Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The good ship "duff" and her strange...
 "The night of toil"
 The overthrow of idolatry
 Spreading out
 Carrying the light to other...
 The "messenger of peace" and her...
 The martyred missionary and Western...
 Further extension
 Teaching and training heathen...
 Joining hands to save new...
 Other labourers in the Southern...
 Back Cover

Group Title: The story of the South Seas : written for young people
Title: The story of the South Seas
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082881/00001
 Material Information
Title: The story of the South Seas written for young people
Physical Description: viii, 211, 4 p. : ill., maps, ports. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cousins, George
London Missionary Society ( Publisher )
John Snow & Company ( Publisher )
Butler & Tanner Ltd ( Printer )
Selwood Printing Works ( Printer )
Publisher: London Missionary Society :
John Snow & Co.
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Butler & Tanner ; The Selwood Printing Works
Publication Date: 1894
Edition: Special centenary gift and New Year offering ed.
Subject: Youth -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Missions -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Sailing -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Islands -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Christian life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Indigenous peoples -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Maori (New Zealand people) -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- Oceania   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1894   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1894
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Frome
Statement of Responsibility: by George Cousins ; with maps and many illustrations.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements follow text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082881
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224824
notis - ALG5092
oclc - 216226086

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
    List of Illustrations
        Page viii
    The good ship "duff" and her strange cargo
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    "The night of toil"
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    The overthrow of idolatry
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Spreading out
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Carrying the light to other groups
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    The "messenger of peace" and her useful work
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    The martyred missionary and Western Polynesia
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Further extension
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Teaching and training heathen converts
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Joining hands to save new guinea
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
    Other labourers in the Southern Ocean
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

The Baldwin Library

WmB''Flo o1da

VI -

. .. ... ... .. l:
JANUARY, 1895,


-- -- -- -- -- --





"W written for Voung people

Editorial Secretary and Assistant Foreign Secretary of the London Alissionary Society
Author of From Island to Island in the South Seas "


Special Centenar:g Sitft ant gem gear Offt ing Stiition



etbkicateb to






THIS book is the outcome of the revived interest in the South Seas
which the effort to build the steamer, John Williams, has created. In
reading old books descriptive of the early days of the mission I came
across so many striking facts unknown to the young people of to-day
that a desire to put these facts together in a short connected story
grew strong within me. It seemed also only right that those who had
worked so nobly in raising money for the steamer should possess a
volume that would clearly show them the greatness of the enterprise
which they were helping forward.
The first few pages repeat what appears in the opening chapter of
"From Island to Island," but in an altered form. The remainder is
newly written. The books to which I am specially indebted are:
Ellis's Polynesian Researches," Williams's Missionary Enterprises,"
Buzacott's Mission Life in the Pacific," Turner's Nineteen Yeai-s in
Polynesia," Murray's Western Polynesia," and Forty Years' Mission
Work," Gill's "Gems from the Coral Islands," Dr. Steele's "New
Hebrides and Christian Missions," The Night of Toil," by the author
of the "Peep of Day," and an article entitled "Christian Work in
Polynesia," which appeared in The Missionary Review of the World."
I have to thank my friends the Revs. S. J. Whitmee, F.R.G.S.,
formerly of Samoa, and A. T. Saville, formerly of Huahine, for their
valued help in reading through the proofs.
That the reader may have as much happiness in perusing this
wonderful record of God's power and grace as I have had in writing
it is my most earnest wish.
July 14th, 1894.




MANDER OF THE "DUFF (Frontispiece)
BAND .. 28
[5. POMARE II. 48



S 52 4.
S77 5.

GUINEA. .. 185


And He spake to His disciples that a small ship should wait on Him.
N August, 1796, a ship was sailing down
the river Thames. As she passed along
S crowds of people were to be seen lining the
shores at certain points, who waved their
hats and shouted out "God speed," while
Those on board sang hymns, especially one
which was then a great favourite.:-
"Jesus, at Thy command,
We launch into the deep."
S. The sailors in other ships that they passed
could not make them out. Had they been singing coarse songs, they
would have joined in, but who these hymn-singers were puzzled them
Leaving the river, the ship got out into the channel, and a man-
of-war that was stationed there hailed them with the usual ques-
tions: "What ship is that?" "The Duff." Whither bound ?"
" Otaheite." "What cargo ?" "Missionaries and provisions." Mis-
sionaries and provisions! what could they be? Such a cargo had
never been heard of before; so thinking perhaps that this answer was
meant to deceive him, the captain of the man-of-war ordered an
officer to take a boat, and board the Duff at once. Pulling alongside,
the officer clambered up on deck, was met by the Duff's captain, who
showed him his papers, and finding nothing more than a party of
peaceable men and women on board, who were on their way to a far-


away island of the Pacific, the king's officer could say no more. The
ship was allowed to pass as "all right," and went on her voyage to
that distant ocean.
In those days a missionary ship was quite a new thing, and we
must explain how it was that such a vessel was sailing to Otaheite.
Twelve months before, a number of earnest ministers and other good
Christians had joined together to send the gospel to heathen nations.
They founded what at first they called the The Missionary Society,"
but is now known as the London Missionary Society, and on the very
day that they did so (September 25th, 1795), made up their minds to
begin by sending missionaries to Otaheite or some other islands of the
South Seas. Those were the words they used. A hundred years ago
maps were scarce, and what few there were could not tell their owners
what our maps tell us. Much less was known about the world than
is known now. A school-boy to-day can easily learn more geography
than grown-up people who were fond of books could then. That
accounts for the want of clearness in speaking about the islands.
One thing only was certain, and that was that the first place to which
the newly-formed Society was to
send missionaries was an island of
the South Seas. But why choose
a small. island when large conti-
nents were without the light ?
Partly because those larger lands
were closed against them; partly
because the voyages of Captain
Wallis, Captain Cook, and others,
had aroused much interest in
"Otaheite and "other islands"
of the Southern Ocean; partly
because a noble Christian lady,
Selina, Countess of Huntingdon,
THE REV. DR. HAWEIS. was one whose heart was drawn
to those islands, and through her chaplain, Dr. Haweis,. who was a

director of the new Society, was led to use her influence on their
behalf. So it was settled: India, China, Japan, Africa, were not yet
open to the servants of Christ, but the islands were open, and to them
therefore would they send.
The next step was to fix upon a plan for doing this. An offer
from a gentleman named Captain James Wilson made it easy.
Captain Wilson had passed through strange adventures. His father
was captain of a Newcastle collier, and he himself grew up a rough
and reckless sailor-boy. For a time he served as a soldier in the
American war. Then, leaving America, he went to India, became
captain of a vessel, and served the East India Company. After a
time he was taken prisoner by the French, but managed to make his
escape by jumping down from the prison walls, a height not less than
forty feet. It is a wonder that he did not break his legs. In his
flight he came to a river full of alligators, but not knowing anything
about this he plunged in and swam across to the other side. No
alligator had seized him, but when he climbed up from the river's
bank to some .high ground near, he was seen and again taken
prisoner! not, however, by the French, but by Hyder Ali's soldiers.
Hyder Ali was at that time fighting against the English; so Wilson
was stripped naked, and with his hands tied behind him, and the
rope held by one of the soldiers, he was driven into camp. When
asked where he had come from he simply told the story of his-escape,
but at first was not believed. "No mortal man had ever swum
across the Coleroon," said the chief, "and if he had but dipped his
fingers in its waters, he would have been seized by the alligators."
Upon learning, however, that Wilson spoke the truth, they looked
upon him in wonder, and Hyder said: This is God's man."
Still he was a prisoner of war, and was therefore chained to a
common soldier, and driven, naked, barefoot, and wounded, a distance
of 500 miles. He was at length loaded with irons of thirty-two
pounds weight, and thrust into a horrible prison called the Black
Hole; and, while there, so great at times was the raging of hunger,
that his jaws snapped together of their own accord when his scanty


meal was brought to him. Often the dead body of the man who had
been chained to him was unchained from his arm in the morning that
another living sufferer might take its place to die in the same way.
That he should have lived through such misery for twenty-two months
was next to a miracle. But at length the monster Hyder Ali was sub-
dued, and the doors of the Black Hole were thrown open, when-worn
to a skeleton, naked, half-starved, and covered with ulcers with
thirty-one companions, who alone remained to tell the dismal tale of
their sufferings, Captain Wilson was set free.
Having made enough money to live upon, he resolved to return to Eng-
'land. With this in view he embarked in the same ship in which the
excellent Mr. Thomas, one of the Baptist missionaries, was returning to
England. Mr. Wilson, who boasted that he did not believe in God, had
frequent disputes with Mr. Thomas, who one day remarked to the chief
officer of the vessel that he should have much more hope of converting
the Lascars to Christianity than Captain Wilson. But what man can-
not do God can, and at length, by a series of most interesting, incidents,
he was induced to abandon his unbelief and became an eminent and
devoted Christian. After some years of quiet life at home a copy
of the Evangelical Magazine, announcing the purpose of sending mis-
sionaries to the South Seas, fell into his hands and at once set him
thinking that here was work God was giving him to do. He resolved
that if his services were either needful or acceptable, he would give
up ease and embark once more upon the stormy ocean.
Captain Wilson offered to take charge of any ship that the Society
might buy, and in it convey the missionaries to their far distant home.
In these days of rapid travel there is neither difficulty nor hardship in
reaching the Pacific. A voyage by steamer to Australia, a second by
another steamer to the special group of islands to which he is bound,
or a short passage to America, a railway journey across the prairies,
followed by a second voyage from San Francisco, and in a few short
weeks a missionary is at his work. But a hundred years ago it was
very different. The only way in which missionaries could be taken to
Otaheite was by buying a special vessel, and sending them out in that.


Accepting Captain Wilson's noble offer, the directors bought the good
ship Duff, the first missionary ship that ever sailed the seas, for a sum
of 4,800, while a further sum of 5,000 was expended in fitting her
out with all needful supplies. That was before the days of Sunday
schools. It was to the general public, not to the children, that the
directors looked for help in collecting the money;- but so heartily did
people take up the scheme, that the money came pouring in from all
quarters. The name of Captain Wilson did much to win support; but
besides this, deep interest was felt by many in the novel undertaking.
To us, sending missionaries to the heathen has become almost a matter
of course, but to our grandfathers and great-grandfathers it was quite
.a new thing. Most people laughed at the idea. It seemed to them the
veriest wild-goose chase." "Why trouble oneself about South Sea
Island savages ? said they. "The chances are that the missionaries
will be killed and eaten at a cannibal feast, while as for converting
such people, the thing is impossible." Others thought it wrong even to
attempt this. "If God wishes to convert them," they said, "He will do
it without our aid." On the other hand, many were full of hope about
.the plan; above all, they felt that the command of Jesus Christ was
clear and must be obeyed. Go ye into all the world, and preach the
gospel to every creature," Christ had said, and yet the greater part of
the world had never heard the gospel. We have neglected them too
long," said the earnest ones; let us now be up and doing."
So, on August Ioth, 1796, a party of thirty missionaries embarked
at Gravesend. While Captain Wilson and his friends had been busy
preparing the ship, others had been at work all over the country re-
ceiving offers of service from those willing to go. There had been a
stirring farewell meeting the evening before in the Haberdasher's
Hall, in the city of London, at which they were commended to the
loving care of the Lord of the Harvest, in whose name they were
setting forth. In that party of missionaries there were men of "all
sorts." Four of the thirty were ministers; the rest belonged to various
trades. There were six carpenters, two shoemakers, two bricklayers,
two tailors, two smiths, two weavers, a surgeon, a hatter, a shop-


keeper, a cotton manufacturer, a cabinet maker, a draper, a harness
maker, a gentleman's servant who had become a tin-worker, a cooper,
and a butcher. Only six of them were married. There were also
three children.
This was the missionary party that sailed down the Thames as
described on the first page.
Otaheite, to which they were bound, is the principal island of what
is sometimes called, after King George
the Third, in whose reign Captain
Wallis of H.M.S. Dolphin landed and
S: hoisted the British flag, the Georgian,
but more commonly, the Society group.
It was discovered by a Spaniard in
S 1606, and was visited, not only by
Captain Wallis but also by Captain
Bligh in the Bounty, and also several
times by Captain Cook between the
years 1769 and 1778. The island lies
in I7045' S. lat., and 149 30' W. long.,
is thirty-five miles long, and consists
of two peninsulas. Captain Cook
called it by its native name Otaheite,
CAPTAIN COOK. or O Tahiti. The 0, however, is no
real part of the name, and was soon dropped.' A smaller island,
Moorea, or Eimeo,2 is situated about ten miles from the mainland.
Tahiti is well known now, and is much admired by all who visit it
as one of the loveliest spots ever seen. Travellers of all nations join
in its praise. Its beauty is most striking. The island is of volcanic
origin, and its lofty sharply-cut mountain peaks, its deep thickly
I The O is an article used before proper nouns. For instance, the natives speak
of O Beritani = (Great) Britain, and O Viriamu (John) Williams. When Captain
Cook and others asked the name of the island, the reply was O Tahiti," and this mis-
led them.
2 So called in all the earlier records, but on what authority is unknown. Its only
native name is Moorea.


wooded valleys, and its rich fruits and beautiful flowers make it quite
a gem of the ocean. Many additions have been made to what were
found in the island when Europeans first settled there, and to-day
bananas, oranges, cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit trees, yams, sweet potatoes,
sugar-cane, pine-apples, and many other fruits abound. A coral reef
serves as a breakwater, and shuts out the swell of the Pacific. Inside
the reef the water is as quiet and smooth as a lake.
The natives belong to the light-skinned branch of the Malayo-
Polynesian race, a people who have spread over many parts of the world,
and are to be found in the Malayan Archipelago, in many parts
of the Pacific, in New Zealand, and, strangest of all, in the far distant
island of Madagascar. Visitors to Tahiti are always struck with
the merry, light-hearted, laughing, rollicking character of the inhabi-
tants. They are an easy-going, good-tempered folk. This has its.
pleasant side, but, on the other hand, has made them morally weak and.
vicious. In the days of their barbarism they were about as corrupt
and impure in thought, speech, and conduct as any nation ever heard.
of ; and even to-day, in the ports, there is gross vice and wickedness-
But we are going too fast, and must return to the Duff and her
strange cargo. It was not until the 23rd of September that she actually
started on her voyage. She had been detained for three weeks at
Spithead, waiting for a British man-of-war to see her safely out of the
reach of French frigates, for England and France being then at war
with each other, it was not safe for a ship to sail alone. A week later
she had got far enough away to do this, so she parted from the man-
of-war and steered for Rio Janeiro, the capital of Brazil, in South
America, which she reached in seven weeks. After a stay of a week
she again set sail. Captain Wilson intended to take her to the Pacific
by the nearer route round Cape Horn. Once round that terrible
Cape, he would have steered to the west, and reached Tahiti in three
or four weeks; but so fierce were the gales he met with that his plan
had to be given up, and, turning the ship's head, the longer voyage to
the east taken instead. This added seven thousand miles to the dis-
tance. For ninety-seven days the Duff sailed on over the dreary


waste of waters, seeing neither land nor ship. How weary all on
board became! How eagerly did they long for the sight of land!
One evening the captain bade them be of good cheer, for if the wind
changed a little during the night, he thought they would be near an
island the next morning. The captain was right, and as soon as

it began to grow light the following day there came the welcome cry
from the man at the masthead: Land, 0!" The land proved to be
Tubuai, one of the Austral Islands; so passing it the Duff still
sailed northwards until, on Saturday, March 4th, the lofty peaks of
Tahiti came in sight, and the hearts of all were made glad. The next
morning, which was Sunday, the ship entered Matavai Bay, on the


north side of the island, and dropping her anchor, ended her long and
wearying voyage. That was a red-letter day in the history of missions,
a day to be held in grateful memory to the end of time.
As soon as she came to anchor the ship was surrounded by natives.

Some in canoes, some simply swimming, they swarmed about her, and
were speedily climbing up on to her deck. They were not in the least
afraid; indeed, being now used to the visits of foreign vessels, they
had come bringing pigs, fowls, fish, and fruit, which they offered for



sale in exchange for knives, axes, and other things they liked. But
as it was Sunday no one would buy. Chattering, laughing, and danc-
ing, they roamed all over the vessel, seemed to feel quite at home, and
took great interest in all they saw. The missionaries held Sunday
service on deck. This seemed greatly to surprise and amuse their
heathen visitors, who, of course, were quite unable to understand what
they were doing. The singing was the only part of the service that
seemed to impress them: that they evidently enjoyed. The hymn the
Englishmen sang was the one that begins with the verse:

"O'er the gloomy hills of darkness,
Look, my soul, be still and gaze;
All the promises do travail
With a glorious day of grace !
Blessed jubilee,
Let thy glorious morning dawn."

