Citation
Primary geography

Material Information

Title:
Primary geography
Cover title:
Southern states Western section
Creator:
Frye, Alex Everett, 1859-1936
Ginn and Company
Athenaeum Press (Boston, Mass.) ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publisher:
Ginn and Company
Manufacturer:
Athenaeum Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vii, [1], 134 p. : ill., maps (some col.) ; 27 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geography -- Textbooks -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Geography -- Study and teaching -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1894 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1894
Genre:
Textbooks ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Includes "The Southern states (Western section)": p. 129-134.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Alex. Everett Frye.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026622792 ( ALEPH )
ALG3703 ( NOTIS )
226871058 ( OCLC )

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PRIMARY
PCOGRAPHE

BY

ALEX EVEREQ) GINYVE

AUTHOR OF “CHILD AND NATURE,” “BROOKS AND BROOK BASINS,” ETC,

BOSTON, U.S. A,
GINN AND COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
1894



CoPpyRIGHT, 1894

By ALEX EVERETT FRYE

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED





PREFACH.

—e

Attention is mvited to the following features of this book :—

Text.— The aim has been to use language suited to pupils of primary grades. Open
the book at any page, and see whether the author has hit the mark.

The subject is treated topically. The day of patchwork teaching has passed. Teachers
have long been asking for a text-book based on the topical study of the earth. This book
holds the earth as a unit before the mind, and relates all study to that unit. The memory
is thus aided and much time is saved.

The underlying principle of this work is comparison. Glance at the little maps on
pages 29 and 33, and this thought will be made clear. Each part—ocean or grand division
—§is shown in its relation to the whole and to the other parts.

The text on PEOPLE centers in child-life. The word race has a deeper meaning than
is taught by the size of cheek bones or the texture of hair. This book leads pupils ito
the homes of the races. Read to a child one of the stories on pages 55 to 72, and note
the result. .

Plants and animals are studied in their relations to climate and physical features. Here,
again, the earth is the unit of study. Belts of heat, and not mere zones of light, are made
the basis of this work.

Every child should know a great deal about his own state and about his own country.
The various editions of this book present special state texts, while the body of the book
treats of the leading industries of the United States as a whole. The cruel and senseless
“study of countless details concerning the separate states is here replaced by a general view
of the resources and industries of the whole nation. This work has been laid before
thousands of teachers, and the author has yet to meet the first teacher who does not
welcome the change.



iv PREFACE.

This book is not a-condensed edition of the larger book of the series. Primary
Geography rests on a basis of its own. Only the leading topics of the science are here
treated. These are clothed with stories of people, plants, animals, natural scenery, ete.

A Manual of Methods, containing suggestions for teachers, accompanies this series
of books.

Pictures. — The pictures are true to nature. With but few exceptions they were
engraved directly from photographs.

The pictures supplement the text. A glance at pages 13 and 17 will show how they
afford teachers an opportunity to lead far beyond the text.

The pictures present typical forms. In place of mere definitions, or word-shells, the
text and pictures bring pupils face to face with nature in its variety. See pages 10 and 11.

The pictures are works of art. Tt is thought that they are superior to any ever before
placed in a schoolbook.

Acknowledgments.— In the treatment of types of natural features, as well as in
criticism of other parts of the work, Professor W. M. Davis, Harvard University, has given
very valuable assistance.

The author desires to express his gratitude to Mr. Justin H. Smith, of Boston. Some
of the leading features of this book embody his original thought.

The relief maps were modeled under the supervision of the author, by Miss Gertrude
Beatrice Wright, of the Normal Art School, Boston.

The Industrial Maps of the United States were drawn by Mr. Henry Gannett, Chief
Topographer of the United States Geological Survey.

HAS He Rey cH
‘Boston, May, 1894.



eS Tal,

HOME GEOGRAPHY.

GEOGRAPHY :
Hints AnD VALLEYS
Brooks AND Rivers
SLOPES

Kinps oF Soin

Work oF WATER

Loos Sort

Rain In THE Sor

How Sor sETrnes .
Work or THE Brooxs
Mup Banks orn Dentas .
WATER AND Hzar
Forms or WATER
SPRINGS :
Sources or STREAMS
Wuerte Brooks FLOW
SYSTEMS AND Basins
Tue Tor oF A RipcE
DrvipEs :
How Snopes ARE WORN
Brps oF STREAMS
VALLEYS

Mountains

PLAINs

SHore Forms . : :
Work or Wartrr on SHORES
Points oF THE COMPASS
How Maps ARE MADE
Reapine Mars



THE HARTH.

Form Aanp Sizk oF THE EartTe
Waar A HInn IS MADE OF

OF CONTENTS.

ry
&
ANS ER AR wWwWwd NNR

OomMDDDM

10

11

12

14
eee)
“16
18

18

19

20
21

Wauat tHe EARTH IS MADE OF .
THe AIR. 3

Tur SHELL or AIR

THE Pours

Tue Equator

SLOPES OF THE EARTH.

Tur Worip Riper

AnprEs Higunianp :
Rocky Mountain Higunanp
HieguHnanp or TrBer
HieHianp or ABYSSINIA.
SLopEs rRom Wortp Riper
SELVAS p

WESTERN PLAINS

TUNDRAS . :

Drsrrt or SAHARA

Tur Granp Divisions

Tur OcEANS

Borrom or tHe Sra

Corat Isnanps

SOUTH AMERICA.

SurFrace or Soura AMERICA .
Mar Srupies

Amazon RIVER

Hicguuanp or Brazin
PAMPAS :

Istamus or PANAMA .

NORTH AMERICA.

SurFace or Norra AMERICA.
Map Srupies

PAGE
21
21
21
22
23

ol
33
33
34
b4

84

35.
87



vi

Tur Rocky MovuntTarIns . s

Cotorapo CANon : 5 é

Tom Hetent or Lanp
Tur Muississtppr Basin
Nortu or Heient or Lanp .

AppALACHIAN HIGHLAND .

ATLANTIC SLOPE
Paciric SLOPE

ASIA.

Surrace or ASIA
Mar SrupiIEs
Arctic SLOPE .
Caspian BAsIn
PuAIns oF CHINA
Tur GANGES BASIN

EUROPE.

SuRFACE OF EUROPE

Map SrupDiEs ‘| : 3
Snopes FRoM Swiss HicgHLannD-
Vaupar Hits

Tur CASPIAN SEA

BritisH IsiEs

AFRICA.

4a
SurracE or AFRICA
Map StTupies
Tur River NILE
OasIs IN THE DESERT.
Konceo Basin .

AUSTRALIA.

SurFAcE oF AUSTRALIA
Mar StTupDIEs .

PEOPLE.

Trnpu, THE Konco Boy
JAPAN AND ITS PEOPLE .
Mazay or Brown PEoPLe .
A Laruanp Home .

Cuueiu, tHE Eskimo Boy .
CHILDREN oF INDIAN TRIBES .
Lanp or tHe ARABS .
‘CHILDREN OF THE LOWLANDS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

i . 87
38

. 388

5 39
40

40

40

40

41
43
48
43

waa

44

45
AT
AT
48
48
48

49
51
51
52
52

St OL
rs

oo

CHILDREN OF THE HIGHLANDS
Homes or THE RACES

Homers or THE NATIONS

Mar SrupikEs .

HEAT, WIND AND RAIN.

Home Lesson ror A Hot Day.
How tHe Arr Is HEATED

How tHe EARTH IS HEATED
Hiew anp Low Lanp

Tue SEASONS

CHANGE OF SEASONS

A Sion or SPRING

Betts or Heat

Tue TrapE WINDS

Tur Gur STREAM.

PLANTS.

WHERE PLANTS GROW

Som, Water anp Hear
Puants or THE Hor Ber
Puants or THE WARM BELts
Puants oF THE CooL Betts
Puants oF THE Corp Brrr
Uses oF PLANTS.

ANIMALS.

Animats, — THEIR TEETH, ETC.
ANIMALS AND THEIR Homes
ANIMALS OF THE Heat BELTS
Uszs or ANIMALS

THE UNITED STATES.

Surrace oF THE UNITED STATES
PEOPLE

Juny 4, 1776 .

Map Srupirs orf STATES
Lrapine Crrius

Corton : . :
Maize orn Inpran Corn .
WHEAT

For3Ests

CATTLE

CoaL

Tron

PAGE

73
73
74.

79
80
81°
82
82
82

83
83
84

86
87
88
89
89
92
93
94
95
96
97
98



GoLD AND SILVER.
Routes or TRADE
New York

Boston

New ORLEANS
San FRANCISCO .
PHILADELPHIA
CHICAGO

St. Louis

NORTH AMERICA.

Tur Unirep Staves .
CANADA
Mexico

“ SOUTH AMERICA.

BRAZIL . : g
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC
CHILE

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

99
100
101
101
102
102
102

103 -

108

104
104
104

106
106
106

EUROPE.
BritisH Isies
GERMANY
FRANCE

ASIA.

InDIA
CHINA
JAPAN

AFRICA.
Eeypr
CAPE COLONY

AUSTRALIA.

VICTORIA
New Souta WaALgEs

SUPPLEMENT.

vil

PaGE

108
108
108

110
110
110

112
112

114
114





RELIEF MAP OF THE WORLD.

Norr.—In this picture we view the earth from a point nearly over the British Isles. The southern half of South
America cannot be seen frém this point. In order to bring it into sight, we must think of it as being lifted
from the other side of the earth and swung round into the place where it now appears.

The picture on page 77 shows still more of the land swung round from the side of the earth opposite that

shown above.

:

































































































The Earth in Space.

HOME GEOGRAPHY.

1. Geography. —
See Teachers’ Manual of Methods in Geography.

Tuis book tells a story about the earth, —
the great ball of land and water on which
we live. ye a

After studying that part of the earth which
is near our school, we shall visit the homes
of girls and boys in other lands.

We shall see little yellow people feeding

silkworms, and picking leaves from tea plants.

The Arab boy will show us his father’s
camels and horses, and will tell us about the
great desert that spreads round his home.

In the land of the brown people we shall
find groves of spice, and the brown girls will
weave pretty baskets for us.

The Eskimo boy will show us how to
crawl into his snow hut, and will tell us how
his father hunts the seal for food and clothing.

We may also peep into tall straw huts,
and see the black people in their far-off
home.

We shall pass by acres and acres of waving
grain, and wide fields hidden with soft white ,
cotton.

We shall climb high mountains whose tops

are buried in ice and snow.

Every day of our journey will bring new
sights, and tell new stories of the beautiful
earth on which we live.

A story of the earth and its people is called
Geoyraphy.

See page 126 for pronunciation of hard words.



2, a HILLS AND VALLEYS.





































































2. Hills and Valleys.

Is there any level land near your
school? Where?

Is it exactly level? Does any water
flow across it? Where have you seen a
hill? Where have you seen a valley?

Find’ pictures of two hills and two
valleys in this book.

How does
a hill differ
from a val-
ley ?












































































































Find the swiftest part of the stream. Can you
tell why the water flows swiftly in the rapids?

Why does the river flow smoothly under the
bridge ?

Why do the brooks spread over the meadow and
make a pond? : E- ;

Find two pictures of rivers. How does a brook
differ from a river ?











4. Slopes.

Any land that slants is a slope. The side
of a hill, or of a valley, is a slope.

Some slopes are gentle, and others are
steep. Where have you seen a gentle slope?
Is there a steep slope near your school ?

Most brooks that flow among hills are
very swift. Can you tell why?

Look at the meadow near the pond in
the picture. Do you think that this
meadow is just level?

Why does the pond not spread out
farther ?

When a brook runs into a small hollow,
it makes a pond. Rivers often flow into
large hollows, and make lakes.

=e If all the land were level, there would
From Source to Mouth. i be no hills nor valleys, no ponds nor lakes,
3. Brooks and Rivers. no brooks nor rivers.
How many brooks can you see in the picture ? Find three pictures of steep slopes, and
Where does the water in the brooks come from? three pictures of gentle slopes.







































































KINDS OF SOIL. 3

5. Kinds of Soil.

Which is the finer, loam or sand? Loam or clay?

Pour some water on loam, on sand and on clay.!
Into which does the water sink most quickly ?

Which dries soonest, the loam, the sand or the
clay ?

What becomes of plants that die, and of leaves
that fall?

Find as many kinds of soil as you can.
kind in a bottle by itself.

What kind of soil covers the fields

Put each

See the balloon! It is floating im the clear
air, far above the clouds.

-7. Loose Soil.®

Pour some water on hard ground. Wait two
minutes, then dig and see how far the water has
settled.

Loosen a little patch of ground with a spade, and
pour on some water. After two minutes, find out

how far it has gone into the soil.

















or yards near your school?









































































































































Can you find out what is under the







































































































soil ?































































































































































6. Work of Water.’



How hard-it rains!
The river is swift and muddy.

























Where does the muddy water
come from?

Let us go out on the side of
the hill. Can you see the tiny
streams or rills which the rain
makes? Look closely! They are
very small.

Many of the rills are muddy.
These are washing away the
finest soil. Watch the rills that
are rollmg sand down the steep
places.

The rills cannot carry sand very
far. They must leave it in the
hollows and on the level places.
Can ‘you tell why?

What will become of. the fine soil that
-makes the rills muddy? The little streams
will carry some of it down to the river.

1 A small box of each will answer for the entire class.

2 WEATHER Recorp.—In a notebook keep a daily
record of the weather. In the afternoon write whether the
day has been hot, warm, cool or cold; clear, cloudy, rainy or
snowy; calm or windy. Be sure to write the date.

This record will show you how to keep yours.

‘Dec. 6 . warm
te os see. (Cold!

rainy
clear

windy
windy





Rainstorm,

Farmers plow in order to turn up fresh soil, and to
loosen it, so that the rain can easily settle.
Do you know what frost does to: the soil ?

Dec. 8 . cool
De es seo!

calm
windy

clear *
rainy

Keep the record every school day for a year. Perhaps
you can also take notes for holidays. At the end of the
year you can count and find out which month has had the
greatest number of warm days, rainy days, etc.

’ Home work for pupils who wish to try the exper-
iment. ;



4 RAIN IN THE SOIL.

/






ground.




seeds.



| g. reen.
Indian Corn.

The water is
taken into the roots of trees. It rises to the
sleeping buds, and pretty leaflets unfold.

Now the blossoms hang in clouds, and later
they fall like snow. Grain sprouts, grows up
and waves in the fields.

At length the boughs bend low with fruit.
Sheaves of wheat dot the fields, and long
ears of corn ripen in the sun.

All the time the plants are growing, water
in the soil helps to feed them.

Have you ever seen worms crawling out of
the ground ? t

Worms grind leaves, and mix them with
soil. They bring rich earth to the surface,
and make little mounds of it.

x
Sg










8.
Rain in the Soil.

When it rains, some

yw water sinks mto the

; It mois-

“tens the soil around

At the right season they sprout
and grow through the soil.

The rain flows among grass roots, and

little blades shoot up, making the fields






Apple Blossoms.

Have you ever watched ants building their
hills? Do you know of any place where ants
are at work near your school? Where do
they get fine earth for their hills?

Mounds made by worms and ants are often
dotted over the fields.
Raindrops spread these
mounds, and carry some
of the rich soil down
again to the roots and
seeds.



Growing Pumpkins.

9. How Soil Settles.

Mix fine soil in one glass of water, and coarse sand
in another. Let the water stand for a while, and see
what takes place.

Which settles first, the soil or the sand ?

Mix fine loam and coarse sand in a glass of water,
and let it stand. Which settles on the other, the
loam or the sand ?

10. Work of the Brooks.

What is the swift part of a
brook called? Can you tell why?

Below the rapids there is a
small pond. This pond is only a
wide place in the brook. Rain
has been falling, and the brook is
muddy. It has a load of fine soil which
the rills have brought from the slopes.





MUD. BANKS

Let us throw two or three pailfuls of gravel
into the rapids. See what takes place.

The pebbles sink in the rapids, where
the water is swift. Some are rolling down
the slope under the water. Can you tell
what moves them ?

Here is the sand below the rapids.
Watch it spreading on the bottom. It
looks like a great leaf. Why does
the sand settle here? Why did it
not settle in the rapids?

Look into the ,
pond where the
water is still. The
muddy water is
flowing into it.
Let us wait a lit-
tle while and find
out where the fine
soil goes.

The part of the
brook that flows
out of the pond is
not muddy. It has
left the fine soil
under the still
water.

If there were no
pond, what would
become of the
muddy water ?

f

Il. Mud Banks ‘oF Deltas.

Look once more at the mud on the bottom
of the pond.

When it rains again, more soil will be
brought down by the rills and brook. In
time a little mud bank will form near the
place where the brook flows into the pond.

When the water is low the mud will stand
above it.








OR DELTAS. 5

&

After a long time the soil may fill the
whole pond, except where the brook keeps a
path or channel open. As the new bank of
soil grows, grass and flowers will cover it, and
make it look like other parts of the field.

Thus, water wears
down the high land
and so makes the
slopes more even...

Mud banks that
form where streams
flow into still water
are called deltas. A
delta cannot form
in water that moves
swiftly. The soil
is swept away and
cannot settle.

Most of the rivers
in the world flow
into a great body of salt water,
called the ocean or the sea. Rivers
make many deltas on the shores of
the ocean. Some deltas are so
, iarge that cities are built on them.
= a Let us next find out where the
water in brooks and rivers comes
from.

Rapids.



12. Water and Heat.

Put a few drops of water into a tin
cup, and heat it. Where does the water go ?

The water in the cup changes into vapor.
cannot see the vapor, but it is floating in the air.

Heat a small bottle of water over a lamp. What
takes place inside the bottle ? What comes from the
bottle ?

Hold a piece of cold glass in the cloud that you can
see coming from the bottle. Of what is the cloud
made ?

Breathe against a cold window.
breath ?

Have you ever seen your breath ?
cold day or on a.warm one ?

We

What is in the

Was it on a







the air.’

6° FORMS OF WATHR.

Put a little water into a shallow basin, and let it
stand in the sun. Where does the water go? Into
what does it change ?

What makes the little cloud that comes from the
kettle in the picture ?

13. Forms of Water.

Put some water into a shallow basin, and
let it stand in the sun. The water will
slowly change into vapor, and float away
in the air.

We cannot see vapor. The kettle
in the picture is sending out vapor
which changes into a little cloud. The
vapor is in the clear space near the
mouth of the kettle. 3

Vapor rises from ponds, lakes,
brooks and rivers, but most of it
comes from the sea.

When the air is cooled enough,
some of the vapor in it changes

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































into large clouds, such as we often see floating

above us.
Were you ever in a fog? Did it look like
water dust? Fog is a cloud near the earth.
When enough vapor has changed into cloud,
some of the particles of water fall through
- Many particles run together and
ior dies of rain.

Have you ever seen any hail? Did it look
like frozen rain ?

When the air is very cold a part of ie
vapor in it sometimes freezes into crystals or
flakes of snow. If you will catch some snow-

flakes on a piece of black cloth, you will find
that they have very pretty shapes.


















At night, when the grass
and stones are cold, vapor
often floats against them
and changes into dew.
Breathe against a cold
window and against a
warm sleeve. Upon which
does dew form?

On very cold nights vapor freezes on
grass and stones and forms frost.

A part of the dew and frost is formed of
vapor that. rises from the damp earth.

The ice-coat on water forms first at the
surface. If the freezing began at the bottom,
many lakes and streams would become solid
masses of ice. The fish in them would die,
and even the summer sun could not melt the
ice in deep water.

What are the uses of ice ?

Perhaps these words will help you to think
of some of the uses of water :— kitchen,
travel, mill, plant, river, ram, ocean, well.



SOURCES OF STREAMS. ‘li








ie Springs.

Why does rain not fill the soil ?

Have you ever seen water flow out of the ground ?

Is there a spring near your home? If so, tell what it is like.

Brooks often flow in dry seasons. Can you tell where the water
comes from ?

15. Sources of Streams.

The beginning of a brook or river is called its source.
Many springs form at the foot of hills, and also in
meadows.

Many others bubble up in the bottoms of
brooks, ponds, rivers and lakes. Ponds and









































































































































































































lakes store up water, and
supply it to brooks and rivers
long after the rain is over.
Do you see the large brook
or river that flows from under
the ice? The tops of many
mountains are covered with
ice and snow all the year.
Many streams are formed by
the melting ice and snow.

7



g SYSTEMS: AND: BASINS. ee

Should you like to see hot water spout out
of the ground? . It often shoots up as high
as a very tall tree. There must be a very hot
place in the earth under the geyser.

From some springs there is a gentle flow of
warm or hot water. Find the picture of the
hot springs.
made many pretty basins ?

16. Where Brooks Flow.

Why do brooks flow in creoked lines ?

In what direction does every stream flow ?

Why are some brooks swift and others slow ?

Why is a brook wider in some plage than in
others ?

What are the uses of brooks and eae ue

17. Systems and Basins.

Streams often flow from many small valleys
into a large valley.

All the streams that meet in one valley
form a system. A river system includes the
main river of the valley, and all the rills,
brooks and rivers that flow into the main

one.
All the land that sends water to a brook





A Divide.

Do you not think that shee have :

forms the basin of the brook. A basin is
made of slopes.

Every stream is in a basin. includes all the land that is drained by a
river system.

q

Sy

Mississippi System.

Every large basin is made of many small
ones.

Many brook basins send water to one river.
A large river basin often includes many
smaller river basins.

The Mississippi system drains about a
million square miles of land. This vast tract
of land forms the Mississippi basin.

The main stream of this system is the
longest river on earth.

How does a basin differ from a system?
Poimt to the basins and systems in the pic-
ture on the opposite page.

s

18. The Top of a Ridge.

Here is a picture of a ridge that rises between
two long narrow valleys.

When rain falls on the top of this midge, into which
valley does it flow ?

What part of the ridge is in each valley ? :

Point to the line that runs along the very top of
the ridge. This line is called a divide. It divides
the valleys.



DIVIDES. 9

























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































San Bernardino Mountains, Cal.

19. Divides.

The slopes of the large valleys in this
picture begin at the tops of the high ridges.
Each slope starts at a divide.

Some divides are on high land where snow
lies all the year. Other divides are low. If
it were not for running water it would be
hard to find them. '

The rain that falls on any slope flows into
the valley to which that slope belongs.

A divide is often called a water parting.
Can you tell why?

Find on the map a water parting that is
on very high land. Find one on low hills;
another on land that is nearly level. __

Point as near as you can to the sources of
all the streams that flow into the Santa Ana
river. All the slopes that send water to these
streams are in the Santa Ana basin. Trace
the divide that bounds this river basin.



















San Jacinto Mountains.
20. How Slopes Are Worn.

Find a piece of wood that has lain a long
time on the ground. Cut into it. Has any
part begun to decay ?

Break open a small round stone, or a large
pebble. Which part has begun to decay?
Which part looks brightest ?

Wood decays, and so do rocks decay. All
rocks, both large and small, slowly crumble
into soil.

Wind blows dust and sand about. Rain-
drops wash tiny grains of rock together, and
make them finer.

Frost splits many rocks, and even wedges
off large pieces from cliffs.

Little by little the raindrops, rills, brooks
and rivers wash the fine rock or soil down
the slopes.

Thus, most slopes are slowly crumbling
and wasting away.



10 BEDS OF STREAMS.







21. Beds of Streams.

The bottom
of a stream is
called the bed
of the stream.

We have
seen how rills
and brooks
carry away
soil. Swift
rivers often
wash tons and
tons of sand, pebbles,
and even large stones
down the slopes.

This rocky matter
grinds the beds and
thus helps to wear
them away.

In some rivers,
floating ice cuts the
banks and beds. Mud, sand and stones
are held by ice, and are carried down
the streams. Where does the ice leave
its load?

With a hammer break a stone imto
small pieces. What is the shape of the
pieces? Are they rough or smooth?

Put the pieces into a bottle and
shake it very hard. See the grains of
rock on the bottom of the bottle.

Most of the stones in river beds are round and smooth. Can you
tell what rounded them ?

A part of the sand in river beds is worn from these stones.

What becomes of the fine particles that are worn off the rocks by
rivers? After long ages what will become of the rocks that are
now in river beds?

Rivers often wear steep places in their beds. The water leaps
down, forming waterfalls. A great fall of water over a steep bank is
called a cataract. A little fall is a cascade.

Some of the pictures show water phmging over steep rocks. One
shows the rocks back of the falls.









































































































































































































































































































VALLEYS. 11



























































22. Valleys.




Is there a wide valley
near your school? Is
there a narrow one?

Which of the valleys in
the pictures are very deep?
Which have steep sides ?

Point to a valley whose
sides have gentle slopes.

The sides of all valleys
are slowly wasting away.
Can you tell why?

In some places, deep val-
leys with steep sides are
called caions. In other
places they are called
gorges.

Do you see the ice river
m one of the valleys? This
ice river, or glacier, moves
only a few inches a day.
What do you think becomes of the ice?

Some valleys are so wide that we cannot see across
them. Some are in low land, and others are in high land.











































































































12
23. Mountains.

Which pictures show mountains with sharp
tops? Which show rounded tops?

How does a mountain differ from a valley ?
How does it differ from a hill ?

Most mountains are made of layers of rock
that are tilted and bent. The rock is often
hidden under a thin coat of soil.

In some places long and deep valleys have
been worn in plateaus. The high ridges and

MOUNTAINS.

volcanoes have deep valleys worn in their
sides, and it is thought that these are very
old. . ‘

A row of mountains is called a mountain
range. Point to the picture of a low range
of mountains having rounded tops.

Find a range with snow upon it. These
mountains are so high and cold that snow
and ice lie upon them all the year.

Do you think that it would be easy to walk
along the divide or top of a range?























































You would have to climb over



















the highest poimts, and cross the
notches between them.

The top of a range is called a
crest. Point as near as you can
to the crests of two ranges.

Which crest looks like saw
teeth? Which looks like waves ?

High poimts in a crest are called
peaks. Find six sharp peaks.
Find three rounded ones.

Only a few people live on the
sides of mountains. The land is
rough, and it is hard to make
good roads there.

In some places on mountains
there is grass enough for cattle



















and sheep, but the soil is gener-































Cascade Peak, Rocky Mountains.

points of land that are left standing among
such valleys are often called mountains or hills.

For ages and ages, melted rock and ashes

have been pushed up from beneath the sur-
face of the earth, or have been blown up by
gases. This melted rock is called Java.

In many places the lava and ashes are in
great heaps that look like mountains or hills.
The mouth from which the lava and ashes
came, 1s called a crater. A great heap of lava,
having a crater, is called a volcano. Some

ally very poor. Can you tell why?
What becomes of the rock that
crumbles on steep slopes ?

The roads across mountain ranges run
through the low places, or passes, in the
crests. Point to three passes.

Have you heard of the St. Bernard dogs that
have saved so many lives in a famous pass?

Many long tunnels have been made through
ranges. Trains of cars run through some of
these, and save many miles of travel over
lofty crests.

Some tunnels are cut through solid rock.



MOUNTAINS. 13
. i i OwOwwwaToToeawEwO_cC KKK HRN noNN ONAN



















































































































































































































































































































































BEANG:

NA















































































{4 PLAINS.

24, Plains. Some plains are so wide that a swift train
How does a plain differ from a hill? How of cars could not cross one of them in a day.
does it differ from a valley ? Find a picture of a high plain. See the

How level the land is in the grainfield deep valleys that are worn im it.
where the men are at work. Long ages ago Some high plains are even, and some low
this plain was under water. : . plains are uneven,

Find the rocky plain upon which but high plaims are
low bushes are growing. Melted generally more
rock or lava came up from the uneven than low
inside of the earth and formed ones.
this plam. The lava spread out, High plains are
cooled and hardened. sometimes called
plateaus. Nearly
all plateaus are
cut by deep val-
leys, and are broken by high moun-
tain ranges.

Most of the fertile land is on plains,




















































































































































Which picture shows a level tract
of land near a wide river? This
plain is made of soil brought down






























and here we must look for the
chief plants that supply food and
clothing. = ;

























































by the river. The water leaves the
soil here in times of overflow.
We have learned how brooks form
little deltas in ponds. The plain
upon which cows are grazing is part
of the delta whieh a river has made . :
in the ocean. ~ On level land it is easy to make roads, to























How broad and flat some of these plains dig canals, and to lay iron or steel rails.
are. They look level as far as we can see. Most people make their homes on plains.

There are others that are not so level. Can. you tell why?



SHORE FORMS.

25. Shore Forms.!

A











Have you ever seen an ‘sland? If so,











tell what it was like.
How many islands can you see in the pic-
tures on this page? Find two peninsulas.
How. does an island
differ from a peninsula? |




































































































The word peninsula
means almost an island.
Which picture is |























A cape is a point
of land that extends







































































































































































out into water.










































































































































Which is marked low
How do these two pictures differ from

marked high tide ?
tide ?
‘each other? The water in these pictures is a
part of the ocean.

Twice each day the water slowly rises
on the beach, and twice it slowly falls and
lays the beach bare.? It takes about six hours

for the water to rise, and about six hours for.

it to fall. This rise and fall of the water is
called the tide. :

Where is the water line at high-tide? Where
is it at low tide?

1 Find all these forms on the map opposite the first page
of this book.

2 A few places have only one tide a day, and a few other
places have more than’ two tides.

























































































Some capes are
high and others are
low. Find three capes in the pictures.

Find an esthinus. This word means a neck
of land. What does an isthmus connect ?

Look at the pictures, and tell how an
isthmus differs from a strait. A. strait is
a body of water connecting two larger bodies
of water. An isthmus connects two bodies
of land with each other.

A long and shallow strait is sometimes
called a sound. The name sound is also given
to shallow bodies
of water lying
between is-
lands and the
mainland.

Some straits
are many
miles wide,
and are very
deep, but they













16

are narrower than the bodies of water which
they connect.

In many places arms of water reach into
the land. Some of these are called bays,
some are called guifs, and others, seas.

_ There are bays, gulfs and seas so wide that
swift steamers cannot cross them in a day.

How does a bay differ from a peninsula ?

Turn to the picture’on page 9. If the tide
were to rise into these low valleys, where
~ would it first form islands? Where would it
form peninsulas ?

Can you find a place where there would be
first an island and then a strait? In what
parts of the valleys would there be the great-
est number of little bays?

26. Work of Water on Shores.

Let us visit the seashore and watch the
great waves roll in. How they roar as they
tumble over and over!’ Have you ever bathed
in the surf?

What is gravel? Which bank in the picture
is made of gravel ?

Waves often strike against this bank, and
wear parts of it away. Why does the water
not make the bank as steep as the rocky cliff?

Where do the pebbles and larger stones on
the beach come from ?

What becomes of the sand that falls with
the pebbles from the gravel cliff?

Find the clay cliff. Where do the large

stones on this shore come from? Find a

stone on the face of the cliff. When will —

it fall?

In some places ice rubs Deiat shores and
helps to cut and wear them away. Many
tons of sand, pebbles and even large stones
are held by the ice, and are carried out to sea
by it. What becomes of them when the ice
melts ?

WATER ON SHORES.

Waves often wash gravel against cliffs, and
thus slowly cut them away. Frost splits and
loosens the rocks. ae

Can you see the place where a part. of a
cliff has lately fallen? What will become
of the loose earth at the foot of the cliff?

Can you tell what made the caves in the
middle cliff?

Find the picture which shows surf breaking
over rocks. This rocky ledge was once a part
of the main shore. After a long time the
waves may wear away the whole ledge.

The island in the calm sea is like a low hill
round which water has flowed.

Have you ever seen seaweed growing on
rocks? Which do water and gravel wear away
more quickly, bare rocks or those which are
under seaweed ?

In some places the sand and pebbles that
are worn from soft cliffs and beaches spread
out and make the water shallow along the
shores. .

Great waves that roll in from the sea often
strike upon shallow bottoms, and wash sand
and pebbles up onto the beaches. In some
places the wind then blows the sand into
drifts, like snow, and carries it far mland.

Plants sometimes grow in beach sand, and
keep it from drifting. Which picture shows
a low, grassy shore ?

An arm of the sea, or of any other body

of water, in which ships find shelter from

storms, is called a harbor.

Some harbors are made by building long

walls out into the water. These walls break
the force of the waves.
- The best harbors have deep water and
high shores. Can you tell why deep water
is needed? Of what use are the. high
shores ?

Should you expect to find the best harbors
on rocky coasts, or on sandy ones ?



SEA COASTS. 17
ea
Ss = ll



















































































































































































































































































































18
27. Points of the Compass.

Point to the place where the sun rises. How
often does it rise?
Where is the sun at noon? Where doesit set?
Try to find out at what a“
time of day your body casts
the shortest shadow on level Ie
ground. ra

At midday all shadows

N
oO
Ww: E

DES!
D

POINTS OF THE COMPASS.

28. How Maps are Made.

How long is the top of your desk? How

wide is it?

Draw the top of your desk, making the
drawing one eighth as long .
as the desk.
How long is the school- .
room? How wide is it?
5 Draw the sides and ends—



‘point north, away from the

of the floor. Let one half







" objects that cast them.

of an inch on the paper stand





Turn your facetothe north. yy

for one yard on the floor.’





Are there any trees, hills or

Put all the desk-tops in the



houses north of you?

drawing.





Turn your back to the

This picture of a school-





‘north. You are now facing

room will show you how to













south. Name some objects







p draw yours.







that you can see south of you.

When you face the north,
east is on the right, and west
is on the left.

The sun rises in or near the east. It sets
in or near the west. Point to the east, and
then to the west. Name some objects that are
east of you. Name some that are west of you.

Which is the north
side of your school-
house? Which is the
south side ?

Name a building or
any other object that
is north of your home.
Can you name a street
or road that runs east
and west ?

Point halfway between north and east.
This direction is called northeast. It is often
written N. HE. |

Where will you look for northwest? For
southwest? For southeast? Can you name
a street that runs northeast and _ south-
west ?



Mariner’s Compass.



Draw the room again, and
let one eighth of an inch
stand for one foot. Mark
places for windows and doors.

Make a drawing or plan of the lower fioor
of the whole building. Use one fourth of
an inch for each yard.2. Make lines to show
where all the walls are placed. Mark places
for doors and windows.

Draw a plan of the same floor, using one

eighth of an inch for a yard.

Plan of a Schoolroom,

—- Se Re

a



D
yyw
Ground Plan of a Schoolhouse.

1Tf the room is very large, allow one fourth of an inch
for a yard. F

2 In some cases, teachers may find it necessary to name
scales, differing from those given.



READING

Make a plan of the school yard. Allow one
inch for twenty-five feet. Draw lines for the
walks and
gates. Make
dots for trees.
Mark the

s place where
the —school-



Plan of a Yard.
house stands.

_
- Here is a map of a school

district. One
eighth of an
inch was used
for fifty yards.
On page 8
there is an-
other kind of
map of the
same district.
It is called a
relief map.
Make a map of a part of your school
_district.1 Put in it the brooks, ponds, hills,
_ streets and shores, if there are any.
- You can measure distances by counting the
number of steps it takes to travel each
distance. Call each step a pace.



















= BY eo Se

A School District.







- 1If pupils cannot go outdoors to make a map of their
- district, the different members. of the class can doubtless
furnish enough facts for making a simple map indoors.
City pupils can make a plan of a park, or of a few
_ blocks or squares near their school.



=
en G8
Franklin’ rom
; 652 5t 8,
a S :
ee eS
& 3S
Ne >
Na

New York’ Bay
GOVERNOR 8
; 1

4NCITY HALL PARK
a AND VICINITY











MAPS. 19

29. Reading Maps.

Let us study these four small maps, and
learn what they show.

Find in map I. the City Hall and Post Office.
It.takes about two minutes to walk from one
of these buildings to the other. This map
includes a few streets in the city of New York.

The next map shows the rivers on two
sides of the city, with wharves all along the
water front.

Can you find the City Hall in map H.?
Why is it drawn so small? See how narrow
the streets in this map are made.

Map III. includes several cities. In this
map the streets are shown by very fine lines.
The buildings and wharves no longer appear.
See how far New York extends up the Hudson
river.

Can you find New York on map IV.?
Where is Albany? The distance from New
York to Albany is more than a hundred miles.

What river flows from Albany to New
York? Where are the Catskill mountains?
Where is Brooklyn ?

Why are the streets of New York not
drawn on map IV.? How are the rivers
shown on this map?

These little maps show how the large maps
in this book were made. Can you find New
York on the large map of North America ?



Cypress Hills
Com.

2 cf S
Woodside , et
ee, 4 > a
Cy, Wintiéla “S| “>. H 2
ES 7 Com, FE 4 fe
: z senna 3 iS
Ae Bye
i! by
Be mn ?





Maps of New York and Vicinity.



ADEE don GH eAois tele

——eoo—

30. Form and Size of the Earth.

The line on the earth where earth and
sky seem to meet is called ‘the horizon.
The horizon
surrounds us on
every side. —

Were you
hilltop ?
did you see the
same horizon
that you could
see from the
lower land?

Which picture
shows vessels
going to sea?

You can look over the masts of one vessel,
and see the water beyond. Another is sailing





Soap Bubbles.

1 This line is often called the skyline, and the name
horizon is applied to the circular skyline, as seen on the
ocean.

ever on a high.
If so,

out of sight.
Only the sails
can be seen.
The hull is
below the
horizon.

Can yousee
the smoke of
the steamer -
that is below
the horizon ?
If the earth
were flat,
could vessels go out of sight in this way?

Here is a map of the moon.

Find the long ridge just below the middle of
the moon. This ridge isa mountain range. It
is so long that it would take a swift train of cars
all day to run from one end of it to the other.

Have you ever blown soap bubbles? How
pretty the little globes look as they float away.
When the moon is pale and round, does it look
like a great bubble ?

If we were far off in the sky,
the earth would appear like a



Map of the Moon.













great moon.











































The moon is a very large ball,









but the earth is many times larger.













Ships on the Horizon.



We see so small a part of the
earth at a time that it does not
look round like a ball.

What is the form of the earth
in the picture on the first page?»

The greatest distance round the
earth is about 25,000 miles. The
greatest distance through it is
about 8,000 miles.









WHAT THE EARTH IS MADE OF.

31. What a Hill is Made of.

This picture shows a deep cut on the side of a hill.

Point to the solid rock.

What rests upon the rock ?

Upon what does the water flow ?

What is sand? What is clay ?

Of what is the hill in the picture made?

What is a pond? What flows in all streams ?

Have you ever seen any part of the earth that is
not made of rock or water ?

What do we breathe? What is wind?

Where do clouds form ? What comes from clouds ?

Where does rain go?

21

The earth is very large, and in places the
water is four or five miles in depth.

33. The Air.

Drop a small piece of paper. How did it move’
Why did it not fall straight down ?

Drop another piece. Did it fall like the first ?
Can you make two pieces fall in the same place ?

Can you see the air? Can you feel it?
your hand in the air.

These words may help you to think of some of
the uses of air: bird, ship, windmill, rain, breath,
balloon, plant, wave.

Swing









































































































































































































































32.





















































































































































What the Marth is Made of.





































































































































By far the greater part of



































































the earth is a ball of rock.
This great ball is not smooth..
Hills, mountains, plateaus and
valleys make rough places on
its surface.

The lower parts of the surface
of the rocky ball are covered
with water. The parts that are
above water are called the land.
You can see the land all about
your school.

We have learned that for
ages and ages rocks have been
decaying, and streams have been wasliing a
part of the fine rock down to the lowlands.

In most places there is a thin layer of fine
rock, or soil, over the solid rock.

Salt water covers about three fourths of the
surface of the earth. The other fourth of
the surface is land.

What is under the water?

If we picture the earth about the size of an
apple, the water will form a layer about as
thick as the peel of the apple. You must not
think that the water is really a thin layer.



Section of a Hill.

34. The Shell of Air.

We live and move in the air. We feel it
about us, we breathe it, and set it at work to
drive ships and to turn windmills.

How gentle the air is when calm. How

strong it is in angry gales.

We do not know how far the air extends
above us, but we do know that the upper air
is very thin. If we should go up only three
miles, many of us would suffer for breath.

The air forms a shell round every part of
the earth.



22
35. The Poles.

Find the dotted line in the top. It runs -

from the head to the peg. When the top

spins, every part

turns round this
line.

We will call this

line the axis of the

top. |







head nor peg, but
it spins like a top.



a night to turn once round.

We may think of a line im the earth like
that in the top. It is called the amis of the
earth. Once in twenty-four hours every part
of the earth turns round the axis.

The ends of the axis are called poles. The



word pole means pivot, or point upon which
anything turns.
The earth seems to float in the sky. It



Polar Scene.

The earth has nO:

it takes a day and -

THE POLES.

turns on its axis, just as if the poles (or ends
of the axis) were pivots; but, of course, the
earth does not rest upon anything.

When you go out to play, toss up a ball
and make it spin in the air. As the ball
spins, try to tell in what direction its axis
points.

Can you find the north star?
place in the sky where it shines.

The axis of the earth points to the north

Point to the

*, :
SS are Ol
wy ae star
s ee
‘ Bed
My a“
if EO
S SA xo
ca
star. The end of the axis under this star is

called the north pole. The other end is the

south pole.

If you were at the north pole you could see
the north star over your head. The north
star is often called the pole star. Can you
tell why ?

The land and water about the poles are

buried under ice and snow. Many polar bears
and seals are found in the frozen regions of
the north. Upon what do the bears feed ?
. From every place
on earth, north is
towards the north
pole. South is to-
wards the south
pole. .

Lines are often
drawn from. pole

Al) such lines run
north and south.

to pole on maps.

|





























































































Map A.

This line is called the equator.

It divides the surface
of the earth into two
equal parts. Find the
equator on the map.

The lowlands near
the equator have no

winter. The hot or
warm season lasts all
the year.

The equator extends

east and west. Other

lines may be drawn in
the same directions.
When we face the
north, east is along the

lines to the right, and west to the left.

THE EQUATOR.

How many arrows on map
A point north? How many
point south ?

Which arrows point north
onmap B? Onmap C?

Which arrows point south
on map B?

On map C?

36. The Equator.

We may think of a
lime drawn round the
earth, halfway between
the poles.

23







































































































Map B.

Which arrows on map A point east ? Which point





if
I





















































































































































































































































Scene near the Equator.

Which side of the earth
is light? When will that
side be dark ?

What part of a ball
can be lighted by one
lamp? How large a
part of the earth can be
lighted by the sun at one
time? The earth turns

from west to east, and

the sun is therefore first
seen in the east.

One side has day, a

east on map B? On C?
Which arrows point west
on map 4? On map B?
On C?

Find the north pole in
map D. Which lines in
this map run east and west?
Which north and south ?

When we face the south
pole does east follow the
arrows to the right or to
the left, round the pole ?

As the earth turns
slowly on its axis, one
side is light and the
other side is dark.
nd the other has night.











































































SLOPES OF THE EARTH.

ee

37. The World Ridge.

Four long highlands form a loop that bends
nearly round the earth. We will call this
loop of high land the world ridge. Find it on
the map.

The world ridge is not sharp, like ie roof
of a house. In many places it is hundreds of
miles in width. The greater part of it con-
sists of wide plateaus.

The world ridge is shaped like a horse-
shoe.

On which side of the equator are the ends of the
world ridge ?

In how many places does the eyuaten cross the
world ridge ?

Near what part of the world ridge is the north
pole ?

Make on the map a dot in the place where you
live. Your teacher will show you where to make it.



ANDES HIGHLAND.

Key to Relief Map,

38. Andes Highland.'

In what part of the world ridge is the
Andes highland? In what direction does it
extend ?

The Andes highland reaches one fifth of the
distance round the earth. It consists: of a

long and narrow plateau, with many ranges
of mountains.

Some of the peaks of the Andes are so
‘high that snow lies on them all the year.

On which side of the Andes are the great
plains ? :

A very useful animal, called the Wama, is found in
the Andes. This little beast sometimes carries loads
on its back over the mountains. :

The llama has a thick pad on the sole of each
foot, and is well fitted to climb steep rocky paths.

A few years ago, long trains of Hamas often
went winding down the mountain sides, with loads
_ of silver ore,—the rock from which silver is taken.
On the return trip the llamas carried food, clothing
and tools to the people who lived far above .the
coast.

Cars and mules now carry most of these goods.

1 The lessons in small type, in connection with pictures,
are for supplementary reading. The more important text
is in large type.



25



































Outside the World Ridge.

39. Rocky Mountain Highland.

Where is the Rocky Mountain highland?
In what direction does it extend ?

This mass of land is about as long as that
of the Andes. ;

Which of these highlands looks wider than
the other? Which looks the higher ?

The Rocky Mountain highland consists of a
wide plateau, broken by lofty ranges, and cut

by deep valleys. .

