three divisions on the north include—

The Western Division, or the mountains of
France, including the mountains lying west of
the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhone;

The Central Division, or the mountains of Ger-
many, situated between the Western Division and
the upper valleys of the Oder and the Danube ;

The Eastern Division, or the mountains of
Austria-Hungary, situated between the Central
Division and the Black Sea.

These divisions contain a highly complicated system of
minor elevations. Their complexity is' due to the fre-
quent intersection of the north-eastern and north-western
trends. Basin-shaped~ plateaus, like the Bohemian and
Transylvanian, are thus formed. :

The Western Division includes most of the mountains
of France, as the Cevennes, the mountains of Auvergne,
and the Vosges Mountains. i

The Central Division includes the Jura Mountains in
Switzerland, the Swiss and the Bavarian plateaus, the
Black Forest Mountains, the Hartz Mountains, and the
Bohemian plateau.

The Eastern Division includes most of the mountains

of Austria, as the Carpathians, the Hungarian Forest, and
the Transylvanian Mountains.

125, The three projections on the south are the



The highest peak, Mont

three mountainous peninsulas of Southern Eu-
rope:

The Iberian Peninsula, including Spain and
Portugal ;

The Italian Peninsula ; :

The Turco-Grecian Peninsula.

The Iberian Peninsula.The principal mountains are
the Sierra Estrella, the mountains of Castile, and the
Sierra Nevada. The Pyrenees separate the Peninsula from
France. The Cantabrian Mountains extend along the
northern coast.

The Italian Peninsula contains the Apennines, ex-
tending mainly in the direction of the north-western
trend.

The Turco-Grecian Peninsula.—The Dinaric Alps
extend along the coast of the Adriatic; the Balkan Moun-
tains extend from east to west, through Turkey; and the
Pindus from north to south, through Turkey and Greece.

126. The Secondary Mountain-Systems of Eu-
rope comprise the system of the Scandinavian
peninsula, the Ural Mountains, and the Cauca-
sus Mountains.

The System of the Scandinavian Peninsula
includes the elevations of Norway and Sweden.
With the exception of the Kiolen Mountains in
the north, the system does not embrace distinct
mountain-ridges, but consists mainly of a series



Fig. 48, Fiord on Norway Coast,

of broad plateaus that descend abruptly on the
west in numerous deeply-cut valleys called fiords,
through which the sea penetrates nearly to the
heart of the plateaus. Fiords are valleys that
were deeply eroded by slowly moving masses of


50 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



ice, called glaciers, and subsequently partially sub-
merged. On the east the slopes are more gradual,
and are occupied by numerous small lakes.

The System of the Urals is composed of a
moderately elevated range extending from the
Arctic Ocean on the north to the plains of the
Caspian on the south. The elevated island of
Nova Zembla may be considered as forming a
part of its northern prolongation.

The Caucasus Mountains bear peaks exceeding
in elevation those of the Alps. They belong,
however, more properly to the elevations of
Asia.

127. The Great Low Plain of Europe lies be-
tween the predominant and secondary mountain-

!





systems, and stretches north-eastwardly from the
Atlantic to the Arctic. It is remarkably level,
and is highest in the middle, where the Valdai
Hills form the principal watershed of Europe.
Westward the plain is continued under the North °
Sea to the British Isles, where a few inconsider-
able elevations occur.

South of the Alps the large plain of the Po
River stretches across the northern part of Italy.

128, Approximate Dimensions of Europe.

Area of continent, 3,700,000 square miles.

Coast line, 19,500 miles.

Greatest breadth from north to south, 2400 miles.

Greatest length from north-east to south-west, 3370
miles.

Culminating point, Mont Blanc, 15,787 feet.



Fig, 49, Orographic Chart of Asia, (Light portions, mountains; shaded portions, plains.)
1, Himalaya Mountains; 2, Karakorum; 3, Kuen-lun; 4, Belor; 5, Thian Shan; 6, Altai; 7, Great Kinghan; 8, Yablonoi; 9, Nanting;
10, Peling; 11, Vindhya; 12, Ghauts; 13, Hindoo-Koosh; 14, Elburz; 15, Suliman; 16, Zagros; 17, Taurus; 18, Caucasus; 19, Asiatic Island Chain,

IV. ASIA.

129. Surface Structure.—The Predominant
Mountain-System is in the south.

The Secondary Systems surround the Predomi-
nant System.

