Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Table of Contents
 Sub-kingdom I - Vertebrata
 Back Cover

Group Title: Five hundred fascinating animal stories : with numerous colored plates, illustrating the nature, habits, manners and customs of animals, birds, fishes, reptiles, insects, etc., etc., ect.
Title: Five hundred fascinating animal stories
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082944/00001
 Material Information
Title: Five hundred fascinating animal stories with numerous colored plates, illustrating the nature, habits, manners and customs of animals, birds, fishes, reptiles, insects, etc., etc., ect.
Physical Description: xii, 385 p., 20 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Miles, Alfred H ( Alfred Henry ), 1848-1929 ( Editor )
Christian Herald ( Publisher )
Publisher: Christian Herald
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: [c1907]
Subject: Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Zoology -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Animal behavior -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1907   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1907
Genre: Children's stories
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: arranged and edited by Alfred H. Miles.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: "Copyright 1895 by Dodd, Mead and Company as 'Natural history in anecdote'..."
General Note: Frontispiece and plates printed in colors ; Title page printed in red and black.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082944
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002234276
notis - ALH4695
oclc - 04088447
lccn - 07034598

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vi-a
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Sub-kingdom I - Vertebrata
        Page 3
        Class I - Mammalia
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
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            Page 212a
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        Class II - Aves
            Page 250
            Page 250a
            Page 251
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        Class III - Reptilia
            Page 331
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        Class IV - Batrachia
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        Class V - Pisces
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

-0 F-
/ YtLLISTON,.' i"

Plate No. 19



* -







Five Hundred

Animal Stories









Illustrations are like windows to the house of knowledge.
They let light in upon the understanding and they facilitate
the outlook upon truth and beauty. To illustrate is to help
one sense by the use of another, to reason by analogy and
to teach the unknown by the known. When definition fails,
illustration often carries conviction, and the most successful
teachers are those who make the best use of sound and
telling illustrations. How many lessons would have been
wholly forgotten by us, but for the illustrations which made
their meanings clear and left their truths for ever in our
minds ?
The book of nature is full of illustrations which help the
understanding of the book of life, and no illustrations are
more valuable and fascinating, whether as revelations of the
order and habits of nature herself, or as parallels and para-
bles, full of suggestive application to the social and moral
life of humanity, than those afforded by the study of Nat-
ural History.
To gather into a convenient volume Illustrative Anecdotes
of Natural History, which shall throw light upon the study
of Animal Life, for those pursuing it for its own sake, and
help to the understanding of Nature herself is the primary
object of this work, while it is hoped that it may serve a


secondary purpose of no small utility, in suggesting social
and moral parallels.
With a view to its first purpose the illustrations are classi-
fied in order as those of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes,
etc., etc., and as much knowledge of Natural History as
can be conveyed in anecdote form has been attempted. The
book will thus, it is hoped, be a valuable aid to the teacher
of Natural History, as a manual of illustrations for his les-
sons, as well as full of interest to the general reader, who
may not wish to devote the time necessary to more exhaus-
tive scientific study.
A. H. M.






i. Gorilla. Ourang-Outang.

2. Galago. Aye Aye.

3. Lion. Cieetah.

4. Aard Vark. Blotched Gen.

Plate 5. Jaguar. Cacomixle.

Plate 7. Fox Terriers. Puppies.

Plate 8. Polar Bear. Ermine.

Plate 9. Rhinoceros. Camel.

Plate so. Elephant. Giraffe.

Plate it. Zebra. Bison.

Plate 12. Beaver. Alpine Hare.

Plate 13. Tatou. Kangaroo.

Plate 14. Sepoy Finch. Red-Headed
Bunting. Chinese Bulbul. Canary
Bird. Brazilian Tanager. Bell Bird.
Orchard Oriole. Blue Bullfinch.
Java Grosbeak. Nightingale.

Plate 15. Emen Wren. Stitch Bird.
Araguira. Whistling Thrush. Pas-
tor. Parrot Finch. Swallow Dicae-
cum. Golden Oriole. Rosebreasted
Grosbeak. Painted Bunting.

Plate 16. Kinglet. Scarlet Finch.
Brown Thrasher. Mariposa. Huia.
Madagascar Grosbeak. Crested
Sparaetes. Mino Bird. Maryland
Yellow Throat. Purple-breasted

Plate 7. Shaft-tailed Bunting. Lin-
net. Piping Crow-strike. Pine
Grosbeak. Audubon's Warbler.
Thrush. Amandava. Yellow-head.
Crested Malimbus. Saddle-back.

Plate 18. Spanish Mackerel. Mack-
erel. Weakfish. Herring. Bluefish.
Codfish. Crab. Porgy. Eel. White-

Plate 19. Butterfish. Catfish. Gold.
fish. Blackfish. Shad. Lobster.
Sea-robin. Sea-bass. Swordfish.

Plate 2o. Carp. Yellow Perch. Sar.
dine. Sawfish. Salmon. Sunfish
Brook Trout. Blowfish. Striped
Bass. Moonfish.


Science, i
The Kingdoms of Nature, i
Zoology, 2
Classification, 2

Class I.--Mammalia
The Ape Family, 3
The Gorilla, 4
Ancestors of the Gorilla, 4
AGorilla Hunt, 5
Du Chaillu's First Gorilla, 7
A Young Gorilla, 9
Gorilla Superstitions, io
The Chimpanzee, 11
Docility and Sagacity of Chimpanzee, I
The Orang-Utan, 12
Habits of Orang-Utan, 12
Walk of Orang-Utan, 13
Strength of Orang-Utan, 14
Docility of Orang-Utan, 14
Orang-Utan's Intelligence, 15
S Affection, 15
The Maternal Instinct, 16
Gibbons, or Long-Armed Apes, 17
Monkeys, 18
The Sacred Monkeys, 18
Long-nosed Monkey, 19
Cheek-pouched Monkeys, 19
The Baboon, 19
Arabiar, Babson, 20
Baboon's Imitative Faculty, 20

The Chackma Baboon, 2x
Baboon's Utility, 21
The Tame Baboon, 22
Baboon's Cunning, 22
Loyalty, 24
Intelligence, 24
The Bonnet Monkey, 25
Indian Monkeys,,25
The Monkey Outdone, 27
The Monkey Aroused, 29
Monkey's Affection, 30
American Monkeys, 30
The Capuchin Monkey, 30
The Spider Monkeys, 30
The Howling" Monkeys, 31
The Bearded Saki, 31
The Douroucouli, 32
The Marmosets, 32
The Tarsier, 33
The Aye-Aye, 33
Bats, 35
The Common English Bats, 36
The Vampire Bat, 36
A Traveller's Experience, 37
Megaderma Lyra, 38
The Hedgehog, 39
The Mole, 40
An Enterprising Mole, 41
The Use of the Mole, 41
The Shrew, 42


Animals of the Cat Kind, 43
The Lion, 44
Lion's Character, 44
Attitude towards Man, 45
The Better Part of Valour, 46
Lion's Strength, 47
SAffection, 48
Docility, 48
Androcles, 49
A Lion Hunt, 50
A Thrilling Experience, 52
Attacked by a Lion, 53
A Night Surprise, 55
A Lion Outwitted, 56
Old Instincts and New Opportunities, 56
The Tiger, 57
Tigers' Ravages, 58
An Intrepid Hunter, 60
The Leopard, 61
Leopard's Tenacity of Life, 61
Hunters Hunted, 63
The Jaguar, 64
Jaguar's Strength, 65
A Night of Horror, 65
The Puma, 67
Puma's Ferocity, 67
Animals and Men, 68
The Ocelot, 69
The Clouded Tiger, 70
The Serval, 70
Common Wild Cat, 70
Domestic Cat, 71
Cat Superstitions, 71
Cat as a Hunter, 72
Cat and Her Young, 72
Cat as a Foster Mother, 73
Cat as a Traveller, 74
Cat as a Sportsman, 75
Cat's Intelligence, 75
The Lynx, 76
The Chetah as Huntsman, 78
The.Civits, 79
The Ichneumon, 79
Dormant Instinct, 80
The Aard Wolf, 80
The Hymna, 80 .
Striped Hyana, 82
Spotted Hyana, 82
A Narrow Escape, 83
Animals of the Dog Kind, 84
The Wolf, 84
The Fox, 85
The Jackal, 86
Wolf's Mode of Attack, 86

Wolf's Cunning, 87
Cowardice, 88
Hunted by Wolves, 88
A Terrible Alternative, 89
A Marvellous Escape, 89
Tame Wolves, go
The Cunning of the Fox, go
The Fox as a Hunter, g9
A Fox Hunt, 92
The Arctic Fox, 93
Wild Dogs, 93
The Dog, 94
Dog's Understanding, 95
Sense of Locality, 97
Dog Friendships and Eimities, 99
Language, ioo
Dog's Intelligence, ion
Mistakes, o04
Eskimo Dogs, 104
A Hard Lot, 1o6
Newfoundland Dog, 107
Newfoundland's Generosity, 1o8
S Perception of Dan.
ger, lo9
S Sense of Right and
Wrong, III
Fidelity, 112
Newfoundland under Training, 112
The Sheep Dog, 114
Sheep Dog's Sagacity, 115
1 Fidelity, 117
The St. Bernard, 119
St. Bernard at Work, I21
The Greyhound, 122
Greyhound's Affection, 123
The Lurcher, 124
The Bloodhound, 125
Scent of the Bloodhound, 126
The Stag Hound, 127
A Stag Hunt, 127
The Fox Hound, 128
Fox Hound's Tenacity, i:z
The Harrier, 129
The Beagle, 129
The Dalmatian Dog, 130
The Turnspit, 130
Turnspit's Sagacity, 130
The Pointer, 130
Pointer's Intelligence, 131
The Setter, 132
Pointers and Setters, 132
Sagacity of the Setter, 133
The Spaniel, 134
Blenheim Spaniel and Cats, 135
Water Spaniel as a Witness, 135
The Terrier, 136
The Mastiff, 136
Fidelity of the,Mastiff, 136
Intelligence of the Mastiff, 137
The Mastiff as Protector, 137



The Bull Dog, 138
The Poodle, 139
The Shoe-black's Poodle, i39
Weasels, Otters, and Badgers, 4o0
The Polecat, 140
The Weasel. 140
Weasel and Kite, 141
The Common Otter, 141
The Badger, 142
The Ratel and the Skunk, 143
The Skunk, 144
The Raccoon and the Coati, 145
The Bear, 145
The Polar Bear, 146
The Black Bear, 147
Docility of the Bear, 148
The Grizzly Bear, 149
The Brown Bear, 151
Bruin and the Honey, 151
The Malayan Bear, i51
Sea Lions, 152
Sea Bears, 153
The Walrus, 154
The Common Seal, 155
The Seal's Docility, 156
The Right Whale, 158
The Sperm Whale, 159
The Dolphin, 159
The White Whale, 160
The Narwhal, 60o
The Porpoise, 161
The Grampus, 161
The Sea Cow, 162
The Horse, 162
The Arabian Horse, 163
Affection for his Owner, 165
The Domestic Horse, 166
The Structure of a Horse, 167
The Horse's Speed, 169
The Horse's Endurance, 170
The Horse's Memory, 171
The Force of Habit, 172
Intelligence of the Horse, 174
Horse-Play, 176
Horses and Dogs, 177
The Ass, 178
Sagacity of the Ass, 180
Instinct of the Ass, 181

The Trained Ass, 182
The Mule and the Hinny, 183
The Zebra, 183
The Tapir, 183
The Rhinoceros, 184
Rhinoceros Hunting, 186
The Tame Rhinoceros, 187
The Hippopotamus, 188
The Haunt of the Hippopotami, 189
The Pig Family, 19o
The Boar, x9o
The Common Hog, 191
The Babiroussa, 192
The Peccary, 192
The Camel and the Dromedary, 192
Strength and Endurance of the Camel,
The Camel and his Master, 194
Camel Riding, 195
A Camel's Revenge, 195
The Terrors of the Desert, 196
The Llama, 198
The Deer, 198
The Red Deer, 199
A Stag Hunt, 200
The Tame Stag, 201
The Reindeer, 20o
The Moose or Elk, 204
The Fallow Deer and the Roebuck, 204
The Giraffe, 205
The History of the Giraffe, 205
Hollow-Homed Ruminants, 206
The Bull, the Bison and the Buffalo,
The Bull, the Ox, the Cow, 207
The Bull, 208
The Brahmin Bull, 209
The Ox, 209
The Cow, 20o
The Pride of a Cow, 2io
The Bison, 2rr
Hunting the Bison, 212
The Buffalo, 213
Hunting the Indian Buffalo, 213
The Cape Buffalo, 214
Hunting the Cape Buffalo, 215
The Zebu, 216
The Yak, 216
The Antelopes, 216
The Gazelle, 217
The Sheep and the Goat, 217
The Intelligence of the Sheep, 218
Animals and Music, 218
The Elephant, 219
The Wild Elephant, 220
Elephant Herds, 221
Elephant Friendships, 223


Sagacity of the Elephant, 224
A Centenarian Elephant, 224
An Elephant Nurse, 225
Intelligence of the Elephant, 225

The Conies, 226

Rats and Mice, 227
The Rat Family, 227
The Hamster, 228
Swarms of Rats, 228
Invaded by Rats, 229
Migrations of Rats, 230
The Intelligence of Rats, 231
Saved by a Rat, 231
The Mouse, 232
The Harvest Mouse, 233
The Field Mouse, 233
The Dormouse, 233
The Jerboas, 234
The Beaver, 234
Fhe European Beaver, 234
The American Beaver, 235
The Squirrel, 237
The Squirrel at Home, 238
Tame Squirrels, 239
The Marmot, the Bobak, the Prairie
Dog, 240
The Chinchilla, 24o
The Porcupine, 240
The Guinea Pig, 241
Hares and Rabbits, 241
The Common Hare, 241
Intelligence of the Hare, 242
A Hunted Hare, 243
Tame Hares, 244
The Common Rabbit, 245

The Sloth, 245
The Pangolin, 246
The Armadillo, 246
The Cape Ant-Bear, 246
The Ant-Eater, 247

The Opossum, 247
The Kangaroo, 247
Kangaroo Hunting, 248

The Duck-billed Platypus, 249
The Australian Hedgehog, 249

Class II.-Aves
Classification, 250

The Thrushes, 251
The Common Thrush, 251
The Missel Thrush, 252
The Blackbird, 252
The Mocking Bird, 254
The Tailor Bird, 255
The Golden Crested Wren, 255
The Migration of Birds, 255
The Willow Wren, 256
The Common Wren, 256
A Wren's Music Lesson, 257
The House Wren, 257
The Nightingale, 258
Song of the Nightingale, 258
The Robin Redbreast, 259
Intelligence of the Robin, 260
The Titmouse, 26o
The Golden Oriole, 261
The Shrike, 262
The Jays, 262
The Blue Jay, 263
The Magpie, 264
Mischievous Habits of the Magpie, 264
The Raven, 266
Unnatural Parents, 267
The Tame Raven, 268
The Raven and the Dog, 269
The Rook, 270
The Carrion Crow, 270
The Jackdaw, 271
The Chough, 271
The Bird of Paradise, 271
Hunting the Bird of Paradise, 272
The Tanagers, 273
The Tanager, 273
The Swallow, 273
Swallows in Council, 274
The House Martin, 274
The Sand Martin, 275
The Chaffinch. The Goldfinch. The
Greenfinch, 275
The Linnet, 276
The Canary, 276
The Tame Canary, 27,
The Crossbill, 277
The Bunting, 277
The Starling, 278
The Common Starling, 278


The Weaver Bird, 278
The Lark, 279
Maternal Instinct of the Lark, 280
The Lark and the Hawk, 281
The Wagtails and Pipits, 281
The Ant-Eaters, 282
The King Bird, 282
The Chatterers, 282
The Lyre Bird, 283

The Woodpecker, 284
The Wryneck, 284
The Cuckoo, 284
The Cuckoo and the Hedge-Sparrow,
The Cuckoo and the Thrush, 286
The Trogons, 287
The Kingfishers, 287
The Hornbill, 287
The Goat-Suckers, 288
The Whip-poor-Will, 288
The Chuck-Will's-Widow, 288
The Swifts, 289
The Humming Bird, 289
Intelligence of the Parrot, 290
Famous Parrots, 291
The Grey Parrot, 292
Parrot Talk, 293
Carrier Pigeons, 294
Pigeons on the Wing, 295
The Peacock, 297
The Pheasant, 298
The Partridge, 299
The Wild Turkey, 300
The Domestic Turkey, 300
Sagacity of the Turkey, 300
Sitting Turkey Cocks, 31o
Domestic Fowls, 302
The Common Hen, 303
The Hoazin, 304
The Eagle, 305
Eagle Shooting, 305

White-Headed Eagle, 306
The Vultures, 307
The Condor, 308
The King of the Vultures, 308
A Feast of Vultures, 309
The Secretary Bird, 310
The Kite. The Osprey. The Buzzard,
The Falcon, 311
The Sparrow-Hawk, 312
The Owl, 313

The Cranes, 314
The Heron, 314
The Bittern, 315
The Stork, 315
Jealousy of the Stork, 315
A Stork's Revenge, 316

Gratitude of the Goose, 316
A Wild Goose Chase, 317
Goose Friendships, 317
The Goose and the Dog, 318
Maternal Instinct of the Goose, 318
The Duck, 319
The Swan, 319
Maternal Instinct of the Swan, 320
Intelligence of the Swan, 320
The Swan and the Fawn, 321
The Common Sea-Gull, 321
A Tame Sea-Gull, 321
Mother Carey's Chicken, 322
Catching the Stormy Petrel, 322
The Cormorant, 323
The Albatross, 324
The Pelican, 325
A Tame Pelican, 325
The Penguin, 326
The Puffin, 327
The Ostrich and its Young, 321
The Rhea. The Cassowary. The Emvr,
Class III.-Reptilia
The Tortoise and the Turtle, 331
The Elephant Tortoise, 332
The Turtle, 333


The Crocodile, 3341
The Alligator, 335
A Tame Alligator, 336
Hatteria Punctata. 337
The Lizards, 337
The Chameleon, 337
The Iguana, 338
The Common Lizard, 338
The Monitor, 339
Snakes, 339
The Viper, 340
The Viper and its Young, 340
The Rattlesnake, 341
The Sting of the Rattlesnake, 341
The Black Snake and the Rattlesnake,
The Cobra, 342
Snake Charming, 343
The Cobra as Companion of the Bath,
A Night with a Cobra, 345
An Unpleasant Bedfellow, 345
The Boa Constrictor, 346
The Boa and its Prey, 346
The Boa's Appetite, 347
A Terrible Boa, 348
A Narrow Escape, 348


Class IV.-Batrachia
The Batrachia, 350
The Common Toad, 351
Tame Toads, 351
The Common Frog, 352
Ingenuity of the Frog, 352
The Tree Frog, 353