The hearts of those Christian men and women were full to overflowing.
For many months they had been looking forward to that day and
daily praying for its arrival, whilst slowly sailing more than half-
way round the earth. At last they were off Tahiti, face to face
with the people they were to teach the way of salvation. With
gratitude to their loving Father, who had had them in His safe keep-
ing, with a yearning desire to lead these degraded, ignorant islanders
to His feet, with inward'fears, perhaps, as the difficulties of their task
became clearer to their minds, they poured forth both praise and
prayer, thanking God for His many mercies, and beseeching Him to
bless and establish the work of their hands."
Two Swedish sailors, Peter and Andrew by name, who were able
to speak both English and Tahitian, coming off in a canoe, it became
possible to let the natives know for what purpose the Duff had come.
One of these Swedes had been shipwrecked on Tahiti, the other had
been left there by a passing vessel. Though white men, they were
living just as the natives lived. Several chiefs had come on board.
One of them, an old man to whom the others paid much respect, named
Haamanemane, was of high rank and great power. He was an aged

chief of the neighboring island of Raiatea, and high priest to the
idol gods of Tahiti. In writing home the missionaries often had some-
thing to say about this old man. He was very anxious to make
Captain Wilson his taio," or special friend. This was a custom in
Tahiti. People chose one another as friends, made presents to them,
and looked for presents in return. Haamanemane thought that the
captain of a ship would be a friend of the right sort, from whom he
would easily obtain many useful gifts. To humour him, Captain
Wilson agreed, and became his taio." With the help of Peter the
Swede and Haamanemane, messages were sent to the king and queen,
and arrangements made for a formal landing. This took place on
Tuesday, March 7th, though Captain Wilson and one or two of the
missionaries had been on shore the day before. A large crowd awaited
the party, the king and queen being among them. As the boat neared
the shore some of the natives rushed into the water, seized the boat,
and hauled her aground; then, taking the captain and .missionaries
on their backs, carried them dry to the beach. The king and queen
were riding on men's shoulders, as they always did when out of their
own abode. Whenever they left their house they were carried, and in
changing from the shoulders of one man to another were not allowed
to touch the ground. The reason for that was very simple. All land
that they touched became their own, and as their people did not wish
to lose their lands or houses, they were willing to carry them about.
The king welcomed the new comers. He and his people were greatly
pleased to learn that these white visitors had come to stay. We
may be sure that they hoped themselves to be the gainers, that
they would often be able to beg and steal, and their island grow
richer at the white men's expense. Then, knowing already how
much wiser and more skilful than themselves the white men they
had seen were, perhaps some of the more thoughtful natives expected
to profit by this wisdom, and make it their own. But there was one
thing they, at that time, knew nothing about. They did not know
that it was from a desire to lead them to God, to bring them out of
darkness into light," and to make them "new creatures in Christ


Jesus," that these strangers had left their homes and come so far. For
the present that was hidden from their eyes.
To show his goodwill and pleasure, the king, through Haamane-
mane, the high priest, granted to the missionaries the use of a large
and roomy house, and also handed over to them the whole district of
Matavai in which they had landed. The house was io8 feet long by
48 feet broad. It had been built by the king for Captain Bligh, of the
Bounty, on his visit a few years before, and was called Fare Beritani,
i.e. British House. A few days later this grant of land was formally
ratified, and the event was afterwards made the subject of a painting,
an engraving of which appears on the opposite page. Thus the mission
in Tahiti, the first of many which the London Missionary Society has
had the honour and joy of founding, was fairly begun.
The first week was a busy one, for the house had to be got ready,
boxes to be landed, and many things to be done, but by Saturday,
March IIth, exactly a week from the day they first sighted the island,
the missionaries' wives and children were taken on shore to spend
their first night in Tahiti. They were rowed to land in the largest
boat the ship had, and a very large crowd had gathered on the beach
to see them land. For the first time in their lives the natives saw
white women and white boys and girls. They were greatly delighted.
At first the king and queen were afraid to come near or to speak to
the women, but after a time went with them into their house. The
crowd remained outside, and every now and then shouted out a request
that the ladies and children might be brought to the door for them to
have another peep at them.
The king Otu, his wife Idia, and his father, Pomare, went in their
canoe to visit the ship nearly every day. Pomare was very fond of
eating and drinking. Once when he dined with the captain he ate the
whole of a fowl and two pounds of boiled pork, besides drinking a great
deal of wine. The wine was poured down his throat by his servants.
He was also a very greedy man, and untruthful. When he made
presents it was always with the hope of getting larger ones in return.
The first day he went to the ship he took with him four large pieces

CEDING MATAVAI TO THE MISSION. (From an old ngraving.)


of cloth, made of bark, and wrapped them round the captain, also four
more as a present from his wife. A few days afterwards he came
again with another piece of cloth, but bringing also -a large chest.
The captain knew that Pomare meant him to fill this chest with pre-
sents, but pretending not to know, asked him what it was for. Pomare
felt ashamed to tell the truth, so made an excuse, and said that the
lock wanted mending. Take it back to the shore then," said Captain
Wilson," and one of the missionaries, who is a blacksmith, will mend
it for you." Poor Pomare was in a fix, but at length, with a smile,
confessed: It is for the presents that you will give to me and my
wife. Will you take it to your cabin, that my people may not see
what I receive." In the cabin he asked for ten axes, five shirts, eight
looking-glasses, six pairs of scissors, six knives, fifty nails, and five
combs for himself, and the same number for his wife, besides an iron
pot, a:razor, and a blanket ifor his own especial use. The captain gave
him all these things, and locked them safely in the box (for there was
nothing wrong with the lock), but as he walked about the ship Pomare
saw many other things that he wanted, nor was he too modest to beg
for them.
Captain Wilson was much cheered by his success, and leaving
eighteen missionaries in Tahiti, went on in the Duff to other islands.
He was absent three months, during which he visited the Friendly
Islands, and landed ten missionaries on Tongatabu, an island of that
group. There the islanders laid a plot to seize his ship and murder
all on board. One night, when the weather was thick, four natives
paddled off in a canoe, intending to cut the ship's cable, so that
she might be wrecked upon the reef, which was only half a mile
astern. But they kept quiet, at. a distance from the Duff, until
midnight, no doubt fancying that they had not been observed.
Happily, however, in this they were mistaken. Through the gloom
the man on watch had caught sight of the canoe. The crew there-
upon prepared to receive the visitors in a way .they did not expect.
For this purpose a :number of cocoa-nut husks were piled up at the
ship's bow, -and sentinels with quick-eyes and brawny arms were

stationed, there, eagerly awaiting the expected visit. Bending down,
and watching in silence, at length they saw the canoe begin to
move towards the Duff stealthily and softly, like a crouching tiger.
On came the savages, nearer and nearer to the ship, thinking all
the time that they were unseen, until the canoe was under the bow,
and they were within reach of the cable. Instantly the signal was
given to the sailors; up they sprang, and poured down a terrible
volley of hard husks upon the unshielded heads and naked bodies of
the natives. Though more frightened than hurt, the next moment
these all jumped overboard, swimming for their lives, and leaving the
canoe a prize to the conquerors. The issue was amusing; but had
these men cut the cable, it was Captain Wilson's opinion that nothing
could have saved the ship.
From Tongatabu the Duff went to the Marquesas Isles, which lie
to the north-east of Tahiti, and having surveyed several of these,
and placed one missionary on shore, returned to Tahiti. Captain
Wilson's intention was to leave two missionaries in the Marquesas,
but one of them,- it is sad to record, lost heart, and refused to
stay. Nothing daunted, his companion, a noble young fellow of
thorough missionary spirit, resolved to remain alone. He trusted in
God, and God was with him. First at Santa Christina in the Mar-
quesas group, subsequently in Tahiti, this young man-Mr. Crook-
did good service for his Master, and as the earliest example of a man
willing for Christ's sake to live alone among barbarous idolaters in a
small island, his name deserves to be held in esteem.
A nine days' voyage brought the ship back in safety to Matavai
Bay, and it was a joy alike to those on board and those on shore to
meet once more and report all well. The natives had been friendly,
the supply of food ample for all needs, and the health of the entire
party all that could be wished. Captain Wilson therefore decided to
land the iron, tools, and general supplies for the mission he had
brought out with him, and then set sail on his homeward journey.
While this work was in progress, his nephew, Mr. W. Wilson, who
had come out from England with him, made a tour of the island. A


month thus passed, and then bidding one another an affectionate fare-
well, the missionaries parted from their kind and honoured friend, the
captain, whose face they never saw again. Dr. Graham, the doctor of
the mission, made up his mind to return to England. The rest settled
down to their new life, and prepared themselves for the serious tasks
that awaited them. As the Duff sailed away and slowly faded from
their sight, they felt cut off from the outside world, and cast upon the
guidance, protection, and support of their Heavenly Father. Captain
Wilson first coasted along the picturesque island of Huahine, then
made for Tongatabu, where he spent nearly three weeks with the
missionaries he had stationed there, and finally sailed for Canton in
search of a cargo., Successful in this, he returned in safety to the
Thames, in which he came to anchor on July IIth, 1798, a little less
than two years from the date of his departure for Otaheite." We
have not," writes Mr. W. Wilson, the captain's nephew, who compiled
an account of the voyage, lost a single individual; we have hardly
ever had a sick-list; we landed every missionary in perfect health;
and every seaman returned to England as well as on the day he em-
barked." So ended the first voyage of the first missionary ship.'
S" The return of the Duffwas hailed by thousands with gratitude and delight. In
London and elsewhere special services were held to render public thanks to Him
whom wind and waves obey; and it was immediately resolved again to equip and
send forth the good ship upon another errand of mercy to the same promising sphere
of labour. Many earnest men offered their service as missionaries; and an appeal
from the Directors met with such a response, that money and stores came pouring in
upon them from all parts of the country. As good Captain Wilson's health would not
permit him to undertake this second voyage, he was succeeded by one of the officers
of the ship, Captain Robson. So prompt and energetic were the preparations, that on
the 19th of December, 1798, the Duff, with about thirty missionaries for Tongatabu,
the Marquesas, the Society, the Samoan, and the Fiji Islands, under the convoy of
the Amphion frigate, set sail from Spithead."-Missionary Ships.
The second voyage proved as disastrous as the first had been prosperous, for on
February 19th, 1799, when off the coast of South America, the Dfffell an easy prey
to the French privateer, the Buonaparte, and was taken into Monte Video as a prize.
After enduring many privations, the missionaries eventually got back to England.

Dark places of the earth full of the habitations of cruelly."

OR a time all went smoothly with the
missionary party at Matavai. Pomare,
the king's father, Otu, the king, Haa-
manemane, the high-priest, Paitia, the chief
of the district, and other men of island
S renown, vied with each other in showing
friendliness and in liberally supplying
them with such food as the island pro-
duced. As soon, therefore, as the mis-
sionaries had made their house comfort-
able, they began in different ways to fulfil
9 _ry- a_ their mission, some at the bench and the
o. ,%.cs.l forge, others by attempts to learn the
__language. The former could begin at
once. When the Tahitians saw them use
their carpenters' tools, cut with a saw eight or ten boards from one
tree-two being the largest number they had ever been able to obtain
themselves-they were loud in their praises of the skill of the work-
men. When' from these boards they made tables, chests and other
articles of furniture, their delight increased, and they hung around
watching, and chattering to each other, their faces beaming with
surprise and pleasure. Their pleasure and surprise were greatly
increased when to other tasks that of building a boat twenty feet
long and of six tons burden was added. Day by day they watched its
progress with keen interest. But what amazed them most was the


blacksmith's shop, and their first insight into the mysteries of anvil
and forge. They had long been acquainted with the uses of iron,
having procured some from a neighboring island, where it had been
obtained from a Dutch vessel that had been wrecked; but they had no
idea how it was worked. When, therefore, the heated iron was ham-
mered on the anvil, and the sparks flew among them, they fancied it
was spitting at them, and were frightened, as they also were by the
hissing caused by plunging it into the water trough; yet great was
their delight to see the bar of iron turned into hatchets, adzes, fishing
spears, and hooks. Pomare, entering one day when the blacksmith
was busy at the forge, after staring in silent amazement for a time
was so impressed by what he saw, that he caught up the smith in his
arms,, all dirty and hot as he was, hugged him fondly, and rubbed
noses with him.
While some of the missionaries were thus occupied with useful arts
which at once won the hearts of the natives, others explored the sur-
rounding district, planted the seeds they had brought with them from
England, and sought to gain a mastery of the language. This was a
difficult thing to do, for they had no books to aid them-even the al-
phabet had not yet been formed; nor had they any competent teacher.
Peter, the Swede, knew a little, and could interpret their wishes,
but he was a man of low education and bad character, and therefore,
in some ways, more of a hindrance than a help. The natives them-
selves were the most useful teachers, for, being fond of talking, they
would patiently repeat words, tell the names of things the missionaries
touched, correct their mistakes, and try to make themselves under-
stood. But, though gradually adding to their knowledge of words
and construction, it was not for several years that the missionaries
saw their way to settle how to write the language, fix its alphabet,
and so, for the first time, reduce to writing one of the many different
tongues which South Sea Islanders speak.
In the meantime important changes had occurred. Friendliness
on the part of chiefs, and even on the part of the people, did not check
their evil habits. They looked with wonder upon their foreign


neighbours, but mingled with wonder were thoughts and feelings of
another sort. They were terrible thieves, from the king downwards.
His servants were obliged to steal as a part of their daily duty. And
others were like them. One day the clothes of a missionary were
stolen while he was bathing. The thief was caught, brought to the
house, and chained to a pillar with a padlock; but he managed to
get away, and, clever rogue that he was, stole the padlock by which
he had been made fast. Seeing that the missionaries had so many
more things than they had themselves, the people began to carry off
all that they could lay hands on, and even went the length of digging
holes underneath the walls of their shops, and right through to the
inside, in this way making a passage by which they could "break
through and steal." Clothing, tools, anything and everything made of
iron, were the greatest attraction; but the culprits were not over-nice
in their choice, and it was only by keeping a very strict look-out that
the missionaries were able to retain any. of their property. There
was also a threat to attack them. Even Peter, the Swede, was found
plotting against them, and their troubles grew thicker as the days
went on. So sad at heart did this make them that in March, 1798, a
year from the date of their landing, more than half of them left the
island in a passing vessel that called, and on reaching Sydney gave
up the work.
The rest, however, held bravely on, though their faith and patience
were sorely tested. It was two years after they left home before they
received their first letters. .That was but one of many trials they
had to undergo. By no means the least of these was found in the
terrible nature of Tahitian heathenism. As this became more clear
to the missionaries, their hearts were filled with grief and horror.
There was one god who was supposed to protect thieves; and when
they were going to steal, they often promised to give him part of
what they should get. A man who had been stealing a pig in the .
night would bring a piece of its tail to Hiro next morning and say:
" Here is a piece of the pig I stole last night; but don't tell anybody."
There was a large stone in the island, behind which they said Hiro


hid himself when he was caught stealing, and was ashamed. With
such a god, no wonder that the people were thieves. Then the mis-
sionaries found out that many cruel customs prevailed, especially the
killing of infants, and the offering of human sacrifices to Oro, the
chief god of war.. War was supposed to be the favourite pursuit of
this deity. Nothing gave him such pleasure as the sight and smell
of blood. Victims laid at his feet were always besmeared with their
own blood, for only when thus presented would Oro accept them.
When war was about to be undertaken, the first act was to offer a
human sacrifice to Oro. The image of the god was brought out, the
victim slain and presented, and a red feather taken from the idol
given to the offerers, who carried it in triumph to their companions,
as the symbol of Oro's favour and sanction to the fight. During the
war similar sacrifices were made, the number being fixed by the
importance of the undertaking in hand, or by the strength of the
enemy's forces. Another special ceremony was the building of a
house for the gods and spirits, who were supposed to be fighting on
their side, to live in. The work was begun and the house completed in
a single day, which was sacred to the one task of building it. Nobody
was allowed to touch food, no fire was lighted, no canoe launched
until the work was finished; and at the foot of the central pillar the
body of a man offered in sacrifice was laid. Into this house the
images of the spirits and gods were sometimes taken, but more com-
monly they were left undisturbed in their "maraes" or temples, and
only feathers taken from their images placed in the house.
And what were these images ? As a rule, the idols of Tahiti, and
of the Pacific generally, were shapeless pieces of wood, from one to
four or more feet long, covered with cinet of cocoa-nut fibre, and
adorned with yellow or scarlet feathers. Oro was a straight log of
hard casuarina wood, six feet in length, uncarved, but decorated with
feathers. The supreme deity of the island was Taaroa, the creator
of the world, the former and father of gods and men. His image, to-
gether with many another Polynesian god, has long been a trophy in
the museum of the London Missionary Society, and is now exhibited


as a permanent loan from that Society in one of the galleries of the
British Museum. It is nearly four feet high, and twelve or fifteen
inches broad, carved out of a solid piece of close, white, hard wood.
His face and body are studded with small figures intended to symbol-
ise the multitudes of divine and human beings. he has made. His
body is hollow, the back being in fact a door; and when the image
was taken away from the temple at Rurutu, in which for many
generations Taaroa had been worshipped, a number of small idols
were found lying in the hollow. Most likely they had been placed
there in order to receive supernatural powers before removal to some
new shrine.
The object of man's worship affects the thoughts, feeling, and
character of the worshipper, and such gods as those described could
not but darken and degrade the Tahitiain mind. Verily the dark
places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty; and though
charming to the eye and marked by beautiful scenery, these jewels of
the Southern Seas were the home of gross ignorance and barbarity.
Adult murder was sometimes heard of; many were slain in war
others were, as already stated, offered in sacrifice; but the sum total
of deaths from these causes combined was altogether over-balanced
by those who were killed while young. The practice of slaying in-
fants was general through the South Seas. A few weeks after the
missionaries landed Pomare's own wife killed her baby, and was very
angry when they let her know that this grieved them. Whether
they liked it or not, she said, she should follow the custom of her
country. As a matter of course, without shame. or any attempt to
hide the deed, children were destroyed at the birth. Writing many
years later, Mr. Ellis states that the early missionaries reckoned, and
later research had confirmed the correctness of their figures, that not
less than two-thirds of the children born were killed by their own
parents. In many homes the first three infants were killed. Of
twins one was always slain. In the largest families only two or three
children were to be found, while the numbers that were made away
1 Polynesian Researches," vol. i., p. 251 ff.