The main range is called the Rocky moun-
tains.



Llama.



26







Should you like
to cross the Rocky
Mountain highland

over ranges and through valleys.
we are still on the great world ridge.

The next rising sun finds us on the crest of the border
range, and in a few hours we drop from snowy passes into
a land of fruit and flowers.

HIGHLAND OF TIBET.

The sun rises and sets, and

40. Highland of Tibet.

Find on the map the highland of
Tibet. In what direction does it extend ?

This mass of land is the highest on
earth. Some of its snowy peaks rise
about five miles and a half above the
level of the sea. ,

On which side of Tibet are the
longest plains ?

The musk deer lives far up on the highland















































of Tibet. See how large its toes are. When





























on this train of
cars ? How the iron
horse must puff on the steep slopes !

In some places the track winds along the bottoms
of deep cafions, and crosses long bridges far above
rushing streams. In the high ranges, and even along
the plateau, the road is often blocked with snow.

Many of the sights are grand. The train whirls
round lofty points from which may be seen mile after
mile of rugged peaks, and it glides into wide valleys
which seem alive with cattle and sheep.

Hour after hour the train rushes on its way. Night
comes on, but even while we sleep the cars speed

Crossing the Rockies.







Kilima-Njaro.

the lively little creature leaps from rock to
rock, its toes seem to grasp the sharp points. _
The musk deer ; .
feeds on moss and
grass that grow
far up on the
ranges.
Thousands of
these creatures
are killed every
year for the little
sacs of musk that
form beneath the




skin. This musk Mile
is used in making “an WH
perfumery. Musk Deer.

41. Highland of Abyssinia.

The fourth great mass in the world ridge is
called the highland of Abyssinia. Show on the
map where it is.

In what direction is Abyssinia from the
end of the world ridge that is nearest it?

Let us try to climb this high mountain. It stands
near the equator, a little distance south of Abyssinia.

Large banana plants and palm trees grow at the
foot of the mountain.



SLOPES FROM THE WORLD RIDGE.

Up we go! Now we can look far out over the
lowlands. The air is cooler. See the great trees
with moss growing on their trunks and branches.

At length we reach grassy places and: clover
patches, on the mountain sides. Now we have passed
the clover, and find only bushes and bare rocks.

-Here is the edge of a great snowcap. We can

climb no farther, and yet the top of the peak is far
above us. This peak is very high, but many of the
peaks in the highland of Tibet are
much higher.

42. Slopes from the
World Ridge.

Each of the four great high-
lands sends out a long slope
on one side, and a short slope
on the other side. The long
slépes are inside the world
ridge. In most places they
make wide plains before reach-
ing the level of the sea.

The slopes outside the world ridge are
shorter than those inside. In most places the
short slopes form only a narrow lowland
along the shores.

Natives of the Selvas.

43. Selvas.

Vast forests, called selvas, cover a large part
of the slope east of the Andes highland. Long
rivers wind through these forests and often
overflow the land.

Find the word selvas on the map on page 25.

Many tribes of Indians live along the borders
of the streams. They ;
Spend their time
catching fish, and
shooting birds and
small animals.

Is the air cold or
1S it warm in the





- tundras is frozen to a great depth.

OA
44. Western Plains.

Where is the Rocky Mountain highland?
What have you read about this part of the
world ridge? On which side
of the Rocky mountains is
the long slope?

A very large part of this
slope consists of wide plains.
In some places they are barren,
but im other places they are
covered with grain and cotton.

Just east of the Rocky
mountains the grassy slopes
feed large herds of cattle.
These grazing plains stretch
away for hundreds of miles.
Perhaps some of the meat
which you have eaten came
from these plains.

45. Tundras.

Find the word tundras on the map. The
tundras are marshy and mossy plains that
form a part of the long slope far to the north
of Tibet. They lie along the shore of a very
cold sea. In most places the soil of the
In sum-
mer it thaws slightly at the surface.

Herds of reindeer feed on a small gray plant,
called reindeer moss, that grows on the tun-
dras. On page 81 there is a picture of these
dreary plains. South of the tundras there
are large forests and grassy slopes.





















Place where these
Indians live?



Cattle Ranch on the Western Plains.



28









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TARETIC. Gin Clean
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: we &





SOUTH
‘POLE



46. Desert of Sahara.

Find on the map on page 25 the place
marked desert. On pages 49 and 52 there
are pictures of parts of this desert.

Have you ever seen any land like that in

the pictures 2? How does it differ from the

land near your school ?
The desert is very dry, and most parts of







































THE GRAND








DIVISIONS. |






ANTARCTIC. CiReue





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*

it are covered with sand. Perhaps the little
children there never saw any rain.
South of this dry land there are long rivers

flowing through dense forests and over grassy
plains. :

47. The Grand Divisions.

What strait cuts across the world ridge ?

Where is South America? Where is North Amer-
ica? What isthmus joins these two parts of America ?
Which part is the larger ?

What lands are joined by the isthmus of Suez?

Where is Europe ?- Which is the larger, Europe
or Asia ?

What very large island.,is southeast of Asia?
Which looks the larger, Europe or Australia?

What lands are crossed by the equator ? On which
side of the equator is the greater part of the land?
On which side is the greater part of the sea ?

Which of these large bodies of land lie wholly
north of the equator? Do any lie wholly south of
the equator ?

South America, North America, Hurope,

Asia, Africa and Australia are called grand

divisions or continents.
What grand divisions are in the Old World ?







THE OCEANS.

29













































































































































48. The Oceans.

‘The sea, or ocean, covers nearly the whole
of one side of the earth, and also a large part
of the other side.

What name is given to that part of the sea which
is round the north pole? To the part round the
south pole ?

What ocean is east of America? On which side
of the Old World is the Atlantic ocean ?

‘Atlantic ocean ?

What ocean is west of America? On which side
of the Old World is the Pacific ocean ?

What ocean is south of Asia? What land is west
of the Indian ocean? What land is east of it?

What lands border on the Pacific ocean ? On the
On the Arctic ocean ?

What oceans touch the shores of North America ?
Of Asia? Of Australia? Of Africa? Of South
America ?

Which is the largest ocean? Next in size?







































































































































30
49. The Bottom of the Sea.

In some places there are very long and wide
banks under the sea. The tops of many
ranges and ridges also rise above water, and
form islands.

Many volcanoes rest upon the bottom of the

deep. sea. Their peaks form hundreds of
lonely islands, far out in the ocean. Most of
these volcanic islands are in the Pacific ocean.

By far the greater part of the bottom of
the sea is a vast smooth plain.

Sunlight does not go very far down in the
sea. If we were to sink in this great body of
water, we should find the light growing fainter
as we went deeper. At less than one fourth
of a mile below the surface, the
ocean is always in darkness.
Yet, in some places, the water
is five miles in depth.



CORAL ISLANDS.

This tiny creature is called a polyp, and the
The coral is a part of the |

hard part is coral.
body of the polyp.

Some polyps grow like trees, and send out
buds that form branches. The polyps on the
branches bud again, and thus a dense coral
forest grows.

Polyps lay tmy eggs in the water, and the
egos float and swim. If they reach a rocky

bank or a hard bottom where the water is |

shallow, clear and warm, they start another
forest of coral.

When the coral has grown nearly to the
surface of the sea, waves break off many
branches and wash them onto the top of the
coral mass. Hach storm sends
up more, till the bank rises
above the water and forms an
island.







Near the surface of the sea,
and on the bottom, there are
many kinds of fish and other
creatures. At times the shal-

low water near the shores of the grand

divisions seems to be alive with fishes.

50. Coral Islands.
(A Reading Lesson.)

Have you ever heard of the pretty islands
that grow in the sea? Let us visit one of
them, and find out how it grew.

The water round the island is clear, and we
can look far down into it. What are those
little branches that grow under the water?
Reach down with a long pole, and break off
a branch.

It looks like a small tree, but it is as hard
as stone.
sides and ends of the branch.

This is one of the wonders of the sea. Each
soft spot is a living body. It has a mouth and
a stomach, and takes its food from the water.



There are tiny soft spots on the

picture are built upon other sinking islands.

The waves soon grind some
of the coral to powder. Sea-
plants drift to the new shore,
and mix with the coral dust.
Soil is thus formed on the island.

Fine seeds are carried many miles by winds
in storms. Other seeds drift with the sea
from shore to shore. In some such ways
seeds reach the new island, and grow to trees
or smaller plants.
ready for man to come and make it his home.

In the warm parts of the ocean, polyps
have made many long banks, or reefs, along
the main shores.

Ships often strike upon ieee reefs, and are
wrecked." ;

There are many kinds of coral, and they
take many pretty shapes.

1 The famous war vessel, Kearsarge, was wrecked on a

coral reef.

2Tt ig often stated that islands like that in the
Tt is now
thought that this has taken place only in rare cases,

if in any.

Now the coral island is





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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AMERICA.

51. Surface of South America.

Cape Horn is at one end of the world ridge.
It is on a great mass of rock, rising from
the sea.

Round this bleak point the sea is often
very rough and stormy. Icebergs, or huge
blocks of ice, sometimes drift past this .cape.

The Andes highland extends northward
from Cape Horn. How long is this highland ?

The widest part of the Andes highland is
near the great bend in the Pacific coast.
Here the ranges inclose a lofty plateau.

On this part of the highland lies the beauti-
ful Lake Titicaca. It is about two miles and
a half above the level of the sea.

Steamers cross this lake, and connect the
villages with a railroad that winds down to

the coast. Rich grainfields spread round Lake
Titicaca, and the mountains that inclose its
basin have rich silver mines.

What part of South America is crossed by
the equator ??

Near the equator stands a group of noted
volcanoes. Among them the high plains
wind like long avenues.

Where is the isthmus of Panama?

The Andes highland covers about one sixth
of this grand division.

The long slope of South America is east of
the Andes highland. What have you read
about the selvas ? ,

The long bridge in this picture is near the
city of Lima. Find Lima and Rio Janeiro on
the map.

1 See the colored map of South America.











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AMAZON RIVER. 33



































52. Map Studies...

What oceans border on South America ?



SOUTH AMERICA
KEY TO RELIEF MAP

barrel. It is pink-white, with a golden center. The

What part of the world ridge isin South America? forest is so large that we might spend many

- Along what coast does itdie ?

years, following the streams that wind through it.

Which part of the Andes highland looks the widest? We should see wonderful sights,— trees whose sap

Which part looks the highest ?

is made into rubber, cat-like animals with bodies

On which slope of the Andes are ‘there no long larger than our own, and alligators that would like
rivers? Why? Find Cape Horn on the map. to make a meal of us.

Where is the isthmus of Panama ?

53. Amazon River.

What large river near the equator flows
towards the east? Where does the Ama-
zon river rise? Should you like to sail up
the Amazon river ? What large trees grow
along the banks ! Long vines hang froti
the branches, and weave thick nets.

_ The river is very wide, and many little
bays indent its banks. Let us enter one of
them. » Tall reeds line the banks, and grow
far out in the shallow, muddy water. Beauti-
‘ful birds flit abot. Noisy parrots scream
at us, and many monkeys chatter as we pass.

See the sleepy stork with long neck and
long legs. It is standing on a large lily
leaf that floats on the water. The blossom
of this lily is as large as the head of a



Scene on the Amazon.





34

54. Highland of Brazil.

A highland rises near the east
coast and extends far inland.
This is the highland of Brazil.
It is only about one sixth as high
as the Andes highland.

The coffee plant needs warm weather
and a great deal of rain.

See the pretty white blossoms and
the little berries that look like cherries.
When the berries turn dark red and
begin to shrivel, they are picked and put
into a machine that takes out the seeds.

Each berry has two seeds. Before
the seeds are used, they are baked and ground. Have
you ever seen a grocer grinding coffee seeds ?

Most of the coffee used in our country is raised on
the highland of Brazil.

55. Pampas.

Where is the La Plata river?
does the La Plata basin slope ?
Which is the larger, the basin of the Amazon or
that of the La Plata ?
- What highland divides the streams of these basins?

In what direction

_The greater part of the La Plata valley is a vast
plain. Its soilis
deep and rich.
During the
wet season,
many parts of
this plain are
covered with
tall, coarse
grass, above
which wave
white silky
plumes. The
grassy plains
of the La Plata
valley are
called pampas.
Vast herds

of cattle and



Pampas Grass



HIGHLAND OF BRAZIL.

Coffee Plantation.

sheep graze in this wide valley, and many
miles of the rich soil are planted with grain.

Where is the Orinoco river?

A large part of the Orinoco valley. consists
of wide, grassy plains, called Hanos. Large
herds of cattle graze on the llanos.

56. Isthmus of Panama.

This village is on the slender neck of land that
connects the two Americas. What is the name of
this isthmus ?

Of what are the houses mada: 2 How do the
people dress ?

A person on horseback can cross the isthmus of
Panama in a day, but the ride over the hills is a long
and hard one.

There is a railroad across this isthmus.



A Panama Village.



NORTH AMERICA.

57. Surface of North America.

Where is the gulf of Mexico ??

West of this gulf lies the plateau of Mexico.
It is about a mile and a half above the level
of the sea. High ranges of mountains lie
along its borders and steep
slopes descend from them to
the shores.

Between the isthmus of
Panama and the plateau of
Mexico the world ridge is low.
Low ranges lie along this part
of the Pacific coast.

North of the plateau of
Mexico lies the Great Basin.
It is a wide plateau, crossed
by many ranges and cut by
many valleys. -
Tn most places the Great

Basin is very dry. Its surface is nearly a mile
above the level of the sea, and border ranges
shut out most of the rain clouds.

In this
Near its

shores there are large cities.

1 See map on page 37.



basin lies the Great Salt lake..

Water is led to them from the mountains,
and around them spread many fertile
gardens. .

Northward from the Great Basin the world
ridge is lower and narrower.















The Yukon river is in the far north, and

flows through a very cold country. Snow
and ice cover the ground during a large part
of the year. :

The long slope of North America lies east
of the Rocky Mountain highland.





RELIEF MAP OF NORTH AMERICA.



4
MOUNTAINS.













NORTH AMERICA
KEY TO RELIEF MAP



58. Map Studies.

Find on the map the place where you live.

‘What oceans border on North America ?

Which part of the world ridge is in North America?
Along which coast does it lie ?









































Mexican Children.



















What does the relief map tell you about North
America ? :

The children in the picture live on the plateau of
Mexico. Can you tell whether their home is in a
warm place or in a cold one? '

What kind of clothing do these children wear ?
Of what are the huts made ?

This picture shows only country life. On some
parts of the plateau of Mexico there are large towns
and cities.

59. The Rocky Mountains.

Where are the Rocky mountains ? In what direc-
tion do they
run ?

The lofty
range of
the Rocky
mountains
runs along
the: eastern.
border of a
part of the

world ridge.

Do you not think that this is a very heavy load for
a little animal? What tools has he on his back ?
Can you tell what each tool is used for ?





38
















































































COLORADO CANON.

Many of the branches of the Colorado river have also cut

deep cafions in the rock.

In some places the land south of the Colorado
river looks like that in the picture below. The
valleys, or cafions, are deep and wide. The



























































































































































































































































\, soil is poor, but it supports enough grass













































































































































































































































to feed thousands of cattle.





























































































































In the rainy months large streams rush





























































































through some of these cafions, but when

































the rain is over, the beds of the rivers































































































































are dry and sandy.





























Cation of Colorado.

Do you remember our long ride in the cars across
the world ridge ? We climbed into high passes, and
rode through deep cafions. In places the road led
along the sides of steep cliffs and across long bridges.
Of course no wagons could cross those rough places.

Here the little donkey proves his worth. He can
climb rocky paths and is not afraid to walk along the
sides of steep cliffs. His slender legs are very strong,
and he can carry a heavy load up the mountain sides.

The donkey in the picture carried tools and food
-for men who built a. railroad to the top of a high
mountain, called Pikes Peak.

60. Colorado Canon.

‘Where is the Great Basin? What mountains are
east of the Great Basin? What ranges are west of it?

What river basin lies south of the Great Basin ?
What river is on the north ? -

The Colorado river is noted for the deep valley
which it has worn. In some places this stream flows
between steep banks of solid rock, more than a mile
in height.

61. The Height of Land.

Where are the Great Lakes ?
many of these lakes are there ?
What large river flows from one of the
lakes ?

About halfway between the gulf of
Mexico and the Arctic ocean a low swell
of land runs eastward from the Rocky
mountains. It is called the Height of Land.

Some parts of the Height of Land are hilly,
but in most places the land slopes so gently
that it looks level.

The Great Lakes are in a chain of valleys
on the southeast slope of the Height of Land.
The St. Lawrence river flows from the lowest
of the lakes.

The Niagara river flows from Lake Erie to
Lake Ontario. This stream is noted for the

grand falls which are about midway between the’
lakes.

How



























































Cafion in Arizona,



THE MISSISSIPPI BASIN. 389

h

Just above the falls of Niagara the
river is about a mile wide. Below this
point the stream narrows and plunges
over a precipice about one hundred and
fifty feet in height.

Below the falls the river flows in a
wide, rocky gorge.

The water that in a single minute
makes the leap of Niagara would fill a
box fifty feet wide, fifty feet high and
more than a mile long.

A canal has been made between Lake
Erie and Lake Ontario, and ships can
go back and forth, without sailing upon
the Niagara river.

62. The Mississippi Basin.

What large river basin is south of
the Height of Land ?

In what general direction does this
basin slope ?

_ Into what body of water does the Mis-
sissippl river flow ?

What bounds the basin of the Missis-
sippi on the west? On the east? On
the north ?

What large river from the west flows
into the Mississippi? Where does the
Missouri river rise ?



Niagara Falls.


































































































































































































































In what direction does the Ohio river flow?
Into what does it flow ?

Where are the prairies? Where are
the western plains? Where are
the southern plains ?

The vast plains that spread
round the Great Lakes on nearly
all sides are called prairies. The
soil in most places is deep and
fertile.

Mile after mile of nodding
cornflower, mile after mile of
waving wheat, grassy fields
dotted with sleek cattle, — these
are some of the sights on the
prairies in summer. :

Mile after mile of drifting
snow, mile after mile of frozen
' the sights on the prairie in winter.































































Prairie Scenes in ‘Winter and Summer,



6



40

The southern plains are very fertile, and they are
warmer than the prairies. A great deal of corn is
raised on these plains. Here, also, are vast fields of
cotton. What have you learned about the growth of

this useful plant ?





















\

































































































































Cotton Market..

Perhaps some of the clothing which you now wear
is made of cotton that grew on the southern plains.
What have you read about the western plains ?

63. North of the Height of Land.

Where is Hudson bay? A large
river flows into Hudson bay, and
another flows into the Arctic
ocean.

The basins of these rivers are
mostly in cold regions.

Northwest of the Great Lakes
there are broad prairies, with
many rich grainfields.

64. Appalachian Highland.

What highland is on the east of the
Mississippi basin? Is it higher or
lower than the Rocky Mountain high-
land ?

Why are there no very large rivers
east of the Appalachian highland ?

The mountains of the Appalachian high-
Jand are not very high. They consist chiefly

of long rounded ridges or folds.

ATLANTIC SLOPE.

65. Atlantic Slope.

Many short rivers flow across the narrow
plains east of the Appalachian highland. Some
of these streams are deep enough to float large
vessels. The slope east of the Appalachian
highland is called the Atlantic slope.

Where is the Hudson river ?

The largest city in America is at the mouth of the
Hudson river.

Find out at home all you can about this city, — its
long bridge, its great statue, its bay and its park.

66. Pacific Slope.

The slopes west of the Sierra Nevada and
Cascade ranges are short, and some of them
are very fertile. A low range lies near the
shore of the Pacific. It is called the Coast

range.

‘The picture on page 9 shows a very small part of
the Pacific slope. This part is not very far from the
southern end ‘of the Sierra Nevada range.































































Orange Grove.

Many beautiful groves of oranges and lemons grow
in these warm valleys, along the foot of the ranges.

The region west of the Sierra Nevada and
Cascade ranges is known as the Pacific slope.





















ASIA.

——+90-—__

67. Surface of Asia.

Asia is the largest of the
grand divisions. Its area is
nearly equal to that of America.

The highland of Tibet is the
highest part. of the world ridge.
Its plateau is nearly three miles
above the level of the sea, and
peaks are almost as high again.

some of its









































































































Working Elephant.












The giant range of Himalaya mountains
rises at the southern edge of Tibet. The
word Himalaya means the abode of snow.
Even during the hottest part of summer a
white mantle covers this range for a distance
of about two miles from its crest.

Mt. Everest, in the Himalaya range, is
thought to be the highest peak on earth. It
rises five miles and a half above the level of
the sea.

On the north, east and south, vast slopes
stretch away from Tibet, They form wide
plains along the shores of three oceans.

The pictures show a Himalaya peak, a
group of natives on the tundras and a bath-
ing scene in a large river south of Tibet.

What is the elephant doing?







RELIEF MAP OF ASIA.



ARCTIC

REY TO RELIEF MAP



68. Map Studies.

What oceans lie between North America and Asia ?

What ocean is south of Asia ?

Where is the highland of Tibet? On which side of
Tibet is the longest slope ?

In what direction would you have to travel from
your home to reach Asia ?

What strait separates North America from Asia?

Look at the relief map, and describe Asia.

69. Arctic Slope.

The longest slope of Asia reaches from
Tibet to the Arctic coast. A large portion
of this slope is a vast low plain, and is crossed
by several large rivers.

During the greater part of the year the
Arctic coast of Asia is icebound. The
frozen mass then reaches from the shore to
the pole.

What have you read about the tundras?
Where are they?

A dense forest covers a large part of the plain south
of the tundras. In this forest live many little ani-
mals that are hunted for their thick fur. :

Here is found the cunning beaver. It feeds on
berries, leaves and bark. The beaver builds its hut
at the edge of a river or lake.

SLOPE. A3











































Do you know any stories about beavers? Have
you ever seen any beaver fur?

The elk is a very large kind of deer that is found
in the northern parts of Asia and Europe.

70. Caspian Basin.

Where is the Caspian sea? Can you find any
streams flowing from this sea to the ocean ?

The great plains around the Caspian sea
send no rivers to the, ocean. These plains
are mostly level
and grassy, like
the pampas or
prairies. They are
called steppes.




























































AA PLAINS OF CHINA.

Large herds of cattle and horses graze on- 72. The Ganges Basin.
the steppes. The warm slopes of the Ganges basin lie
The Caspian sea has no outlet, and it is south of Tibet. In what direction does the
therefore salt. Several Ganges river flow? Where does it rise?

large rivers-flow into this The Ganges river flows from melting ice and snow,
great inland sea. . far up on the side of the Himalaya mountains.
Countless little streams rise near by and
How to join the Ganges.

This river enters the sea through a
great delta which swarms with people.
The soil of the delta is very rich, and
here may be seen acres and acres of flat
rice fields, with groves of bamboo and
cocoanut trees.

One of the most useful products of
southeast Asia is bamboo. This is a
coarse grass, growing to the height of
from fifty to seventy feet.

The seeds and tender shoots of the
bamboo are used for food. The hollow
stems make good water pipes.

Strips of the stem are used in mak-
ing baskets, chairs, beds, boats and
weapons.

Strong fibres of bamboo are woven
into cloth and twisted into rope. The’
% / ‘Tea Farm. hull, ropes and sails of the vessel shown

Sa : on page 78 were all made of this useful plant.
Ts Fiains of Ohina. Many of the native huts are made of bamboo, with
The most important slopes of Asia are dried grass for roofs. Groups of such huts are
east and south of Tibet. On the east lie often hidden by groves.
the plains of China, sloping to
the Pacific ocean...








































































































































































































































































































The tea plant grows on the plains of
China, east of Tibet. It has a pretty
white blossom, with a yellow center.

This plant is raised for its leaves.
Several times a year the new leaves are
picked and baked. They are then sent
to people in nearly all parts of the
world.

When fresh tea leaves are roasted
quickly they form green tea. When
dried in the sun and then roasted they
form black tea. If you will unroll a
piece of coarse tea grownds you will







see a tea leaf. A Village near the Ganges.



EUROPE.

73. Surface of Europe.

Europe lies west of Asia.

tops of some of the peaks are buried in snow
and ice all the year. Long rivers of ice creep
down the sides of the mountains, and melt,

The greater part of southwest Europe con- thus forming. beautiful streams and lakes.

sists of low plateaus and







































































































































































































































































































high ranges. This region is



























































































































known as High Europe.























































































































































































































































































































In summer, herds of
cattle and flocks of
goats feed on the high
slopes, but as the
snowcap widens on the
ranges, the animals are
driven into the lower
valleys.

High Europe is cut
off from southwest Asia



































































































by the Black sea and















Low Hurope
includes the vast
plains that lie
north and northeast of High Europe.
_ Where is the Swiss highland? Where are
the Alps?
The Swiss plateau is low, but the ranges
that rise above it are high and rocky.
The Alps are famous for their beauty. The

eee




its outlet.

A very old myth tells of a pretty maid, named Io,
who was changed into a heifer, to conceal her from
an angry goddess. Io swam the strait that forms
the outlet of the Black sea.

The strait took its name from this story, for the
word Bosporus means heifer’s ford.

At its narrowest part, the strait of Bosporus is
only a few hundred feet wide.

The great city of Constantinople is built near
this strait.









RELIEF MAP OF EUROPE.








EUROPE
KEY TO RELIEF MAP




eZ
i MA
Cd \

,

74. “Map Studies.

Look at the relief map, and describe Europe. State
where it is; what large bodies of water surround it ;
where its highlands and lowlands are, etc.

On which side of the world ridge is Europe?

75. Slopes from the Swiss Highland.

The slopes that extend from the Swiss high-
land to the sea are short, and the river basins
are small.

In what
Into what sea does

‘Where does the Danube river rise?’
direction does its basin slope ?
the river flow ?

Where does the Rhine river rise?*
In what direction does its basin slope?

What long peninsula is south of the
Swiss plateau? Where is the penin-
sula of Spain?

The strait of Gibraltar connects the
Atlantic ocean and the Mediterranean

Sea. Near this strait a huge mass of
‘rock rises on the coast of Spain.
From a distance this rock of Gibraltar
looks bleak ‘and barren. A nearer view |
shows many grassy slopes, with groves
of olive and orange trees.

At times wild flowers cover many parts of the rock.
The’ deep caves that run through nearly every part





1 See pictures of the Rhine on page 14.
? Gibraltar belongs to Great Britain.










~j g ; SWISS HIGHLAND. _ AT
il



















of ae great mass have given it the name “hill pF

caves.’

In these vast hallows the rock has made icicle-

forms of great size and beauty. Some of these look
like animals, and others look like forests of marble,
rising to the roofs.

A few small apes live on the highest parts of
Gibraltar. They often injure the fruits, but nobody
tries to harm the little creatures. ~

Gibraltar is a strong fortress.2, On'some parts of
the rock cannon bristle at every point.

The small building on the very
top of the rock is a signal station:
Why was it built so high ?

Find the strait of
Gibraltar on the col-
ored map of Hurope.



















































































































































































































Rock of ,Gibraltar.





e

48
76. Valdai Hills.

Where are the Valdai hills? Where does the
Volga river rise ? Into what sea does the Volga flow ?

The Valdai hills rise only a little above the
great plain of Europe. They
contain the sources of
many large streams.

The Volga river
rises in a marsh
in the hill re-
gion, and flows
into the Cas-
pian sea. The
basin of the
Volga is the
largest river basin
in Europe, : but it











‘BRITISH ISLES.

‘The Caspian sea is often swept by cold winds from

the north. In winter the mouth of the Volga is

closed by ice. During the open season many vessels

trade at the ports by the sea and on the rivers.

The Caspian sea and the streams that flow into
it are very rich in fish. Among
these is the sturgeon.
This fish often grows to
the length of ten feet.
Part of its body is
covered with bony
plates. Its mouth
is small and tooth-
less, and is under
the long snout.
Many. thousand
people earn their
living by catching
fish in this sea and
in the streams that



is not one half so large

as that of the Mississippi.
What: seas receive streams

from the region of the Valdai hills?

The vast plain that spreads round the Valdai hills
is crossed by a network of canals. These connect
with the rivers, and form the main highways of
trade.

The canals reach lumber and fur regions on the

north, rich mines of gold andisilver in the moun-.

tains that lie to the east, and. Rntile exainnelde on.
all sides.

In return for the Saeduas of these regions, the
canals carry cloth, tea, sugar’and farming tools to
the people of the plain.

77. The Caspian Sea.

The Caspian sea is the. largest body of water
havimg no outlet to the ocean.



flow into: it.

Sturgeon Fishing.

78. British Isles.

What islands are west of the mainland of
Europe? .
A. few low ranges cross the British Isles.

These. are the most important islands on earth.
The ‘trade between the people of the: British Isles
and of the United States is very large. :

Ben-Nevis is the highest mountain in the British
Find it on the key map, page 47. :

Isles.














































































































































































































































Its area is much larger than that |
of the Great Lakes of North
America.

The Caspian sea is ate and its |
surface is a little below the level |
of the ocean.



Ben-Nevis, Scotland.

A Highland Cottage.



ALERT GA



79. Surface of Africa. also is in middle Africa. The main slope of
. f this basin.is towards the west.
A part of the world ridge extends along Nearly all the northern part of Africa is a

the eastern side of Africa. vast desert. It is called the desert of Sahara.
Nearly all Africa is a plateau. The northern Which picture on this page shows a part of
half is not very high. the desert?










































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Ranges of mountains lie along the
gréater part of the coast.’ Between
these ranges and the sea there are low,
narrow plains.

The highest. parts of Africa are in
the east and south.

Where is the highland of Abyssinia? ,
What have you read about a great
mountain south of this region? The

- -highland of Abyssinia is’ about as

_ lofty as that of Mexico. .

* Africa has several very large river

basins... Among these are the Nile :

and the Kongo. Africa: is a land-of large and fierce animals.
The upper part of the Nile basin isin the On page 85 there are pictures of some of

plateau of middle Africa. This basin is long these?

. and narrow, and it slopes to the north. -Find the Atlas mountams on the map of

The upper portion of the Kongo’ basin Africa, page 113.











RELIEF MAP OF AFRICA.



AFRICA

KEY TO RELIEF MAP

80. Map Studies.

What bodies of water surround Africa ?



THE RIVER

NILE.

































Cape of Va
Good Hope

Look at the relief map, and describe Africa.

What isthmus joins Asia and Africa ?
A great ship canal has been dug across the isthmus

of Suez. Thou-
sands of steamers

pass through it

every year.

Before the Suez
canal was made,
the water route
from Europe to
southeast Asia
led round the
southern end of
Africa. This
canal cuts off
about one half
the distance.

Nile.























































































































































































































































































































































































Every summer the Nile overflows its banks. The
water comes from great lakes near the middle of
Africa, and from melting snow on the mountains of
Abyssinia.

At this time hundreds of muddy streams flow
down the steep slopes, and swell the branches of the
The river rushes and foams over the rough

places in its bed, and the
muddy water rises higher and
higher.

In its lower part the Nile
flows through a long valley
that is only a few miles wide.
The valley is shut in between
high cliffs. A vast desert
stretches away beyond the
cliffs, on both sides.









































































































































What seas are joined by the Suez canal? Does
the land near the canal look fertile or barren ?

“Si.

The River Nile.

‘Where does the Nile river rise? In what direction

does its basin slope ?

flow ?

Into what sea does the river

Two Views of the Suez Canal,



























OASIS IN

52









Day after day the
river creeps farther
over its banks. Wider
and wider flows the
stream. It covers the
fields, and looks like a
vast lake.

At length the river begins to grow smaller.
pass, and now it-flows again in its narrow bed.

The water has left a thin coating of soil on the
‘banks. The land is ready for seeds, and the long
valley will soon be covered with grain. There will
be food for the next dry season.
Thus the high slopes supply soil for plants, and

Weeks

it is carried down by the great river Nile, just as it.

is by tiny rills and brooks.

82. Oasis in the Desert of Sahara.

What have you read about the great desert ?
What river ay
flows across its ; Weel
eastern part ?















Low and High Nile.

THE DHSERT.

What sea lies east of the desert? What ocean is

on the west ?

In some parts of the great desert there are springs
of fresh water. After days of hot and dusty travel,
how glad the thirsty people and camels are to reach
aspring! Here they find rest.

Villages grow up near these
springs. Date trees are planted,
and soon bear clusters of sweet
fruit.

Dates are the chief food of
many people who live in hot
deserts. Some of the fruit
is pounded and pressed into
cakes. Camels and horses are
sometimes fed on dates.

A fertile spot in a desert
is called an oasis. The vast barren tract in the
north of Africa is the desert of Sahara.

83. Kongo Basin.

It is thought that the basin. of the Kongo
is about
equal in
area tothat
of the Mis-
sissippl.
The Kongo
river flows
on a pla-
teau till it
reaches the
range near the west coast. There it flows
through the mountains, and rushes into
the low plains that le along
the shore.

Vessels cannot sail very far
up the Kongo. For this
reason there is very little
trading done with the negroes
who live in the Kongo basin.
The world ridge ends near the



Cape Town.























cape of Good Hope.



























Find Cape Town on the map,
page 113.



Be Uae ay, AO Ls TA’

84. Surface of Australia.

Australia is the smallest of the grand

divisions. Its area is equal to about one
third that of North America.



The largest river basin in Australia 1s
that of the Murray. It is thought to be
nearly one half as large as the basin of the
Mississippi.

Where: does the Murray river rise? In
what direction does its























































































































































































































































































































































































































basin slope?



























































































































































































































































































































A group of large is-













































































































































































































































































































lands, called New Zea-













































































land, lies southeast of







Australia.































































































































































































































































Hot Springs,

New Zealand.

Ranges of moun-
tains lie along every
coast, except that
on the south. Vast
plains cover a large
part of middle
Australia. In many
places these plams
are dry and sandy.

None of the
ranges in Australia are very high. The main

-range lies along the shore of the Pacific
ocean. This range is highest near its southern
end.

The mountains along the north and. west
coasts are in low and broken ranges. In
places they are but little more than hills.

Tree Ferns.

Blue Mountains,
Australia.

Many strange animals are found in Australia.
Among these is the kangaroo. There is a picture
of this.animal on page 85.

See how large its hindlegs are.
are used in making long leaps.

The black people of Australia eat the flesh of the
kangaroo. Many of the skins are sent to our country
to be made into shoes.

These strong legs





RELIEF MAP

85. Map Studies.

In what direction from Asia is Australia? In
what direction is it from Africa? From North

America ?

On which side of the equator is Australia? On
which side of the world ridge is it? What bodies of

AUSTRALIA
KEYTO RELIEF MAP



water surround
this grand divi-
sion? Describe
the surface of
Australia.

What large is-
land is north of
Australia ?

How does this
grand division
compare in area
with South
America ?

OF AUSTRALIA.











































PEO Pbk,

86. Tibbu, the Kongo Boy.

This tall hut is the home of little Tibbu.
near the great river Kongo.
the map, page 113.

It is



Tibbu’s face
is black and his
hair is woolly.
All the girls and
boys with whom
he plays are of
the same color,
and have the
same kind. of
hair. :

To-day Tibbu
; must drive the
baboons away from the cornfield, and so he sets out
early with his little bow and arrows. He will
not be lonely, for he will make a play-hut, just
like the one in which he sleeps.

Shall we watch him make the hut? First he
breaks off many strong reeds, and sets them in
a circle in the ground. Then he tie’ others
together to form the roof. He has no string,
but he uses long grasses in its place.

Find this river on




Carrying Jvory to the Coast.

Now he ties bunches of grass all over the reeds,
and his hut is done. He has left a place for a
doorway, but there are no windows. He needs
no chimney, for the fire is built outdoors.

What will Tibbu put in his hut?
He is making a pretty mat of grass
for a bed. Now he is shaping little
dishes in clay. He will bake the
clay in a fire, and it will be very
hard.

Come, Tibbu, it is time to go
home. The sun is low in the sky,
and the lions and elephants will
soon come down to the river to
drink. Take your bow and arrows,
and run very fast.

What has Tibbu’s sister been
doing to-day? In the morning she
pounded corn between two stones,
and made meal for portidge. Then she helped
her mother make cloth.

You could never guess how they made the cloth.
They soaked long strips of bark in water, and then
pounded them till
they were soft.
When the bark was
dry, they gave it to
the father to make
into clothes.

Should you like ©
to know what these
black children eat?
Supper is ready and here are eggs, fresh fish
and corn porridge. When they wish sweet food,
they eat sugar cane or bananas.

Everybody goes to bed at dark, for there are
no lamps in the village. Isn’t this a queer place?
There are no books nor schools, and Tibbu never
saw apicture. If you should show him the picture
of a lion, he would run away.



Baboon,



Sa



BG TIBBU, THE

The Negro children are very fond of music.

They keep time well, and often make sounds
like birds, running brooks, etc. They have many
games, also, and like to dance and play ball.
Many Negroes have been taken from their
homes in Africa, and sold as slaves. In our
own land there are millions. of black people, but
they all are free.

KONGO BOY.

dishes made of baked clay, spoons and pans of
tortoise shell, and skins filled with milk. For
weapons there are clubs, bows and arrows.
Among the Hottentots women do all the hard
work about home. They help also to tend the
cattle and sheep.
The dress of these people is very simple. It











































































































































































































Many tribes
of people,
called Kaf-
firs, live in
the southern
part of Africa.
Their color
varies from red-brown to black, but they all
belong to the black race.

The Kaffirs make garden tools and weapons
of copper and iron. They are a brave people, and
have fought hard to prevent the white men from
taking their lands.

The Kaffirs have herds of cattle, and they raise
large crops of corn. Milk and corn are their chief
articles of food.

‘Let us look into this Hottentot hut.

Kaftir Girl and Baby.

Here are



consists of the skin of some animal, wrapped about
the body. Chiefs wear the skins of wild animals,
but the common people wear only sheepskins.

The Hottentots live in southern Africa. They
often move from place to place in search of grass
for their cattle and sheep. This is one reason
why they dwell in tents.

Many white people have now settled in southern
Africa. These have taught the tribes near them
how to make better homes and to use better weap-
ons. Other tribes still live in their wild state.

Does Tibbu live in a warm land or in a cold one?

Name some of the plants that grow in the Kongo basin.
Name some of the animals that are found there.
Describe the hut which Tibbu made.

Can you tell what the Kaffir huts are made of?

Tell how the Hottentot hut is made.



JAPAN AND

87. Japan and its People.

To-day we will visit the homes of the little
yellow people who live on the islands east of Asia.

The girls and boys of Japan have round faces,
bright black eyes and pearly teeth.
‘They often have ruddy cheeks, though
their skin is brownish yellow.

It will puzzle you at first to know
which are boys, for they dress nearly
like girls. Look closely and you will
gee that the boys’ heads are shaved
almost bare, while the girls’
hair is twisted into all sorts
of odd shapes.

ITS PEOPLE.

57

Then there is the “flag day” for boys. On
this day every boy plays with a set of dolls
dressed like soldiers. Here are armies of dolls,

with flags, guns, swords, cannon and pretty
uniforms.

At this time the boys hear many
stories about
the great war-
riors of their
land.

The streets
are lined with
shops in which
toys are sold.
Here is a man
on. a street cor-








Mh Nay UO i

ae

ie





































































































What large sleeves! Let

ner, shaping



























































































us look inside one of them.
It is used as a pocket, and
here are dolls, tops, small
kites and many other toys.
How should you like to wear
a pair of their shoes? They
are simply wooden soles tied
on with strings. ‘These shoes
are not worn in the house, but
are slipped. off at the door.

The fathers and mothers of
Japan do a great deal to make
the children happy. You.
should be there on the day
which is set apart for the
“feast of the dolls.”

Every girl has a set of
dolls. Perhaps her mother
used some of them years ago,
but they are very pretty.
Here is one that looks like
the Mikado, or ruler of
Japan. This one looks like
his wife, and there are many
other dolls like the nobles and ladies of high rank.

Each set of dolls has a full outfit for house-
keeping. Here are tiny wooden pillows, soft
mats and tea sets. On this happy day the whole
land is alive with dolls.



Scenes in Japan.

animals out of
rice paste. The boys and
girls crowd around and call
out the names, as soon as they
guess what he is making.
They know the monkey, wolf,
bear and many other animals
that are found in Japan, but
they do not know the sheep.
This man has an oven
which he rents ‘to boys and
girls. He gives them batter,
and they cook and eat their
own little cakes. If you do
not like battercakes, he will
sell you a cake that is cov-
ered with seaweed and fish.
Have you found out what
the girls in the picture have
on their backs? ‘They wish
to play, but there are little
babies at home who must be
cared for. The girls tie the
babies upon their backs, and
are soon playing just as hard as the other children.
Shall we enter one of the houses? . It is made
of bamboo, and has very wide eaves. See the paper !
paper windows, paper doors, paper fans, lanterns,
hats, cups, cloaks, napkins and many other things.







58 JAPAN

Isn’t this a queer bed? Should you like to
crawl into one of the wadded quilts, and rest your

AND ITS PEOPLE.

Peep into this workshop. Here is a man who
is making~beautiful vases of clay. Another is





















carving pretty figures in ivory. A third is











































































spreading fine varnish over wood. Near by
there is a room in which soft silk is being
woven into costly cloth.

Now let us leave the city and take a trip”
into the country. Climb into this light cart
and away we will go. ‘There are ponies in
Japan, but most people prefer to travel in the
way shown in the picture.

What is this tall grass with feathery tops
and long sharp leaves ? It looks like corn
but it is many times as tall. ‘This is bam-









































A Japanese Village.

head upon the wooden pillow? This girl will
soon wake and drink a cup of tea. Can you see
the pretty tea set?

There are no chairs in the house. The Japanese
sit on mats of wadded cloth or of straw. Sit
on a mat, and your little friends will bring you a
lunch. There is no table, but the boiled rice and
steaming tea will be served on a dainty tray that
stands on short legs. In some houses you would
see meat, fish, beans and a grain called millet.

It would amuse you to see the people of Japan
eatrice. Two slender chopsticks of wood or of ivory








‘Street Scene in China.

take the place of a spoon or
a fork. . You would find it
hard to get the rice to your
mouth, but see the skill of
the little yellow people...

A Chinese Village.

boo, of which many of the houses-are made.

We know what grows on the flat land, for
we have seen pictures of fields of rice in our own
country. But what
is this shrub with
white flowers and
green leaves? Oh,
yes, it is tea, like
that we saw on the
plains of China.

Here is a puzzle !
What are these lit-
tle white and yellow
rolls? They look like
birds’ eggs, but they
are soft and silky.

Have you ever seen a spider spin its web?

These soft rolls were spun by silkworms. They
made the fine thread, and then wound themselves
in these glossy prisons. It took about three days
to wind each silken case, or cocoon, and
if the thread were unwound it would
reach more than two miles. Now you
know where the people get the silk
from which they make thread and
cloth.

Some of the sports of the girls and
boys of Japan are like your own.
They spin tops, walk on stilts, fly
kites and sometimes roll snowballs.

-Most of-the Japanese children are



Rain Coats.



MALAY OR BROWN PEOPLE.

always clean. They bathe in tubs of very hot
water, just before going to sleep in thick quilts
that are laid on the floor. They often have two
cr three baths a day. ;

The people of Japan are eager to learn, and
they have
‘very good
schools.

They
build
great
temples
in the
midst of
beautiful
gardens,
for they
are very
fond of
flowers.

Shall
we follow
the girls
and boys
to one of
the tem-
ples on a
holiday
or festival day? They leave their
little shoes or clogs at the door,
enter the temple and stand clap-
ping their hands: softly. This is the way they
offer their childish prayers. Then they go out
and play in the gardens.

Before we return home let us spend a few days
in China.

As we enter one of the great rivers of China
we see many houses built on boats. On the
decks there are small gardens, and also coops
for chickens.

The babies on these boats are tied at the ends
of long cords, and the little girls and boys have
light gourds or pieces of hollow bamboo tied upon
their shoulders. These are to keep them from’
sinking, when they fall into the water.






























A Malay Girl.



A Malay Home.

59

The people of China are yellow and their eyes
are set aslant. Some day we shall learn more
about the house boats and the. large cities of
this land.

To what grand division does Japan belong? (See map
on page 111.) What ocean is east of Japan?
Tell all you can about the clothing of the people of
Japan. :

What could you see in a Japanese house, that you cannot
see in your own home?

Name some animals that are found in Japan.
some plants that grow there.

What is done in the workshops of a apan ?

Name some of the sports of Japanese girls and boys.

Name

88. Malay or Brown People.

Perhaps you think that
this is a little negro girl,
but she is not. Her skin
is light brown, and her
hair is long and straight.
Can you tell why her eyes









do not look like
your own?