Class V.-Pisces

Fishes, 354
The Sticklebacks, 354
The Stickleback and the Leech, 355
The Mackerel, 356
The Sword Fish, 356
The Cod, 357
The Salmon, 358
The Pike, 358
The Herring, 360
The Flying Fish, 360
The Eel, 361
The Gymnotus, 362
Catching the Gymnotus, 362
The Torpedo, 365
The Shark, 366
The White Shark, 366
Sharks in the South Seas, 367
The Rays, 368
Ray Catching, 369



Bolenoe. Science is classified truth. Men study the heavenly
bodies, note their characteristics, observe their movements, and
define their relationships; and having verified their deduc-
tions by repeated experiments, arrange the truths they have
discovered into systems, and by classifying their knowledge
reduce it to a science: this science they call Astronomy.
Astronomy is thus the classified arrangement of all known
truths concerning the heavenly bodies. Geology, similarly, is
the classified arrangement of all known truths concerning the
material structure of the Earth.
The Kingdoms The Natural World has been variously divided
of Nature. for the purposes of study. Linnaeus divided
it into three kingdoms; (I) the Mineral kingdom (II).the
Vegetable kingdom and (III) the Animal kingdom, thus
naming the three kingdoms in the order of their natural
geneses. The Mineral kingdom comprises the inorganic forms
of nature,-those which have no organism and which can
only increase by external addition. The Vegetable and
Animal kingdoms comprise the organic life of nature,-those
forms which are provided with means for promoting their
own development and propagating species. The Vegetable
kingdom, while easily distinguishable from the Mineral
kingdom is in some of its forms so similar to the lower
forms of animal life as to suggest relationship between the
two; while the Animal kingdom, beginning with the lower
forms which approximate so closely to vegetable forms,


embraces the whole range of animal life and reaches its
highest order in man. The science which treats of organic
life as a whole is called Biology, while its two departments
are separately known as Botany and Zoology. Natural
History is a general term popularly applied to the study of
Zoology. Zoology is the science of animal life. It deals
with the origin of species, and the evolution of the varied
forms of animated nature, and treats of the structure, habits,
and environment of all living creatures. Scientifically speak-
ing, Zoology is the classified arrangement of all known truths
concerning all animal organisms.
Classification. For convenience in study the Animal king-
dom is divided into seven Sub-kingdoms, each of which is further
divided into classes. These Sub-kingdoms are known as: I
Vertebrata, II Arthropoda, III Mollusca, IV Echinodermata,
V Vermes, VI Coelenterata, and VII Protozoa. Sub-kingdom I,
Vertebrata, includes all animals distinguished by the possession
of Vertebre or back-bones, and its classes are I Mammalia:-
animals that suckle their young; II Aves:-Birds; III
Replilia:-Reptiles; IV Batrachia:-Frogs, Toads, etc.; and V
Pisces:-Fishes. Sub-kingdom II, Arthropoda, includes the
Insect families, etc., which it also divides into classes. Sub-king-
dom III, Mollusca, animals of the cuttle-fish order, including
limpets, oysters, and slugs. Sub-kingdom IV, Echinodermata,
a large number of marine animals, such as the star-fish
and the sea-urchin. Sub-kingdom V, Vermes, the various
classes of worms. Sub-kingdom VI, Ccelenterata, corals and
sponges, etc., etc., and Sub-kingdom VII, Protozoa,
protoplasms and the lowest forms of animal life. This
volume is devoted to the illustration of the first of these
sub-kingdoms, the Vertebrata, with its five classes, Mamma-
lia, Aves, Reptilia, Batrachia and Pisces.




The most perfect of all animals is man, for
besides having a marvellous animal organism
PRIMATES. he possesses reason, which so far transcends
the highest instincts of other animals, that it places him in
a category by himself.
SUB ORDER I. Next to man it is convenient to deal
Man-shaped with man-shaped animals, (anthropoidea)-
Animala those animals which most resemble him in
external appearance and internal organism. This brings us
to the order called Quadrumana or four-handed animals
which include Lemurs and their allied forms, and manlike
monkeys. Monkeys are divided into five families, one at
least of which has to be further divided into sub-families to
accommodate its variety. These families are: I The Apes;
II The Sacred Monkeys; III The Cheek-pouched Monkeys;
IV The Cebidae, with its several sub-families, and V The
Marmosets. The first three of these families inhabit the old
world, the last two belong to the new.
The Age The family of the Apes includes the Gorilla,
Family the Chimpanzee, the Orang-utan or mias, the
Gibbons or long-armed Apes, and the Siamang; of these the
Gorilla and the Chimpanzee belong to the West of Africa,
the Orang-utan to Borneo, the Gibbons to Assam, the Malay




The most perfect of all animals is man, for
besides having a marvellous animal organism
PRIMATES. he possesses reason, which so far transcends
the highest instincts of other animals, that it places him in
a category by himself.
SUB ORDER I. Next to man it is convenient to deal
Man-shaped with man-shaped animals, (anthropoidea)-
Animala those animals which most resemble him in
external appearance and internal organism. This brings us
to the order called Quadrumana or four-handed animals
which include Lemurs and their allied forms, and manlike
monkeys. Monkeys are divided into five families, one at
least of which has to be further divided into sub-families to
accommodate its variety. These families are: I The Apes;
II The Sacred Monkeys; III The Cheek-pouched Monkeys;
IV The Cebidae, with its several sub-families, and V The
Marmosets. The first three of these families inhabit the old
world, the last two belong to the new.
The Age The family of the Apes includes the Gorilla,
Family the Chimpanzee, the Orang-utan or mias, the
Gibbons or long-armed Apes, and the Siamang; of these the
Gorilla and the Chimpanzee belong to the West of Africa,
the Orang-utan to Borneo, the Gibbons to Assam, the Malay


Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Cambodia and Hainan,
and the Siamang to Java and Sumatra.
The Goriia. The gorilla is the largest of the ape family,
and sometimes attains to the height of six feet. It is also
the fiercest, if not the strongest, of man-shaped animals. It
belongs to the genus Troglodytes of which the chimpanzee is
the only other species, and it inhabits a somewhat limited
range of Equatorial Africa, where it makes for itself nests
of sticks and foliage, among the lower branches of trees,
and lives upon berries, nuts and fruits. Though apparently
a vegetarian the gorilla has enormous physical strength. His
arms bear much the same proportion to the size of his body
as those of man do relatively, but his lower limbs are shorter,
and have no calves, the leg growing thicker from the knee
downwards. The hands are broad, thick, and of great
length of palm, and are remarkable for their strength; the
feet, broader than those of man, and more like hands, are
very large and of great power. The gorilla uses his hands
when walking or running, but as his arms are longer than
those of other apes, and his legs shorter he stoops less than
they do in moving from place to place. The gorilla herds
in small companies, or rather families, one adult male being
the husband and father of the band. The females are much
smaller than the males.
The Anoestors The gorilla, though' rediscovered in recent
of the years, was apparently known to the ancients.
orila Hanno, a Carthaginian admiral who flourished
some five or six hundred years B.C., once sailed from
Carthage with a fleet of sixty vessels and a company of
3o,000 persons, under instructions to proceed past the Pillars
of Hercules (the Straits of Gibraltar), with a view to planting
colonies on the western coast of Africa. In the course of
their travels they discovered several islands inhabited by
wild creatures with hairy bodies. "There were," says the
ancient navigator, "many more females than males, all equally


covered with hair on all parts of the body. The interpreters
called them gorillas. On pursuing them, we could not suc-
ceed in taking a single male, they all escaped with astonishing
swiftness, and threw stones at us; but we took three females,
who defended themselves with so much violence, that we
were obliged to kill them; but we brought their skins,
stuffed with straw, to Carthage." Professor Owen remarks
upon this that "though such creatures would suggest to
Hanno and his crew no other idea of their nature than
that of a kind of human being, yet the climbing faculty,
the hairy body, and the skinning of the dead specimens
strongly suggest that they were great apes. The fact that
apes somewhat resembling the negroes, of human size and
with hairy bodies, still exist on the west coast of Africa
renders it highly probable that such were the creatures which
Hanno saw, captured, and called 'gorullai'."
A Gorilla Hunt. Paul du Chaillu, in his "Stories of the Gorilla
Country," gives a graphic description of his first sight of these
"wild men of the woods." He was inspecting the ruins of
a native village with a party of Africans, when they discovered
footprints which the natives immediately recognized as those
of the gorilla. "It was," says he, "the first time I had
seen the footprints of these wild men of the woods, and I
cannot tell you how I felt. Here was .1 now, it seemed, on
the point of meeting, face to face, that monster, of whose
ferocity, strength and cunning, the natives had told me so
much, and which no man before bad hunted. By the
tracks it was easy to know that there must have been
several gorillas in company. We prepared at once to follow
them. My men were remarkably silent, for they were
going on an expedition of more than usual risk; for the
male gorilla is literally the king of the forest-the king of the
equatorial regions. He and the crested lion of Mount Atlas
are the two fiercest and strongest beasts of that continent.
The lion of South Africa cannot be compared with either


for strength or courage. As we left the camp, the men and
women left behind crowded together, with fear written on
their faces. Miengai, Ngolai, and Makinda set out for the
hunt in one party; myself and Yeava formed another. We
determined to keep near each other, so that in case of
trouble we might be at hand to help one another. For the
rest silence and a sure aim were the only cautions to be
given. I confess that I was never more excited in my
life. For years I had heard of the terrible roar of the
gorilla, of its vast strength, of its fierce courage when only
wounded. I knew that we were about to pit ourselves
against an animal which even the enormous leopards of the
mountains fear, which the elephants let alone and which
perhaps has driven away the lion out of his territory; for the
king of beasts, so numerous elsewhere in Africa, is not met with
in the land of the gorilla. We descended a hill, crossed a
stream on a fallen log, crept under the trees, and presently
approached some huge boulders of granite. In the stream
we had crossed we could see plainly that the animals had
just crossed it, for the water was still disturbed. Along side
of the granite blocks lay an immense dead tree, and about
this the gorillas were likely to be. Our approach was very
cautious. With guns cocked and ready we advanced through
the dense wood, which cast a gloom even at mid-day over
the whole scene. I looked at my men and saw that they
were even more excited than myself. Slowly we pressed on
through the dense bush, dreading almost to breathe for fear
of alarming the beasts. Makinda was to go to the right of
the rock, while I took the left. Unfortunately he and his
party circled it at too great a distance. The watchful
animals saw him. Suddenly I was startled by a strange, dis-
cordant, half human cry, and beheld four young and half-grown
gorillas running towards the deep forest. I was not ready.
We fired but hit nothing. Then we rushed on in pursuit;
b'It thcy knew the woods better than we. Once I caught


a glimpse of one of the animals again; but an intervening
tree spoiled my mark, and I did not fire. We pursued
them till we were exhausted, but in vain. I protest I felt
almost like a murderer when I saw the.gorilla this first time.
As they ran on their hind legs with their heads down, their
bodies inclined forward, their whole appearance was that of
hairy men running for their lives. Add to this their cry, so
awful yet with something human in its discordance, and you
will cease to wonder that the natives have the wildest
superstitions about these 'wild men of the woods.'"
Du Chailu's In his "Explorations and Adventures in Equa-
First Gorilla. trial Africa" du Chaillu gives an equally
thrilling account of the capture of his first gorilla. He says :
"We started early, and pushed through the most dense and
impenetrable part of the forest; in hopes to find the very
home of the beast I so much wished to shoot. Hour
after hour we travelled and yet no signs of gorillas. Only
the everlasting, little, chattering monkeys-and not many of
these-and occasionally birds. Suddenly Miengai uttered a
little cluck with his tongue which is the native way of
showing that something is stirring and that a sharp look-
out is necessary. And presently I noticed, ahead of us
seemingly, a noise as of some one breaking down branches
or twigs of trees. This was a gorilla-I knew at once by
the eager satisfied looks of the men. We walked with
the greatest care making no noise at all. Suddenly, as we
were yet creeping along, in a silence which made a heavy
breath seem loud and distinct, the woods were at once
filled with the tremendous barking roar of the gorilla. Then
the underbrush swayed rapidly just ahead, and presently
before us stood an immense male gorilla. He had gone
through the jungle on all fours; but when he saw our party
he erected himself and looked us boldly in the face. He
stood about a dozen yards from us, and was a sight I
think I shall never forget. Nearly six feet high (he proved


four inches shorter), with immense body, huge chest, and
great muscular arms, with fiercely glaring, large, deep gray
eyes, and a hellish expression of face, which seemed to me
like some nightmare vision: thus stood before us this king of
the African forest. He was not afraid of us. He stood
there and beat his breast with his huge fists till it resounded
like an immense bass-drum, which is the gorillas' mode of
offering defiance; meantime giving vent to roar after roar.
The roar of the gorilla is the most singular and awful noise
heard in these African woods. It begins with a sharp bark,
like an angry dog, then glides into a deep bass roll, which
literally and closely resembles the roll of distant thunder
along the sky. So deep is it that it seems to proceed
less from the mouth and throat than from the deep chest
and vast paunch. His eyes began to flash fiercer fire as
we stood motionless on the defensive, and the crest of short
hair which stands on his forehead began to twitch rapidly
up and down, while his powerful fangs were shown as he
again sent forth his thunderous roar. He advanced a few
steps-then stopped to utter that hideous roar again-
advanced again, and finally stopped when at a distance of
about six yards from us. And here, just as he began another
of his roars, beating his breast with rage, we fired, and
killed him. With a groan which had something terribly
human in it, and yet was full of brutishness, he fell forward
on his face. The body shook convulsively for a few minutes,
the limbs moved about in a struggling way, and then all
was quiet: death had done its work, and I had leisure to
examine the huge body. It proved to be five feet eight
inches high, and the muscular development of the arms and
breast showed what immense strength it had possessed." A
smaller gorilla, shot by M. du Chaillu on another occasion,
measured five feet six inches in height, fifty inches round
the chest, and his arms had a spread of seven feet two inches.


A Young A young gorilla which some natives succeeded
Gorilla, in capturing for M. du Chaillu, and which he
named Fighting Joe, forms the subject of one of his most
interesting chapters. The young cub was caught by the adroit
use of a cloth which one of the natives managed to throw
over his head, but not until he had severely bitten one of
his captors in the hand and taken a mouthful out of the
leg of another. He was about three years old, three feet
six inches in height and of great strength. A cage was
made for him, from which he twice escaped, on each occasion
being recaptured by the use of fishing nets. On his first
escape he concealed himself under the bed in M. du Chaillu's
house. "Running in," says the writer, "to get one of my guns,
I was startled by an angry growl. It was master Joe; there
was no mistake about it; I knew his growl too well. I
cleared out faster than I came in. I instantly shut the
windows and called in my people to guard the door. When
Joe saw the crowd of black faces he became furious, and
with his eyes glaring, and every sign of rage in his face and
body, he got out from beneath the bed. He was about to
make a rush at all of us. He was not afraid. A stampede of
my men took place, I shut the door quickly (from outside)
and left Joe master of the premises." While the men
outside were devising means for his recapture, the young
gorilla carefully inspected the furniture and M. du Chaillu
became apprehensive for the safety of his clock, the ticking of
which was likely to attract unwelcome attention. However,
by means of a net dexterously thrown over him, he was
secured once more and carried back to his cage, which in
the meantime had been repaired, the full strength of four
men being required for the purpose. On his second escape
he made for the woods and took refuge in a large clump of
trees. "This we surrounded," says M. du Chaillu. "He
did not ascend a tree, but stood defiantly at the border of
the wood. About one hundred and fifty of us surrounded


him. As we moved up he began to yell, and made a dash
upon a poor fellow who was in advance. The fellow ran
and tumbled down in affright. By his fall he escaped the
tender mercies of Joe's teeth; but he also detained the
little rascal long enough for the nets to be thrown over him."
But Joe was a child of nature and could not live with the
chain of civilisation around his neck, and he died somewhat
suddenly some ten days afterwards and finally found his
way to the British museum.
Goriua According to du Chaillu, the natives entertain
Superstitions. many superstitions about the gorilla, among the
commonest of which is the belief that some gorillas are
inhabited by human spirits. In his "Stories of the Gorilla
Country he gives an interesting illustration of this. In the
evening, he says, "the men told stories about gorillas. I re-
member,' said one, 'my father told me he once went out to
the forest, when just in his path he met a great gorilla. My
father had his spear in his hand. When the gorilla saw
the spear he began to roar; then my father was terrified
and dropped the spear. When the gorilla saw that my
father had dropped the spear he was pleased. He looked
at him, and then left him and went into the thick forest.
Then my father was glad and went on his way.' Here all
shouted: 'Yes! so we must do when we meet the gorilla. Drop
the spear; that appeases him.' Next Gambo spoke. 'Several
dry seasons ago, a man suddenly disappeared from ray
village after an angry quarrel. Some time after an Ashira
of that village was out in the forest. He met a very large
gorilla. That gorilla was the man who had disappeared;
he had turned into a gorilla. He jumped upon the poor
Ashira and bit a piece out of his arm; then he let him go.
Then the man came back with the bleeding arm. He told
me this, I hope we shall not meet such gorillas.' Chorus:
'No; we shall not meet such wicked gorillas.' "I myself,"
says du Chaillu, "afterwards met that man in the Ashira


country. I saw his maimed arm and he repeated the same story."
Then one of the men spoke up: 'If we kill a gorilla to-morrow,
I should like to have a part of the brain for a fetich.
Nothing makes a man so brave as to have a fetich of
gorilla's brain. That gives a man a strong heart.' Chorus (of
those who remained awake) 'Yes; that gives a man a strong
heart.'" A fetich of the brain of the gorilla is said also to
help its owner in love as well' as war.
The Chimpanzee. The chimpanzee is a near neighbour ot
the gorilla in Equatorial Africa though he appears to have
a more extended range. He is found in Sierra Leone and
in the country lying to the north of the river Congo, and
according to native accounts is gregarious in his habits,
travelling in formidable companies, who carry sticks and
make effective use of them. They are said to reach
maturity at nine or ten years of age and to attain a height
of from four to five feet. Like the gorillas they have
immensely powerful limbs, and have been known without
apparent effort to break off branches of trees which a man
would have been powerless to bend.
The Docility The chimpanzee differs from the gorilla in
and agacity his amenability to civilisation. The gorilla,
of the
Chimpanzee. however young, seems incapable of being tamed;
while the chimpanzee in its infancy and youth at least has
often been domesticated, though like most other apes, as it
approaches maturity, it needs to be kept under strong control.
Captain Brown in his Habits and Characteristics of Animals
and Birds" gives the following illustration of the docility
and sagacity of the chimpanzee. He says: "M. de Grandpr6
saw, on board of a vessel, a female chimpanzee, which
exhibited wonderful proofs of intelligence. She had learnt
to heat the oven; she took great care not to let any of the
coals fall out, which might have done mischief in the ship;
and she was very accurate in observing when the oven was
heated to the proper degree, of which she immediately