The Great Low Plain is on the north and west,

and lies between the mountain-systems of Asia
and the secondary system of the Urals.

Europe and Asia are sometimes considered as geographic-
ally united in one grand division called Eurasia.

130. The mountain-systems of Asia are nearly
all connected in one huge mass which extends in


RELIEF FORMS OF THE CONTINENTS. 51



the line of the north-east trend, from the Arctic to
the Indian Ocean. Though in reality one vast
system, yet they are most conveniently arranged
in one predominant and several secondary systems.
The Predominant System is the plateau of
Thibet, the loftiest table-land in the world. It
is between 15,000 and 16,000 feet high, and is
crossed by three huge, nearly parallel, mountain-
“ranges: the Himalayas on the south, the Kuen-
dun on the north, and the Karakorum between
them. The Himalayas, the loftiest mountains

Fig. 50. Himalaya Mountains,

in the world, rise abruptly from the plains of
Northern Hindostan. Like the Alps, their axis
is curved, but in the opposite direction. The
breadth of the system varies from 100 to 200
miles; the length is about 1500 miles. The high-
est point is Mount Everest, 29,000 feet above the
sea; it is the culminating point of the Asiatic con-
tinent and of the world. Kunchinjunga and Dha-
walaghiri are scarcely inferior in height.

131. The Secondary Systems lie on all sides of
the predominant system, though mainly on the
north and east of the predominant system. Like
Europe, the Asiatic continent projects on the
south in the three mountainous peninsulas of
Arabia, Hindostan, and Indo-China.

On the north and east of the plateau of Thibet
is an extended region called the plateau of Gobi,
considerably lower than the surrounding country.
The Kuen-lun and Great Kinghan Mountains
bound it on the south and east, and the Altai

7







Mountains on the north. On the west lie the
Lhian Shan and Altai, which by their open val-
leys afford ready communication with the low
plains on the west.

The plateau of Gobi varies in average height from 2000
to 4000 feet, The greatest depression is in the west, and
is occupied by Lake Lop and the Tarim River. A small
part of the region near the mountain-slopes is moderately
fertile, the remainder is mainly desert.

_ The Altai Mountains are but little known, but some of
their peaks exceed 12,000 feet. They are continued east-
ward by the Yablonoi Mountains. East of the plateau of
Gobi a range extends north-easterly through Mantchooria.

On the south and west of Thibet lie the pla-
teaus of Iran, Armenia, and Asia Minor.

The Plateau of Iran includes Persia, Afehan-
istan, and Beloochistan. It is a basin-shaped
region from 3000 to 5000 feet high. The Elburz
and Hindoo-Koosh Mountains form its borders on
the north, the Suliman on the east, and the Za-
gros on the south and west.

The Suliman Mountains rise abruptly from the plains
of the Indus. Across these mountains occurs the only
practicable inland route between Western Asia and the
Indies.

The Plateaus of Armenia and of Asia Minor
lie west of the Plateau of Iran. Armenia is 8000
feet high, and bears elevated mountains: Mount
Ararat, 16,900 feet, is an example. On the west,
the peninsula of Asia Minor, or Anatolia, extends
between the Black and Mediterranean Seas, and
is traversed by the Taurus Mountains.

The Caucasus Mountains lie north of the pla-
teau of Armenia. They are an elevated range
extending between the Black and Caspian Seas,
and form part of the boundary-line between Eu-
rope and Asia. Mount Elburz, the “Watch-
Tower,” the culminating peak, is 18,493 feet
high.

The Arabian Plateau occupies the entire penin-
sula of Arabia. It is separated from the plateau
of Iran by the Persian Gulf and the valleys of
the Tigris and the Euphrates.

‘The Plateau of Deccan occupies the lower part
of the peninsula of Hindostan. It is crossed on
the north by the Vindhya Mountains, and along
the coasts by the Eastern and Western Ghauts.

The Peninsula of Indo-China is traversed by
a number of mountain-ranges which diverge from
the eastern extremity of the Himalayas. The
Nanling and Peling extend from east to west
through China.

“~~ 182. The Great Low Plain is, in reality, but a
continuation of the European plain. It extends
from the Arctic Ocean south-westerly to the Cas-
52 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.



pian and Black Seas. It is hilly on the east, but
level on the west. South of the 60th parallel it
is comparatively fertile. Around the shores of
the Arctic are the gloomy Tundras.

The Tundras are vast regions which in summer are
covered with occasional moss-beds, huge shallow lakes,
and almost interminable swamps, and in winter with thick
ice. The tundras are caused as follows: The rivers that
flow over the immense plain of Asia rise in the warmer
regions on the south. Their upper courses thawing while
the lower courses are still ice-bound, permits large quan-
tities of drift ice to accumulate at their mouths, which,
damming up the water, causes it to overflow the adjoining
country.

Depressions of the Caspian and Sea of Aral.—
Two remarkable depressions occur in the basins
of the Caspian and Sea of Aral, and that of the
Dead Sea. These are all considerably below the
level of the ocean. The waters of the Caspian
and Sea of Aral were probably once connected
in a great inland sea.

20,000 “*







The Smaller Asiatic Plains are drained by
several river-systems. These are the Plain of
Mantchooria, drained by the Amoor; the Plain
of China, drained by the Hoang-Ho and the
Yang-tse-Kiang; the Plain of India, drained by
the Indus, the Ganges, the Brahmapootra, and
the Irrawaddy ; and the Plain of Persia, drained
by the Tigris and the Euphrates.

133. Approximate Dimensions of Asia.

Area of continent, 17,500,000 miles.

Coast line, 35,000 miles.

Greatest length from north-east to south-west, 7500 miles.

Greatest breadth from north to south, 5166 miles.
Culminating point, Mount Everest, 29,000 feet.

184. Comparison of the Relief Forms of Eu-
rope and Asia.—In both Europe and Asia the
chief elevations are in the south and the great low
plains in the north. Asia, like Europe, extends
toward the south in three great peninsulas: Ara-
bia, Hindostan, and Indo-China.

\

5 \ 14,
15,000 «* 3 \\
10,000 « A \
5000 id
GSS eS,



Te

Fig. 61, Section of Asia from North to South,
1, Cape Comorin; 2, Deccan; 3, Plain of India; 4, Himalayas; 5, Everest; 6, Kuen-lun; 7, Karakorum; 8, Thibet; 9, Upper Tartary; 10,
Ararat; 11, Elburz; 12, Thian Shan; 13, Altai; 14, Mountains of Kamtchatka; 15, Arctic Ocean, mouth of Yenesei.



\
\

\\
SN
SN

K



YU)







Fig. 52, Orographic Chart of Africa,
(Light portions represent mountains; shaded portions, plains.)
1, Abyssinian Plateau; 2, 3, Kenia and Kilimandjaro; 4, Lupata;
5. Dragon; 6, Nieuveldt; 7, Mocambe; 8, Crystal; 9, Cameroons; 10,
Kong; 11, Atlas; 12, Lake Tchad; 13, Madagascar.



V. AFRICA.

135. Surface Structure——Nearly the entire con-
tinent of Africa is a moderately elevated plateau.
It therefore has no great low plains; but the in-
terior is lower than the marginal mountain-sys-
tems, and in this respect the true continental type,
high borders and a low interior, is preserved.

136. The Predominant Mountain-System is in
the east.

The Secondary Systems are in the south, west,
and north.

The great interior depression is in the middle,
and is surrounded by the predominant and sec-
ondary systems.
~ A narrow, low plain extends along most of the
coast. It is broadest on the north-west, between
the plateau of the Sahara and the Atlas Moun-
tain-system.

137. The Predominant Mountain-System ex-
tends along the entire eastern shore, from the
Mediterranean Sea to the southern extremity of
the continent. It is highest near the centre, in
,

Neen, TE IEIIEIEEEEEEE EE

RELIEF FORMS OF THE CONTINENTS. 53



the plateaus of Abyssinia and Kajfa. The culmi-
nating point is probably to be found in the vol-
canic peaks of Kenia and Kilimandjaro, whose
estimated heights are taken at about 19,000: feet.
In the Abyssinian plateau, on the north, an aver-
age elevation of from 6000 to 8000 feet occurs.
Upon this, rising in detached groups, are peaks
the highest of which are over 15,000 feet.

From the Abyssinian plateau the system is con-
tinued northward to the Mediterranean by a suc-
cession of mountains which stretch along the
western shores of the Red Sea. Some of the
peaks are from 6000 to 9000 feet. South of the
plateau of Kaffa the system is continued by the
Lupata and Dragon Mountains to the southern
extremity of the continent. The Zambesi and
Limpopo Rivers discharge their waters into the
Indian Ocean through deep breaks in the system.

138. Secondary Systems.—On the south the
Nieuveldt and Snow Mountains stretch from east
to west, with peaks of over 10,000 feet.
Mountain is on the south.

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fig. 53, Table Mountain,

On the west the Mocambe and Crystal Mountains
extend from the extreme south to the Gulf of
Guinea. Near the northern end of this range,
but separate from it, are the volcanic peaks of
the Cameroons Mountains, 13,000 feet high.

The Kong Mountains extend along the north-
ern shores of the Gulf of Guinea in a general
east-and-west direction. Some of the peaks are
snow-capped. In the;extreme north of Africa
are the Atlas Mountains, which rise from the
summit of a moderately elevated plateau. Some
of the peaks are 13,000 feet high.

139. The Great Intérior Depression north of
the equator is divided into two distinct regions.
A straight line extending from Cape Guardafui
to the northern shores of the Gulf of Guinea
marks the boundary. The mountain-systems |

Table .



north of this line have a general east-and-west
direction ; those south of it have a general north-
and-south direction.

The Plateau of the Sahara occupies the north-
ern part of the interior depression. Its general
elevation is about 1500 feet, though here and
there plateaus of from 4000 to 5000 feet occur,
and even short mountain-ranges with peaks of
6000 feet. The main portion of the region is cov-
ered with vast sand-fields, with occasional rocky
masses, and is one of the most absolute deserts
in the world.



Fig. 64, Desert of Sahara.

Near long. 14° E. from Greenwich, in the district of
Fezzan, the plateau is divided from north to south by a
broad valley. In this occur many remarkable depressions,
some of which are several hundred feet below the level of
the Mediterranean. Here fertile spots, called oases, are
common. ;

South of the Sahara is the Soudan, a remark-
ably well-watered and fertile region. Lake Tchad
occupies the greatest depression. The interior,
which lies south of this, is but little known. It
is probably a moderately elevated plateau. Ex-
tensive lake-basins—Albert and Victoria Nyan-
zas and Tanganyika—lie near the predominant
mountain-system.

140, Approximate Dimensions of Africa.

Area of continent, 12,000,000 square miles.

Coast line, 16,000 miles.

Greatest breadth from east to west, 4800 miles.

Greatest length from north to south, 5000 miles.

Culminating point, Mount Kenia, or Kilimandjaro,
about 19,000 feet. 7




PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
















Fig. 55. Orographic Chart of Australia.
(White portions, mountains; shaded portions, plains.)

1, Australian Alps; 2, Kosciusko; 3, 4, 5, Secondary Systems; 6,
Murray River.

VI. AUSTRALIA.

141. Surface Structure.—The Predominant
Mountain-System is in the east.

The Secondary Systems are in the west and
north-west. _ -

The Great Low Plain lies between the pre-
dominant and secondary systems, and slopes
gently to the southern coast.

The Predominant System extends along the
entire eastern shore, from Torres Straits to the
southern extremity of Tasmania. It is for the
most part composed of broad plateaus. The
system is highest in the south-east, where the
name Australian Alps is given to the range.
Mount Kosciusko, 7000 feet, probably forms the
culminating point of the Australian continent.

The system descends abruptly on the east, but
on the west it descends by gentle slopes to the
low plains of the interior.

142. The Secondary Systems, on the west and
north-west, are of but moderate elevation.

143. The Great Low Plain lies in the interior. Ac-
curate information as to its peculiarities is yet wanting.
A moderate elevation on the north connects the eastern
and western systems, The south-eastern portion, which
is the best known, is well watered and remarkably fertile.

Basin-shaped valleys are found in the west. The lower
parts are occupied by Lake Eyre, Torrens, and Gairdner.

144, Approximate Dimensions of Australia.
Area of continent, 3,000,000 square miles.

Coast line, 10,000 miles.

Greatest length from east to west, 2400 miles.
Greatest breadth from north to south, 2000 miles.
Culminating point, Mount Kosciusko, 7000 feet.

145. Contrasts of Africa and Australia—In
the north, the African continent resembles Europe
and Asia in the arrangement of its forms of
relief. In the south, it resembles the Americas.
As a whole, the African continent resembles
Australia more closely than any other. In both





Fig. 56, Australian Scenery.

Africa and Australia the predominant system is
in the east, and extends along the entire coast.
In each the secondary systems are in the west
and north. But Africa terminates in a plateau
which descends abruptly to the sea, while Australia
is terminated by a great low plain which descends
by long, gentle slopes from the interior.



RRR IAS

SYLLABUS.



—.079300—.

Rock-masses are divided, according to their origin, into
{gneous, aqueous, and metamorphic. According to their con-
dition, into stratified and unstratified. According to the
presence or absence of organic remains, into fossiliferous
and non-fossiliferous. Stratified rocks are sometimes called.





fragmental. Unstratified rocks are sometimes called crys-
talline. Aqueous rocks are sometimes called sedimentary.

Aqueous rocks are stratified. Igneous rocks are un-
stratified. Metamorphic rocks were originally stratified,
but lost their stratification through metamorphism.






REVIEW

SS Se

Aqueous rocks may contain fossils. Igneous rocks never
contain fossils. Metamorphic rocks, in rare instances, may
contain fragments of fossils.

Geological time is divided into Archxan, Palzozoic, Meso-
zoic, and Cenozoic. _

Archean Time includes the Azoic and the Eozoic Ages.

Paleozoic Time, or, as it-is sometimes called, the Pri-
mary, includes the Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous

Ages.

Mesozoic Time, or the Secondary, includes the Age of

Reptiles.

Cenozoic Time includes the Age of Mammals, or the Ter-
tiary, and the Era of Man, or the Quaternary Age.

~ he changes to which the earth’s crust is now subject
are produced by the following agencies:

1. By the winds; 2. By the moisture of the atmosphere;

3. By the action of running water; 4. By the action of

ocean waves; 5. By the agency of man; 6. By the con-

traction of a cooling crust.

ss. There is more water than land surface on the earth, in

proportion of 25: 9, or as 57: 3”.

The land-masses surround the north pole in the shape
of an irregular ring.

Nearly all the land-areas are collected in one hemi-
sphere, and the water-areas in another.

The Land Hemisphere comprises the whole of North
America, Europe, and Africa, all of Asia except a small
part of the Malay Peninsula, and the greater part of South
America.

The Water Hemisphere comprises the whole of Australia
and the southern portions of South America and the Ma-
lay Peninsula. :

The northern continents are almost entirely in the tem-
perate latitudes; the southern are mainly in the tropics.

The land-masses may be divided into three doublets,
consisting of pairs of northern and southern continents,
almost or entirely separated from each other.

There are two great systems of trends or lines of direc-
tion, along which the continents, the coast lines, the
mountain-ranges, the oceanic basins, and the island chains
are arranged. These trends are north-east and north-west.

The northern continents are characterized by deeply in-
dented coast lines; the southern are comparatively simple
and unbroken. Europe is the most, and Africa the least,
deeply indented of the continents.

In proportion to her area, Europe has three times as
much coast line as Asia, and four times as much as Africa.

One-seventeenth of the land-area is composed of islands.

Islands are either continental or oceanic.

There are four successive stages in the formation of a
coral island or atoll: 1. The fringing reef; 2. The barrier
reef; 3. The encircling reef; 4. The coral island or atoll.

The greatest elevations and depressions in the earth’s
surface are small when compared with its size.



QUESTIONS. 55

Low lands are either plains or hills.

High lands are either plateaus or mountains.

Plains are—l. Undulating; 2. Marine; 3. Alluvial.

- Mountains were produced by the contraction of the
crust, producing a lateral pressure on thick, extended de-
posits of sedimentary rocks. Slaty cleavage was caused
by this tateral pressure.

Valleys are either longitudinal or transverse.

All continents have high borders and a low interior.
The highest border faces the deepest ocean.

The greatest prolongation of a continent is that of its
predominant mountain-system. The culminating point is
always out of the centre.

North and South America resemble each other in the
arrangement of their relief forms.