OFFERING A IUMAN SACRIFICE. (Pr-Oll l; O ld C? riav .)

-V' v


with were twice or three times as many as those that were spared.
At the end of thirty years' service as a missionary Mr. Nott gave as
his experience that he had not known a single mother brought up in
the old heathen customs who had not been guilty of baby killing.
But we will not further enlarge upon such horrible and unnatural
conduct. It sprang from the evil that belongs to heathenism. The
marriage tie was a very loose one, and husbands and wives often left
one another; many men had several wives; and men and women
alike had no rule of life but their own selfish desires.
Struggling with the difficulties of a language that had never been
put into writing, face to face with corrupt and enslaving idolatry,
compelled to witness scenes and hear sounds that filled them with
sorrow and many misgivings, the band of missionaries faithfully
toiled on. In 18oo the building of a chapel was commenced with the
king's consent, and Messrs. Nott and Jefferson soon began to give
public addresses. This was the first building ever erected on a South
Sea Island for the worship of the living God. When it was nearly
finished Pomare sent a fish as an offering to Jesus Christ, requesting
that it might be hung up in the building, so little did he understand
its true character. Two or three small schools were also started. A
year or two later some of the missionaries took a tour round the island,
and visited all the different villages. They were received with hospi-
tality, and Mr. Nott preached to about three thousand people. But
fighting between rival chiefs was frequent, and many of the islanders
were in great distress, yet the efforts of missionaries to bring the
strife to a peaceful end seemed in vain.
.In the meantime they had been anxiously awaiting the return of
the Duff with letters, supplies, and more missionaries. At the end of
1799 a ship called, from which they heard of her capture, and it was
not until July, 180o, that they were cheered by the arrival of the Royal
Admiral, the vessel which the directors had chartered in her place.
The same ship that brought them the disappointing tidings about the
Duff carried also a letter telling them that three of their brethren
on Tongatabu had been murdered, that the rest had been obliged to


flee, and that the mission there was broken up. In after years the
work was begun once more, and under the Wesleyans, carried on with
success; but for a time Tonga seemed closed against, the gospel.
By the year 1805 the brethren in Tahiti knew enough about the
language to enable them to settle how to write it, and to prepare
a reading primer; they had also made a small vocabulary. Still
they were in the greatest difficulty. None of the natives seemed to
care for the message of salvation, while, owing to war between
Great Britain and France, no letters or boxes of clothes and pro-
visions reached them. For five years they had neither! Indeed, it
looked as if the first mission of the London Missionary Society were
-about to end in complete failure. Some catechisms and spelling books
.had been prepared, and were sent to England to be printed. But in
1808 war again broke out between King Pomare and other chiefs,
whereupon about half of the remaining missionaries left Tahiti,
thinking it useless any longer to stay. To make matters worse,
Pomare was defeated, and the rest of the missionaries, who had taken
refuge in the camp, fled to the neighboring island of Moorea for safety.
The mission buildings at Matavai were then burnt by the rebels, their
gardens and plantations were destroyed, their cattle seized, and all the
property which they had been unable to carry away with them was
stolen. Some of the brethren left Moorea for Huahine, where others
had previously gone, and there carried on work for a time; but most
of them sailed for Sydney on the first opportunity. Several then gave
up the work. Mr. Nott, however, remained with Pomare. Mr. Hay-
ward also joined him from Huahine.
The night was at its darkest in 181o. Seemingly all the efforts put
forth had been in vain. But it was not so. Be not weary in well-
doing; for in due season ye shall reap, if ye faint not." So wrote the
Apostle Paul, and his words are true for all ages. In 1811 the first
streaks of dawn began to appear. Mr. Bricknell, who had been to
England, returned to Australia, bringing a wife with him. He also
brought four ladies, three of whom soon married missionaries: These
then went back to Moorea, and by the beginning of 1812 there were in


the island Mr. Nott, Mr. and Mrs. Bricknell, Mr. and Mrs. Hayward,
Mr. and Mrs. Davies, Mr. and Mrs. Scott, Mr. and Mrs. Wilson, and
Mr. Henry. Not. only was there a good staff of workers, but the work
itself was about to grow greatly. The night of toil was ending; the
dawn of a new day was about to set in.


And the idols He shall ullerly abolish."
SING POMARE, that is Otu, son of Pomare I.,
more generally known as Pomare II., was
in trouble. As we have seen, many of his
subjects were in open revolt against him,
and as an exile from his own island he was
living in Moorea. His troubles softened his heart.
To begin with, the idols in which he had put his
trust had failed him. His enemies had proved
stronger than he. Then, as the result of frequent
talks with Mr. Nott and other missionaries, he had
begun to grasp the real meaning of Christian truth.
Their friendship for him had also impressed him.
Gradually his mind was receiving light, and he
showed in different ways that he was no longer
bound by his former regard for the gods of his fathers.
The Tahitians looked upon turtles as sacred animals, and before a
turtle was cooked and eaten, it was taken first to the king and then
sent by him to the idol temple to be roasted with sacred fire. In the
spring of 1812 a turtle was caught, and the king's servants were for
carrying it to the temple as usual; but Pomare called them back, and
told them to cook it in his own oven, just as they cooked other food,
and said that he would have it for his dinner. The servants thought
that he was either out of his mind, or was joking; yet, finding him to
be in earnest, they were obliged to obey. As the king eat the turtle,
the servants and others stood round in great terror, expecting him to
be seized with a fit, or to drop down dead. Pomare asked them to join


him at the feast, boldly telling them that the gods could do them no
harm;. but they were all much too frightened to do so, and still ex-
pected to see him punished for his conduct. He was, however, none
the worse for what he had done, and his faith in the power of the idols
was still further weakened.
On the I8th of July, 1812, Pomare had a serious talk with the
missionaries, which filled their hearts with praise to God. He came
to them of his own accord and began in this way: "You do not
know the thought of my heart, nor I yours, but God does." He then
went on to say that he wished to be baptized, as he had made up his
mind to serve Jehovah and to follow the guidance of Jehovah's
servants, and he finished with the words: I want you to pray for me."
That was welcome news for the missionaries to hear, but they
" rejoiced with trembling." One of them at once made answer:
" We have never ceased to pray for you, and it would indeed make us
happy to see you give your heart to God. As soon as we feel sure of
this we will gladly baptize you." Pomare again fell back upon the
thought that God knew what was in his heart: You do not know
my heart, nor I yours; but he who made men, knows their hearts and
whether they speak truth or falsehood to each other." When, how-
ever, the missionaries pointed out to him that it was not the custom to
baptize heathen people until they had first been carefully taught, the
king agreed to wait and to leave it with them to say when they
thought he might be baptized.
But as a token of his earnestness he begged that if he could not be
baptized, he might be allowed to build a large chapel to take the place
of the one they were then using, which was certainly too small. He
said too that he had been speaking to Tamatoa, the king of Raiatea,
and to Tapoa, the leading chief of Raiatea, urging them also to give
up their idols and turn to the living God, but that they had refused,
saying: You may do as you like; as for us, we mean to keep to
Oro." Pomare seemed to be thoroughly sincere, and the missionaries
thanked God and took courage." Still they thought it wise to wait
for a time and watch for the signs of a true change of heart. The


new chapel was hardly begun before Pomare was called back to Tahiti.
Two chiefs came over and told the king that, if he returned, they
would try to get the dispute between him and his people settled, and a
lasting peace secured. When the missionaries heard of this, and saw
Pomare depart, they feared lest he should yield to evil habits once
more and forget his
promise to obey God.
Happily, their fears
were groundless, for the
letters that the king
wrote to them showed
that the Spirit of God
was working in his
mind and making him
feel that he was a sin-
ner needing pardon at
.- the hands of his Maker.
He grew anxious also
about the things he had
to do as king. At one
time he had been ready
-to kill any one who
made him angry; now
he began to wonder
whether it was right to
kill even thieves who
had been caught steal-
ing cloth and books.
A BRIDE ADORNED FOR HER HUSBAND. Nor did he in any way
try to hide the fact that he had given up faith in idols, and had be-
come a worshipper of Jehovah. Many of his followers laughed at
him for becoming a Christian; others told him in scorn that this was
the cause of all the trouble they were having in the island. The gods
were angry, they said, because he had ceased to treat them with proper


respect. As the missionaries heard of these things they could no
longer doubt that Pomare was a a new creature in Christ Jesus,"
that "old things had passed away and all things become new." The
king had lived a very wicked life in the past: he had been a bad man;
but Christ had come to save sinners, and Pomare was feeling the
power of His grace and love. Not only so; others were coming to
the light. God's faithful servants had thought that their past labours
had all been in vain, but were now learning that they were mistaken
Their words, and more powerfully still their godly lives, had set many
a Tahitian thinking. They had sown in tears," now they were to
" reap in joy."
The people in Moorea, where they were for the time living, were
quite ready to listen to their teaching. Tidings also came over from
Tahiti that there too men were beginning to seek after God. This joy-
ful news made them decide to send two of their number across to see
whether the report was true. Mr. Scott and Mr. Hayward were
chosen for this mission. Landing in Tahiti, they spent the first night
in a native hut. Early in the morning they rose and each walked into
the bush near to find a quiet spot in which to pray. Native houses
had but one room, and privacy was unknown. As Mr. Scott was thus
engaged, to his great surprise he heard the voice of a native speaking
as it seemed to him in prayer. Quietly drawing near to listen, he
heard a Tahitian lifting up heart and voice in praise to the only living
and true God. It was the first time that on Tahiti itself he had heard
a native pray, and tears of joy filled his eyes as he listened. At first he
wanted to rush out and throw his arms around the Tahitian's neck and
claim him as a Christian brother; but checking himself, he allowed him
to go away, and then, kneeling down himself, he poured out his soul in
adoration and thanksgiving to the great Father above, whose Spirit had
at last brought a Tahitian to Himself. Afterwards they found out that
this man's name was Oito (subsequently it was changed to Petero), and
that he and another called Tuahine,1 who had acted as his teacher,
Tuahine became one of the most devoted and useful of native Christians. He
helped Mr. Nott in his work of translating the Bible into the Tahitian, and afterwards


both of whom at one time had lived with the missionaries as servants,
were known to have given up idols and many evil habits. Several
more had joined them, until there was quite a band of them, chiefly
lads and young men, who without any missionary to guide them, were
wont to find their way into lonely valleys and woods, and there spend
their Sundays in prayer and quiet talk together about God.
Mr. Scott and Mr. Hayward went round the island of Tahiti preach-
ing the gospel to the people. But before they started they wrote to
their brethren in Moorea, to tell them the joyful tidings about these
young men. "Behold he prayeth were the words with which the
Lord sought to show Ananias that Saul, the persecutor, was a changed-
man; and this letter telling of young Tahitians who were praying to
God sent a thrill of gladness through the hearts of good Mr. Nott and
his companions when they received it. For sixteen weary years some
of them had been longing for such a token of God's presence and
power. Tears of happiness rolled down their cheeks as they read the
cheering words. God had heard their cry, and at last was sending
them the very answer for which they had prayed. After their tour of
the island the two missionaries went back to Moorea; and as Tahiti
was a very wicked place and greatly disturbed with rumours of war,
and as they wished to give their newly-found converts fuller teaching
and guidance, they asked them to return with them to Moorea and
there attend school. Tuahine, Oito and the rest were only too glad to
follow this good advice, and so the entire party set sail.
Very soon after this a great move forward was made. For some
time the missionaries had known that there were a good many of the
natives who were desirous of turning from dumb idols to serve the
living God, and they thought of a plan by which they might find out
who they were. The chapel which Pomare had ordered to be built
was ready for opening, and although the king himself was in Tahiti
and could not join in the opening services, it was set apart for the
worship of God on Sunday, July 25, 1813. The missionaries had
did the same for Mr. Williams. He was for many years Mr. Williams's right hand at


built a small chapel for their own use soon after their arrival at Mata-
vai, and of course had always kept up Sunday services, to which some
of the natives came, but the chapel at Moorea was the first ever raised
in the South Seas for native use. There are hundreds of such chapels
all over the Pacific to-day connected with the different missionary
societies which are at work there; but that at Moorea, built by the ex-
press desire of Pomare II., was the first; and although many later ones

would put it to shame for size, style, and appearance, its honour is all
its own.
. On the day of opening, at the close of the evening service, Mr. Davies
gave notice that a meeting would be held the next morning for all who
were willing to cast away their idols. These were specially invited to
come and have their names written down in a book. Forty natives
came on the Monday morning. After singing and prayer, Mr. Nott
gave them an address explaining yet more fully what the object of the


meeting was, and why they wanted them to give up idolatry and
boldly show that they had done so. Each native was spoken to per-
sonally, and thirty-one of them agreed to have their names recorded.
Among the first of these were Tuahine and Oito. Others said that
they no longer trusted in idols, indeed that they had given them up,
but that they did not wish to have their names written down. The
thirty-one were asked to come together often for further teaching, and
thus the foundation was laid for a South Sea Island Christian Church.
Eleven others soon joined the thirty-one, among them being the young
chief of Huahine, and another man, who, as chief priest of Huahine,
had been one of the chief pillars of idolatry.
A few months later, on January I6th, 1814, one of the greatest
enemies of the gospel died. This was Idia, the king's mother. She
had always been friendly to the missionaries themselves, but was
bitterly opposed to their teaching. Heathen thought, heathen worship,
heathen customs were her delight, and her power over the people was
very great. Her death made a great difference to many. While she
lived they had been afraid to confess themselves Christians, but as soon
as she was dead they came out boldly. That same year (1814) Mr.
Nott and Mr. Hayward paid a second visit to Raiatea, Huahine, and
Borabora. They had been there once already, but that was several
years before. A change was now manifest. Then they had sown the
seed of truth, but the ground was hard, and none of the seed seemed to
spring up. They had great difficulty too in getting hearers. On their
second visit they were received with marked interest and favour. The
Raiateans and their neighbours gladly came together to hear them, and
listened to them with the greatest willingness and attention. Indeed
it was becoming clearer every day that the islanders at length were
beginning to understand and care for that message of mercy and love,
of goodness and truth, which the missionaries had come so far to de-
liver. Later on in the same year, after Mr. Nott and Mr. Hayward
had gone away, a brig, which had on board as one of its passengers
another of the missionaries named Wilson, drifted to Raiatea, Tahaa,
and Huahine, and was kept among these islands for three months by


contrary winds. Mr. Wilson thus had a grand opportunity for preach-
ing to the people. Large crowds of people gathered to hear him.
Pomare was on board the same vessel and added his influence to that
of the missionary in an endeavour to persuade the islanders to become
But we must hurry forward. To relate all the incidents of those
early days would be a pleasure, if we had space in this little book for
such a long story. There are, however, two events that must be
.narrated, namely, the burning of idols in Moorea, and the victory of
Pomare over all his foes, followed as this was by his public baptism.
The people of Moorea were more and more anxious to be taught the
Word of God. More than three hundred had now given in their
names, and there was a school with three hundred scholars, most of
whom were grown-up people. These met every day. None had as
yet been baptized; indeed Pomare was unwilling to have any of them
baptized before himself. That was selfish on his part. After an
absence of two years he had returned to Moorea; but while in some
ways a convert to Christianity, he did not fully satisfy the mission-
aries, so they still waited.
SJust then a wonderful thing took place. This was in the year
1815. Coming home one evening along the sea-shore after a visit to
a chief, to whom with his people he had been-preaching, Mr. Nott was
followed by a priest named Patii, who had charge of the idol temple
in the district of Moorea in which the missionaries were then living.
This priest had been listening to Mr. Nott's sermon, and now seemed
anxious to speak to him about something. To the missionary's great
surprise Patii said: To-morrow evening I shall burn the idols under
my care." Mr. Nott made answer: I am afraid you are jesting
with me. You know that we wish to have the idols burned, and you
speak thus because you think it will please me. I can scarcely
believe what you 'say." "Don't be unbelieving," said Patii, "wait
till to-morrow, and you shall see." After this they talked all the
way home about Jesus Christ and His salvation. When Mr. Nott
met his brethren, he told them of what the priest had said. They


were filled with gladness; at the same time they doubted whether
Patii would dare carry out his purpose, and feared that if he did the
heathen might attack him and the Christians.
Patii, however, meant what he had said, and the next morning, with
the help of some of his friends, was busily occupied collecting wood
near the sea-shore. In the afternoon they split the wood up and then
piled it in a great heap near the temple in which the idols were kept.
By evening a large crowd had gathered together, for everybody
had heard of what the priest was going to do. Missionaries, native
Christians, some of them filled with fear lest the heathen should kill
them, idolaters from the whole district round, and Patii himself
-all were assembled near the heaped-up fuel. Just before sunset
Patii ordered some of his helpers to light the fire. Then, going into the
temple, he brought out the idols. This he had often done before, but
for a very different purpose. He had no words of praise for the idols
now, nothing to ask in their honour. Spreading them in a row, he
stripped off the fine fibre and mats with which they were bound, and
tore off the red feathers by which they were adorned. Then taking
the idols one by one in his hand and calling out its name, giving a
short history of its supposed power, and saying how sorry he was that
he had ever worshipped such blocks of wood, he threw them one after
another into, the flames. Just as the sun went down the last of
Moorea's heathen- gods was burnt to ashes by the very man who had
been their keeper, but had found out what helpless logs they were.
The heathen were awed. Some of them still thought that the gods
would quickly punish Patii for his wickedness, but most of them felt
convinced that those gods had no power at all. Others followed the
priest's example and burned their own family idols. On the other
hand, many of the heathen grew very bitter. They saw that the
religion of Jesus was becoming strong, and wanted if possible to check
its progress. They began therefore to ill-treat the native Christians,
some of whom lost their lives. One young man died most bravely,
saying to the crowd of angry idolaters who had resolved to offer him
in sacrifice and were thirsting for his blood: You may be allowed