apprized the baker, who, relying with perfect confidence
upon her information, carried his dough to the oven as soon
as the chimpanzee came to fetch him. This animal performed
all the business of a sailor, spliced ropes, handled the sails,
and assisted at unfurling them; and she was, in fact considered
by the sailors as one of themselves. The vessel was bound
for America; butdfthe poor animal did not live to see that
country, having far1en a victim to the brutality of the first
mate, who inflicted very cruel chastisement upon her, which
she had not deserved. She endured it with the greatest
patience, only holding out her hands in a suppliant attitude,
in order to break the force of the blows she received. But
from that moment she steadily refused to take any food,
and died on the fifth day from grief and hunger. She was
lamented by every person on board, not insensible to the
feelings of humanity, who knew the circumstances of her
The The orang-utan is one of the largest of the
Orang-utan. ape species and until the discovery of the
gorilla was supposed to be the largest. It is said sometimes
to attain to the height of six feet, and some travellers' tales
credit it with even greater height. The orang is possessed
of great strength but is of a docile disposition when brought
under civilisation, and even in a wild state is often quiet
and peaceable except when attacked. It inhabits country
that is low, level, and swampy, and that is at the same
time covered with lofty virgin forests. It belongs to the
genus Simia of which it is the single species.
The Habits The following account of the orang is given
of the by Mr. Brooke of Sarawak. "On the habits of
Orang-utan. the orangs, as far as I have been able to observe
them, I may remark that they are as dull and as slothful
as can well be conceived, and on no occasion, when
pursuing them, did they move so fast as to preclude my
keeping pace with them easily through a moderately clear


forest; and even when obstructions below (such as wading
up to the neck) allowed them to get away some distance,
they were sure to stop and allow us to come up. I never
observed the slightest attempt at defence; and the wood,
which sometimes rattled about our ears, was broken by
their weight, and not thrown, as some persons represent.
If pushed to extremity, however, the pappan could not be
otherwise than formidable; and one unfortunate man, who
with a party was trying to catch one alive, lost two of his
fingers, besides being severely bitten on the face, whilst the
animal finally beat off his pursuers and escaped. When
hunters wish to catch an adult, they cut down a circle of
trees round the one on which he is seated, and then fell
that also, and close before he can recover himself, and
endeavour to bind him. The rude hut which they are
stated to build in the trees would be more properly called
a seat, or nest, for it has no roof or cover of any sort. The
facility with which they form this seat is curious; and I had
an opportunity of seeing a wounded female weave the
branches together, and seat herself in a minute. She after-
wards received our fire without moving, and expired in her
lofty abode, whence it cost us much trouble to dislodge her.
The adult male I killed was seated lazily on a tree; and
when approached only took the trouble to interpose the
trunk between us, peeping at me and dodging as I dodged.
I hit him on the wrist, and he was afterwards despatched."
The Walk In locomotion the orang disdains the earth
of the and perambulates the vernal terraces of the
Orang-utan forest trees. "It is a singular sight," says Mr.
Wallace, "to watch a mias (orang-utan) making his way
leisurely through a forest. He walks deliberately along some
of the larger branches in the semi-erect attitude which the
great length of his arms and the shortness of his legs cause
him naturally to assume, and seems always to choose those
branches which intermingle with an adjoining tree, on


approaching which he stretches out his long arms, and
seizing the opposing boughs, grasps them together with
both hands, seems to try their strength, and then deliber-
ately swings himself across to the next branch on which he
walks along as before. He never jumps or springs, or even
appears to hurry himself, and yet manages to get along
almost as quickly as a person can run through the forest
The Strength "The Dyaks," says Mr. Wallace, "all declare
of the that the mias is never attacked by any animal in
Orang-utan. the forest, with two rare exceptions; and the
accounts received of these are so curious that I give them
nearly in the words of my informants, old Dyak Chiefs, who
had lived all their lives in the places where the animal is most
abundant. The first of whom I enquired said, 'No animal is
strong enough to hurt the mias, and the only creature he ever
fights with is the crocodile. When there is no fruit in the
jungle he goes to seek food on the banks of the river where
there are plenty of young shoots that he likes, and fruits that
grow close to the water. Then the crocodile sometimes tries
to seize him, but the mias gets upon him and beats him with
his hands and feet, and tears and kills him.' He added that he
had once seen such a fight and that he believed that the mias
is always the victor. My next informant was Orang Kayo
or chief of the Balow Dyaks on the Simunjou River. He
said the mias has no enemies, no animals dare attack it
but the crocodile and the python. He always kills the
crocodile by main strength, standing upon it, and pulling open
its jaws and ripping up its throat. If a python attacks a
mias he seizes it with his hands and then bites it, and
soon kills it. The mias is very strong; there is no animal
in the jungle so strong as he."
The Docmlty Buffon thus describes an orang-utan that he
of the saw: "His aspect was melancholy, his de-
Orang-utan. portment grave, his movements regular, and


his disposition gentle. Unlike the baboon or the monkey,
who are fond of mischief, and only obedient through fear,
a look kept him in awe; while the other animals could
not be brought to obey without blows. He would present
his hand to conduct the people who came to visit him, and
walk as gravely along with them as if he had formed a part
of the company. I have seen him sit down at table, when
he would unfold his towel, wipe his lips, use a spoon or a
fork to carry his victuals to his mouth, pour his liquor into
a glass, and make it touch that of a person who drank along
with him. When invited to take tea, he would bring a cup
and saucer, place them on the table, put in sugar, pour out the
tea, and allow it to cool before he drank it. All this I have seen
him perform without any other instigation than the signs or the
command of his master, and often even of his own accord."
The Orang-utan's M. de la Bosse thus describes two young
Intelngenoe. orang-utans, male and female. "We had
these animals with us on shipboard. They ate at the same
table with us. When they wanted anything, they, by
certain signs, acquainted the cabin boy with their wishes;
and if he did not bring it, they sometimes flew into a rage
at him, bit him in the arm, and not unfrequently threw him
down. The male fell sick during the voyage, and submitted
to be treated like a human patient. The disease being of
an inflammatory nature, the surgeon bled him twice in the
right arm; and when he afterwards felt himself indisposed,
he used to hold out his arm to be bled, because he recol-
lected that he found himself benefited by that operation on
a former occasion."
The Orang-utan's Dr. Tyson in describing one of the earliest
Affection. specimens of the orang brought to London, says
that it conceived a great affection for those with whom travel
had made it familiar, frequently embracing them with the
greatest tenderness. A female orang belonging to a Dutch
menagerie showed the greatest affection for her attendants,


giving unmistakable signs of her delight in their company
and distress in their absence. She would often take the
hay from her bed and spread it at her side and with anxious
and obvious signs invite her keeper to sit beside her. M.
Palavicini credited a pair of orangs which he had in his
possession in 1759 with the still more remarkable quality
in animals of bashfulness. It is said that the female would
shrink from the too persistent gaze of a spectator, and throw
herself into the arms of the male, hiding her face in his
The Maternal In his "Marvels and Mysteries of Instinct,"
Instinct. Mr. Garrett gives the following instance of
maternal affection. "A gentleman was out with a party of
men in Sumatra, when in some trees removed from a dense
forest a female orang-utan, with a young one in its arms,
was discovered, and the pursuit commenced. In the ardour
of the moment, and excited by the hope of possessing an
animal so rare, the gentleman forgot everything but the prize
before him, and urged on his men by the promise of a
reward, should their exertions be successful. Thus stimulated
they followed up the chase; the animal, encumbered by her
young one, making prodigious efforts to gain the dense and
intricate recesses of the wood, springing from tree to tree,
and endeavouring by every means to elude her pursuers.
Several shots were fired, and at length one took fatal effect,
the ball penetrating the right side of the chest. Feeling
herself mortally wounded, and with the blood gushing from
her mouth, she from that moment took no care of herself,
but with a mother's feelings summoned up all her dying
energies to save her young one. She threw it onwards over
the tops of the trees, and from one branch to another,
taking the most desperate leaps after it herself, and again
facilitating its progress until, the intricacy of the forest being
nearly gained, its chances of success were sure. All this time
the blood was flowing: but her efforts had been unabated,


and it was only when her young one was on the point of
attaining to a place of safety that she rested on one of the
topmost branches of a gigantic tree. True to her ruling
passion, even in death, she turned for a moment to gaze
after her young one, reeled, and fell head foremost to tht
ground. The sight was so touching that it called forth the
sympathy of the whole party. The eagerness of the chase
subsided; and so deep an impression did the maternal
tenderness and unexpected self-devotion of the poor orang
make on the gentleman alluded to, whose heart was indeed
formed in 'nature's gentlest mould,' that he expressed the
utmost remorse and pity, declaring that he would not go
through the same scene again for all the world; nor did the
tragical death of the animal cease to haunt his mind for
many weeks, and he never afterwards recurred to it but with
feelings of emotion. The preserved skin is now in the
Museum of the Zoological Society."
Gibbons or Long The gibbons belong to the genus Hylobates,
Armed Apes. of which there are several species. They are
characterized by the ability to walk almost erect, hence the
name Hylobates. They live in the tops of trees, in large
companies and possess marvellous powers of locomotion,
swinging themselves from tree to tree with such rapidity as
to baffle all pursuit. When on the ground they balance
themselves in walking by holding their hands above their
heads. The adult gibbon is about three feet in height
and has a reach of arms of about six feet. The gibbon is
tractable and capable of strong affection towards those who
show it kindness. One of the Hoolock species petted by
Dr. Burrough, became companionable and would sit at his
master's breakfast-table, eat eggs and chicken, and drink tea
and coffee with great propriety. Fruit was his favourite
food, but insects were especially palatable to him and he
was an expert in catching flies. The siamang differs from
the other species of long-armed apes in the formation of its


feet and in several other characteristics. It is, however,
similar to the Hoolock in its amenity to kindness and its
affection for its master, when brought under the influence of
kindly treatment. The gibbons have great strength in their lower
limbs, whereby they are enabled to leap surprising distances.
M. Duvaneel said he once saw one of these animals clear
a space of forty feet, from the branch of a tree. Mr. George
Bennet, in his "Wanderings," describes the action of a
siamang that belonged to him, which having managed to free
himself of his tether, proceeded to embrace the legs of
the Malays whom he came across, until he discovered his
former master, whereupon he climbed into the Malay's arms
and hugged him with the tenderest affection.
Monkeys. Monkeys differ from the apes we have dealt with in
the important characteristic, among others, of possessing tails.
These vary in length from inches to feet, in some cases being
considerably longer than the body and in others little more
than stumps. They vary also in form, some being completely
covered with hair, and others only partially so; some
apparently useful only as ornaments, others being prehensile,
that is capable of grasp, and giving their owners almost
the advantage of a fifth limb.
The Saored The Sacred Monkeys (Semnopithecida-) in-
Monkeys. clude two genera and a large number of species.
Among these are the species which bear the name of
Hanumin, a Hindoo divinity, and are worshipped in his
honour. The protection these monkeys receive on account
of the superstitions prevalent concerning them, leads to their
large increase in numbers and to many inconveniences
arising therefrom. It is said that if a traveller should be
unfortunate enough to offend one of these animals he is
likely enough to be followed by the whole party howling in
a most hideous and discordant manner, and pelting him
with any missiles upon which they can lay their hands.
There are eighteen species of the Semnopithecus, all of which


.-11U A H-Amino
IT'^ '5r-^^'g!" ^


are found in the East. Of these the Entellus is one of the
best known species. It is very susceptible to cold, and
cannot live long in Europe.
The Long-nosed The Long-nosed Monkey (Semnopithecw
Monkey. Larvatus) belongs to this family and is
distinguished, as its name implies, by the length of its
proboscis. This animal is described by Wallace as about
the size of a child of three years of age, while possessing a
nose considerably longer than that of any human adult.
From the head to the tip of the tail the proboscis monkey
measures about four feet and a half. It is sometimes called
the Kahau from its cry which resembles the sound of that
word. It is said to hold its nose when leaping to protect
it from being injured by the branches of trees. The second
genus of this family, of which there are numerous species,
belongs to Africa.
Oheek-pouched The Cheek-pouched Monkeys form the
Monkeys. third family of the quadrumana. They include
seven genera, and sixty or seventy species, of which five
genera belong to Africa and two to Asia and to the Malay
Islands. Among the better known of these species is the
Talapoin of West Africa; the Diana monkey and the Mona
(Africa); the little White-nosed monkey (Guinea); the Grivet
(Nubia and Abyssinia); the Green monkey (Cape de Verds);
the Patas (Senegal); the Malbrouck monkey; and the Vervet
monkey (South Africa). The Green monkey and the Vervet
monkey are those most commonly seen in England. One of
the best known members of this family is the Baboon.
Th Baboon. The baboon is found in many parts of Africa,
and one of its species in Arabia. It is of the genus
cynocephalus, and some of its species attain to considerable
size; the head and face of one species resembling those
of a dog, it is sometimes called the dog-faced baboon.
The baboon herds in large numbers, and is said to make
apparently organized attacks upon villages during the


absence of the peasants in harvest time, placing sentinels
on the look out, to apprise them of danger, while they visit
the houses and take possession of all the food they can find.
They are cunning and powerful, and formidable in combat,
but, greedy in habit, they eat to excess, and when gorged to
satiety fall an easy prey. to their enemies. In their wild state
they feed on berries and bulbous roots, but when proximity
to civilisation gives them wider opportunity, they show their
appreciation of a more varied menu. Among the more
familiar species of the baboon are the Chackma, the Drill,
the Mandrill, the Anubis, the Babouin, and the Sphinx, all of
which belong to the West of Africa.
n The Arabian baboon is an animal with a
Arabian history. It was worshipped by the Egyptians,
Baboon who embalmed its body after death and set
apart portions of their cemeteries for its use. Sacred to
Thoth, the Egyptian Hermes, the God of letters, the baboon
sometimes represents that deity in Egyptian sculptures, where'
it is usually figured in a sitting posture, the attitude in
which its body was generally embalmed. The baboon was
also held as emblematic of the Moon, and honoured sym-
bolically in other connections. It is commonly represented
in judgment scenes of the dead with a pair of scales in
front of it, Thoth being supposed to exercise important
duties in the final judgment of men. The baboon was
held especially sacred at Hermopolis. According to Sir
J. G. Wilkinson the Egyptians trained baboons to useful
offices, making them torch-bearers at their feasts and festivals.
The Like others of the monkey tribes the baboon
Imitative shows an extraordinary faculty for imitation.
of the Captain Browne in his "Characteristics of Ani-
Baboon. mals says: The following circumstance is truly
characteristic of the imitative powers of the baboon:-
The army of Alexander the Great marched in complete battle-
array into a country inhabited by great numbers of baboons,


and encamped there for the night. The next morning, when
the army was about to proceed on its march, the soldiers
saw, at some distance, an enormous number of baboons,
drawn up in rank and file, like a small army, with such
regularity, that the Macedonians, who could have no idea
of such a manoeuvre, imagined at first that it was the enemy
drawn up to receive them."
The The chackma lives among the mountains of
Chackma the Cape of Good Hope, where he attains about
Baboon, the size of an English mastiff and even greater
strength. He descends to the plains on foraging expeditions,
and, when not attacked, will usually make off on the approach
of danger, but if aroused to anger can both show and use
his teeth, and is far superior to the average English boy in
throwing stones.
The Baboon's Le Vaillant gives an interesting account of
utility. a chackma baboon which accompanied him
through South Africa, and which bore the name of Kees.
He says: "I made him my taster. Whenever we found fruits
or roots, with which my Hottentots were unacquainted, we
did not touch them till Kees had tasted them. If he threw
them away, we concluded that they were either of a dis-
agreeable flavour, or of a pernicious quality, and left them
untasted. The monkey possesses a peculiar property, wherein
he differs greatly from other animals, and resembles man,-
namely, that he is by nature equally gluttonous and inquisitive.
Without necessity, and without appetite, he tastes every
thing that falls in his way, or that is given to him. But
Kees had a still more valuable quality,--he was an excellent
sentinel; for, whether by day or night, he immediately sprang
up on the slightest appearance of danger. By his cry, and
the symptoms of fear which he exhibited, we were always
apprized of the approach of an enemy, even though the dogs
perceived nothing of it. The latter, at length, learned to rely
upon him with such confidence, that they slept on in per-


fet tranquillity, I often took Kees with me when I went
hunting; and when he saw me preparing for sport, he
exhibited the most lively demonstrations of joy. On the way,
he would climb into the trees to look for gum, of which he
was very fond. Sometimes he discovered to me honey,
deposited in the clefts of rocks, or hollow trees. But, if he
happened to have met with neither honey nor gum, and
his appetite had become sharp by his running about, I always
witnessed a very ludicrous scene. In those cases, he looked
for roots, which he ate with great greediness, especially a
particular kind, which, to his cost, I also found to be very
well tasted and refreshing, and therefore insisted upon sharing
with him. In order to draw these roots out of the ground,
he employed a very ingenious method, which afforded me
much amusement. He laid hold of the herbage with his
teeth, stemmed his fore feet against the ground, and drew
back his head, which gradually pulled out the root. But if
this expedient, for which he employed his whole strength,
did not succeed, he laid hold of the leaves as before, as
close to the ground as possible, and then threw himself
heels over head, which gave such a concussion to the root,
that it never failed to come out.
The Tame "Serpents excepted, there were no animals of
Baboon, whom Kees stood in such great dread as of his
own species,-perhaps owing to a consciousness of loss of
natural capacity. Sometimes he heard the cry of other
apes among the mountains, and, terrified as he was, he
yet answered them. But, if they approached nearer, and
he saw any of them, he fled, with a hideous cry, crept
between our legs, and trembled over his whole body. It was
very difficult to compose him, and it required some time
before he recovered from his fright.
The Cunning Like all other animals, Kees was addicted to
of the stealing. He understood admirably well how
BabOn. to loose the strings of a basket, in order to take


victuals out of it, especially milk, of which he was very fond.
My people chastised him for these thefts; but that did not
make him amend his conduct. I myself sometimes whipped
him; but then he ran away, and did not return again to the
tent until it grew dark. Once, as I was about to dine, and
had put the beans, which I had boiled for myself, upon a
plate, I heard the voice of a bird with which I was not
acquainted. I left my dinner standing, seized my gun, and
ran out of the tent. After the space of about a quarter of
an hour I returned, with the bird in my hand, but, to my
astonishment, found not a single bean upon the plate. Kees
had stolen them all, and taken himself out of the way.
When he had committed any trespass of this kind, he used
always, about the time when I drank tea, to return quietly,
and seat himself in his usual place, with every appearance
of innocence, as if nothing had happened; but this evening
he did not let himself be seen. And, on the following day,
also, he was not seen by any of us; and, in consequence,
I began to grow seriously uneasy about him, and apprehen-
sive that he might be lost for ever. But, on the third day,
one of my people, who had been to fetch water, informed
me that he had seen Kees in the neighbourhood, but that,
as soon as the animal espied him, he had concealed himself
again. I immediately went out and beat the whole neigh-
bourhood with my dogs. All at once, I heard a cry, like
that which Kees used to make, when I returned from my
shooting, and had not taken him with me. I looked about,
and at length espied him, endeavouring to hide himself
behind the large branches of a tree. I now called to him
in a friendly tone of voice, and made motions to him to come
down to me. But he could not trust me, and I was obliged
to climb up the tree to fetch him. He did not attempt to fly,
and we returned together to my quarters; here he expected
to receive his punishment; but I did nothing, as it would
have been of no use.