This is the
brother of the
little girl. Do
you not think
that his eyes are
full of fun?

These little
people live on the
island of Java, southeast of Asia. Java is a land
of fruit and flowers. It is so beautiful that people
often. call it the “Pearl of the East.” Should
you like to visit the home of the brown people?

















































































































A Malay Boy.





MALAY OR B

60

Here it is, —a pretty hut in a shady grove. The
hut is made of bamboo.

Our little brown girl helps her mother keep
this hut very neat and tidy. She stuffs pillows
with soft white down that grows on a tree near
by, and she weaves dried grasses into the mats
that are used as _
beds. Then she.
covers them with
pretty cloth.

Her brother
pounds the yellow
husks off the rice
which they will
have for breakfast,
and he gathers a
few cocoanuts and
a bunch of ripe
bananas. The fruit
is eaten raw, but
the mother cooks
-the rice till it is
soft and white. Their only table is a mat, and all
sit around it on the ground while eating. ‘

Now they are ready for the day’s work. “The
coffee berries are turning dark red, and the father
says it is time to pick them. This will be the
work of the mother and the girl, for the father
and the boy must let water in over the rice fields.

A coffee tree is a pretty sight. Jt has rich
gray bark, large green leaves and white waxy
blossoms. In a few months the little seed pods
of the blossoms grow into clusters of red or
purple berries that look like cherries. Our little

girl must be very careful, for while the berries
are ripening other blossoms are growing on the
ends of the new branches. These blossoms must
not be broken. off.

The. berries are spread out to dry, then the
pulp is pounded or rolled “off, and out come the
coffee seeds ready for market.

Java is very near the equator, and by ten
o’clock the sun is so hot that work in the fields
is stopped. Now the brown people sit in the
shade of palm trees and weave baskets. When



Brown .People of Fiji Islands.

‘

ROWN PEOPLE.

thirsty they break open cocoanuts and dvink the

cool milk that is inside.

The father says that snares must be set, for
bats have been nibbling the corn and the tender
shoots of the palms. Have you ever seen little
bats that look like mice with wings? Some of the
bats of Java are very large and are called flying

’ fowes. During the day they hang in dark clusters
in trees, but in the evening they flit about in
search of food. This evening the snares and nets
will be set to catch some of them.

By four o’clock the air is cooler, and the father
goes back to the rice field. Now the little girl
will help her mother spin cotton into yarn. Some
day they will weave the yarn into cloth, and
make new clothes for the whole family.

What is the little brown boy doing? ‘There he
goes tripping across the rice fields towards the
south shore. He knows of a cave in which
many swallows build their nests, plastering them
upon rocks. These nests are made of a glue-like
substance, and a few of them will make soup

Many of these nests are sold to

people of other lands.

Nearly all the girls and boys
of Java dress like these in the
pictures. While working in the
sun the boys often wear large
hats made of very thin strips of
bamboo.

The brown’ people are called
Malays. Most of them live on
the large group of islands south-
east of Asia. In some places the
Malays have built cities, but the
white man rules over most of
the brown race. Many of the
Malays are savages, like the
people in the black tribes of
Africa. tet

Find Java on the map on page 115.
is Java from Japan?

What new sights could a Javanese girl see in Japan?
What could shé'see in Tibbu’s home?

What do the pegple of Java eat? Of what are their
clothes made?

for supper.



A Java Girl.

In what direction



A LAPLAND HOME.

89. A Lapland Home.

Does this: family live in a warm land or in a.

cold one?
picture ?

Which has the warmest coat, the deer, the dog
or the little boy peeping through the door?

Can you prove your answer by the

61

yellow people. Your sister, who is holding a

dipper, has dark hair, but yours is soft and light.
Let us glance into the hut. What is in this

bundle that hangs from the roof? It is a ham-

mock made of the warm skin of a deer, and in
it swings a pretty baby girl with eyes as bright
and cheeks as soft as your. own.































































































































































































































































































































































































































A Lapland Home.

Isn’t this a warm hut? See the thick sods
upon it. Do you think that rain can leak
through the roof? See how the sods are placed.
What holds them up ?

Why is the hut so dark? -Can you see any
chimney ?

Come out, little boy, where we can see you.
What large round eyes-you have, and what a tiny
flat nose! Your eyes are as straight as ours, but
your face tells us that you are one of the little

Should you like to know where these people
live?

Their home is in the north of Europe, near the
Arctic shore. They are called Lapps and they
live in Lapland. Can you find Lapland on the
map, page 109?

Ah! here is a snowstorm. Now we know why
the Lapps wear boots with high tops bound
tightly round their legs. Come! Let us hurry
into the hut.





62

See the long strips of smoked meat hanging on
the walls. Here are dishes of sweet milk also,
and cakes of new cheese. Do you wonder that
the Lapps are kind to their deer? Where do you
think all this food came from ?































































































































Hammerfest.

Let us look at the boots and at this great hairy
coat. Can you tell what they are made of?
Some of the coats are made of cloth. At night
the children sleep side by side between large
warm. deerskins.

Of course you wish to know what the reindeer
feeds on. In summer it bites off tender shoots
of trees and bushes, but in winter it paws away
the snow to find a little gray plant, called reindeer
moss.

_It has stopped snowing. Now for a ride!
Harness a deer to a sled and away we will fly















CHUGLU, THE ESKIMO BOY.

time. As early as May the fields are dotted with
pretty flowers, the birds sing sweetly, and later

- the bushes and vines are loaded with berries.

Perhaps you would like to live with the Lapps
who catch salmon and trout in lakes and rivers.
or with those who wander with tents from place
to place, in search of good pastures for their herds
of deer. You would find that the Lapps are very
kind. _

Hammerfest is a town. that the Lapps often
visit. It is the farthest north of all the towns
of Europe. .

Where do the Lapps live?

What are the uses of the reindeer ?

Can you tell some of the sights that Tibbu often sees,
but that the Lapland boys never see?

What would.the Japanese boys. miss if they went to
Lapland to live?

Why does Tibbu not wear clothes like those which the
Lapland boys wear?

If you were to go into.a Lapland hut, what should you
expect to see?

90. Chuglu, the Eskimo Boy.!

Ii we knew the words that little Chuglu uses,
he could tell us a wonderful story about the land
of snow and ice in the far north.

Here is a picture of the hut in which he lives.
It is built of stones, with turf thrown upon it to
keep out the biting wind. The hut is now
covered with snow. During the summer
Chuglu lives in a tent made of deerskins.

The Eskimos are found along the north
coast of North America, and on the islands

























































over the snow. How fast we go! Will the fleet

deer never grow weary? His master tells us that
he has driven him a hundred miles in one day.

Should you like to live in Lapland? Do not

_ think that there is snow on the ground all the

near by. They live also along the south-
west shores of Greenland. Find Greenland
on the map, page 105.

When Chuglu was a baby his mother kept him
in a bag of feathers. That was his cradle and his
bed. Day after day he lay in the smoky hut, till
he was old enough to walk, and then his mother
made him a very pretty suit of sealskin clothes.

1 Chuglu was.one of the Eskimos at the World’s Fair
in Chicago. The baby, Columbia, was born on the
World’s Fair grounds.



CHUGLU, THE

On his jacket she sewed a fur hood that he could
draw over his head on very cold days.

The mother has a large hood on the back of
her own jacket, and many a cozy nap has Chuglu
taken in this hood, before he could walk.

At length Chuglu is old enough to go out and
see his father hunt seals. Bring out the sled and
harness the dogs! Srraup | goes the long whip,,and
away they pie ovér the snow. The father knows

ESKIMO BOY. eS
whale. He paddles his canoe, or kayak, very
swiftly, and throws his harpoon with great skill.

The kayak is long and narrow. It is covered
with sealskins. The skins are sewed over the top
of the canoe, making it water-tight in all parts.
Eskimos are -so skillful that when a kayak upsets
they can right it again in. the water.

Under the skin of the whale there is a thick
layer of fat, or blubber, which keeps the icy water







































































E





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































where the seals crawl
out of the icy water
to bask in the sun.

Now they are near
the place. Chuglu
is left with the dogs, while his father ereeps up
behind a huge block of ice. -Yes, there are the
seals! A rush, a blow, and one unlucky creature
is held'on the end of the sharp spear.

Tt seems very cruel, but Chuglu must have
food, and now he can eat the flesh of the seal.
His mother will also make a new jacket of soft fur
for him. i

It is great: sport for the Eskimo to chase a

Columbia.

*

Chuglu.





from chilling the muscles. The Eskimo uses this
blubber to warm and light his hut.

Let us return to the hut. Stoop low, aa
creep on your hands and knees. Now we are.
inside. Can this be the home of little Chuglu?
How does he breathe in such a close and smoky
place ?

Look at the lamp. It is a hollow stone, with
moss for a wick. Where did the oil come
from? The lamp smokes, but it keeps the hut
warm.

Along one side of the room there is a long
bench. During the day it is used as a seat, but
at night it forms the family bed.



64. CHUGLU, THE

Look at Chuglu as he takes off his jacket and
boots. He wears a shirt of birdskin, and stock-
ings of dogskin.

AK \































































































































Now we can see his face clearly. The bright
black eyes are aslant, the hair is coarse and black,
and the skin yellowish brown. Perhaps
Chuglu belongs to the same great family as do the
children of Japan, China, Lapland and Java.

Dinner is ready. Will you dine with Chuglu?
He will have a feast to-day, for his mother has.
given him a large piece of blubber. His father is
eating a slice of raw frozén
flesh. . Now he helps him-
self to a piece that has
been boiled. -

is

‘short.

ESKIMO BOY.

Eskimos often move from place to place, to
find seals and fish. Sometimes they hunt far out
over the frozen sea. When they settle in a place

for a short time only, they make huts out of

blocks of snow, with ice for windows.

White people often visit the cold seas of the
north, in search of seals and whales. These people
give or sell to the Eskimos, knives, needles, cloth
and other articles.

In making clothes the Eskimo women are very
skillful. They cut the sealskins to fit well, and
then sew them neatly together. Do you not
think that Chuglu has on a pretty jacket?

In autumn the days at the far north are very
Then the Eskimos hunt all the time while
it is light. They store up food for the long winter
nights that are near at hand. Some Eskimos live
in places where the longest night lasts many weeks.
In summer there is a day that is just as long.

Should you not like to watch the sun during
the long day? Every noon it is in the south,
and at midnight it is in the north, but it does not
dip below the horizon. By and by you will learn
the reason for this.

Can you find out how Chuglu’s sledge is made ?

Where do the Eskimos live?

Describe an Eskimo hut. What do Eskimos eat?

What strange sights would a Lapland boy see, if he were
to visit Chuglu’s home?

What objects in your home would seem strange to
Eskimo children ?





In this cold region no
grain grows, and so these
people have no bread.
There is no fresh milk
nor cheese such as we saw
in the Lapland home, for
Chuglu’s father has no
tame deer. c

Some days they eat fish and sea fowl, and when
Chuglu’s father kills a great white bear, its flesh
feeds them for a long time.



An Arctic Scene.

Which people wear the best clothing, those of Java,-of
Japan, of Lapland or of the northern ‘coast of North
America? Give a reason for your answer.





CHILDREN OF THE INDIAN TRIBES.

91.. Children of the Indian Tribes.

Can you tell what is in the cradle that hangs
on the tree?

It is a tiny baby with round. black
eyes and red-brown skin.
This cradle is made of a
piece of board, wrapped in
cloth. There are pretty
beads on the cloth.
Which do you like best, the
hood in which Chuglu slept, the
hammock of the little Lapland
girl, or the cradle of the Indian



65

Some tribes of Indians live in good houses
made of wood, brick or stone. These have large
herds of cattle and fields of grain.

In some places many families live in one large
house or pueblo. It is made of stone or of brick
dried in the sun. On page 104 there is a picture
of a pueblo.

Each of the
large buildings
is called a
pueblo, and the
same name is
given to the



































baby ?



























































‘Day after day























































































the Indian baby













































will swing from
the branch of a tree. He will also
take long journeys on his mother’s
back.

When those chubby fingers are
strong enough to use a bow and
arrows, the little Indian boy will

















































































































learn to shoot. He
will also be tied on-
to a. horse and will
learn to ride.
us As he grows older
he will 1un races, wrestle, swim, play ball, hunt
and fish.

Can you tell what holds the tents up? What
do you think the tents are made of?

Indians and their Camps.

whole village. Some of the tribes that live in
pueblos have large fruit groves and grainfields.

Let us visit an Indian camp in the evening.

Here is a drum made by stretching a skin over
a hollow log. The beating of this drum calls
the tribe to an evening dance round the camp
fire. At first the dancers move slowly. Then the
drum beats faster and the dance becomes more
rapid, till it breaks into fierce leaping and yelling,
as if the Indians were fighting a battle.

The children look on with delight. Some
day they will go through the same dance. ‘This
evening they listen to stories of. the brave deeds
of their fathers, and then they go to their tents to
dream of the time when they will be warriors.





place to place.

The fadians are very skillful in making bows
and arrows, but their chief weapon now is the rifle.

The red-brown man taught the white man how
to make canoes of birch bark, and shoes of soft
deerskin. The dusky savage also showed the
paleface how to make corn grow in a forest.
The trees were first killed by cutting a ring
of bark from their trunks, or by burning off the
bark. The hot sun could then ripen the corn, as
there were no leaves to shade it.

Is there nothing to say about the Indian
girls?

While the boys are wrestling or hunting, the
girls must stay at home and work. They must
learn to: cook, to hoe in the garden, to skin
the animals that
have been killed,

66 _ THE LAND OF THE ARABS.

92. The Land of the Arabs.

We start to-day for a land that lies far to the
southeast of the isthmus of Suez. The first
part of our trip is to New York. Can you show
on the map the shortest route by water from
New York to the isthmus of Suez?

It will take about two weeks t to cross the ocean
and the long Mediterranean sea.

Now we are passing the great rock of Guile
near the strait that opens into this long sea.
What grand division is this on the south? What
one is on the north?

_ Here we are at the isthmus. A small boat is
waiting to take us from the steamer to the land.
We are just in time,
—a caravan starts









































and to take down





to-day for the very































































































































































and put up the tents |

place we wish to





when moving camp.
They must also help
to carry all the tents
and kettles from

The little Indian
girl finds some time
for play. She is very

visit.

We must travel
on the backs of
camels, as our route
winds across a wide
desert. Here is a
camel kneeling for
you. Now you are











fond of dolls. What









on,—hold fast while







































































kind of dresses do
you think she makes
for her dolls? What kind of playhouse does she

— like best?.

Indians are found in neatly all parts of South
America, and in the western part of North
America. Only a few ‘tribes live east of the
Mississippi river.

The number of Indians in the United States is

_ small. There are about as many here now as

there were when the white men first settled in
America. ae

Where are Indians found? Can you draw an Indian’s
tent?”

What has the Indian fang the white man?

Tf an Indian girl were to visit Japan, what strange
sights would she see? What could an Indian girl teach a
Lapland girl?



Caravan.

it rises. .
Let us wait a few
minutes near the great Suez canal.t Here is a
long line of steamships ready to pass through.
Should you like to look inside these ships and see |
what they carry? This one is from southeast
Asia. It is loaded with tea, cotton, silk and grain.
This cargo will be carried to the British Isles.
The steamer from which we landed is bound to
Australia. Below its decks there are thousands of
yards of cloth and many kinds of machines and
tools. This ship will bring back a cargo of wool.
Now the caravan is ready to start. We turn
our faces towards the southeast, and soon lose
sight of the little city by the canal. How dry
and sandy the land is, and how hot the air!

10On page 51 there are two views of this canal.



THE LAND OF THE ARABS.

We camp to-night near this well of cool water.
In the early morning we are off again, and at
about ten o’clock we reach another well.
we rest till the sun is low.

Here



Arab Family.

Days pass, and we are still in the midst of the
burning sands. Now the wells are far apart, and
we must carry water in bags made of camel’s skin.

It is noon, and we have halted for the day.
How the sun beats down !

See the dust whirling towards us! What is
going to happen? The camels are burying their
noses in the sand.

We must be quick, or a hot whirlwind will
reach us before we are ready for it. Place a
piece of cloth on the sand, and press your face hard
down into it. While the hot wind is passing,
you must breathe the air that is in, the sand.

Now the wind is here. We are stifling! It
seems as if hot coals were burning ‘our bodies.
The whirling sand almost buries us. Five minutes
pass. They seem like hours. Now the camels
are raiging their heads, and the storm is over.
This is the soon, or stifling wind of the desert
of Arabia. Where is this desert?

As we travel over the hot sand, clouds of locusts
fly about us. They look like grasshoppers. Bees
and wasps swarm upon the rocks that jut out of
the sand. Countless scorpions, with poison stings,
creep over the dry surface.

The plant life is scanty. The camels find a
few tufts of coarse grass, sharp thistles and
cactus plants.

67

Our route now leads over higher land. Here
and there we see tents pitched under spreading
date palms. In the distance low mountains rise
on the plain. To-morrow our journey will end.

Here we are at last in a land of flowers! It
looks like a vast island-garden in a sea of sand.
Mile after mile of groves and grainfields stretches

‘away to the south. This is the land of the Arabs.

Should you like to go to school with these
Arab boys? They are reading the Koran, which
is their Bible. Listen to the strange words which
tell them not to press wine from grapes. In all
this fair land no wine is made from grapes, but
the fruit is eaten.

The Arab boys are dark, but they belong to
the white race. Have you not seen boys that
look like these?

School is over for the day, and our little friends
will show us their homes. First we must see the
horses.

How the Arab loves his horse! He oils
its hoofs so that the hot sand will not crack
them. He chooses for it the finest grass and the
purest water, and often feeds it on dates and



Arab School,

barley. He places no cruel bit in its mouth, but
guides the noble animal by pressing his knees
against its sides. The Arabs have the most
beautiful horses on earth.





68 3 THE LAND OF THE ARABS.

Next we will look at the camels.
animals are more useful than horses to the Arabs.
One kind of camel is used for speed, and another

These Arabia takes the place of wheat as used in our
own land, of rice in Japan and of fruit in Java.
Should you like to look into one of the wells?

for carrying heavy loads. The former will run It is only a few feet in depth, and the sides are

one hundred miles a day, and in
the cool part of the year will
sometimes travel eight days with-
out drinking.

Camels are to the Arabs what
reindeer are to the Lapps. For
supper to-day we shall drink the
milk of the camel,.and eat its
boiled flesh. We shall have fresh
butter and cheese, but these are
made of goat’s milk.

The hair of the camel is soft
and fine. It is used in making
cloth. The tents of the Arab
tribes that live in the desert are
made of this kind of cloth. We

need not stop to look at the sheep and cattle,
for we can see many like them in our own land.

Let us go into the gardens. Here are bright
flowers, and the scent of sweet herbs fills the
air. The stifling wind never reaches this fertile

region.
nn

















Studying the Koran.

i As far as the eye can reach, beautiful date
trees wave in the valleys. For breakfast to-morrow
‘we shall’ have fresh dates and also sweet cakes

made of the same kind of fruit.





Date Palm,

built of stone. In the desert the
wells are much deeper. All the
gardens of this land are watered
from wells, for the seasons are
often very dry.

Coffee is the chief drink of the
Arabs. The coffee berries grow
on the hilly lands, near the strait
that forms the outlet of the Red
sea.

Some Arabs live in good houses
of stone or of wood. The people
are very kind and polite, and we
are sorry to leave the dusky
white boys, but we must begin
our long journey back to the

dearest land of all, — America.

What bodies of water should you have to cross in going
from your home to Arabia?

Of what grand division is Arabia a part?

In deserts, why are camels more useful than horses are?

Name some animals that are found in Arabia?

The date in

























































Inside of an Arab House.

Of what use are camels to Arabs?

What do Arabs eat? What berries that grow in Arabia
are used to flavor drink ?

Where else does coffee grow?



93. Children of the Lowlands.

To-day we will visit Holland, the land of canals.
It is on the low plain through which the river
Rhine flows to the sea.

This land is crossed by a network of canals and
Its wide meadows look as level as a

ditches.


























































CHILDREN OF THE LOWLANDS.

69

fathers find work. When they are old panes
they have boats of their own.

Let us take a trip on one of the house ‘heute

See the long rows of windmills! They are
pumping water from the low fields into ditches.
When the corn is ripe the windmills will help
grind it to meal.

What are these men doing ‘ ? They are cutting
strips of soft earth, and placing them where they
will dry. These strips are filled with roots and
grass, and will be sold for fuel. They are burned
by all except the rich people.

Here is a band of haymakers. See the girls























floor. No fences are needed,
for water separates the fields.















Boats with ‘white sails















seem to skim over the mead-
ows, but of course they are
in the canals. In handling
often more skillful than boys.

Some of the children in Holland are born on
boats, and spend their lives floating about the
canals. They go from place to place where their

‘Scenes in Holland. _

the boats, girls are

1 Holland is also called The Netherlands, which means
lowlands. This name appears on the map, page 109.















































working in the field. Yes, the mothers and
sisters in Holland often make hay, dig potatoes,
sow grain, hoe corn and do all kinds of hard
work. They even help to draw the boats along
the canals.

What queer shoes the horses wear in the fields !
They are flat boards tied under the hoofs. Why
do they wear them?

if



70
A large part of this low land is very soft and
boggy. It seems like a wet sponge. The ground
trembles under even the little children at play.
Tf it were not for wide shoes, the horses would
sink deep into the soil.

What a land this is for the barefoot girls and
boys! They can splash in the puddles, wade in



Scene in the Alps.

the ditches, sail boats on the canals and catch
fish nearly everywhere. ;

You should see the children in winter, when
the canals are frozen. How swiftly they skim
over the ice! For miles and miles the canals are
then alive with skaters !

Poor children use wooden skates, but they have
much fun. People go to market on skates. Here
is a little girl going to sell a basket of egos.
She will bring back a small red cheese and a
loaf of bread about two feet long.

Should you like to wear wooden shoes? Of
course you would take them off at the door, and
not wear them in the house. Do you-not think
that our leather shoes are much better than
wooden ones?

Here we are at a bridge. Our house boat
cannot pass till the bridge is raised. The men
who move the bridge swing out to us a little
wooden shoe on the end of a pole and line, and
we drop into it a small piece of money to pay
them for their work.

&

CHILDREN OF THE HIGHLANDS.

Now we are near a city. It looks like a forest
of masts, trees and steeples. Boats, boats every-
where! The houses are very neat. Perhaps the
kitchen is the front room, but what of it?

Should you like to live in Holland?

What large river flows across the plain of Holland?

Where does the Rhine river rise? In what direction is
Holland from the Swiss plateau ?

What is a house boat? Are the rivers of Holland swift
or slow?

What do the people of Holland use for fuel?

Of what use are windmills to the people of Holland?.

Of what use are canals?

Name some of the plants that grow in Holland.

94. Children of the Highlands.

Let us leave the “land of canals,” and sail far
up the river Rhine. Hans, a Holland boy, will go
with us to visit the Swiss boys who live on the
plateau near the high Alps. :

Here we are in a pretty village, close by the
snowy peaks. Wilhelm, a little Swiss boy, comes
down the road to meet us.

How strange the place looks to Hans! He has
always lived on low land by the sea. Now for the
first time he sees great rocky ranges upon which
snow lies all the year.

What do you think that Hans misses most?
Yes, the quiet canals. In Wilhelm’s home no
white sails seem to skim across rich meadows.

-Many of the Swiss streams rush and roar over

steep, rocky beds. Hans feels of the water and
finds it icy cold. Wilhelm says that it flows from
a long glacier.

The Swiss village is all alive to-day. Spring
has come, and the flocks must be driven up the
mountains to feed.

The men who go with the flocks will be away

from home till near the end of summer, and many

carts are loaded with food and bedding for them.
Hans and Wilhelm are very happy, for they are
going on the long trip.

When all are ready they set out with long lines
of cattle and sheep. The flocks graze for a few
days at the foot of the range, then as the snow

!



CHILDREN OF THE HIGHLAND.

melts they climb higher. In the valleys they find
the grass green and tender. Here they will graze
till the snow drives them down the slope.

Hans and Wilhelm help to tend the flocks, and
then they play by the swift streams, or search
for wild flowers. Once in a while they catch a
glimpse of a nimble chamois or an ibex, as it leaps
from crag to crag far above them.

The chamois looks partly like a
deer and partly like a goat. It is
very shy, and has keen scent and
sight.

In winter this little creature
feeds on tender shoots of fir and
pine trees. In summer it is found
close to the lower edge of the
snowcap on the highest peaks.













































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































acl

soon it crashes along, sweeping all before it.
Large trees snap and break. Huge rocks whirl
down the slope. The earth trembles, and the fly-

ing mass gives out am angry roar.
That evening Hans tells a story about the sea
breaking through the dykes of Holland, and flood-
ing his father’s field. Wilhelm tells about the
soft snow that slid down the mountain side last












Remains of a Snowslide.













































































































































































































































































































































winter, and buried the village

























































































































































































in which he lives.

























































Wilhelm’s Home. ,

The chamois is noted for its long leaps from
rock to rock, over deep chasms. It is very play-
ful, and is often seen sporting about in the light
feathery snow.

Often at night the boys lie awake and listen
to the ice cracking and groaning, as it winds
slowly past their cabin. Wilhelm says that the
glacier walks and talks.

One day when the boys are far up the mountain

side, they see a great mass of ice and show slide
into the valley.. At first it moves slowly, but

Weeks pass, and at length
the snow creeps down the
mountains, into the high valley
where the flocks are grazing.
They must at orice start for
home, or they may be caught
in a blinding storm.

It is the middle of Septem-
ber, and the village is dressed for a holiday.
To-day the fathers and elder brothers come home
with their flocks from the mountains. The girls
and boys march out with bells and flags to meet
them. They all return shouting and singing.

The day is given over to sports and games.
The young men wrestle, run races arid shoot. In
the evening bonfires are kindled, and many dancers
keep time to music. In the midst of the festival a
heavy snowstorm begins, showing that winter is at
hand. How strange it all seems to little Hans.

@



72, CHILDREN

What have the girls and boys in the village been.
doing all summer?

They haye helped their mothers mow grass,
plait straw into hats, and take care of the cattle
that were not driven to the mountains. They
have also milked the cows and goats, and have
made butter and cheese.

Haye you ever seen a churn? In this Swiss
village the merry little streams are set at work
turning churns. Milk and cheese are leading
articles of food. Very little meat is eaten.
Many potatoes are raised, and these often take the
place of bread. Dried apples and pears are aes
used for food.

Every year many thousand people visit the
Alps to see the snowy peaks, the long glaciers
and the mountain lakes. Many young men‘earn
a living by serving as guides to the visitors. One
of the pictures on this page shows a party climb-
ing an ice point on a glacier.

prairies.

OF THH HIGHLANDS.

sail on-the ocean, and of vast level lands, called
Next year he will visit Hans and will
see many strange sights along the canals.

Now the time
has come for Hans
to return home.
He will remain a
few days in the
beautiful Swiss

and Bern, to see

the great work-
shops. Here he
will watch the

people spin silk,
and weave cotton
and wool into
cloth, but this will not be new to him. He
has seen the same kind of work in the cities
of Holland, near his own home.



An Ice Point.










































































































A Glacier.

Wilhelm has met girls and
boys from many lands. He has
_ heard them tell of great ships that

"| Where is the Swiss highland ?

=i Why are many of the streams of this

a highland very swift ?

/ Where do glaciers come from ?

‘ Describe a Swiss cottage. Can you

i. tell ves heavy stones are placed on
the roofs of cot-

tages ?

What kinds of
work can the
girls and boys of
Switzerland do?

What do the
people of Switz-
erland use for
food ?

Name six ani
mals that Swiss
boys see.

What kinds of
goods are made in”
Swiss cities ?

Find Switzerland
on the map, page
109. In what di-
rection is it from
Holland ?





A Swiss Cottage.





95. Homes of the Races.

People live in nearly every land. Of course
there are many more people in some places
than in others, and we have seen that all do
not look alike.

Most of the black tribes live south of the.
desert of Sahara and in Australia.

The “red men,” or red-brown tribes, are
found in many parts of America.

The people of the brown race make their
homes mainly on the islands southeast of
Asia.

The yellow people live in. the river basins
of Asia and Europe sloping to the Pacific
and Arctic oceans. They are also found
along the Arctic coast of America.

In the Old World the home of the white
race is between the lands of the black and
the yellow races.’

The map will show what parts of America
and Australia are now held by white people.
Page 87 tells about the people of the land
in which we live.

96. Homes of the Nations.

A long time ago Europe was the home of
many tribes of white people. Some tended
their flocks and others tilled the soil.

The tribes often fought for the best lands.
Those that lived on wide plains were open to
attack from all sides. In some places ranges
of mountains and arms of the sea kept the
tribes apart.

Here and there a strong tribe would con-
quer many weak ones, and a single chief
would rule over all. Perhaps he would add
to his land till it reached to the sea, to a
wide river or to a range of mountains.



TA MAP

In these and in other ways, the small tribes
grew to large ones, under a few rulers. As
years rolled by, the people of each large tribe
learned to use the same names for things
about them. After a time they began to
trade with other tribes, and to learn how they
did their work, how they dressed and what
they thought.

At length people found out how to print
books from type, and then they became much
wiser. Now, of course, they have fine schools,
beautiful houses and railroads. Thus the
tribes have grown to nations, each having
its own land and its own rulers.

For ages and ages nations have been grow-
ing in nearly all lands, but there are still
many savage tribes. The home of a nation,
or the land in which it lives, is called a
country. The city or town in which the laws
of a nation are made is called the capital of
the country.

A nation may be a part of one race, or
it may be made of people of two or more
races.

97. Map Studies.’

North America?

In what country do you live? What ocean is on
the west? What other bodies of water help to bound
the United States ?

What country is north of the United States ?
What ocean is north of Canada? What ocean is
on the east? On the west? What great bay indents
the north coast? What bodies of water lie between
Canada and the United States ?

What country is south of the United States?
What ocean is west of Mexico? What body of water
is on the east ? What river flows along the northeast
border of Mexico ?

Where are the West Indies?
island of this group.

Name the largest

1 Many teachers may prefer to omit these map studies.
* For answers, study the colored maps on pages 105 to 115.

STUDIES.

South America.

What large river basin is almost wholly in Brazil?
Which part of Brazil is a low plateau? What ocean
is on the east ?

Where is Chile? What is its shape?
ocean do the streams of Chile flow ?

Name the long country east of Chile. What
divides the two lands? Name the river system that
drains the northern part of the Argentine Republic.

Into what

Europe.

Where are the British Isles? What sea is on
the east? What ocean is on the west? Where is
Ireland? Where is Scotland? Where is England?

What country covers the greater part of the low-
land of Europe? Name the largest river basin in
Russia. What bodies of water touch the shores of
Russia ? xX

What country lies north of the Swiss plateau? —
Upon what seas does Germany border ?

Between what countries are the Pyrenees moun-
tains? What bodies of water partly bound Spain ?
What bodies of water partly bound France? In what
country is the greater part of the Rhone basin ?

Where is Italy? What is its shape?

What large country is in the middle part of the
Danube basin? Name the countries that lie north
of Austria-Hungary. On what sea does Austria-
Hungary border ?

Africa.
Where is Egypt? What large river flows across

it? On what seas does Egypt border ?
What river system drains the Kongo State ?.

Asia.

What
What ocean is on the

In what country is the Ganges basin?
highland is north of India ?
south ?

What large country is east of Tibet?
direction do the great rivers of China flow ?
ocean is east of China ?

Where is Japan? What vast country covers the
northern part of Asia? What oceans border on
Siberia? What country is west of Siberia ?

In what
What

Australia.

Where is New South Wales? Where is Victoria?



76

101. High and Low Land.

The alpaca lives near the equator. Look at its
long wool. Do you not think that this little animal
suffers from heat? The wool is very
fine, and is made into cloth. Have you
ever seen
any alpaca
cloth?

The alpaca
looks like a
little camel,
but it does
not live ina
sandy desert.
Each toe has
a tough sole
to help climb
rocky places where the alpaca goes to find grass.

The home of the alpaca is high among the Andes.
Even in summer it can see snowy peaks only a little
distance above the places where it feeds. Do you
think that the alpaca needs its warm coat of wool?












































Alpaca.

Some mountains near the equator
are very cold. The sun often
shines straight down on
lofty peaks that.are cov-
ered with snow. -

_ The thin pure air on
high plateaus and
mountains is. colder

than the air of the

lowlands which are

at the same distance

as the:highlands from
the equator.’

102. The Seasons.-

Which is the coldest
part of the year? Which
is the hottest part ?

What season comes be-
fore summer? What one comes before winter ?

Can you name three kinds of fruit that ripen in
autumn? Three in summer?







Storks of Strassburg.

THE SEASONS.

In what season do most of the wild flowers
blossom ?

What can you see on a winter day that you cannot
see on a summer day ?

What games do you play in winter?
In spring? In

What ones |
in summer ?
autumn ?
Which season do you like &
best ?

103. Change of Seasons.

Once a year the earth
goes round the sun. The
path of the earth is almost
a circle, with the sun near
its center. For six months
the vertical rays of the sun fall north of the
equator. During the other half of the year
they fall south of that line.

While the sun is north of the equator we .
have spring and summer. While
it is south of the equator we
have autumn and winter.
When it is winter on one
side of the equator it is
summer on the other
side.



A Snowstorm.

104.
A Sign of Spring.

One sign of spring is
the coming of the storks.
They visit nearly all parts
of Europe, going as far
north even as Lapland.

The storks make their
nests of sticks on the tops
of buildings and in tall
trees. There they lay
their large white eggs.
These birds are always
welcome, as they are thought to bring good luck.

When the cold season begins in Europe, the storks
fly south. They cross the great sea and visit Africa.



Some of the storks wade along the shores of the
Nile, searching for frogs, snakes and fish. Others
feed in the swamps and marshes of the lake region,
where the Nile rises. Still others fly to the far-off
southern part of Africa, where summer reigns while
‘it is winter in Europe.

What does this lesson tell about the seasons north
and south of the equator ?

Strassburg is in the upper part of the valley of
the Rhine.

105. Belts of Heat.*

What river basins does the equator cross?

What rivers flow into the Arctic ocean? Are their
basins cold or warm?

What river basins are about halfway between the
equator and the poles?

Which’ part of the earth is in the hot belt?
What river basins are in this belt?

The hot belt has no winter. Here some
parts of the year are cooler than others, and
some months are rainy while others are dry.



tae

What river basins are in the warm belts?

The warm belts are a little cooler than
the hot belt. They have long summers and
short winters. Snow is seldom: seen in the
warm belts, except on mountains, but there.
are many frosty nights in winter.

What river basins aré in the cool belts?

The cool belts have cold winters and hot
summers. The air of spring and autumn is
cool. The land is white with snow during
a large part of winter and early spring.

There is but little land in the southern cool
belt.

The cold belt of the north has very long
winters and short summers. Along the Arctic
coast in this belt the soil is deeply frozen the
year round. The hot sun of summer thaws
it only a few inches in depth. —

Even in summer a wide field ‘of ice and
snow spreads round each pole.

1 On page 125 there is a small map of the zones of light.



78
106. The Trade Winds.

In nearly all parts of the hot belt, and
for a short distance beyond it, brisk winds
blow in a westerly direction. These are
called trade winds.

The trade winds blow over about one half
the surface of the earth. As they sweep
over the sea they gather up a vast amount of
moisture and give it to the river basins in
their path.

What great river basins are in the hot
belt ? we

i

deter

Junk on the Pacific.

In some places over the land, the trade
winds turn from their westerly course. Over
the sea these winds often blow for weeks
without changing either their speed or their
direction.

The winds that bear moisture to the river
basins of the warm and cool belts of the north
blow mainly from the southwest and west.

On the cover of this book there is a picture
of the fleet of Columbus. The trade winds
filled the sails of this fleet, during the famous
voyage to America, in 1492.



THE TRADE WINDS.

107. The Gulf Stream.

There are many streams of salt water in
the sea. These are called ocean currents.
Some are warm and others are cold.

Wide ocean currents flow westward under
the trade winds. A branch of one of these
currents winds among and around the West
Indies, and then flows northeast across the
Atlantic ocean. After passing Cuba this is
called the Gulf stream.

Between Cuba and Florida this stream is
about forty miles wide and half a mile
deep. It flows about five miles an hour. The
water is dark blue and very
warm.

As the Gulf stream crosses
the Atlantic, it widens and
flows more slowly. West of
Europe this warm stream
divides. One part flows
along the northwest shore
of Europe while the other
_ part turns towards Africa.
The Gulf stream warms
- the winds that sweep over
it, and these winds bear
much warmth to western
Europe. They give mild
weather all the year to
the British Isles. By and by we shall learn
about other great currents in the sea.

The strange vessel in the picture is called a junk.
It is made of bamboo, —a large grass-like plant that
grows in southeast Asia.

Several years ago a junk was wrecked off the
coast of China. Its masts were broken off and its
sails were blown away.

For weeks and weeks the hull drifted in a great
ocean current. At length it was found upon the rocky
shore of Alaska, thousands of miles from the place
where it lost its masts.

The junk drifted in the Japan current.
direction does this current flow ?

In what



Pia. WIND AND Rat NN.

+4

98. A Home Lesson for a Hot Day.

Find a place where the sun shines upon sand or
upon hard bare ground.

Hold your hand one inch from the sand or the
bare ground, then one foot away, and three feet
away. In which place is the air warmest?

Find a flat rock. Can you feel heat coming from it ?

Place your hand near the sand and then near some
water that stands in the sun. Which is warmer, the
air above the water or above the sand?

99. How the Air is Heated.

On a clear summer day, how hot the air is
over a sandy field, and how cool a breeze
from over the sea.

A flat rock in the sunshine may be hot, while
green grass close by it feels cold. On very
hot days, why do we like to sit in the shade?

The sun warms the surface of the earth,
and the earth then warms the air just as a
stove does.

Dust and clouds also receive warmth from
the sun, and help to
warm the air about
them. Can you now
tell why the air be-
comes cooler when
heavy clouds form be-
tween us and the sun?

When the sun is
shining, some parts of
the earth become
warmer than other
parts. For this reason,
the air in some places
is warmer than it is in others.



Figure I

100. How the Earth is Heated.

Let us suppose that the straight lines in
figure I. are rays coming from the sun to the

earth at noon and also at about nine o'clock
in the morning.

Count the slanting rays. Count the vertical
or upright ones. Which rays
farther over the surface
of the earth? | |

The more nearly over- ||
head the sun is, the
thicker its rays reach
the earth. In the morn-
ing, when the sun is
low in the sky, the rays
are very slanting, and
the earth warms slowly.

Which part of a day
is generally the warm-
est? Why does the
earth become cool or cold in the evening?

In summer the sun shines higher in the
sky than it does in winter. In the coldest
part of the year, the sun’s rays are more
slanting than they are in summer.

On places near the equator, the sun shines
almost straight down every day in the year,
and makes a wide hot belt round that part of
the earth.

As we travel north or south from the hot
belt, the sun’s rays become more and more
slanting, and therefore we reach cooler and
cooler parts of the earth. Round the poles
there are wide regions of ice and snow.

In figure II., as many rays fall upon B as
upon A. Over B the rays are nearly vertical,
but over A they strike the surface with greater
slant.

Which is the wider space, A or B? Upon
which do the rays strike nearer together ?

Figure I. shows that while the sun is shining
nearly straight down on the hot belt, its rays
fall with more slant on other parts of the earth.



Figure II.





80

110. Plants of the Hot Belt.

Which of the little people whom we have visited
live near the equator?





NUTMEG

(CINNAMON

Spices.

What do the people of Java eat? What plants
grow near the home of our Malay friends ?

Where is Tibbws home? What plants supply
food to the people of the Kongo basin?

What have you learned about the selvas? What
large lily grows in the shallow water of the Amazon
river? Why is it so hard to travel in the selvas ?

What do you know about the seasons of the hot belt?

The Aot belt includes parts of the basins of
the Amazon, Nile and Kongo rivers, the pen-
insulas of southern Asia, and the islands
southeast of Asia.

This belt has a hot or a warm season all
the year, with plenty of rain. The. hot belt
is very rich in plant life.

Among the chief food plants are ie plan-
tain, breadfruit, date and cocoanut.

‘spice ?

PLANTS OF THE HOT BELT.

The plantain is very much like the banana.

The banana often grows to the height, of
twenty feet, with leaves ten feet in length.
Several clusters of fruit grow on each plant.

In hot lands the banana is widely used as
food. On many islands of the Pacific it is the
chief food of the natives.

Breadfruit grows on a tree that has large
glossy leaves. The fruit is about as large as a
melon. It is picked just before it is ripe, and
is often cooked by baking. This useful fruit
tastes like boiled potatoes and sweet milk.

The breadfruit is also cut into slices and
dried inthe sun. The slices are then baked, or
they are ground to flour and made into bread.

The islands southeast of Asia are very rich
in spices. Among these are pepper, cloves,

nutmeg and cinnamon.

Cloves grow on trees. The buds are picked when
they turn red. They are then dried and sent to
market. Cloves have a hot, biting taste.

Cinnamon is the dried bark of a kind of small tree.
The outer bark
is taken off, and
only the inner
bark is dried for
market. Do you
like this fragrant

Nutmegs are
taken fromalittle
fruit that grows
on a large tree.
The seed of this
fruit is taken out
and dried for sev-
eral weeks. It
is then cracked
open and out
comes a hard
kernel.

This kernel is
the nutmeg which is often grated int Badlings
and pies.

Pepper berries grow in long clusters on a climb-
ing shrub or vine. ‘The berries are dried in the sun.







Banana Plant.



PLANTS OF THE WARM BELTS. 81

ll, Plants of the Warm Belts. that lies south of the Kongo basin and

There is a warm belt on each side of the nearly all of Australia.
hot belt. The seasons of the warm belts are long,

The warm belt on the north includes Mexico, hot summers and short, cool winters. The
the southern part ;
of the United States,
the shores of the.
Mediterranean sea,
the basm of the
Ganges, and the
southern half of the
plains of China.

The warm belt on
the south includes
the La Plata basin,
the part of - Africa






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































_ plants of these
belts are very
much like those
of the hot belt.

Among the

fruits of the
warm belts are
oranges, lemons,
figs and grapes.
The chief cloth-
ing plant is cot-
¢ ton. The leading grain
is rice.

The warm slopes of
southeast Asia produce
a large amount of tea.

What have you read

Plants of the Heat Belts. about cotton and tea ?



82
112. Plants of the Cool Belts.

The cool belt on the north is a wide path
across the middle of North America, Europe
and Asia.

There is but little land in the cool belt
south of the equator.

In the cool belt of the north the hot and
cold seasons are about
equal in length. The




PLANTS OF THE COOL BELTS.

113. Plants of the Cold Belt.

A cold belt reaches from the bleak slopes
near the Arctic shore to the north pole.

Very little is known about the islands in
the icy sea round the south pole.

The cold belts have very short summers.

Stunted trees and shrubs grow nearly as far

north as the Arctic shores.

What does the reindeer feed on ?



















































































































































































Harvest Scene.

i
Ah f
chief products are. grains, — \A 1 ( \
wheat, corn, rye, oats and barley. i

The best grazing lands are in the \
cool belt of the north. Here are |
also the largest forests of soft
woods,— pine, fir, spruce, etc.

What have you read about the prairies of North

America ?

These prairies are in the cool belt and form one
of the largest and richest garden regions on earth.
_ Over large areas the soil is more than fifty feet in
depth. The rainfall is plentiful, and the land is so
nearly level that most of the rain that falls here
_ sinks into the soil.

The picture on this page is a ‘harvest ‘scene on

the prairies. The large machines drawn by horses
reap and bind the wheat.
What kinds of grain are made into flour %






































Uses of Plants. !

Name six plants that supply food.

What‘kinds of cloth are made from plants ?

What kinds of wood are used in houses? .

Do you- know of any plants that are used for.
medicine ? "Dunes

What articles are made from. bark? From sap?
From buds? Leaves?. Roots? Blossoms? Wood?





Pop AIN ES:





108. Where Plants Grow.





Can you name a plant that grows in a swamp?
Can you name one that grows in a sandy place ?

What flowers have you seen growing in the woods ?

Of what use is the tuft on the thistle seed ?

Do you know of any seeds so light that they are
blown about ? 4

Try to find a seed that will float on water. How might that seed
be carried from one place to another?

Can you name any birds that feed on seeds? On fruits?

Can you name an enemy of each of these plants: potato, tomato,
corn, apple ?






109. Soil, Water and Heat.

Every plant grows best where it has the kind of soil,
and the amount of water and heat that it needs.

