Usability Test Report for Florida Digital Newspaper Library, UFDC

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Usability Test Report for Florida Digital Newspaper Library, UFDC
Ochoa, Marilyn
Reakes, Patrick
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
University of Florida Libraries
Publication Date:

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
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Usability Test Report for Florida Digital Newspaper Library, UFDC

Date of Report: Period of Testing: Prepared for:
Prepared by:

April 30, 2008
February 29- April 9, 2008
Erich Kesse Digital Library Center University of Florida
Marilyn N. Ochoa Assessment Team Leader and Member, Digital Library
Center/Systems Group
Assistant Head Librarian, Education Library University of Florida
Patrick Reakes Assessment Team Member Head Librarian, Journalism Library University of Florida

Table of Contents
E x ecu tiv e S u m m ary .................................................................................................................................... 3
M eth o d o lo g y ............................................................................................................................................... 4
What happened during the usability test
Who we tested
Where we tested
What data was collected
In itial R esou rce Im p ression s ...................... ...... ........................................................................................ 7
What are your initial impressions of this resource?
What did you like about this resource?
What did you dislike about this resource?
What type of information would you expect to find on this resource?
T a sk s an d T e st R ev iew ................................................................................................................................ 8
O verall N avigation and E ase of U se ........................................................................................ 9
S e a rc h in g .................................................................................................................................. 9
R e su lts L ist ...................................................................................................... ...................... 1 0
Ite m V ie w e r ............................................................................................................................ 10
P o st-T e st R e actio n s .................................................................................................................................... I I
F inding s & R ecom m endation s ................................................................................................................... 12
Finding [4 1]: More information about FDNL is needed on the homepage
Finding [42]: The left information box on the basic search box does not provide necessary
information and is somewhat misleading.
Finding [43]: Help information specifically for FDNL would be useful.
Finding [44]: The Advanced Search interface dropdown items include items that are library
use-centric and are confusing to the user.
Finding [45]: Result lists are cumbersome and some features of the list go unnoticed.
Finding [46]: Users want to navigate around the image more easily in Item Viewer.
Finding [47]: Users want to be able to locate newspaper information more easily.
A p p e n d ic e s ................................................................................................................................................. 1 5
Appendix A. Official University of Florida Institution Review Board Protocol Informed
Appendix B. Supplemental Information, Questions received from email reference questions,
not attributed

Executive Summary
Florida's newspapers are a state treasure, the historian's and genealogist's best friend, and the community's collective memory. In the world of newspapers, today's news is already history, from the moment their stories are printed. The Florida Digital Newspaper Library exists to provide access to the news and history of Florida.
The Florida Digital Newspaper Library (FDNL) is a project funded in part by grants from Florida's Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) Grants Program, from the National Endowment for the Humanities' National Digital Newspaper Program, and from the Institute for Museum and Library Services. It is also funded by the University of Florida (UF), with the assistance of digital library endowment from the Estate of the late Governor and Mrs. C. Farris Bryant, and by Florida Heritage Project funds from the University of North Florida and the University of South Florida. The lorida Digital Newspaper Library is PALMM Collection and is indexed by the Florida Electronic Library.
As a subcollection of the University of Florida Digital Collections (UFDC), FDNL is a research tool that enables a user to find newspaper resources held at UF, learn about the physical collection a paper is held in, and use the online full content of the resource. The UF Digital Library Center (DLC) developed this digital library to house the digital resources and provide open access to remote and local users.
The librarian/Assessment Team Leader, who serves as the liaison to public services and the Digital Library Center/Systems team, had previously assisted with development of the UFDC interface by recommending common functionality and design found in similar resources. The librarian considered participant preferences based on experience with user behavior in class instruction and reference desk transactions. The first usability testing resulted in a usability report for the UFDC in general was submitted on March 13, 2007. Many recommendations were accepted and implemented with consideration to the technical capability of the open source Greenstone Digital Library System used for its metadata storage, retrieval, and search engine.
As FDNL grew, the librarian began the investigation to examine how effectively the digital newspaper library matches user expectations and needs. To accomplish the task of evaluating FDNL within UFDC, the librarian developed and administered usability testing to a group of university participants. Certain improvements to the UFDC interface, result pages and item viewer were not retested directly but more collection specific functions and tools were evaluated.
In addition, because the FDNL project was funded as a part of the National Digital Newspaper Library project, resources that are digitized and searchable via UFDC are also available within the Library of Congress' Chronicling America: American Historic Newspapers site at The major goal of this project was to examine information discovery and retrieval using the UFDC interface for FDNL as well as the Library of Congress' Chronicling America interface.