The Goyalty "An officer, wishing to put the fidelity of my
of the baboon to the test, pretended to strike me. At
Baboon- this he flew in a violent rage, and, from that time,
could never endure the sight of the officer. If he only saw
him at a distance he began to cry, and make all kinds of
grimaces, which evidently showed that he wished to revenge
the insult that had been done to me; he ground his teeth;
and endeavoured, with all his might, to fly at his face, but
that was out of his power, as he was chained down. The
offender several times endeavoured, in vain, to conciliate
him, by offering him dainties, but he remained long im-
The "When any eatables were pilfered, at my quar-
Intelligence ters, the fault was always laid upon Kees; and rarely
of the
Baboon. was the accusation unfounded. For a time the
eggs, which a hen laid me, were constantly stolen, and
I wished to ascertain whether I had to attribute this loss also
to him. For this purpose I went one morning to watch him,
and waited till the hen announced, by her cackling, that she
had laid an egg. Kees was sitting upon my vehicle; but,
the moment he heard the hen's voice, he leapt down, and
was running to fetch the egg. When he saw me, he suddenly
stopped, and affected a careless posture, swaying himself
backwards upon his hind legs, and assuming a very innocent
look; in short, he employed all his art to deceive me with
respect to his design. His hypocritical manoeuvres only con-
firmed my suspicions, and, in order, in my turn, to deceive
him, I pretended not to attend to him, and turned my back
to the bush where the hen was cackling, upon which he
immediately sprang to the place. I ran after him, and came
up to him at the moment when he had broken the egg and
was swallowing it. Having caught the thief in the fact, I
gave him a good beating upon the spot, but this severe
chastisement did not prevent his soon stealing fresh-laid eggs
again. As I was convinced that I should never be able to


break Kees off his natural vices, and that, unless I chained
him up every morning, I should never get an egg, I endea-
voured to accomplish my purpose in another manner; I
trained one of my dogs, as soon as the hen cackled, to run
t, the nest, and bring me the egg, without breaking it. In
a few days, the dog had learned his lesson; but Kees, as
soon as he heard the hen cackle, ran with him to the nest.
A contest now took place between them, who should have
the egg; often the dog was foiled, although he was the
stronger of the two. If he gained the victory, he ran joyfully
to me with the egg, and put it into my hand. Kees, never-
theless, followed him, and did not cease to grumble and make
threatening grimaces at him, till he saw me take the egg,-
as if he was comforted for the loss of his booty by his
adversary's not retaining it for himself. If Kees had got hold
of the egg, he endeavoured to run with it to a tree, where,
having devoured it, he threw down the shells upon his
adversary, as if to make game of him. Kees was always the
first awake in the morning, and, when it was the proper time,
he awoke the dogs, who were accustomed to his voice, and,
in general, obeyed, without hesitation, the slightest motions
by which he communicated his orders to them, immediately
taking their posts about the tent and carriage, as he directed
The Bonnet The bonnet monkey is of the genus macacus,
Monkey. and is to be found in many parts of India. It
is characterized by a bonnet, or cap of hair, which radiates
from the centre of the crown. It is known as the Macacus
Radiatus. Other species of the genus macacus are the
Rhesus monkey, the Wanderoo, the Barbary Ape or Magot,
and the Macaque.
Indian Monkeys. Many stories are told of the audacity of
the Indian monkeys in which those of the genus macacus
come in for more than honourable mention. Whether in
their native haunts, or in European menageries, they are an


endless source of amusement and not unfrequently one of
annoyance. In their free state, they tax the ingenuity of
native and European alike by their mischievous habits and
thievish propensities. They climb upon the tops of the
Bazaars and the slightest relapse from vigilance on the part of
the shopkeepers is sure to be followed by the loss or spoliation
of their wares. A common defence against these unwelcome
intruders is to cover the roofs with a certain prickly shrub,
the thorns of which command respect even from monkeys.
Mrs. Bowdich says: "In some places they are even fed,
encouraged, and allowed to live on the roofs of houses;"
but this would be where the goods of the householder were
beyond their reach. "If a man wishes to revenge himself
for any injury committed upon him," says Mrs. Bowdich,
"he has only to sprinkle some rice or corn upon the top
of his enemy's house or granary just before the rain sets in,
and the monkeys will assemble upon it, eat all they can
find outside, and then pull off the tiles to get at that which
has fallen through the crevices. This, of course, gives
access to the torrents which fall in such countries, and
house, furniture and stores are all ruined." Quoting from
another writer, Mrs. Bowdich gives an amusing description
of the way in which one of these monkeys watched his
opportunity for making his descent upon a sweet-stuff shop.
Taking up a position opposite the shop, "he pretended to be
asleep, but every now and then softly raised his head to
look at the tempting piles and the owner of them, who sat
smoking his pipe without symptoms even of a doze. In
half an hour the monkey got up, as if he were just awake,
yawned, stretched himself, and took another position a few
yards off, where he pretended to play with his tail, occa-
sionally looking over his shoulder at the coveted delicacies.
At length the shopman gave signs of activity, and the
monkey was on the alert; the man went to his back room,
the monkey cleared the street at one bound, and in an


instant stuffed his pouches full of the delicious morsels. He
had, however, overlooked some hornets, which were regaling
themselves at the same time. They resented his disturbance,
and the tormented monkey, in his hurry to escape, came upon
a thorn-covered roof, where he lay stung, torn, and bleeding
He spurted the stolen bonbons from his pouches and barked
hoarsely looking the picture of misery. The noise of the
tiles which he had dislodged in his retreat brought out the
inhabitants, and among them the vendor of the sweets, with
his turban unwound, and streaming two yards behind him.
All joined in laughing at the wretched monkey; but their
religious reverence for him induced them to go to his
assistance: they picked out his thorns and he limped away
to the woods quite crestfallen."
The Monkey The writer, from whom Mrs. Bowdich quoted
Outdone. the above story, gives a graphic account of the
success of a stratagem he employed to rid himself of the
unwelcome visits of his monkey friends. "Although," says
he, "a good deal shyer of me than they were of the natives,
I found no difficulty in getting within a few yards of them;
and when I lay still among the brushwood they gambolled
round me with as much freedom as if I had been one of
themselves. This happy understanding, however, did not
last long, and we soon began to urge war upon each other.
The casus belli was a field of sugar-cane which I had
planted on the newly cleared jungle.
"Every beast of the field seemed league against this
devoted patch of sugar-cane. The wild elephants came and
browzed in it; the jungle hogs rooted it up, and munched
it at their leisure; the jackals gnawed the stalks into squash;
and the wild deer ate the tops of the young plants. Against
all these marauders there was an obvious remedy,-to build
a stout fence round the cane-field. This was done accord-
ingly; and a deep trench dug outside, that even the wild
elephant did not deem it prudent to cross. The wild hogs


came and inspected the trench and the palisades beyond.
A bristly old tusker was observed taking a survey of the
defences; but, after mature deliberation, he gave two short
grunts, the porcine (language), I imagined, for 'No go,' and
took himself off at a round trot, to pay a visit to my neigh-
bour Ram Chunder, and inquire how his little plot of sweet
yams was coming on. The jackals sniffed at every crevice,
and determined to wait a bit; but the monkeys laughed the
whole entrenchment to scorn. Day after day was I doomed
to behold my canes devoured as fast as they ripened, by
troops of jubilant monkeys. It was of no use attempting to
drive them away. When disturbed, they merely retreated
to the nearest tree, dragging whole stalks of sugar-cane along
with them, and then spurted the chewed fragments in my
face, as I looked up at them. This was adding insult to
injury; and I positively began to grow bloodthirsty at the
idea of being outwitted by monkeys. The case between us
might have been stated in this way. 'I have, at much
trouble and expense, cleared and cultivated this jungle land,'
said I. 'More fool you,' said the monkeys. 'I have
planted and watched over these sugar-canes.' 'Watched!
Ah, ahl so have we, for the matter of that.' 'But surely
I have a right to reap what I sowed.' 'Don't see it,' said
the monkeys; 'the jungle, by rights prescriptive and indefeas-
ible, is ours, and has been so ever since the days of Ram
Hanuman of the long tail. If you cultivate the jungle with-
out our consent, you must look to the consequences. If you
don't like our customs, you may get about your business.
We don't want you.' I kept brooding over this mortifying
view of the matter, until one morning I hatched revenge in
a practicable shape. A tree, with about a score of monkeys
on it, was cut down, and half a dozen of the youngest were
caught as they attempted to escape. A large pot of ghow
(treacle) was then mixed with as much tarter emetic as could
be spared from the medicine chest, and the young hopefuls


after being carefully painted over with the compound, were
allowed to return to their distressed relatives, who, as soon
as they arrived, gathered round them and commenced licking
them with the greatest assiduity. The results I had anticipated
were not long in making their appearance. A more melan-
choly sight it was impossible to behold; but so efficacious
was this treatment, that for more than two years I hardly
ever saw a monkey in the neighbourhood."
The Monkey Tavernier was once travelling from Agra to
Arouaed. Surat with the English president, when passing
within a few miles of Amenabad through a forest of mangoes,
they experienced the danger of provoking such companies. He
says. "We saw a vast number of very large apes, male and
female, many of the latter having their young in their arms. We
were each of us in our coaches; and the English president
stopped his to tell me that he had a very fine new gun; and
knowing that I was a good marksman, desired me to try it,
by shooting one of the apes. One of my servants, who was
a native of the country, made a sign to me not to do it;
and I did all that was in my power to dissuade the gentle-
man from his design, but to no purpose; for he immediately
levelled his piece, and shot a she ape, who fell through the
branches of the tree on which she was sitting, her young ones
tumbling at the same time out of her arms on the ground.
We presently saw that happen which my servant apprehended;
for all the apes, to the number of sixty, came immediately
down from the trees, and attacked the president's coach with
such fury that they must infallibly have destroyed him if
all who were present had not flown to his relief, and by
drawing up the windows, and posting all the servants about
the coach, protected him from their resentment." That
diplomacy is better than war in dealing with bands of mon-
keys is shown by comparing the results of the foregoing


TheMonkeys' That monkeys are capable of very poignant
Affection. feeling is shown by the following pathetic story.
Mr. Forbes, in his "Oriental Memoirs," says :-"On a shoot-
ing party one of my friends killed a female monkey, and
carried it to his tent, which was soon surrounded by forty or
fifty of the tribe, who made a great noise, and in a menacing
posture advanced towards it. On presenting his fowling-piece
they retreated, but one stood his ground, chattering and
menacing in a furious manner. He at length came close to
the, tent door, and finding that his threatening were of no
avail, began a lamentable moaning, and by every expression
of grief and supplication seemed to beg the body of the
deceased. On this it was given to him. He took it up in
his arms, eagerly pressed it to his bosom, and carried it off
in a sort of triumph to his expecting companions. The artless
behaviour of this poor animal wrought so powerfully on the
sportsmen that they resolved never more to level a gun at
one of the monkey tribe."
American To visit the family of the Cebide we have to
Monkeys. cross the Atlantic Ocean, and here we find
characteristics with which the monkeys of the East are un-
familiar, while we miss others which are common to the
monkeys of the old world. In passing from East to West
we lose the cheek-pouch characteristic and we find that of
the prehensile tail. There are more than eighty species in
the family of the Cebidae, divided into ten genera and grouped
in four sub-families. The first of the sub-families includes
the monkeys with prehensile tails.
The Capuchin The capuchins belong to the genus Cebu
Monkey. which includes the majority of American monkeys.
There are a number of species of which the Brown Capuchin
(Brazil), the Wheeper Capuchin (Brazil), and the White-throated
Capuchin (Central America) are the bestknown.
The Spider The Spider Monkey is of the genus Ateles and
Monkeys, is one of the best known of the Cebidae family.


In it the prehensile tail reaches its perfection. It is a
remarkably sensitive organ, answering the purpose, as the Rev.
J. G. Wood puts it, of "a fifth hand," being capable of use
"for any purpose to which the hand could be applied," and
for hooking out objects from places "where a hand could
not be inserted." According to Mr. Wood they wrap their
tails about them to protect themselves from cold, to which
they are very sensitive, and hold on by them to the branches
of trees with such tenacity that they remain suspended after
death. The prehensile part of the tail is naked and of
extreme sensibility. The tail is also used to preserve balance
when walking erect, for which purpose it is thrown up and
curled over. The appearance of these monkeys, as they leap
from branch to branch in their native woods, swinging by
their tails, and often hanging on to those of each other, until
a living bridge is formed from tree to tree, is exceedingly
The Howling The Howling Monkeys form the single genus
Monkeys. of the second sub-family of the Cebidae-the
genus Mycetes. There are a number of species, popularly
known as the "Golden Howler," the "Black Howler," &c. &c.
They are chiefly characteristic for the attribute to which they
owe their name. The howl is a loud mournful cry which
can be heard at a great distance, and is said by Wallace to
proceed from the leader of the band who howls for the whole
company. These animals are larger and more clumsy than
the spider monkeys and therefore less agile; they have powerful,
prehensile tails. The Howler "is much prized by the Indians
as an article of food.
The Bearded The third sub-family of the Cebida includes
Saki. some dozen species which inhabit the forests of
Equatorial America. They are of the genus Pithecia, and
some species have broad beards and bushy tails. The head
of the Bearded Saki (Pilhecia Satanas) has a singularly
human appearance.


The The fourth sub-family of the Cebidme includes
Douroucouli. several genera and a number of species, of these
the Douroucouli (Nyctipithecus felines) is one of the most
interesting. It is a small monkey, measuring only thirteen
inches, apart from its tail, which is eighteen inches long:
It is catlike in some of its habits, sleeping during the day,
and prowling about at night in search of food, which it
inds in fruits, insects and small birds. It has a catlike
mew, though it often makes a louder cry more resembling
the noise of the jaguar.
The Marmosets. The fifth family of the quadrumana com-
prises the marmosets, of which there are two genera-the
Hapale and the Midas. These are very small, measuring
about eight inches without the tail, which is eleven inches
long. The marmoset is one of the prettiest of the monkeys,
and, though at first shy, soon becomes playful and affection-
ate. Marmosets are one of the few species that breed in
confinement. Sir William Jardine describes a marmoset who
gave birth to three offspring in Paris. One of these, for
some reason, displeased her, and she killed it, but upon the
others beginning to suck the maternal instinct awoke, and
she became as affectionate as she was before careless. "The
male seemed more affectionate and careful of them than the
mother, and assisted in the charge. The young generally
keep upon the back or under the belly of the female, and
Cuvier observed, that when the female was tired of carrying
them, she would approach the male with a shrill cry, who
immediately relieved her with his hands, placing them upon
his back, or under his belly, where they held themselves
and were carried about until they became restless for milk,
when they were given over to the mother who, in her turn,
would again endeavour to get rid of them."
SUB-ORDER II. The lemurs and their allied forms make up
The Lemurs. the remaining families of the quadrumana.
These are three. The Lemuride, of which there are many


species, most of which belong to Madagascar, others to Africa,
Asia, and the Indian Archipelago; the Tarside, which hail from
Sumatra and Borneo; and the Chiromyide, of which the aye-
aye is the representative. The Lemuridce are divided into
four sub-families by Professor Mivart. I, the Indri; II, the
true Lemurs; III, the slow Lemurs and IV, the Galagos.
The lemur is nocturnal in its habits and noiseless in its
movements. Some of its species much resemble the cat in
appearance though its four hands unmistakably demonstrate
its order. Sir William Jones describes a Slow Lemur (Nycticebus
tardigradus), which he had in his possession, as "gentle ex-
cept in the cold season, when his temper seemed wholly
changed." This animal expressed great resentment when
disturbed unseasonably. From half an hour after sunrise to
half an hour before sunset he slept without any intermission,
rolled up like a hedgehog: and as soon as he awoke he
began to prepare himself for the occupations of his approach-
ing day, licking and dressing himself like a cat-an operation
which the flexibility of his neck and limbs enabled him to
perform very completely. He was then ready for a slight
breakfast, after which he commonly took a short nap; but
when the sun was quite set he recovered all his vivacity.
" Generally he was not voracious, but of grasshoppers he never
could have enough; and passed the whole night during the
hot season in prowling for them. He used all his paws
indifferently as hands." Mrs. Bowdich tells of one of these
animals, procured by Mr. Baird at Prince of Wales Island,
who shared a cage with a dog to whom he became greatly
attached, while nothing could reconcile him to a cat, which
constantly jumped over his back, causing him great annoyance.
The Tarsier. The tarsier (Tarsius spectrum) is a small, kitten..
faced animal with long hind legs, which enable it to leap
like a frog. It is nocturnal in habit, and is found in Sumatra,
Borneo, and elsewhere.
The Aye-Aye. The aye-aye (Chiromys madagascariensis) is


a remarkable little animal resembling, as Professor Owen says,
in size and shape the domestic cat, its head and ears being
larger, and its hind legs and tail longer than those of the
cat. Dr. Sandwich, writing of one he had in his possession,
says:-"The thick sticks I put into his cage were bored in
all directions by a large and destructive grub, called the
montouk. Just at sunset the aye-aye crept from inder his
blanket, yawned, stretched and betook himself to his tree.
Presently he came to one of the worm-eaten branches, which
he began to examine most attentively, and bending forward
his ears, and applying his nose close to the bark, he rapidly
tapped the surface with the curious second digit, as a wood-
pecker taps a tree, though with much less noise, from time
to time inserting the end of the slender finger into the
worm-holes as a surgeon would a probe. At length he came
to a part of the branch which evidently gave out an inter-
esting sound, for he began to tear it with his strong teeth.
He rapidly stripped off the bark, cut into the wood, and
exposed the nest of a grub which he daintily picked out of
its bed, with the slender, tapping finger, and conveyed the
luscious morsel to his mouth. But I was yet to learn another
peculiarity. I gave him water to drink in a saucer, on which
he stretched out his hand, dipped a finger into it and drew
it obliquely through his open mouth. After a while he lapped
like a cat, but his first mode of drinking appeared to me to
be his way of reaching water in the deep clefts of trees."
ORDER II. The animals which most nearly resemble the
Wing-Handed four-handed animals or quadrumana are the
Animal wing-handed animals,-the bats or Cheiroptera.
These are of singular appearance and interesting habit. "If,"
says the Rev. J. G. Wood, "the fingers of a man were to be
drawn out like wire to about four feet in length, a thin
membrane to extend from finger to finger, and another
membrane to fall from the little finger to the ankles, he
would make a very tolerable imitation of a bat."-Of course,