Where do pussy willows and cat-tails grow? Have you
ever seen them on high rocky places? They like swamps
and the banks of ponds and streams.

Where does the water lily grow? Where are its roots?
Do you think that you could make a water lily grow
in your garden ?

Have you ever seen the pretty white heads of clover
waving in dry pastures? A little red clover also grows
there, but much more of it is found in moist meadows.

Pines thrive on dry and rocky hillsides. Wheat grows
best in the rich soil of prairies. Oranges ripen in sunny

lands where the warm season lasts nearly all the year.
All over the earth, plants search out the soil, heat and
; moisture that best suit their needs.



ANIMALS.

—+o+-——

115. Animals,—Their Teeth, Claws, ete.

Name two animals that feed on grass? What
kinds of feet or toes have they ?

Draw an eagle’s foot, and a duck’s foot.
tell the uses of each ?

Can you



cfs
ELEPHANT.

GIRAFFE.
xs
Com WN

DUCK.

How do the teeth of a cow differ from those of a
cat? Why does a cow not need sharp teeth, like
those of a cat?

What kind of covering has a sheep? A frog? A
trout? A robin? Where does each live ?

Which do you think are warmer, feathers or furs ?

116. Animals and their Homes.

livery creature is suited to its proper home.
There are many kinds of bills, legs, feet,
tongues, noses and teeth, but each kind has
its special use. -It helps the animal to get



buck.



CAMEL.



ANT-EATER.

Sy
1 Gy fi

EAGLE.

The heavy horse with wide hoofs can graze
on soft land, and its feet do not cling to the
grass roots.

The humming bird has a long slender bill
which it thrusts deep into sweet blossoms for



HUMMING BIRD.

nectar and insects. The heron has long legs
for wading, and a neck of about the same
length to reach down for food. '

Animals have many kinds of coverings.
There are turtles with strong shells, fish with
thin scales, birds with light feathers, frogs
with smooth skin, sheep with curly wool,
and squirrels with soft fur. Some animals
are suited to live in water, and others on
land or in the air. ji

All around us there is a struggle for food.











food or to protect itself in the place where it
lives. ‘

. The eagle has sharp claws .and a beak to
hold and to tear the flesh on which it feeds..

HERON.

The sharp-eyed robin makes a dainty meal

of earthworms, and soon the cheery songster
ds in the claws of a cat.

The owl flies about
in the evening, looking for field-mice. —





84 ANIMALS OF THE HEAT BELTS.

Every creature has some
means of defense or of es-
cape. The fly, with its many
_- eyes and its wings, often
“saves itself by flight. The
ee draws itself within its hard shell. The bee thrusts
out its sting. The horse kicks, the cow tosses, the dog

bites and the squirrel leaps from branch to branch or

darts into a hole.

Animals often roam about in search of food, but
there are places that they cannot cross. They may
be swift and strong, but they cannot live beyond
the regions that produce their food.

Cattle roam over meadows and high, grassy
plains, but they cannot pass over broad, rocky,

heights or sandy tracts. The wild horse must stop at

the border of the grassland. Animals Paes food is in the
sea cannot wander far from the shore.

What a ‘wonderful storybook Nature writes in each season.
How pretty the pictures are! Can you read the story that the
spider spins in its web? Can you draw a picture as pretty
as that upon the wing of a butterfly ?








POLAR BEAR.

NORTH

AMERICA.

&

117. Animals of the Heat Belts.

Many large and fierce animals live in the hot belt. Among
these are the elephant, the lion and the gorilla.
Where is the home of the camel? Of the tapir?
The crocodile? The boa? The rhinoceros?
Why cannot the animals of Africa reach Australia
or South America ?
Only a few animals can cross oceans, deserts
or lofty highlands. For this reason the same
VOL di kinds of animals do not roam over all parts
te of a heat belt. |
; See what queer animals live in Australia! There
is one with a bill like that of a duck. Another is
covered with sharp spines. Have you ever seen a



a WZ
QD EY.
iv
: y

J PARROT. Bah,



ARMADILLO,

ALPACA.

kangaroo ?
_ The giraffe feeds on leaves and branches. Of what use is its long
neck? In which grand division is the giraffe found? _ Soy

RHEA.

Where is the home of the Ilama and the alpaca? Name a large bird
we that lives among the Andes. a:

Spe s spice



ANIMALS OF THE HEAT BELTS. 85







Name three pe
animals that =
live in the we @ 2 gh See
warm belt My ne as
of the south.

Name three in the warm belt of the
north.

Where is the home of the R/
bison ? Of the buffalo? The gp
yak? The moose? The




REINDEER.

grizzly? The chamois?
The elk?

Is the beaver found in
a cold land or in a warm sf
one? Name four an-
imals of the cool belt
of the north.

Cattle, sheep and
horses are found
chiefly in the cool
and warm belts.

Some animals
brave even the
Arctic weather
in their search
for food. Neither
the chilly wind,
the frozen ground
nor the icy water can rob their
bodies of warmth, for they have soft
fur, downy feathers or oily flesh.

Name four large animals that live
in the Arctic regions.

Perhaps you can draw some a the
animals in the pictures..



CHAMOIS.






EUROPE, ~








a

GAZELLE.












AFRICA.

GAVIAL.

118. Uses of Animals.

What animals work for man ?
What uses does man make of the cow? Of the
horse? Of the hen? Dog? Cat? Sheep?
What is made from skins? -From shells? From hair? Horns? Furs?
Feathers? Bonés?° What animals supply man with food? With clothing ?
What animals have you for pets at home?

an ECHIDNA.
= ORNITHORYNCHUS.





AUSTRALIA.





















































































Coast near San Francisco.

Coast of Maine.

THE UNITED STATES.

——+>e—__.

119. Surface of the United States.

The United States includes the middle part
of North America and all Alaska.’

The north shore of the gulf of Mexico is
at one third of the distance from the equator
to the north pole. The line which is just
halfway between the equator and this pole
passes through the Great Lakes. The southern
part of the United States is in the warm belt.
The northern part is mainly in thé cool belt.

Review. — What bodies of water border on the
United States ?

Between what high mountains does the Great
Basin lie?

Where does the Goimsdes river rise ?
it noted? Into what gulf does it flow ?

Through what high range does the Columbia river
flow? Into what sea does the Yukon

river flow ? : =a

1See map on page 105.

For what is

Coast of Southern California.




Where are the Great Lakes ?
river flows from Lake Ontario ?

What bounds the basin of the Mississippi on the
west? On the east? On the north?

Namea large river that ows into the Mississippi
from the west ? Where does the Missouri river rise ?
Into what does the. Ohio river flow ?

Where are the prairies? ‘The western plains?
The southern plains? Tell what you have learned
about the surface of the United States.

Where is the city of New York?

Southward from New York, along the
Atlantic ocean and gulf of Mexico, the coast
is mainly low and sandy. The best harbors
are near the mouths of rivers or on large
bays.

East and northeast of New York the coast is
in many places rocky and broken, and there are
many fine harbors. There are
but few good harbors on the
Pacific coast of the United States.

Name them. What »









Coast of Florida,



PEOPLE.

120. People.

Who was Columbus? When did he live?
What people lived in America at that time?

Nearly all the early settlers in the land
now called the United States made their homes
along the Atlantic coast. Let us see why : —

a. The early settlers came from Europe
and landed on the east coast.

b. There were no roads nor long rivers
leading inland from this coast to the prairies.

87

Towns soon grew up along the lakes and
rivers. Many of them were trading stations
where the Indians sold furs for beads, knives,
powder and other articles.

About fifty years ago gold was found near
the Pacific coast, and many people went there
in search of fortunes. Some crossed the vast
plains and basin region, in wagons or on
horses. Others sailed round Cape Horn.
Still others went in vessels to the isthmus of
Panama, crossed that neck of land, and then



Longitude 105 ‘West









c. The Appalachian highland stood between
the Atlantic coast and the prairies.

d. Savage tribes held the lands that were
a little back from the coast.

e. The settlers wished to trade with the
ships from Europe.

After a time, people found that there were
vast fertile prairies west of the mountains,
and that they could reach them. by sail-
ing down the Ohio river or up the Great
Lakes. Many also went up the Mississippi
river from its mouth.



sailed up the coast. Thus the west shore of
our country was settled.

From time to time new deposits of silver
and gold were found in many parts of the
Rocky Mountain highland. Mining camps
soon grew to be towns or cities, and thus’
even the great highland was settled.

The dots on the above map show the loca-
tion of cities and towns. Where are the dots
largest and thickest ??

1 The star on the map shows the center of population,
according to latest census.



88

Which has the greater number of dots,
the Mississippi basin or the Rocky Mountain
highland? What part of the Mississippi
basin is most thickly settled ?







Liberty rT

Bell,

Where is the Pacific slope? Where is the
Atlantic slope? Which of these slopes is the
more thickly settled? Can you tell why?

About one tenth of the people of the
United States are Negroes.

A long time ago, many black people from
Africa were sold as slaves in the United
States. Their labor proved most helpful in
the cotton fields of the South.

At length all the slaves were set free, and
most of them made their homes on the southern
plains where they had worked.

The number of Indians in the United
States is very small as compared with the
number of Negroes. The red-brown people
of the United States have in most cases been
placed on lands set apart for them in various
parts of the country.

121. July 4, 1776.

Each band of early settlers formed a colony.
The people of the colonies were called colo-
nists. Most of those who made their homes
along the Atlantic coast came from England.

JULY 4, 1776.

During the wars which the colonists had
with the Indians, many of the small colonies
united to form larger ones. Can you tell
why they did so? After a time there were
thirteen large colonies.

The king of England made the colonists
pay unjust taxes, and at length wise men
in the colonies were chosen to decide what
should be done.

On July 4, 1776, these brave men voted
to declare their land free from English rule,
and to form a new nation.

The “liberty bell” was the first to rmg out
the glad news of freedom. This old bell still
hangs in Independence Hall, in the city of
Philadelphia. .

Each colony was called a state, and all the
states together formed the United States of
America.

At that time the United States held the
land as far west only as the Mississippi river.
The country now reaches from ocean to ocean,
and many new states have been formed.

The city of -
Washington is the
capital of the
country.

All the states
send men to Wash-
ington, and these
make laws for the
whole nation.
Each state is also
somewhat like a
nation, and can
make laws for itself, but such laws must not
conflict with those made in Washington.

Each state has a capital. Cities and towns
that are capitals are marked by stars (#*) on
the maps.

Find out all you can about the “minute

9

men.



Minute Man.



4. Ue

1k

MAP STUDIES,

122, “Map Studies of” the ees u .

— In what state do you live? in what Pate of the
United, ‘ates is it? (See map on next page.)

Name the states that border on the Atlantic ocean.

What states are separated by the Delaware river ?
By Delaware bay? By Chesapeake bay? By the
Potomac river? By the Savannah river ?

Name the states along the gulf of Mexico. In
which state'is the delta of the Mississippi? What
two gulf states are separated by the Mississippi
river?. What river. flows. between Texas and
Mexico? .

Which states border on Lake Erie ?
Michigan? On Lake Superior ?

Name the states along the north bank of the Ohio.
On what lake does each of these states border ?
What states are on the south bank of the Ohio?

In what state does the Mississippi river rise?
Name in order. the states along the left bank of this
river.. Name those that lie along the right bank.

What states are crossed by the Missouri river?
Between which does it flow? Across what states
does the Arkansas river flow ? 2

What states are crossed by the Rocky mountains ?
What states border on the Colorado river? Which
are separated by the Columbia river? In what state
is the Gréat Salt lake ?

What: states border on Mexico ?
ocean ? On Canadad ?

On. Lake

On the Pacific

1 How: to pronounce the names of Sbates:

e ae 123. - Leading Dities...

Find on the map the following cities,

89

Tell in

which state each city is located; also, where it is, — -
whether near a large river, ie bay, gulf, mountain’

range or near the sea.

New Yorr
CuiIcaco
PHILADELPHIA
Brookiyn

St. Louris
Boston
BALTIMORE
San FrRANcrIsco
CINCINNATI
CLEVELAND
Burrano
New ORLEANS
PirrTsBURG
WASHINGTON
DeEtrorr
MinnEAPOLIS
LovisvILLE
OMAHA
Kansas Orry
DENVER
Ricumonp
NASHVILLE
ATLANTA
Porrnanp (ORz.)

nti york!

she-kalg6
fil'a-dél'fi-a
brook! lin
sant loo/ts
bés!ton-
bal!ti-mor
friin-sis'k6
sin'sin-ni/ti
klévland
biflfalo
6r/le-anz
pits/birg
wosh/ing-ton
de-troit!
min'e-ip!d-lis
loo!-is-vil
6!ma-ha!
kan/sas
dén/ver
rich!-mond
nash/vil
at-lin!ta
port/land





Key “ale, Aire, 4m, drm, final, all; éve, évent, énd, hér, recent ; ice, 1

g as: “in go.

2 To: ‘Leacher :

Ha
ot



®

4

ALABAMA AVa-biifma Towa i0-wa New Jersry jérlai
ALASKA’ a-lislka Kansas k&n!/sas New Mexico méx/i-k6
ARIZONA: ir-1-zd/na Kentucky kén-ttik/t OHIO 60-hi/d-
ARKANSAS ar! kan-sa/ Lovisrana 160’é-zé-A/ na OKLAHOMA ok-1é-hd!ma
CALIFORNIA kal-f6r! ni-a Marna man OREGON orle-gdn

. CAROLINA: kar-6-lina Maryianp mér/i-land PENNSYLVANIA —_-pén’sil-va/nit-a
CoLorapo koYo-ra/ dd Massacuusetrs mis‘a-chiil-sets Ruove Istanp rod Wand

’ ConnEcTICUT kon-néti-ktit MicHigan mish/i-gan TENNESSEE tén’nes-sé!
Daxora’: - da-kolta Minnesora min’e-s6!ta Texas téxlas
DELAWARE déla-war Mississippi mis‘is-ip/i Urau Wits
FLoriDa fldii-da Mrssourt mis-oo!rt Vermont - ver-mont!
GEORGIA. jorljira Montana mon-ti/na VIRGINIA ver-jin!1-a
Ipano' : ida-ho NEBRASKA ne-bras/ka WASHINGTON wish/ing-ton
Inurnors, “s ¥1-lY-noil Nevapa ne-vilda ‘WISCONSIN wis-kOn/sin
Inpr. A In/di-inla New Hamesuire himp!shir Wyomina wi-dlming

; Old, dbey, for, dn; ise, tip, far; food, fart;

Jt does not seem desirable at this time to make a distinction between states and territories.



Full Text




ware
PRIMARY
PCOGRAPHE

BY

ALEX EVEREQ) GINYVE

AUTHOR OF “CHILD AND NATURE,” “BROOKS AND BROOK BASINS,” ETC,

BOSTON, U.S. A,
GINN AND COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
1894
CoPpyRIGHT, 1894

By ALEX EVERETT FRYE

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


PREFACH.

—e

Attention is mvited to the following features of this book :—

Text.— The aim has been to use language suited to pupils of primary grades. Open
the book at any page, and see whether the author has hit the mark.

The subject is treated topically. The day of patchwork teaching has passed. Teachers
have long been asking for a text-book based on the topical study of the earth. This book
holds the earth as a unit before the mind, and relates all study to that unit. The memory
is thus aided and much time is saved.

The underlying principle of this work is comparison. Glance at the little maps on
pages 29 and 33, and this thought will be made clear. Each part—ocean or grand division
—§is shown in its relation to the whole and to the other parts.

The text on PEOPLE centers in child-life. The word race has a deeper meaning than
is taught by the size of cheek bones or the texture of hair. This book leads pupils ito
the homes of the races. Read to a child one of the stories on pages 55 to 72, and note
the result. .

Plants and animals are studied in their relations to climate and physical features. Here,
again, the earth is the unit of study. Belts of heat, and not mere zones of light, are made
the basis of this work.

Every child should know a great deal about his own state and about his own country.
The various editions of this book present special state texts, while the body of the book
treats of the leading industries of the United States as a whole. The cruel and senseless
“study of countless details concerning the separate states is here replaced by a general view
of the resources and industries of the whole nation. This work has been laid before
thousands of teachers, and the author has yet to meet the first teacher who does not
welcome the change.
iv PREFACE.

This book is not a-condensed edition of the larger book of the series. Primary
Geography rests on a basis of its own. Only the leading topics of the science are here
treated. These are clothed with stories of people, plants, animals, natural scenery, ete.

A Manual of Methods, containing suggestions for teachers, accompanies this series
of books.

Pictures. — The pictures are true to nature. With but few exceptions they were
engraved directly from photographs.

The pictures supplement the text. A glance at pages 13 and 17 will show how they
afford teachers an opportunity to lead far beyond the text.

The pictures present typical forms. In place of mere definitions, or word-shells, the
text and pictures bring pupils face to face with nature in its variety. See pages 10 and 11.

The pictures are works of art. Tt is thought that they are superior to any ever before
placed in a schoolbook.

Acknowledgments.— In the treatment of types of natural features, as well as in
criticism of other parts of the work, Professor W. M. Davis, Harvard University, has given
very valuable assistance.

The author desires to express his gratitude to Mr. Justin H. Smith, of Boston. Some
of the leading features of this book embody his original thought.

The relief maps were modeled under the supervision of the author, by Miss Gertrude
Beatrice Wright, of the Normal Art School, Boston.

The Industrial Maps of the United States were drawn by Mr. Henry Gannett, Chief
Topographer of the United States Geological Survey.

HAS He Rey cH
‘Boston, May, 1894.
eS Tal,

HOME GEOGRAPHY.

GEOGRAPHY :
Hints AnD VALLEYS
Brooks AND Rivers
SLOPES

Kinps oF Soin

Work oF WATER

Loos Sort

Rain In THE Sor

How Sor sETrnes .
Work or THE Brooxs
Mup Banks orn Dentas .
WATER AND Hzar
Forms or WATER
SPRINGS :
Sources or STREAMS
Wuerte Brooks FLOW
SYSTEMS AND Basins
Tue Tor oF A RipcE
DrvipEs :
How Snopes ARE WORN
Brps oF STREAMS
VALLEYS

Mountains

PLAINs

SHore Forms . : :
Work or Wartrr on SHORES
Points oF THE COMPASS
How Maps ARE MADE
Reapine Mars



THE HARTH.

Form Aanp Sizk oF THE EartTe
Waar A HInn IS MADE OF

OF CONTENTS.

ry
&
ANS ER AR wWwWwd NNR

OomMDDDM

10

11

12

14
eee)
“16
18

18

19

20
21

Wauat tHe EARTH IS MADE OF .
THe AIR. 3

Tur SHELL or AIR

THE Pours

Tue Equator

SLOPES OF THE EARTH.

Tur Worip Riper

AnprEs Higunianp :
Rocky Mountain Higunanp
HieguHnanp or TrBer
HieHianp or ABYSSINIA.
SLopEs rRom Wortp Riper
SELVAS p

WESTERN PLAINS

TUNDRAS . :

Drsrrt or SAHARA

Tur Granp Divisions

Tur OcEANS

Borrom or tHe Sra

Corat Isnanps

SOUTH AMERICA.

SurFrace or Soura AMERICA .
Mar Srupies

Amazon RIVER

Hicguuanp or Brazin
PAMPAS :

Istamus or PANAMA .

NORTH AMERICA.

SurFace or Norra AMERICA.
Map Srupies

PAGE
21
21
21
22
23

ol
33
33
34
b4

84

35.
87
vi

Tur Rocky MovuntTarIns . s

Cotorapo CANon : 5 é

Tom Hetent or Lanp
Tur Muississtppr Basin
Nortu or Heient or Lanp .

AppALACHIAN HIGHLAND .

ATLANTIC SLOPE
Paciric SLOPE

ASIA.

Surrace or ASIA
Mar SrupiIEs
Arctic SLOPE .
Caspian BAsIn
PuAIns oF CHINA
Tur GANGES BASIN

EUROPE.

SuRFACE OF EUROPE

Map SrupDiEs ‘| : 3
Snopes FRoM Swiss HicgHLannD-
Vaupar Hits

Tur CASPIAN SEA

BritisH IsiEs

AFRICA.

4a
SurracE or AFRICA
Map StTupies
Tur River NILE
OasIs IN THE DESERT.
Konceo Basin .

AUSTRALIA.

SurFAcE oF AUSTRALIA
Mar StTupDIEs .

PEOPLE.

Trnpu, THE Konco Boy
JAPAN AND ITS PEOPLE .
Mazay or Brown PEoPLe .
A Laruanp Home .

Cuueiu, tHE Eskimo Boy .
CHILDREN oF INDIAN TRIBES .
Lanp or tHe ARABS .
‘CHILDREN OF THE LOWLANDS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

i . 87
38

. 388

5 39
40

40

40

40

41
43
48
43

waa

44

45
AT
AT
48
48
48

49
51
51
52
52

St OL
rs

oo

CHILDREN OF THE HIGHLANDS
Homes or THE RACES

Homers or THE NATIONS

Mar SrupikEs .

HEAT, WIND AND RAIN.

Home Lesson ror A Hot Day.
How tHe Arr Is HEATED

How tHe EARTH IS HEATED
Hiew anp Low Lanp

Tue SEASONS

CHANGE OF SEASONS

A Sion or SPRING

Betts or Heat

Tue TrapE WINDS

Tur Gur STREAM.

PLANTS.

WHERE PLANTS GROW

Som, Water anp Hear
Puants or THE Hor Ber
Puants or THE WARM BELts
Puants oF THE CooL Betts
Puants oF THE Corp Brrr
Uses oF PLANTS.

ANIMALS.

Animats, — THEIR TEETH, ETC.
ANIMALS AND THEIR Homes
ANIMALS OF THE Heat BELTS
Uszs or ANIMALS

THE UNITED STATES.

Surrace oF THE UNITED STATES
PEOPLE

Juny 4, 1776 .

Map Srupirs orf STATES
Lrapine Crrius

Corton : . :
Maize orn Inpran Corn .
WHEAT

For3Ests

CATTLE

CoaL

Tron

PAGE

73
73
74.

79
80
81°
82
82
82

83
83
84

86
87
88
89
89
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
GoLD AND SILVER.
Routes or TRADE
New York

Boston

New ORLEANS
San FRANCISCO .
PHILADELPHIA
CHICAGO

St. Louis

NORTH AMERICA.

Tur Unirep Staves .
CANADA
Mexico

“ SOUTH AMERICA.

BRAZIL . : g
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC
CHILE

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

99
100
101
101
102
102
102

103 -

108

104
104
104

106
106
106

EUROPE.
BritisH Isies
GERMANY
FRANCE

ASIA.

InDIA
CHINA
JAPAN

AFRICA.
Eeypr
CAPE COLONY

AUSTRALIA.

VICTORIA
New Souta WaALgEs

SUPPLEMENT.

vil

PaGE

108
108
108

110
110
110

112
112

114
114


RELIEF MAP OF THE WORLD.

Norr.—In this picture we view the earth from a point nearly over the British Isles. The southern half of South
America cannot be seen frém this point. In order to bring it into sight, we must think of it as being lifted
from the other side of the earth and swung round into the place where it now appears.

The picture on page 77 shows still more of the land swung round from the side of the earth opposite that

shown above.

:






























































































The Earth in Space.

HOME GEOGRAPHY.

1. Geography. —
See Teachers’ Manual of Methods in Geography.

Tuis book tells a story about the earth, —
the great ball of land and water on which
we live. ye a

After studying that part of the earth which
is near our school, we shall visit the homes
of girls and boys in other lands.

We shall see little yellow people feeding

silkworms, and picking leaves from tea plants.

The Arab boy will show us his father’s
camels and horses, and will tell us about the
great desert that spreads round his home.

In the land of the brown people we shall
find groves of spice, and the brown girls will
weave pretty baskets for us.

The Eskimo boy will show us how to
crawl into his snow hut, and will tell us how
his father hunts the seal for food and clothing.

We may also peep into tall straw huts,
and see the black people in their far-off
home.

We shall pass by acres and acres of waving
grain, and wide fields hidden with soft white ,
cotton.

We shall climb high mountains whose tops

are buried in ice and snow.

Every day of our journey will bring new
sights, and tell new stories of the beautiful
earth on which we live.

A story of the earth and its people is called
Geoyraphy.

See page 126 for pronunciation of hard words.
2, a HILLS AND VALLEYS.





































































2. Hills and Valleys.

Is there any level land near your
school? Where?

Is it exactly level? Does any water
flow across it? Where have you seen a
hill? Where have you seen a valley?

Find’ pictures of two hills and two
valleys in this book.

How does
a hill differ
from a val-
ley ?












































































































Find the swiftest part of the stream. Can you
tell why the water flows swiftly in the rapids?

Why does the river flow smoothly under the
bridge ?

Why do the brooks spread over the meadow and
make a pond? : E- ;

Find two pictures of rivers. How does a brook
differ from a river ?











4. Slopes.

Any land that slants is a slope. The side
of a hill, or of a valley, is a slope.

Some slopes are gentle, and others are
steep. Where have you seen a gentle slope?
Is there a steep slope near your school ?

Most brooks that flow among hills are
very swift. Can you tell why?

Look at the meadow near the pond in
the picture. Do you think that this
meadow is just level?

Why does the pond not spread out
farther ?

When a brook runs into a small hollow,
it makes a pond. Rivers often flow into
large hollows, and make lakes.

=e If all the land were level, there would
From Source to Mouth. i be no hills nor valleys, no ponds nor lakes,
3. Brooks and Rivers. no brooks nor rivers.
How many brooks can you see in the picture ? Find three pictures of steep slopes, and
Where does the water in the brooks come from? three pictures of gentle slopes.




































































KINDS OF SOIL. 3

5. Kinds of Soil.

Which is the finer, loam or sand? Loam or clay?

Pour some water on loam, on sand and on clay.!
Into which does the water sink most quickly ?

Which dries soonest, the loam, the sand or the
clay ?

What becomes of plants that die, and of leaves
that fall?

Find as many kinds of soil as you can.
kind in a bottle by itself.

What kind of soil covers the fields

Put each

See the balloon! It is floating im the clear
air, far above the clouds.

-7. Loose Soil.®

Pour some water on hard ground. Wait two
minutes, then dig and see how far the water has
settled.

Loosen a little patch of ground with a spade, and
pour on some water. After two minutes, find out

how far it has gone into the soil.

















or yards near your school?









































































































































Can you find out what is under the







































































































soil ?































































































































































6. Work of Water.’



How hard-it rains!
The river is swift and muddy.

























Where does the muddy water
come from?

Let us go out on the side of
the hill. Can you see the tiny
streams or rills which the rain
makes? Look closely! They are
very small.

Many of the rills are muddy.
These are washing away the
finest soil. Watch the rills that
are rollmg sand down the steep
places.

The rills cannot carry sand very
far. They must leave it in the
hollows and on the level places.
Can ‘you tell why?

What will become of. the fine soil that
-makes the rills muddy? The little streams
will carry some of it down to the river.

1 A small box of each will answer for the entire class.

2 WEATHER Recorp.—In a notebook keep a daily
record of the weather. In the afternoon write whether the
day has been hot, warm, cool or cold; clear, cloudy, rainy or
snowy; calm or windy. Be sure to write the date.

This record will show you how to keep yours.

‘Dec. 6 . warm
te os see. (Cold!

rainy
clear

windy
windy





Rainstorm,

Farmers plow in order to turn up fresh soil, and to
loosen it, so that the rain can easily settle.
Do you know what frost does to: the soil ?

Dec. 8 . cool
De es seo!

calm
windy

clear *
rainy

Keep the record every school day for a year. Perhaps
you can also take notes for holidays. At the end of the
year you can count and find out which month has had the
greatest number of warm days, rainy days, etc.

’ Home work for pupils who wish to try the exper-
iment. ;
4 RAIN IN THE SOIL.

/






ground.




seeds.



| g. reen.
Indian Corn.

The water is
taken into the roots of trees. It rises to the
sleeping buds, and pretty leaflets unfold.

Now the blossoms hang in clouds, and later
they fall like snow. Grain sprouts, grows up
and waves in the fields.

At length the boughs bend low with fruit.
Sheaves of wheat dot the fields, and long
ears of corn ripen in the sun.

All the time the plants are growing, water
in the soil helps to feed them.

Have you ever seen worms crawling out of
the ground ? t

Worms grind leaves, and mix them with
soil. They bring rich earth to the surface,
and make little mounds of it.

x
Sg










8.
Rain in the Soil.

When it rains, some

yw water sinks mto the

; It mois-

“tens the soil around

At the right season they sprout
and grow through the soil.

The rain flows among grass roots, and

little blades shoot up, making the fields






Apple Blossoms.

Have you ever watched ants building their
hills? Do you know of any place where ants
are at work near your school? Where do
they get fine earth for their hills?

Mounds made by worms and ants are often
dotted over the fields.
Raindrops spread these
mounds, and carry some
of the rich soil down
again to the roots and
seeds.



Growing Pumpkins.

9. How Soil Settles.

Mix fine soil in one glass of water, and coarse sand
in another. Let the water stand for a while, and see
what takes place.

Which settles first, the soil or the sand ?

Mix fine loam and coarse sand in a glass of water,
and let it stand. Which settles on the other, the
loam or the sand ?

10. Work of the Brooks.

What is the swift part of a
brook called? Can you tell why?

Below the rapids there is a
small pond. This pond is only a
wide place in the brook. Rain
has been falling, and the brook is
muddy. It has a load of fine soil which
the rills have brought from the slopes.


MUD. BANKS

Let us throw two or three pailfuls of gravel
into the rapids. See what takes place.

The pebbles sink in the rapids, where
the water is swift. Some are rolling down
the slope under the water. Can you tell
what moves them ?

Here is the sand below the rapids.
Watch it spreading on the bottom. It
looks like a great leaf. Why does
the sand settle here? Why did it
not settle in the rapids?

Look into the ,
pond where the
water is still. The
muddy water is
flowing into it.
Let us wait a lit-
tle while and find
out where the fine
soil goes.

The part of the
brook that flows
out of the pond is
not muddy. It has
left the fine soil
under the still
water.

If there were no
pond, what would
become of the
muddy water ?

f

Il. Mud Banks ‘oF Deltas.

Look once more at the mud on the bottom
of the pond.

When it rains again, more soil will be
brought down by the rills and brook. In
time a little mud bank will form near the
place where the brook flows into the pond.

When the water is low the mud will stand
above it.








OR DELTAS. 5

&

After a long time the soil may fill the
whole pond, except where the brook keeps a
path or channel open. As the new bank of
soil grows, grass and flowers will cover it, and
make it look like other parts of the field.

Thus, water wears
down the high land
and so makes the
slopes more even...

Mud banks that
form where streams
flow into still water
are called deltas. A
delta cannot form
in water that moves
swiftly. The soil
is swept away and
cannot settle.

Most of the rivers
in the world flow
into a great body of salt water,
called the ocean or the sea. Rivers
make many deltas on the shores of
the ocean. Some deltas are so
, iarge that cities are built on them.
= a Let us next find out where the
water in brooks and rivers comes
from.

Rapids.



12. Water and Heat.

Put a few drops of water into a tin
cup, and heat it. Where does the water go ?

The water in the cup changes into vapor.
cannot see the vapor, but it is floating in the air.

Heat a small bottle of water over a lamp. What
takes place inside the bottle ? What comes from the
bottle ?

Hold a piece of cold glass in the cloud that you can
see coming from the bottle. Of what is the cloud
made ?

Breathe against a cold window.
breath ?

Have you ever seen your breath ?
cold day or on a.warm one ?

We

What is in the

Was it on a




the air.’

6° FORMS OF WATHR.

Put a little water into a shallow basin, and let it
stand in the sun. Where does the water go? Into
what does it change ?

What makes the little cloud that comes from the
kettle in the picture ?

13. Forms of Water.

Put some water into a shallow basin, and
let it stand in the sun. The water will
slowly change into vapor, and float away
in the air.

We cannot see vapor. The kettle
in the picture is sending out vapor
which changes into a little cloud. The
vapor is in the clear space near the
mouth of the kettle. 3

Vapor rises from ponds, lakes,
brooks and rivers, but most of it
comes from the sea.

When the air is cooled enough,
some of the vapor in it changes

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































into large clouds, such as we often see floating

above us.
Were you ever in a fog? Did it look like
water dust? Fog is a cloud near the earth.
When enough vapor has changed into cloud,
some of the particles of water fall through
- Many particles run together and
ior dies of rain.

Have you ever seen any hail? Did it look
like frozen rain ?

When the air is very cold a part of ie
vapor in it sometimes freezes into crystals or
flakes of snow. If you will catch some snow-

flakes on a piece of black cloth, you will find
that they have very pretty shapes.


















At night, when the grass
and stones are cold, vapor
often floats against them
and changes into dew.
Breathe against a cold
window and against a
warm sleeve. Upon which
does dew form?

On very cold nights vapor freezes on
grass and stones and forms frost.

A part of the dew and frost is formed of
vapor that. rises from the damp earth.

The ice-coat on water forms first at the
surface. If the freezing began at the bottom,
many lakes and streams would become solid
masses of ice. The fish in them would die,
and even the summer sun could not melt the
ice in deep water.

What are the uses of ice ?

Perhaps these words will help you to think
of some of the uses of water :— kitchen,
travel, mill, plant, river, ram, ocean, well.
SOURCES OF STREAMS. ‘li








ie Springs.

Why does rain not fill the soil ?

Have you ever seen water flow out of the ground ?

Is there a spring near your home? If so, tell what it is like.

Brooks often flow in dry seasons. Can you tell where the water
comes from ?

15. Sources of Streams.

The beginning of a brook or river is called its source.
Many springs form at the foot of hills, and also in
meadows.

Many others bubble up in the bottoms of
brooks, ponds, rivers and lakes. Ponds and









































































































































































































lakes store up water, and
supply it to brooks and rivers
long after the rain is over.
Do you see the large brook
or river that flows from under
the ice? The tops of many
mountains are covered with
ice and snow all the year.
Many streams are formed by
the melting ice and snow.

7
g SYSTEMS: AND: BASINS. ee

Should you like to see hot water spout out
of the ground? . It often shoots up as high
as a very tall tree. There must be a very hot
place in the earth under the geyser.

From some springs there is a gentle flow of
warm or hot water. Find the picture of the
hot springs.
made many pretty basins ?

16. Where Brooks Flow.

Why do brooks flow in creoked lines ?

In what direction does every stream flow ?

Why are some brooks swift and others slow ?

Why is a brook wider in some plage than in
others ?

What are the uses of brooks and eae ue

17. Systems and Basins.

Streams often flow from many small valleys
into a large valley.

All the streams that meet in one valley
form a system. A river system includes the
main river of the valley, and all the rills,
brooks and rivers that flow into the main

one.
All the land that sends water to a brook





A Divide.

Do you not think that shee have :

forms the basin of the brook. A basin is
made of slopes.

Every stream is in a basin. includes all the land that is drained by a
river system.

q

Sy

Mississippi System.

Every large basin is made of many small
ones.

Many brook basins send water to one river.
A large river basin often includes many
smaller river basins.

The Mississippi system drains about a
million square miles of land. This vast tract
of land forms the Mississippi basin.

The main stream of this system is the
longest river on earth.

How does a basin differ from a system?
Poimt to the basins and systems in the pic-
ture on the opposite page.

s

18. The Top of a Ridge.

Here is a picture of a ridge that rises between
two long narrow valleys.

When rain falls on the top of this midge, into which
valley does it flow ?

What part of the ridge is in each valley ? :

Point to the line that runs along the very top of
the ridge. This line is called a divide. It divides
the valleys.
DIVIDES. 9

























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































San Bernardino Mountains, Cal.

19. Divides.

The slopes of the large valleys in this
picture begin at the tops of the high ridges.
Each slope starts at a divide.

Some divides are on high land where snow
lies all the year. Other divides are low. If
it were not for running water it would be
hard to find them. '

The rain that falls on any slope flows into
the valley to which that slope belongs.

A divide is often called a water parting.
Can you tell why?

Find on the map a water parting that is
on very high land. Find one on low hills;
another on land that is nearly level. __

Point as near as you can to the sources of
all the streams that flow into the Santa Ana
river. All the slopes that send water to these
streams are in the Santa Ana basin. Trace
the divide that bounds this river basin.



















San Jacinto Mountains.
20. How Slopes Are Worn.

Find a piece of wood that has lain a long
time on the ground. Cut into it. Has any
part begun to decay ?

Break open a small round stone, or a large
pebble. Which part has begun to decay?
Which part looks brightest ?

Wood decays, and so do rocks decay. All
rocks, both large and small, slowly crumble
into soil.

Wind blows dust and sand about. Rain-
drops wash tiny grains of rock together, and
make them finer.

Frost splits many rocks, and even wedges
off large pieces from cliffs.

Little by little the raindrops, rills, brooks
and rivers wash the fine rock or soil down
the slopes.

Thus, most slopes are slowly crumbling
and wasting away.
10 BEDS OF STREAMS.







21. Beds of Streams.

The bottom
of a stream is
called the bed
of the stream.

We have
seen how rills
and brooks
carry away
soil. Swift
rivers often
wash tons and
tons of sand, pebbles,
and even large stones
down the slopes.

This rocky matter
grinds the beds and
thus helps to wear
them away.

In some rivers,
floating ice cuts the
banks and beds. Mud, sand and stones
are held by ice, and are carried down
the streams. Where does the ice leave
its load?

With a hammer break a stone imto
small pieces. What is the shape of the
pieces? Are they rough or smooth?

Put the pieces into a bottle and
shake it very hard. See the grains of
rock on the bottom of the bottle.

Most of the stones in river beds are round and smooth. Can you
tell what rounded them ?

A part of the sand in river beds is worn from these stones.

What becomes of the fine particles that are worn off the rocks by
rivers? After long ages what will become of the rocks that are
now in river beds?

Rivers often wear steep places in their beds. The water leaps
down, forming waterfalls. A great fall of water over a steep bank is
called a cataract. A little fall is a cascade.

Some of the pictures show water phmging over steep rocks. One
shows the rocks back of the falls.






































































































































































































































































































VALLEYS. 11



























































22. Valleys.




Is there a wide valley
near your school? Is
there a narrow one?

Which of the valleys in
the pictures are very deep?
Which have steep sides ?

Point to a valley whose
sides have gentle slopes.

The sides of all valleys
are slowly wasting away.
Can you tell why?

In some places, deep val-
leys with steep sides are
called caions. In other
places they are called
gorges.

Do you see the ice river
m one of the valleys? This
ice river, or glacier, moves
only a few inches a day.
What do you think becomes of the ice?

Some valleys are so wide that we cannot see across
them. Some are in low land, and others are in high land.








































































































12
23. Mountains.

Which pictures show mountains with sharp
tops? Which show rounded tops?

How does a mountain differ from a valley ?
How does it differ from a hill ?

Most mountains are made of layers of rock
that are tilted and bent. The rock is often
hidden under a thin coat of soil.

In some places long and deep valleys have
been worn in plateaus. The high ridges and

MOUNTAINS.

volcanoes have deep valleys worn in their
sides, and it is thought that these are very
old. . ‘

A row of mountains is called a mountain
range. Point to the picture of a low range
of mountains having rounded tops.

Find a range with snow upon it. These
mountains are so high and cold that snow
and ice lie upon them all the year.

Do you think that it would be easy to walk
along the divide or top of a range?























































You would have to climb over



















the highest poimts, and cross the
notches between them.

The top of a range is called a
crest. Point as near as you can
to the crests of two ranges.

Which crest looks like saw
teeth? Which looks like waves ?

High poimts in a crest are called
peaks. Find six sharp peaks.
Find three rounded ones.

Only a few people live on the
sides of mountains. The land is
rough, and it is hard to make
good roads there.

In some places on mountains
there is grass enough for cattle



















and sheep, but the soil is gener-































Cascade Peak, Rocky Mountains.

points of land that are left standing among
such valleys are often called mountains or hills.

For ages and ages, melted rock and ashes

have been pushed up from beneath the sur-
face of the earth, or have been blown up by
gases. This melted rock is called Java.

In many places the lava and ashes are in
great heaps that look like mountains or hills.
The mouth from which the lava and ashes
came, 1s called a crater. A great heap of lava,
having a crater, is called a volcano. Some

ally very poor. Can you tell why?
What becomes of the rock that
crumbles on steep slopes ?

The roads across mountain ranges run
through the low places, or passes, in the
crests. Point to three passes.

Have you heard of the St. Bernard dogs that
have saved so many lives in a famous pass?

Many long tunnels have been made through
ranges. Trains of cars run through some of
these, and save many miles of travel over
lofty crests.

Some tunnels are cut through solid rock.
MOUNTAINS. 13
. i i OwOwwwaToToeawEwO_cC KKK HRN noNN ONAN



















































































































































































































































































































































BEANG:

NA












































































{4 PLAINS.

24, Plains. Some plains are so wide that a swift train
How does a plain differ from a hill? How of cars could not cross one of them in a day.
does it differ from a valley ? Find a picture of a high plain. See the

How level the land is in the grainfield deep valleys that are worn im it.
where the men are at work. Long ages ago Some high plains are even, and some low
this plain was under water. : . plains are uneven,

Find the rocky plain upon which but high plaims are
low bushes are growing. Melted generally more
rock or lava came up from the uneven than low
inside of the earth and formed ones.
this plam. The lava spread out, High plains are
cooled and hardened. sometimes called
plateaus. Nearly
all plateaus are
cut by deep val-
leys, and are broken by high moun-
tain ranges.

Most of the fertile land is on plains,




















































































































































Which picture shows a level tract
of land near a wide river? This
plain is made of soil brought down






























and here we must look for the
chief plants that supply food and
clothing. = ;

























































by the river. The water leaves the
soil here in times of overflow.
We have learned how brooks form
little deltas in ponds. The plain
upon which cows are grazing is part
of the delta whieh a river has made . :
in the ocean. ~ On level land it is easy to make roads, to























How broad and flat some of these plains dig canals, and to lay iron or steel rails.
are. They look level as far as we can see. Most people make their homes on plains.

There are others that are not so level. Can. you tell why?
SHORE FORMS.

25. Shore Forms.!

A











Have you ever seen an ‘sland? If so,











tell what it was like.
How many islands can you see in the pic-
tures on this page? Find two peninsulas.
How. does an island
differ from a peninsula? |




































































































The word peninsula
means almost an island.
Which picture is |























A cape is a point
of land that extends







































































































































































out into water.










































































































































Which is marked low
How do these two pictures differ from

marked high tide ?
tide ?
‘each other? The water in these pictures is a
part of the ocean.

Twice each day the water slowly rises
on the beach, and twice it slowly falls and
lays the beach bare.? It takes about six hours

for the water to rise, and about six hours for.

it to fall. This rise and fall of the water is
called the tide. :

Where is the water line at high-tide? Where
is it at low tide?

1 Find all these forms on the map opposite the first page
of this book.

2 A few places have only one tide a day, and a few other
places have more than’ two tides.

























































































Some capes are
high and others are
low. Find three capes in the pictures.

Find an esthinus. This word means a neck
of land. What does an isthmus connect ?

Look at the pictures, and tell how an
isthmus differs from a strait. A. strait is
a body of water connecting two larger bodies
of water. An isthmus connects two bodies
of land with each other.

A long and shallow strait is sometimes
called a sound. The name sound is also given
to shallow bodies
of water lying
between is-
lands and the
mainland.

Some straits
are many
miles wide,
and are very
deep, but they










16

are narrower than the bodies of water which
they connect.

In many places arms of water reach into
the land. Some of these are called bays,
some are called guifs, and others, seas.

_ There are bays, gulfs and seas so wide that
swift steamers cannot cross them in a day.

How does a bay differ from a peninsula ?

Turn to the picture’on page 9. If the tide
were to rise into these low valleys, where
~ would it first form islands? Where would it
form peninsulas ?

Can you find a place where there would be
first an island and then a strait? In what
parts of the valleys would there be the great-
est number of little bays?

26. Work of Water on Shores.

Let us visit the seashore and watch the
great waves roll in. How they roar as they
tumble over and over!’ Have you ever bathed
in the surf?

What is gravel? Which bank in the picture
is made of gravel ?

Waves often strike against this bank, and
wear parts of it away. Why does the water
not make the bank as steep as the rocky cliff?

Where do the pebbles and larger stones on
the beach come from ?

What becomes of the sand that falls with
the pebbles from the gravel cliff?

Find the clay cliff. Where do the large

stones on this shore come from? Find a

stone on the face of the cliff. When will —

it fall?

In some places ice rubs Deiat shores and
helps to cut and wear them away. Many
tons of sand, pebbles and even large stones
are held by the ice, and are carried out to sea
by it. What becomes of them when the ice
melts ?