Overall, testing examined how well the UFDC allows for ease of use, navigability and learnability. Key areas of concern were identified prior to testing:
* Are the UFDC search pages-all collections, basic and advance-and navigation
throughout the resource intuitive?
* Can users readily understand what the resource can do for them? Do the result pages
provide the type of information a participant needs? Do users retrieve the anticipated
* How easy is it to understand and use the available search features to locate materials?
* Are the item viewer navigation functions appropriate to ensure easy navigation and ease
of use?
The testing resulted in feedback with in the following overall findings:
* FDNL as a resource should be explained on the homepage and provide more specific
information including funding in the FAQ.
* Selection of only FDNL newspapers from 1900-1910 to search is not intuitive.
* Result pages for individual newspaper titles versus the specific issue the terms are found
in is not intuitive. The result pages do not provide ease of access to appropriate
* Left hand item viewer navigation functions are not visible or used; these important tools
need to be placed in a more visible location.
* More instruction to use item viewer may be necessary.
The following report will provide the high-level summary of findings, including:
" Overall task performance
" User difficulties and frustrations with the resource
" User preferences regarding functionality based on a comparison of FDNL in UFDC and
Chronicling America
" Significant usability findings (may include positive as well as negative findings)
Prior to the submission of the Institutional Review Board Protocol (MR) to begin testing, the Assessment Team members reviewed and considered:
* Other newspaper resources available, both commercial and similar digital initiatives
* Reference questions received by UF Reference staff over the years requiring the use of
newspaper collections. (Appendix A. Supplemental Information)
* Previous usability testing of the UJFDC, the template for the FDNL interface
Based on the review of other newspaper databases and digital libraries and previous UJFDC testing against the current iteration of FDNL with regard to its technical restrictions, the Assessment Team avoided questions that addressed certain user expectations of granular search

criteria (article title name, article author, newspaper section). The reference questions reviewed indicated that users often need to discover newspaper holdings and specific event information based on location and date; the questions developed for testing focused on this type of user need. A final protocol was accepted by the UF IRB prior to testing. (Appendix B. Official University of Florida IRB Informed Consent)
What happened during the usability test
The evaluation of the FDNL was conducted at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. The research methodology involved resource testing to evaluate online participant search behavior. Two sets of test questions were used. All participants were given both sets of questions. One set of questions considered FDNL while the other focused on Chronicling America.
Participants of the usability testing completed pre- and post- test questionnaires that were used to determine experience using online library resources and their satisfaction with using FDNL. Participants completed a test session consisting of structured exercises using FDNL search interfaces; result pages and item viewer. During the individual test sessions, the participants spoke aloud about their process to complete the question and what they expected would happen; responses were written down by the librarian.
" Completed a user background/Usability Test Participant Questionnaire
" Answered questions about initial site impressions
" Performed real-world tasks on the site while thinking aloud
" Answered questions about their overall satisfaction
Who we tested
The individual usability testing took place between February 29 and April 9, 2008.
The eleven participants of the usability testing were recruited prior to testing. Participants were selected from three categories of academic users who represented the subj ect areas the librarian felt would be interested in the FDNL content tested.
Faculty participants were recruited by email to personal contacts of subject specialists in Mass Communications and Education. Graduate and undergraduate participants were frequent library users who responded to an open invitation by assessment team members. The participants reported the following profile characteristics:
Academic Status Area of Academic Interest

Faculty 2
Graduate Student 4
Undergraduate Student 5

Natural Sciences 2
Social Sciences 5
Arts and Humanities 3 Law 1

Searching skill levels are self-reported values gathered from the pre-test questionnaires.

Self-reported Web Skills
No online search experience 0
Novice user 2
Proficient user 5
Highly experienced user 4
Expert 0

Most participants indicated that reasons for using particular resources include the ease of navigation, familiarity, speed of retrieved results and appropriateness of content covered in the resource.