,_ .. i'




(Otolicnus galago) (Cheiromys madagascariensis)


it should be added, making allowance for proportion, the
full grown male bat, of the largest species, rarely exceeding
twelve inches in height from head to foot. Bats' wings are
highly nervous and sensitive, so much so as to render their
owners almost independent of sight. Besides being "well
adapted for flight," says Dr. Percival Wright, "they are still
capable in a small measure of seizing, differing thus from
the anterior limbs of Birds."
Bats. Dr. Dobson divides the order Cheiroptera into
two sub-orders: I, The Great Bats and II, The Smaller Bats.
Of these there are numerous genera and a large number of
species. THE GREAT BATS abound in the tropical and sub-
tropical regions of the East, where they live on fruit, and
from this circumstance are classified as "fruit-eating bats,"
though they are sometimes called "flying-foxes." The largest
of these inhabit Sumatra and Java, living in large companies,
sleeping by day and foraging by night. A large tree serves
them for a sleeping-chamber, where, suspending themselves
head downwards from the branches, they wrap their wings
about them in lieu of blankets and sleep out the sunshine.
After sunset they gradually awake and proceed to ravage
any fruit preserves which may be within reach, committing
serious depredations while the owners outsleep the moon.
According to Mr. Francis Day, "they do very great injury
to cocoa-nut plantations and mangoe gardens." "Their
habits," says Mr. Day, "are very intemperate, and they often
pass the night drinking the toddy from the chatties in the
cocoa-nut trees, which results either in their returning home
in the early morning in a state of extreme and riotous
intoxication, or in being found the next day at the foot of
the trees, sleeping off the effects of their midnight debauch."
THE SMALLER BATS include several families, numerous genera,
and a large number of species to be found in almost all
parts of the world. These bats are chiefly insect-eaters,
though included among them are the vampire bats and the


Megaderma lyra which have the reputation of being cannibalistic.
The various families are "The Horseshoe Bats," "The
Nycteride," "The Vespertilionide," "The Emballonuride,"
and "The Phyllostomida."
The The common English bats belong to the
Common Vespertilionide. The Pipistrelle feeds upon
English Bats. insects but will eat flesh if opportunity serves.
In his "Natural History of Selbourne," Mr. White describes
a tame bat which he saw, which would take flies out of a
person's hand. "If you gave it anything to eat," he says,
"it brought its wings round before the mouth, hovering and
hiding its head in the manner of birds of prey when they
feed. The adroitness it showed in shearing off the wings
of the flies, which were always rejected, pleased me much.
Insects seemed to be most acceptable, though it did not
refuse raw flesh when offered; so that the notion that bats
go down chimneys and gnaw men's bacon seems no improbable
story." The Long-eared Bat, Plecotus aurilus, is also common
in England. "Its ears," says Mr. Wood, "are about an inch
and a half in length and have a fold in them reaching almost
to the lips," hence its name. "It is very easily tamed."
Te The Vampire Bat which belongs to South
Vampire America has been invested with a halo of romance
Bat. by the stories which have been told about its
sanguinary character. "It lives," says the Rev. J. G. Wood,
"on the blood of animals, and sucks usually while its victim
sleeps. The extremities, where the blood flows freely, as the
toe of a man, the ears of a horse, or the combs and wattles
of fowls, are its favorite spots. When it has selected a
subject, on which it intends to feed, it watches until the
animal is fairly asleep. It then carefully fans its victim with
its wings while it bites a little hole in the ear or shoulder,
and through this small aperture, into which a pin's head
would scarcely pass, it contrives to abstract sufficient blood
to make a very ample meal. The wound is so small, and


the bat manages so adroitly, that the victim does not discover
that anything has happened until the morning, when a pool
of blood betrays the visit of the vampire. "The Vampire
Bat," says Professor Darwin, "is often the cause of much
trouble by biting the horses on their withers. The injury
is not so much owing to the loss of blood, as to the inflammation
which the pressure of the saddle afterwards produces. The
whole circumstance has lately been doubted in England. I
was therefore fortunate in being present when one was actually
caught on a horse's back. We were bivouacking late one
evening, near Coquimbo, in Chili, when my servant, noticing
that one of the horses was very restive, went to see what was
the matter, and fancying he could distinguish something,
suddenly put his hand on the beast's withers, and secured
the vampire. In the morning the spot where the bite had
been inflicted was easily distinguished by its being slightly
swollen and bloody. The third day afterwards we rode the
horse without any ill effects."
A Traveler's Captain Steadman, in his "Narrative of a Five
Experience. Years' Expedition against the Revolted Negroes
of Surinam," relates, that on waking about four o'clock one
morning in his hammock, he was extremely alarmed at finding
himself weltering in congealed blood, and without feeling any
pain whatever. "The mystery was," continues Captain Stead-
man, "that I had been bitten by the Vampyre or Spectre of
Guiana, which is also called the Flying Dog of New Spain,
and by the Spaniards, Perrovolador. This is no other than
a bat of monstrous size, that sucks the blood from men and
cattle while they are fast asleep, even sometimes till they die;
and as the manner in which they proceed is truly wonderful,
I shall endeavour to give a distinct account of it. Knowing,
by instinct, that the person they intend to attack is in a
sound slumber, they generally alight near the feet, where,
while the creature continues fanning with his enormous wings,
which keeps one cool, he bites a piece out of the tip of the


great toe, so very small, indeed, that the head of a pin could
scarcely be received into the wound, which is consequently
not painful; yet through this orifice he continues to suck the
blood until he is obliged to disgorge. Cattle they generally
bite in the ear, but always in places where the blood flows
Megaderma The Vampire Bat of South America has long
Lra been credited with sanguinivorous habits, and
until recently was supposed to be the only bat having such
propensities. Mr. Edward Blyth has, however, shown that
the Megaderma Lyra of Asia will sometimes prey upon the
smaller species of bat with which it comes in contact. Mr.
Blyth, one evening, observed a rather large bat of this species
enter an outhouse, whereupon he procured a light, closed
the door to prevent escape and then proceeded to catch
the intruder. In the chase the bat dropped what Mr. Blyth
at first took to be a young one, but which proved to be
a small Vespertilio Bat, "feeble from loss of blood, which
it was evident the Megaderma had been sucking from a
large, and still bleeding, wound under and behind the ear."
As the Megaderma had not alighted while in the outhouse,
Mr. Blyth concluded "that it sucked the vital current from
its victim as it flew, having probably seized it on the wing,
and that it was seeking a quiet nook where it might devour
the body at leisure." Having caught the Megaderma Mr.
Blyth kept both specimens until the next day, and having
examined each separately put them both into a cage, where-
upon the Megaderma attacked the smaller bat "with the
ferocity of a tiger"; finding it impossible to escape the cage
"it hung by the hind legs to one side of its prison, and aftei
sucking the victim till no more blood was left commenced
devouring it, and soon left nothing but the head and some
portions of the limbs." "The voidings observed shortly
afterwards in its cage," says Mr. Blyth, "resembled clotted
blood, which will explain the statement of Steadman and


others concerning masses of congealed blood being observed
near a patient who has been attacked by a South American
ORDER III. Insect-eating animals (Insectivora) include
Insect-Eating several families, of which the hedgehogs, the
Animals. moles and the shrews, are the best known genera.
The Colugo is perhaps the most singular member of the
order. According to some writers his proper place is among
the lemurs, and except that his feet are adorned with
claws instead of nails, it is easy to understand why he
might be classed with the quadrumana. The Colugo is
covered from head to foot by a furry membrane, resembling
an overcoat open in front and ending in a three cornered
flap at the tail.
The The family of the hedgehog contains two genera
Hedgehog. and a number of species. Its length is from six
to ten inches; the head, back, and sides being covered with
short spines, the under parts with soft hair. It lives in
thickets, and subsists on fruits, roots, and insects. During the
winter, it lies imbedded in moss, or dried leaves, in a state of
torpidity. It inhabits Europe, Asia and Africa. It is valuable
in the garden for destroying the insects, and in the kitchen
for the extermination of cockroaches, beetles and other house-
hold pests. For defence, it rolls itself into a ball in such a
manner as to present its prickly spines on all sides. In this
condition it can suffer considerable violence without injury.
Mr. Bell mentions a hedgehog that was in the habit of
running to the edge of an area wall twelve or fourteen feet
high, and without a moment's pause, leap over, contracting
into a ball as he fell, and in this form reaching the ground,
where it quietly unfolded itself as if nothing had happened
and ran on its way. It is nocturnal in its habits and in its
natural state lives in pairs. It is easily tamed. A hedgehog
has been trained to serve as a turnspit "as well," says Captain
Brown, "in all respects as the dog of that denomination. In


a wild state it has been known to attack and kill a leveret.
In attacking a snake it will roll itself up between its bites and
thus protect itself against retaliation.
The Mole. The family of the Talpidae to which the mole
belongs is a large and interesting one. The common mole
"when at rest," says the author of "Tales of Animals," "bears
more resemblance to a small stuffed sack than to a living
animal, its head being entirely destitute of external ears, and
elongated nearly to a point, and its eyes so extremely small
and completely hidden by the fur, that it would not be sur-
prising should a casual observer conclude it to be blind. This
apparently shapeless mass is endowed with great activity and
a surprising degree of strength, and is excellently suited for
deriving enjoyment from the peculiar life it is designed to lead.
It is found abundantly in Europe and North America, from
Canada to Virginia; often living at no great distance from
water-courses, or in dykes thrown up to protect meadows
from inundation. The mole burrows with great quickness,
and travels under ground with much celerity; nothing can be
better constructed for this purpose than its broad and strong
hands, or fore paws, armed with long and powerful claws,
which are very sharp at their extremities, and slightly curved
on the inside. Numerous galleries, communicating with each
other, enable the mole to travel in various directions, without
coming to the surface, which they appear to do very rarely,
unless their progress is impeded by a piece of ground so hard
is to defy their strength and perseverance. The depth of
their burrows depends very materially on the character of
the soil, and the situation of the place; sometimes running
for a great distance, at a depth of from one to three inches,
and sometimes much deeper. Moles are most active early
in the morning, at midday, and in the evening; after rains
they are particularly busy in repairing their damaged galleries;
and in long continued wet weather we find that they seek
the high grounds for security."


An enterprising Though as Captain Brown points out nothing
Mole. is more fatal to the mole than excessive rain,
which fills their subterranean galleries with water; the follow-
ing statement made by Mr. A. Bruce in the Linnaean Trans-
actions, shows that the animal is not without enterprise on
the water:-" On visiting the Loch of Clunie, which I often
did, I observed in it a small island at the distance of one
hundred and eighty yards from the nearest land, measured
to be so upon the ice. Upon the island, the Earl of Airly,
the proprietor, has a castle and small shrubbery. I remarked
frequently the appearance of fresh mole casts, or hills. I for
some time took them for those of the water mouse, and one
day asked the gardener if it was so. No, said he, it was
the mole; and that he had caught one or two lately. Five
or six years ago, he caught two in traps; and for two years
after this he had observed none. But, about four years ago,
coming ashore one summer's evening in the dusk, with the
Earl of Airly's butler, they saw at a short distance, upon the
smooth water, some animal paddling towards the island. They
soon closed with this feeble passenger, and found it to be
the common mole, led by a most astonishing instinct from
the castle hill, the nearest point of land, to take possession
of this desert island. It had been, at the time of my visit,
for the space of two years quite free from any subterraneous
inhabitant; but the mole has, for more than a year past,
made its appearance again, and its operations I have since
been witness to."
The Use of The use of the mole is often said to be far
the Mole. outweighed by the mischief he perpetrates, the
truth appearing to be that like many other animals, in his
own place he is valuable, out of it he is a source of danger.
Both conditions are illustrated by the following, which I quote
from Mrs. Bowdich's "Anecdotes of Animals."
"A French naturalist of the name of Henri Lecourt devoted
a great part of his life to the study of the habits and struc-


ture of moles; and he tells us that they will run as last as a
horse will gallop. By his observations he rendered essential
service to a large district in France; for he discovered that
numbers of moles had undermined the banks of a canal, and
that unless means were taken to prevent the catastrophe,
these banks would give way, and inundation would ensue.
By his ingenious contrivances and accurate knowledge of their
habits, he contrived to extirpate them before the occurrence
of further mischief. Moles, however, are said to be excellent
drainers of land; and Mr. Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, used
to declare that if a hundred men and horses were employed
to dress a pasture farm of 1500 or 2000 acres, they would
not do it as effectually as moles would do, if left to them-
selves. "
The shrew. The shrew family is a large one and widely
distributed over the surface of the earth. The common shrew
(Sorex vulgaris) is that best known in England. It resembles
the mouse in general form and varies in size and colour, its usual
length, including the tail being about four and a half inches.
Its body is moderately full, its neck short, its head tapering
to a pointed snout, the fore-feet small, the hind-feet larger
and the tail shorter than the body. The shrew is generally
found either in burrows, or among heaps of stones, or in
holes made by other animals; near dung heaps or hayricks,
they are more numerous than elsewhere. Insects are their
principal subsistence, but they seem no less fond of grain,
and show a pig's predilection for filth of various sorts. Its
principal enemies are the Kestrel and the Barn OwL A
superstition to the effect that if the shrew should ran over
the legs of a cow or a horse while reposing on the grass it
causes lameness, is also responsible for the destruction of many
by ignorant country folk. One species of the shrew enjoys
the reputation of being the smallest living mammel; it is but
an inch and a half long with a tail of an inch in length.
The water shrew is somewhat larger than the common shrew



(Felis leo)

C-EE t-H

Plate No. 3


attaining to a length of five and a half inches including the
tail. The water shrew colonises on the banks of rivers.
ORDER IV. The order of flesh-eating animals (ca nivera)
Flesh-eating includes a large number of species among which
Animals, are the lion, the tiger and the leopard, as
well as the cat and the dog. The two sub-orders into
which this order is divided are: I, The Fissipedia, and II, The
Pinnipedia. The Fissipedia are again divided into ten fami-
lies; lions, cats, dogs, hyenas, weasels, and bears being the
most important members. The Pinnipedia includes the seal,
the sea lion, the walrus and their allies.
Animals of the cat kind are distinguished
The Fissipedia. by their sharp and formidable claws, which
Animals of the they can hide or extend at pleasure. They
Cat Kind. are remarkable for their rapacity, subsisting
entirely on the flesh and blood of other animals. The dog,
wolf, and bear, are sometimes known to live on vegetables,
or farinaceous food; but the lion, the tiger, the leopard, and
other animals of this class, devour nothing but flesh, and
would starve upon any other provision. They lead a solitary,
ravenous life, uniting neither for mutual defence, like vegetable
feeders, nor for mutual support, like those of the dog kind.
The first of the class is the lion, distinguished from all the
rest by his strength, his magnitude, and his mane. The
second is the tiger, rather longer than the lion, but not so
tall, and known by the streaks and vivid beauty of its skin;
here we may also mention the puma, which is sometimes
called a panther, or colloquially a "painter", otherwise a
couguar, or American lion, which is of a tawny colour. The
next is the leopard, sometimes called a panther, and the next
the jaguar, followed by the ounce, not so large as any of the
former, spotted like them, but distinguished by the cream-
coloured ground of its hair, and a tail so long as to exceed
the length of its body. The next is the catamountain, or
tiger-cat, less than the ounce, but differing particularly in


having a shorter tail, and being streaked down the back like
a tiger. The next is the lynx, of the size of a fox, with its
body streaked, and the tips of its ears tufted with black.
Then comes the Persian lynx, not so large as the lynx, not
mottled like it, but with longer ears, tipped also with black,
and the serval, shaped and streaked like the lynx, but not
having the tips of its ears tufted. Lastly, the cat, wild and
tame, with all its varieties; less than any of the former, but
like them insidious, rapacious, and cruel.
The Lion. The lion is known as the King of Beasts;
though modern travellers have done much to rob him of
the homage that he once received. Like a human being
who has been too much lionized, he suffers from the detrac-
tions which are excited by his pre-eminence. He is found
chiefly in India and Africa, though he once had a more
extended range. He was well known to the Greeks, and
appears in both their poetry and history. Homer celebrates
him, and according to Herodotus he exploited himself by
attacking the camels of the army of Xerxes. His noble
appearance is said to be responsible for the popular ideal of
his character, which travellers and naturalists declare to be
minus the magnanimous and generous qualities with which
it was at one time credited.
The Lion's In judging of the lion's character it is import-
Character. ant to remember that he belongs to the cat family,
and that his virtues and vices are naturally of the cat kind.
" The lion seldom runs," says the author of "Tales of Animals."
" He either walks or creeps, or, for a short distance, advances
rapidly by great bounds. It is evident, therefore, that he
must seize, his prey by stealth; that he is not fitted for an
open attack; and that his character is necessarily that of
great power, united to considerable skill and cunning in its
exercise." Again, the lion, as well as others of the cat
tribe, takes his prey at night; and it is necessary, therefore,
that he should have peculiar organs of vision. In all those


animals which seek their food in the dark, the eye is usually
of a large size, to admit a great number of rays. This
peculiar kind of eye, therefore, is necessary to the Lion to
perceive his prey, and he creeps towards it with a certainty
which nothing but this distinct nocturnal vision, could give."
Men who hunt the lion in the daytime, when he is usually
sleeping off the effects of a hearty meal, and who awaken
him in a surprised and dazed condition when his cat-like eyes
cannot bear the blaze of the sun, ought not to be surprised
if he tries to postpone fighting until a more convenient season.
Nor can he be said to be less noble because he only fights
when it is necessary to procure food, to protect his young,
and to defend himself. A veritable Ulysses among the
beasts he is ready to fight if needs be, but unless urged by
hunger, or attacked by the hunter, he does not seem to bear
any particular malice against mankind.
The Lion's It is singular," says Sparrman, "that the lion,
Attitude which, according to many, always kills his prey
towards Man. immediately if it belongs to the brute creation,
is reported, frequently, although provoked, to content himself
with merely wounding the human species; or, at least, to wait
some time before he gives the fatal blow to the unhappy
victim he has got under him. A farmer, who the year
before had the misfortune to be a spectator of a lion seizing
two of his oxen, at the very instant he had taken them out
of the waggon, told me that they immediately fell down
dead upon the spot, close to each other; though, upon
examining the carcasses afterwards, it appeared that their
backs only had been broken. In several places through
which I passed, they mentioned to me by name a father
and his two sons, who were said to be still living, and who,
being on foot near a river on their estate, in search of a
lion, this latter had rushed out upon them, and thrown one
of them under his feet. The two others, however, had time
enough to shoot the lion dead upon the spot, which had


lain almost across the youth, so nearly and dearly related
to them, without having done him any particular hurt. I
myself saw, near the upper part of Duyvenhoek River, an
elderly Hottentot who, at that time (his wounds being still
open), bore under one eye, and underneath his cheek bone
the ghastly marks of the bite of a lion, which did not think
it worth his while to give him any other chastisement for
having, together with his master (whom I also knew), and
several other Christians, hunted him with great intrepidity,
though without success. The conversation ran everywhere
in this part of the country upon one Bota, a farmer and
captain in the militia, who had lain for sometime under a
lion, and had received several bruises from the beast, having
been at the same time a good deal bitten by him in one
arm, as a token to remember him by; but, upon the whole,
had, in a manner, had his life given him by this noble animal.
The man was said then to be living in the district of Artaquas-
Discretion the The following seems to show a curious power
better part of of reasoning on the part of the lion. Diederik
Valour. Muller, one of the most intrepid and successful
of modem lion-hunters in South Africa, had," says Sir
William Jardine, "been out alone hunting in the wilds, when
he came suddenly upon a lion, which, instead of giving way,
seemed disposed, from the angry attitude he assumed, to
dispute with him the dominion of the desert. Diederik
instantly alighted, and confident of his unerring aim levelled
his gun at the forehead of the lion, who was couched in the
act to spring, within fifteen paces of him; but at the moment
the hunter, fired, his horse, whose bridle was round his
arm, started back and caused him to miss. The lion, bounded
forward, but stopped within a few paces, confronting Diederik
who stood defenceless, his gun discharged, and his horse
running off. The man and the beast stood looking at each
other in the face for a short space. At length the lion


moved backward as if to go away. Diederik began to load
his gun, the lion looked over his shoulder, growled, and
returned. Diederik stood still. The lion again moved cau-
tiously off, and the Boer proceeded to load and ram down
his bullet. The lion again looked back and growled angrily;
and this occurred repeatedly, until the animal had got off
to some distance when he took fairly to his heels and
bounded away."
The Strength Whatever may be said of the lion's courage,
of the there can be no doubt as to his strength. Burchell
Lion. thus describes an encounter with a lion. "The
day was exceedingly pleasant and not a cloud was to be seen.
For a mile or two we travelled along the banks of the river,
which in this part abounded in late mat-rushes. The dogs
seemed much to enjoy prowling about and examining every
rushy place, and at last met with some object among the
rushes which caused them to set up a most vehement and
determined barking. We explored the spot with caution as
we suspected, from the peculiar tone of the bark, that it was
what it proved to be-lions. Having encouraged the dogs to
drive them out, a task which they performed with great
willingness, we had a full view of an enormous black-maned
lion and lioness. The latter was seen only for a minute, as
she made her escape up the river under concealment of the
rushes; but the lion came steadily forward, and stood still
and looked at us. At this moment we felt our situation not
free from danger, as the animal seemed preparing to spring
upon us, and we were standing on the bank, at a distance
of only a few yards from him, most of us being on foot,
and unarmed, without any visible possibility of escaping. At
this instant the dogs boldly flew in between us and the lion,
and surrounding him, kept him at bay by their violent and
resolute barking. The lion, conscious of his strength, remained
unmoved at their noisy attempts and kept his head turned
towards us. At one moment, the dogs perceiving his eye


thus engaged, had advanced close to his feet, and seemed
as if they would actually seize hold of him; but they paid
dearly for their imprudence, for, without discomposing the
majestic and steady attitude in which he stood fixed, he
merely moved his paw, and the next instant I beheld two
lying dead. In doing this he made so little exertion, that it
was scarcely perceptible by what means they had been killed.
We fired upon him, and one of the balls went through his
side, just between the short ribs, but the animal still remained
standing in the same position. We had now no doubt that
he would spring upon us, but happily we were mistaken and
were not sorry to see him move slowly away."
The Lion's Many instances are on record of strong
Affection attachments formed by the lion for his keeper,
and for dogs or other animals which have been associated
with him. A remarkable example of this kind is related, where
a little dog, which had been thrown into a lion's den that
he might be devoured, was not only spared by the noble
animal, but became his companion and favourite. In a
moment of irritation caused by long hunger, the dog, having
snapped at the first morsels of food, received a blow from
the lion which proved fatal. From that time the lion
pined away, refused his food, and at length died, apparently
of melancholy.
The Lion's A carpenter was employed some years ago to
Docility. do some repairs to the cage of a lion at a
menagerie at Brussels. When the workman saw the lion
he drew back in terror. The keeper, on this, entered the
cage and led the animal to the upper part of it, while the
lower was refitting. He there amused himself for some time
playing with the lion, and being wearied he fell asleep.
The carpenter, having finished his work, called the keeper
to inspect what he had done, but the keeper made no
answer. Having repeatedly called in vain he became alarmed
and proceeded to the upper part of the cage, where, looking


through the bars, he saw the lion and the keeper lying side
by side, and immediately uttered a loud cry. The lion
started up and stared at the carpenter with an eye of fury, and
then, placing his paw on the breast of his keeper, lay down
to sleep again. The carpenter, terrified at what he saw, ran
off to secure help, whereupon some of the attendants suc-
ceeded in arousing the keeper who, far from being disconcerted
by the circumstances, took the paw of the lion and shook
it gently in token of regard and the animal quietly returned
with him to his former residence. M. Felix, the keeper of
the animals at Paris, had charge of a lion which refused
food, and became sullen and mopish during the temporary
absence of M. Felix through illness, but who regained his
spirits and showed every demonstration of joy upon the
reappearance of M. Felix at his post of duty.
The Story of With so many authentic instances which can
Androcles. be cited of the amenability of the lion to kindly
influences, the story of Androcles and the lion does not seem so
improbable as it has been sometimes thought. The following
is the story:-In the days of ancient Rome, a Roman governor
treated one of his slaves or subjects, called Androcles, so
cruelly that he ran away. To escape pursuit he fled to a
desert and crept into a cave. What was his horror to find
that this cave was a lion's den, and to see a large lion
approach him I He expected instantly to be destroyed; but
the lion, approaching Androcles, held up his paw or foot
with a supplicating air. Androcles examined the lion's paw,
and found a thorn in it which he drew out, and the lion,
apparently relieved, fawned upon his benefactor as a dog
does upon his master. After some time Androcles ventured
back to the place where he lived before. He was discovered,
taken up as a runaway slave, and condemned to be the prey
of a wild beast. He was accordingly thrown into a place
where a large lion, recently caught, was let in upon him.
The lion came bounding toward Androcles, and the spec-


tators expected to see the man instantly torn in pieces. What
was their astonishment to see the lion approach him, and
fawn before him like a dog who had found his master It
was the lion Androcles had met in the desert, and the
grateful animal would not rend his benefactor.
A Lion Hunt. Livingstone came to very close quarters with
a lion on one occasion, the circumstances of which he thus
narrates. "The Bakatla of the village Mabotsa, were much
troubled by lions, which leaped into the cattle-pens by night
and destroyed their cows. They even attacked the herds in
open day. This was so unusual an occurrence that the people
believed that they were bewitched, 'given' as they said,
into the power of the lions by a neighboring tribe. They
went once to attack the animals, but being rather a cowardly
people compared to Bechuanas in general on such occasions,
they returned without killing any. It is well known that if
one in a troop of lions is killed, the others take the hint
and leave that part of the country. So the next time the
herds were attacked, I went with the people in order to
encourage them to rid themselves of the annoyance by
destroying one of the marauders. We found the lions on
a small hill, about a quarter of a mile in length and covered
with trees. A circle of men was formed round it, and they
gradually closed up, ascending pretty near to each other.
Being down below on the plain with a native schoolmaster,
named Mebalwe, I saw one of the lions sitting upon a
piece of rock, within the now closed circle of men. Meb.lwe
fired at him before I could, and the ball struck the rock
upon which the animal was sitting. He bit at the spot struck,
as a dog -does at a stick or a stone thrown at him, then,
leaping away, broke through the opening circle and escaped
unhurt. When the circle was reformed we saw two other
lions in it, but we were afraid to fire lest we should strike
the men; and they allowed the beasts to burst through also.
If the Bakitla had acted according to the custom of the


country, they would have speared the lions in their attempt
to get out. Seeing that we could not get them to kill one
of the lions, we bent our footsteps towards the village; in
going round the end of the hill, however, I saw one of the
beasts sitting on a piece of rock,las before, but this time he
had a little bush in front. Being about thirty yards off, I
took a good aim at his body through the bush, and fired
both barrels into in. The men then called out: 'He is shot!
He is shot!' Others cried: 'He has been shot by another
man, too; let us go to him.' I did not see anyone else shoot
at him, but I saw the lion's tail erected in anger behind the
bush, and turning to the people, said: 'Stop a little till I load
again.' When in the act of ramming down the bullets I heard
a shout. Starting, and looking half round, I saw the lion just
in the act of springing upon me. I was upon a little height,
He caught my shoulder as he sprang and we both came
to the ground below together. Growling horribly, close to my
ear, he shook me as a terrier dog does a rat. The shock
produced a stupor, similar to that which seems to be felt by
a mouse after the first shake of a cat. It caused a sort of
dreaminess, in which there was no sense of pain or feeling
of terror, though quite conscious of all that was happening.
It was like what patients partially under the influence
of chloroform describe, who see all the operation but feel
not the knife. This singular condition was not the result of
any mental process. The shake annihilated fear, and allowed
no sense of horror in looking round at the beast. This
peculiar state is probably produced in all animals killed by
the carnivora; and, if so, is a merciful provision by our
benevolent Creator for lessening the pain of death. Turning
round to relieve myself of the weight, as he had one paw
on the back of my head, I saw his eyes directed to Mebalwe,
who was trying to shoot him at a distance of ten or fifteen
yards. His gun, a flint one, missed fire in both barrels.
The lion immediately left me and attacking MebAlwe bit his


thigh. Another man, whose life I had saved before, aftei
he had been tossed by a buffalo, attempted to spear the
lion while he was biting Mebilwe. He left MebAlwe and
caught this man by the shoulder; but at that moment the
bullets he had received took effect, and he fell down dead.
The whole was the work of a few moments, and must have
been his paroxysm of dying rage. In order to take out the
charm from him, the Bakatla, on the following day, made a
huge bonfire over the carcass, which was declared to be
the largest lion they had ever seen. Besides crunching the
bone into splinters, he left eleven teeth wounds on the upper
part of my arm. A wound from this animal's tooth resembles
a gunshot wound. It is generally followed by a great deal
of sloughing and discharge, and pains are felt in the part
periodically ever after. I had on a tartan jacket on the
occasion, and I believe that it wiped off all the virus from
the teeth that pierced the flesh; for my two companions in
this affray have both suffered from the peculiar pains, while
I have escaped with only the inconvenience of a false joint in
my limb."
A Thrilling Professor Lichtenstein, in his "Travels" gives a
Experience. thrilling story of a Boer's adventure with a lion,
which he had from the lips of the Boer himself. It is now,"
said the colonist, "more than two years since, in the very
place where we stand, I ventured to take one of the most
daring shots that ever was hazarded. My wife was sitting
within the house near the door, the children were playing
about her, and I was without, near the house, busied in
doing something to a waggon, when suddenly, though it
was mid-day, an enormous lion appeared, came up and laid
himself quietly down in the shade upon the very threshold
of the door. My wife, either frozen with fear, or aware of
the danger of attempting to fly, remained motionless in her
place, while the children took refuge in her arms. The cry
they uttered attracted my attention, and I hastened towards


the door, but my astonishment may well be conceived when
I found the entrance to it barred in such a way. Although
the animal had not seen me, unarmed as I was escape
seemed impossible, yet I glided gently, scarcely knowing what
I meant to do, to the side of the house, up to the window
of my chamber, where I knew my loaded gun was standing.
By a most happy chance, I had set it into the corner close
by the window, so that I could reach it with my hand; for,
as you may perceive, the opening is too small to admit of
my having got in, and still more fortunately, the door of the
room was open, so that I could see the whole danger of
the scene. The lion was beginning to move. There was
no longer any time to think; I called softly to the mother
not to be alarmed, and invoking the name of the Lord,
fired my piece. The ball passed directly over the hair of
my boy's head and lodged in the forehead of the lion,
immediately above his eyes and stretched him on the ground,
so that he never stirred more." "Indeed," says Professor
Lichtenstein, "we all shuddered as we listened to this relation.
Never, as he himself observed, was a more daring attempt
hazarded. Had he failed in his aim, mother and children
were all inevitably lost; if the boy had moved he had been
struck; the least turn in the lion and the shot had not been
mortal to him; and to consummate the whole, the head of the
creature was in some sort protected by the door-post."
Attacked by In Phillips's "Researches in South Africa," the
a Lion. following account is given of the adventures of
a traveller which we quote from Jardine's Naturalists' Library
collated with other versions. "Our waggons, which were
obliged to take a circuitous route, arrived at last, and we
pitched our tent a musket-shot from the kraal, and, after
having arranged everything, went to rest, but were soon
disturbed; for, about midnight the cattle and horses, which
were standing between the waggons, began to start and
run, and one of the drivers to shout, on which every one


ran out of the tent with his gun. About thirty paces from
the tent stood a lion, which, on seeing us, walked very
deliberately about thirty paces farther, behind a small thorn-
bush, carrying something with him, which I took to be a
young ox. We fired more than sixty shots at that bush,
without perceiving any movement. The south-east wind blew
strong, the sky was clear, and the moon shone very bright,
so that we could perceive everything at that distance. After
the cattle had been quieted again, and I had looked over
everything, I missed the sentry from before the tent, Jan
Smit, from Antwerp. We called as loudly as possible, but
in vain; nobody answered, from which I concluded that the
lion had carried him off. Three or four men then advanced
very cautiously to the bush, which stood right opposite the
door of the tent, to see if they could discover anything of
the man, but returned helter-skelter; for the lion, who was
there still, rose up, and began to roar. They found there
the musket of the sentry, which was cocked, and also his cap
and shoes. We fired again about a hundred shots at the
bush, without perceiving anything of the lion, from which
we concluded that he was killed, or had run away. This
induced the marksman of our company to go and see if he
was still there or not, taking with him a firebrand. As soon
as he approached the bush, the lion roared terribly, and
leapt at him; on which he threw the firebrand at him, and
the other people having fired about ten shots at him, he
retired directly to his former place behind that bush. The
firebrand which he had thrown at the lion had fallen in the
midst of the bush, and, favoured by the strong south-east
wind, it began to burn with a great flame, so that we could
see very clearly into and through it. We continued our firing
into it until the night passed away, and the day began to
break, when seven men were posted on the farthest waggons
to watch him, and to take aim at him if he should come
out. At last, before it became quite light, he walked up the


hill, with the man in his mouth, when about forty shots were
fired without hitting him, although some were very near.
Every time this happened, he turned round towards the tent,
and came roaring towards us; and, I am of opinion, that if
he had been hit, he would have rushed on the people and
the tent. When it became broad daylight, we perceived, by
the blood, and a piece of the clothes of the man, that the
lion had taken him away." "For the satisfaction of the
curious," says Sir William Jardine, "it may be mentioned, that
he was followed, and killed in the forenoon, over the mangled
remains of the unfortunate sentinel."
A Night Mr. Gordon Cumming gives an even more thrilling
surpriae. account of a similar adventure of his experience.
He says:-"About three hours after the sun went down, I
called to my men to come and take their coffee and supper
which was ready for them at my fire; and after supper, three
of them returned before their comrades to their own fireside
and lay down.... In a few minutes an ox came out by the
gate of the kraal and walked round the back of it. Hen-
drick got up and drove him again and then went back to
his fireside and lay down. Hendrick and Ruyter lay on one
side of the fire under one blanket and John Stofolus lay on
the other.... Suddenly the appalling and murderous voice
of an angry bloodthirsty lion, within a few yards of us, burst
upon my ear, followed by the shrieking of the Hottentots.
Again and again the murderous roar of the attack was re-
peated. We heard John and Ruyter shriek, 'the Lion! the
Lion!...' Next instant John Stofolus rushed into the midst
of us almost speechless with fear and terror, and eyes bursting
from their sockets, and shrieked out, 'the lion! the lion.
He has got Hendrick, he dragged him away from the fire
beside me. I struck him with the burning brands upon his
head, but he would not let go his hold. Hendrick is dead!
O God! Hendrick is dead! Let us take fire and seek
him ....' It appeared that when the unfortunate Hendrick


rose to drive in the ox, the lion had watched him to his
fireside, and he had scarcely lain down, when the brute sprang
upon him and Ruyter (for both lay under one blanket) with
his appalling murderous roar, and roaring as he lay, grappled
him with his fearful claws and kept biting him on the breast
and shoulder, all the while feeling for his neck; having got
hold of which, he at once dragged him away backwards
round the bush into the dense shade.... The next morning,
just as the day began to dawn we heard the lion dragging
something up the river side under cover of the bank. We
drove the cattle out of the kraal and then proceeded to
inspect the scene of the night's awful tragedy. In the hollow
where the lion had lain, consuming his prey, we found one
leg of the unfortunate Hendrick, bitten off below the knee,
the shoe still on the foot, the grass and bushes were all
stained with his blood, and fragments of his pea-coat lay
around. Hendrick was by far the best man I had about
my waggons ... his loss to us all was very serious."
A Lion In the southern part of Africa, where the Hot-
Outwitted. tentots live, lions were very common, and the
adventures of the inhabitants with them very frequent.
One evening a Hottentot saw that he was pursued by a lion.
He was very much alarmed, and devised the following means
of escape. He went to the edge of a precipice, and placed
himself a little below it. He then put his cloak and hat on
a stick, and elevated them over his head, giving them a
gentle motion. The lion came crouching along, and, mistaking
the cloak and hat for the man, as the Hottentot intended
he should do, he sprang upon them with a swift leap, and,
passing over the head of the Hottentot, was plunged head-
long down the precipice.
Old Instincts In the "Miscellany of Natural History," from
and new which several of these anecdotes are taken there
Opportunities. is a story illustrating the way in which old
instincts will show themselves in the presence of new


opportunities. On the evening of the 2oth October I816, a
lioness made her escape from a travelling menagerie which was
drawn up on the road-side, about seven miles from the town
of Salisbury. It was about eight o'clock, and quite dark, and
the Exeter mail was passing when the animal suddenly darted
forward, and springing at the throat of the off-leader, fastened
the talons of her fore-feet on each side of the neck, close to the
horse's head,while those of the hind-feet were forced into the chest.
In this situation she hung, while the blood streamed from the
agonized creature, as if a vein had been opened by a lancet.
It may be easily supposed, that the alarm excited by this
encounter, was very great. Two inside passengers instantly
dashed out of the coach and fled to a house on the road-
side. The keeper of the caravan came, and immediately set
a large Newfoundland dog on the animal. The lioness, on
finding herself seized by the leg, quitted the horse, and
turned upon the dog, which the spectators expected would
very soon become the victim of her fury; but she was
contented with giving him only a slight punishment, and
on hearing the voice of her keeper, retired under a
neighboring straw rick, and gently allowed herself to be
secured. "This anecdote," says the writer, "is remarkably
characteristic, the moment that the animal found herself at
liberty, and an object of prey presented itself, all her original
propensities, hitherto restrained, were instantly called into
action; but no sooner did the voice of her keeper reach her
ears, than the force of long habit prevailed, she became
calm, and allowed herself to be bound, and led again to
her den."
The Tiger. The tiger is one of the most beautiful, but at
the same time one of the most rapacious and destructive of
the whole animal race. It is found in the warm climates of
the East, especially in India and Siam. It so much resembles
the cat, as almost to induce us to consider the latter a tiger
in miniature. It lurks generally near a fountain, or on the


brink of a river, to surprise such animals as come to quench
their thirst; and like the lion bounds upon its prey, easily
making a spring of twenty feet and upwards. When it has
killed one animal it often attacks others, swallowing their
blood for which it has an insatiable thirst in large draughts;
for even when satisfied with food, it is not satiated with
slaughter. The tiger is said by some to prefer human flesh
to that of any other animal; and it is certain, that it does
not, like many other beasts of prey, shun the presence of
man, but has been even known on more than one occasion
to spring upon a hunting party when seated at their refresh-
ment, and carry off one of the number, rushing through the
shrubs into the forest, and devouring the unfortunate victim
at its leisure. The strength as well as the agility of this animal
is remarkable; it carries off a deer with the greatest ease.
The tiger is ornamented with long streaks across its body.
The ground colour is yellow, very deep on the back, but
growing lighter towards the belly, where it softens to white,
as it does also on the throat and the inside of the legs. The
bars which cross the body from the back to the belly are of
the most beautiful black, and the skin altogether is so extremely
fine and glossy, that it is much esteemed, and sold at a high
price in all the eastern countries, especially China. "The
colouring of the tiger," says the Rev. J. G. Wood," is a good
instance of the manner in which animals are protected by
the similarity of their external appearance to the particular
locality in which they reside. The stripes on the tiger's skin
so exactly assimilate with the long jungle grass amongst which
it lives, that it is impossible for unpractised eyes to discern
the animal at all, even when a considerable portion of its
body is exposed."
Bavages The ravages committed by tigers have often
Committed led to the organisation of hunting parties formed
by Tigers. with a view to exterminate the more aggressive
of the enemy. The following narrative of a tiger excursion


(Orycteropu5 capensis)

(Gerietta vulg~aris )


at Doongal is from the "East India Government Gazette."
"There were five tigers killed by the party, besides one
bear killed, and another wounded; a wolf, a hyana, a panther,
a leopard, and some immense rock and cobra capella snakes.
Among the occurrences during the excursion, some were of a
peculiar and pathetic nature. The first happened to a poor
Bunnia, or dealer, of the village of Doongal, who had been
to the city of Hydrabad, to collect some money, and who
was returning, after having gathered together a small sum,
when on the way, a little beyond the cantonment of Secun-
derabad, he saw an armed Paeon seated, and apparently a
traveller in the same direction. After mutual inquiries, the
Paeon told the Bunnia he was going to the same place; and,
as the Bunnia was glad to have somebody to accompany
him, he gave him a part of his victuals; and, on their way,
they mutually related their histories. The Bunnia innocently
mentioned the object of his visit to the city, and the fact
of his returning with the money he had collected; this im-
mediately raised the avarice of the Paon, who decided in
his mind to kill the poor Bunnia in a suitable place, and
strip him of his money. They proceeded together, with this
design in the mind of the Peon, until they came to a place
where the ravages of the tiger were notorious, and he prepared
to kill the Bunnia; and while he was struggling with him,
and in the act of drawing his sword to slay him, a tiger
sprang upon the Paeon, and carried him off, leaving his shield
and sword, which the Bunnia carried to Doongal, as trophies
of retributive justice in his favour. The next victim was the
wife of a Bunjarra. They were resting under a tree, when a
tiger sprang up, and seized the woman by the head. The
husband, from mere impulse to save his wife, held her by the
legs; and a struggle ensued between the tiger pulling her by
the head, and the man by the legs, until the issue, which
could not be doubted, when the tiger carried off the woman.
The man seemed to be rather partial to his wife, and devoted


himself to revenge her death,-forsook his cattle and prop-
erty,-resigned them to his brother, and offered his services
to be of the tiger-killing party, and strayed about the jungles,
until he was heard of no more."
"A camel driver, who had been just married, was bringing
home his bride, when a tiger followed, and kept them in view
a great part of the road, for an opportunity to seize one of
them. The bride having occasion to alight, was immediately
pounced upon by the ferocious beast, and he scampered away
with her in his mouth. A shepherd was taken by a young
tiger, which was followed by the mother, a large tigress, and
devoured at a distance of two miles; and a Bunnia, or
dealer, from Bolarum, was seized returning from a fair. A
woman, with an infant about a year old, was captured by a
tiger; and the infant was found by the Puttal, or head of the
village, who brought it to his house. Some of the Company's
elephants that were going for forage were chased by a tiger,
which was kept off by a spearman; and a comical chase of
'hem was made up to Doongal, the elephants running before
the tiger, until they entered the village. It is said the lives
lost by these tigers amounted to about three hundred per-
sons in one year, within the range of seven villages; and
the destruction of cattle, sheep, and goats, was said to be
An Intrepid Captain Brown in his "Natural History of
Hunter. Animals tells a thrilling story of an adventure of
Lieutenant Collet, of the Bombay army, who having heard
that a very large tiger had destroyed seven inhabitants of an
adjacent village, resolved, with another officer, to attempt the
destruction of the monster. Having ordered seven elephants,
they went in quest of the animal, which they found sleeping
beneath a bush. Roused by the noise of the elephants, he
made a furious charge upon them, and Lieutenant Collet's
elephant received him on her shoulder, the other six having
turned about, and run off, notwithstanding the exertions of


their riders. The elephant shook off the tiger, and Lieutenant
Collet having fired two balls at him, he fell; but, again
recovering himself, he made a spring at the lieutenant. Having
missed his' object, he seized the elephant by the hind leg,
and, having received a kick from her, and another ball, he
let go his hold, and fell a second time. Supposing that
he was now disabled, Collet very rashly dismounted, with the
resolution of killing him with his pistols; but the tiger, who
had only been crouching to take another spring, flew upon
the lieutenant, and caught him in his mouth. The strength
and intrepidity of the lieutenant, however, did not forsake
him: he immediately fired his pistol into the tiger's body,
and, finding that this had no effect, disengaged his arms with
all his force, and, directing the other pistol to his heart, he
at last destroyed him, after receiving twenty-five severe
The The Leopard, who is also known as the panther,
Leopard. belongs to Asia and Africa. He is distinguished
by the beauty of his coat which is of a rich fawn colour,
graduating to white underneath his belly. It is covered with
spots or clusters of marks which resemble the form of a rose.
He is an agile climber and a terror to goats, sheep, monkeys
and all lesser animals, but shows no special hostility to man
unless attacked or cornered.
The Like other members of the cat family the Leopard
Leopard's shows remarkable tenacity of life. Whether like
Tenacity of the domestic cat he has nine lives or not, he
Lif certainly takes a great deal of killing.
The following account is from the pen of an eye-witness
quoted from Captain Brown's Natural History of Animals".
-"I was at Jaffna, at the northern extremity of the Island
of Ceylon, in the beginning of the year 1819, when, one
morning, my servant called me an hour or two before my
usual time, with 'Master, master! people sent for master's
dogs-tiger in the town!' There are no real tigers in Ceylon;


but leopards or panthers are always called so, and by our.
selves as well as by the natives. This turned out to be a
panther. My gun chanced not to be put together; and, while
my servant was doing it, the collector and two medical men,
who had recently arrived, in consequence of the cholera
morbus having just then reached Ceylon from the Continent,
came to my door, the former armed with a fowling-piece, and
the two latter with remarkably blunt hog-spears. They insisted
upon setting off, without waiting for my gun,-a proceeding
not much to my taste. The tiger (I must continue to call
him so) had taken refuge in a hut, the roof of which, like
those of Ceylon huts in general, spread to the ground like
an umbrella; the only aperture into it was a small door,
about four feet high. The collector wanted to get the tiger
out at once. I begged to wait for my gun; but no-the
fowling-piece, (loaded with ball, of course,) and the two hog-
spears, were quite enough. I got a hedge-stake, and awaited
my fate, from very shame. At this moment, to my great
delight, there arrived from the fort an English officer, two
artillery-men, and a Malay captain; and a pretty figure we
should have cut without them, as the event will show. I
was now quite ready to attack, and my gun came a minute
afterwards. The whole scene which follows took place within
an enclosure, about twenty feet square, formed, on three sides,
by a strong fence of palmyra leaves, and on the fourth by
the hut. At the door of this, the two artillery-men planted
themselves: and the Malay captain got at the top, to frighten
the tiger out, by worrying it-an easy operation, as the huts
there are covered with cocoa-nut leaves. One of the artillery-
men wanted to go in to the tiger, but we would not suffer
it. At last the beast sprang. This man received him on his
bayonet, which he thrust apparently down his throat, firing
his piece at the same moment. The bayonet broke off short,
leaving less than three inches on the musket; the rest remained
in the animal, but was invisible to us. The shot probably


went through his cheek, for it certainly did not seriously
injure him, as he instantly rose upon his legs, with a loud
roar, and placed his paws upon the soldier's breast. At this
moment, the animal appeared to me to about reach the centre
of the man's face; but I had scarcely time to observe this,
when the tiger, stooping his head, seized the soldier's arm
in his mouth, turned him half round staggering, threw him
over on his back, and fell upon him. Our dread now was,
that, if we fired upon the tiger, we might kill the man. For
a moment, there was a pause, when his comrade attacked
the beast exactly in the same manner as the gallant fellow
himself had done. He struck his bayonet into his head; the
tiger rose at him-he fired; and this time the ball took effect,
and in the head. The animal staggered backwards, and we
all poured in our fire. He still kicked and writhed; when
the gentlemen with the hog-spears advanced, and fixed him,
while he was finished by some natives beating him on the
head with hedge-stakes. The brave artilleryman was, after
all, but slightly hurt: He claimed the skin, which was very
cheerfully given to him. There was, however, a cry among
the natives, that the head should be cut off: it was; and,
in so doing, the knife came directly across the bayonet. The
animal measured little less than four feet, from the root of
the tail to the muzzle. There was no tradition of a tiger
having been in Jaffna before. Indeed, this one must have
either come a distance of almost twenty miles, or have swam
across an arm of the sea nearly two miles in breadth; for
Jaffna stands on a peninsula, on which there is no jungle
of any magnitude."
Hunters Captain Brown gives a thrilling story of an
Hunted, adventure which befell two Boers in South
Africa in 1822. They were returning from a hunting excur-
sion, when they unexpectedly fell in with a leopard in a
mountain ravine, and immediately gave chase to him. The
animal at first endeavoured to escape, by clambering up a


precipice, but, being hotly pressed, and slightly wounded by
a musket-ball, he turned upon his pursuers, with that frantic
ferocity, which, on such emergencies, he frequently displays,
and, springing upon the man who had fired at him, tore him
from his horse to the ground, biting him at the same time
very severely on the shoulder, and tearing his face and arms
with his claws. The other hunter, seeing the danger of his
comrade, sprang from his horse, and attempted to shoot the
leopard through the head; but, whether owing to trepidation,
or the fear of wounding his friend, or the sudden motions
of the animal, he unfortunately missed his aim. The leopard,
abandoning his prostrate enemy darted with redoubled fury
upon this second antagonist; and so fierce and sudden was
his onset, that before the Boer could stab him with his hunt-
ing-knife, he had struck him in the face with his claws, and
torn the scalp over his forehead. In this frightful condition,
the hunter grappled with the raging beast, and, struggling for
life, they rolled together down a steep declivity. All this
passed so rapidly that the other man had scarcely time to
recover from the confusion into which his feline foe had
thrown him, to seize his gun and rush forward to aid his
comrade, when he beheld them rolling together down the
steep bank, in mortal conflict. In a few moments he was at
the bottom with them, but too late to save the life of his
friend, who had so gallantly defended him. The leopard
had torn open the jugular vein, and so dreadfully mangled
the throat of the unfortunate man, that his death was inevit-
able; and his comrade had only the melancholy satisfaction
of completing the destruction of the savage beast, which
was already much exhausted by several deep wounds it
had received in the breast, from the desperate knife of the
expiring huntsman."
The Jaguar. The Jaguar, otherwise known as the American
Leopard, belongs to the forests of South America, and has many
points of difference from as well as some of similarity with


the Leopard of Asia. Though ferocious in his wild state, he
is amenable to civilizing influences and becomes mild and
tame in captivity. He is an excellent swimmer and an expert
climber, ascending to the tops of high branchless trees by
fixing his claws in the trunks. It is said that he can hunt
in the trees almost as well as he can upon the ground, and
that hence he becomes a formidable enemy to the monkeys.
He is also a clever fisherman, his method being that of
dropping saliva on to the surface of the water, and upon the
approach of a fish, by a dexterous stroke of his paw knock-
ing it out of the water on to the bank. D'Azara, says: He
is a very ferocious animal causing great destruction among
horses and asses. He is extremely fond of eggs, and goes to
the shores frequented by turtles, and digs their eggs out of
the sand."
The Strength The strength of the Jaguar is very great, and
of the Jaguar. as he can climb, swim, and leap a great distance,
he is almost equally formidable in three elements. He is said
to attack the alligator and to banquet with evident relish off
his victim. D'Azara says that on one occasion he found a
Jaguar feasting upon a horse which it had killed. The Jaguar
fled at his approach, whereupon he had the body of the
horse dragged to within a musket shot of a tree in which he
purposed watching for the Jaguar's return. While temporarily
absent he left a man to keep watch, and while he was away the
jaguar reappeared from the opposite side of a river which was
both deep and broad. Having crossed the river the animal
approached, and seizing the body of the horse with his teeth
dragged it some sixty paces to the water side, plunged in
with it, swam across the river, pulled it out upon the other
side, and carried it into a neighboring wood.
A Night ofl Mrs. Bowdich tells a story of two early settlers
Horror. in the Western States of America, a man and
his wife, who closed their wooden hut, and went to pay a
visit at a distance, leaving a freshly-killed piece of venison


hanging inside. "The gable end of this house was not
boarded up as high as the roof, but a large aperture was
left for light and air. By taking an enormous leap, a hungry
jaguar, attracted by the smell of the venison, had entered
the hut and devoured part of it. He was disturbed by the
return of the owners, and took his departure. The venison
was removed. The husband went away the night after to a
distance, and left his wife alone in the hut. She had not
been long in bed before she heard the jaguar leap in at the
open gable. There was no door between her room and
that in which he had entered, and she knew not how to
protect herself. She, however, screamed as loudly as she
could, and made all the violent noises she could think of,
which served to frighten him away at that time; but she
knew he would come again, and she must be prepared for
him. She tried to make a large fire, but the wood was
expended. She thought of rolling herself up in the bed-
clothes, but these would be torn off. The idea of getting
under the low bedstead suggested itself, but she felt sure
a paw would be stretched forth which would drag her out.
Her husband had taken all their firearms. At last, as she
heard the jaguar scrambling up the end of the house, in
despair she got into a large store chest, the lid of which
closed with a spring. Scarcely was she within it, and had
dragged the lid down, inserting her fingers between it and
the side of the chest, when the jaguar discovered where she
was. He smelt round the chest, tried to get his head in
through the crack, but fortunately he could not raise the lid.
He found her fingers and began to lick them; she felt
them bleed, but did not dare,to move them for fear she
should be suffocated. At length the jaguar leaped on to the
lid, and his weight pressing down the lid, fractured her
fingers. Still she could not move. He smelt round again,
he pulled, he leaped on and off, till at last getting tired of
his vain efforts, he went away. The poor woman lay there


till daybreak, and then only feeling safe from her enemy,
she went as fast as her strength would let her to her nearest
neighbour's a distance of two miles, where she procured
help for her wounded fingers, which were long in getting
well. On his return, her husband found a male and female
jaguar with their cubs, in the forest close by, and all were
The Puma. The Puma, or American lion, is known by
several names. It is sometimes called a panther, or collo-
quially a "painter", and sometimes a cougar. It resembles
the lioness somewhat in appearance, especially about the
head, though it is smaller and less powerful. Its length
varies from four feet to four feet and a half, and its
colour is that of the fox, graduating in parts to white. Like
the lion it inhabits plains rather than forests;-in the marshy
districts, and on the borders of rivers in the south, and in
the swamps and prairies of the northern districts. It lives on
such wild and domestic animals as come within its reach,
lying at full length upon the lower branches of trees, and
dropping upon its victims as they pass beneath. Deer and
cattle of all kinds it attacks, and, not content with killing
enough for immediate purposes, destroys large numbers, suck-
ing small quantities of blood from each. According to Sir
William Jardine it is exceedingly destructive among sheep
and has been known to kill fifty in one night. The Puma is,
however, easily tamed and becomes very docile under kindly
treatment. Edward Kean kept a tame one which followed
him about like a dog and was as playful as a kitten.
The Puma's "Molina and D'Azara say," says Sir William
Ferocity. Jardine, "that the puma will flee from men, and
that its timidity renders its pursuit generally free from dan-
ger." The following incident given by Sir William Jardine
and at greater length by Captain Brown, shows that this is
not always the case. According to these accounts, two
hunters visited the Katskills in pursuit of game, each armed


with a gun and accompanied by a dog. They agreed to
follow contrary directions round the base of a hill, and to
join each other immediately upon hearing the report of a
gun. Shortly after parting, one of the friends heard the gun
of his comrade and hastening to his assistance came first
upon the body of his friend's dog, torn and lacerated; proceed-
ing further, his attention was attracted by the growl of a
wild animal, and looking up, he discovered a large puma
crouching over the body of his friend, upon the branch of a
tree. The animal glared at him, and he, knowing the rapi-
dity of the Puma's movements, immediately raised his gun
and fired, whereupon the puma rolled over on to the ground
with his prey. The dog flew at the infuriated beast, but one
blow from the puma's paw silenced him for ever. Seeing
that his comrade was dead the hunter left the scene in
search of assistance, upon securing which, he returned to
find the puma dead, beside the two dogs and the hunter whom
he had killed.
Anmals and Captain Head, in his "Journey Across the Pam-
MUn pas" says:-" The fear which all wild animals in
America have of man is very singularly seen in the Pampas.
I often rode towards the ostriches and zamas, crouching under
the opposite side of my horse's neck; but I always found
that, although they would allow my loose horse to approach
them, they, even when young, ran from me, though little of
my figure was visible; and when I saw them all enjoying
themselves in such full liberty, it was at first not pleasing to
observe that one's appearance was everywhere a signal to
them that they should fly from their enemy. Yet it is by
this fear 'that man hath dominion over the beasts of the
field,' and there is no animal in South America that does
not acknowledge this instinctive feeling. As a singular proof
of the above, and of the difference between the wild beasts
of America and of the old world, I will venture to relate a
circumstance which a man sincerely assrxed me had happened


to him in South America:-He was trying to shoot some
wild ducks, and, in order to approach them unperceived, he
put the corner of his poncho (which is a sort of long narrow
blanket) over his head, and crawling along the ground upon
his hands and knees, the poncho not only covered his body,
but trailed along the ground behind him. As he was thus
creeping by a large bush of reeds, he heard a loud, sudden
noise, between a bark and a roar: he felt something heavy
strike his feet, and, instantly jumping up, he saw, to his
astonishment, a large puma actually standing on his poncho;
and, perhaps, the animal was equally astonished to find
himself in the immediate presence of so athletic a man. The
man told me he was unwilling to fire, as his gun was loaded
with very small shot; and he therefore remained motionless,
the puma standing on his poncho for many seconds; at last
the creature turned his head, and walking very slowly away
about ten yards, he stopped, and turned again: the man still
maintained his ground, upon which the puma tacitly acknow-
ledged his supremacy, and walked off."
The Ocelot. The Ocelot is a native of South America and
one of the most beautiful of the Cat family. It is smaller
than the Leopard, attaining to about three feet in length, and
eighteen inches in height. Its colour is grey, tinged with
fawn and the body and legs are covered with longitudinal
chainlike stripes broken into patches of some inches. Its
habits are like those of its near relations, the Leopard and
the Jaguar, though its appetite for blood makes it perhaps
even more destructive. It will suck blood with the greatest
avidity and frequently leave a carcase otherwise untouched
in order to pursue other animals for the sake of more blood.
When tame the Ocelot is remarkably playful, climbing up
the legs and nestling in the arms of its benefactors. It is
apt to be dangerous in a poultry yard but will keep good
friends with a house dog, and play, somewhat roughly, per-
haps, but without malice, with children.