WATER ON SHORES.

Waves often wash gravel against cliffs, and
thus slowly cut them away. Frost splits and
loosens the rocks. ae

Can you see the place where a part. of a
cliff has lately fallen? What will become
of the loose earth at the foot of the cliff?

Can you tell what made the caves in the
middle cliff?

Find the picture which shows surf breaking
over rocks. This rocky ledge was once a part
of the main shore. After a long time the
waves may wear away the whole ledge.

The island in the calm sea is like a low hill
round which water has flowed.

Have you ever seen seaweed growing on
rocks? Which do water and gravel wear away
more quickly, bare rocks or those which are
under seaweed ?

In some places the sand and pebbles that
are worn from soft cliffs and beaches spread
out and make the water shallow along the
shores. .

Great waves that roll in from the sea often
strike upon shallow bottoms, and wash sand
and pebbles up onto the beaches. In some
places the wind then blows the sand into
drifts, like snow, and carries it far mland.

Plants sometimes grow in beach sand, and
keep it from drifting. Which picture shows
a low, grassy shore ?

An arm of the sea, or of any other body

of water, in which ships find shelter from

storms, is called a harbor.

Some harbors are made by building long

walls out into the water. These walls break
the force of the waves.
- The best harbors have deep water and
high shores. Can you tell why deep water
is needed? Of what use are the. high
shores ?

Should you expect to find the best harbors
on rocky coasts, or on sandy ones ?
SEA COASTS. 17
ea
Ss = ll
















































































































































































































































































































18
27. Points of the Compass.

Point to the place where the sun rises. How
often does it rise?
Where is the sun at noon? Where doesit set?
Try to find out at what a“
time of day your body casts
the shortest shadow on level Ie
ground. ra

At midday all shadows

N
oO
Ww: E

DES!
D

POINTS OF THE COMPASS.

28. How Maps are Made.

How long is the top of your desk? How

wide is it?

Draw the top of your desk, making the
drawing one eighth as long .
as the desk.
How long is the school- .
room? How wide is it?
5 Draw the sides and ends—



‘point north, away from the

of the floor. Let one half







" objects that cast them.

of an inch on the paper stand





Turn your facetothe north. yy

for one yard on the floor.’





Are there any trees, hills or

Put all the desk-tops in the



houses north of you?

drawing.





Turn your back to the

This picture of a school-





‘north. You are now facing

room will show you how to













south. Name some objects







p draw yours.







that you can see south of you.

When you face the north,
east is on the right, and west
is on the left.

The sun rises in or near the east. It sets
in or near the west. Point to the east, and
then to the west. Name some objects that are
east of you. Name some that are west of you.

Which is the north
side of your school-
house? Which is the
south side ?

Name a building or
any other object that
is north of your home.
Can you name a street
or road that runs east
and west ?

Point halfway between north and east.
This direction is called northeast. It is often
written N. HE. |

Where will you look for northwest? For
southwest? For southeast? Can you name
a street that runs northeast and _ south-
west ?



Mariner’s Compass.



Draw the room again, and
let one eighth of an inch
stand for one foot. Mark
places for windows and doors.

Make a drawing or plan of the lower fioor
of the whole building. Use one fourth of
an inch for each yard.2. Make lines to show
where all the walls are placed. Mark places
for doors and windows.

Draw a plan of the same floor, using one

eighth of an inch for a yard.

Plan of a Schoolroom,

—- Se Re

a



D
yyw
Ground Plan of a Schoolhouse.

1Tf the room is very large, allow one fourth of an inch
for a yard. F

2 In some cases, teachers may find it necessary to name
scales, differing from those given.
READING

Make a plan of the school yard. Allow one
inch for twenty-five feet. Draw lines for the
walks and
gates. Make
dots for trees.
Mark the

s place where
the —school-



Plan of a Yard.
house stands.

_
- Here is a map of a school

district. One
eighth of an
inch was used
for fifty yards.
On page 8
there is an-
other kind of
map of the
same district.
It is called a
relief map.
Make a map of a part of your school
_district.1 Put in it the brooks, ponds, hills,
_ streets and shores, if there are any.
- You can measure distances by counting the
number of steps it takes to travel each
distance. Call each step a pace.



















= BY eo Se

A School District.







- 1If pupils cannot go outdoors to make a map of their
- district, the different members. of the class can doubtless
furnish enough facts for making a simple map indoors.
City pupils can make a plan of a park, or of a few
_ blocks or squares near their school.



=
en G8
Franklin’ rom
; 652 5t 8,
a S :
ee eS
& 3S
Ne >
Na

New York’ Bay
GOVERNOR 8
; 1

4NCITY HALL PARK
a AND VICINITY











MAPS. 19

29. Reading Maps.

Let us study these four small maps, and
learn what they show.

Find in map I. the City Hall and Post Office.
It.takes about two minutes to walk from one
of these buildings to the other. This map
includes a few streets in the city of New York.

The next map shows the rivers on two
sides of the city, with wharves all along the
water front.

Can you find the City Hall in map H.?
Why is it drawn so small? See how narrow
the streets in this map are made.

Map III. includes several cities. In this
map the streets are shown by very fine lines.
The buildings and wharves no longer appear.
See how far New York extends up the Hudson
river.

Can you find New York on map IV.?
Where is Albany? The distance from New
York to Albany is more than a hundred miles.

What river flows from Albany to New
York? Where are the Catskill mountains?
Where is Brooklyn ?

Why are the streets of New York not
drawn on map IV.? How are the rivers
shown on this map?

These little maps show how the large maps
in this book were made. Can you find New
York on the large map of North America ?



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Maps of New York and Vicinity.
ADEE don GH eAois tele

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30. Form and Size of the Earth.

The line on the earth where earth and
sky seem to meet is called ‘the horizon.
The horizon
surrounds us on
every side. —

Were you
hilltop ?
did you see the
same horizon
that you could
see from the
lower land?

Which picture
shows vessels
going to sea?

You can look over the masts of one vessel,
and see the water beyond. Another is sailing





Soap Bubbles.

1 This line is often called the skyline, and the name
horizon is applied to the circular skyline, as seen on the
ocean.

ever on a high.
If so,

out of sight.
Only the sails
can be seen.
The hull is
below the
horizon.

Can yousee
the smoke of
the steamer -
that is below
the horizon ?
If the earth
were flat,
could vessels go out of sight in this way?

Here is a map of the moon.

Find the long ridge just below the middle of
the moon. This ridge isa mountain range. It
is so long that it would take a swift train of cars
all day to run from one end of it to the other.

Have you ever blown soap bubbles? How
pretty the little globes look as they float away.
When the moon is pale and round, does it look
like a great bubble ?

If we were far off in the sky,
the earth would appear like a



Map of the Moon.













great moon.











































The moon is a very large ball,









but the earth is many times larger.













Ships on the Horizon.



We see so small a part of the
earth at a time that it does not
look round like a ball.

What is the form of the earth
in the picture on the first page?»

The greatest distance round the
earth is about 25,000 miles. The
greatest distance through it is
about 8,000 miles.






WHAT THE EARTH IS MADE OF.

31. What a Hill is Made of.

This picture shows a deep cut on the side of a hill.

Point to the solid rock.

What rests upon the rock ?

Upon what does the water flow ?

What is sand? What is clay ?

Of what is the hill in the picture made?

What is a pond? What flows in all streams ?

Have you ever seen any part of the earth that is
not made of rock or water ?

What do we breathe? What is wind?

Where do clouds form ? What comes from clouds ?

Where does rain go?

21

The earth is very large, and in places the
water is four or five miles in depth.

33. The Air.

Drop a small piece of paper. How did it move’
Why did it not fall straight down ?

Drop another piece. Did it fall like the first ?
Can you make two pieces fall in the same place ?

Can you see the air? Can you feel it?
your hand in the air.

These words may help you to think of some of
the uses of air: bird, ship, windmill, rain, breath,
balloon, plant, wave.

Swing









































































































































































































































32.





















































































































































What the Marth is Made of.





































































































































By far the greater part of



































































the earth is a ball of rock.
This great ball is not smooth..
Hills, mountains, plateaus and
valleys make rough places on
its surface.

The lower parts of the surface
of the rocky ball are covered
with water. The parts that are
above water are called the land.
You can see the land all about
your school.

We have learned that for
ages and ages rocks have been
decaying, and streams have been wasliing a
part of the fine rock down to the lowlands.

In most places there is a thin layer of fine
rock, or soil, over the solid rock.

Salt water covers about three fourths of the
surface of the earth. The other fourth of
the surface is land.

What is under the water?

If we picture the earth about the size of an
apple, the water will form a layer about as
thick as the peel of the apple. You must not
think that the water is really a thin layer.



Section of a Hill.

34. The Shell of Air.

We live and move in the air. We feel it
about us, we breathe it, and set it at work to
drive ships and to turn windmills.

How gentle the air is when calm. How

strong it is in angry gales.

We do not know how far the air extends
above us, but we do know that the upper air
is very thin. If we should go up only three
miles, many of us would suffer for breath.

The air forms a shell round every part of
the earth.
22
35. The Poles.

Find the dotted line in the top. It runs -

from the head to the peg. When the top

spins, every part

turns round this
line.

We will call this

line the axis of the

top. |







head nor peg, but
it spins like a top.



a night to turn once round.

We may think of a line im the earth like
that in the top. It is called the amis of the
earth. Once in twenty-four hours every part
of the earth turns round the axis.

The ends of the axis are called poles. The



word pole means pivot, or point upon which
anything turns.
The earth seems to float in the sky. It



Polar Scene.

The earth has nO:

it takes a day and -

THE POLES.

turns on its axis, just as if the poles (or ends
of the axis) were pivots; but, of course, the
earth does not rest upon anything.

When you go out to play, toss up a ball
and make it spin in the air. As the ball
spins, try to tell in what direction its axis
points.

Can you find the north star?
place in the sky where it shines.

The axis of the earth points to the north

Point to the

*, :
SS are Ol
wy ae star
s ee
‘ Bed
My a“
if EO
S SA xo
ca
star. The end of the axis under this star is

called the north pole. The other end is the

south pole.

If you were at the north pole you could see
the north star over your head. The north
star is often called the pole star. Can you
tell why ?

The land and water about the poles are

buried under ice and snow. Many polar bears
and seals are found in the frozen regions of
the north. Upon what do the bears feed ?
. From every place
on earth, north is
towards the north
pole. South is to-
wards the south
pole. .

Lines are often
drawn from. pole

Al) such lines run
north and south.

to pole on maps.

|


























































































Map A.

This line is called the equator.

It divides the surface
of the earth into two
equal parts. Find the
equator on the map.

The lowlands near
the equator have no

winter. The hot or
warm season lasts all
the year.

The equator extends

east and west. Other

lines may be drawn in
the same directions.
When we face the
north, east is along the

lines to the right, and west to the left.

THE EQUATOR.

How many arrows on map
A point north? How many
point south ?

Which arrows point north
onmap B? Onmap C?

Which arrows point south
on map B?

On map C?

36. The Equator.

We may think of a
lime drawn round the
earth, halfway between
the poles.

23







































































































Map B.

Which arrows on map A point east ? Which point





if
I





















































































































































































































































Scene near the Equator.

Which side of the earth
is light? When will that
side be dark ?

What part of a ball
can be lighted by one
lamp? How large a
part of the earth can be
lighted by the sun at one
time? The earth turns

from west to east, and

the sun is therefore first
seen in the east.

One side has day, a

east on map B? On C?
Which arrows point west
on map 4? On map B?
On C?

Find the north pole in
map D. Which lines in
this map run east and west?
Which north and south ?

When we face the south
pole does east follow the
arrows to the right or to
the left, round the pole ?

As the earth turns
slowly on its axis, one
side is light and the
other side is dark.
nd the other has night.








































































SLOPES OF THE EARTH.

ee

37. The World Ridge.

Four long highlands form a loop that bends
nearly round the earth. We will call this
loop of high land the world ridge. Find it on
the map.

The world ridge is not sharp, like ie roof
of a house. In many places it is hundreds of
miles in width. The greater part of it con-
sists of wide plateaus.

The world ridge is shaped like a horse-
shoe.

On which side of the equator are the ends of the
world ridge ?

In how many places does the eyuaten cross the
world ridge ?

Near what part of the world ridge is the north
pole ?

Make on the map a dot in the place where you
live. Your teacher will show you where to make it.
ANDES HIGHLAND.

Key to Relief Map,

38. Andes Highland.'

In what part of the world ridge is the
Andes highland? In what direction does it
extend ?

The Andes highland reaches one fifth of the
distance round the earth. It consists: of a

long and narrow plateau, with many ranges
of mountains.

Some of the peaks of the Andes are so
‘high that snow lies on them all the year.

On which side of the Andes are the great
plains ? :

A very useful animal, called the Wama, is found in
the Andes. This little beast sometimes carries loads
on its back over the mountains. :

The llama has a thick pad on the sole of each
foot, and is well fitted to climb steep rocky paths.

A few years ago, long trains of Hamas often
went winding down the mountain sides, with loads
_ of silver ore,—the rock from which silver is taken.
On the return trip the llamas carried food, clothing
and tools to the people who lived far above .the
coast.

Cars and mules now carry most of these goods.

1 The lessons in small type, in connection with pictures,
are for supplementary reading. The more important text
is in large type.



25



































Outside the World Ridge.

39. Rocky Mountain Highland.

Where is the Rocky Mountain highland?
In what direction does it extend ?

This mass of land is about as long as that
of the Andes. ;

Which of these highlands looks wider than
the other? Which looks the higher ?

The Rocky Mountain highland consists of a
wide plateau, broken by lofty ranges, and cut

by deep valleys. .

The main range is called the Rocky moun-
tains.



Llama.
26







Should you like
to cross the Rocky
Mountain highland

over ranges and through valleys.
we are still on the great world ridge.

The next rising sun finds us on the crest of the border
range, and in a few hours we drop from snowy passes into
a land of fruit and flowers.

HIGHLAND OF TIBET.

The sun rises and sets, and

40. Highland of Tibet.

Find on the map the highland of
Tibet. In what direction does it extend ?

This mass of land is the highest on
earth. Some of its snowy peaks rise
about five miles and a half above the
level of the sea. ,

On which side of Tibet are the
longest plains ?

The musk deer lives far up on the highland















































of Tibet. See how large its toes are. When





























on this train of
cars ? How the iron
horse must puff on the steep slopes !

In some places the track winds along the bottoms
of deep cafions, and crosses long bridges far above
rushing streams. In the high ranges, and even along
the plateau, the road is often blocked with snow.

Many of the sights are grand. The train whirls
round lofty points from which may be seen mile after
mile of rugged peaks, and it glides into wide valleys
which seem alive with cattle and sheep.

Hour after hour the train rushes on its way. Night
comes on, but even while we sleep the cars speed

Crossing the Rockies.







Kilima-Njaro.

the lively little creature leaps from rock to
rock, its toes seem to grasp the sharp points. _
The musk deer ; .
feeds on moss and
grass that grow
far up on the
ranges.
Thousands of
these creatures
are killed every
year for the little
sacs of musk that
form beneath the




skin. This musk Mile
is used in making “an WH
perfumery. Musk Deer.

41. Highland of Abyssinia.

The fourth great mass in the world ridge is
called the highland of Abyssinia. Show on the
map where it is.

In what direction is Abyssinia from the
end of the world ridge that is nearest it?

Let us try to climb this high mountain. It stands
near the equator, a little distance south of Abyssinia.

Large banana plants and palm trees grow at the
foot of the mountain.
SLOPES FROM THE WORLD RIDGE.

Up we go! Now we can look far out over the
lowlands. The air is cooler. See the great trees
with moss growing on their trunks and branches.

At length we reach grassy places and: clover
patches, on the mountain sides. Now we have passed
the clover, and find only bushes and bare rocks.

-Here is the edge of a great snowcap. We can

climb no farther, and yet the top of the peak is far
above us. This peak is very high, but many of the
peaks in the highland of Tibet are
much higher.

42. Slopes from the
World Ridge.

Each of the four great high-
lands sends out a long slope
on one side, and a short slope
on the other side. The long
slépes are inside the world
ridge. In most places they
make wide plains before reach-
ing the level of the sea.

The slopes outside the world ridge are
shorter than those inside. In most places the
short slopes form only a narrow lowland
along the shores.

Natives of the Selvas.

43. Selvas.

Vast forests, called selvas, cover a large part
of the slope east of the Andes highland. Long
rivers wind through these forests and often
overflow the land.

Find the word selvas on the map on page 25.

Many tribes of Indians live along the borders
of the streams. They ;
Spend their time
catching fish, and
shooting birds and
small animals.

Is the air cold or
1S it warm in the





- tundras is frozen to a great depth.

OA
44. Western Plains.

Where is the Rocky Mountain highland?
What have you read about this part of the
world ridge? On which side
of the Rocky mountains is
the long slope?

A very large part of this
slope consists of wide plains.
In some places they are barren,
but im other places they are
covered with grain and cotton.

Just east of the Rocky
mountains the grassy slopes
feed large herds of cattle.
These grazing plains stretch
away for hundreds of miles.
Perhaps some of the meat
which you have eaten came
from these plains.

45. Tundras.

Find the word tundras on the map. The
tundras are marshy and mossy plains that
form a part of the long slope far to the north
of Tibet. They lie along the shore of a very
cold sea. In most places the soil of the
In sum-
mer it thaws slightly at the surface.

Herds of reindeer feed on a small gray plant,
called reindeer moss, that grows on the tun-
dras. On page 81 there is a picture of these
dreary plains. South of the tundras there
are large forests and grassy slopes.





















Place where these
Indians live?



Cattle Ranch on the Western Plains.
28









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So

TARETIC. Gin Clean
eed: ABOTIC 6 Pees

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: we &





SOUTH
‘POLE



46. Desert of Sahara.

Find on the map on page 25 the place
marked desert. On pages 49 and 52 there
are pictures of parts of this desert.

Have you ever seen any land like that in

the pictures 2? How does it differ from the

land near your school ?
The desert is very dry, and most parts of







































THE GRAND








DIVISIONS. |






ANTARCTIC. CiReue





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9 cog hk Ce
is 4 te \



*

it are covered with sand. Perhaps the little
children there never saw any rain.
South of this dry land there are long rivers

flowing through dense forests and over grassy
plains. :

47. The Grand Divisions.

What strait cuts across the world ridge ?

Where is South America? Where is North Amer-
ica? What isthmus joins these two parts of America ?
Which part is the larger ?

What lands are joined by the isthmus of Suez?

Where is Europe ?- Which is the larger, Europe
or Asia ?

What very large island.,is southeast of Asia?
Which looks the larger, Europe or Australia?

What lands are crossed by the equator ? On which
side of the equator is the greater part of the land?
On which side is the greater part of the sea ?

Which of these large bodies of land lie wholly
north of the equator? Do any lie wholly south of
the equator ?

South America, North America, Hurope,

Asia, Africa and Australia are called grand

divisions or continents.
What grand divisions are in the Old World ?




THE OCEANS.

29













































































































































48. The Oceans.

‘The sea, or ocean, covers nearly the whole
of one side of the earth, and also a large part
of the other side.

What name is given to that part of the sea which
is round the north pole? To the part round the
south pole ?

What ocean is east of America? On which side
of the Old World is the Atlantic ocean ?

‘Atlantic ocean ?

What ocean is west of America? On which side
of the Old World is the Pacific ocean ?

What ocean is south of Asia? What land is west
of the Indian ocean? What land is east of it?

What lands border on the Pacific ocean ? On the
On the Arctic ocean ?

What oceans touch the shores of North America ?
Of Asia? Of Australia? Of Africa? Of South
America ?

Which is the largest ocean? Next in size?




































































































































30
49. The Bottom of the Sea.

In some places there are very long and wide
banks under the sea. The tops of many
ranges and ridges also rise above water, and
form islands.

Many volcanoes rest upon the bottom of the

deep. sea. Their peaks form hundreds of
lonely islands, far out in the ocean. Most of
these volcanic islands are in the Pacific ocean.

By far the greater part of the bottom of
the sea is a vast smooth plain.

Sunlight does not go very far down in the
sea. If we were to sink in this great body of
water, we should find the light growing fainter
as we went deeper. At less than one fourth
of a mile below the surface, the
ocean is always in darkness.
Yet, in some places, the water
is five miles in depth.



CORAL ISLANDS.

This tiny creature is called a polyp, and the
The coral is a part of the |

hard part is coral.
body of the polyp.

Some polyps grow like trees, and send out
buds that form branches. The polyps on the
branches bud again, and thus a dense coral
forest grows.

Polyps lay tmy eggs in the water, and the
egos float and swim. If they reach a rocky

bank or a hard bottom where the water is |

shallow, clear and warm, they start another
forest of coral.

When the coral has grown nearly to the
surface of the sea, waves break off many
branches and wash them onto the top of the
coral mass. Hach storm sends
up more, till the bank rises
above the water and forms an
island.







Near the surface of the sea,
and on the bottom, there are
many kinds of fish and other
creatures. At times the shal-

low water near the shores of the grand

divisions seems to be alive with fishes.

50. Coral Islands.
(A Reading Lesson.)

Have you ever heard of the pretty islands
that grow in the sea? Let us visit one of
them, and find out how it grew.

The water round the island is clear, and we
can look far down into it. What are those
little branches that grow under the water?
Reach down with a long pole, and break off
a branch.

It looks like a small tree, but it is as hard
as stone.
sides and ends of the branch.

This is one of the wonders of the sea. Each
soft spot is a living body. It has a mouth and
a stomach, and takes its food from the water.



There are tiny soft spots on the

picture are built upon other sinking islands.

The waves soon grind some
of the coral to powder. Sea-
plants drift to the new shore,
and mix with the coral dust.
Soil is thus formed on the island.

Fine seeds are carried many miles by winds
in storms. Other seeds drift with the sea
from shore to shore. In some such ways
seeds reach the new island, and grow to trees
or smaller plants.
ready for man to come and make it his home.

In the warm parts of the ocean, polyps
have made many long banks, or reefs, along
the main shores.

Ships often strike upon ieee reefs, and are
wrecked." ;

There are many kinds of coral, and they
take many pretty shapes.

1 The famous war vessel, Kearsarge, was wrecked on a

coral reef.

2Tt ig often stated that islands like that in the
Tt is now
thought that this has taken place only in rare cases,

if in any.

Now the coral island is


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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AMERICA.

51. Surface of South America.

Cape Horn is at one end of the world ridge.
It is on a great mass of rock, rising from
the sea.

Round this bleak point the sea is often
very rough and stormy. Icebergs, or huge
blocks of ice, sometimes drift past this .cape.

The Andes highland extends northward
from Cape Horn. How long is this highland ?

The widest part of the Andes highland is
near the great bend in the Pacific coast.
Here the ranges inclose a lofty plateau.

On this part of the highland lies the beauti-
ful Lake Titicaca. It is about two miles and
a half above the level of the sea.

Steamers cross this lake, and connect the
villages with a railroad that winds down to

the coast. Rich grainfields spread round Lake
Titicaca, and the mountains that inclose its
basin have rich silver mines.

What part of South America is crossed by
the equator ??

Near the equator stands a group of noted
volcanoes. Among them the high plains
wind like long avenues.

Where is the isthmus of Panama?

The Andes highland covers about one sixth
of this grand division.

The long slope of South America is east of
the Andes highland. What have you read
about the selvas ? ,

The long bridge in this picture is near the
city of Lima. Find Lima and Rio Janeiro on
the map.

1 See the colored map of South America.








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AMAZON RIVER. 33



































52. Map Studies...

What oceans border on South America ?



SOUTH AMERICA
KEY TO RELIEF MAP

barrel. It is pink-white, with a golden center. The

What part of the world ridge isin South America? forest is so large that we might spend many

- Along what coast does itdie ?

years, following the streams that wind through it.

Which part of the Andes highland looks the widest? We should see wonderful sights,— trees whose sap

Which part looks the highest ?

is made into rubber, cat-like animals with bodies

On which slope of the Andes are ‘there no long larger than our own, and alligators that would like
rivers? Why? Find Cape Horn on the map. to make a meal of us.

Where is the isthmus of Panama ?

53. Amazon River.

What large river near the equator flows
towards the east? Where does the Ama-
zon river rise? Should you like to sail up
the Amazon river ? What large trees grow
along the banks ! Long vines hang froti
the branches, and weave thick nets.

_ The river is very wide, and many little
bays indent its banks. Let us enter one of
them. » Tall reeds line the banks, and grow
far out in the shallow, muddy water. Beauti-
‘ful birds flit abot. Noisy parrots scream
at us, and many monkeys chatter as we pass.

See the sleepy stork with long neck and
long legs. It is standing on a large lily
leaf that floats on the water. The blossom
of this lily is as large as the head of a



Scene on the Amazon.


34

54. Highland of Brazil.

A highland rises near the east
coast and extends far inland.
This is the highland of Brazil.
It is only about one sixth as high
as the Andes highland.

The coffee plant needs warm weather
and a great deal of rain.

See the pretty white blossoms and
the little berries that look like cherries.
When the berries turn dark red and
begin to shrivel, they are picked and put
into a machine that takes out the seeds.

Each berry has two seeds. Before
the seeds are used, they are baked and ground. Have
you ever seen a grocer grinding coffee seeds ?

Most of the coffee used in our country is raised on
the highland of Brazil.

55. Pampas.

Where is the La Plata river?
does the La Plata basin slope ?
Which is the larger, the basin of the Amazon or
that of the La Plata ?
- What highland divides the streams of these basins?

In what direction

_The greater part of the La Plata valley is a vast
plain. Its soilis
deep and rich.
During the
wet season,
many parts of
this plain are
covered with
tall, coarse
grass, above
which wave
white silky
plumes. The
grassy plains
of the La Plata
valley are
called pampas.
Vast herds

of cattle and



Pampas Grass



HIGHLAND OF BRAZIL.

Coffee Plantation.

sheep graze in this wide valley, and many
miles of the rich soil are planted with grain.

Where is the Orinoco river?

A large part of the Orinoco valley. consists
of wide, grassy plains, called Hanos. Large
herds of cattle graze on the llanos.

56. Isthmus of Panama.

This village is on the slender neck of land that
connects the two Americas. What is the name of
this isthmus ?

Of what are the houses mada: 2 How do the
people dress ?

A person on horseback can cross the isthmus of
Panama in a day, but the ride over the hills is a long
and hard one.

There is a railroad across this isthmus.



A Panama Village.
NORTH AMERICA.

57. Surface of North America.

Where is the gulf of Mexico ??

West of this gulf lies the plateau of Mexico.
It is about a mile and a half above the level
of the sea. High ranges of mountains lie
along its borders and steep
slopes descend from them to
the shores.

Between the isthmus of
Panama and the plateau of
Mexico the world ridge is low.
Low ranges lie along this part
of the Pacific coast.

North of the plateau of
Mexico lies the Great Basin.
It is a wide plateau, crossed
by many ranges and cut by
many valleys. -
Tn most places the Great

Basin is very dry. Its surface is nearly a mile
above the level of the sea, and border ranges
shut out most of the rain clouds.

In this
Near its

shores there are large cities.

1 See map on page 37.



basin lies the Great Salt lake..

Water is led to them from the mountains,
and around them spread many fertile
gardens. .

Northward from the Great Basin the world
ridge is lower and narrower.















The Yukon river is in the far north, and

flows through a very cold country. Snow
and ice cover the ground during a large part
of the year. :

The long slope of North America lies east
of the Rocky Mountain highland.


RELIEF MAP OF NORTH AMERICA.
4
MOUNTAINS.













NORTH AMERICA
KEY TO RELIEF MAP



58. Map Studies.

Find on the map the place where you live.

‘What oceans border on North America ?

Which part of the world ridge is in North America?
Along which coast does it lie ?









































Mexican Children.



















What does the relief map tell you about North
America ? :

The children in the picture live on the plateau of
Mexico. Can you tell whether their home is in a
warm place or in a cold one? '

What kind of clothing do these children wear ?
Of what are the huts made ?

This picture shows only country life. On some
parts of the plateau of Mexico there are large towns
and cities.

59. The Rocky Mountains.

Where are the Rocky mountains ? In what direc-
tion do they
run ?

The lofty
range of
the Rocky
mountains
runs along
the: eastern.
border of a
part of the

world ridge.

Do you not think that this is a very heavy load for
a little animal? What tools has he on his back ?
Can you tell what each tool is used for ?


38
















































































COLORADO CANON.

Many of the branches of the Colorado river have also cut

deep cafions in the rock.

In some places the land south of the Colorado
river looks like that in the picture below. The
valleys, or cafions, are deep and wide. The



























































































































































































































































\, soil is poor, but it supports enough grass













































































































































































































































to feed thousands of cattle.





























































































































In the rainy months large streams rush





























































































through some of these cafions, but when

































the rain is over, the beds of the rivers































































































































are dry and sandy.





























Cation of Colorado.

Do you remember our long ride in the cars across
the world ridge ? We climbed into high passes, and
rode through deep cafions. In places the road led
along the sides of steep cliffs and across long bridges.
Of course no wagons could cross those rough places.

Here the little donkey proves his worth. He can
climb rocky paths and is not afraid to walk along the
sides of steep cliffs. His slender legs are very strong,
and he can carry a heavy load up the mountain sides.

The donkey in the picture carried tools and food
-for men who built a. railroad to the top of a high
mountain, called Pikes Peak.

60. Colorado Canon.

‘Where is the Great Basin? What mountains are
east of the Great Basin? What ranges are west of it?

What river basin lies south of the Great Basin ?
What river is on the north ? -

The Colorado river is noted for the deep valley
which it has worn. In some places this stream flows
between steep banks of solid rock, more than a mile
in height.

61. The Height of Land.

Where are the Great Lakes ?
many of these lakes are there ?
What large river flows from one of the
lakes ?

About halfway between the gulf of
Mexico and the Arctic ocean a low swell
of land runs eastward from the Rocky
mountains. It is called the Height of Land.

Some parts of the Height of Land are hilly,
but in most places the land slopes so gently
that it looks level.

The Great Lakes are in a chain of valleys
on the southeast slope of the Height of Land.
The St. Lawrence river flows from the lowest
of the lakes.

The Niagara river flows from Lake Erie to
Lake Ontario. This stream is noted for the

grand falls which are about midway between the’
lakes.

How



























































Cafion in Arizona,
THE MISSISSIPPI BASIN. 389

h

Just above the falls of Niagara the
river is about a mile wide. Below this
point the stream narrows and plunges
over a precipice about one hundred and
fifty feet in height.

Below the falls the river flows in a
wide, rocky gorge.

The water that in a single minute
makes the leap of Niagara would fill a
box fifty feet wide, fifty feet high and
more than a mile long.

A canal has been made between Lake
Erie and Lake Ontario, and ships can
go back and forth, without sailing upon
the Niagara river.

62. The Mississippi Basin.

What large river basin is south of
the Height of Land ?

In what general direction does this
basin slope ?

_ Into what body of water does the Mis-
sissippl river flow ?

What bounds the basin of the Missis-
sippi on the west? On the east? On
the north ?

What large river from the west flows
into the Mississippi? Where does the
Missouri river rise ?



Niagara Falls.


































































































































































































































In what direction does the Ohio river flow?
Into what does it flow ?

Where are the prairies? Where are
the western plains? Where are
the southern plains ?

The vast plains that spread
round the Great Lakes on nearly
all sides are called prairies. The
soil in most places is deep and
fertile.

Mile after mile of nodding
cornflower, mile after mile of
waving wheat, grassy fields
dotted with sleek cattle, — these
are some of the sights on the
prairies in summer. :

Mile after mile of drifting
snow, mile after mile of frozen
' the sights on the prairie in winter.































































Prairie Scenes in ‘Winter and Summer,



6
40

The southern plains are very fertile, and they are
warmer than the prairies. A great deal of corn is
raised on these plains. Here, also, are vast fields of
cotton. What have you learned about the growth of

this useful plant ?





















\

































































































































Cotton Market..

Perhaps some of the clothing which you now wear
is made of cotton that grew on the southern plains.
What have you read about the western plains ?

63. North of the Height of Land.

Where is Hudson bay? A large
river flows into Hudson bay, and
another flows into the Arctic
ocean.

The basins of these rivers are
mostly in cold regions.

Northwest of the Great Lakes
there are broad prairies, with
many rich grainfields.

64. Appalachian Highland.

What highland is on the east of the
Mississippi basin? Is it higher or
lower than the Rocky Mountain high-
land ?

Why are there no very large rivers
east of the Appalachian highland ?

The mountains of the Appalachian high-
Jand are not very high. They consist chiefly

of long rounded ridges or folds.

ATLANTIC SLOPE.

65. Atlantic Slope.

Many short rivers flow across the narrow
plains east of the Appalachian highland. Some
of these streams are deep enough to float large
vessels. The slope east of the Appalachian
highland is called the Atlantic slope.

Where is the Hudson river ?

The largest city in America is at the mouth of the
Hudson river.

Find out at home all you can about this city, — its
long bridge, its great statue, its bay and its park.

66. Pacific Slope.

The slopes west of the Sierra Nevada and
Cascade ranges are short, and some of them
are very fertile. A low range lies near the
shore of the Pacific. It is called the Coast

range.

‘The picture on page 9 shows a very small part of
the Pacific slope. This part is not very far from the
southern end ‘of the Sierra Nevada range.































































Orange Grove.

Many beautiful groves of oranges and lemons grow
in these warm valleys, along the foot of the ranges.

The region west of the Sierra Nevada and
Cascade ranges is known as the Pacific slope.


















ASIA.

——+90-—__

67. Surface of Asia.

Asia is the largest of the
grand divisions. Its area is
nearly equal to that of America.

The highland of Tibet is the
highest part. of the world ridge.
Its plateau is nearly three miles
above the level of the sea, and
peaks are almost as high again.

some of its









































































































Working Elephant.












The giant range of Himalaya mountains
rises at the southern edge of Tibet. The
word Himalaya means the abode of snow.
Even during the hottest part of summer a
white mantle covers this range for a distance
of about two miles from its crest.

Mt. Everest, in the Himalaya range, is
thought to be the highest peak on earth. It
rises five miles and a half above the level of
the sea.

On the north, east and south, vast slopes
stretch away from Tibet, They form wide
plains along the shores of three oceans.

The pictures show a Himalaya peak, a
group of natives on the tundras and a bath-
ing scene in a large river south of Tibet.

What is the elephant doing?




RELIEF MAP OF ASIA.
ARCTIC

REY TO RELIEF MAP



68. Map Studies.

What oceans lie between North America and Asia ?

What ocean is south of Asia ?

Where is the highland of Tibet? On which side of
Tibet is the longest slope ?

In what direction would you have to travel from
your home to reach Asia ?

What strait separates North America from Asia?

Look at the relief map, and describe Asia.

69. Arctic Slope.

The longest slope of Asia reaches from
Tibet to the Arctic coast. A large portion
of this slope is a vast low plain, and is crossed
by several large rivers.

During the greater part of the year the
Arctic coast of Asia is icebound. The
frozen mass then reaches from the shore to
the pole.

What have you read about the tundras?
Where are they?

A dense forest covers a large part of the plain south
of the tundras. In this forest live many little ani-
mals that are hunted for their thick fur. :

Here is found the cunning beaver. It feeds on
berries, leaves and bark. The beaver builds its hut
at the edge of a river or lake.

SLOPE. A3











































Do you know any stories about beavers? Have
you ever seen any beaver fur?

The elk is a very large kind of deer that is found
in the northern parts of Asia and Europe.

70. Caspian Basin.

Where is the Caspian sea? Can you find any
streams flowing from this sea to the ocean ?

The great plains around the Caspian sea
send no rivers to the, ocean. These plains
are mostly level
and grassy, like
the pampas or
prairies. They are
called steppes.

























































AA PLAINS OF CHINA.

Large herds of cattle and horses graze on- 72. The Ganges Basin.
the steppes. The warm slopes of the Ganges basin lie
The Caspian sea has no outlet, and it is south of Tibet. In what direction does the
therefore salt. Several Ganges river flow? Where does it rise?

large rivers-flow into this The Ganges river flows from melting ice and snow,
great inland sea. . far up on the side of the Himalaya mountains.
Countless little streams rise near by and
How to join the Ganges.

This river enters the sea through a
great delta which swarms with people.
The soil of the delta is very rich, and
here may be seen acres and acres of flat
rice fields, with groves of bamboo and
cocoanut trees.

One of the most useful products of
southeast Asia is bamboo. This is a
coarse grass, growing to the height of
from fifty to seventy feet.

The seeds and tender shoots of the
bamboo are used for food. The hollow
stems make good water pipes.

Strips of the stem are used in mak-
ing baskets, chairs, beds, boats and
weapons.

Strong fibres of bamboo are woven
into cloth and twisted into rope. The’
% / ‘Tea Farm. hull, ropes and sails of the vessel shown

Sa : on page 78 were all made of this useful plant.
Ts Fiains of Ohina. Many of the native huts are made of bamboo, with
The most important slopes of Asia are dried grass for roofs. Groups of such huts are
east and south of Tibet. On the east lie often hidden by groves.
the plains of China, sloping to
the Pacific ocean...








































































































































































































































































































The tea plant grows on the plains of
China, east of Tibet. It has a pretty
white blossom, with a yellow center.

This plant is raised for its leaves.
Several times a year the new leaves are
picked and baked. They are then sent
to people in nearly all parts of the
world.

When fresh tea leaves are roasted
quickly they form green tea. When
dried in the sun and then roasted they
form black tea. If you will unroll a
piece of coarse tea grownds you will







see a tea leaf. A Village near the Ganges.
EUROPE.

73. Surface of Europe.

Europe lies west of Asia.

tops of some of the peaks are buried in snow
and ice all the year. Long rivers of ice creep
down the sides of the mountains, and melt,

The greater part of southwest Europe con- thus forming. beautiful streams and lakes.

sists of low plateaus and







































































































































































































































































































high ranges. This region is



























































































































known as High Europe.























































































































































































































































































































In summer, herds of
cattle and flocks of
goats feed on the high
slopes, but as the
snowcap widens on the
ranges, the animals are
driven into the lower
valleys.

High Europe is cut
off from southwest Asia



































































































by the Black sea and















Low Hurope
includes the vast
plains that lie
north and northeast of High Europe.
_ Where is the Swiss highland? Where are
the Alps?
The Swiss plateau is low, but the ranges
that rise above it are high and rocky.
The Alps are famous for their beauty. The

eee




its outlet.

A very old myth tells of a pretty maid, named Io,
who was changed into a heifer, to conceal her from
an angry goddess. Io swam the strait that forms
the outlet of the Black sea.

The strait took its name from this story, for the
word Bosporus means heifer’s ford.

At its narrowest part, the strait of Bosporus is
only a few hundred feet wide.

The great city of Constantinople is built near
this strait.






RELIEF MAP OF EUROPE.





EUROPE
KEY TO RELIEF MAP




eZ
i MA
Cd \

,

74. “Map Studies.

Look at the relief map, and describe Europe. State
where it is; what large bodies of water surround it ;
where its highlands and lowlands are, etc.

On which side of the world ridge is Europe?

75. Slopes from the Swiss Highland.

The slopes that extend from the Swiss high-
land to the sea are short, and the river basins
are small.

In what
Into what sea does

‘Where does the Danube river rise?’
direction does its basin slope ?
the river flow ?

Where does the Rhine river rise?*
In what direction does its basin slope?

What long peninsula is south of the
Swiss plateau? Where is the penin-
sula of Spain?

The strait of Gibraltar connects the
Atlantic ocean and the Mediterranean

Sea. Near this strait a huge mass of
‘rock rises on the coast of Spain.
From a distance this rock of Gibraltar
looks bleak ‘and barren. A nearer view |
shows many grassy slopes, with groves
of olive and orange trees.

At times wild flowers cover many parts of the rock.
The’ deep caves that run through nearly every part





1 See pictures of the Rhine on page 14.
? Gibraltar belongs to Great Britain.










~j g ; SWISS HIGHLAND. _ AT
il



















of ae great mass have given it the name “hill pF

caves.’

In these vast hallows the rock has made icicle-

forms of great size and beauty. Some of these look
like animals, and others look like forests of marble,
rising to the roofs.

A few small apes live on the highest parts of
Gibraltar. They often injure the fruits, but nobody
tries to harm the little creatures. ~

Gibraltar is a strong fortress.2, On'some parts of
the rock cannon bristle at every point.

The small building on the very
top of the rock is a signal station:
Why was it built so high ?

Find the strait of
Gibraltar on the col-
ored map of Hurope.



















































































































































































































Rock of ,Gibraltar.


e

48
76. Valdai Hills.

Where are the Valdai hills? Where does the
Volga river rise ? Into what sea does the Volga flow ?

The Valdai hills rise only a little above the
great plain of Europe. They
contain the sources of
many large streams.

The Volga river
rises in a marsh
in the hill re-
gion, and flows
into the Cas-
pian sea. The
basin of the
Volga is the
largest river basin
in Europe, : but it











‘BRITISH ISLES.

‘The Caspian sea is often swept by cold winds from

the north. In winter the mouth of the Volga is

closed by ice. During the open season many vessels

trade at the ports by the sea and on the rivers.

The Caspian sea and the streams that flow into
it are very rich in fish. Among
these is the sturgeon.
This fish often grows to
the length of ten feet.
Part of its body is
covered with bony
plates. Its mouth
is small and tooth-
less, and is under
the long snout.
Many. thousand
people earn their
living by catching
fish in this sea and
in the streams that



is not one half so large

as that of the Mississippi.
What: seas receive streams

from the region of the Valdai hills?

The vast plain that spreads round the Valdai hills
is crossed by a network of canals. These connect
with the rivers, and form the main highways of
trade.

The canals reach lumber and fur regions on the

north, rich mines of gold andisilver in the moun-.

tains that lie to the east, and. Rntile exainnelde on.
all sides.

In return for the Saeduas of these regions, the
canals carry cloth, tea, sugar’and farming tools to
the people of the plain.

77. The Caspian Sea.

The Caspian sea is the. largest body of water
havimg no outlet to the ocean.



flow into: it.

Sturgeon Fishing.

78. British Isles.

What islands are west of the mainland of
Europe? .
A. few low ranges cross the British Isles.

These. are the most important islands on earth.
The ‘trade between the people of the: British Isles
and of the United States is very large. :

Ben-Nevis is the highest mountain in the British
Find it on the key map, page 47. :

Isles.














































































































































































































































Its area is much larger than that |
of the Great Lakes of North
America.

The Caspian sea is ate and its |
surface is a little below the level |
of the ocean.



Ben-Nevis, Scotland.

A Highland Cottage.
ALERT GA



79. Surface of Africa. also is in middle Africa. The main slope of
. f this basin.is towards the west.
A part of the world ridge extends along Nearly all the northern part of Africa is a

the eastern side of Africa. vast desert. It is called the desert of Sahara.
Nearly all Africa is a plateau. The northern Which picture on this page shows a part of
half is not very high. the desert?










































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Ranges of mountains lie along the
gréater part of the coast.’ Between
these ranges and the sea there are low,
narrow plains.

The highest. parts of Africa are in
the east and south.

Where is the highland of Abyssinia? ,
What have you read about a great
mountain south of this region? The

- -highland of Abyssinia is’ about as

_ lofty as that of Mexico. .

* Africa has several very large river

basins... Among these are the Nile :

and the Kongo. Africa: is a land-of large and fierce animals.
The upper part of the Nile basin isin the On page 85 there are pictures of some of

plateau of middle Africa. This basin is long these?

. and narrow, and it slopes to the north. -Find the Atlas mountams on the map of

The upper portion of the Kongo’ basin Africa, page 113.








RELIEF MAP OF AFRICA.
AFRICA

KEY TO RELIEF MAP

80. Map Studies.

What bodies of water surround Africa ?



THE RIVER

NILE.

































Cape of Va
Good Hope

Look at the relief map, and describe Africa.

What isthmus joins Asia and Africa ?
A great ship canal has been dug across the isthmus

of Suez. Thou-
sands of steamers

pass through it

every year.

Before the Suez
canal was made,
the water route
from Europe to
southeast Asia
led round the
southern end of
Africa. This
canal cuts off
about one half
the distance.

Nile.























































































































































































































































































































































































Every summer the Nile overflows its banks. The
water comes from great lakes near the middle of
Africa, and from melting snow on the mountains of
Abyssinia.

At this time hundreds of muddy streams flow
down the steep slopes, and swell the branches of the
The river rushes and foams over the rough

places in its bed, and the
muddy water rises higher and
higher.

In its lower part the Nile
flows through a long valley
that is only a few miles wide.
The valley is shut in between
high cliffs. A vast desert
stretches away beyond the
cliffs, on both sides.









































































































































What seas are joined by the Suez canal? Does
the land near the canal look fertile or barren ?