Resources Used to Locate Newspaper information
Google 9
Another WWW search engine 3
Library Database like Factiva or LexisNexis 10
Special online newspaper collections (specified as Proquest National Newspapers) 2
Microfilm at the library 3

Important features of online resources
Ability to search specific fields 10 Use of Boolean operators 5
Use of truncation and wildcards 3 Help screens 5
Simple navigation of resource 9 Consistent navigation 9
Ability to retrieve a variety of formats (e.g. images, PDF, text) 10 Saving items to a basket 6
Other 1

Where we tested

In most cases, individual testing and observation was conducted in the Education Library, Journalism Library or in the faculty member's office. The following is a general summary of the participants' computing environment:

URL of tested website: [] Computer platforms: [Dell Pentium IV with an 17" display]
Browser tested: [Mozilla Firefox]
Screen resolution: [1024 X 768]
Operating system: [Windows XP]
Connection speed: [Shared TI]

What data we collected
The assessment team members collected data that would address the major elements of the FDNL including overall navigation and ease of use; searching features; result pages; and the item viewer. Other features not yet implemented were also addressed.
Initial Impressions
At the beginning of each individual scenario-based test session, we allowed the participants to preview the resource. We asked participants the following four questions:
" What are your initial impressions of this resource?
" What did you like about this resource?
" What did you dislike about this resource?
" What type of information would you expect to find on this site?
The overall impression of the FDNL is that it is graphically simple and well organized. At least one participant indicated that the banner was appealing and lead to the assumption that the database would cover older, historical newspapers.
From the brief searching allowed within the allotted time for initial perusal of UJFDC, most participants believed they would find newspapers about or published in Florida. Many assumed that it was a Florida newspaper archive which would provide images of actual newspapers. When asked what they liked about the resource, most participants pointed out the prominent search box on the homepage. When asked what they disliked, most participants indicated that they needed a clearer explanation of what the resource provides. They revealed that they would only spend a short time exploring it to find out what it contains and would abandon the resource if their needs are not readily met.
When asked who would use this resource, participants noted that content is appropriate for Florida researchers and historians; some UIF faculty and graduate students; and outside researchers.
What are your initial impressions of this resource?
" Thought the resource was organized and cleaner/aesthetically more pleasing/simpler to
use than current system
" Liked the possibility of using the history information and customization features
" Assumed that the result page would yield the same type of results as other newspaper
databases, or article databases where results give users the specific matching item to what they typed in. They expected items to be relevant as well, though very few users went to
the advanced search page to select specific search criteria.
" Believed that FDNL homepage does not provide a sufficient description of what the
resource will provide

*Some faculty reported that they expected historical (prior to 1990) newspapers but found
coverage of more recent newspapers in the database odd
What did you like about this resource?
" Prominent search box
" Attractive header
" Potentially very useful: significant body of Florida newspaper resources to search
" Helpful searching hints at the bottom of the Advanced search page
What did you dislike about this resource?
" Inability to search by section, subject heading or specific author or title
" Inability to search by location or by date/date range
" Inability to grab and move images, lack of highlighted text
" Some images are of poor quality
" Inability to cut and paste text
" Insufficient Frequently Asked Questions or information about the resource

What type of information would you expect to find on this site?
Common answers included:
" Specific newspaper articles based on search
" Full text to old Florida newspapers
" Florida newspaper information Illustration and advertisements
" Editorial cartoons

Tasks and Test Review
During the usability evaluation, participants were asked to complete a number of scenarios or "real-life" tasks using the resource. The tasks were presented in order on index cards. The following questions were asked of all participants. The issues are addressed in this section and again in the Findings and Recommendations section of this document.
# Scenario-Based Tasks Issue
1 How many issues are available which were published in 1939? How many General newspapers? Searching
2 How many newspaper titles are found when you search for hurricane? General IHow many items were located? Searching
3 What alternate title is listed in the newspaper, Apalachicola Courier? Full citation
4 What is the most recently added newspaper to the collections? Browse Items
5 Of all newspapers in the collection, what is the oldest newspaper/issue you Browse Items can find? Iand Sort