Tiabs *




to kill my body, but I am not afraid to die. My soul you cannot hurt;
Jesus Christ will keep it safely."
Sunday, November 12, 1815, for ever broke the power of the old
heathen party and ushered in a new and better day. Four months be-
fore the Christians in Tahiti who had not already fled to other islands
were obliged to do so, for a plot to destroy them had been discovered.
At midnight, on July 17, they were all to be killed, their property to
be seized, and every Christian in the island got rid of. Neighbouring
chiefs were asked to come and help in this foul murder. Until the even-
ing of the very day fixed upon for their massacre none of the Christians
had the least idea of the danger they were all in; but a few hours
before the slaughter was to begin a friendly word of warning was
secretly given them, and they knew what to expect. Through delay
on the part of some of the chiefs in not arriving at the right time,
and above all through the gracious protection of God, the Christians
were able to escape. At eventide they had assembled on the sea-shore.
This meeting had been arranged before they knew anything about the
plot. Probably it was for prayer, but of this we cannot be quite sure.
No time was to be lost. What should they do? Stay in Tahiti and
be murdered, or flee? They quickly decided to try and escape, and
as their canoes were lying on the beach close at hand, they were
instantly launched; and simply carrying what few things they could
lay hands on, the Christians paddled away soon after sunset, and
made for Moorea, which they reached in safety the next morning.
When the heathen chiefs and their followers arrived at the spot agreed
upon, and found that the Christians had all fled, they were greatly
enraged. Not only so, but they began to quarrel among themselves.
For a long time past these chiefs had been jealous of each other, and
it was only because they alike hated Christians that they had for a
brief space joined forces. Now they blamed one another for what had
happened, and from words soon came to blows. Those who had pro-
posed the slaughter of the Christians were the chief sufferers. Their
leader and several others were killed and the rest put to flight. For
some weeks after this there was continual fighting between the


different districts, and Tahiti appeared to be farther from peace than
Those weeks were like the darkest hour before the dawn. The
missionaries in Moorea welcomed the Tahitian Christians who had
joined them. Their work had grown. Four hundred people had given
in their names as Christians, and there were between six and seven
hundred pupils in the school. But for the want of books there would
have been many more. Tahiti alas! was still in darkness, but God
had heard their prayers before, and would hear them again. So they
set apart a day for fasting and prayer, and besought the Lord to
turn the hearts of their enemies. They had often appointed days
for the like purpose when there were no natives .to join them; now
hundreds of natives gladly spent the day with them. Together they
pleaded on behalf of Tahiti, and entreated God to save it from its
ignorance and wickedness.
The answer came sooner than any of them expected. It came first
of all from Tahiti itself, for some of the heathen, growing tired of the
tumult and disorder, sent across to Moorea to beg the chiefs to come
back. They went; Pomare went with them; and a number of Christ-
ians from Huahine, Raiatea, and Borabora joined them. There were
about eight hundred of them in all. When they reached Tahiti they
saw a crowd of people drawn up on shore, armed with spears and guns,
who forbade their landing and fired several shots. Pomare would not
allow any guns to be fired in return, but instead of this sent a flag on
shore with an offer of peace. Messages passed to and fro, and at
last the king and those with him were permitted to land. It was at
best but a patched-up peace that had been arranged. Pomare knew
this quite well, so kept careful watch.
On Sunday morning, November 12, as Pomare and his friends
and followers were gathered together for worship, his old enemies
once more came forward and attacked him. He was not unprepared for
this, for although he did not know that that particular day was fixed
upon, he knew that there would be another battle, and that most likely
it would be upon a Sunday. He had therefore placed watchmen at


different points to keep a sharp look-out. Just as they were about to
begin the service, shots were heard, and looking out of the building,
they saw an army of heathen people approaching, carrying a flag in
honour of the idols. "It is war, it is war the Christians exclaimed.
SSome of them had
brought their arms
I, with them to the
service ; others began
to rush off to fetch
theirs. But Pomare
stopped them. He
begged them all to
remain quietly in
their places until the
service was finished,
at the same time
assuring them that
God, in whose name
they were gathered
together, would cer-
tainly protect them.
A teacher named
Auna gave out a
hymn, which all
joined in singing.
He then read a pas-
sage of Scripture
from one of the small
A TATOOED WARRIOR. books the mission-
aries had got printed-that was long before the Tahitian Bible that has
since done so much for the islanders was in their hands-and after
that a prayer was offered to the King of Icings in whom they put their
trust. The service over, the people who were unarmed went to their
tents for their weapons.


The fight took place on the sand of the sea-shore and among the
trees that grew on its edge. Many of Pomare's followers had not yet
become Christians, and not knowing how these might act, he placed
them in the centre or at the rear. His trusty men formed the front
line and were posted at other points of danger and importance. Con-



spicuous among the warriors was Pomare Vahine, the queen's sister,
a tall strong woman, who wore a curious helmet covered with plates
of a beautiful spotted cowrie shell, and a kind of armour made of twisted
cords of native flax. On one side of her was her faithful Christian
servant Farefau; on the other a tall manly chief who was related to her,


a chief whose wife in her heathen days had killed no less than twelve
or thirteen of her own children. Pomare took his station in a canoe
with a number of men armed with muskets, who fired into the enemy
on the flank. Near the king was another canoe in which was a swivel
gun worked by an Englishman called Joe, who had come up from
Raiatea specially to help Pomare in this fight.
The heathen rushed into battle in a perfect fury, and for a time
by the force of their onset shook the Christian line, but this, quickly
rallying, stood its ground firmly, and finally completely overcame
the foe. The trees and bushes were so thick that much of the fighting
-was of a broken irregular kind, and often two or three Christians
finding themselves together in the woods, none of the enemy for the
moment being in sight, took the opportunity for a few moments of
earnest prayer to God. At length Upufara, the chief captain of the
heathen was slain, and from that moment the idolaters lost heart and
began to flee to the rocks and mountains. The king's army was about
to pursue them and kill as many as they could. But Pomare was
wiser than his people. He shouted out: It is enough. Pursue none
that have fled from the battle, neither burn their houses, nor murder
their children." That was, a wonderful command, quite unlike any
heard in Tahiti before, and was a clear proof that new thoughts and
a new spirit had come into Pomare. Even the bodies of the slain
were properly buried instead of being left upon the shore as in former
days, and the corpse of Upufara was carried to the tomb of his fathers
and there laid to rest.
Instead of ending the day in the slaughter of his foes, Pomare
gathered his little army together to offer thanksgiving unto God for
His protection, and for the great victory He had granted. Then he
sent a chosen band of followers, among them being Farefau, to destroy
the idols. They were ordered to go straight to the temple of Oro, and
destroy it and all that belonged to it. They did as they were com-
manded, and on reaching Oro's temple at Tautira told the keeper for
what purpose they had come, and also of the result of the war. No
one dared stop them; so first of all firing at the small house in which


the idols were kept, and shouting out: Now, ye gods, if ye be gods,
and have any power, come forth and avenge the insults which we
offer you," they next pulled the house down, and cast the idols into
the fire. Oro himself was not destroyed, but only his trappings. This
god, to whom so many victims had been offered, was but a pole of
hard wood, about as thick as a man's leg, and rather longer than a
man's height. The pole was carried in triumph to Pomare and laid
at his feet. And what did he do with it? Why, he had it fixed up
in his kitchen as a post into which he fixed pegs for hanging his baskets
of food upon! Finally, it was chopped up for firewood. In this way
did idolatry come to an end in Tahiti and Moorea.
Pomare's clemency did as much to subdue his enemies as his
bravery and skill in battle. The people who had fled to the moun-
tains sent secretly at night to see what had been done to their wives
and children. They expected, as a matter of course, that they would
all be slain, and at first could not believe the news brought back to
them that they were alive and unhurt, and that none of their houses
had been destroyed. Getting bolder, they found their way back to
their homes, and were allowed to settle quietly in them. They went
to the king and begged for mercy and forgiveness, and they had not
to beg in vain. They now saw how good the God that Pomare served
must be. "We had done everything to offend the king," they said,
4" and yet when he had it in his power to destroy us, he freely forgave
us." By common consent, and with a heartiness never before shown,
the entire island now made Pomare king, and found true pleasure in
obeying him.
SAs soon as possible after the battle, Pomare sent a messenger in
a canoe to tell the missionaries in Moorea- of his great victory. The
man he chose for this duty was formerly a priest and a great warrior.
When his canoe drew near to the shore of Moorea the missionaries
and their pupils hurried towards him, hope and fear struggling together
in their minds. The chief was seen standing on the prow of his light
skiff-like craft, which came dashing through the spray and gliding
along upon the crests of the waves until it touched the shore. Leap-


ing to the sand, spear in hand, before a question could be asked, he
exclaimed: Ua pau! ua pau! i te bure anae "; Vanquished! van-
quished! by prayer alone!" At first his hearers could scarcely
believe the news, but as he related at length the story of what had
happened they burst into grateful praise to God for this wonderful
conquest of His enemies.
The chief idols had perished; the smaller ones met with a like fate.
A time of great excitement followed. Family gods, gods belonging
to special districts, gods of all sorts, were destroyed. Maraes," or altars,
temples, sacred stones, were pulled down, and in a few months not
an idol was to be seen. The very men who had been loudest in their
praise set to work to demolish them, and, not content with this, sent
messengers to the king and his Christian friends asking for instructors
who would teach them to read and how to worship the true God.
Schools and chapels were built; the Lord's Day was kept as a day
of rest and worship; three services were held each Sunday all over
the island; and some of the worst heathen customs, such as child-
murder, were given up. The preachers were all too few for the work
to be done, so at many of the services the people usually only prayed,
or listened to passages read from one of the Scripture readers the mis-
sionaries had prepared. Some were unable to pray themselves. For
their guidance prayers were written out. Here is one which Pomare
himself wrote and often read in the different chapels he visited:-
"Jehovah, Thou God of our salvation, hear our prayers, pardon
Thou our sins, and save our souls. Our sins are great, and more in
number than the fishes in the sea, and our obstinacy has been very
great, and not to be equalled. Turn Thou us to Thyself, and enable
us to cast off every evil way. Lead us to Jesus Christ, and let our sins
be cleansed in His blood. Grant us Thy good Spirit to be our sanctifier.
"Save us from hypocrisy: suffer us not to come to Thine house
with carelessness, and return to our own houses and commit sin.
Unless Thou dost have mercy upon us, we perish; unless Thou dost
save us, unless we are prepared and made meet for Thy house in heaven,
we are banished to the fire, we die. But let us not be banished to that
unknown world of fire. Save Thou us through Jesus Christ, Thy
Son, the Prince of life; yea, let us obtain salvation through Him.


Bless all the people of these islands, all the families thereof. Let
every one stretch out his hands unto God and say: Lord, save me;
Lord, save me. Let all these islands, Tahiti with all the people of
Moorea, and of Huahine, and of Raiatea, and of the little islands
around, partake of Thy salvation.

Ov. Oj E] ap 0 e

0 Y2,- -N


Bless Britain, and every country in the world. Let Thy word
grow with speed in the world, so as to grow faster than evil. Be
merciful to us, and bless us, for Jesus Christ's sake. Amen."
That was Pomare's prayer. He had learned both how to pray and
what to pray for. Of course he still knew but little about the new re-


ligion he had accepted, but he did understand that he was a sinner, and
that God alone could save him. The missionaries came over from Moorea
and went round the island of Tahiti to see with their own eyes what
changes had taken place. Mr. Nott was the first to go. Five years
before he had been obliged to flee from the place for his life. Now
wherever, he went he found the people eager to hear. Of their own
accord they came together, and some would stay with him far into
the night asking him questions and listening to what he had to tell
them about Jesus Christ. Aged chiefs, priests, and warriors were to
be seen seated, spelling-hook in hand, on the school benches, by the
side of some happy-faced boy or girl who was busy teaching them to
rpad. Others were engaged in chapel building. On Sundays there
were larger gatherings, not of men alone, as at the old heathen cere-
monies, but of women also. Mothers, wives, sisters, daughters flocked
to the house of prayer. In fact, for a time nearly everybody was to
be seen there. The difficulty was to find lesson-books and Scripture
portions enough for the needs of the crowds who wished to obtain
them. There were two thousand seven hundred spelling-books in use,
eight hundred copies of Scripture passages, and many written copies
of the Gospel of Luke; but what were these among so many ?
Not in Tahiti alone was this glorious change taking place, but in
the Society Islands also. Huahine, Raiatea, Tahaa and Borabora all
followed the good example that had been set. The chiefs from those
islands who had fought on Pomare's side either sent messages to their
people, or, on their return home, themselves took the work in hand,
and thus through the entire group the idols were "utterly abolished."
The destruction of idols is but the beginning of the difficult task of
bringing heathen nations out of darkness into light; still, it is a
beginning, and should therefore beget gratitude to God.
Pomare sent most of his family idols to the missionaries, giving
them liberty either to burn them, or to send them home to England.
They decided to ship them to England. With the idols the king sent
a letter, of which the following is a translation:-


"May you be saved by Jehovah and Jesus Christ our
This is my speech to you, my friends.


I wish you to send these idols to Britain for the Missionary
Society, that they may know the likeness of the gods that Tahiti wor-
shipped. These were my own idols, belonging to our family from of
old, and when my father died he left them to me. And now, having


been brought to know Jehovah, the true God, He is my God, and when
this body of mine shall fall to pieces in death, may the Three-One save
me. This is my shelter, my close hiding-place, even from the anger
of Jehovah. When He looks upon me, I will hide me at the feet of
Jesus Christ, the Saviour, that I may escape.
"I feel pleasure and satisfaction in my mind; I rejoice, I praise
Jehovah, that He hath made known His word unto me. I should have
gone to destruction if Jehovah had not interposed. Many have died,
and are gone to destruction, kings and common people; they died
without knowing anything of the true God, and now, when it came
to the small remainder of the people, Jehovah hath been pleased to
make known His word, and we are acquainted with His good word,
made acquainted with the deception of the false gods, with all that
is evil and false. The true God Jehovah, it was He that made us
acquainted with these things. It was you that taught us; but the
words, the knowledge, was from Jehovah. It is because of this that
I rejoice, and I pray to Jehovah that He may increase my abhorrence
of every evil way. The Three-One, He it is that can make the love
of sin to cease; we cannot effect it; it is the work of God to cause
evil things to be cast off, and the love of them to cease.
I am going a journey around Tahiti to acquaint the people with
the word of God, and to cause them to be vigilant about good things.
The word of God does grow in Tahiti, and the people are diligent about
setting up houses for worship; they are also diligent in seeking in-
struction, and now it is well with Tahiti.
"That principal idol, that has the red feathers of the Otuu, is
Temeharo; that is his name. Look you, you may know it by the red
feathers. That was my father's own god, and those feathers were
from the ship of Lieutenant Watts; it was my father that set them
about the idol himself. If you think proper, you may burn them all
in the fire; or, if you like, send them to your country for the people
of Europe to see them, that they may satisfy their curiosity and know
Tahiti's foolish gods!
"May you be saved, my friends, by Jehovah and Jesus Clrist, the
only Saviour by whom we sinners can be saved.
February 19th, 1816."
1 The Lady Penrhyn, which visited Tahiti in 1788.


The isles shall waitfor His law."
URING the year 1817, and at the
very time that throughout the
entire group there was a willing-
ness to listen to the Christian
teacher, eight new workers
reached Tahiti. It thus became
possible to scatter among the is-
lands and so spread the light of
the Gospel. The first to arrive
was William Ellis,1 then a young
man of twenty-two. With him
was his wife, their baby, and the
child's nurse. Later in the year
came the seven others. Among
them were three missionaries
who in one case for forty-three,
and in the two others for forty-eight years, were spared to labour
through a long career in attempting to raise the islanders to a better
and higher life. These were David Darling, Charles Barff, and
George Platt. Last, but by no means least, was the large-hearted,
SMr. Ellis did not long remain in the South Seas. The serious illness of his wife
compelled him to return home at the end of seven years. But though his stay in the
Pacific was a short one, he has, through his writings, done more than all his brethren
to provide us with a record of the early history of the mission. Were it not for his
carefulness in observing, inquiring about, and narrating facts, the story would have
been almost lost. In later life he rendered like service to the Madagascar mission.


enterprising man, John Williams, about whom these pages will have
much to relate.
The ship which brought Mr. and Mrs. Ellis, brought also a horse
as a present to Pomare, the landing of which caused great alarm.
Many of the people fled in terror, hid behind rocks, or climbed up
trees, to get away from the terrible animal. But seeing a sailor go
quietly up to the horse
and take hold .of the
halter that was round
his neck, they gained
I courage, and drew near
to look at and touch
the strange creature.
SiWhen, after being pro-
perly bridled and sad-
Sdied, the horse ran
along the beach With
the captain on his back
S"the Tahitians were de-
lighted, and. at once
.. called him a land-
running pig," and "a
I man-carrying pig," the
pig being the only
four-footed animal with
which they could com-
pare him. Pomare came
POMARE I. on board, and Mr. Ellis
gives us the following
description of him:-" I was struck with his tall and almost gigantic
appearance; he was upwards of six feet high, and seemed about forty
From a portrait taken by an artist attached to two Russian ships of discovery
that visited Tahiti shortly before Pomare's death, and excepting a little undue promi-
nency in the forehead, stated by the Rev. W. Ellis to be a good likeness.


years of age. His forehead was rather prominent and high, his eye-
brows narrow, well defined and nearly straight; his hair, which was
combed back from his forehead and the sides of his face, was of a
glossy black colour, slightly curled behind; his eyes were small, some-
times appearing remarkably keen, at others rather heavy; his nose
was straight, and the nostrils by no means large; his lips were thick,
and his chin projecting. He was arrayed in a handsome tiputa of
native manufacture. His body was stout, but not disproportioned to
his height; and his limbs, though well formed, were not firm and
The ship, having touched at Tahiti, went on to Moorea, where a
hearty welcome awaited the new comers. Not the missionaries only,
but the chiefs and people also, received them with great gladness,
bringing presents of food, which they piled in three heaps, one for
Mr. Ellis, one for Mrs. Ellis, and one for the baby! The school-house
was early visited. The first Sunday on shore was much enjoyed. A
prayer meeting at sunrise, at which not fewer than four or five hun-
dred people were present, began the day; morning service followed,
then English service; and, later on in the day, a second native ser-
vice. All of these were well attended, and the quiet behaviour of the
people was everything that one could wish.
One great need of the mission was a printing press. A few copies
of the spelling book, printed in England, had been taken to the island
six years before, and others, as already mentioned, together with brief
summaries of the Old and New Testament, had been obtained from
Sydney since; but some hundreds of the natives who had learned to
read were still without a book of any kind. Many had learned the
little books by heart, and could repeat them correctly from beginning
to end. These naturally longed for some new specimen of the prin-
ter's wonderful art. In dozens of families, where all were scholars,
there was but one book in the house. People living in the other
islands were even worse off. Some of them wrote out the whole of
the spelling book on sheets of writing paper; and others, unable to get
paper, prepared pieces of native cloth with great care, and then, with


a reed dipped in red or purple dye, wrote out the alphabet, spelling
and reading lessons on these pieces of cloth which had been made
from the bark of a tree. In the same way they wrote out texts of
Scripture, and carried them about with them.
In view of this need the directors had sent out a printing press,
and one of the first things Mr. Ellis did was to arrange for setting up
this press and getting it to work. A site for a printing office was
chosen, a building erected without delay, and to secure the firm floor-
ing necessary for working the heavy press, one or two maraes," or
heathen altars, were. pulled down, and the great slabs of smooth
basaltic rock found in them dragged to the new building, and there
laid side by side as a part of the printing-office floor. Pomare was
greatly interested in the progress of this building, and specially
begged that, when they were ready for making start with the wonder-
ful new machine, he might be sent for. He came from the other side
of Moorea, where at the time he was staying, and with him came a
crowd of chiefs and their followers.
Taking the composing-stick in his hand, Mr. Ellis, seeing how
earnestly Pomare was looking at the shining type, asked the king if
he would like to set the letters. Yes, it was the very thing he wanted
to do. The first book to be printed was the spelling-book, which the
Tahitians called the Ba-ba. Pomare, composing-stick in hand, began
with the capitals A B, and got through the alphabet; then set up the
same in small letters, taking each letter out of its own compartment
in the type case, and finished the first page with a few lines of single
syllables. He was delighted with his work, and was eager at once
to print the page; but when it was explained to him that not until the
other pages to complete the sheet had been set up could this be done,
he arranged that he should again be summoned when the sheet was
finished. For nearly three weeks he had to wait, but almost every
day came to see how things were going on. At last, on June 30,
1817, the first sheet was pulled off. Pomare was attended by only
two of his favourite chiefs, but crowds of natives, who had heard of
what was to happen, had gathered about the doors. These made way


for him. The door was then closed, and one of the windows darkened,
so that he might not be overlooked by the people outside. He care-
fully examined the form as it lay on the press, and was told by Mr.
Ellis exactly how to go to work. The printer's ink-ball was placed
in his hands and he struck it two or three times upon the face of the
letters; he then placed a sheet of clean paper upon the parchment;
this was covered down, turned under the press, and Pomare pulled
the handle. It was all a mystery to him and his companions. What
would that pull do? All rushed to see, and lo! there were the letters
black, large, and clear. The king was a successful printer. He was
delighted, and repeated the process. In the meantime the first sheet
was shown to the crowd outside, who, on seeing it, raised a great
shout of surprise and joy.
This old story is worthy of being re-told, for that was a great day
for Tahiti, and indeed for the entire Pacific. The spelling-book printed,
a catechism and a book of Scripture extracts followed, and, lastly,
a translation of the Gospel of Luke, which Mr. Nott had prepared.
Of this, the first complete book of the Scriptures translated into any
Polynesian tongue, an edition of 3,000 copies was struck off, the
paper for it having been generously presented by that Society which
enables missionaries all over the world to furnish their people with the
Word of God-the British and Foreign Bible Society. That gift of paper
to Tahiti was the first of many a similar gift to the islands in later days.
The fame of the printing press spread rapidly, and from all parts
of Moorea, and even from other islands, strangers flocked as to a fair.
The beach was lined with their canoes, the native houses were crowded
to excess with visitors from a distance; temporary huts had to be
built as the houses were too few for their accommodation, while as for
the printing office it was daily crowded. Thronging the doors, climb-
ing upon one another's backs, blocking up the windows, there the
strangers were, all eager to see with their own eyes the marvellous
machine of which they had heard. Book binding was a yet more
difficult task than book printing, for the missionaries had brought
with them only a small quantity of boards or skins. But an old pro-


verb says that "necessity is the mother of invention," which means
that when people are in difficulty they think of ways for conquering
their difficulty; and so it was in this case. The bark of a tree, the
skins of any and every animal (dogs, goats, cats) to be found in the
island, and everything else that could be used, were sought out, and
very soon the natives were clever enough to bind their own books.
The eagerness of the islanders to obtain copies of the Gospel of
Luke was most striking. Often from thirty to forty canoes were to be

Th s &ii 10 149

4TAHAA .,Scale

RAIATEA j )HUAHINE 0 ]o 2p so 40 50
17 --------- 17s
Tetiaroa` '"


S162 _10 10* 1

seen lying on the beach, each of which had brought five or six per-
sons intent on buying a Gospel. It was impossible for a time to keep
pace with the demand, and some would-be buyers had to wait
patiently for five or six weeks before they could get their copies.
One evening, about sunset, Mr. Ellis saw a canoe arrive from
Tahiti with five men in her. They landed on the beach, lowered their
sail, hauled their canoe up on the sand, and then came straight to-
wards him. Meeting them at the door of his house, Mr. Ellis asked
them what they wanted. Luka, or Luke," Te Parau na Luka, or


M( The Word of Luke," was their prompt reply, and pointing to some
bamboo canes filled with cocoa-nut oil, they said they had brought
these as payment for the books. Mr. Ellis told them that he had none
ready for them that night, but that if they would come to him in the
morning, he would give them as many as they needed. Go," said
he, "to one of the houses near, and seek shelter for the night, and
come back to me to-morrow." Bidding them good-night, he retired,
thinking, of course, that they would do as he had suggested; but on
looking out at sunrise the next morning, what was his astonishment
to see these five men quietly lying on the'ground in front of his
house, their only bed being a few cocoa-nut leaves, their only cover-
ing their large native cloth. He hastened out and asked them if they
had been there all night. Yes, they had, for said they in explanation:
" We were afraid that, had we gone away, some one might have come-
before us this morning, and have taken what books you had to spare,
and then we should have been obliged to return without any." Mr..
Ellis at once took them into the printing office, and as soon as he-
could put the sheets together gave each one a copy. They then asked
for two copies more, one for a mother, the other for a sister, for
which also they had brought payment. He gave these also. Each
wrapped his book up in a piece of white native cloth, put it in his.
bosom, wished Mr. Ellis good-morning, and without, he says, either
eating or drinking, or calling upon any one in the settlement, hastened
to the shore, launched their canoe, hoisted their mat sail, and steered,
for home. That, he adds, was but one of many such examples of eager-
desire to become the possessor of the Scriptures.
For a long time the missionaries in Moorea had been at work
building, with Pomare's aid, a seventy-ton fore-and-aft schooner, but
until the advent of the party of fresh helpers, especially John Wil-
liams, they had not been able to finish it. The iron work had baffled
them. The new arrivals set to work with a will, the more so as it
was decided that they should not separate to the different islands until
the schooner was finished. In a few weeks the vessel was ready for
launching. She was named the Haweis, in honour of Dr. Haweis,


the steady friend of the mission, and one most of all responsible for its
establishment. A slight accident made the first attempt to launch her
a failure. Pomare, in naming her, so startled the natives on one side
of the vessel that they let go of the ropes, and she fell over on her
side. She was, however, got into position once more, and was then
safely and successfully launched. The Haweis was rigged and used
for carrying the missionaries and their families to their stations, but
after one or two voyages to Australia she was sold, being altogether
too costly for mission purposes, and eventually became a trading ves--
sel between Sydney and Tasmania.
The missionaries were about to scatter. Other islands needed
their guidance and presence: they were ready to go and settle in
these. But before separating they had one important duty to fulfil.
They clearly saw that if the gospel was to spread throughout the
Pacific Ocean, the natives who had already heard its joyful sound
must themselves be taught to spread it. Unless the islanders could be
made to feel that it was as much their duty to share the blessings of
salvation with those not yet enjoying them, as it had been the duty of
British Christians to share those blessings with themselves, the work
would advance but slowly. They therefore wished in some special
way to bring this thought home to the hearts and consciences of their
converts. In this they were wise. More than that: looking back
upon the history of the South Sea Mission, as we are able to do, we can
easily see that that band of faithful missionaries were verily taught
of God," and acted under the direct guidance of God's Spirit. The
tree they planted in 1818 has borne the richest fruit, and in no part
of the world have Christian people shown a truer missionary spirit, a
greater readiness to give to missionary collections, or a more constant
desire to hand on to others the good news of salvation than in the
mission stations of the Pacific. The Christian natives have freely
given themselves, their sons and their daughters, the produce of their
plantations, and their money, so that the heathen not yet reached might
receive the Word of God.
After talking the matter over among themselves, the missionaries


took Pomare into their confidence, and asked him what he thought of
starting a native missionary society. The king at once approved,
and lost no time in speaking of it to others. This was how he set to
work. Among his chiefs was a godly man named Auna. Addressing
him one day, Pomare said:
Auna, do you think you could collect five bamboo canes of oil in
a year ?"


"Yes," was the prompt reply.
"Do you think you could afford to give so much for sending the
Word of God to the heathen ? "
"Yes," was again the answer that Auna gave.
"Do you think that those of us who value the gospel would think
it a great labour to collect so much oil every year? "
No," answered Auna, I do not think we should."
"Very well, then," said Pomare, think the thing over, and perhaps
we can form a society for this purpose."


Shortly after this a private meeting of the king and missionaries
was held for drawing up rules for the new society, and on May 13,
1818, on the very day that the London Missionary Society was holding
its annual meeting in England, a large public assembly gathered at
Papetoai in Moorea to found a. Tahitian Missionary Society. Two
prayer meetings, one in the English language, and one in the native,
had been held in the early morning; these had been followed by an
English morning service, at which Mr. Henry preached; but the chief
meeting was held in the afternoon, and was conducted entirely in the
Tahitian language. The chapel proving too small, and more than half
of the people being unable to get in, it was decided to hold the meeting
out of doors in a neighboring grove. At three o'clock the mission-
aries walked down to this grove, and there saw a sight that filled them
with delight. The clear bright sky, the calm surface of the sea just
ruffled with a gentle breeze, the dense foliage and over-hanging canopy
of cocoa-nut and other trees, creepers, and tropical plants, many
of them in full bloom, the carpet of ferns, all lent a charm to the
scene. Seated on trunks of trees, on blocks of wood, or on the
ground, were thousands of natives decked out in native or European
clothing. Near one of the large cocoa-nut trees, whose fine trunk
looked like a pillar supporting the roof of interlacing branches above,
was a wooden stand upon which Mr. Nott took his place. Before
him, in a large arm-chair, sat Pomare, dressed in a fine yellow
tiputa, stamped over the left breast with a rich and elegant scarlet
flower instead of a star. A chief sat on the king's right, his sec-
retary on his left. A number of the chiefs, with the queen and
leading ladies of the court, sat near. Most of them wore native gar-
ments, the ladies, however, having added a sort of bonnet made from
the leaves of the cocoa-nut, and being ornamented with wreaths of
sweet-scented flowers round their necks or garlands of the same in
their hair.
A solemn and earnest service followed, Mr. Nott, the preacher of
the day, taking as his text the words of Philip to the eunuch, and the
eunuch's reply: Understandest thou what thou readest ?" How


can I, except some man should guide me?" (Acts viii..3o, 3I.) Po-
mare followed with a vigorous speech, urging the people to form a
society for spreading the gospel, but warning them against agreeing
to do so unless they were in their hearts convinced that this was right,
and were further prepared to give of their own free will. As he drew
towards the close of his address he asked those who from their hearts
agreed to his proposal to raise their right hand, whereupon between two
and three thousand naked brown arms were at once lifted up. The
sight of those uplifted arms,.raised now on behalf of peace and goodwill
as formerly they had been on behalf of war and evil, greatly affected the
missionaries, and filled their hearts with thankfulness to God. Indeed
as the sun sank to rest that evening and the assembly broke up,
missionaries and natives alike were deeply impressed with the day's
proceedings, and seemed to realize that a great step forward had been
taken. And they were right. The example then set was followed
elsewhere, not perhaps in the formal founding of societies on an
English model, but in spirit and general aim, and has made South-Sea
missions to a large extent self-supporting and self-propagating.
Before leaving Tahiti for a time to follow the workers in their re-
moval to other islands, we had better here refer to one or two incidents
of special interest connected with Tahiti itself. For many months
Pomare had been busy building an immense new chapel at Papao,
which was only four miles from Matavai, where the missionaries first
settled. This building, called the Royal Mission Chapel, was so large
that the missionaries were sure that it would be of little use, and they did
their best to dissuade the king from his purpose to build it. But all in
vain. Pomare was ambitious. He had read of King Solomon's temple,
and wished to have a house of prayer something like that. Besides,
as he argued, their heathen altars and idol temples had cost them much
in hard work, time, and self-denial, and why should not a Christian
chapel cost the same ? He therefore kept to his plan, made his chiefs
and people cut and carry timber, gather and prepare leaves for
thatching, coral, pdbbles, and other material for the walls, make the
doors and windows, and build, thatch, and ornament the building.


Mr. Ellis, in describing it, says that when he remembered how little'
training in such work the Tahitians had had, how rude their tools
were, and how great the quantity of material required was, he could
not but be astonished at the result. The chapel was 712 feet long, by
54 feet wide, proportions which of course spoiled the effect that the size
might otherwise have given. Added to this the roof was low; so that
as regards appearance the chapel was a dismal failure. There were 36
large bread-fruit tree trunks supporting the centre of the roof, and 280
smaller pillars supporting the wall plates. The walls outside were
made from planks of the bread-fruit tree fixed in square frames, and
either planed or rubbed smooth with coral and sand. For windows
there were 133 openings provided with sliding shutters, and the num-
ber of doors was 29. The roof was thatched with pandanus leaves,

POMARE'S ROYAL CHAPEL. (From a model in the Socie/y's Mlluseum.)

the rafters being bound together with braided cord, coloured with
native dyes. The ceiling was covered with fine matting, and the floor
with dried grass. From end to end the building was furnished with
simple rough forms. Two very strange things were to be seen in this
royal chapel: the first, a stream of water five or six feet wide, flowing
across it in a slanting direction; the other, three pulpits, placed
nearly 260 feet apart. The stream, which flowed down from the
mountains to the sea had not been noticed when the chapel was begun.
To have turned it aside in another direction would have given the
people so much extra labour and trouble that they left it as it was,
contenting themselves with placing a grating at each side under the
walls, through which it might flow. The three pulpits were required
because of the chapel's great length, and on the opening day-Tuesday,
May ii, 1819-were all used at the same time. Great crowds of
visitors from all the neighboring islands had flocked to the ceremony.
Their tents lined the beach for a distance of four. miles. Seven thou-


sand people gathered in the chapel, and these grouped themselves as
three distinct congregations around the three pulpits, leaving a space
between. A minister stood in each of the pulpits. Mr. Darling, who
was in the middle pulpit, gave out a hymn in a voice that all could
hear, and the three congregations joined in singing it. Then each
minister read Luke xiv. to the people around him, and afterwards
prayed; and though three voices were speaking at the same time, the
size of the chapel was so great that they did not interfere with one
another. The three sermons began at the same time. Mr. Darling's
text was, I will make them joyful in my house of prayer (Isa. lvi.
7); Mr. Platt chose "And yet there is room" (Luke xiv. 22); while
Mr. Crook preached from, In all places where I record My name I
will come unto thee and bless thee" (Exod. xx. 24). The three ser-
mons ended, the entire congregation joined in another hymn, then
a short prayer from each minister brought the service to a close.
The next day the people met together again to hear three sermons
on behalf of their Missionary Society. In the afternoon they heard
three more. Gifts of different kinds poured in-pigs, arrow-root,
cocoa-nut oil, matting, and fibre. Pomare put his name down as a
yearly subscriber of eight hogs! One other meeting in the Royal
Chapel was held that week. It was for the purpose of proclaiming the
laws by which in future Tahiti was to be governed. The chapel
seemed to be the most suitable place for gathering the people together,
and as their new laws were intended to be in accordance with the
teaching of Scripture, they thought it right to have them proclaimed
in the house of prayer. The missionaries were present, but beyond
opening the meeting with reading and prayer, took no part in it.
Pomare standing in the central pulpit and looking around upon his
assembled people, began by putting a question to a chief named Tati,
brother and successor of the man who had been the leader of his
enemies four years before.
Tati," said the king, what is your desire.? what can I do for you ?"
Tati, who sat nearly opposite the pulpit, rose and said: Those are
what we want, the papers you hold in your hand, the laws: give them


to us, that we may have them in our hands, that we may regard them
and do what is right."
Pomare put a like question to a good chief named Utami, and in an
affectionate manner said: Utami, and what is your desire? "
One thing only is desired by us all," was the reply, that which
Tati has said-the laws which you hold in your hand."
After questioning the other chiefs and receiving from each a
similar answer, Pomare read eighteen laws against murder, theft,
rebellion, and other kinds of wickedness; and after each law had been
distinctly read and explained, he said to the chiefs: "Do you agree to
this law ?" and the chiefs made answer: "We heartily agree to it."
The king then asked the people also if they agreed to it, and told them
if they did to lift up their right hands They instantly obeyed, and so
great was the number, and so prompt the action, that a rushing sound
was made by the arms thus suddenly raised. When the king came to the
law about people who rebel against the sovereign, he stopped as if he
would pass it over, for he remembered all the trouble he had had with
his rebellious subjects in days gone by. Yet when he had read the
law, Tati, who had been one of the greatest rebels, quite a ringleader
among them in fact, jumped up from his seat, and not satisfied with
holding up one hand, raised both and asked the people to follow his
example which they promptly did. What a change had come over
the islanders!
On the following Sunday Pomare was baptized. He had long
desired this, but in spite of his zeal and evident earnestness he had so
many serious faults that the missionaries had hesitated. Now, how-
ever, they felt more satisfied about him, and agreed to baptize him.
Three sermons were preached that morning from the same text: "Go
ye, therefore, and make disciples of all nations," etc. (Matt. xxviii..i8-
20), and after the sermons the eight missionaries present gathered
around Pomare who was seated near the middle pulpit. A hymn was
sung, special prayer offered, and then Pomare standing up, Mr. Bick
nell, one of the first missionaries brought by the Duff, mounting the
pulpit stairs in the sight of all the people, poured water on his head


and baptized him. The venerable missionary then addressed the
king, and in feeling tones and words urged him to walk worthy of
his high calling, and to remember that the eyes of men as well as the
eyes of angels and of God were upon him.
Pomare's example was quickly followed. Throughout Tahiti,
Moorea and the rest of the group some hundreds soon sought baptism.
These were carefully taught the meaning of the rite, and on giving
satisfactory proof of their sincerity were baptized together with their
children-parents with their boys and girls, some of whom were old
enough to run about, being received together. "So mightily grew the
Word of God and prevailed."
Two years and a half afterwards Pomare died from dropsy and
elephantiasis, at the age of forty-seven, and his death plunged all
Tahiti into grief. Missionaries, chiefs, and people alike mourned his
loss. He was very far from perfect, indulged in low vices at times,
was jealous, exacting, and treacherous, and yet in many ways
showed his sincere regard for Christian teaching and his true friend-
ship for the missionaries who taught him. He had stood by them in
times of great darkness, and to him the mission owed much of its
success. God used Pomare, weak and sinful though he was, for
bringing great blessing to those picturesque yet degraded islands, and
his name will be honoured for many a long day yet to come.
To return to our story and to retrace our steps to the year 1818, we
have now to tell of the progress made in the Leeward or Society
Islands-Huahine, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Borabora. On June 18, the
Haweis, having taken on board the printing press and all belonging
to it, the goods of the missionaries who were leaving, and some cattle,
finally received as passengers Mr. Davies, Mr. and Mrs. Williams, Mr.
and. Mrs. Orsmond, Mr. and Mrs. Ellis, and a number of the leading
chiefs, and then set sail. On the evening of the next day she safely
reached Huahine. Some of the party landed, but the rest remained on
board. Nine years before, when the times were troublous, some of
the missionaries had lived in that island for nearly a year, and since
that time idolatry had come to an end, and a native chapel had been


built by the islanders, who wished to imitate the people of Tahiti,
although ignorant of the true nature of Christianity. On the morning
of the next day, June 20, the Haweis dropped anchor in Fare
Harbour, a beautiful spot which charms all visitors. Lofty mountain
peaks in the background, richly wooded valleys and the low-lying
ground fringing the shore, rich with groves of stately bread-fruit,
graceful cocoa-nut and various flowering trees, the gleaming white
coral rock, fine sand and delicate shells upon the beach, the bright
blue sky reflected upon the peaceful waters of the bay-who can
wonder at the praise -freely poured out in Fare's honour by those
who have witnessed its loveliness To-day it contains many good
houses, and its inhabitants are civilized men and women, but when
the missionaries first landed it was very different. A few native huts
were visible; there were not more than a dozen in the district, and
guiding their light canoes, or leisurely strolling beneath the shade of
the branching trees, their owners might every now and again be seen.
They were still rude and untaught, their only clothing a girdle of
cloth loosely bound around the waist and a wreath of leaves to protect
their heads from the sun.
The first night on shore was spent in a primitive fashion. Two
houses belonging to chiefs were freely placed at the disposal of the
missionaries; but as these were simply oval sheds, without either
outside walls or inside partitions, consisting indeed of nothing more
than a roof resting upon three large pillars in the centre and smaller
pillars round the sides, they were open alike to the winds of heaven
and to the easy entrance of visitors, both two and four-footed. Boxes
had been landed, also some cattle, a young calf, and two or three
milch goats. These arrivals were soon quite happy cropping the grass
that grew among the rocks; so too were the children, one of whom
Mr. Ellis describes as smiling in the lap of its native nurse, while
the other played on the dry grass by the side of the boxes just landed
from the ship. Dinner was prepared in a homely way. The chiefs
sent a, present of bread-fruit and fish. A native youth, fourteen or
fifteen years of age, leaving the crowd of spectators who had gathered

*11~ C- --f------- -~---- -~~---~~~-

-=" -

-. Ce

FARE HARBOUR, HUAHINE. (The John Williams entering.)


to see this novel company of white men, white women, and, more
strange still, white children, stepped forward and asked if he should
cook them some bread-fruit. His kind offer was gladly accepted.
Fixing two large stones in the ground for a fireplace, and bringing a
bundle of dry sticks from the bushes near at hand, he made a fire
between the two stones, and soon had the tea-kettle boiling, and dishes
of fried fish, bread-fruit and plantains ready for the strangers' meal
They were so pleased with his first success as cook that Mr. Ellis
asked him to become their servant, to which he agreed, and he faith-
fully served them until they left the island. Dinner over, the next
thing was to prepare for the night, as thesun was already sinking in
the west, and darkness would soon be upon them. Some natives
readily cut four stout sticks from neighboring trees. These were
fixed in the earthen floor, and with sheets and native cloth fastened
from one to the other formed a bedroom. A couple of sheets were
carried inside this enclosure, and the bed spread upon them, a
smaller bed for the children being made by the side. With only a
twist of cotton fibre fixed in the half' of a cocoa-nut, into which some
cocoa-nut oil had been poured, for a lamp-and this soon blown out by
the breeze from the -mountains-it was necessary to retire to rest early.
All was strange; it was like sleeping out of doors; the surf was
moaning on the beach; dogs and pigs came prowling about to see
what new kind of household arrangements these foreigners had set up
in their midst; and yet the night was passed in peace and comfort, and.
the morning light broke upon a grateful party, refreshed and fitted for
another day's work. Not a single article had been stolen under cover
of the darkness, although so many things were temptingly exposed
and might have been easily carried off.
That first night in Huahine was a good beginning, and helped to
cheer the missionaries. But they soon found that although the idols
had gone, by far the greater part of the natives were still heathen
at heart. Following the example of Pomare in Tahiti and Moorea,
Mahine, the king of Huahine, who had fought on Pomare's side, had
sent down Vahaivi, one of his leading men, to Huahine with directions



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to the chiefs to burn the idols, destroy the temples, and put an end to
all heathen rites. His commands were obeyed, and not only were the
uncouth images in which they had put their trust thrown into the fire,
their .altars pulled down, the houses in which the idols had. been kept
burnit to the ground,. and idol-worship :no longer practised, but the
rude stills, in which native rum had 'been made., from, sugar-cane
and: various berries and fruits, were either. broken to pieces or care-
fully buried. Drunkenness, child-murder, and similar vices were also
forbidden. The higher chiefs had taken these steps out of respect to
Mahine, .but many of lower rank objected, and at i first threatened
to fight in defence of the old customs and the gods of ,their forefathers.
Gathering themselves together, they made ready to attack the men
who had .destroyed their idols; but either from fear, of them, or from
some faint impression of the power of, the new religion which was
effecting such changes in Tahiti, they did not come to bloivs. After
much talking they broke up, having agreed together to await the
arrival of the missionaries, and from them hear what had to be said in
favour of the worship of Jehovah.
The missionaries found the people of Huahine in a very ignorant
and uncertain state of mind. With the exception of one or two, they
had all given up idolatry, but they knew little or nothing .of Chris-
tianity, and their hearts were still untouched by its power. Some,
including a few who had been in Moorea, had learned to read, or had
committed to memory the lessons given in the spelling book, and they
had set apart a building for the worship of the true God. But when
Sunday came round the missionaries did not find a-large congregation
gathered together to hear them; indeed for many weeks they had but
a very small number of hearers, and the schools too were very thinly
attended. All sorts of excuses were made for not coming. They
said: "Learning to .read makes us feel tired"; "it is of no use to
come to chapel as we cannot read "; "we are not scholars"; and
"we are not-.praying people." The real reason was that they still
loved sinful ways and were unwilling to give these up. Gradually,
however, a change for the better began to take place, and this was


much increased by the return .to Huahine of a number of chiefs and
people, who for several years had been living in Tahiti and had shared
in the glorious awakening that had there taken place. These return-
ing emigrants came across in three large boats and quite a fleet of
smaller canoes. The missionaries knew many of them, and welcomed
them as friends, and as these new comers began to tell their neighbours
of what their eyes had seen and their ears had heard, and as the power
of the Word of God was shown in their own lives and character, the
chapel was soon filled with worshippers, while scholars flocked to the
schools. A demand for lesson-books sprang up, and the dawn of a
brighter day appeared.
The plan which the missionaries had in view when they reached
Huahine was to remain together on that island, making that the one
station for the Society or Leeward group. For a while the study of
the language would occupy much of their time, and when they had
mastered the language, they hoped to feel strong enough to manage
the mission without further aid from their seniors in Tahiti. But
this.plan was laid aside. They had not been many weeks at Fare
before Tamatoa, the king of Raiatea, with his brother and a number of
:chiefs from Raiatea, Tahaa, and Borabora, arrived with an earnest
request that the, missionaries should divide their forces and some of
.them.accompany them back to Raiatea. Mai, the king of Borabora, who
:was also at Huahine, had before this written a touching letter to the
missionaries, in .which he reminded them that Jesus Christ and His
apostles did not remain in one place, but visited many different cities
and, countries, so as to give. larger numbers an opportunity for re-
ceiving the light. -The arguments of these chiefs were so forcible that
Mr. Williams and Mr. Threlkeld felt it to be their duty to go back to
Raiatea with Tamatoa. True, they knew as yet but little of the lan-
guage; but said the .chiefs, when this was urged: Never mind that;
you possess enough-now to teach us more than we know, and we will
make it our business to teach you our language."
So it was settled,-and Raiatea was added to the mission stations
of the Pacific. That island is a lovely spot. It is thirty miles dis-
tant from Huahine .and a hundred miles to the N. W. of Tahiti, is


the largest of the Leeward Islands, and the cradle and centre of
Tahitian mythology. It was sacred as the birthplace and home of
Oro, as the spot to which the spirits of the dead took flight when they
left the body, as the place at which Oro had to be consulted as an
oracle, and as the abode of the priests who had him in charge. Raiatea
is famous for its lofty mountain peaks, which, rising abruptly from the
sea, tower aloft to a height of 4,500 feet. Between the mountains
are beautiful valleys, clothed with luxuriant tropical vegetation.
Enclosed with it by the same coral reef, and distant only four
miles, is the little island of Tahaa. Fruit is very plentiful. Before
Europeans settled on the island there was a rich supply, while in
these days oranges, limes, mangoes, bananas, papaw-apples, pine-
apples, barbadinC's, guavas, and cocoa-nuts abound, as do also sweet
potatoes, bread-fruit, plantains, taro, and yams. Some of the valleys
are nothing but orange groves: the oranges fall in thousands, and are
left to rot, or to be eaten by the'pigs. In race, language, character,
and general habits the people of Raiatea are like the Tahitians.
Taifatoa's request for teachers was the outcome of a sincere desire
to lead his people forward. He and other chiefs of Raiatea had gone
over to Tahiti in 1811 in order to aid Pomare in. his struggle against
his rebellious subjects, and while there had learned much concerning
Christianity. On returning to Raiatea in the autumn of 1815 they
were welcomed by the heathen priests and idol-keepers. But Tamatoa
and his companions declared that they were Christians, and no longer
believed in idols. Moreover, they urged others to follow their example.
The priests were very angry at this, and stirred up their followers to
attack Tamatoa. War' broke out, but the victory was with the
Christian party. Tamatoa was conqueror. Still, like a wise ruler,
he tempered judgment with mercy, and his clemency so impressed his
former foes that they readily listened to his counsels. The people
generally destroyed their idols and idol temples, and became nominally
Christians. They knew but little as yet, it is true, and in heart and
life were scarcely any better than the heathen; the only thing they
seemed clear about was that their gods were no gods. Hence the need
of further teaching and the urgent pleading for missionaries.