The clouded This animal belongs to Sumatra where it lives
Tiger. upon the forest birds. Like the Ocelot it is
exceedingly playful when tame, seeking the notice and return-
ing the caresses of all who encourage it.
The Serval. "The Serval," says Captain Brown, "is somewhat
larger than the ordinary wild cat. Its general colour is a
pale fulvous yellow. It resides on trees, where it makes a
bed, and breeds its young. It seldom appears on the ground,
living principally on birds, squirrels, and small animals; it is
extremely agile, and leaps, with great rapidity, from one branch
to another. The serval never assaults man, but rather endea-
vours to avoid him; if, however, it is compelled to attack,
it darts furiously on its antagonist, and bites and tears, like
the rest of the cat kind."
The Common The common wild cat is one of the few wild
Wild Cat. animals still to be found in the British Isles. Up
till recent years these cats were observed among the woody
mountainous districts of Cumberland and Westmoreland and in
the wild parts of Scotland and Ireland, though as the land
is brought more and more under cultivation they decrease
in numbers, failing suitable asylum. They abound in the
forests of Germany and Russia, where they live in the hollows
of trees and caves of rocks, and feed on birds, squirrels,
hares and rabbits, and will even attack young lambs and fawns.
The wild cat is not to be confused with the domestic cat
which has relapsed into a wild state. "In the form and
shape of the tail," says Sir William Jardine, "this animal
somewhat resembles the Lynx. The fur is very thick, woolly
and long. The general colour is a greyish yellow, in some
specimens inclining much to a shade of bluish grey."-" They
spring," says Mrs. Bowdich, furiously upon whoever approaches,
and utter unearthly cries. Mr. St. John, when walking up to
his knees in heather over broken ground, came suddenly
upon a wild cat She rushed out between his legs, every
hair standing up. He cut a good-sized stick; and three Skye


terriers gave chase till she took refuge in a corer, spitting
and growling. On trying to dislodge her, she flew at Mr
St. John's face, over the dogs' heads; but he struck her while
in the air, and she fell among the dogs, who soon despatched
her, even though it has been said that a wild cat has twelve
instead of nine lives. If one of these animals is taken, those
in the neighbourhood are sure to be also secured, as they
will all, after the manner of foxes, assemble round the body
of their relative."
The Domestic The origin of the domestic cat is difficult to
cat. determine. Cats were numerous in Egypt from
an early date, and are said to be native to Syria. Accord-
ing to Professor Rolleston the cat was not domesticated any-
where, except in Egypt, before the Christian Era. Few
animals are more familiar to the general reader, and few
therefore, need less description. The "Tabby" is perhaps
the commonest, though black, white, and tortoise-shell varieties
abound. The Angora or Angola cat, the Persian cat, and the
Manx cat, which latter is deficient in the useful and orna-
mental embellishment of a tail, are also well known.
Cat There are many superstitions concerning the
superstitions. cat, the black variety coming in for the larger
share of popular suspicion. To steal one and bury it alive
was at one time regarded as a specific against cattle disease
in the Irish Highlands, while, according to Captain Brown, it
was the practice for families in Scotland to tie up their cats
on Hallowe'en to prevent their use for equestrian purposes by
witches during the night. "They have always been regarded
as attendants upon witches," says Mrs. Bowdich, "and witches
themselves have been said to borrow their shapes when on
their mysterious expeditions. I was once told that Lord
Cochrane was accompanied by a favourite black cat in a
cruise through the northern seas. The weather had been
most unpropitious; no day had passed without some untoward
circumstance; and the sailors were not slow in attributing the


whole to the influence of the black cat on board. This came
to Lord Cochrane's ears, and knowing that any attempt to
reason his men out of so absurd a notion was perfectly use-
less, he offered to sacrifice this object of his regard, and have
her thrown overboard. This, however, far from creating any
satisfaction, only alarmed the men still more. They were
sure that the tempests she would then raise would be much
worse than any they had yet encountered; and they implored
his lordship to let her remain unmolested. 'There was no
help, and they could only hope, if she were not affronted,
they might at the end of their time reach England in
The Cat as "The cat," says the Rev. J. G. Wood, "is fami-
a Hunter. liarly known to us as a persevering mouse-hunter.
So strong, indeed, is the passion for hunting in the breast
of the cat, that she sometimes disdains mice, 'and such
small deer,' and trespasses on warrens or preserves. A large
tabby cat, residing at no great distance from White Horse
Vale, was accustomed to go out poaching in the preserves
of a neighboring nobleman, and so expert was she at this
illegal sport that she constantly returned bearing in her
mouth a leveret or a partridge, which she insisted on present-
ing to her mistress, who in vain endeavoured to check her
marauding propensities. These exploits, however, brought
their own punishment; for one day, when in the act of
seizing a leveret, she found herself caught in a vermin trap,
vhich deprived her of one of her hind legs. This mis-
,ortune did not damp her enthusiasm for hunting, as,
although the loss of a leg prevented her from chasing hares,
and suchlike animals, she would still bring in an occa-
sional iat."
The Oat and A cat, which had a numerous litter of kittens,"
her Young. says Captain Brown, one sunny day encouraged
her little ones to frolic in the vernal beams of noon, about
the stable door, where she was domiciled. While she was


joining them in a thousand tricks and gambols, a large hawk,
who was sailing above the barn-yard, in a moment darted
upon one of the kittens, and would have as quickly borne
it off, but for the courageous mother, who, seeing the danger
of her offspring, sprang on the common enemy, who, to
defend itself, let fall the prize. The battle presently became
severe to both parties. The hawk, by the power of his wings,
the sharpness of his talons, and the strength of his beak,
had for a while the advantage, cruelly lacerating the poor
cat, and had actually deprived her of one eye in the con-
flict; but puss, no way daunted at the accident, strove, with
all her cunning and agility, for her kittens, till she had broken
the wing of her adversary. In this state, she got him more
within the power of her claws, and availing herself of this
advantage, by an instantaneous exertion, she laid the hawk
motionless beneath her feet; and, as if exulting in the victory,
tore the head off the vanquished tyrant. This accomplished,
disregarding the loss of her eye, she ran to the bleeding
kitten, licked the wounds made by the hawk's talons in its
tender sides, and purred whilst she caressed her liberated
The Cat as a The female cat seems to be in a special sense
Foster a born mother. She is assiduous in the care of
Mother. her own young and singularly ready to extend
the benefits of motherhood even to alien offspring. Instances
are on record in which cats have reared squirrels, dogs, lev-
erets, rats, ducks, chickens, and even small birds. These have
usually occurred at times when the cats have been deprived
of their own young. Mr. T. Foggitt says: "A cat belonging
to the Albert Dock Warehouse, Liverpool, gave birth to six
kittens. It was deemed necessary to destroy four of them,
and they were accordingly drowned. The remaining two
were placed, along with their mother, in some loose cotton,
collected for the purpose in a box, in one of the warehouse
rooms. On removing the box a few mornings after, to give


puss her usual breakfast, great curiosity was excited on seeing
a third added to the number; and the astonishment was still
greater when the third was discovered to be a young rat
which the cat had taken from its nest in the night-time, and
brought home as a companion to the kittens she was then
nursing. The young rat was very lively, and was treated by
the cat with the same attention and care as if it were one
of her own offspring."
The cat as a The distances that cats will travel, finding
Traveller. their way with unerring instinct many miles across
country of which there seems no reason to suppose them to have
had previous knowledge is very remarkable. Mrs. Bowdich
records the case of a cat who disliking her new home,
returned to her old one, in doing which, she had to cross
two rivers, one of them about eighty feet broad and two feet
and a half deep, running strong; the other wider and more
rapid, but less deep. Cats are said to have found their way from
Edinburgh to Glasgow, and one to the writer's knowledge
returned from Dover to Canterbury after being carried from
thence by rail. Captain Brown gives the following remark-
able instance. In June, 1825, a farmer, residing in the neigh-
bourhood of Ross, sent a load of grain to Gloucester, a
distance of about sixteen miles. The waggoners loaded in
the evening, and started early in the morning. On unload-
ing at Gloucester, a favourite cat, belonging to the farmer,
was found among the sacks, with two kittens of very recent
birth. The waggoner very humanely placed puss and her
young in a hay-loft, where he expected they would remain
in safety, until he should be ready to depart for home. On
his return to the loft shortly afterwards, neither cat nor kittens
were to be found, and he reluctantly left town without them.
Next morning the cat entered the kitchen of her master's house
with one kitten in her mouth. It was dead; but she placed
it before the fire, and without seeking food, o indulging,
for a moment, in the genial warmth of stic her dome hearth


disappeared again. In a short time she returned with the
other kitten, laid it down by the first, stretched herself
beside them, and instantly expired! The poor creature could
have carried but one at a time, and, consequently, must have
travelled three times over the whole line of her journey, and
performed forty-eight miles in less than twelve hours.
The Cat as The favourite food of the cat is fish, which
Sportsman. curiously enough inhabits an element to which the
cat has a great aversion. There are, however, numerous instances
on record of cats which have overcome their natural anti-
pathy to water in order to gratify their natural taste for fish.
An extraordinary case of this kind is recorded in the Plymouth
Journal, June, 1828:-" There is now at the battery on the
Devil's Point, a cat, which is an expert catcher of the finny
tribe, being in the constant habit of diving into the sea, and
bringing up the fish alive in her mouth, and depositing them
in the guard-room, for the use of the soldiers. She is now
seven years old, and has long been a useful caterer. It is
supposed that her pursuit of the water-rats first taught her to
venture into the water, to which it is well known puss has a
natural aversion. She is as fond of the water as a New-
foundland dog, and takes her regular peregrinations along the
rocks at its edge, looking out for her prey, ready to dive for
them at a moment's notice."
Mr. Beverley R. Morris says: "When living in Worcester
many years ago, I remember frequently seeing the cat of
a near neighbour of ours bring fish, mostly eels, into the
house, which it used to catch in a pond not far off. This
was an almost everyday occurrence."
The Cat's Many remarkable illustrations might be given
Inteligenoe. of the sagacity and intelligence of the cat. A
lady had for many years been the possessor of a cat and a
canary bird, who became the closest friends, never bearing
any lengthy separation from each other, and spending their
whole time in each other's society. One summer day the


lady was sitting working in her drawing-room, and the cat
and bird were a short distance off. Suddenly, without a
moment's deliberation, the cat, to the great astonishment of
the lady, uttered a loud growl, and then, seizing her little
playmate in her mouth, darted off with it to a place of safety.
A strange cat had entered the room and the friendly one had
adopted this plan of saving the bird from the enemy. A
still more remarkable illustration of the intelligence of a cat
is given by De la Croix as follows: "I once saw," says he,
"a lecturer upon experimental philosophy place a cat under
the glass receiver of an air-pump, for the purpose of demon-
strating that very certain fact, that life cannot be supported
without air and respiration. The lecturer had already made
several strokes with the piston, in order to exhaust the receiver
of its air, when the animal, who began to feel herself very
uncomfortable in the rarefied atmosphere, was fortunate enough
to discover the source from which her uneasiness proceeded.
She placed her paw upon the hole through which the air
escaped, and thus prevented any more from passing out of
the receiver. All the exertions of the philosopher were now
unavailing; in vain he drew the piston; the cat's paw effect-
ually prevented its operation. Hoping to effect his purpose,
he let air again into the receiver, which, as soon as the cat
perceived, she withdrew her paw from the aperture; but
whenever he attempted to exhaust the receiver, she applied
her paw as before. All the spectators clapped their hands
in admiration of the wonderful sagacity of the animal, and the
lecturer found himself under the necessity of liberating her,
and substituting in her place another, that possessed less pene-
tration, and enabled him to exhibit the cruel experiment."
The Lynx. The several species of the Lynx belong to the
genus Lyncus, the principle varieties of which are the Canada
Lynx, and the European Lynx. The Lynx has short legs,
and is generally about the size of a fox, attaining often to
three feet in length It prevs upon small auadruned. and


birds, in the pursuit of which it is an expert climber. The
Canada Lynx preys largely upon the American hare, which
it is well qualified to hunt. The Lynx is distinguished by a
peculiar gait, for unlike other animals, it bounds with, and
alights upon, all four feet at once. The ears are erect, and
tipped with a long pencil of black hair. The fur which is
long and thick is of a pale grey colour, with a reddish tinge,
marked with dusky spots on the upper part of the body. The
under parts are white. The European Lynx feeds upon
small animals and birds. The fur of the lynx is valuable, on
account of its great softness and warmth, and is in consequence an
extensive article of commerce. It inhabits the northern parts
of Europe, Asia, and America; and prefers cold or temperate
climates, differing in this respect from most of the cat tribe.
The Chetah. The Chetah or Hunting Leopard is the one
species of the genus Cyncelurus. It is a handsome animal
and capable of considerable training. According to Mr. Benet's
description it is "intermediate in size between the leopard
and the hound, more slender in its body, more elevated in
its legs, and less flattened on the fore part of its head than the
leopard, while deficient in the peculiarly graceful and lengthened
form, both of head and body, which characterizes the hound."
" The ground colour of the Chetah is a bright yellowish fawn
above, and nearly pure white beneath; covered above, and
on the sides, by innumerable closely approximating spots,
from half an inch to an inch in diameter, which are intensely
black, and do not, as in the leopard and other spotted cats,
form roses with a lighter centre, but are full and complete."
The Chetah is found in India and Africa but it is only in
India that it is trained for hunting purposes. Sir William
Jardine says: "the employment of the hunting leopard may
be compared to the sport of falconry. The natural instinct
teaches them to pursue the game, the reward of a portion
of it, or of the blood, induces them to give it up, and again
subject themselves to their master."


The Chetah The practice of employing animals to hunt
as a animals is of very early origin, and the docility
Huntsman. of the Chetah early marked him out as a suitable
ally in the chase. Chetahs are so gentle that they can be
led about in a leash like greyhounds. The following descrip-
tion of a hunt is from "The Naturalist's Library". "Just
before we reached our ground, the shuter suwars (camel
courier), who always moved on our flanks in search of game,
reported a herd of antelopes, about a mile out of the line of
march, and the Chetahs being at hand, we went in pursuit
of them. The leopards are each accommodated with a flat-
topped cart, without sides, drawn by two bullocks, and each
animal has two attendants. They are loosely bound by a
collar and rope to the back of the vehicle, and are also held
by the keeper by a strap round the loins. A leather hood
covers the eyes. On entering from a cotton field, we came
in sight of four antelopes, and my driver managed to get
within a hundred yards of them before they took alarm.
The Chetah was quickly unhooded and loosed from his
bonds; and, as soon as he viewed the deer, he dropped
quietly off the cart on the opposite side to that on which they
stood, and approached them at a slow crouching canter,
masking himself by every bush, and inequality, which lay in
his way. As soon, however, as the deer began to show alarm,
he quickened his pace and was in the midst of them in a
few bounds. He singled out a doe, and ran it close for
about 200 yards, when he reached it with a blow of his
paw, rolled it over, and in an instant was sucking the life
blood from its throat." "As soon as the deer is pulled,"
says the same account, "a keeper runs up, hoods the Chetah,
cuts the victim's throat, and securing some of the blood in
a wooden ladle, thrusts it under the leopard's nose. The
antelope is then dragged away and placed in a receptacle
under the hatchery, while the Chetah is rewarded with a leg
for his pains."

(Bassaris asstua )


~a~-- ~--

(Fells onca)




The ivitw. The family Viverridoe includes a large number
of species of small carnivorous animals of which the Civits
and the Ichneumons are the best known. They belong
chiefly to Africa and South Asia, but some are found in
the south of Europe. The African Civit hails from Gaboon
and Abyssinia and the Asiatic variety from Bengal, Nepaul,
China and Formosa. It is from these animals that we get
the fatty substance, used in perfumery and known as
civit. Of this Mr. Piesse says: "In is pure state, civit
has to nearly all persons a most disgusting odour, but when
diluted to an infinitesimal portion its perfume its agreeable.
The Genet, and the Paradoxure are other genera of this
The Iohneumon. The Ichneumon numbers some fifteen genera,
and sixty species. The best known of these is the grey
Ichneumon which comes from India or adjacent countries.
Naturally savage it soon becomes tame under kindly treat-
ment. It seems to have a natural enmity towards serpents,
which it attacks and destroys. The Mahrattas say that it
neutralizes the effects of snake bites by eating the root of
the monguswail. Captain Brown records an experiment in
which the ichneumon was placed in a room with a poisonous
serpent which it tried to avoid. On the two being removed
to the open air, the ichneumon is said to have immediately
darted at the serpent and destroyed it, afterwards retiring
to the wood and eating a portion of the plant said to be
an antidote to the serpent's venom. The Ichneumon is
about the size of the domestic cat and of a dark silver
grey colour. The Egyptian Ichneumon much resembles the
cat in its habits and manners and is so deadly a foe to
reptiles and vermin, that it is domesticated with a view to
their destruction. It is remarkably quick in its movements,
darting with unerring aim at the head of the reptile it
attacks. It displays also the cat's patience in watching for
its prey. It has a great liking for crocodile's eggs and with

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