Overall Navigation and Ease of Use/Intuitiveness Participants were generally successful in navigating through the database's search interface and item viewer. The result pages caused the most difficulty for participants.
Some participants were immediately uncertain about what they were searching. Newspapers that are published in 2005 or 2006 do not seem to them to be historical papers; based on the database heading, "Yesterday's news for Today's Readers" to about 63% of participants implied that the resource would include those older than 1990 papers.
Another issue raised was the left navigation bar on the basic search page to links. Some users thought that the relationship between links, particularly the Florida Journalism History Project, the Florida Newspaper Collection (which is the same as the Florida Digital Newspaper Library) and the Caribbean Newspaper Collection, was misleading. Others thought that the FAQ was unsatisfactory and the Contribute and Reports and Presentation links were too prominent on the page.
Searching Features. With a search box prominently on the homepage of the newspaper database, participants were able to easily begin their searches. Although some of the questions would be best answered using an advanced search query, almost all participants used the basic search box and used the revise or sort by function on the result pages to refine their searches. For example, users chose the Year sort option to determine recently added papers. Few participants used the Advanced Search interface; 9 1 % of the time it was used because participants sought a date limiter for fielded searching. These same 5 participants (45%) indicated that they were dissatisfied with the search interface because of the lack of search limiters that they have seen in other databases and include several such as VID and Holding Code which are unexplained limiters.
Item Browse. Users found it easy to browse by All and New Items, however some issues were raised. The All Items Browse was somewhat confusing to participants who could not understand why the sort by Year option was retrieving a result published in 1943 and then showed items chronologically published from 1762 to more recent; the test administer indicated that this is likely a temporary glitch of the system. One participant responded that it was misleading and would prevent them from wanting to use the resource again. Further, the problem of seemingly unrelated resources at the beginning and end of the All list when sorted by date was problematic. One participant said that the unexpected Boston papers that were retrieved made them uncertain about what the resource actually did offer.
The New Items were confusing because users expected to find only older newspapers in their result list. However, at the time of testing, clicking on the New Items showed 2006 results as the newest and for some users, a 1975 publication as the newest. Participants thought aloud that the New must mean new to the collection but not newest published.

All results retrieved were set to the default Table view. All participants thought this view was appropriate for quick perusal of the results. No participant tried the other result views (brief or thumbnail).
When a keyword or fielded search was conducted all newspaper titles are provided with the volumes and issues listed in chronological order. The result list of dates per title after a search was difficult for some users who initially expected to find specifically named articles that matched the search submitted. When seeking specific resources with a keyword, participants thought this list is not manageable and to one participant "simply makes no sense" because of their experience with databases that do provide the specific and relevant article information for the search conducted. Overall, relevancy is important to the users but could not be immediately determined through the publication title and date-only result list.
Most participants made a leap in faith that particular dates follow a newspaper title on the search results page because each issue listed has the terms searched. While they complained about the lack of highlighting or other obvious way to determine where the term appeared on a particular page, they thought that the "Your search within the full text of this volume for pages..." matching pages links was helpful and added value to using the resource. However, having to enter into an item and then click on the matched page and scroll for the word search would be a time consuming task that would, for most, cause them to give up and not return to the resource.
Most participants were uncertain how to locate the newspaper holding information by clicking on the title from the result list. However to find publication information (in Full Citation only when a specific item within the title is selected) 91% of participants looked at the newspaper itself to locate an alternate title for the item instead of using the Full Citation link in the left navigation of Item Viewer. 36% of participants revealed that the they would prefer that the newspaper title as well as the individual issue be hyperlinked so that information about it could be read, including holding information, alternate title and place of publication. While the result list provides a link for individual newspapers it does not provide a link for the particular newspaper located and is a problem for individuals who have used other newspaper databases and could find publication information.
Inconsistency of the display of titles was a problem for participants. For example, only some newspaper titles had the publication location next its title. This inconsistency made some participants believe that they could find newspaper by an area or location. However, this did not appear to be the most accurate or consistent method to retrieve results by location.
Item Viewer
Once participants entered into a specific item, they were impressed and excited that the full text content or image is available to them.
Left Navigation pane. Very few participants utilized the left navigation pane while in the item viewer to navigate to other search options within LJFDC, to retrieve full citation information, to review the table of contents (18%) or to navigate within the item retrieved (e.g. search within