“Si.

The River Nile.

‘Where does the Nile river rise? In what direction

does its basin slope ?

flow ?

Into what sea does the river

Two Views of the Suez Canal,
























OASIS IN

52









Day after day the
river creeps farther
over its banks. Wider
and wider flows the
stream. It covers the
fields, and looks like a
vast lake.

At length the river begins to grow smaller.
pass, and now it-flows again in its narrow bed.

The water has left a thin coating of soil on the
‘banks. The land is ready for seeds, and the long
valley will soon be covered with grain. There will
be food for the next dry season.
Thus the high slopes supply soil for plants, and

Weeks

it is carried down by the great river Nile, just as it.

is by tiny rills and brooks.

82. Oasis in the Desert of Sahara.

What have you read about the great desert ?
What river ay
flows across its ; Weel
eastern part ?















Low and High Nile.

THE DHSERT.

What sea lies east of the desert? What ocean is

on the west ?

In some parts of the great desert there are springs
of fresh water. After days of hot and dusty travel,
how glad the thirsty people and camels are to reach
aspring! Here they find rest.

Villages grow up near these
springs. Date trees are planted,
and soon bear clusters of sweet
fruit.

Dates are the chief food of
many people who live in hot
deserts. Some of the fruit
is pounded and pressed into
cakes. Camels and horses are
sometimes fed on dates.

A fertile spot in a desert
is called an oasis. The vast barren tract in the
north of Africa is the desert of Sahara.

83. Kongo Basin.

It is thought that the basin. of the Kongo
is about
equal in
area tothat
of the Mis-
sissippl.
The Kongo
river flows
on a pla-
teau till it
reaches the
range near the west coast. There it flows
through the mountains, and rushes into
the low plains that le along
the shore.

Vessels cannot sail very far
up the Kongo. For this
reason there is very little
trading done with the negroes
who live in the Kongo basin.
The world ridge ends near the



Cape Town.























cape of Good Hope.



























Find Cape Town on the map,
page 113.
Be Uae ay, AO Ls TA’

84. Surface of Australia.

Australia is the smallest of the grand

divisions. Its area is equal to about one
third that of North America.



The largest river basin in Australia 1s
that of the Murray. It is thought to be
nearly one half as large as the basin of the
Mississippi.

Where: does the Murray river rise? In
what direction does its























































































































































































































































































































































































































basin slope?



























































































































































































































































































































A group of large is-













































































































































































































































































































lands, called New Zea-













































































land, lies southeast of







Australia.































































































































































































































































Hot Springs,

New Zealand.

Ranges of moun-
tains lie along every
coast, except that
on the south. Vast
plains cover a large
part of middle
Australia. In many
places these plams
are dry and sandy.

None of the
ranges in Australia are very high. The main

-range lies along the shore of the Pacific
ocean. This range is highest near its southern
end.

The mountains along the north and. west
coasts are in low and broken ranges. In
places they are but little more than hills.

Tree Ferns.

Blue Mountains,
Australia.

Many strange animals are found in Australia.
Among these is the kangaroo. There is a picture
of this.animal on page 85.

See how large its hindlegs are.
are used in making long leaps.

The black people of Australia eat the flesh of the
kangaroo. Many of the skins are sent to our country
to be made into shoes.

These strong legs


RELIEF MAP

85. Map Studies.

In what direction from Asia is Australia? In
what direction is it from Africa? From North

America ?

On which side of the equator is Australia? On
which side of the world ridge is it? What bodies of

AUSTRALIA
KEYTO RELIEF MAP



water surround
this grand divi-
sion? Describe
the surface of
Australia.

What large is-
land is north of
Australia ?

How does this
grand division
compare in area
with South
America ?

OF AUSTRALIA.








































PEO Pbk,

86. Tibbu, the Kongo Boy.

This tall hut is the home of little Tibbu.
near the great river Kongo.
the map, page 113.

It is



Tibbu’s face
is black and his
hair is woolly.
All the girls and
boys with whom
he plays are of
the same color,
and have the
same kind. of
hair. :

To-day Tibbu
; must drive the
baboons away from the cornfield, and so he sets out
early with his little bow and arrows. He will
not be lonely, for he will make a play-hut, just
like the one in which he sleeps.

Shall we watch him make the hut? First he
breaks off many strong reeds, and sets them in
a circle in the ground. Then he tie’ others
together to form the roof. He has no string,
but he uses long grasses in its place.

Find this river on




Carrying Jvory to the Coast.

Now he ties bunches of grass all over the reeds,
and his hut is done. He has left a place for a
doorway, but there are no windows. He needs
no chimney, for the fire is built outdoors.

What will Tibbu put in his hut?
He is making a pretty mat of grass
for a bed. Now he is shaping little
dishes in clay. He will bake the
clay in a fire, and it will be very
hard.

Come, Tibbu, it is time to go
home. The sun is low in the sky,
and the lions and elephants will
soon come down to the river to
drink. Take your bow and arrows,
and run very fast.

What has Tibbu’s sister been
doing to-day? In the morning she
pounded corn between two stones,
and made meal for portidge. Then she helped
her mother make cloth.

You could never guess how they made the cloth.
They soaked long strips of bark in water, and then
pounded them till
they were soft.
When the bark was
dry, they gave it to
the father to make
into clothes.

Should you like ©
to know what these
black children eat?
Supper is ready and here are eggs, fresh fish
and corn porridge. When they wish sweet food,
they eat sugar cane or bananas.

Everybody goes to bed at dark, for there are
no lamps in the village. Isn’t this a queer place?
There are no books nor schools, and Tibbu never
saw apicture. If you should show him the picture
of a lion, he would run away.



Baboon,
Sa



BG TIBBU, THE

The Negro children are very fond of music.

They keep time well, and often make sounds
like birds, running brooks, etc. They have many
games, also, and like to dance and play ball.
Many Negroes have been taken from their
homes in Africa, and sold as slaves. In our
own land there are millions. of black people, but
they all are free.

KONGO BOY.

dishes made of baked clay, spoons and pans of
tortoise shell, and skins filled with milk. For
weapons there are clubs, bows and arrows.
Among the Hottentots women do all the hard
work about home. They help also to tend the
cattle and sheep.
The dress of these people is very simple. It











































































































































































































Many tribes
of people,
called Kaf-
firs, live in
the southern
part of Africa.
Their color
varies from red-brown to black, but they all
belong to the black race.

The Kaffirs make garden tools and weapons
of copper and iron. They are a brave people, and
have fought hard to prevent the white men from
taking their lands.

The Kaffirs have herds of cattle, and they raise
large crops of corn. Milk and corn are their chief
articles of food.

‘Let us look into this Hottentot hut.

Kaftir Girl and Baby.

Here are



consists of the skin of some animal, wrapped about
the body. Chiefs wear the skins of wild animals,
but the common people wear only sheepskins.

The Hottentots live in southern Africa. They
often move from place to place in search of grass
for their cattle and sheep. This is one reason
why they dwell in tents.

Many white people have now settled in southern
Africa. These have taught the tribes near them
how to make better homes and to use better weap-
ons. Other tribes still live in their wild state.

Does Tibbu live in a warm land or in a cold one?

Name some of the plants that grow in the Kongo basin.
Name some of the animals that are found there.
Describe the hut which Tibbu made.

Can you tell what the Kaffir huts are made of?

Tell how the Hottentot hut is made.
JAPAN AND

87. Japan and its People.

To-day we will visit the homes of the little
yellow people who live on the islands east of Asia.

The girls and boys of Japan have round faces,
bright black eyes and pearly teeth.
‘They often have ruddy cheeks, though
their skin is brownish yellow.

It will puzzle you at first to know
which are boys, for they dress nearly
like girls. Look closely and you will
gee that the boys’ heads are shaved
almost bare, while the girls’
hair is twisted into all sorts
of odd shapes.

ITS PEOPLE.

57

Then there is the “flag day” for boys. On
this day every boy plays with a set of dolls
dressed like soldiers. Here are armies of dolls,

with flags, guns, swords, cannon and pretty
uniforms.

At this time the boys hear many
stories about
the great war-
riors of their
land.

The streets
are lined with
shops in which
toys are sold.
Here is a man
on. a street cor-








Mh Nay UO i

ae

ie





































































































What large sleeves! Let

ner, shaping



























































































us look inside one of them.
It is used as a pocket, and
here are dolls, tops, small
kites and many other toys.
How should you like to wear
a pair of their shoes? They
are simply wooden soles tied
on with strings. ‘These shoes
are not worn in the house, but
are slipped. off at the door.

The fathers and mothers of
Japan do a great deal to make
the children happy. You.
should be there on the day
which is set apart for the
“feast of the dolls.”

Every girl has a set of
dolls. Perhaps her mother
used some of them years ago,
but they are very pretty.
Here is one that looks like
the Mikado, or ruler of
Japan. This one looks like
his wife, and there are many
other dolls like the nobles and ladies of high rank.

Each set of dolls has a full outfit for house-
keeping. Here are tiny wooden pillows, soft
mats and tea sets. On this happy day the whole
land is alive with dolls.



Scenes in Japan.

animals out of
rice paste. The boys and
girls crowd around and call
out the names, as soon as they
guess what he is making.
They know the monkey, wolf,
bear and many other animals
that are found in Japan, but
they do not know the sheep.
This man has an oven
which he rents ‘to boys and
girls. He gives them batter,
and they cook and eat their
own little cakes. If you do
not like battercakes, he will
sell you a cake that is cov-
ered with seaweed and fish.
Have you found out what
the girls in the picture have
on their backs? ‘They wish
to play, but there are little
babies at home who must be
cared for. The girls tie the
babies upon their backs, and
are soon playing just as hard as the other children.
Shall we enter one of the houses? . It is made
of bamboo, and has very wide eaves. See the paper !
paper windows, paper doors, paper fans, lanterns,
hats, cups, cloaks, napkins and many other things.




58 JAPAN

Isn’t this a queer bed? Should you like to
crawl into one of the wadded quilts, and rest your

AND ITS PEOPLE.

Peep into this workshop. Here is a man who
is making~beautiful vases of clay. Another is





















carving pretty figures in ivory. A third is











































































spreading fine varnish over wood. Near by
there is a room in which soft silk is being
woven into costly cloth.

Now let us leave the city and take a trip”
into the country. Climb into this light cart
and away we will go. ‘There are ponies in
Japan, but most people prefer to travel in the
way shown in the picture.

What is this tall grass with feathery tops
and long sharp leaves ? It looks like corn
but it is many times as tall. ‘This is bam-









































A Japanese Village.

head upon the wooden pillow? This girl will
soon wake and drink a cup of tea. Can you see
the pretty tea set?

There are no chairs in the house. The Japanese
sit on mats of wadded cloth or of straw. Sit
on a mat, and your little friends will bring you a
lunch. There is no table, but the boiled rice and
steaming tea will be served on a dainty tray that
stands on short legs. In some houses you would
see meat, fish, beans and a grain called millet.

It would amuse you to see the people of Japan
eatrice. Two slender chopsticks of wood or of ivory








‘Street Scene in China.

take the place of a spoon or
a fork. . You would find it
hard to get the rice to your
mouth, but see the skill of
the little yellow people...

A Chinese Village.

boo, of which many of the houses-are made.

We know what grows on the flat land, for
we have seen pictures of fields of rice in our own
country. But what
is this shrub with
white flowers and
green leaves? Oh,
yes, it is tea, like
that we saw on the
plains of China.

Here is a puzzle !
What are these lit-
tle white and yellow
rolls? They look like
birds’ eggs, but they
are soft and silky.

Have you ever seen a spider spin its web?

These soft rolls were spun by silkworms. They
made the fine thread, and then wound themselves
in these glossy prisons. It took about three days
to wind each silken case, or cocoon, and
if the thread were unwound it would
reach more than two miles. Now you
know where the people get the silk
from which they make thread and
cloth.

Some of the sports of the girls and
boys of Japan are like your own.
They spin tops, walk on stilts, fly
kites and sometimes roll snowballs.

-Most of-the Japanese children are



Rain Coats.
MALAY OR BROWN PEOPLE.

always clean. They bathe in tubs of very hot
water, just before going to sleep in thick quilts
that are laid on the floor. They often have two
cr three baths a day. ;

The people of Japan are eager to learn, and
they have
‘very good
schools.

They
build
great
temples
in the
midst of
beautiful
gardens,
for they
are very
fond of
flowers.

Shall
we follow
the girls
and boys
to one of
the tem-
ples on a
holiday
or festival day? They leave their
little shoes or clogs at the door,
enter the temple and stand clap-
ping their hands: softly. This is the way they
offer their childish prayers. Then they go out
and play in the gardens.

Before we return home let us spend a few days
in China.

As we enter one of the great rivers of China
we see many houses built on boats. On the
decks there are small gardens, and also coops
for chickens.

The babies on these boats are tied at the ends
of long cords, and the little girls and boys have
light gourds or pieces of hollow bamboo tied upon
their shoulders. These are to keep them from’
sinking, when they fall into the water.






























A Malay Girl.



A Malay Home.

59

The people of China are yellow and their eyes
are set aslant. Some day we shall learn more
about the house boats and the. large cities of
this land.

To what grand division does Japan belong? (See map
on page 111.) What ocean is east of Japan?
Tell all you can about the clothing of the people of
Japan. :

What could you see in a Japanese house, that you cannot
see in your own home?

Name some animals that are found in Japan.
some plants that grow there.

What is done in the workshops of a apan ?

Name some of the sports of Japanese girls and boys.

Name

88. Malay or Brown People.

Perhaps you think that
this is a little negro girl,
but she is not. Her skin
is light brown, and her
hair is long and straight.
Can you tell why her eyes









do not look like
your own?

This is the
brother of the
little girl. Do
you not think
that his eyes are
full of fun?

These little
people live on the
island of Java, southeast of Asia. Java is a land
of fruit and flowers. It is so beautiful that people
often. call it the “Pearl of the East.” Should
you like to visit the home of the brown people?

















































































































A Malay Boy.


MALAY OR B

60

Here it is, —a pretty hut in a shady grove. The
hut is made of bamboo.

Our little brown girl helps her mother keep
this hut very neat and tidy. She stuffs pillows
with soft white down that grows on a tree near
by, and she weaves dried grasses into the mats
that are used as _
beds. Then she.
covers them with
pretty cloth.

Her brother
pounds the yellow
husks off the rice
which they will
have for breakfast,
and he gathers a
few cocoanuts and
a bunch of ripe
bananas. The fruit
is eaten raw, but
the mother cooks
-the rice till it is
soft and white. Their only table is a mat, and all
sit around it on the ground while eating. ‘

Now they are ready for the day’s work. “The
coffee berries are turning dark red, and the father
says it is time to pick them. This will be the
work of the mother and the girl, for the father
and the boy must let water in over the rice fields.

A coffee tree is a pretty sight. Jt has rich
gray bark, large green leaves and white waxy
blossoms. In a few months the little seed pods
of the blossoms grow into clusters of red or
purple berries that look like cherries. Our little

girl must be very careful, for while the berries
are ripening other blossoms are growing on the
ends of the new branches. These blossoms must
not be broken. off.

The. berries are spread out to dry, then the
pulp is pounded or rolled “off, and out come the
coffee seeds ready for market.

Java is very near the equator, and by ten
o’clock the sun is so hot that work in the fields
is stopped. Now the brown people sit in the
shade of palm trees and weave baskets. When



Brown .People of Fiji Islands.

‘

ROWN PEOPLE.

thirsty they break open cocoanuts and dvink the

cool milk that is inside.

The father says that snares must be set, for
bats have been nibbling the corn and the tender
shoots of the palms. Have you ever seen little
bats that look like mice with wings? Some of the
bats of Java are very large and are called flying

’ fowes. During the day they hang in dark clusters
in trees, but in the evening they flit about in
search of food. This evening the snares and nets
will be set to catch some of them.

By four o’clock the air is cooler, and the father
goes back to the rice field. Now the little girl
will help her mother spin cotton into yarn. Some
day they will weave the yarn into cloth, and
make new clothes for the whole family.

What is the little brown boy doing? ‘There he
goes tripping across the rice fields towards the
south shore. He knows of a cave in which
many swallows build their nests, plastering them
upon rocks. These nests are made of a glue-like
substance, and a few of them will make soup

Many of these nests are sold to

people of other lands.

Nearly all the girls and boys
of Java dress like these in the
pictures. While working in the
sun the boys often wear large
hats made of very thin strips of
bamboo.

The brown’ people are called
Malays. Most of them live on
the large group of islands south-
east of Asia. In some places the
Malays have built cities, but the
white man rules over most of
the brown race. Many of the
Malays are savages, like the
people in the black tribes of
Africa. tet

Find Java on the map on page 115.
is Java from Japan?

What new sights could a Javanese girl see in Japan?
What could shé'see in Tibbu’s home?

What do the pegple of Java eat? Of what are their
clothes made?

for supper.



A Java Girl.

In what direction
A LAPLAND HOME.

89. A Lapland Home.

Does this: family live in a warm land or in a.

cold one?
picture ?

Which has the warmest coat, the deer, the dog
or the little boy peeping through the door?

Can you prove your answer by the

61

yellow people. Your sister, who is holding a

dipper, has dark hair, but yours is soft and light.
Let us glance into the hut. What is in this

bundle that hangs from the roof? It is a ham-

mock made of the warm skin of a deer, and in
it swings a pretty baby girl with eyes as bright
and cheeks as soft as your. own.































































































































































































































































































































































































































A Lapland Home.

Isn’t this a warm hut? See the thick sods
upon it. Do you think that rain can leak
through the roof? See how the sods are placed.
What holds them up ?

Why is the hut so dark? -Can you see any
chimney ?

Come out, little boy, where we can see you.
What large round eyes-you have, and what a tiny
flat nose! Your eyes are as straight as ours, but
your face tells us that you are one of the little

Should you like to know where these people
live?

Their home is in the north of Europe, near the
Arctic shore. They are called Lapps and they
live in Lapland. Can you find Lapland on the
map, page 109?

Ah! here is a snowstorm. Now we know why
the Lapps wear boots with high tops bound
tightly round their legs. Come! Let us hurry
into the hut.


62

See the long strips of smoked meat hanging on
the walls. Here are dishes of sweet milk also,
and cakes of new cheese. Do you wonder that
the Lapps are kind to their deer? Where do you
think all this food came from ?































































































































Hammerfest.

Let us look at the boots and at this great hairy
coat. Can you tell what they are made of?
Some of the coats are made of cloth. At night
the children sleep side by side between large
warm. deerskins.

Of course you wish to know what the reindeer
feeds on. In summer it bites off tender shoots
of trees and bushes, but in winter it paws away
the snow to find a little gray plant, called reindeer
moss.

_It has stopped snowing. Now for a ride!
Harness a deer to a sled and away we will fly















CHUGLU, THE ESKIMO BOY.

time. As early as May the fields are dotted with
pretty flowers, the birds sing sweetly, and later

- the bushes and vines are loaded with berries.

Perhaps you would like to live with the Lapps
who catch salmon and trout in lakes and rivers.
or with those who wander with tents from place
to place, in search of good pastures for their herds
of deer. You would find that the Lapps are very
kind. _

Hammerfest is a town. that the Lapps often
visit. It is the farthest north of all the towns
of Europe. .

Where do the Lapps live?

What are the uses of the reindeer ?

Can you tell some of the sights that Tibbu often sees,
but that the Lapland boys never see?

What would.the Japanese boys. miss if they went to
Lapland to live?

Why does Tibbu not wear clothes like those which the
Lapland boys wear?

If you were to go into.a Lapland hut, what should you
expect to see?

90. Chuglu, the Eskimo Boy.!

Ii we knew the words that little Chuglu uses,
he could tell us a wonderful story about the land
of snow and ice in the far north.

Here is a picture of the hut in which he lives.
It is built of stones, with turf thrown upon it to
keep out the biting wind. The hut is now
covered with snow. During the summer
Chuglu lives in a tent made of deerskins.

The Eskimos are found along the north
coast of North America, and on the islands

























































over the snow. How fast we go! Will the fleet

deer never grow weary? His master tells us that
he has driven him a hundred miles in one day.

Should you like to live in Lapland? Do not

_ think that there is snow on the ground all the

near by. They live also along the south-
west shores of Greenland. Find Greenland
on the map, page 105.

When Chuglu was a baby his mother kept him
in a bag of feathers. That was his cradle and his
bed. Day after day he lay in the smoky hut, till
he was old enough to walk, and then his mother
made him a very pretty suit of sealskin clothes.

1 Chuglu was.one of the Eskimos at the World’s Fair
in Chicago. The baby, Columbia, was born on the
World’s Fair grounds.
CHUGLU, THE

On his jacket she sewed a fur hood that he could
draw over his head on very cold days.

The mother has a large hood on the back of
her own jacket, and many a cozy nap has Chuglu
taken in this hood, before he could walk.

At length Chuglu is old enough to go out and
see his father hunt seals. Bring out the sled and
harness the dogs! Srraup | goes the long whip,,and
away they pie ovér the snow. The father knows

ESKIMO BOY. eS
whale. He paddles his canoe, or kayak, very
swiftly, and throws his harpoon with great skill.

The kayak is long and narrow. It is covered
with sealskins. The skins are sewed over the top
of the canoe, making it water-tight in all parts.
Eskimos are -so skillful that when a kayak upsets
they can right it again in. the water.

Under the skin of the whale there is a thick
layer of fat, or blubber, which keeps the icy water







































































E





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































where the seals crawl
out of the icy water
to bask in the sun.

Now they are near
the place. Chuglu
is left with the dogs, while his father ereeps up
behind a huge block of ice. -Yes, there are the
seals! A rush, a blow, and one unlucky creature
is held'on the end of the sharp spear.

Tt seems very cruel, but Chuglu must have
food, and now he can eat the flesh of the seal.
His mother will also make a new jacket of soft fur
for him. i

It is great: sport for the Eskimo to chase a

Columbia.

*

Chuglu.





from chilling the muscles. The Eskimo uses this
blubber to warm and light his hut.

Let us return to the hut. Stoop low, aa
creep on your hands and knees. Now we are.
inside. Can this be the home of little Chuglu?
How does he breathe in such a close and smoky
place ?

Look at the lamp. It is a hollow stone, with
moss for a wick. Where did the oil come
from? The lamp smokes, but it keeps the hut
warm.

Along one side of the room there is a long
bench. During the day it is used as a seat, but
at night it forms the family bed.
64. CHUGLU, THE

Look at Chuglu as he takes off his jacket and
boots. He wears a shirt of birdskin, and stock-
ings of dogskin.

AK \































































































































Now we can see his face clearly. The bright
black eyes are aslant, the hair is coarse and black,
and the skin yellowish brown. Perhaps
Chuglu belongs to the same great family as do the
children of Japan, China, Lapland and Java.

Dinner is ready. Will you dine with Chuglu?
He will have a feast to-day, for his mother has.
given him a large piece of blubber. His father is
eating a slice of raw frozén
flesh. . Now he helps him-
self to a piece that has
been boiled. -

is

‘short.

ESKIMO BOY.

Eskimos often move from place to place, to
find seals and fish. Sometimes they hunt far out
over the frozen sea. When they settle in a place

for a short time only, they make huts out of

blocks of snow, with ice for windows.

White people often visit the cold seas of the
north, in search of seals and whales. These people
give or sell to the Eskimos, knives, needles, cloth
and other articles.

In making clothes the Eskimo women are very
skillful. They cut the sealskins to fit well, and
then sew them neatly together. Do you not
think that Chuglu has on a pretty jacket?

In autumn the days at the far north are very
Then the Eskimos hunt all the time while
it is light. They store up food for the long winter
nights that are near at hand. Some Eskimos live
in places where the longest night lasts many weeks.
In summer there is a day that is just as long.

Should you not like to watch the sun during
the long day? Every noon it is in the south,
and at midnight it is in the north, but it does not
dip below the horizon. By and by you will learn
the reason for this.

Can you find out how Chuglu’s sledge is made ?

Where do the Eskimos live?

Describe an Eskimo hut. What do Eskimos eat?

What strange sights would a Lapland boy see, if he were
to visit Chuglu’s home?

What objects in your home would seem strange to
Eskimo children ?





In this cold region no
grain grows, and so these
people have no bread.
There is no fresh milk
nor cheese such as we saw
in the Lapland home, for
Chuglu’s father has no
tame deer. c

Some days they eat fish and sea fowl, and when
Chuglu’s father kills a great white bear, its flesh
feeds them for a long time.



An Arctic Scene.

Which people wear the best clothing, those of Java,-of
Japan, of Lapland or of the northern ‘coast of North
America? Give a reason for your answer.


CHILDREN OF THE INDIAN TRIBES.

91.. Children of the Indian Tribes.

Can you tell what is in the cradle that hangs
on the tree?

It is a tiny baby with round. black
eyes and red-brown skin.
This cradle is made of a
piece of board, wrapped in
cloth. There are pretty
beads on the cloth.
Which do you like best, the
hood in which Chuglu slept, the
hammock of the little Lapland
girl, or the cradle of the Indian



65

Some tribes of Indians live in good houses
made of wood, brick or stone. These have large
herds of cattle and fields of grain.

In some places many families live in one large
house or pueblo. It is made of stone or of brick
dried in the sun. On page 104 there is a picture
of a pueblo.

Each of the
large buildings
is called a
pueblo, and the
same name is
given to the



































baby ?



























































‘Day after day























































































the Indian baby













































will swing from
the branch of a tree. He will also
take long journeys on his mother’s
back.

When those chubby fingers are
strong enough to use a bow and
arrows, the little Indian boy will

















































































































learn to shoot. He
will also be tied on-
to a. horse and will
learn to ride.
us As he grows older
he will 1un races, wrestle, swim, play ball, hunt
and fish.

Can you tell what holds the tents up? What
do you think the tents are made of?

Indians and their Camps.

whole village. Some of the tribes that live in
pueblos have large fruit groves and grainfields.

Let us visit an Indian camp in the evening.

Here is a drum made by stretching a skin over
a hollow log. The beating of this drum calls
the tribe to an evening dance round the camp
fire. At first the dancers move slowly. Then the
drum beats faster and the dance becomes more
rapid, till it breaks into fierce leaping and yelling,
as if the Indians were fighting a battle.

The children look on with delight. Some
day they will go through the same dance. ‘This
evening they listen to stories of. the brave deeds
of their fathers, and then they go to their tents to
dream of the time when they will be warriors.


place to place.

The fadians are very skillful in making bows
and arrows, but their chief weapon now is the rifle.

The red-brown man taught the white man how
to make canoes of birch bark, and shoes of soft
deerskin. The dusky savage also showed the
paleface how to make corn grow in a forest.
The trees were first killed by cutting a ring
of bark from their trunks, or by burning off the
bark. The hot sun could then ripen the corn, as
there were no leaves to shade it.

Is there nothing to say about the Indian
girls?

While the boys are wrestling or hunting, the
girls must stay at home and work. They must
learn to: cook, to hoe in the garden, to skin
the animals that
have been killed,

66 _ THE LAND OF THE ARABS.

92. The Land of the Arabs.

We start to-day for a land that lies far to the
southeast of the isthmus of Suez. The first
part of our trip is to New York. Can you show
on the map the shortest route by water from
New York to the isthmus of Suez?

It will take about two weeks t to cross the ocean
and the long Mediterranean sea.

Now we are passing the great rock of Guile
near the strait that opens into this long sea.
What grand division is this on the south? What
one is on the north?

_ Here we are at the isthmus. A small boat is
waiting to take us from the steamer to the land.
We are just in time,
—a caravan starts









































and to take down





to-day for the very































































































































































and put up the tents |

place we wish to





when moving camp.
They must also help
to carry all the tents
and kettles from

The little Indian
girl finds some time
for play. She is very

visit.

We must travel
on the backs of
camels, as our route
winds across a wide
desert. Here is a
camel kneeling for
you. Now you are











fond of dolls. What









on,—hold fast while







































































kind of dresses do
you think she makes
for her dolls? What kind of playhouse does she

— like best?.

Indians are found in neatly all parts of South
America, and in the western part of North
America. Only a few ‘tribes live east of the
Mississippi river.

The number of Indians in the United States is

_ small. There are about as many here now as

there were when the white men first settled in
America. ae

Where are Indians found? Can you draw an Indian’s
tent?”

What has the Indian fang the white man?

Tf an Indian girl were to visit Japan, what strange
sights would she see? What could an Indian girl teach a
Lapland girl?



Caravan.

it rises. .
Let us wait a few
minutes near the great Suez canal.t Here is a
long line of steamships ready to pass through.
Should you like to look inside these ships and see |
what they carry? This one is from southeast
Asia. It is loaded with tea, cotton, silk and grain.
This cargo will be carried to the British Isles.
The steamer from which we landed is bound to
Australia. Below its decks there are thousands of
yards of cloth and many kinds of machines and
tools. This ship will bring back a cargo of wool.
Now the caravan is ready to start. We turn
our faces towards the southeast, and soon lose
sight of the little city by the canal. How dry
and sandy the land is, and how hot the air!

10On page 51 there are two views of this canal.
THE LAND OF THE ARABS.

We camp to-night near this well of cool water.
In the early morning we are off again, and at
about ten o’clock we reach another well.
we rest till the sun is low.

Here



Arab Family.

Days pass, and we are still in the midst of the
burning sands. Now the wells are far apart, and
we must carry water in bags made of camel’s skin.

It is noon, and we have halted for the day.
How the sun beats down !

See the dust whirling towards us! What is
going to happen? The camels are burying their
noses in the sand.

We must be quick, or a hot whirlwind will
reach us before we are ready for it. Place a
piece of cloth on the sand, and press your face hard
down into it. While the hot wind is passing,
you must breathe the air that is in, the sand.

Now the wind is here. We are stifling! It
seems as if hot coals were burning ‘our bodies.
The whirling sand almost buries us. Five minutes
pass. They seem like hours. Now the camels
are raiging their heads, and the storm is over.
This is the soon, or stifling wind of the desert
of Arabia. Where is this desert?

As we travel over the hot sand, clouds of locusts
fly about us. They look like grasshoppers. Bees
and wasps swarm upon the rocks that jut out of
the sand. Countless scorpions, with poison stings,
creep over the dry surface.

The plant life is scanty. The camels find a
few tufts of coarse grass, sharp thistles and
cactus plants.

67

Our route now leads over higher land. Here
and there we see tents pitched under spreading
date palms. In the distance low mountains rise
on the plain. To-morrow our journey will end.

Here we are at last in a land of flowers! It
looks like a vast island-garden in a sea of sand.
Mile after mile of groves and grainfields stretches

‘away to the south. This is the land of the Arabs.

Should you like to go to school with these
Arab boys? They are reading the Koran, which
is their Bible. Listen to the strange words which
tell them not to press wine from grapes. In all
this fair land no wine is made from grapes, but
the fruit is eaten.

The Arab boys are dark, but they belong to
the white race. Have you not seen boys that
look like these?

School is over for the day, and our little friends
will show us their homes. First we must see the
horses.

How the Arab loves his horse! He oils
its hoofs so that the hot sand will not crack
them. He chooses for it the finest grass and the
purest water, and often feeds it on dates and



Arab School,

barley. He places no cruel bit in its mouth, but
guides the noble animal by pressing his knees
against its sides. The Arabs have the most
beautiful horses on earth.


68 3 THE LAND OF THE ARABS.

Next we will look at the camels.
animals are more useful than horses to the Arabs.
One kind of camel is used for speed, and another

These Arabia takes the place of wheat as used in our
own land, of rice in Japan and of fruit in Java.
Should you like to look into one of the wells?

for carrying heavy loads. The former will run It is only a few feet in depth, and the sides are

one hundred miles a day, and in
the cool part of the year will
sometimes travel eight days with-
out drinking.

Camels are to the Arabs what
reindeer are to the Lapps. For
supper to-day we shall drink the
milk of the camel,.and eat its
boiled flesh. We shall have fresh
butter and cheese, but these are
made of goat’s milk.

The hair of the camel is soft
and fine. It is used in making
cloth. The tents of the Arab
tribes that live in the desert are
made of this kind of cloth. We

need not stop to look at the sheep and cattle,
for we can see many like them in our own land.

Let us go into the gardens. Here are bright
flowers, and the scent of sweet herbs fills the
air. The stifling wind never reaches this fertile

region.
nn

















Studying the Koran.

i As far as the eye can reach, beautiful date
trees wave in the valleys. For breakfast to-morrow
‘we shall’ have fresh dates and also sweet cakes

made of the same kind of fruit.





Date Palm,

built of stone. In the desert the
wells are much deeper. All the
gardens of this land are watered
from wells, for the seasons are
often very dry.

Coffee is the chief drink of the
Arabs. The coffee berries grow
on the hilly lands, near the strait
that forms the outlet of the Red
sea.

Some Arabs live in good houses
of stone or of wood. The people
are very kind and polite, and we
are sorry to leave the dusky
white boys, but we must begin
our long journey back to the

dearest land of all, — America.

What bodies of water should you have to cross in going
from your home to Arabia?

Of what grand division is Arabia a part?

In deserts, why are camels more useful than horses are?

Name some animals that are found in Arabia?

The date in

























































Inside of an Arab House.

Of what use are camels to Arabs?

What do Arabs eat? What berries that grow in Arabia
are used to flavor drink ?

Where else does coffee grow?
93. Children of the Lowlands.

To-day we will visit Holland, the land of canals.
It is on the low plain through which the river
Rhine flows to the sea.

This land is crossed by a network of canals and
Its wide meadows look as level as a

ditches.


























































CHILDREN OF THE LOWLANDS.

69

fathers find work. When they are old panes
they have boats of their own.

Let us take a trip on one of the house ‘heute

See the long rows of windmills! They are
pumping water from the low fields into ditches.
When the corn is ripe the windmills will help
grind it to meal.

What are these men doing ‘ ? They are cutting
strips of soft earth, and placing them where they
will dry. These strips are filled with roots and
grass, and will be sold for fuel. They are burned
by all except the rich people.

Here is a band of haymakers. See the girls























floor. No fences are needed,
for water separates the fields.















Boats with ‘white sails















seem to skim over the mead-
ows, but of course they are
in the canals. In handling
often more skillful than boys.

Some of the children in Holland are born on
boats, and spend their lives floating about the
canals. They go from place to place where their

‘Scenes in Holland. _

the boats, girls are

1 Holland is also called The Netherlands, which means
lowlands. This name appears on the map, page 109.















































working in the field. Yes, the mothers and
sisters in Holland often make hay, dig potatoes,
sow grain, hoe corn and do all kinds of hard
work. They even help to draw the boats along
the canals.

What queer shoes the horses wear in the fields !
They are flat boards tied under the hoofs. Why
do they wear them?

if
70
A large part of this low land is very soft and
boggy. It seems like a wet sponge. The ground
trembles under even the little children at play.
Tf it were not for wide shoes, the horses would
sink deep into the soil.

What a land this is for the barefoot girls and
boys! They can splash in the puddles, wade in



Scene in the Alps.

the ditches, sail boats on the canals and catch
fish nearly everywhere. ;

You should see the children in winter, when
the canals are frozen. How swiftly they skim
over the ice! For miles and miles the canals are
then alive with skaters !

Poor children use wooden skates, but they have
much fun. People go to market on skates. Here
is a little girl going to sell a basket of egos.
She will bring back a small red cheese and a
loaf of bread about two feet long.

Should you like to wear wooden shoes? Of
course you would take them off at the door, and
not wear them in the house. Do you-not think
that our leather shoes are much better than
wooden ones?

Here we are at a bridge. Our house boat
cannot pass till the bridge is raised. The men
who move the bridge swing out to us a little
wooden shoe on the end of a pole and line, and
we drop into it a small piece of money to pay
them for their work.

&

CHILDREN OF THE HIGHLANDS.

Now we are near a city. It looks like a forest
of masts, trees and steeples. Boats, boats every-
where! The houses are very neat. Perhaps the
kitchen is the front room, but what of it?

Should you like to live in Holland?

What large river flows across the plain of Holland?

Where does the Rhine river rise? In what direction is
Holland from the Swiss plateau ?

What is a house boat? Are the rivers of Holland swift
or slow?

What do the people of Holland use for fuel?

Of what use are windmills to the people of Holland?.

Of what use are canals?

Name some of the plants that grow in Holland.

94. Children of the Highlands.

Let us leave the “land of canals,” and sail far
up the river Rhine. Hans, a Holland boy, will go
with us to visit the Swiss boys who live on the
plateau near the high Alps. :

Here we are in a pretty village, close by the
snowy peaks. Wilhelm, a little Swiss boy, comes
down the road to meet us.

How strange the place looks to Hans! He has
always lived on low land by the sea. Now for the
first time he sees great rocky ranges upon which
snow lies all the year.

What do you think that Hans misses most?
Yes, the quiet canals. In Wilhelm’s home no
white sails seem to skim across rich meadows.

-Many of the Swiss streams rush and roar over

steep, rocky beds. Hans feels of the water and
finds it icy cold. Wilhelm says that it flows from
a long glacier.

The Swiss village is all alive to-day. Spring
has come, and the flocks must be driven up the
mountains to feed.

The men who go with the flocks will be away

from home till near the end of summer, and many

carts are loaded with food and bedding for them.
Hans and Wilhelm are very happy, for they are
going on the long trip.

When all are ready they set out with long lines
of cattle and sheep. The flocks graze for a few
days at the foot of the range, then as the snow

!
CHILDREN OF THE HIGHLAND.

melts they climb higher. In the valleys they find
the grass green and tender. Here they will graze
till the snow drives them down the slope.

Hans and Wilhelm help to tend the flocks, and
then they play by the swift streams, or search
for wild flowers. Once in a while they catch a
glimpse of a nimble chamois or an ibex, as it leaps
from crag to crag far above them.

The chamois looks partly like a
deer and partly like a goat. It is
very shy, and has keen scent and
sight.

In winter this little creature
feeds on tender shoots of fir and
pine trees. In summer it is found
close to the lower edge of the
snowcap on the highest peaks.













































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































acl

soon it crashes along, sweeping all before it.
Large trees snap and break. Huge rocks whirl
down the slope. The earth trembles, and the fly-

ing mass gives out am angry roar.
That evening Hans tells a story about the sea
breaking through the dykes of Holland, and flood-
ing his father’s field. Wilhelm tells about the
soft snow that slid down the mountain side last












Remains of a Snowslide.













































































































































































































































































































































winter, and buried the village

























































































































































































in which he lives.

























































Wilhelm’s Home. ,

The chamois is noted for its long leaps from
rock to rock, over deep chasms. It is very play-
ful, and is often seen sporting about in the light
feathery snow.

Often at night the boys lie awake and listen
to the ice cracking and groaning, as it winds
slowly past their cabin. Wilhelm says that the
glacier walks and talks.

One day when the boys are far up the mountain

side, they see a great mass of ice and show slide
into the valley.. At first it moves slowly, but

Weeks pass, and at length
the snow creeps down the
mountains, into the high valley
where the flocks are grazing.
They must at orice start for
home, or they may be caught
in a blinding storm.

It is the middle of Septem-
ber, and the village is dressed for a holiday.
To-day the fathers and elder brothers come home
with their flocks from the mountains. The girls
and boys march out with bells and flags to meet
them. They all return shouting and singing.

The day is given over to sports and games.
The young men wrestle, run races arid shoot. In
the evening bonfires are kindled, and many dancers
keep time to music. In the midst of the festival a
heavy snowstorm begins, showing that winter is at
hand. How strange it all seems to little Hans.

@
72, CHILDREN

What have the girls and boys in the village been.
doing all summer?

They haye helped their mothers mow grass,
plait straw into hats, and take care of the cattle
that were not driven to the mountains. They
have also milked the cows and goats, and have
made butter and cheese.

Haye you ever seen a churn? In this Swiss
village the merry little streams are set at work
turning churns. Milk and cheese are leading
articles of food. Very little meat is eaten.
Many potatoes are raised, and these often take the
place of bread. Dried apples and pears are aes
used for food.

Every year many thousand people visit the
Alps to see the snowy peaks, the long glaciers
and the mountain lakes. Many young men‘earn
a living by serving as guides to the visitors. One
of the pictures on this page shows a party climb-
ing an ice point on a glacier.

prairies.

OF THH HIGHLANDS.

sail on-the ocean, and of vast level lands, called
Next year he will visit Hans and will
see many strange sights along the canals.

Now the time
has come for Hans
to return home.
He will remain a
few days in the
beautiful Swiss

and Bern, to see

the great work-
shops. Here he
will watch the

people spin silk,
and weave cotton
and wool into
cloth, but this will not be new to him. He
has seen the same kind of work in the cities
of Holland, near his own home.



An Ice Point.










































































































A Glacier.

Wilhelm has met girls and
boys from many lands. He has
_ heard them tell of great ships that

"| Where is the Swiss highland ?

=i Why are many of the streams of this

a highland very swift ?

/ Where do glaciers come from ?

‘ Describe a Swiss cottage. Can you

i. tell ves heavy stones are placed on
the roofs of cot-

tages ?

What kinds of
work can the
girls and boys of
Switzerland do?

What do the
people of Switz-
erland use for
food ?

Name six ani
mals that Swiss
boys see.

What kinds of
goods are made in”
Swiss cities ?

Find Switzerland
on the map, page
109. In what di-
rection is it from
Holland ?





A Swiss Cottage.


95. Homes of the Races.

People live in nearly every land. Of course
there are many more people in some places
than in others, and we have seen that all do
not look alike.

Most of the black tribes live south of the.
desert of Sahara and in Australia.

The “red men,” or red-brown tribes, are
found in many parts of America.

The people of the brown race make their
homes mainly on the islands southeast of
Asia.

The yellow people live in. the river basins
of Asia and Europe sloping to the Pacific
and Arctic oceans. They are also found
along the Arctic coast of America.

In the Old World the home of the white
race is between the lands of the black and
the yellow races.’

The map will show what parts of America
and Australia are now held by white people.
Page 87 tells about the people of the land
in which we live.

96. Homes of the Nations.

A long time ago Europe was the home of
many tribes of white people. Some tended
their flocks and others tilled the soil.

The tribes often fought for the best lands.
Those that lived on wide plains were open to
attack from all sides. In some places ranges
of mountains and arms of the sea kept the
tribes apart.

Here and there a strong tribe would con-
quer many weak ones, and a single chief
would rule over all. Perhaps he would add
to his land till it reached to the sea, to a
wide river or to a range of mountains.
TA MAP

In these and in other ways, the small tribes
grew to large ones, under a few rulers. As
years rolled by, the people of each large tribe
learned to use the same names for things
about them. After a time they began to
trade with other tribes, and to learn how they
did their work, how they dressed and what
they thought.

At length people found out how to print
books from type, and then they became much
wiser. Now, of course, they have fine schools,
beautiful houses and railroads. Thus the
tribes have grown to nations, each having
its own land and its own rulers.

For ages and ages nations have been grow-
ing in nearly all lands, but there are still
many savage tribes. The home of a nation,
or the land in which it lives, is called a
country. The city or town in which the laws
of a nation are made is called the capital of
the country.

A nation may be a part of one race, or
it may be made of people of two or more
races.

97. Map Studies.’

North America?

In what country do you live? What ocean is on
the west? What other bodies of water help to bound
the United States ?

What country is north of the United States ?
What ocean is north of Canada? What ocean is
on the east? On the west? What great bay indents
the north coast? What bodies of water lie between
Canada and the United States ?

What country is south of the United States?
What ocean is west of Mexico? What body of water
is on the east ? What river flows along the northeast
border of Mexico ?

Where are the West Indies?
island of this group.

Name the largest

1 Many teachers may prefer to omit these map studies.
* For answers, study the colored maps on pages 105 to 115.

STUDIES.

South America.

What large river basin is almost wholly in Brazil?
Which part of Brazil is a low plateau? What ocean
is on the east ?

Where is Chile? What is its shape?
ocean do the streams of Chile flow ?

Name the long country east of Chile. What
divides the two lands? Name the river system that
drains the northern part of the Argentine Republic.

Into what

Europe.

Where are the British Isles? What sea is on
the east? What ocean is on the west? Where is
Ireland? Where is Scotland? Where is England?

What country covers the greater part of the low-
land of Europe? Name the largest river basin in
Russia. What bodies of water touch the shores of
Russia ? xX

What country lies north of the Swiss plateau? —
Upon what seas does Germany border ?

Between what countries are the Pyrenees moun-
tains? What bodies of water partly bound Spain ?
What bodies of water partly bound France? In what
country is the greater part of the Rhone basin ?

Where is Italy? What is its shape?

What large country is in the middle part of the
Danube basin? Name the countries that lie north
of Austria-Hungary. On what sea does Austria-
Hungary border ?

Africa.
Where is Egypt? What large river flows across

it? On what seas does Egypt border ?
What river system drains the Kongo State ?.

Asia.

What
What ocean is on the

In what country is the Ganges basin?
highland is north of India ?
south ?

What large country is east of Tibet?
direction do the great rivers of China flow ?
ocean is east of China ?

Where is Japan? What vast country covers the
northern part of Asia? What oceans border on
Siberia? What country is west of Siberia ?

In what
What

Australia.

Where is New South Wales? Where is Victoria?
76

101. High and Low Land.

The alpaca lives near the equator. Look at its
long wool. Do you not think that this little animal
suffers from heat? The wool is very
fine, and is made into cloth. Have you
ever seen
any alpaca
cloth?

The alpaca
looks like a
little camel,
but it does
not live ina
sandy desert.
Each toe has
a tough sole
to help climb
rocky places where the alpaca goes to find grass.

The home of the alpaca is high among the Andes.
Even in summer it can see snowy peaks only a little
distance above the places where it feeds. Do you
think that the alpaca needs its warm coat of wool?












































Alpaca.

Some mountains near the equator
are very cold. The sun often
shines straight down on
lofty peaks that.are cov-
ered with snow. -

_ The thin pure air on
high plateaus and
mountains is. colder

than the air of the

lowlands which are

at the same distance

as the:highlands from
the equator.’

102. The Seasons.-

Which is the coldest
part of the year? Which
is the hottest part ?

What season comes be-
fore summer? What one comes before winter ?

Can you name three kinds of fruit that ripen in
autumn? Three in summer?







Storks of Strassburg.

THE SEASONS.

In what season do most of the wild flowers
blossom ?

What can you see on a winter day that you cannot
see on a summer day ?

What games do you play in winter?
In spring? In

What ones |
in summer ?
autumn ?
Which season do you like &
best ?

103. Change of Seasons.

Once a year the earth
goes round the sun. The
path of the earth is almost
a circle, with the sun near
its center. For six months
the vertical rays of the sun fall north of the
equator. During the other half of the year
they fall south of that line.

While the sun is north of the equator we .
have spring and summer. While
it is south of the equator we
have autumn and winter.
When it is winter on one
side of the equator it is
summer on the other
side.



A Snowstorm.

104.
A Sign of Spring.

One sign of spring is
the coming of the storks.
They visit nearly all parts
of Europe, going as far
north even as Lapland.

The storks make their
nests of sticks on the tops
of buildings and in tall
trees. There they lay
their large white eggs.
These birds are always
welcome, as they are thought to bring good luck.

When the cold season begins in Europe, the storks
fly south. They cross the great sea and visit Africa.
Some of the storks wade along the shores of the
Nile, searching for frogs, snakes and fish. Others
feed in the swamps and marshes of the lake region,
where the Nile rises. Still others fly to the far-off
southern part of Africa, where summer reigns while
‘it is winter in Europe.

What does this lesson tell about the seasons north
and south of the equator ?

Strassburg is in the upper part of the valley of
the Rhine.

105. Belts of Heat.*

What river basins does the equator cross?

What rivers flow into the Arctic ocean? Are their
basins cold or warm?

What river basins are about halfway between the
equator and the poles?

Which’ part of the earth is in the hot belt?
What river basins are in this belt?

The hot belt has no winter. Here some
parts of the year are cooler than others, and
some months are rainy while others are dry.



tae

What river basins are in the warm belts?

The warm belts are a little cooler than
the hot belt. They have long summers and
short winters. Snow is seldom: seen in the
warm belts, except on mountains, but there.
are many frosty nights in winter.

What river basins aré in the cool belts?

The cool belts have cold winters and hot
summers. The air of spring and autumn is
cool. The land is white with snow during
a large part of winter and early spring.

There is but little land in the southern cool
belt.

The cold belt of the north has very long
winters and short summers. Along the Arctic
coast in this belt the soil is deeply frozen the
year round. The hot sun of summer thaws
it only a few inches in depth. —

Even in summer a wide field ‘of ice and
snow spreads round each pole.

1 On page 125 there is a small map of the zones of light.
78
106. The Trade Winds.

In nearly all parts of the hot belt, and
for a short distance beyond it, brisk winds
blow in a westerly direction. These are
called trade winds.

The trade winds blow over about one half
the surface of the earth. As they sweep
over the sea they gather up a vast amount of
moisture and give it to the river basins in
their path.

What great river basins are in the hot
belt ? we

i

deter

Junk on the Pacific.

In some places over the land, the trade
winds turn from their westerly course. Over
the sea these winds often blow for weeks
without changing either their speed or their
direction.

The winds that bear moisture to the river
basins of the warm and cool belts of the north
blow mainly from the southwest and west.

On the cover of this book there is a picture
of the fleet of Columbus. The trade winds
filled the sails of this fleet, during the famous
voyage to America, in 1492.



THE TRADE WINDS.

107. The Gulf Stream.

There are many streams of salt water in
the sea. These are called ocean currents.
Some are warm and others are cold.

Wide ocean currents flow westward under
the trade winds. A branch of one of these
currents winds among and around the West
Indies, and then flows northeast across the
Atlantic ocean. After passing Cuba this is
called the Gulf stream.

Between Cuba and Florida this stream is
about forty miles wide and half a mile
deep. It flows about five miles an hour. The
water is dark blue and very
warm.

As the Gulf stream crosses
the Atlantic, it widens and
flows more slowly. West of
Europe this warm stream
divides. One part flows
along the northwest shore
of Europe while the other
_ part turns towards Africa.
The Gulf stream warms
- the winds that sweep over
it, and these winds bear
much warmth to western
Europe. They give mild
weather all the year to
the British Isles. By and by we shall learn
about other great currents in the sea.

The strange vessel in the picture is called a junk.
It is made of bamboo, —a large grass-like plant that
grows in southeast Asia.

Several years ago a junk was wrecked off the
coast of China. Its masts were broken off and its
sails were blown away.

For weeks and weeks the hull drifted in a great
ocean current. At length it was found upon the rocky
shore of Alaska, thousands of miles from the place
where it lost its masts.

The junk drifted in the Japan current.
direction does this current flow ?

In what
Pia. WIND AND Rat NN.

+4

98. A Home Lesson for a Hot Day.

Find a place where the sun shines upon sand or
upon hard bare ground.

Hold your hand one inch from the sand or the
bare ground, then one foot away, and three feet
away. In which place is the air warmest?

Find a flat rock. Can you feel heat coming from it ?

Place your hand near the sand and then near some
water that stands in the sun. Which is warmer, the
air above the water or above the sand?

99. How the Air is Heated.

On a clear summer day, how hot the air is
over a sandy field, and how cool a breeze
from over the sea.

A flat rock in the sunshine may be hot, while
green grass close by it feels cold. On very
hot days, why do we like to sit in the shade?

The sun warms the surface of the earth,
and the earth then warms the air just as a
stove does.

Dust and clouds also receive warmth from
the sun, and help to
warm the air about
them. Can you now
tell why the air be-
comes cooler when
heavy clouds form be-
tween us and the sun?

When the sun is
shining, some parts of
the earth become
warmer than other
parts. For this reason,
the air in some places
is warmer than it is in others.



Figure I

100. How the Earth is Heated.

Let us suppose that the straight lines in
figure I. are rays coming from the sun to the

earth at noon and also at about nine o'clock
in the morning.

Count the slanting rays. Count the vertical
or upright ones. Which rays
farther over the surface
of the earth? | |

The more nearly over- ||
head the sun is, the
thicker its rays reach
the earth. In the morn-
ing, when the sun is
low in the sky, the rays
are very slanting, and
the earth warms slowly.

Which part of a day
is generally the warm-
est? Why does the
earth become cool or cold in the evening?

In summer the sun shines higher in the
sky than it does in winter. In the coldest
part of the year, the sun’s rays are more
slanting than they are in summer.

On places near the equator, the sun shines
almost straight down every day in the year,
and makes a wide hot belt round that part of
the earth.

As we travel north or south from the hot
belt, the sun’s rays become more and more
slanting, and therefore we reach cooler and
cooler parts of the earth. Round the poles
there are wide regions of ice and snow.

In figure II., as many rays fall upon B as
upon A. Over B the rays are nearly vertical,
but over A they strike the surface with greater
slant.

Which is the wider space, A or B? Upon
which do the rays strike nearer together ?

Figure I. shows that while the sun is shining
nearly straight down on the hot belt, its rays
fall with more slant on other parts of the earth.



Figure II.


80

110. Plants of the Hot Belt.

Which of the little people whom we have visited
live near the equator?





NUTMEG

(CINNAMON

Spices.

What do the people of Java eat? What plants
grow near the home of our Malay friends ?

Where is Tibbws home? What plants supply
food to the people of the Kongo basin?

What have you learned about the selvas? What
large lily grows in the shallow water of the Amazon
river? Why is it so hard to travel in the selvas ?

What do you know about the seasons of the hot belt?

The Aot belt includes parts of the basins of
the Amazon, Nile and Kongo rivers, the pen-
insulas of southern Asia, and the islands
southeast of Asia.

This belt has a hot or a warm season all
the year, with plenty of rain. The. hot belt
is very rich in plant life.

Among the chief food plants are ie plan-
tain, breadfruit, date and cocoanut.

‘spice ?

PLANTS OF THE HOT BELT.

The plantain is very much like the banana.

The banana often grows to the height, of
twenty feet, with leaves ten feet in length.
Several clusters of fruit grow on each plant.

In hot lands the banana is widely used as
food. On many islands of the Pacific it is the
chief food of the natives.

Breadfruit grows on a tree that has large
glossy leaves. The fruit is about as large as a
melon. It is picked just before it is ripe, and
is often cooked by baking. This useful fruit
tastes like boiled potatoes and sweet milk.

The breadfruit is also cut into slices and
dried inthe sun. The slices are then baked, or
they are ground to flour and made into bread.

The islands southeast of Asia are very rich
in spices. Among these are pepper, cloves,

nutmeg and cinnamon.

Cloves grow on trees. The buds are picked when
they turn red. They are then dried and sent to
market. Cloves have a hot, biting taste.

Cinnamon is the dried bark of a kind of small tree.
The outer bark
is taken off, and
only the inner
bark is dried for
market. Do you
like this fragrant

Nutmegs are
taken fromalittle
fruit that grows
on a large tree.
The seed of this
fruit is taken out
and dried for sev-
eral weeks. It
is then cracked
open and out
comes a hard
kernel.

This kernel is
the nutmeg which is often grated int Badlings
and pies.

Pepper berries grow in long clusters on a climb-
ing shrub or vine. ‘The berries are dried in the sun.







Banana Plant.
PLANTS OF THE WARM BELTS. 81

ll, Plants of the Warm Belts. that lies south of the Kongo basin and

There is a warm belt on each side of the nearly all of Australia.
hot belt. The seasons of the warm belts are long,

The warm belt on the north includes Mexico, hot summers and short, cool winters. The
the southern part ;
of the United States,
the shores of the.
Mediterranean sea,
the basm of the
Ganges, and the
southern half of the
plains of China.

The warm belt on
the south includes
the La Plata basin,
the part of - Africa






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































_ plants of these
belts are very
much like those
of the hot belt.

Among the

fruits of the
warm belts are
oranges, lemons,
figs and grapes.
The chief cloth-
ing plant is cot-
¢ ton. The leading grain
is rice.

The warm slopes of
southeast Asia produce
a large amount of tea.

What have you read

Plants of the Heat Belts. about cotton and tea ?
82
112. Plants of the Cool Belts.

The cool belt on the north is a wide path
across the middle of North America, Europe
and Asia.

There is but little land in the cool belt
south of the equator.

In the cool belt of the north the hot and
cold seasons are about
equal in length. The




PLANTS OF THE COOL BELTS.

113. Plants of the Cold Belt.

A cold belt reaches from the bleak slopes
near the Arctic shore to the north pole.

Very little is known about the islands in
the icy sea round the south pole.

The cold belts have very short summers.

Stunted trees and shrubs grow nearly as far

north as the Arctic shores.

What does the reindeer feed on ?



















































































































































































Harvest Scene.

i
Ah f
chief products are. grains, — \A 1 ( \
wheat, corn, rye, oats and barley. i

The best grazing lands are in the \
cool belt of the north. Here are |
also the largest forests of soft
woods,— pine, fir, spruce, etc.

What have you read about the prairies of North

America ?

These prairies are in the cool belt and form one
of the largest and richest garden regions on earth.
_ Over large areas the soil is more than fifty feet in
depth. The rainfall is plentiful, and the land is so
nearly level that most of the rain that falls here
_ sinks into the soil.

The picture on this page is a ‘harvest ‘scene on

the prairies. The large machines drawn by horses
reap and bind the wheat.
What kinds of grain are made into flour %






































Uses of Plants. !

Name six plants that supply food.

What‘kinds of cloth are made from plants ?

What kinds of wood are used in houses? .

Do you- know of any plants that are used for.
medicine ? "Dunes

What articles are made from. bark? From sap?
From buds? Leaves?. Roots? Blossoms? Wood?


Pop AIN ES:





108. Where Plants Grow.





Can you name a plant that grows in a swamp?
Can you name one that grows in a sandy place ?

What flowers have you seen growing in the woods ?

Of what use is the tuft on the thistle seed ?

Do you know of any seeds so light that they are
blown about ? 4

Try to find a seed that will float on water. How might that seed
be carried from one place to another?

Can you name any birds that feed on seeds? On fruits?

Can you name an enemy of each of these plants: potato, tomato,
corn, apple ?






109. Soil, Water and Heat.

Every plant grows best where it has the kind of soil,
and the amount of water and heat that it needs.

Where do pussy willows and cat-tails grow? Have you
ever seen them on high rocky places? They like swamps
and the banks of ponds and streams.

Where does the water lily grow? Where are its roots?
Do you think that you could make a water lily grow
in your garden ?

Have you ever seen the pretty white heads of clover
waving in dry pastures? A little red clover also grows
there, but much more of it is found in moist meadows.

Pines thrive on dry and rocky hillsides. Wheat grows
best in the rich soil of prairies. Oranges ripen in sunny

lands where the warm season lasts nearly all the year.
All over the earth, plants search out the soil, heat and
; moisture that best suit their needs.
ANIMALS.

—+o+-——

115. Animals,—Their Teeth, Claws, ete.

Name two animals that feed on grass? What
kinds of feet or toes have they ?

Draw an eagle’s foot, and a duck’s foot.
tell the uses of each ?

Can you



cfs
ELEPHANT.

GIRAFFE.
xs
Com WN

DUCK.

How do the teeth of a cow differ from those of a
cat? Why does a cow not need sharp teeth, like
those of a cat?

What kind of covering has a sheep? A frog? A
trout? A robin? Where does each live ?

Which do you think are warmer, feathers or furs ?

116. Animals and their Homes.

livery creature is suited to its proper home.
There are many kinds of bills, legs, feet,
tongues, noses and teeth, but each kind has
its special use. -It helps the animal to get



buck.



CAMEL.



ANT-EATER.

Sy
1 Gy fi

EAGLE.

The heavy horse with wide hoofs can graze
on soft land, and its feet do not cling to the
grass roots.

The humming bird has a long slender bill
which it thrusts deep into sweet blossoms for



HUMMING BIRD.

nectar and insects. The heron has long legs
for wading, and a neck of about the same
length to reach down for food. '

Animals have many kinds of coverings.
There are turtles with strong shells, fish with
thin scales, birds with light feathers, frogs
with smooth skin, sheep with curly wool,
and squirrels with soft fur. Some animals
are suited to live in water, and others on
land or in the air. ji

All around us there is a struggle for food.











food or to protect itself in the place where it
lives. ‘

. The eagle has sharp claws .and a beak to
hold and to tear the flesh on which it feeds..

HERON.

The sharp-eyed robin makes a dainty meal

of earthworms, and soon the cheery songster
ds in the claws of a cat.

The owl flies about
in the evening, looking for field-mice. —


84 ANIMALS OF THE HEAT BELTS.

Every creature has some
means of defense or of es-
cape. The fly, with its many
_- eyes and its wings, often
“saves itself by flight. The
ee draws itself within its hard shell. The bee thrusts
out its sting. The horse kicks, the cow tosses, the dog

bites and the squirrel leaps from branch to branch or

darts into a hole.

Animals often roam about in search of food, but
there are places that they cannot cross. They may
be swift and strong, but they cannot live beyond
the regions that produce their food.

Cattle roam over meadows and high, grassy
plains, but they cannot pass over broad, rocky,

heights or sandy tracts. The wild horse must stop at

the border of the grassland. Animals Paes food is in the
sea cannot wander far from the shore.

What a ‘wonderful storybook Nature writes in each season.
How pretty the pictures are! Can you read the story that the
spider spins in its web? Can you draw a picture as pretty
as that upon the wing of a butterfly ?








POLAR BEAR.

NORTH

AMERICA.

&

117. Animals of the Heat Belts.

Many large and fierce animals live in the hot belt. Among
these are the elephant, the lion and the gorilla.
Where is the home of the camel? Of the tapir?
The crocodile? The boa? The rhinoceros?
Why cannot the animals of Africa reach Australia
or South America ?
Only a few animals can cross oceans, deserts
or lofty highlands. For this reason the same
VOL di kinds of animals do not roam over all parts
te of a heat belt. |
; See what queer animals live in Australia! There
is one with a bill like that of a duck. Another is
covered with sharp spines. Have you ever seen a



a WZ
QD EY.
iv
: y

J PARROT. Bah,



ARMADILLO,

ALPACA.

kangaroo ?
_ The giraffe feeds on leaves and branches. Of what use is its long
neck? In which grand division is the giraffe found? _ Soy

RHEA.

Where is the home of the Ilama and the alpaca? Name a large bird
we that lives among the Andes. a:

Spe s spice
ANIMALS OF THE HEAT BELTS. 85







Name three pe
animals that =
live in the we @ 2 gh See
warm belt My ne as
of the south.

Name three in the warm belt of the
north.

Where is the home of the R/
bison ? Of the buffalo? The gp
yak? The moose? The




REINDEER.

grizzly? The chamois?
The elk?

Is the beaver found in
a cold land or in a warm sf
one? Name four an-
imals of the cool belt
of the north.

Cattle, sheep and
horses are found
chiefly in the cool
and warm belts.

Some animals
brave even the
Arctic weather
in their search
for food. Neither
the chilly wind,
the frozen ground
nor the icy water can rob their
bodies of warmth, for they have soft
fur, downy feathers or oily flesh.

Name four large animals that live
in the Arctic regions.

Perhaps you can draw some a the
animals in the pictures..



CHAMOIS.






EUROPE, ~








a

GAZELLE.












AFRICA.

GAVIAL.

118. Uses of Animals.

What animals work for man ?
What uses does man make of the cow? Of the
horse? Of the hen? Dog? Cat? Sheep?
What is made from skins? -From shells? From hair? Horns? Furs?
Feathers? Bonés?° What animals supply man with food? With clothing ?
What animals have you for pets at home?

an ECHIDNA.
= ORNITHORYNCHUS.





AUSTRALIA.


















































































Coast near San Francisco.

Coast of Maine.

THE UNITED STATES.

——+>e—__.

119. Surface of the United States.

The United States includes the middle part
of North America and all Alaska.’

The north shore of the gulf of Mexico is
at one third of the distance from the equator
to the north pole. The line which is just
halfway between the equator and this pole
passes through the Great Lakes. The southern
part of the United States is in the warm belt.
The northern part is mainly in thé cool belt.

Review. — What bodies of water border on the
United States ?

Between what high mountains does the Great
Basin lie?

Where does the Goimsdes river rise ?
it noted? Into what gulf does it flow ?

Through what high range does the Columbia river
flow? Into what sea does the Yukon

river flow ? : =a

1See map on page 105.

For what is

Coast of Southern California.




Where are the Great Lakes ?
river flows from Lake Ontario ?

What bounds the basin of the Mississippi on the
west? On the east? On the north?

Namea large river that ows into the Mississippi
from the west ? Where does the Missouri river rise ?
Into what does the. Ohio river flow ?

Where are the prairies? ‘The western plains?
The southern plains? Tell what you have learned
about the surface of the United States.

Where is the city of New York?

Southward from New York, along the
Atlantic ocean and gulf of Mexico, the coast
is mainly low and sandy. The best harbors
are near the mouths of rivers or on large
bays.

East and northeast of New York the coast is
in many places rocky and broken, and there are
many fine harbors. There are
but few good harbors on the
Pacific coast of the United States.

Name them. What »









Coast of Florida,
PEOPLE.

120. People.

Who was Columbus? When did he live?
What people lived in America at that time?

Nearly all the early settlers in the land
now called the United States made their homes
along the Atlantic coast. Let us see why : —

a. The early settlers came from Europe
and landed on the east coast.

b. There were no roads nor long rivers
leading inland from this coast to the prairies.

87

Towns soon grew up along the lakes and
rivers. Many of them were trading stations
where the Indians sold furs for beads, knives,
powder and other articles.

About fifty years ago gold was found near
the Pacific coast, and many people went there
in search of fortunes. Some crossed the vast
plains and basin region, in wagons or on
horses. Others sailed round Cape Horn.
Still others went in vessels to the isthmus of
Panama, crossed that neck of land, and then



Longitude 105 ‘West









c. The Appalachian highland stood between
the Atlantic coast and the prairies.

d. Savage tribes held the lands that were
a little back from the coast.

e. The settlers wished to trade with the
ships from Europe.

After a time, people found that there were
vast fertile prairies west of the mountains,
and that they could reach them. by sail-
ing down the Ohio river or up the Great
Lakes. Many also went up the Mississippi
river from its mouth.



sailed up the coast. Thus the west shore of
our country was settled.

From time to time new deposits of silver
and gold were found in many parts of the
Rocky Mountain highland. Mining camps
soon grew to be towns or cities, and thus’
even the great highland was settled.

The dots on the above map show the loca-
tion of cities and towns. Where are the dots
largest and thickest ??

1 The star on the map shows the center of population,
according to latest census.
88

Which has the greater number of dots,
the Mississippi basin or the Rocky Mountain
highland? What part of the Mississippi
basin is most thickly settled ?







Liberty rT

Bell,

Where is the Pacific slope? Where is the
Atlantic slope? Which of these slopes is the
more thickly settled? Can you tell why?

About one tenth of the people of the
United States are Negroes.

A long time ago, many black people from
Africa were sold as slaves in the United
States. Their labor proved most helpful in
the cotton fields of the South.

At length all the slaves were set free, and
most of them made their homes on the southern
plains where they had worked.

The number of Indians in the United
States is very small as compared with the
number of Negroes. The red-brown people
of the United States have in most cases been
placed on lands set apart for them in various
parts of the country.

121. July 4, 1776.

Each band of early settlers formed a colony.
The people of the colonies were called colo-
nists. Most of those who made their homes
along the Atlantic coast came from England.

JULY 4, 1776.

During the wars which the colonists had
with the Indians, many of the small colonies
united to form larger ones. Can you tell
why they did so? After a time there were
thirteen large colonies.

The king of England made the colonists
pay unjust taxes, and at length wise men
in the colonies were chosen to decide what
should be done.

On July 4, 1776, these brave men voted
to declare their land free from English rule,
and to form a new nation.

The “liberty bell” was the first to rmg out
the glad news of freedom. This old bell still
hangs in Independence Hall, in the city of
Philadelphia. .

Each colony was called a state, and all the
states together formed the United States of
America.

At that time the United States held the
land as far west only as the Mississippi river.
The country now reaches from ocean to ocean,
and many new states have been formed.

The city of -
Washington is the
capital of the
country.

All the states
send men to Wash-
ington, and these
make laws for the
whole nation.
Each state is also
somewhat like a
nation, and can
make laws for itself, but such laws must not
conflict with those made in Washington.

Each state has a capital. Cities and towns
that are capitals are marked by stars (#*) on
the maps.

Find out all you can about the “minute

9

men.



Minute Man.
4. Ue

1k

MAP STUDIES,

122, “Map Studies of” the ees u .

— In what state do you live? in what Pate of the
United, ‘ates is it? (See map on next page.)

Name the states that border on the Atlantic ocean.

What states are separated by the Delaware river ?
By Delaware bay? By Chesapeake bay? By the
Potomac river? By the Savannah river ?

Name the states along the gulf of Mexico. In
which state'is the delta of the Mississippi? What
two gulf states are separated by the Mississippi
river?. What river. flows. between Texas and
Mexico? .

Which states border on Lake Erie ?
Michigan? On Lake Superior ?

Name the states along the north bank of the Ohio.
On what lake does each of these states border ?
What states are on the south bank of the Ohio?

In what state does the Mississippi river rise?
Name in order. the states along the left bank of this
river.. Name those that lie along the right bank.

What states are crossed by the Missouri river?
Between which does it flow? Across what states
does the Arkansas river flow ? 2

What states are crossed by the Rocky mountains ?
What states border on the Colorado river? Which
are separated by the Columbia river? In what state
is the Gréat Salt lake ?

What: states border on Mexico ?
ocean ? On Canadad ?

On. Lake

On the Pacific

1 How: to pronounce the names of Sbates:

e ae 123. - Leading Dities...

Find on the map the following cities,

89

Tell in

which state each city is located; also, where it is, — -
whether near a large river, ie bay, gulf, mountain’

range or near the sea.

New Yorr
CuiIcaco
PHILADELPHIA
Brookiyn

St. Louris
Boston
BALTIMORE
San FrRANcrIsco
CINCINNATI
CLEVELAND
Burrano
New ORLEANS
PirrTsBURG
WASHINGTON
DeEtrorr
MinnEAPOLIS
LovisvILLE
OMAHA
Kansas Orry
DENVER
Ricumonp
NASHVILLE
ATLANTA
Porrnanp (ORz.)

nti york!

she-kalg6
fil'a-dél'fi-a
brook! lin
sant loo/ts
bés!ton-
bal!ti-mor
friin-sis'k6
sin'sin-ni/ti
klévland
biflfalo
6r/le-anz
pits/birg
wosh/ing-ton
de-troit!
min'e-ip!d-lis
loo!-is-vil
6!ma-ha!
kan/sas
dén/ver
rich!-mond
nash/vil
at-lin!ta
port/land





Key “ale, Aire, 4m, drm, final, all; éve, évent, énd, hér, recent ; ice, 1

g as: “in go.

2 To: ‘Leacher :

Ha
ot



®

4

ALABAMA AVa-biifma Towa i0-wa New Jersry jérlai
ALASKA’ a-lislka Kansas k&n!/sas New Mexico méx/i-k6
ARIZONA: ir-1-zd/na Kentucky kén-ttik/t OHIO 60-hi/d-
ARKANSAS ar! kan-sa/ Lovisrana 160’é-zé-A/ na OKLAHOMA ok-1é-hd!ma
CALIFORNIA kal-f6r! ni-a Marna man OREGON orle-gdn

. CAROLINA: kar-6-lina Maryianp mér/i-land PENNSYLVANIA —_-pén’sil-va/nit-a
CoLorapo koYo-ra/ dd Massacuusetrs mis‘a-chiil-sets Ruove Istanp rod Wand

’ ConnEcTICUT kon-néti-ktit MicHigan mish/i-gan TENNESSEE tén’nes-sé!
Daxora’: - da-kolta Minnesora min’e-s6!ta Texas téxlas
DELAWARE déla-war Mississippi mis‘is-ip/i Urau Wits
FLoriDa fldii-da Mrssourt mis-oo!rt Vermont - ver-mont!
GEORGIA. jorljira Montana mon-ti/na VIRGINIA ver-jin!1-a
Ipano' : ida-ho NEBRASKA ne-bras/ka WASHINGTON wish/ing-ton
Inurnors, “s ¥1-lY-noil Nevapa ne-vilda ‘WISCONSIN wis-kOn/sin
Inpr. A In/di-inla New Hamesuire himp!shir Wyomina wi-dlming

; Old, dbey, for, dn; ise, tip, far; food, fart;

Jt does not seem desirable at this time to make a distinction between states and territories.






Greenwich
=











































































J Wee ry
~ ‘ARBL. *

S yw F i 4h ®
oe ; :























7 ) DENVER — [>>>
adviie Colorado j
s @ prings

hk ra

eak





+
—

!

|

LLANO|ESTA ADO
Go

MIA Rk GC. I ol
—/ __WRangerg il









Galveston





ty Ul Ch) NU the? LES NEW ENGLAND
e | : 4 AND COAST OF

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES |
(On enlarged scale)



SCALE OF MILES
50 100

==







































Longitude



Bradley § Poates, Engr’s, N.Y.


COTTON.



Longitude 105 West



Greenneh ae 7 rest of the human
race, except the
lowest savages, use
it In some portion
of their dress. Part
of the fiber is also
made into thread
and rope.

Machines, called
cotton gins, are used
to separate the fiber
from the seed. The
gin has little saw
teeth that draw the
fiber through slits
too narrow to admit
the seed.

oF
moe ‘COTTON





f



124. Cotton.

In what part of the United States is cot-
ton raised ? (See dark tint on map.)
The cotton region, or “belt,” reaches from



The best cotton
grows on low islands along the Atlantic coast.
It is known as Sea Island cotton, and its fiber
is long, fine and strong.

The states on the northern half of the.
Atlantic slope make millions of yards of

the gulf of Mexico about halfway to the ¢otton cloth every year. Cotton mills are

Great Lakes. It has a long hot summer and,

also running in some cities of the South.

a short cool winter. This region is in the What states are in the cotton belt?

warm belt.

_ The cotton fields reach the sea on the -
_..east and. south, and the great plains on
~ the west. Cold seasons prevent this plant

pir

from growing farther north.’

The cotton region has plenty of
rain all the year. It is brought
by warm winds from over the
gulf of Mexico and from over the
sea on the east.

New Orleans is the leading city
in the cotton trade.

About one half the people on

earth wear clothing. made wholly

from the fiber that grows around
cotton seeds. Nearly all the

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































NY,
Cotton Field. N \








MAIZE OR INDIAN CORN.

125. Maize or Indian Corn.

The rich prairies between the cotton re-
gion and the Great Lakes are in the cool belt.
There the hot and cold seasons are of about
equal length. —

The soil of the prairies is warm and mellow
in summer. Once in a while there is-a very
dry season,

but as arule || vy Dig 7

there is “J Be =
plenty of ay " ry lL
rain. pe

j The prai- “! if

ries are the |@

richest grain :

region on ve

earth. One a

of the lead-

ing grains is
MAaLZ€, OF
Indian corn.

93

When the white men came to America,

- they found that the Indians had large fields

of corn. This useful grain was then taken
to Europe, and later to nearly all lands havy-
ing long and ¢ hot summers.

Chicago is center of the














What states
are in the
regionwhere |
most of the















corn grows? a a
Corn is often ground to meal and is»
then made into various kinds of bread.
Green corn is boiled on the cob, and used
as food.
When corn is thickly sown ears do not form,
but the stalks are rich and sweet. These are
used as fodder or food for cattle.
_ Is there a girl or a boy im all our land who
does not know what “pop corn” is? Do you
like to watch the kernels burst with a pop,
and puff into a snowy mass ?
Frost kills growing corn, and cold nights
hinder its growth. For these reasons, it
/ does not grow so far north as some hardier
graims do.

ee
A





SS

aM









































corn trade in the United States.
Chicago ?

Thousands of shiploads of grain are sent
down the Great Lakes from this city. A large
part of this grain passes through the Erie canal.

Where is

“TIt is claimed that maize was known to the people of
southeast Asia long before the discovery of America, but
this grain did not come into general use till long after it
was found in the gardens of the Indians.


94

Longitude 105

4











WHEAT.



90 Greenwich







126. Wheat.

To the people of the United States, wheat
is the most valuable of all grains.

Wheat is chiefly used in making flour.
The little seed or fruit consists of a grain in-
side a husk. Only the inner part of the grain
is ground into fine white flour.

Wheat thrives all over the rich prairies,
and even far north across the border of the
United States. The valleys of the Pacific
slope yield large crops of this useful grain.

A large part of the wheat crop passes
through Chicago. Every year this city ships
many million bushels by steamer and by rail.
The chief ports that handle wheat are New
York, Baltimore and San Francisco. The



the world in making flour.
Where are these cities?

It is not known where
wheat was first found, but
it is not a native of America.

This grain is chiefly raised in the cool and
warm belts.

Wheat is often sown for hay, and the stalks
make good straw. ‘This grain stands cold
nights and frost much better than corn
does, and so is raised much farther north.

Find out at home what articles are made
of wheat flour. Have you ever been in a mill
in.which corn or wheat is ground ?

Name the states in which the most wheat.
is raised.
: FORESTS. 95

127. Forests.

What objects that you can now see are made of
wood ? Cee
Can you name a tree that gives us food, and one
that helps to warm ‘us ? : -
Have you ever taken any kind of medicine that
comes from a . ae :

trees died from old age there were none there
to take their places.

The trees of the Pacific slope are chiefly
soft wood, such as pine and fir. Those in the
eastern part of the country are largely hard
wood, suchas maple and oak. There ‘are also



tree ? ;
Which is the |
prettiest wood.
that you have |
seen in furni-
ture? Do you
know of two
kinds of trees
that are used
in building
houses ?

What parts
of wagons are
made of wood?
Name some
wooden weap-
ons. Of what
do Indians
make canoes ?

What kinds







Wey Mixon 90- Greenwich -
y








of trees grow
near your school? Do you not
think that trees are among the
most useful of Nature’s gifts?

Three parts of the United
States have very few trees. These
are the prairies, the western plains
and the Great Basin. The western
plams and the Great Basin do not receive
enough rain to support forests.

There is plenty of rain on the prairies, and
it is thought that many years ago that region
was forést-clad. .

Before the white people settled on the
prairies, the Indians often set fire to the

grass so that it would spring up fresh and-

green for the herds of bisons. The fires
killed the young trees, and when the large

‘stretching westward from











dense forests of pine

Maine. They extend far beyond
the Great Lakes. ;

Do not think that trees cover all places
shaded on the map. In the forest regions
there are millions of acres of grass, cotton,
grain, tobacco and scores of other kinds of
useful plants.

Name six uses of trees.



|
|
|
|



i BT NN mi a i oa



96 CATTLE.







oF MEX, 7
+2 oO
&® BEEF CATTLE

The milk room on
a farm is called a
dairy. Milk, butter
and cheese aredawry
products.

New York is the
leading dairy state.
The. other states
also that border. on
the Great Lakes are
rich in dairy prod-
ucts. lowa takes
the highest rank
west of the Missis-
sippi river.

The places marked
on the map show





128. Cattle.

What kind of meat do you like best? What ani-
mals supply mutton? What ones supply pork?
Beef? Veal?

How is butter made? What is cheese made of?
- What uses are made of the skins of cattle?

There are thousands of cattle in even the
smallest of the states, but millions graze on

—— — “| only where the
largest number of cattle are found, and we
should not forget that there are many cattle
in nearly every settled portion of this broad
land.

Chicago and Kansas City are the chief
centers for meat packing. Where are these
cities ? .

The states raising the greatest number of
sheep are Texas, Ohio and California. Ohio











the prairies and western

























































































































































































































































plains.















































































































































































Texas is the leading
cattle state. Iowa holds
second place.

The cattle of the
plains are raised chiefly
for beef and hides. The
hides are sent east to
be made into leather.

A large part of the E
wealth of the people -
who live on the prairies consists of cows.









































A Scene on the Western Plains.

produces the most wool. The states in the

These are kept not only for milk, but also for northeast part of the United States make a

butter and cheese.

large amount of woolen cloth and yarn.
129. Coal.

Coal is dug from layers or beds
in the ground. The patches of
color on. this map show where
these beds are found.

Coal is formed chiefly of great
ferns,’ mosses and rushes that grew
in vast swamps, long ages ago.
These plants made thick woody
layers in the swamps.

In some way these layers were
buried in mud, upon which other
plants grew. For ages and ages
the work went on, till there were
many layers of woody plants buried
deep in beds of mud.

This wood was slowly changed
ito coal, and many of the’ beds
of mud also became rock.

In place of the old swamps there are now
broad fields and long mountain ridges, but the
hard layers of coal are still under the surface.

1 See the tree ferns on page 53.

COAL.

97



By digging into some of the ridges, or deep

in the fields, people take out the brown or
black layers to burn.
More than one half the coal used in the

United States is taken from the mines of Penn-



mgitude 105 West



Greenwich











sylvania. Illinois
ranks second and
Ohio third. .

When hard coal is
taken from mines,
much of it is in
large pieces. These
are crushed be-
tween heavy iron
or steel rollers in
great buildings,
called breakers.

The boys in the
picture are picking
slate from coal, as
it slides down a
long trough or
chute.
SW hos Aa

Re ee ee ea ee se ene Ee ane ICER



98 a IRON.



Iron Mine.

130. Iron.

What objects can you now see that are made of
iron? What iron articles are used in your homes ? +
Name ten iron tools ; five iron weapons; three iron
machines. What iron goods have you seen in stores ?
In what parts of your

coal, but we do not know exactly how the
iron rocks were formed.

Coal is used in melting iron ore, and it
often happens that coal and iron are found
near the same places. Many large cities owe
their growth to this fact. Can you tell what
articles are often made in such cities?

The richest iron mines in this country are
near Lake Superior. In the production of
iron ore, Michigan leads all other _ states.
Pennsylvania, New York and Alabama also
have very rich mines of iron ore.

The great centers of steel and iron manu-
facture are Chicago and Pittsburg. Here are
made most of the steel rails used in this
country ; also, armor plates for warships, steel
plates for other steamships, and nearly every
kind of tool and machine used by the people
of this great nation.

It is the nearness of coal and iron mines
that places these cities in the lead.

Before men could read or write, and while



school building is iron
used ?

Can you name some
of the uses of iron on
railroads? Do you
know what steamships
are made of?

Which do you think ‘]/\
more useful, wood or!
iron ?

When some kinds
of rock are heated
very hot, they melt
and iron comes
from them. The
rocks which con- {®
tain iron are called
iron ores.













Some of the ore

is dug from the ground. It is in layers, like they were yet savages, they melted iron from

1 Steel is one form of iron..

the ore and shaped it into weapons.
131.
Gold and Silver.

Do you know any of
the uses of gold ?

Name some articles
that are made of silver
Can you name the silver
coins used in the United
States? Can you name
the gold coins ?

What is the color of
gold? Of silver ?

Which is the more
useful, gold.or iron ?

Pure gold is taken
from the beds of
streams, and also
out of the ground.
Gold is often mixed
with other sub-
stances in rocks.

GOLD AND SILVER.























A Smeltery.

99







Mining Town,

taken from the ore
at a smeltery.

The states in the
Rocky Mountain
highland yield near-
ly all the gold and
silver mined in
this country.

California supplies
about one third of
the gold, and Colo-

Silver is rarely found in a pure state in rado about one third of the silver. Montana
nature. Gold and silver are often found takes second place in the production of silver.

in the same rock or ore.

The metal is





We
} ADRES SBS

ah
ix

!
&,

from 00 Greenwich









oY

GOLD AND SILVER







Both of these “precious metals” are found

in nearly all the
ranges of the West-
ern highland, but
‘the Rocky moun-
tains are richest in
silver, and the Sier-

| ra Nevadas in gold.

The silver mined
each year is worth
about twice as
much as the gold.

Summary.
Pennsylvania is
the banner state for
minerals. Michi-
gan, Colorado and
Montana are the
other leading states.




100 ROUTES OF TRADE.

132.

Routes of
Trade.

We have
seen that
the same
products
are not
found in all parts of the earth. The rich
prairies are best suited to farming, and the
higher plains to grazing. The southern plains
yield large harvests of cotton, while the high-
land of the west produces gold and silver.

Let us peep into the stores a moment.
Here is tea from China, and coffee from
Brazil. This spice is from Java, and this
fruit is from the groves of California. This
rubber was taken from a tree in the selvas, 5
and these knives came from the workshops of England. =

Rivers, railroads and oceans are the chief highways
of trade. Much has been done to improve many of
these highways. Rocks have been taken out of rivers
and harbors, and sandbars have been dredged away.
Canals have been made round rapids and waterfalls, as
well as from river to river and from sea to sea.

It is far cheaper to carry goods by water than by
land. On the sea there are no costly roads nor tracks to
build and to keep in repair.

Every producing region needs one or more shipping
pomts. These become centers of trade. They should
be within easy reach of all parts of the region, and
should connect by water, rail or other route, with the
markets of the world.

Railroads cross the United States from ocean to ocean,
by half a dozen routes. They run along every seacoast.
They wind with great rivers. They climb mountains and
cross cafons. ‘

Years ago rivers were the chief highways of inland trade, but now
railroads have taken first place. To-day cities and towns are dotted

all along the lines where freight trains gather up the products of farm,
forest and mine.









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SEAPORTS. 101

133. New York.

We will first study the great seaports, and
then the inland cities. :

New York has a larger trade than any
other city in the United States.

The greater part of this city is on an
island near the mouth of the Hudson river.

New York has one of the best harbors in
the world. Brooklyn and Jersey City are on
the same harbor, and the three cities together
form one great center of trade. Its commerce








Public Gardens, Boston.

is now about equal to that
of London, the largest city in
the world. The rie canal leads
from Lake Erie to the Hudson
river, and many of the products

134. Boston.

Asa seaport of the United States, Boston
ranks next to New York.

Boston has a fine harbor. This city was
for a long time the chief port through which
the products of the prairies and plains were
sent to foreign lands. The building of the
Erie canal turned a large part of this trade
to New York. The cities and towns for
many miles around Boston have hundreds of
busy workshops. Here are many mills mak-
ing cotton and woolen cloth;
shops for boots and shoes; and
factories for all kinds of jew-
elry, clocks, knives, forks
and other articles.















ot the West reach New York by
this route. Long lines of railroad
also run to this city, from all parts of the
country. The West sends some of its grain,
beef and iron, while the South sends part
of its cotton and other products to this port.

New York is a great center of manufact-
ures. Nearly all kinds of goods are made in
this city and the region around it.

~The canals, ships and railroads carry back
to the West and South clothing, shoes, tools,
tea, coffee and hundreds of other articles.

New York is the chief money center of the
country. -Many of the longest lines of rail-
road are owned here.

Water Front, New York.

Boston is like a main office for these busy
workshops. It receives for them such prod-
ucts as raw cotton, wool, hides and leather,
and, then sends cloth, boots, shoes and other
manufactures to all parts of the United States
and to many other countries.

Boston handles more wool than any other
city in the United States. It is also the
greatest boot, shoe and slipper market in the

_ world.

This city and its suburbs have been the
homes of many famous patriots, poets and
authors.


102
135. New Orleans.

New Orleans is about one hundred miles
from the mouth of the Mississippi river, and
forms a natural outlet of trade towards the
south. The noble river floats to New Orleans
many of the products of the states that line
its banks.

New Orleans is the leading market for
cotton. Its trade in rice and sugar also is



SHAPORTS.

137. Philadelphia. —

This city is on the Delaware river. It is
one of the leading ports of the country, and
ranks among the first cities in manufactures.

Philadelphia owes its growth in part to a
system of canals leading to it from the coal
and iron regions. Canals also connect this
port with New York and Baltimore, and thus
increase its trade. Where is Baltimore?









































































































































































































































































5 (ll

A Scene in New Orleans.

large. The workshops of the city are grow-
ing very fast.

Several long lines of railroad center in New
Orleans.

1386. San Francisco.

This city has one of the largest and most
beautiful harbors in the world. Nearly all
the foreign trade of the Pacific states passes
through this port. The grainfields, vine-
yards, groves, mines and cattle ranches send
many of their products to San Francisco.
As a shipping point for wheat and flour,
this city is near the head of the list.

The Golden Gate is the name of the entrance
to San Francisco harbor or bay.

The nearness of coal and iron gave Phila-
delphia a strong start in manufactures. Its
workshops turn out nearly every kind of iron
and steel goods.

This city ships a large amount of coal and
iron to other cities.

Philadelphia is reached by long lines of
railroad from the west, south and north.
Heavy trains bring to this port grain, beet,
cotton, tobacco and other products.

The states of Ohio, New York and Penn-
sylvania raise large flocks of sheep.

Much of the wool is taken to Philadelphia,
and there made into carpets, cloth and
yarn. This city leads the world in making
carpets. —
INLAND CITIES. 108

138. Chicago.

We will now study the leading inland cities.

One of the chief routes of trade from the
prairies and western plains to the ports of
the Atlantic is by way of the Great Lakes.