"To whom He was not spoken of, they shall see."
\ 7\ ULL of promise though the work was, it was
still very limited in extent. Twenty years
had gone by since the Duff landed her unique
cargo in Matavai Bay, and thus far only the
eastern edge of Polynesia had been touched.
In two groups of little islands the people had
seen "a great light," and were trying to
S walk in its beams; they felt the throbbings
\ of a new life, and under its impulse were
bent on attempting "great things for God."
They little knew for what they were being
S prepared. From them was the Word of God
S. to sound forth" to other groups, and with
their aid island after island was to receive
the message of salvation and be won from
savage darkness, bloodshed, and wickedness to a life of peace, friendli-
ness, and in many instances. of genuine goodness and virtue. The
romance of missions was on the point of being seen on a large scale.
Moreover, whilst the distant islanders were being prepared to receive
instruction in the ways of God, their Father in heaven, of whose
goodness and love they had been so sadly ignorant, had drawn to
Himself, had called to His service, and was about to send forth as their
guide and teacher one eminently fitted for this high duty. This was
the large-hearted, enterprising, capable man whose name stands en-
rolled in the annals of missionary fame as John Williams, the Martyr
of Eromanga, and whose arrival in the South Seas and decision to go
to Raiatea were mentioned in the last chapter.


Mr. Williams was still quite young. Born at Tottenham High
Cross, near London, on June 29, 1796, he was only a little over twenty
when, in company with his young bride and his fellow-missionaries, he
sailed down the Thames on his way to the Antipodes. But he came of
a good stock, had received excellent training from a godly mother, and
though for a time
thoughtless and even
hostile to religion,ahad,
while ii his eighteenth
year,, been brought to
Christ .by a sermon
preached in the Moor-
S f fields Tabernacle. by the
Rev. Timothy East, of
Birmingham. John
iWilliams was at .tliat
.time an apprenticetoani
ironmongerand founder
in .the City Road. By!
the terms of his inden-
tures he was to be taught
the commercial rather
than the mechanical
side of- his master's
business. His work was
"S to be, not at the -forge
REV. JOHN WILLIAMS. or the bench, but at the
counter and the desk.
But natural tastes and desires proved stronger than written agree-
ment, and rapidly mastering the details of his own special department,
"John" was constantly leaving the counter to loiter near the smiths'
shop, where he watched with keen and intelligent interest every
movement of their hands, every stroke of their hammers. During
the intervals for meals too, and after shop hours, he was often busily


engaged at: the bellows and anivil. In this way he soon became a
skilful workman, and Mr. Tonkin, .his master, found it to his own
advantage to employ him on any tasks that demanded more than
ordinary exactness and delicacy of touch.. How little did the young
mechanic then realize for what strange exploits in far-off lands: he
was in this way being trained and qualified.
.A few months after he had given his heart to Christ he joined the
Moorfields Tabernacle church, of which the venerable Rev. Matthew
Wilks was at that time the minister. This step ,at once gave him
opportunities both for self-culture as a member of the Youths' Class,
and for entering upon Christian work in connection with the Sunday
School, alms-house and poor-house visitation, and tract distribution-
all of which forms of service were at .that time carried on with great
earnestness and vigour. It also brought him into intimate relations
with a minister whose whole soul was aflame with missionary ardour
and enthusiasm. Mr. Wilks was a prominent member of the Board.of
Directors of the London Missionary Society, one of that Society's most
eminent fathers and founders." He it was who, when the discourag-
ing news of the capture of their ship had filled the hearts of not a few
with fearfulness, and had made some waver as to the further prosecu-
tion of the mission, exclaimed: Give it up I would rather sell ny
coat from my back than give the mission up." Nor did Mr. Wilks
content'himself with personal interest in the work, but as the minister
of an influential church spared no pains to interest his people also. In
this he was most successful. The thoughts of young Williams were
thus early directed towards the heathen, and it was not long before he
conceived the desire to devote his life to work amongst- them. En-
couraged by his revered pastor, he offered himself to the Society; and
an arrangement with his employer having been effected, he was
released from his apprenticeship, and after a brief and scanty training,
sadly too short as it would seem to many, but all that in the-pressing
claims of the work could be allowed him, he was set apart as a mis-
sionary, and appointed to the South Seas.
Thus it was that when the work was growing and spreading in


different directions made possible, God had raised up a man of the
right stamp for extending it. Mr. Threlkeld remained in Raiatea
for six years only, but for fifteen years this charming island was the
home of John Williams. Not that he remained there the whole time
No; as he himself said, "he could not content himself within the
narrow limits of a single reef." But Raiatea was for many years the
centre from which he worked and enlarged his sphere of influence.
The reception given to him and his colleague was most gratifying, and
at once they set to work. They soon found that the Christianity of
the Raiateans was only skin-deep. Their moral condition was simply
abominable, and their laziness most distressing. It was difficult to
get at them; for, instead of living together in towns or villages, the
people were scattered all over the island, each family residing by itself.
A change for the better, however, was quickly seen. Good substantial
houses for the use of the missionaries and for the chiefs were built,
also a large chapel; and young men began to acquire skill as carpen-
ters, smiths, and boat-builders. Two years after .their arrival the
missionaries had the joy of baptizing the first converts. A code of
laws was prepared. Schools were established, and in these schools all
classes were gathered, from the king to the little child. Portions
of the Scriptures were also translated, and an auxiliary missionary
society .was started after the example of Tahiti.
To this they had been moved by the wonderful story of what had
happened in Rurutu, a small island lying 350 miles to the south of
Raiatea. This island had been visited by a terrible epidemic, which
had carried off so many of the people that the rest became alarmed.
One of the gods, they thought, must be angry with them, and was
punishing them for some wrong thing they had done. Anxious to
escape before this angry god had "devoured" them all, two old chiefs
made up their minds to flee. Each of them determined to build a large
canoe, and in this, with as many of their people as the canoe would
hold, to sail for some happier land. If they failed to reach such a land,
they could but perish at sea, while to remain where they were was to
await certain death. Auura was the name of one of these chiefs. His


canoe ready, away he sailed with a large party of his friends. They
safely. reached the island of Tubuai, where, for a time, they stayed.
Recruited in strength and spirits, they at length made up their minds to
return to Rurutu, thinking that by that time. the plague must have
stopped; but scarcely had they lost sight of the mountains of Tubuai,
when a violent storm overtook them, swamped one of the canoes, and
drove the other out of its course. For three weeks Auura and his
followers were tossed about upon the ocean, they knew not whither,
while their sufferings for want of food and water were dreadful. But.
God in His mercy preserved them, and guided their storm-beaten craft.
to Maurua, the most westerly of the Society Islands. Here they were,
received with much kindness by the natives, who, however, told them
that they formerly worshipped the same deities as themselves, and had
a like fear of evil spirits; but that now they prayed to the One living
and true God. They also pointed to the overthrown "maraes as proof
of what they had said.
Hearing that white men had come in ships to bring these gopd
tidings, and that they were living quite near, Auura thought it would
be wise to go and see them before returning to Rurutu. A westerly
wind setting in, he and his friends again set sail in his canoe, intend-
ing to stop at Borabora on the way; but missing the entrance in the
reef at that island, they were carried on to Raiatea. Landing there,
everything-they saw filled them with surprise. The missionaries and
their wives, the natives dressed in European fashion and wearing hats
and bonnets, the neat white cottages that had been built, the work-
shops and other novelties, astonished them beyond measure; and, when
on Sunday they were taken to the house of God, saw the immense
congregation, heard them sing songs of praise, and listened to the
preaching of the gospel, they at once felt convinced that the Christian
religion was the true one, and were even thankful for the perils and
hardships that had brought them to Raiatea. Their one desire was to
learn how to read, and the deacons of the church undertook to teach
them. Auura especially showed great zeal and made rapid progress.
In a short time he had mastered the. spelling-book, could repeat most


of the catechism, and was able to read in the Gospel of Matthew.
These Rurutuans were only in Raiatea for three months, but before
they left several of them could read, spell, and write correctly; and
yet until the day they landed there they had never seen a letter.
Auura's great wish now was to return as quickly as possible to his
native isle that he might tell his relatives and neighbours of the love
of God, his only fear being that most of them would be dead before he
reached home.
A ship, having a cargo of cocoa-nut oil, which native Christians
were sending as the first of many generous gifts to the.London Mission-
ary Society, coming into harbour, Mr. Williams, had no difficulty in
persuading the captain to take them back. Auura, however, was un-
willing .to go unless he had with him some one who could teach him
and his people; for, said he, it will never do to go to the land of dark-
ness without a light in my hand." Calling the members of the church-
together, the missionaries asked for volunteers for this work, and two ot
the deacons, who were among the very best men in the church, readily
came forward and said: Here are we; send us." They were then set
apart to their special mission in a solemn and impressive service. This
was the earliest ordination service of South Sea Island missionaries to
distant heathen islands of which we have record, and the greater part
of the night before they sailed was spent by the people in providing
some article for their missionaries to take with them. Every member
of the church, says Mr. Williams, from whose Missionary Enter-
prise we take the story, brought something: one a razor, another a
knife, a third a roll of native cloth, a fourth a pair of scissors, and
others various useful tools. The English missionaries supplied them
with lesson-b6oks and a few copies of Scripture portions in the
Tahitian language, which closely resembles their own.
As Mr. Williams and his native helpers were anxious to hear
quickly how these men were received, they sent a boat of their own
with a native crew to bring back word ; and after an .absence of little
more than a month, they had the great joy of seeing this boat return
laden with the trophies of victory-the gods of Rurutu, which the


islanders had readily given up. With the idols there came-letters, and
as these were read-the hearts of God's. servants were moved with grati-
tude and confidence in His power to overthrow the kingdom of dark-
ness. A meeting was called, ard the, people crowded into the large
chapel to hear the letters read and to join in praise to Him who had .so
-signally manifested'His power. This meeting was held in the evening,
the chapel being lighted up with ten chandeliers made of. wood neatly
turned, cocoa-nut shells taking the place of lamps, and.must-have been
wonderfully affecting. The rejected idols had been.carried into. the
chapel, and during the .meeting were. publicly exhibited from ;the
pulpit. One in particular-Aa,* the national god of Rurutu--excited
much interest, for besides being covered with little gods outside, it was
found that he had a door in his back; and on opening this door,
twenty-four small ,gods were taken from -the inside, and one after
another held up to view. He was supposed to be the ancestor from
whom the island of Rurutu was peopled, and who after death was
regarded as a god.
Several stirring speeches were made that evening. Tuahine, the
deacon, of whom we have heard before, spoke of the idols in these
terms: Thus the gods made with hands shall perish. There they
are, tied with cords! Yes, their- very names are, also changed!
Formerly they were called Te. mau Atua,' or the gods; now they
are called ',Te mau Varua ino,' or evil spirits Their glory, look! it is
birds' feathers,- soon rotten ; but our God is the same for ever."
Tamatoa, the king, also made a striking speech. "Let us," said he,
"continue to give our oil and arrowroot; to God, that the blind may
see, and the deaf hear. Let us not be weary in this good work.
We behold' the"great deep: it is full of sea; it is rough and rugged
underneath; but the. water, makes a plain, smooth surface, so that
nothing of its ruggedness is seen. Our. lands were rugged and
rough with wickedness and godless customs. The Word of God alone
can make these rough places smooth. Let us all be diligent in this
good work, till the rugged world is made smooth by the Word of God,
Aa of Ruruttt was the sarie as Taaroa of Tahiti and Tangaroa of Rarotonga.

as the waters cover -the ruggedness.of the. great deep. Let us, above
all, be concerned to have our own hearts washed in Jesus' blood;
then God will become our Friend and Jesus our Brother."
Well might the Raiatean church be stirred with deep emotion as
they listened to such words, as they reflected on the great change
that had taken place in their own island,.and as they pondered this new
tokenof 'the mighty power of God.., Nor must we think that Rurutu
had-simply given up its idols. No: from that day forth its people
began to live a quiet and sober life. Some time afterwards the master
of an American whaler, Captain Benjamin Chase, who often called at
Raiatea for provisions, made up his mind to touch at Rurutu on his
way back to the States, but in attempting this was unfortunately
wrecked. The natives, however, treated him with great friendliness,.
and before Captain Chase left he landed a paper to the native teacher,
signed by himself, in.which he had written these words:-
"The natives gave us all the assistance in their power from the
time the ship struck to the present moment.- The first day, while land-
ing the things from the ship, they were put into the hands of the
natives, and carried up to the native mission-house, a distance of half
a mile; and not a single article of clothing was taken from any man
belonging to the ship, though they had it in their power to have plun-
dered us of everything that was landed, which fully proves the
honesty of the natives of this island. Since I have lived on shore,
myself, officers, and people have received the kindest treatment from
the natives that can be imagined, for which I shall ever be thankful.
Myself and officers have lived in the house with Puna, who, together
with his wife, have paid every attention to make us comfortable, for
which I return my unfeigned thanks, being the only compensation I
can make them at present.
(Signed) B. CHASE."
Mr. Williams had already begun to long for greater usefulness, and
this story of Rurutu stirred anew his desire to get outside the single
reef," and visit other islands. His people also were feeling the throb-
bings of the missionary spirit. In 1821, Mrs. Williams being in feeble
health, and he himself suffering from a disease common in the Pacific,
a voyage to Sydney was thought desirable; but combining with family

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duties his ardent wish to take the Gospel to groups yet unvisited, he
arranged to commence forthwith the special work upon which his
,heart was set, and utilise his voyage in search, of health for visiting,
and, if possible, stationing teachers in a fresh centre.
Six or seven hundred miles to the south-west of Tahiti lies a group
of islands, which, discovered by Captain Cook (Rarotonga, the largest
of them, excepted), were by him named the Hervey Islands, in honour
:of the Honourable Captain Hervey, one of the Lords of the Admiralty,
,and to that group of islands did the Gospel next spread. Aitutaki, the
third in size, was the first of the Hervey Islands to be enlightened.
Two native Christiaris, members of the church of Raiatea, had been
.selected by that church for the new effort. Convened for the solemn
purpose of choosing from among themselves those most suitable for
taking the news of God's power and love to the regions beyond, the
Raiateans, like the mother-church of Antioch in the days of the
apostles, were directed by the same all-sufficient Guide to separate
Papeiha and Vahapata for the work unto which He had called them.
Both were well fitted for the duty,-more especially the former, whose
graphic narratives, carefully preserved in the pages of Missionary
Enterprises," are both deeply interesting in themselves, and at the
same time a remarkable evidence of their heroism and consecration.
On the arrival of the vessel at Aitutaki, she was immediately sur-
rounded by native canoes, the occupiers of which were a noisy, wild
:set of savages.

"Some," says Mr. Williams, "were tattooed from head to foot,;
some were painted most fantastically with 'pipe-clay and yellow and
red ochre; others were smeared all over with charf6Ll; and in this
state were dancing, shouting, and exhibiting the most frantic gestures.
We invited the chief Tamatoa on board the vessel. A number of his
people followed him. Finding that I could converse readily in their
language, I informed the chief of, what had taken place in the Tahitian
and Society Islands with respect to the overthrow of idolatry. He
asked me very significantly where great Tangaroa was. I told him
that he, with all the other gods, were burned. He then inquired where
Koro of Raiatea was. I replied that he, too, was consumed with fire;


and that I had brought two teachers to instruct him ana his people in
the word and knowledge.of the true God, that he and they also might
be-induced, to abandon and destroy their idols, as others had done. On
my introducing the teachers to him, he asked me if they would accom-
pany him to the shore. I replied in the affirmative, and proposed that
they should, remain with him. He seized therh with delight, and
saluted them most heartily by rubbing noses, which salutation he con-
tinued for some time. On the chief promising me that he' would treat
the teachers with kindness, and afford them protection, taking with
them their little store, they got into his large canoe, and the natives
paddled off to the land, apparently greatly delighted with their

In such a simple and primitive manner was the kingdom of God
extended. A third evangelist, who .took with him a supply of lesson-
books and other aids to progress, was soon sent to help Papeiha and
Vahapata, so that when in the second year of thenew mission's, his-
tory Mr. Williams (whose stay of eight months in Sydney had greatly
refreshed him), accompanied by. his fellow missionary, Mr. Bourne,
and sailing in .the schooner Endeavour (which, while in Sydney, he
had bought for such service), again visited them, he found wonderful
changes already effected. A large chapel, nearly 20o feet in length,
. and about 30 feet in width, had been built of wattle, and plaster, also a
neat house for the teacher, containing five rooms; heathen temples had
been destroyed, and their idols gone; they who only eighteen months
*before had been sunken in superstition and gross idolatry were now
busily occupied chanting thp praises of God, singing Christian hymns,
or repeating passages from a catechism, while Sunday was observed
by the entire people as a day. of rest and worship. Of course the
change was, to a large extent, external only; but making all deduc-
tions, it was enough to fill the hearts of native and English mission-
aries alike with thankfulness and hope. The next day the ceremony
of opening the chapel took place, when a congregation of between
1,500 and 2,000 people were present. Mr. Williams preached from the
words, "God so.loved the world," etc., and as he did so, wTas much
moved by reflecting how different were the Aitutakians.on this his


second visit from- what they were on his first-then. cannibals, now
with one accord bending their knees in prayer to God.
And how had this been brought about? By a slow process during
the first twelve months, and then very rapidly. On landing Papeiha
and Vahapata were taken to the heathen "maraes," or altars, and
there given up to the gods. Little did the Aitutakians then think that
in a few short months the two strangers they were thus placing undei
the care of their gods would have turned their little world upside
down," and brought them all to understand that these gods were lifeless
blocks of wood and stone. Yet so it was. But not all at once. For a
time the teachers had much difficulty, and were badly treated. Fight-
ing broke out among the islanders three distinct times, and this led to
rioting and robbery of their goods. Still they never lost heart, but
were confident that God would soon overthrow the idolatry of the land.
A tour of the island, which the two teachers made together, was
the first thing to make a definite impression upon the heathen. They
stayed a few days in each'district, and while there took every oppor-
tunity that: offered for getting into conversation 'with the natives.
They also taught them to repeat the Lord's Prayer and the alphabet.
In one district, in the presence of a' large crowd of natives, they had a
discussion with an old priest, who, by shouting and bluster, did. his.
best to refute their teaching. Te-erui," said the old man, made all
.lands: he made Aitutaki; and after he had made it, he gave it: its
present form by moulding it with his hands." No," answered the
teachers, '.' God alone has power to create, and He made Aitutaki and
all other lands." But the old priest would not be silenced, but con-
tinued to shout out that Te-erui was great, and that he had been the
first man. Indeed! then who was his father?" asked the teachers.
" Oh, Te-tareva." "Where did Te-tareva come from?" was their
next question. From Avaiki." "Where is that?" "It is down
below the earth: Te-tareva climbed up from it; and because he reached
the top, was called by that name." Quickly seeing that they had the
old priest in'a corner, the teachers asked: This land, then, was made
before Te-tareva arrived ? "Most certainly," was the prompt reply.


"Then," continued the Raiateans, "how can Te-erui be the maker of
a land which, you say, was made before his parent, Te-tareva, came
up from beneath ?" This was a poser for the old man, and he was
silent; but the teachers went on to tell the crowd about the true God,
who made heaven and earth and all that is therein, and so interested
them, that if any one made the least noise, there was at once a cry of:
" Be still, be still; let us hear what they say." From that time many
began to listen thoughtfully to the new teaching.


Two other events helped to deepen the impression. The first was
the arrival of a ship which had called at Aitutaki for the express pur-
pose of finding out how Papeiha and Vahapata were, and to bring
them .presents and greetings from their friends. The heathen had
spoken of them as two logs of driftwood, washed on shore by the
waves of the ocean," and would not believe that any one would come
to visit them, when lo! here was a vessel come for that very purpose!
Besides which the captain made gifts of axes and other things the


Aitutakians were very glad to get, and the teachers presented to the
king's grandfather some pigs and goats which had been sent to them.
A few days after the ship had sailed away there was a general wish
on the part of the people to give up their idols, and seek instruction
at the hands of the two teachers. One man stood in the way; this
was the king's grandfather, who declared that he would never give up
the gods he had always served. But a great sorrow led him to alter
his mind. While he was busily engaged in certain heathen customs,
a daughter of whom he was very fond was taken ill. The priests at
once began to invoke the help of the gods. Offerings were freely laid
before them, and from morn to eve, day after day, they were entreated
to restore the sick child to health. Instead of getting better she grew
worse, and at last died. So enraged was the chief that in wild grief
and anger he wreaked his vengeance upon the gods who had been
deaf to his cries by sending his son to set fire to the "marae." Two
other "maraes" near also caught fire and were destroyed. Going to
another larger one, before which people were at the very moment
making offerings, he tried to burn that too, but was held back by the
party of worshippers.
The death of this young princess and the act of her father and
mother roused the entire island, and when Sunday came round the
people from several districts brought their idols and laid them at the
teachers' feet. Many did the same during the following week, and by
the next Sunday, just fifteen months after the teachers had landed,
not a single person was left in Aitutaki who professed to have any
faith in idols. On the Monday a large meeting was held, when it was
agreed first that every "marae" in the island should be destroyed,
and next that they should at once set to work and build a house of
prayer. That very evening several temples were overthrown, and by
the Tuesday morning not a single one remained. With equal ardour
did the people begin the more difficult task of building the chapel.
They were quick to learn, but some things astonished them beyond
measure, especially their first experience of lime-burning. The
foreigners were roasting stones," they said. Then when they found


the roast stone turned to a beautiful soft, white powder, they were
so pleased with the powder that they whitewashed their clothes and
hats, and strutted about the village as proud as peacocks. Their sur-
prise reached its highest point when; mixed with sand and carefully
plastered over a piece of the wall and protected for the night by mat-
ting, by next morning the soft powder had turned to hard cement.
That beat everything. They. gently touched it, smelt it, scratched
it, and finished up by saying: "Wonderful, wonderful! The very
stones in the sea and the sand on the shore become useful in the
hands of those who worship the true God and obey His good word."
In these ways had Aitutaki been brought out of the heathen darkness
that had hitherto enslaved her.
Mr. Williams had brought six additional teachers, and their wives,
to whom, with the three already at work, the task of rescuing the
Hervey Islands from idolatry was to be entrusted. Some were in-
tended for Rarotonga, of.which island reports had often reached the
missionaries, and natives from which were then at Aitutaki. These
Rarotongans had become Christians during their stay in Aitutaki,
and were eager to return home and tell their countrymen of what the
Lord had done for them, and to the missionaries this seemed a clear
sign of the guiding hand of God. But the exact whereabouts of 'the
island was still unknown, and the first thing to do was to discover it.
Taking the Rarotongans on board, and having Papeiha to help them
in their efforts to get on friendly terms with the people, who. were
reputed to be of most fierce character, treacherous, bloodthirsty, and
thorough cannibals, the missionaries sailed in search of the island.
After more than a week's unsuccessful cruise backwards and for-
wards, however, they had to give up the attempt and steer for Man-
gaia instead. Their reception there was not encouraging. At first
they could not induce the natives to approach them, and when, after
repeated failures, one man, by a liberal offer of knives and pearl orna-
ments, was persuaded to come on board, the poor fellow, though a
very Hercules in build, trembled with terror at finding himself on a
white man's ship, and eagerly seizing the first chance to descend to


his canoe, paddled off to the shore as if for his life. Unwilling to
sail away without first landing and trying to make friends with the
people, and yet feeling the difficulty of doing so, the missionaries and
teachers consulted together as to what should be done. Brave Pa-
peiha was equal to the emergency, and at once offered to venture on
shore alone. No opening in the reef, available for the entry of a boat
into the lagoon, was to be seen, but that was no trouble to Pal3eiha;
he was ready to leap into the sea and swim through the surf to land.
He was taken in a boat to the reef, and getting out upon the coral
rock, prepared to dive; but noticing that the natives were all armed,
some with slings in which stones were already placed, others with
spears which were poised for hurling at him, he began to address
them. He told them that he wanted to come on shore, that he came
unarmed, that he was a man of peace and not of war, and begged
them to tie their spears in bundles with the slings, for unless they
would do this he could not venture. The Mangaians readily agreed
to do as he asked, when, diving into the surf, he'was borne on the
crest of a wave to the beach. He was so well received that he at
once explained to the chiefs what the missionaries wished to do, and
arranged with them for the landing of the teachers. Swimming back
to the boat, he reported his success, and gave as his opinion that the
people would prove quiet and were to be trusted. In this, unfortu-
nately, he was mistaken, for on their landing they met with gross
ill-treatment. Both they and their property were forthwith seized. A
saw which one of them carried was pounced upon, broken into three
pieces, and then hung from the savages' ears as ornaments. A box of
bonnets was dragged through the water. Bamboos of oil were tapped,
and the oil poured over their naked bodies till the skin shone as they
stood in the sunbeams. Strangest of all, two pigs, an animal which had
never before been seen in Mangaia, were seized by a chief, dressed by
him in his own royal feathers and decorations, and sent in procession
to the temple of the island gods. The teachers' wives were carried
off bodily into the woods, and there treated with great brutality
and cruelty, their clothes being torn into shreds, and they themselves


dragged through mire and water, while their poor husbands, being
bound hand and foot, were powerless to help them. Papeiha himself
was marked'for slaughter, and but for his presence of mind would
have suffered death from strangling. A tiputa was thrown over his
head for this purpose, but managing -to get his hand into the opening,
he saved his neck from the tightening pressure. Happily these pro-
ceedings could be seen from the vessel, so a small cannon was fired
to frighten the natives, and at the sound of its report they fled to the
bush in great haste. Their flight made it possible to send a boat on
shore and effect a speedy rescue. The teachers returned in a most
bedraggled and woe-begone condition. In such disastrous fashion
did the first attempt to win over Mangaia end.
But less than two years later (1825), when Messrs. Tyerman and
Bennet, who, as a deputation from the Directors, were going the round
of the missions, were returning from Tahiti to Australia, the attempt
was renewed, and with thorough success. Two young men, Davida
and Tiera, both of them members of the church at Tahaa, were on
board, ready to land on any island that might be found prepared to
receive them. Reaching Mangaia, friendly intercourse was easily
opened with the people, who had come to a better frame of mind, and
were now quite willing to receive teachers. This was chiefly due to
the terrible sufferings the islanders had been called to endure. Very
soon after the visit of Mr. Williams and their harsh treatment of the
teachers disease had broken out among them, and, spreading rapidly,
had killed many. .Men of rank and the poor, grown-up people and
children, were alike its victims, and the hearts of the people became
as water," while the one thought that fixed itself in their minds was
that the plague was a punishment to them for their own misdeeds.
Having nothing with them but the light calico shirts which they
wore, and a portion of the Tahitian New Testament tied tightly across
their foreheads, these two devoted missionary pioneers, leaping into
the sea from the canoe, swam to the shore, and became the honoured
instruments of overthrowing the idolatry of the island, and of laying
the foundations of the kingdom of Christ.


Atiu, Mauke, Mitiaro, and other islands were also welcoming the
light, and at last Rarotonga was added to the number. Once again
John Williams set out to look for it, and when provisions were failing,
the captain's patience almost worn out, and a promise made that if
not found within an hour the search should be given up, lo, there
came a shout from the masthead: Here, here is the land we have
been seeking." The morning clouds had lifted with the rising sun,
and Rarotonga lay within sight. Though previously observed and
even visited by one or two passing vessels, in a sense it was dis-
covered by Mr. Williams. Papeiha and one of the Rarotongans, who
had been brought away from Aitutaki, landed in a canoe, and easily
persuaded Makea, the king, a light-skinned, handsome man, six feet
high, whose stout body was beautifully tattooed and slightly tinged
with orange by the use of a mixture of turmeric and ginger, to return
with them to the vessel. There he met with a most hearty welcome.
He was much rejoiced to see his people back again, and especially to
find his own cousin among them. Teachers with their wives, Pa-
peiha, and all the Rarotongans were taken ashore, and it was hoped
that all would go well. But, as at Mangaia, appearances were de-
ceitful. The licentious habits of a powerful chief led to sad trouble.
This man was already the husband of nineteen wives, but wishing to
add a twentieth, came with a number of his followers to seize a
teacher's wife and carry her away by force. This he would certainly
have done but for the courage of one of the Christian Rarotongans
who had come in the Endeavour from Aitutaki. This Christian
woman-Tapairu by name-who was a cousin of Makea's, and had
been welcomed home by him an hour or two before with much nose-
rubbing and like tokens of delight, a woman of influence and of great
bravery, defended her friend from the wicked chief. She argued,
wept, and fought to save her from disgrace, and to her alone, under
God, the woman's rescue was due. Early the next morning the entire
party came off to the ship, their garments tattered and torn, and with
a truly piteous tale of woe to tell.
What was to be done? Again did the courage of Papeiha solve


a difficult problem. "Let me remain alone," said he, "at any rate
until you can send me a colleague from Raiatea," naming one of like
spirit with himself. "Let the savages spare me or kill me, I will

A. .



land among them; Jehovah is my shield, I am in His hand." So it
was settled. Leaving his little property on board, and bidding fare-
well to his friends, this devoted Polynesian apostle got into a canoe


and made for the shore, carrying nothing with him but the clothes
he wore, his native Testament, and a bundle of elementary lesson-
books. With the six Rarotongans who, while still in Aitutaki, had
become Christians, as his sympathisers and helpers, Papeiha was
about to commence a work of real magnitude. Earnest prayer was
offered on his behalf-prayer that was heard and answered-and four
months later, when Tiberio, the chosen colleague, arrived, many ad-
ditions to the little flock had been made. A year later Messrs. Tyer-
man and Bennet found the whole population nominally Christian.
They had renounced their idols, feathers, hideous images, poles
swathed in endless coils of native cloth, and similar emblems of igno-
rance and superstition, and were busily engaged erecting a place of
worship six hundred feet long. Some fifteen hundred wild, almost
naked people, gathered together to listen to the preacher. They were
not Christians in any true sense of the word. Their hearts were un-
changed. But they were quite sure of one thing, and that was that
the God of the Christians was mightier than their own gods. It was
indeed a marvellous thing. Two native teachers, themselves born
heathen in an island seven hundred miles away, landed on Rarotonga,
and in less than two years and a half the worship of idols was at
an end !
A heathen woman had prepared the way. Her story is so strange
that it must be told once more. She had been brought either by a
canoe or in some passing vessel from Tahiti to Rarotonga, and proud
of her travels and knowledge of other lands, lost no time in telling
the natives of all she had seen. Don't think that you are the only
people in the world," she said, for there are many others, and some
of them are white all over. They are called Cookies."1 She then
told of Captain Cook's visit to. Tahiti, and that after he left some
" servants of Jehovah and Jesus Christ, the white man's God,"
came and were now living in the island. These white men, she
said, .had brought many new things. The people no longer used
SA name, derived from that of Captain Cook, at that time given by the natives
of the South Seas to all English people.


stone axes for hewing trees, but sharp things with which they could
cut down timber with the greatest ease; they no longer used
tools made of men's bones for scraping out their canoes, or when
making posts for their houses, for the same foreign teachers had
brought sharp hard things, made of iron, with which one could do
the work much more quickly and better; the children did not now
cry and scream when they had their hair cut, as they formerly did
when it was sawn off with sharks' teeth, for the Cookies had brought
them bright things which were so sharp that they cut the hair with-
out hurting; and they had no need now to go down to the water's
edge if they wanted to see what their faces looked like, for these
wonderful visitors had brought with them some small shining things,
which they could carry about with them, and in which they could see
themselves as plainly as they could see each other. So impressed were
the Rarotongans with all that this heathen Tahitian woman told
them that the king, Makea, called one of his children "Tehovah"
(Jehovah) and another Jetu Terai" (Jesus Christ). An uncle of the
king built an altar to Jehovah and Jesus Christ, to which sick people
were taken to be healed, and so famous had this. marae" or altar
become that the power of Jehovah and Jesus Christ was already
But Papeiha for a time had an uphill struggle and very.little to
cheer his heart. On reaching the shore to which he had so bravely
swum, he was at once taken to the house of the old chief Makea,
father of the one then in power. He was followed by a great crowd
of natives who threatened to steal his clothes. "I'll have his hat,"
said one; I'll have his jacket," said another; "I'll have his shirt,"
said a third. But they did not carry out their threats, for the chief
called out: Speak to us, 0 man, that we may know the business on
which you have come." Papeiha told them that he had come to tell
them about the true God and the way of salvation through Jesus
Christ, so that they, like the people of Tahiti and other islands, might
burn the idols of wood, of cloth, and of birds' feathers which they had
made with their own hands, and ignorantly called gods. These bold


words startled the crowd, who burst out in horror and surprise:
" What! burn the gods! what gods shall we then have, and what
shall we do without the gods?" The wonder is that Papeiha's blunt
outspokenness did not cost him his life. But God graciously protected
Morning and evening worship, and Sunday services, which about
a score of persons, more or less friendly, attended, were regularly
carried on. Among those who came was a young man, the eldest
son of the chief, who was afterwards baptized with the name Davida,
and became a true friend and a sincere Christian.. Up in the moun-
tains of Rarotonga there lived a chief, called Tinomana, where with
his clan he was forced to live by the more powerful chiefs, who dwelt
near the shore. Weaker than his neighbours, Tinomana had to
endure unfair and cruel treatment. He was not allowed, to come
down to the sea to fish: all the fishing his people could do had to be
done by stealth at night. His plantations were often robbed; and,
worse still, when the gods were supposed to want a victim, or a large
offering of food, it was one of his followers who had to be slain; or it
was from him the- present for the gods had to be obtained. Now
Tinomana was the first chief to burn his idols. He sent for Papeiha,
and the zealous Raiatean teacher at once obeyed the call, and went to
see him. He had a long talk with the chief, and fully convinced him
that the idols were powerless. He also pointed out to him the great
blessings which the Gospel would bring. Fighting would cease.
Instead of being driven up into the mountains, he would be allowed
peacefully to settle near the shore, and both he and others would .gain
greatly. At nightfall, when Papeiha was. about to. lie down, to rest,
Tinomana brought his native mat, the only bed he used, and.spreading
it by Papeiha's side, begged him to teach him how to pray to Jehovah.
Papeiha commenced a short prayer, which the chief repeated after him.
Wearied with his journey and the long. talk, the teacher dropped off
to sleep; but scarcely had he closed his eyes before Tinomana in great
distress awoke him, saying: I've forgotten it; go over it again."
After making him repeat it many times, he again.fell asleep; but once

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