document 9%). 100% suggested that, especially in newspaper searches, enabling highlighted text would be more beneficial.
Navigating using Zooming Features. Most participants thought that the zoom features available are intuitive and useful. However, some participants suggested that being able to drag the resource with the mouse would greatly enhance the experience with using image collections in FDNL. Also, almost no participants (27%) utilized the thumbnail to navigate around the page image of the newspaper. This useful option was underutilized by participants.
Four participants wanted to be able to capture text from the images available. While this option is available for many of the items in FDNL, most users did not notice it from the left navigation view. This fact is evidence that users tend not to look at the left column for important features.
Post Test Reactions
At the end of each session, we asked participants to complete a post-test questionnaire. The questions were useful in gauging how easy the resource was to learn and to use. Overall navigation, ease of use, intuitiveness, Usefulness of Resource/Satisfaction, and results were considered. When asked what parts of the FDNL should be improved, at least 50% suggested the following:
Navigation within resource-grab and move images
Search interface-limiters that enable retrieval of items based on publication location
and newspaper title
Title information
Page load times
Folder options or printing capability
More identifiable back button to navigate within searches and individual items
Add highlighting of terms searched
Participants were also asked to provide any additional information or comments not addressed in the post-test sessions.
Participants thought that some terminology was not descriptive or intuitive.
Participants were impressed that the resources were full content-even though some
of the pages were blank or of poor quality.
Participants wanted but understood that specific article titles could not be retrieved Participants stressed that the way FDNL searches should be explained (if terms are typed in what is the implied Boolean operator-is it an automatic search placing an "and" or "of' between terms; what part of the newspaper the search is targeting on
the Basic search).

The major findings of the test sessions are indicated in the Findings and Recommendation section of this report.
Findings & Recommendations
These findings and recommendations provide information from the scenario-based testing and post-test questionnaires/focus group discussion. While participants thought it was attractive, the FDNL in UFDC was found to be difficult at times, not immediately user-friendly and requires some modification to increase ease of use. The following are specific issues recommendations.
Finding [#1]: More information about FDNL is needed on the homepage. Comments/Supporting Evidence I Recommendations

* Participants do not read text and make
assumptions about content availability
* Participants want better FAQ and
introductory text on the homepage
* Participants indicated that certain terminology
used throughout FDNL including in Browse
has different meanings to them
* Participants did not immediately understand
the range of resources-content and
publication type included.

* Rewrite the paragraph in bulleted format on
the homepage to include information about the actual content, how content is selectedincluding new and old content, where it comes from and the major intent for use
* Add information about the way the results
will be displayed
* Create a separate contributing partners and
funding agencies linked from the homepage

Finding [#2]: The left information box on the basic search box does not provide necessary information and is somewhat misleading.

* Participants did not see the need for
Contribute or Reports and Presentations to be
so high on the list
* FAQ did not provide expected information
about what the project involved, how many items are in the collection or the help items
that may be needed
* Participants assumed the Florida Journalism
History Project and Caribbean Collection
were directly related as a part or subcollection
* Users thought the link to Florida Newspaper
Collection was a separate resource

* Move Contribute and Reports and
Presentations further down on the list
* Add more information about the project and
some general help information in the FAQ,
deemphasizing the OCR and explaining what
New Items and All Items contain
* Add a link to Help in the left navigation box
* Place Florida Journalism History Project and
Caribbean Collection under Related
Resources heading
* Remove Florida Newspaper Collection from
the list on the left


Comments/Supporting Evidence

Finding [#3]: Help information specifically for FDNL would be useful. Comments/Supporting Evidence Recommendations
* Users generally thought the single "Google- Include more search criteria on basic box to
esque" box was appealing but were uncertain help guide users about what they are
how and what the search was querying. searching. For example, add publication
location and individual newspaper title
* Participants had to interpret the differences searching as a drop down to a single search
between terms such as items, titles, pages, box.
issues used in sentences providing retrieval
information. For example, "Your search of Explain each of the search criteria and what
Florida Newspapers Collections for 'miami' the result page is providing in the Help
anywhere resulted in 999+ items in 67 titles."
New and All items need to be explained in FDNL-specific help pages. Further, explain what item, issue, title and page means in the context of this resource
Finding [#4]: The Advanced Search interface dropdown items include items that are library usecentric and are confusing to the user. Comments/Supporting Evidence Recommendations
* Many of the search options on the Advanced e Remove Author, Subject Keywords, BIBID,
search page were ignored or used "because VID, SubCollection, Source Code and
maybe it's the right thing to use." Use of Holding Code
subject keywords and other criteria resulted
in unexpected or often no results. 0 Consider changing Full Citation to
Newspaper Information
* Participants thought they could search by
particular author using the Author search. 0 Add Publication Location, Date and
Publication Title search criteria to the search
* Full Citation search criteria was not dropdown
understood by undergraduate participants
Finding [#5]: Result lists are cumbersome and some features of the list go unnoticed. Comments/Supporting Evidence Recommendations
* Sentence providing result information is Change retrieval information to
rarely noticed because the long text seems to bulleted points (from Library Catalog):
blend into the gray background Search: 'alligator' :
We found 510 matching items.
* Number of titles to number of items retrieved increase size of terms/number of results
from searches not easy to understand. use color for background or term/number
Participants do not want to wade through 0 change the location of result information to
pages of results below the Table View options
* Provide term information in Help pages
* Participants disliked having to scroll through
the long list of results
* Collapse list of found items per title

Finding [#6]: Users want to navigate around the image more easily in Item Viewer.