The amount of shipping on these lakes is
very large, and the greater part of the trade
passes through Chicago. This city is the
greatest railroad center on earth. Lines of
steel rails meet here like spokes ina hub. A
canal passing through Chicago connects Lake





























Michigan with a branch of the Mis- '¢
sissippi river. S

Chicago is the largest grain and
meat market in the world. It also
leads in making steel rails. The iron
ore used in this city is taken chiefly
from mines near Lake Superior, while coal is
found in large beds south of the city. .

New York is the only city in America
larger than Chicago. The latter place is
growing more rapidly, perhaps, than any
other city in the world. ae

Chicago is famous as the site of the great-
est fair ever held. What fair was it?

139. St. Louis.

St. Louis is the largest center of trade
west of the Mississippi river.

The states along this river below St. Louis
send cotton, tobacco and sugar to this great
market. The western plains and the prairies
supply cattle and grain. Cars and boats from
St. Louis reach nearly every part of the





prairies and plains, carrying flour, clothing,

tools, machines and many other articles.
Other large centers of trade? are: —
Brooklyn, forming with New York and

Jersey City a great triple port. Brooklyn is

the fourth city in size in the Union.

Baltimore, one of the leading seaports of
the United States. Its trade is about equal
in value to that of Philadelphia. Among the
chief exports of Baltimore are grain, flour,
tobacco, cattle and oysters.

Cincinnati, clothing, liquors and iron goods.
Cleveland, iron, copper, coal and petroleum.



Buffalo, grain, meat, iron and lumber.
Pittsburg, steel, iron, glass and coal.
Detroit, grain, lumber and iron goods.
Milwaukee, iron, liquors, meat and leather.
Newark, clothing, jewelry and leather goods.
Minneapolis, flour and lumber.

Louisville, tobacco; Omaha, railroad center ;
Rochester, flour; St. Paul, railroad center and river
port; Kansas City (Mo.), railroad center, meat;
Providence, cloth, jewelry, engines and tools ; Den-
ver, silver, lead, lumber and flour; Indianapolis,
grain, meat and flour; Allegheny, steel, iron and
leather; Richmond, tobacco, flour and iron goods ;
Memphis, cotton; Wilmington (Del.), steamships
and iron goods; Grand Rapids, furniture; Charles-
ton and Savannah, cotton and turpentine; Duluth,
wheat; Galveston, cotton.

' Most teachers will doubtless omit from the primary
course the study of this list. It is placed here for reference.




46 ,
NORTH AMERICA.

—+o+-—_-







140. The United States.

Review. — Bound the United States. _ ;
What parts of the United States are high land? —
What parts are low plains? What part of the United

States is in the warm belt? What
part is in the cool belt?

Name some of the products of the
prairies; of the western. plains ; of
the southern plains; of the Rocky
Mountain highland; of the Appala-
chian highland ; of the Pacific slope ;
of the Atlanticslope.

What part of the United States
produces the largest amount of cot-
ton? Of corn? Of gold and silver?
Of beef? Of wheat? Of lum-
ber? Of coal? Of iron?

What have you learned about
New York? About Chicago?
Philadelphia? St. Louis? Bos-
ton? San Francisco? New
Orleans ?

_ Which of these cities are sea-
ports? Which part of the United
States is most thickly set-
tled? Can you tell why?

What took place on July
4,1776? Name the capi-
tal of the United States.
Where is it?

Name the capital of the
state in which you live.

141. Canada.

Bound Canada.
Which belts of heat
cross Canada? °

‘On what river is Montreal ?
_ A large part of Canada,
lyimg northwest of the Great

Lakes, is rich prairie. land.
Tt yields heavy crops of

wheat, and supports large


















herds of cattle. A great deal of wheat is also
raised north of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.

The sea on the east of Canada abounds in
fish. Every year many cargoes of cod and

mackerel are sent from that
country to other lands.

The chief exports of Canada
are lumber, beef and wheat.
Montreal is the leading port.

142. Mexico.

What bodies of water border
on Mexico? In which belt of
heat does the greater part of
Mexico lie?

Name the capital of Mexico.
Where is this city?

Mexico consists mainly of
a plateau, about a mile and a
half above the level of the
— sea. Along the coast
there is a low, narrow
plain. |

Hemp, cotton, coffee
and corn thrive here.
Hemp is used in mak-
ing cloth and rope.

Millions of cattle and
horses graze on the
high plain of Mexico. —
Among the mountains
there are rich mines of
silver. This country sends
to the United States silver,
hemp, coffee and hides. In
return Mexico receives raw
cotton, iron goods, cotton
cloth and coal. Vera Cruz .
is the chief port.




SIE





































sais| ysnug





ured pue aourl4

tars

Xs

Li Micha



3



GULF -0.F



Gulf of
Campeche

AMERIC A , NG ( es on

SCALE OF MILES
600 800







COMPARATIVE AREA
7



























































THIS RECTANGLE CONTAINS:
100,000 SQUARE MILES













































Longitude Greenwich





Bradley § Poates, Engi's, N.Y.


106


























Sugar and tobacco thrive in Brazil, and millions of cattle
graze on its southern slopes. That country imports cloth,
machines, tools and hardware.

Brazil trades largely with the United States. To what races
do the people of Brazil belong? The white race rules in all
the countries of South America.

144. Argentine Republic.

What belts of heat cross the
Argentine Republic?

Name a large river basin that is
partly in this country.

Where is Buenos Ayres?

Millions of cattle, sheep and horses
graze on the pampas. Hides, wool
and beef are leading articles of trade.
Wheat and corn are the chief prod-
ucts of the farms.

Buenos Ayres is the leading
port for the products of the-
La Plata basin.

The imports of the Argen-
tine Republic are cloth and
railway supplies, — engines,
rails and wire. The trade of
this country with the United
States is small.



143. Brazil. 145. Chile.

_ What belts of heat cross What belts of heat cross
Brazil ? Chile ?

Where is Rio Janeiro? —2 as amie | Where is Valparaiso? -
Where is Pard? | ee, aint The wealth of Chile is in

The most valuable product of its mines and farms. The
Brazil is coffee. Rio Janeiro is the leading products are niter,
chief port in the coffee trade. copper, silver and wheat. .

Paré is a leading market for India ~The imports of Chile in-
rubber. This is made from the sap clude cloth, beef and:sugar.
of many kinds of trees and shrubs The trade with the United
that grow in hot lands. Large States is very light. Val-
rubber trees are found on the hot _ paraiso is the leading port
and steamy banks of the Amazon. of Chile.
80 Longitude 70 West 60 from, 5O Greenwich 40

=x 7 =

= 0 j ; |
2

p BE AIN 8S BA













































Hindustan

RINIDAD

eiquiedauag












Malay Pen.
Buaqi























New Guinea
ae1g osu0y







anbiquiezo,

&s






Antofagasta





-day uray yinos



Aconcagy, a,

&



voneeeyy





@IVAN
FERNANDE?
le




YL
Auojod adea























































































































































4) 40
SOUTH
aie j |
zz) f
3 & AMERICA iF
os a
o q i
8 IE
é SCALE OF MILES HH as”
i= if a BEM AND ISLANDS 0 100 200 4 600 800
ato (Lo Gt.Britain)
| gelle” ae y COMPARATIVE AREA
ERRA DEL ! |
50 al 60
H SOUTH GEORG, l
Lo Gt. BrifainsS h |
THIS RECTANGLE CONTAINS
100,000 SQUARE MILES
SSS SSS ——o ioe = Z == 4
100 90 . Longitude 980 ‘West 70 from 60 Greenwich 50 40 30 20 A fe

y



Phen




108 Se EUROPE.

a

146. The British Isles. 147. Germany.

Where is England? Where is Germany?

Ireland? Scotland? Name the capital of Germany. On what
Wales? river iss Hamburg?

Where is London? Glas- Germany has large mines of coal and iron.
gow? Liverpool? Dublin? Like the British Isles, Germany is a land of
In the British Isles workshops.
therearevast | Hamburg is the chief seaport on the main-
beds of land of Europe. Berlin is the center of vast
coaland railway and canal systems. Its inland trade
iron. is very large.

The trade of the United States with Ger-
many is in about the same kinds of goods
as with the British Isles.





























A Norwegian.

Near these,
many great
workshops have A German.
been built. ee

The people of the British
Isles weave into cloth fully one
third of the raw cotton and
wool raised in the world. They
also produce about one third of
the iron and steel. Their ships
carry on one third of the ocean commerce.

To the British Isles the United States sends
cotton, grain, meat, tobacco, copper and many
other products. Which of these are needed for
the workshops? Which are used for food ?

The British Isles send to the United States
-dvon and steel goods, cotton and woolen cloth,
silk and many other articles from the workshops. _

London, on the Thames river, is the chief
seaport and railroad center of the British Isles.
It is the largest city in the world.

The greater part of the trade of the United
States with the British Isles is by way of
Liverpool, a city near the west coast. Dy Sec one aera erie:

Scotland is noted for its iron and steel ships. kinds of goods as to Liverpool and Hamburg.
They are built on the Clyde river, near Glasgow. France sends to the United States woolen

In making linen goods Ireland leads the world. and silk goods, wines and millinery.

148. France.

Where is France?

Name the capital of
France. On what river
is it? Where is Lyons?

Only one city in the
world is larger than
Paris, the center of trade
for France.

The United States sends
to Paris about the same

7]
:

e

Scotch Piper.


































































































































































































































































































































































































































Il, 0 Longitude 10 | Z a1 Sal SS ae Il
elle : =
5 |l-
Oe
Hs |.
t} 2 =
% ®
E SCALE OF MILES
E 100 200 ~ 300
E



Oi



so

uedep




















































































































Longitude 10 East 20



Greenwich

Bradley § Poates, Engr’s, NoEe
110

JAe SOL 2A

—+0

149.

Where is India?
delta of the Ganges.
The ‘Ganges river floats large’ boats a
thousand miles
through its

India.

Name a large city m the



















fertile valley.
Which belt. of
Wheat crosses

this valley ?

india is not eae one half so
large as the United States, but
it has four times as many people
as our country. Rice is the food
of about one third the people
of the Ganges valley.

India raises large crops of rice, cotton,
wheat, poppy and many other plants. The
poppy plant yields a drug, called opwwm. A
large part of these products is sent to Eng-
land and to China.

India imports cloth, machines, hardware,
sugar and many other kinds of goods.

Bombay and Calcutta are the leading ports
of India. Each of these cities has about one
half as many people as gy tliere are in the city
of New York. =.

oo -

_about the people of this country ?

The greater part of India is under British
rule. Most of the people are Hindus (or
Hindoos). They belong to the white race.

150. China.

What have you read about the plains of
China? Find the city of Canton. Where is
the island of Hongkong?

The trade of China with other nations is

-carried on mainly through Hongkong, a Brit-

ish island.

‘The chief products of. China are tea
and silk. The leading imports are
cotton cloth and opium.

On the Yang-tse-Kiang, steamers can
go a thousand miles through the crowded
plams of China.

au
a





i






. o . a =.

CHINA fe =






151.
Where is Japan?

Japan.

What have you read
Name
some of its products.

Where is Yokohama? Where is Tokyo?

Tokyo is nearly as large as New York.
Yokohama is the leading port of Japan.

The chief exports of Japan are silk and
tea. The chief imports are cotton and
woolen goods, sugar and kerosene.






g Greenwich

ae
ae
oy 3?
WE oe
E AOE
~Cz,
-*







>

Labrador

is
Ss
2

os
ARCTIO| OURS







8











Rollewy |e,UaD



mn

s
a
o





SCALE OF MILES
600 800 -1000-—

Upper Guinea
BIGUIO|OD

SR LE CONTAINS
1 EM,
EQUATOR 100,000 SQUAR LES:

70 Longitude 80 East 100 Greenwich 110 1380















































































































































Bradley § Poates, Engr's, NX:








112
AFRICA.

152. Hgypt. Where is Cape
Town?

South Africa is’
noted for its rich dia-
mond fields. These
precious stones yield
more income than
all the other articles
sold by the Colony.
~ Millions of sheep
and cattle are raised
in southern Africa.
Wool and hides are

leading exports.













What have you read about the Nile river ?
What seas border on Egypt? Where is
Cairo ? : an:
In which belt of heat is the greater part of
Egypt? What part of the United States is
in the same belt ?
The spring har-
vest in

Egypt



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































consists largely of grains.
The autumn harvest includes
cotton, sugar and rice. Egypt
sells raw cotton and buys
cloth. There is also a light
trade in many other articles.
Cairo is the chief center of
trade in Egypt. Nearly all
_ the raw cotton goes to Eng-
~ land, and nearly all the cloth
sent to Egypt is made in
English workshops.















































































Buffalo of Egypt.

This land supplies
many fine ostrich
feathers. }

The import trade of
Cape Colony consists
largely of cloth. Eng-
land controls the
greater part of the.
trade.

Cape Colony is under

British rule.
_ What races of peo-
ple are found in
southern Africa?

153. Cape Colony.

In which belt of heat is
the southern part of Africa?

Where is Cape Colony?
Look at the relief map of
“Africa, and describe the sur-
face of Cape Colony.

‘



Negress and Child.




Longitude

10



























20 Longitude 0





























"Cen. Am

aS

~ Venezuela! ||







ie SNe

Khartum|
TE MASSA
i es

an

7

an
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a

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EQUATOR

Be EIZANZIBAR -
B ee

BaUuIny) MAN





Republic

Argentine

s









o
ST. HELENA



















Cc

o













‘

AFRICA



SCALE OF MILES
200° «400 600-800

COMPARATIVE AREA

1000 - 1200

“THIS RECTANGLE CONTAINS
= {00,000 SQUARE MILES





CAPE TOWN
en
C.of Good noe













Longitude

10 East

20

from

30













Bradley § Poates,.Engr's, N.¥n




114

AUSTRALIA.

—+o+ —_

154. Victoria.
_ Australia consists of several British col-

onies. Chief among these are Victoria and
New South Wales. Which belts of heat cross
Victoria?

The gold mines of Victoria
rank next to those of the
United States. The sheep
ranches of this colony pro-
duce wool that is worth
three times as much as the
gold taken from its mines.
This region raises many





















































Natives of Australia.

cattle and a large amount of wheat. The
chief exports are wool, gold, wheat and cattle.

The leading imports are iron goods, cloth,
sugar and tea. A great deal of wool from
the other colonies finds a market here. Most
of it is again sold abroad.

Nearly all the foreign trade of Australia is
carried on with England.

Melbourne is the chief port of Australia.
Where is this city?

Melbourne is on a fine harbor, and is a
little larger than Boston.









Watives and Temple, Solomon Islands,

155. New South Wales.

In what direction is this colony
from Victoria? Which belt of
heat crosses New South Wales?

New South Wales produces
much more wool but less gold -
than Victoria does. A large
amount of corn is raised in
New South Wales. Oranges and sugar cane
also thrive there. ;

The trade of these two colonies is nearly
alike in kind. Sydney is the leading port of
New South Wales. Where is this city?

Before the white man settled in Australia
it was held by black people. A few thousand
of these still live in this land.


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118

REFERENCE TABLES.

——+9e—_—_.

Grand Divisions and Leading Countries.

AREA IN POPULATION
SQUARE MILES. (1890).

NORTH AMERICA. . 8,000,000 90,000,000
United States. . . 3,556,300 63,000,000
Canada . . . . . 3,470,000 4,850,000
Mexicos = s. 767,000 12,000,000
SOUTH AMERICA . . 7,000,000 36,500,000
Brazil. . . . 3,215,000 14,000,000
Argentine Republic . 1,125,000 4,250,000
Chile. . . : 300,000 3,250,000
HUROPEHS 3s) 2) ee 3,800,000 360,000,000
British Isles . . . 120,000 38,000,000
Germany .... 208,000 50,000,000
Eranice sist yseece es. 204,000 38,350,000
Russia .. . 2,180,000 100,000,000
Anaeeeriuneary. , 240,000 41,000,000
ASIA ... . . . =%417,000,000 850,000,000
India. . . . . . 1,560,000 290,000,000
China. . . . . . 4,200,000 400,000,000
Japanese . 5-2 9 147,000 40,000,000
AFRICA . . . . . 11,500,000 -130,000,000
Moy pte ies een 400,000 4 7,000,000
Cape Colony .. . 220,000 1,550,000
Kongo State . . . 900,000 17,000,000
AUSTRALIA... . 3,000,000 3,500,000
Victoria . . : 88,000 1,140,000

New South Wales : 310,000 -1,130,000

Area of Oceans.

SQUARE MILES.

PaciicsS 3 2 2 = = = = = £0;0005000
Atlantic . . . . . . . «. 85,000,000
Indian . . . . . . . . 28,000,000
Antarctic. . . . . . . .. 7,000,000
Arctie. . 2. «.'. . . . .~ 4,000,000.

1 The fertile portion of Egypt consists of only about
13,000 square miles.

The United States.

STATES.
Alabama
Alaska .
Arizona .
Arkansas
California .
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware

District of Colman

Florida .
Georgia .

Idaho

Illinois .
Indiana . :
Indian Territory .
Iowa . .
Kansas .
Kentucky
Louisiana

Maine

Maryland :
Massachusetts. .
Michigan
Minnesota .
Mississippi.
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada . rn
New Hampshire .
New Jersey

New Mexico

New York .
North Carolina
North Dakota .
Ohio . :
Oklahoma .
Oregon .
Pennsylvania .
Rhode Island . |
South Carolina
South Dakota .
Tennessee .
Texas

Utah .

Vermont
Virginia.
Washington
West Virginia.
Wisconsin . :
Wyoming ...

AREA IN

SQUARE MILEs.

52,250
531,410
113,020

53,850
158,360
103,925

4,990
2,050
70

58,680

59,475

84,800

56,650

36,350

31,400

56,025

82,080

40,400

48,720

33,040

12,210

8,315

58,915

83,365

46,810

69,415
146,080

77,510
110,700

9,305
7,815
122,580

49,170

52,250

70,795

41,060

39,030

96,030

45,215

1,250

30,570

77,650

42,050
265,780

84,970

9,565

42,450

69,180

24,780

56,040

97,890

POPULATION
(1890).
1,513,017

31,795
59,620
1,128,179
1,208,130
412,198
746,258
168,493
230,392
391,422
1,837,353
84,385 -
3,826,351
2,192,404.
186,490
1,911,896
1,427,096
1,858,635
1,118,587
661,086
1,042,390
2,238,943
2,098,889
1,301,826
1,289,600
2,679,184
182,159
1,058,910
45,761
376,530
1,444,933
153,593
5,997,853
1,617,947
182,719
3,672,316
61,834
313,767
5,258,014
345,506
1,151,149
328,808
1,767,518
2,235,523
207,905
332,422
1,655,980
349,390
762,794
1,686,880
60,705
REFERENCE TABLES.

















Leading Cities of the United States.
CITIES. A 1890. d 1860.
New York, N. Y. 1} 1,515,301 1 | 805,658
Chicago, II. 2| 1,099,850 9 | 109,260
Philadelphia, Pa. 3| 1,046,964 || 2) 565,529
Brooklyn, N. Y. . 4} 806,348 3 | 266,661
St. Louis, Mo. 5) 451,770 8} 160,773
Boston, Mass. 6| 448,477 5| 177,840
Baltimore, Md. 7| 434,489 4| 212,418
San Francisco, Cal. . 8| 298,997 |] 15] 56,802
Cincinnati, Ohio . 9} 296,908 7 | 161,044.
Cleveland, Ohio . 10| 261,353 || 21] 48,417
Buffalo, N. Y. 11| 255,664} 10) 81,129
New Orleans, La. .{12) 242,039 6 | 168,675
Pittsburg, Pa. . 13) 238,617 || 17] 49,217
Washington, D.C. . .|14/ 230,392] 14] 61,122
Detroit, Mich. .|15} 205,876 | 19] 45,619
Milwaukee, Wis. . {16} 204,468] 20] 45,246
Newark, N. J. 17| 181,830) 11] 71,941
Minneapolis, Minn.. .|18| 164,738 ]/109| 2,564
Jersey City, N. J. .|19]| 163,003 ]} 28] 29,226
Louisville, Ky. .|20} 161,129} 12] 68,033
Omaha, Neb. . ./21) 140,452 |}141/ 1,883
Rochester, N. Y. .|22) 183,896] 18] 48,204
St. Paul, Minn. ./23| 133,156] 73! 10,401
Kansas City, Mo. 24| 132,716] 97] . 4,418
Providence, R. I. © .|25] 182,146 || 16] 50,666
Denver, Colo. . 26; 106,713 || 96} 4,749
Indianapolis, Ind. 27; 105,486 |) 46] 18,611
Allegheny, Pa. 28) 105,287 || 30} 28,702





Leading Foreign Cities.

Ciry.
London (1891)
Paris (1891)
Canton (1890)
Berlin (1890)
Tokyo (1890).
Vienna (1891)

St. Petersburg (1889) .

Peking (1890)

Constantinople (1885) .

Calcutta (1891)
Bombay (1891)

Rio Janeiro (1892) .

COUNTRY.

. England.
. France
. China

. Germany
. Japan

Austria .
Russia

China

Turkey .

. India.
. India.
. Brazil

POPULATION.
. 4,211,060
. 2,447,960
. 1,600,000
. 1,578,790
. 1,389,680
. 1,364,540
. 1,003,310
. 1,000,000

873,560
840,130
804,470
800,000

Crry.
Moscow (1888)
Glasgow (1891) .
Hamburg (1890)

Buenos Ayres (1890) |

Liverpool (1891)
Budapest (1891)
Manchester (1891) .
Melbourne (1891) .
Rome (1891)...
Amsterdam (1891) .
Cairo (1890)
Sydney (1891)
Mexico (1890).
Edinburgh (1891)
Dublin (1891)
Montreal (1891).
Havana (1887)

Pernambuco (1892)

Yokohama (1890) .
Valparaiso (1891)
Lima (1891)

Cape Town (1891) .

Geneva (1893)
Parg (1892) . .
Vera Cruz (1890)

Rivers and River Basins.

RIVER.

Amazon .
Kongo

Nile . ;
Mississippi — .

Missouri .

La Plata
Yang-tse-Kiang
Volga “
Ganges . :
St. Lawrence .
Danube .
Orinoco .
Columbia
Colorado

Average Heights of Plateaus.

Tibet .
Bolivia
Mexico
Abyssinia
Great Basin .
‘Gobi

Brazil .
Switzerland .

119
COUNTRY. POPULATION.
. Russia 798,740
. Scotland 618,470
. Germany 569,260
. Argentine Rep'lic, 561,160
. England. 517,950
. Hungary 506,380
. England. 505,340
. Victoria . 490,900
. Italy 436,180
. Holland . 426,910
. Egypt . . 390,000
. New South Wales, 388,390
. Mexico . 829,540
. Scotland 264,800
. Iveland . 245,000
. Canada . 216,650
. Cuba . 198,270
. Brazil 190,000
. Japan 127,990
. Chile. 115,000
. Peru. . 104,000
. Cape Colony 84,000
. Switzerland 78,000
. Brazil 65,000
. Mexico . 24,000
AREA OF BASIN, LENGTH
SQUARE MILEs, IN MILEs.
2,500,000 4,000
1,500,000 3,000
1,400,000 4,000
1,250,000 4,200
1,250,000 2,300
500,000 3,300
500,000 2,300
450,000 1,800
350,000 2,000
300,000 2,000
800,000 1,500
250,000 1,400
250,000 1,100

FEET.

14,000

12,000

8,000

7,000

4,000

4,000

2,000

2,000




I
at

MODEL RELIEF MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA,

Nort. — The maps of this series, pages 120 to 125, are inserted as a guide for teachers in drawing and modeling. The
outlines are so simple that no construction lines are needed. Pupils can easily learn to sketch these maps.


121



MODEL RELIEF MAP OF NORTH AMERICA.


122



MODEL RELIEF MAP OF ASIA.
MODEL



EUROPE.

G6l
124



MODEL RELIEF MAP OF APRICA.
125



MODEL RELIEF MAP OF AUSTRALIA.

Zones and Circles.?

The line round the earth, upon which the vertical
rays fall during the first day of our summer, is called
the tropic of Cancer.

During the first day of our winter the sun shines
straight down on the tropic of Capricorn. --The belt
of land and water lying between or within the tropics,
is called the torrid zone. The tropics are at about one
fourth the distance from the equator to the poles.

Find the arectie circle on the map. Find the ant-
arctic circle. These circles are at about one fourth
the distance from the poles to the equator.

Bound the north frigid zone. The south frigid
zone. The north temperate. The south temperate.

1 This lesson is added for the convenience of teachers
who wish to include the study of zones, tropics and polar
circles in the primary coursé. See page 77.






























126

WORD LIST.

+90

Ky: ale, cAre, im, arm, ask, final, all; éve, évent, énd, hér, recent; ice, il; dld, obey, for, dn; Use, tp, fiir; food, foot;
ch as in chop; g as in go; ug as in sing ; nas in ink; thas in the.

ABYSSINIA
AFRICA
ALLIGATOR
ALPACA
ALTAL
AMAZON
AMSTERDAM
AMUR
ANDES
ANTARCTIC
APPALACHIAN
APTERYX
ARAB
ARABIAN
ARcTIC
ARGENTINE
ARMADILLO
ASIA
ATLANTIC
AUSTRALIA
AUSTRIA
AVALANCHE
AZORES

Baxsoon
BAcTRIAN
Batic
BamsBoo
BENGAL
Bry-NeEvIs
BERING
BERLIN
Bern
Biscay
Bison
BomBay
Bosporus

Note. — For list of cities and states of the United States, see page 89.

4b-is-sin/i-a
afl ri-ka

al li-oa-tér
al-paikla
al-ti!
am/a-z6n
am/ster-dim
a-moor!

an! déz
an-tark/tik
&p-pa-la/ chi-an,
Ap! té-rix
arlab

ara! bi-an
arktik
ax/jén-tin
ar-ma-dil/16
a/shi-a
at-lin!tik
as-tra/li-a
as!tri-a
avla-lanch
a-zorz!

b&ib-don!
bak! tri-an
bal!tik
bam-boo! *
bén-gal!
bén-néviis
bé/ring
bér! lin
bérn
bis!ka
bi/sén.
boém-ba!
bés! po-rtis

BRAZIL
Buenos AYRES

Cactus
Carro (Lgypt)
CALCUTTA
CANADA
CANCER
CaNonw
Canton (China)
CAPRICORN
CARIBOU
CASCADE
CASPIAN
CATARACT
CATSKILL
CHAMOIS
CHESAPEAKE
CHILE
CHIMPANZEE
CHUGLU
CHUTE

CLYDE
Cocoon
CoLOMBIA
CoLUMBIA
ConpoR
ConstANTINOPLE

' CONTINENT

CorAaL
CRATER
CROCODILE
CuBA
CYCLADES

DANUBE

DELTA

bra-zil!
bwa/nos irés

kak! tis
ki/r6
kal-ktit!ta
kin!a-da
kan!/sér
kan/ytin
kin-ton!
k&p/ri-k6rn
karli-boo .
kas-kad!
kas! pi-an
katla-rakt
kats!kil
sham! mi
chélsa-pék
ché/lé
chim-pin!zé
chiig!/loc
shoot

klid
k6-koon!
k6-lém!bé-&
k6-ltim/bi-a
kon! dor
kén-stan-ti-nd!pl
k6n/ti-nent
korlal
kra/tér
krdk!6-dil
kti/ba,

sik’ la-déz

dainliaib
déllta

DvuBLIN
Dunxra
Dykz

ECHIDNA

_ EpINBURGH

Eeypr
ENGLAND
EQuATOR

. Erie

Eskimo
EvuRoPE
EVEREST

GANGES
GAVIAL
GAZELLE
GENEVA
GEYSER
GERMANY
GIBRALTAR
GIRAFFE
GLACIER
GLASGOW
GORILLA
GUIANA

HAMBURG
HAaMMERFEST
Hans
HIMALAYA
Hinpu
Hippopotamus
HoLLanp
HonexKone
Horizon
Horrentor

dtib/lin
dtin! ke-a
dik

é-kid/na
éd!in-btir-r6
éjipt
in!/eland
é-kwa/tér
eri
és/ki-mé
Wriip
évler-Sst

gin! j}éz
gal vi-al
ga-zél
je-nélva
gilsér
jérina-ni
ji-bral'tar
ji-rat!
gla!/shér
glis!2d
gorilla
gé-alnd

ham! btirg

him! mer-fést
hans
him-a/la-ya
hin!doo
hip-pé-pot!a-miis
héland
héng-koéng!
hé-rtziin >

hot! ten-tot
HunGaAary
Huron

Isex
InpIA
InpIES
Inpus

To
IRELAND
IstHMus
‘Irany

JAGUAR
JAPAN
JAPANESE
JAVA
JAVANESE

EKarrin
KAnGaRoo
Kayak
KEARSARGE
Kitimwa-NgARO
Koneo

Koran

LABRADOR
Lapland
La Piatra
Lava

. LEOPARD
Lzs Pris
Lima
LIVERPOOL
LiaMa
Lianos
Lonpon
Lyons

MAcKENZIE
MADEIRA

Maizp

Manay
MANCHESTER
MEDITERRANEAN
MELBOURNE
Musa

MEXIcO

hin! ga-ri
hi/ron .

bax
in! di-a
in! déz
in/diis
Td
inland
is/miis
itla-li

ja-gwair!
ja-pin!
jaip-a-néz!
java
jav-a-néz!

kaflfér
kan-ga-roo!
kalak

kér!siirj
kil-é-miin-ja-ré!
kén! 26

kolran

l&b-ra-dor!
lapland
la plata
lalva
lép/érd

la pra!
lé/mai,
livler-pool
la/ma
la/néz
liin’/ditin
lifonz.

ma-kén!zi
ma-délra’

maz

ma-la!

man! ches-ter
mé-di-ter-ra/ne-an
mél/birn

ma/sa

méx/1-k6

WORD LIST.

MiKapo .
MINNEHAHA
Mississippi
Missouri
Monr Brianeé
Montrean
Moscow

Mr. MircHeri
Murray

NETHERLANDS
New ZEALAND
NIAGARA
NIGER

NItTER

Oasis
Ost
ONTARIO
OpossuM
ORINOCO

Paciric
PAMIR
PAMPAs
PANAMA
Pars
PARANA
PEKING
PENINSULA
Pico
PLATEAU
Po.ar
PoryPe
Poromac
PRAIRIE
PUEBLO :
Puma
PYRENEES

REINDEER
RHEA

RHINE

RHINOCEROS
Rio GRANDE
Rio JANEIRO
Rio NEGRO
Russia

mi-ka! dé
min-e-ha/ha
inis-is-ip/i
mis-00! ri
mont blank!
mont-ré-al!
mos/ko
mich/él
miir/ra,

néth/er-lendz
zéland
ni-igha-ra
ni/jer

ni/tér

6/a-sis
6!bé
on-ta! ri-6
6-pds!stim
6-ri-nd/k6

pa-siffik
pa-mér!
pam! paz
pan-a-ma/
pa-ra!
pa-ré-na!
pé-king!
pén-in/si-la
pelko
pla-td!
po/lér
pollip
po-t6/mak
pra/ri
pwéb/lo
pi/ma
pirle-néz

ran! dér

réla

rin
rinés!é-rds
rélé grin! da
ré!6 ja-na/ro
rél6 na! gerd
rish!a

SAHARA

St. BeRNARD
St. LAWRENCE
San BERNARDINO
San JACINTO
SANTIAGO
SCORPION
ScorLaND |
SELVAS
SHOSHONE
SIBERIA

Srmpra Nevapa
Srmmoon

STEPPE
STRASSBURG
STURGEON

SUEZ

SUPERIOR
SWITZERLAND
SYDNEY

TAPIR

TEPER

Tuames (Hng.)
TIBBU

TIBET
TITICACA
Tokyo
TUNDRA

VALDAI
VALPARAISO
VERA CRUZ
VERTICAL
VICTORIA
VoLGa

WILHELM
WATLING

Yane-tse-Kiane
YENISEI
YoKoHAMA
YOSEMITE
Yukon

ZAANDAM
ZAMBESI

an

sa-hilra

sant bér-nird!
la/rens
bér-nér-déensd
ja-sin!t6
sin-té-a! 26
skor! piitin
skot-land

séll vaz
shé-sho/né
si-bé/ri-a
sé-érlra ne-vill dw
si-modon!

stép
stris!bdorg
stir/jin
806-62!
sti-pélri-ér
swit!zer-lend
sid!ni

ta! pér
tép-é!
témz

tib! boo
ti-bét!
tit-é-kika
to! ké-6
tiin/dra

vill di
val-pa-ri!s6
va-ri, kroos!
vér'ti-kal:
vik-t6!ré-a
voll ga

wil/hélm
wot'ling

yang-tsé-ki-ing!
yén-6-sa!é
yo-ké-ha!ma
yo-stm/ité

yoo! kin

zan-dam!
zim-balze
























































































129

THE SOUTHERN STATES.

(WESTERN SECTION.)

—+o+-—_.

Surface. — Along the coast of this section
there is a belt of low flat land, from forty to
sixty miles wide. Back of this coast plain
lie vast rolling prairies. In the west and
northwest the surface consists of rugged
plateaus and low mountain ranges.

fiwers.—This section has many
long rivers. The Mississippi
is a famous highway of com-





the southeast the rainfall is very heavy,
because moist gulf winds sweep over that
part.
Timber. — There is plenty of timber in the
eastern half of this group of states. Thick
forests of cypress cover
Many square miles in the
southeast. Oak, cot-















merce. The Red river and the
Arkansas also are broad and
deep. Every day in the year
steamboats ply on these
streams.







tonwood, cedar, mag-
nolia, walnut and
pecan trees thrive
in the river bot-
toms. Texas has
millions of acres

































































































Ocean









































of yellow pine















































steamers
go up the |
Mississip-
pi to New
Orleans. |
In the
rainy sea- 5
son all the
large rivers in the
south can be used
as water routes.
Climate-—These
states are mainly
in the warm belt. In









woods. (See map,
page 95.)
Agriculture.
;- — Most of the
soil in this
group ot
yStates is
very rich.
Nearly
g every kind
of crop
raised in
the United
States can

























summer cool breezes blow
inland from the gulf. The climate of the
great prairie region is dry and bracing. In
the north snow ‘sometimes falls, yet the
winters are mild.
Rain enough falls in all parts of this
section, except in the extreme west. There
the crops sometimes suffer from drought. In









be grown
The leading crop is cotton. Other
products are sugar, rice, corn and wheat.
(See maps, pages 93 and 94.)

Minerals. — Coal is mined in Arkansas,
Indian Territory and Texas. (See map, page
97.) There are beds of iron ore in the central
part of this section, but they are not much

here.
Greenwich





102 Longitude































& oseyeiqis

-|Buffaloe a Zork!
‘ov
Beaver

On
e A
Ci, Enid °O Pemry de pontapeite Bf oy
= = t vi rT
Stillwater e = ea pa yettevillo +
% El 4
. % GUTHR: . - i ig QT LEQUAH Th Batesville,
on ee i g
R, eEdmond: Py ‘ Agrees a ‘
ie homa}i = _ Bur Aikanse, a Searcy, : ‘o
° : ‘3 r 4 i z SENS
nase iS WEWC dg Fort Smith pains oe a3 frost: és
Dardanelle eS Brinkley, ©
; ITTLEROCK «3

ob Springs’ "YM ciarendon’®
eoSRP 8s" \ | Witelen:
Malvernd. Stuttgart J









rkadelphia,’ pine Bl FE
*Gnydon
*Hope Q, ay Mopficelle
Camden
* Magnolia







2
3









OD0010[\] ©

—



Shanghai

&

ia
Bbestklin. Za
WToxgan: Cy-

4 Bae



Atohafete =
> = ‘
Delta of the

sot - egigstPPt
Y rissis'
oi? Dh

qo?

EF M \E xX
OES see







|

spue|s| Aleueg ot

SOUTHERN STATES

WESTERN SECTION

rye

SCALE OF MILES
100 150

Mt.Everesto





























































oy







&





z ——— m ——— =
102 Longitude Greenwich. 94
: : 5 Bradley Poates, Engr’, NR







2 i
TLANT Ia.
a VOT o oor ®























gy ey
2
































MAP §

131
TU DIES.

—_+o+—_.

Southern: States.

(WESTERN SECTION.)

Location. — In what part of the United States is
this section? What gulf and country are south ?
‘What states are north? - What. bounds this section
on the west?
what waters would a steamer go in making a
m Galveston to New Orleans? From Pine
Bluff to \Shreveport ?

Surface. — In. what direction do most of the rivers
- flow? In what














Measure, by the scale of miles, the length and
breadth of Texas.

Louisiana.

What states are north of Louisiana? Name the
river boundaries on the east. What gulf is, south?

What state is west? Where is Lake Pontchartrain ?

What great delta is in this state ?
Name the capital of Louisiana.

Orleans ?

Where is New
Shreveport ? Which is farther west, the
source of the











direction does the





Mississippi or its



































































land.slope? Which







mouth ?











state of this group
e has no mountains?
Name the moun-
tain ridges in the
southwest. Where
are the Wichita
mountains ?
Rivers. — Into.
what great river
do almost all the









Arkansas.

Bound this
state. In what di-
rection do the riv-
ers flow? Which
is the higher, the
surface of Arkan-
sas or that of
Oklahoma ? What

































streams te a mountains extend

eastern. er we from Missouri into

Where is the Arkansas ?

source of the Mis- Me On ee river

sissippi - Where £ ae Z is the capital?

does the Bio z ecg, Where is Fort

Grande rise? Bree" ith? Hot
' Across what states . Spuinee 7 Pine
- does the Red river =

oes the Red rive : State University, Texas Bluff ?



flow ?
Texas.

Neans three rivers between the
Into what gulf do

“Bound hie state.
Sabine and the Rio Grande.
they flow ? -

- Which part of this state is mountainous? Where
is the Staked Plain?
x Name the*capital Where is Dallas? San

~ Antonio ? Galveston? Houston? Fort Worth?
Waco? El Paso ? “
Which place:is farther south, Baownsti

f or ae ‘West epee ie



(Texas),





os across it.

ee

Indian Territory.

Bound this territory. What river is on the south?
What river crosses the territory ?

Where is Ardmore? Muscogee? Tahlequah?

Oklahoma.

Bound Oklahoma. Name three rivers that flow
What mountain ridge is in the south ?
' Name the capital. Where is Oklahoma?
Reno? ea

El


182 SOUTHERN STATES.

worked. Gypsum, slate and building stone . many people as it had forty years ago, and the
are found in various portions of these states. wealth of the state is a hundred times greater.

Commerce. — The commerce of this region Texas ranks first in the production of
cotton and live stock. Large
crops of corn and sugar cane
are grown. The northeast is a
wheat region.

Millions of beef cattle are
raised on great ranches in the
west. Hach year, however, the
large ranches become fewer.
Their owners are cutting them
' into farms, for there is more
profit in farming than in rais-
ing cattle.

Fruits of various kinds abound
in the southeast.

East Texas is the state’s chief
lumber district. The lumber
is very large. The leading ports are New product. is worth millions of dollars a year.
Orleans and Galveston. Where are they? Manufacturing has lately made much prog-

Among the products that pass through these ress. Nearly all the mills and factories are
cities are cotton, sugar, cattle, wool and hides. run by steam power.

Austin is the capital, The statehouse is one
of the largest build-








































































































































‘



i

OO



A. Cotton Compress.

THX AS.


































































































































































Texas is the largest state m the
Union. ,

Texas is larger than either Ger-
many or France. Two hundred
and twelve states, each the size of
Rhode Island, could be made out
of Texas. ee :

Before 1835 this great state was part of
Mexico. In that year the Americans living
here set up a republic. War with Mexico
followed. The Texans won, and Texas be-
came free. In 1846 it jomed the United States. Dallas is the

Since that time this state has made great largest city. It has many mills and factories.
progress. The rich soil and fine climate have Grain in large amount is shipped.
drawn people from all parts of this country | San Antonio, the oldest settled place in the
and of Europe. Texas has now ten times as state, is an active business center.







































































































































































































































Scene on a Sheep
Ranch,


SOUTHERN STATES.

Galveston is a great cotton port.
steamers connect this city with several oe the
large seaports in America.
Fort Worth is a railroad center stad nate
market. It exports grain and flour.

. Houston is an important railroad center. It is,

the chief manufacturing city in southern Texas,
and has a large traffic in lumber and cotton.
Waco is an active business point. It exports
farm products in large amounts.
El Paso is noted for its very rapid growth,
The city is a center of trade corel Mexico.
Other important places are:
‘Beaumont, lumber; Bonham,
cotton; Brownsville, commerce;
Denison, manufactures; Laredo,
coal; Orange, lumber; Paris,
flour, cotton-seed oil; Sherman,
cotton, cotton-seed oil.

LOUISLAN A.

There are no
mountains in
this state, and
‘no hill in it is
more than three
hundred feet high. Much of the eastern por-
tion is lower than the surface of the Missis-
sippi, and broad banks of earth have been
built to keep the river from flooding the

country. These earth walls are called levees.

A large part of the land in the south is too
marshy to be plowed, but every year thousands
of acres of this marsh region are drained and
planted with rice.

Many people in Louisiana are of French
descent and speak. the French language.
France once owned Louisiana, but sold 1 it to
the United States in 1803.1

1 At that time Louisiana included a large section around
New Orleans, east of the Mississippi, and also nearly all the
. vast region lying between the Mississippi river and the Rocky
mountains, except Texas and a strip northwest of this state.

Lines of











Cutting Sugar Cane.

138

The chief crops are sugar cane, cotton and
rice. In the production of sugar this state
is the first in the Union. Oranges and figs
grow in abundance.

The manufactures include lumber, cotton-
seed oil, clothing and machinery.

Baton Rouge is the capital.

New Orleans is the leading city in the world
in the export of cotton. It is the chief market
for the sugar product of the country. The
manufactures of
this great city
are growing rap-

idly. (See page
102.)
Shreveport

contains mills
and factories and
has an active ex-
port trade in cot-
ton and corn.

Monroe is an
important river
port.

ARKANSAS.

The northwest of Arkansas is a highland
region. The rest of the state is nearly level.

Farming employs most of the people.
Cotton and corn are the leading products.
Much live stock is raised.

Among the lumber exports are pine, oak
and black walnut.

‘This state yields coal, iron, lead, oilstone
and zinc. The mines are, however, worked
but little.

Little Rock is the capital and largest city.
Cotton is the chief export.

Fort Smith has an active trade with the
Indian Territory.

Hot Springs is a famous health resort.
134

Pine Bluff and Helena are oe cotton
yoarkets.

INDIAN TERRITORY.

This territory is shared among five Indian
tribes, called nations. These are the Chero-
kees, Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws and Chick-
asaws. Many white men have settled among
them.

No nation has any power outside its own
portion of the territory.

_ These Indians have schools, churches and
newspapers.

Grain and cattle are raised in the north.

, SOUTHERN STATES.

Cotton is the chief product of the southern

part.

Ardmore is the largest town.

Tahlequah is the oe of the Cherokee

nation.

OKLAHOMA.

The surface is a rolling prairie, except in
the south. Wheat, corn, oats and cotton are

raised.
plains.

Great herds of cattle graze on the

Guthrie is the capital and largest city.
Oklahoma, El Reno and Kingfisher are grow-
ing centers of trade.

WORD LIST—SOUTHERN STATES.

(WESTERN SECTION.)

—_+o+-—_.

ARDMORE ard/moér Fort WortH
AUSTIN as!tin
GALVESTON
Baton Rovues bat/tin rdozh Cutan
BEAUMONT b6-mont!
BonHAM bén/am
Brazos brii!zos ae
Houston
CHEROKEES chér-d-kéz!
CHICKASAWS chik!a-saz LAREDO
Cuocraws chik!taz Lovisiana
CREEKS — kréks
i IMonroz
Daas dallas
DENISON dén/i-son ;
New Or .eans
Ei Paso él pals6
En Reno él ré/nd OKLAHOMA

wirth

gal!ves-ton
gtith/re

hélle-na
his!ton.

la-ra! dé
100-é-z6-i/na

mon-ré!
nti 6r/le-anz

6k-la-ho!ma

‘Paris

PonrtcHARTRAIN

Rio GRanpDE

SABINE

San ANTONIO
SEMINOLES
SHERMAN
SHREVEPORT

TAHLEQUAH
TRINITY

Waco
WicHITA

par!is
pont-char-tran!

rélo gran!da

sa-bén!

sin. ain-td/ni-6
sém/i-nolz
shér/man
shrév! port

ti/le-kwa,

trin!e-ti

walco
wich!i-ta

Key: le, 4m, arm, final, all; éve, évent, énd, hér, recent ; ice, 1; old, obey, orb, Sn; ise, tip, pus food; ch as in chair;

gasin go; nasin ink; th as im thin.