* Zooming options generally work but can be
confusing because of the need to choose
between them
* Users recommend some easier options for
moving item than the zoom or thumbnail,
which was only used twice in searching.
* Means to get to next or other issues of a paper
as well as information about the paper
difficult; users have to redo search.
* Participants want to be able to find
publication location and other information
about the newspaper easily
* Although the users receive a page that directs
them to pages where terms exist in the item,
participants want to locate the terms searched
more quickly
* Participants did not use the left navigation

* Label what the two zoom features in Item
* Enable grab and move feature to item viewer
* Highlight terms searched with the paper
* Move essential left navigation features,
including View~s, Table of Content, and
Newspaper Information at the top of Item


Comments/Supporting Evidence

Finding [#7]: Users want to be able to locate newspaper information more easily. Comments/Supporting Evidence Recommendations
* Locating newspaper information can only be From result list allow the hyperlink for title
done within the issue view of a newspaper, to go to newspaper information as well as the using Full Citation from the left hand current newspaper holdings. If this cannot be
navigation in item viewer. Users tended to done on the same page, create a hyperlink at
miss this and could not locate newspaper the top of the page that will go to the
information, newspaper information. Call this Newspaper
* From the Item Viewer, place Full Citation information (renamed Newspaper
__________________________________ Information) at the top of the Item Viewer.

Appendix A. Supplemental Information, Questions received from email reference questions, not attributed.
o i got his death certificate that said he was accidentally killed by a train on may 27,1918. and
it says sumner county, fl. but that might be sumnter county. the precinct was Rosewood if
that helps you any.
o I'm hoping to get a copy of a newspaper obituary for someone who died in 1982 and lived in
Chipley, Florida. I phoned the office of the Washington County News newspaper in Chipley
and they told me that they do not have any archives of the old newspaper
o The obituary is for Raymond Uzak (original name Uszczak) who died June 5, 1982 in or near
Chipley, Washington County, Florida. He was 67 years old and was survived by his wife
o I understand that the Univ. of Florida library may be in possession of microfilm of the
Florida Advocate Newspaper prior to 1930. The Florida Advocate was a weekly newspaper of Wauchula Fl from 1900 to about 1950. I'm working on a history project and am trying to
find what resources are available. Thanks
o Can you research the University paper or the city paper to see if there is a mention of Neil
Diamond performing at the University on May 11, 1968. We have had that date, but have no
confirmation of the show there. In yesterday's Gainesville paper, there was an article about the 100th anniversary of the high school there. Where are the newspaper resources located
now? (Fl Times Union, Miami Herald, Tampa Tribune, St.Pete Times)

Approved by
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board 02
Informed Consent Protocol # 20OL-I-0252
For Use Through _g2/28/2009
Purpose of Research Study:
The purpose of this study is to examine information discovery and retrieval using the Florida Digital Newspaper Library and Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers Databases.
What you will be asked to do in the study. You will be asked to complete a short questionnaire to provide general information about your experience using the Libraries web pages. You will then be asked to complete various tasks using the University of Florida Digital Newspaper Library and the Library of Congress' Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers database. An investigator will take notes on your actions. After this session the investigators will ask you to complete a post test questionnaire where you will be asked provide feedback about your experience.
Time Required:
Completion of the pre-test and post test questionnaires should take less than 5 minutes. The test session will take about 45 minutes to complete.
Risks and BenefitsNo risk is anticipated for the participant in the study. Potential benefit may include changes to the library home page to enable ease of use for all users.
No monetary compensation will be paid for participation in the study. Refreshments may be provided.
Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number. When the study is complete and the captured data is analyzed, the coded data will be destroyed. You will not need to state your name in any part of the testing. Your name will not be used in any reporting of the testing.
Voluntary Participation:
Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is not penalty for not participating.
Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Marilyn N. Ochoa, Assistant University Librarian, P.O. Box 117016, (352) 273-2627
Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in this study: UFIRB Office, P.O. Box 112250, University of Florida, (352) 392-0433
I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I
have received a copy of this description.
Participant: Date:
Principal Investigator: Marilyn N. Ochoa Date: