Front Cover

Group Title: Narrative reports of county superintendents, State of Florida
Title: Narrative reports of county superintendents
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082791/00005
 Material Information
Title: Narrative reports of county superintendents
Alternate Title: Research report 55 ; Florida Dept. of Education
Physical Description: 6 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Education. -- Division of Research
Publisher: Florida Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: September, 1967
Copyright Date: 1962
Subject: Public schools -- History -- Sources -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Sources   ( lcsh )
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Department of Education.
General Note: Covers the period from 1870 through 1924. No narrative reports published between 1880 and 1892.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082791
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 48541382

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Full Text





Narrative Reports
of County


to 1916 1918

j,7 775

State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, Superintendent

to 1914 1916

Research Report 55 is a compilation of County
Superintendents' narrative reports covering
statistical and other school data for the period
1912-1918. (350)

1912 1918

Research Report 5 is composed of extracts from the file of State
Superintendents' Biennial Reports in the State Department of Education
for the period 1912-1918. Earlier reports, Research Reports 20, 21, 27
and 37 covered the period from 1869-1912. Each county superintendent's
report covers a two year period, therefore, there are three separate
reports for each county in Research Report S. Mr. William N, Sheats
was State Superintendent of Public Instruction during the entire period
covered by these reports.

In his 1912-14 report, State Superintendent Sheats had some interesting
comments concerning the use of male teachers.

...it is believed that the true status of education may be
determined by the percentage of male teachers. When the
number of males is abnormally large it may be said that the
schools are non-progressive, inactive and over-burdened with
persons using the profession as a stepping-stone, or making
a benefit of it until something else turns up. Many of the
schools will be in the hands of mere schoolkeepers, or by
persons not attending Institutes, Summer Schools, or making
use of such helps as will enable them to keep abreast with
modern lines of thought and development in teaching. Men
are absolutely needed in the profession, but when any system
is weighted down with more than 25 per cent of male teachers,
investigation will more than likely develop corresponding
weakness. There may be States ranking well where more than
one-fourth of their teachers are males, but they will
generally be found in the dark corners and lowering the
general average efficiency of the schools. There are
reasons why the schools are enhanced by the employment of
women, for they are the natural teachers of youth, and over
80 per cent of the pupils in the public schools are found
from the fifth grade down, and they should be in charge of
women, the natural instructors of the youth of that age.

When the public school system was in its infancy in Florida,
and confessedly weak, in the year of 1870, over 65 per cent of
the teachers were males. Ten years later the percentage had
fallen to 61; in 1890 to 48; in 1900 to 36; in 1914 to 22, and
the real value of the schools has been enhanced in proportion
to this decrease.

He commented further regarding the salaries paid county superintendents and
their travel expense allowances.

The average salary, including traveling expenses, of County
Superintendents 20 years ago was only $670.16; in 1914 the
average salary alone was $1,436.82, and the average traveling
expense of 33 counties allowing any was $144.06. The salaries
of several have been raised recently, making the average
greater the following year. There were no clerks or assistant
superintendent in 1904, now most all the larger counties allow
one or more assistants; in fact, all counties having a total

of 40 or more schools should allow the County Superintendent
necessary assistance to perform all his duties with prompt-
ness and efficiency.

Superintendent Sheat's letter to county superintendents requesting
narrative reports for the 1914-1916 biennial report is both interesting
and informative. Some excerpts from this letter follow.

In consequence of the importance of this report and the
opportunity of preserving in permanent shape in a State
publication a general statement of your aims, work and
success in your county for the biennial period closing
June 30, 1916, it is not conceivable how a single one of
you will neglect the opportunity of going upon record by
making this bi-ennial report with gladness and promptness.

This report will enable you to present briefly and by
direct statement in a form to be preserved forever in the
archives of State your efforts and achievements as a county
school official. This report over your signature will be
read and proper credit will be awarded you for the educa-
tional status of your county, while if you neglect making
this report, not one in a thousand will ever take the
trouble to cull out from the great mass of statistics,
recording educational data of all the counties, and
award to each of you due credit for what may have been
accomplished by you under difficulties and against adverse

Please do not postpone making this report, or the painful
necessity will be forced upon me to print the name of pour (sic)
county in its regular order with the name of the County
Superintendent and say, "It was impossible to get a report
from this county." This will be a reflection upon you and
your county that will be everlastingly preserved in the
State prints--not one of you covets such notoriety.

Five days, or ten at the outside, is ample time in which to
file this report, and you will make up your mind to do so,
than if three months were given.

Now pardon me for begging you to be concise and direct in
your statements, avoiding superfluous verbiage and unin-
interesting details, and in no case, have your report occupy
more than ten printed pages.

Prepare your matter just as you desire it to appear, sub-
headed so that it will be read; have it nicely typewritten,
and let it reach me not later than December first.

The need for some type of equalization provision in financing public schools
was recognized many years before the Minimum Foundation was established.
In his 1916-18 Biennial Report, Superintendent Sheats recognized this need
and predicted that sooner or later a plan would be adopted whereby additional

state funds would be provided the poorer counties. This was not fully
effected until the passage of the Minimum Foundation Program law in 1947,
some thirty years later. Superintendent Sheats wrote:

That the educational opportunities are not equal in all parts
of the State is painfully apparent to any one having the least
knowledge of school affairs. The present system of taxation
would seem to be based on the theory that all the counties of
the State are equally able to support the best schools. This
is by no means true. The taxable wealth of the several counties
per youth of school age varies widely. For instance, (1918 data
used), one county has taxable wealth of $265, per youth of school
age, while another county has $1,861. Presuming that the latter
county levied the maximum of 7 mills (which it did) the first
named county would have had to levy 49 mills to enable it to raise
an equal amount per youth; in other words, the one county can
afford to spend seven times as much on its schools as the other,
with equal burden on its taxpayers. The fact is that no two
counties in the State appear to be entirely equal in wealth per
youth of school age, consequently the educational opportunities
of the child must vary in practically the same proportion that
these figures vary, it being well understood, that generally,
the merit of the schools is in almost direct proportion to the
cost. The good schools cost money and are worth it.

If the State is bound in duty to educate the children it is
also bound in duty to see that approximately equal opportunity
is given to all. This question must some day be taken up and
given serious consideration. The plain remedy for this condi-
tion of unequal opportunity is for the State at large to assist
the less wealthy and weaker counties in the education of their
youth. The maximum county levy is now 10 mills, the State
levy one mill. If this were changed and the county levy made
7 mills and the State levy 3 mills, the latter to be redistributed
to the counties as the present one mill tax now is, much of the
inequality would be eliminated, and the poorer counties and
children put upon a higher educational plane without injury to
the wealthier counties.

Some such plan will finally have to be adopted, for it cannot
continue indefinitely that a part of the children of the State
shall have the fullest opportunity to obtain an education,
when another part shall have only a poor chance to obtain the
most meager pretense of an education.

In his circular letter to County Superintendents requesting material for the
1916-18 Biennial Report, Superintendent Sheats again took to task those
superintendents who failed to submit reports as requested.

You will note that eight counties, two years ago, failed to
file any reports, viz: Alachua, Bay, Jackson, Levy, Manatee,
Palm Beach and Polk. You will see that each of these counties
was named in its order with the statement: "It was impossible
to get a report from this county." This implies a reflection
upon some one that will be handed down in the archives of State

for all time. The counties will be published in order, as
heretofore, and any County Superintendent failing to file
his report will be thus advertised in the forthcoming report.
You do not want this to occur, neither do I.

If you will get to work immediately, there is no reason why
the Biennial Report from every county may not be filed in this
office within the next ten days. If three months were given
in which to make these reports, some would procrastinate and
file no report at all. Circumstances demand that your report
be in this office by February 20. There is no reason why
every Superintendent may not be represented. Let us so hope.

The following data reflecting the school situation in 1918 may be of interest.

School population (6 to 21) 319,954
Total school enrollment 196,405
Average length of school term (days) 130
Total number of school buildings 2,674
Average enrollment per school 66
Number of pupils transported 4,261
Number of teachers positions filled 5,992
Average enrollment per teachers 33
Average age of teachers 25
Average months of experience of teachers 40
Average monthly salary paid teacher $60.72
Expenditure per pupil in daily attendance $35.23


Dear Sir:-- In my letter to the State Department two years ago I attributed much of the waste in our educational
work to the lack of skilled county supervision and suggested several devices Alachua would introduce to obtain
a closer insight into the work of the schools.

County Uniform Examinations.--Evaluating the results of the devices employed we feel that the county uniform
examination has proved an efficient means in getting at many of the weaknesses in organization, classification
and instructional methods. This conclusion is reached after a careful study along three lines of comparison
before and since the system of examination was inaugurated. FIRST, the one, two and three-teacher country
schools now give their entire time to the children in the elementary grades and do not attempt to give instruc-
tion to young people who wish to "try out" in a teachers' examination. SECOND, pupils are classified more
nearly according to their understanding and capacities because the teachers' daily rating and quarterly tests
are compared with the county finals.

Teachers and patrons have discovered that there is little merit in being progressive with so much artificial

THIRD, knowing that the county examination is one type of measurement of class instruction, the teachers have
devoted more time to the preparation of their daily work and to study in the art of teaching.

Spelling.-Supplementary to the county uniform examinations, both as an aid to supervision and to emphasize the
importance of the subject of spelling, we have continued with satisfactory results the bi-monthly examinations
in Orthography from the 4th to 10th grades, inclusive, in all the schools of the county. The examination is
made in triplicate, the original is mailed to the Superintendent, one copy is retained by the teacher, and
one copy is sent to the parent or guardian of the pupil. The original is re-graded in the Superintendent's
office, and the teacher is furnished with the corrections and criticisms made.

Survey.--While our efforts would seem to be applied altogether to the elimination of waste in management and
teaching, we wish to say that we have given much time and study to the physical conditions of our schools. For
the two-fold purpose of having the teacher become acquainted with the environment in which the pupils live and
to facilitate our plans for extension work, I have required the teacher to file with their second month's report
a statement, (not less than 200 words) covering the following items in their school district: Number of farms,
average area of farms; tenants or owners living on farms; chief crops; fields, stumped or unstumped; land, low
or rolling; condition of roads; telephone system; co-operation of people in school work; religious, social and
literary organizations, how many of these hold meetings in school house; agriculture and industrial clubs, etc.

Standard Rural School.--This year the rural schools will be standardized, the requirements for a "standard"
school embracing the following:
School House: Painted, ceiled, properly lighted and ventilated.
School Room: Clean, floors scrubbed once a month, four standard pictures on walls.
Windows: On left side of pupils, washed once a week, covered by shades or curtains.
Grounds: At least one acre, good walks to entrance and outhouses, free from weeds and rubbish of any
kind, a barrel conveniently placed for waste matter.
Out Houses: Sanitary all the time, walls free from writing and marks, doors with good locks.
Drinking Water: Well, cistern or spring, and sanitary drinking appliances.
Library: A book case, at least twenty-five approved books for pupils in elementary grades.
Equipment: Patent desks of three sizes, maps of Florida, U. S. and North America, globe, at least
sixty square feet of hylo plate blackboard, teachers' desks.
Exhibits: Written class work on walls or bulletin board.
Friday Afternoon: One hour literary exercises and not less than thirty minutes spelling bees. Score
increased according to number of parents present.
Discipline: Good order at all times.
Play Ground: Games supervised and directed by teacher.
Records: All records neatly and accurately kept.
Visits: At least 40 per cent of parents visited each month.
Teacher: Education, certificate, experience, daily preparation of class-work, attendance at Teachers'
Institutes, professional library, subscriber to school journals, etc.
Attendance: Ninety per cent of the school children or the district enrolled and average attendance of
80 per cent of enrollment.

Schools will be scored as follows: School house, grounds and outhouses, 24 per cent; school room, windows,
library and equipment, 20 per cent; drinking water, Friday afternoon and discipline,20 per cent; playground,
records, and exhibits, 16 per cent; visits, teacher, and attendance, 20 per cent. Should a school make a
total of 95 points it is entitled to a silk pennant on which will be inscribed "Standard School."

Club Work.--The agricultural boys' and girls' clubs have not produced any appreciable results either in
vitalizing school work or increasing attendance. Two reasons may be ascribed: (a) In the narrow perspective
of the child's mind the work becomes an end (money-making) rather than a means (preparation for service).
(b) Failure to make the work a vital part of the school content. An experiment will be "tried out" in the
Alachua school this year under Principal H. H. Bryant to make the "farms" an important part in all the work
of the school. Those interested in the subject may write Mr. Bryant for an outline of his "Students Farmers'
Co-Operative Association."

High Schools.--In compliance with the regulations of the State Board of Education in the matter of requirements
for high schools, we have ordered the discontinuance of high school instruction in two schools heretofore
registered as Junior High schools. We are in complete accord with the high standard set by the State and shall
stand for their maintenance both in spirit and letter. Under the new standards we are glad to report one senior
and eight junior high schools.
J. L. Kelley,
County Supt. Pub. Inst.



Dear Sir:--In compliance with your recent request for a general report of Baker County schools for your hi-ennial
report, I beg to submit the following:

Buildings.--Three new buildings have been erected since January 1, 1913, two of which are good, comfortable, two-
roomed buildings, the other a one-room building. We have repaired several old buildings which were in very bad
condition. We have painted and repainted several buildings and will repaint more soon. Since January of last
year we have furnished nearly every school in the county with patent desks, blackboards, etc., and we have much
more to do in building and repairing before our school buildings will be what we would like for them to be. We
are not maintaining as many schools as we maintained two years ago, for the present Board is working for the educa-
tional betterment of the county, in place of trying to gratify personal and political aggrandizement, which can
be the only reason for placing school houses so near each other. We hope to do more consolidating in the future;
in this way we can lengthen terms, pay off indebtedness, improve schools and place comfortable buildings wherever
necessary to maintain a school to take the place of the poor and uncomfortable houses which were mentioned in the
last bi-ennial report as magnificent buildings.

Special Tax Districts.--Two new districts have been established since January of last year, making a total of eight
in the county. Three have been enlarged, which add much to making the schools within these districts better.
Special district funds are being used to sunplement salaries, enabling us to get a better class of teachers,
lengthen terms, transport pupils, repair buildings, etc.

Election for Bonds.--We will soon hold an election here in MaClenny to vote bonds for a new building and equipment,
which will add very much to the opportunities of the children in the district.

All special tax districts are in good financial condition, with one exception, and this district owes a very small

High Schools.--The high schools reported in the past do not come up to the standard set by the Convention of County
Super, tendents and High School Principals held at Fort Myers in ?arch of this year. I hope to establish one this
year and think that more can be established within the next two years. However, I can not he too sure, for I am
determined that all reported as high schools shall do thorough and efficient work.

Teachers.--I am rather proud of the advancement made in the teaching force of this county. Until recently the
certificate was all the requirement necessary, hut that idea is rapidly passing away. Until recently in schools
of more than one teacher, the primary grades were generally in charge of the youngest, most inexperienced and
poorest prepared teacher in the school; now, nearly all primary teachers in the county have had professional train-
ing, and it is our aim to raise the standard of our primary teachers still higher. We have a few teachers this
year who have degrees from recognized colleges and universities, and I hope to enlarge this number next year. We
are striving to put the best class of teachers possible in our rural schools, and I am glad to say that we have made
some improvement along this line.

Efficiency will increase with the rapidity with which we place competent and well prepared teachers in our schools.
For this reason I would be very glad to see the present examination law so amended, or a new one substituted, that
would enable school officials to determine a teacher's ability to teach, rather than give applicants for certificates
a physical test.

Last year we had only one teacher to attend the Summer Normal; this year several attended, and all seem well pleased
with the work done there. I would have been glad if a larger number had gone.

Finance.--The County Fund is in debt. We are carrying over an indebtedness of $5,958.18, which is about 9500.00
less than a part of this indebtedness this year. Though we are in we carried over last year. T think we will be
able to pay debt, we have always maintained a good credit and teachers have never been forced to discount or hold
warrants, which have always been paid upon being presented to the Treasurer or local banks.

Special tax districts are in good financial condition, with one exception, and this district owes a very small
amount. I would be very glad if we could consolidate more schools and create districts, for they are superior
to rural schools in this county.

Vocational Work.--We believe the school house should be the clearing house of every activity in the community, that
its influence should be felt at every angle of community life, our endeavor is to organize the opportunities of
the oraginzed boys' Corn Clubs and girls' Canning Clubs. The number enrolled in the canning clubs this year is
rather small on account of getting the work started late. We are well pleased with the results this year in the
canning and corn clubs, considering the extended drouth which has greatly affected all crops in this part of the
State. We hope the commission recently appointed by the State Superintendent to make a survey of the social,
economical and industrial conditions of the rural districts will male a careful survey and that much good will come
from this work.

Text-Books.-We should have begun using these books immediately after the passage of this law, as contracts expired
about the time of the enactment of this law, hut the Superintendent took very little interest in making the change,
therefore the books did not come into general use until since Janunry of last year. Pupils are fairly well supplied
at this time, and I had some trouble to get local agents to handle the hooks on account of the small profit to be
derived from handling them, but now I have this matter adnjuted and local ansntn keep fairly well supplied with
books. Our greatest trouble recently has been the delays in transportation, which T hope can he adjusted in a way
that would cause transportation companies to be prompt in their delivery of books.

Outlook For The Fnture.--Fducational conditions here are better than they have ever been, but there is much to be
done before they will have attained the standard that we want to see the schools of this county reach. It is our
aim to give the children of this county the nrlvantnpa of as good schools an are to be hnd In this rtate. Therefore,
we have a task of great nagniltude before us.


I cannot refrain just here from mentioning, in my judgment, the necessity of a compulsory attendance law in this

Very respectfully yours,
W. A. Dopson,
County Superintendent

Dear Sir:--Herewith I beg to submit a summary report of the schools of Bradford County for your Biennial Report.

High Schools.--In the last two years we have been able to bring two schools, Starke and Lake Butler, to the
standard of Senior High Schools with over twenty-five in each school in the High School grades. Starke promoted
twenty-six to the High School grades, Lake Butler thirty-seven at the close of last term. Raiford and Lawtey
have each promoted sufficient numbers of pupils to rank as Junior High Schools, and the promotions have been
based on thorough grading and efficient work in the grades, both will open as Junior High Schools for the coming
term. In my field work I have felt that this is the only sound way in which we can bring our boys and girls to
a higher plane of efficiency. It is perfectly clear in results when it comes to turning out teachers. Any boy
or girl who has gone through the ninth and tenth grades of a properly taught Senior High School can obtain a
certificate far easier than one who is wasting time in the ordinary Certificate Schools, or so-called Normal
Schools. Tracing the results still for effectiveness I find that I get better all-round teaching from a second
grade teacher of a properly taught Senior High School than I do from a large majority of first grade teachers of
four years back. One of the results of our two Senior High Schools, which is a matter of pride to our county,
is that we have more young men and women in college now than perhaps in any aggregate number of ten years combined
of the past educational history of the county. It is evident that we must look to these properly conducted,
properly graded and, above all, properly taught High Schools for not only our teachers but for our useful and
successful men and women of the future.

New Buildings.--Our school children are increasing the enrollment rapidly and our finances are sadly hampered
to furnish adequate school house facilities for them. Most of the old houses have been repaired and the Bonded
Districts are building new houses, modern and ample for proper sanitary accommodations. Starke is building an
elegant $30,000 building. Raiford has sold bonds for an $8,000 building. Lawtey will erect a $11,000 building.
Lake Butler has voted additional bonds for additions to her splendid building, which is already too small for
her rapid growth in enrollment.

Text Books.--We are using the uniform Text Books. We have three agents handling the text books, who keep ample
supplies. The pupils of all the schools are fairly well supplied with books. Three of the Special Tax School
Districts furnish the books free for the schools.

School Funds.--The general school fund of the county is in arrears and is insufficient to meet the growing and
rapid progressive needs of the schools. The special district funds are overdrawn in some of the faster growing
schools. In most of the districts, where there is only one school, it is not overdrawn. Bradford has twenty-
eight Special Tax Districts.

Rural Schools.--Bradford's rural schools, like all of the rural schools in the cotton belt of the State, have
suffered from the summer school plan of dividing the terms into two parts and having two teachers in one year.
The school Board has recommended a discontinuance of the plan, and it is gratifying to note that many of our
communities now will not have a summer term.

County Teachers' Association.--We have a County Teachers' Association, which plans to meet monthly. To encourage
attendance of our teachers in the summer schools, last year the School Board published a request that all teachers
who attended summer schools and made successful preparation for better work in teaching would be given preference
of positions. The brightest outlook we have for the future is that a majority of our teachers this summer
were in attendance at Gainesville, Tallahassee, or one of the Normal Schools in the State. This, and the fact
that Bradford has more young men and women in the colleges now than in all the past, is giving results which
every true school officer and school patron or citizen should have as the paramount aim in all school work,
get results in benefits to our children and incites them to be better men and women.

F. G. Schell,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I take pleasure in submitting the following report:

There is a marked awakening in interest in the schools, in the last two years, and a continuation of growth in
the right direction.

High Schools.--We have not as yet a "Standard" Senior High School in the county; but we have at Titusville a
school with seven teachers and twelve grades, having two teachers and twenty-eight pupils in the High School
department. It lacks in equipment and laboratories.

Cocoa has a school with six teachers and twelve grades, having two teachers and thirty-five pupils in the high
school department. It lacks library and laboratories.

Melbourne has a school with five teachers and eleven grades, having one teacher and eight pupils in the high
school department. It lacks library and laboratories.

Eau Gallie has a school with four teachers and ten grades, the Principal doing the high school work and the
eighth grade work, with fifteen pupils in the two high school grades. It lacks equipment and laboratories.
This year a change will be made, so the Principal will do high school work only.


Teaching Force.--There has been some difficulty in supplying all of our schools with competent teachers.
Many changes have been found desirable this year. A great number of third grade teachers have applied for
work, but are not encouraged. None of that grade coming from outside of the county are employed if it can
be avoided.

Buildings.--Most of our old buildings are in a good state of preservation, seven or eight new ones have been
built in the last two years, and others enlarged and repaired.

Five new schools were established during the time and requests are now in for the establishment of four more.
Equipment is insufficient, but is being added as the money is available for purchasing it.

No Bond Districts.--At present there are no bond districts in the county; but two school districts are con-
templating a move of that kind, in order to raise money for the necessary enlarging of their houses, grounds,
equipment, and teaching force.

Text Books.--At the present time the county is changing its text books so as to conform to the State adoption.
The Board of Public Instruction has discontinued the free-book system from reasons of sanitation and economy,
and arrangements are being made with the local dealers to handle the books.

Finances.--The County School Fund consists of the regular tax levy, poll taxes, one-mill State tax, and
interest on the State school funds.

Special Tax Districts.--The whole county is divided into three Special Tax School Districts. There is a three-
mill tax assessment in each of these districts, which adds about $7,000.00 to the school funds.

Institutes.--The teachers meet in County Institute for four days, preceding the opening of the schools in the
fall. All teachers are expected to attend and take part; and they are paid for the time as though they were
tearn.lng that time. Last year the teachers of each School Board District met and formed Reading Circles, for
the study of Sabin's Common Sense Didactics, and the discussion of local school questions and problems. Not
all of the teachers joined these Circles, but we hope for better interest next year.

Nearly half of our teachers attended the State Summer Normals or were just out of college. Teachers who attend
the Summer Normal Schools are preferred to teachers who do not avail themselves of these advantages.

Vocational Subjects.--Vocational Work is receiving some thought and attention, but at present we are not prepared
with teaching force, nor equipment sufficient to offer anything like a systematic course in it. However, there
is a prospect of having a course in plain sewing in one school, some work in agriculture, and some weaving and
basketry, in another. A great deal of drawing, coloring and hand-work is being done in the grades of several of the
schools. Teachers are being directed and encouraged to do more and more of it, and to correlate it more closely
with the textbook work, so as to bring the school and home nearer together.

The Outlook.--The outlook for the schools of Brevard County for the coming year is very encouraging at the present
time. Many new settlers are coming into the county to make homes. They are bringing their families with them.
One of their first cares is to furnish schools for their children, and they are clamoring for schools to be
established in their communities.

This is awakening a new interest in schools all over the county, and this calls for more teachers, better teachers
and longer terms of school. One result of this awakening is an increase in salary for the rural schools, a better
grade of teachers, and a longer school term in the one-teacher schools.

We are dreaming of better things for the near future.
Respectfully submitted,
Edwin E. Macy,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with custom and with your request, I beg to submit the following report of the schools
of Calhoun County for the two years ending June 30th, 1914.

High Schools.--Under the ruling of the Convention of County Superintendents, County School Boards, and High School
Principals at their meeting in Fort Myers, Florida, March 10-13, 1914, we have not a single high school. Though
in the Blountstown school 9th and 10th grade work are both being done, and has heretofore been considered a Junior
High School; but we cannot class it as such under the ruling above mentioned.

Teaching Force.--We are fairly well supplied with teachers having to go outside of the county for only a very
small per cent of our teaching force. As a rule the efficiency of our teachers is not what it should be and what
we want it to be, though they are improving every year in the power and ability to do. They are educating them-
selves better and improving in the methods and art of teaching.

Buildings and Consolidations.--We have some good school buildings, but we have a few, especially out in the
rural districts, that are becoming very much dilapidated and inadequate; but we are planning to replace these
with good, comfortable buildings. In several instances, and with the mutual consent of the people, we have
consolidated two of these country schools into one. Within the last six months we have consolidated eight
into four. In such communities, where the people are wide-awake to their needs, we expect to build them just
such school houses as they want or as we see they need.

We are having all our new school houses nicely painted, and also the old ones that we are not planning to replace
right soon. The paint does not only preserve and make the houses last longer, but it makes them more attractive
and the people and the communities appreciate them more.

We are also equipping our schools with good, serviceable patent desks, blackboards, charts and maps.


Special District Bonding Law.--We highly approve of the Bonding Law. We have bonded one district, Port
St. Joe, in the sum of $3,500 for the purpose of building. With this and a supplement from the county we
intend erecting a four-room school building where there is now only a small two-room cottage worth about $300.

The people are talking very favorable of bonding the Blountstown district for about $25,000 with which to
build an adequate six-room brick school house. We think this will materialize and that we can give you an
account of it in our next biennial report.

The Uniform Text-Book Law.--While we do not approve of the Uniform Text Book Law so much, yet we do not have
any criticisms to offer. Our pupils are fairly well supplied with books. Our local agents are handling the
business the best they can. We have a book list printed which we send out with the registers to the teachers;
and we instruct them, when the local agents are out or cannot furnish the books, to order them from the book
house. So the text-book problem does not worry us very much.

Finances.--Our general school fund is and has been somewhat behind, making it possible for us to run our 1913-14
and 1914-15 schools only four and six months. But we hope, beginning with the 1915-16 scholastic year, to
maintain our rural schools five months and our grade schools eight months.

Special Tax Districts.-We have fifteen Special Tax School Districts and the most of them, financially, are in
very good shape--only a few slightly in debt.

No Teachers' Institutes.--We have no organized Teachers' Institute, but we hope to have in the near future.
After this year we hope to show a greater attendance in the State Summer Schools.

Outlook.--In conclusion we would like to state that we are very well pleased with the future outlook of our
schools. If we can succeed in carrying out our plans, we expect to place the schools of Calhoun county on
higher planes of efficiency.

J. Flake Durham,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I hereby submit the following report in regard to the public schools
6f Clay County.

High Schools.--We attempt one high school only. It is located at the county seat and is open to and patronized
by the entire county. Seven teachers are employed, two of whom do high school work. The enrollment last term
was as follows: Eleven in the 9th grade, ten in the 10th, three in the llth, and four in the 12th. Entire
enrollment, counting "comers and goers," 287. General average, 187.

Teachers.--Experienced teachers are entirely too few to meet the demands. Third grade certificates are
entirely too easy to obtain. The life of a third grade should be limited to one year without renewal. I do
not think much of your pet scheme of appointing a board of examiners. If it is bribery you are looking for,
it is easier on general principles to fix three than fifty. I find by comparison that a second grade license
in Georgia is barely equal to a third grade in Florida. If our examinations are as rotten as you claim, why
do they dodge so? Amend but don't repeal.

Buildings.--There seems to be no end to the demand for new buildings in the rural districts. Education has
created a demand that taxes our resources. We have been able to reduce the cost of buildings and secure better
workmanship by buying machine-made window frames, sash, weights and cords to match. Creosote is the cheapest
paint extant. The National Pulp & Turpentine Co. of Green Cove Springs furnishes the creonote at the plant at
fifty cents per gallon and ten gallons will paint a school house. It is as easy put on as whitewash. Trimming
with pure white paint gives the building a dressy appearance which pleases the patrons. The creosote is furnished
in any shade, .brown making the most pleasing appearance. The high school building in Green Cove Springs is now
too small for the town, with no relief in sight. Circumstances forced the trustees to spend all their money and
go in debt for a play ground. When the present indebtedness is met, we will bond and build the twin building as
originally planned.

Text-Books.--Our text-book contract expires even date with the State Adoption. By buying the Georgia and
Alabama editions we have a very advantageous contract. No up-to-date educator expects a cheap geography. No
up-to-date geography is on the bargain counter. I know of no rule in ethics that entitles every book agent to
a share in the swag. If one firm had the contract for the State the cost would be reduced. "All Trusts look

Special Tax Districts.--We have.done no business under the new law. The entire county is in seven special
districts and pay a 3-mills tax. This condition will of necessity obtain indefinitely in all, save Green Cove
Springs, which will have to expand to meet conditions.

Finances.--We make a levy of 6 1/2 mills for school purposes, which meets all demands and reduces the indebtedness
on the high school building.

Some of the special districts are in debt. Some are out of debt, and some have money. South Clay donates
$10 for contingent expenses for each school, $100 for each new building, and ceils about two school houses each
year. The Trustees have bought each school an eight-roller map, a globe and a New International Dictionary.
The other schools are not so well fixed.

Teachers' Institutes.--Owing to the topography of the county it has been deemed unwise to require the rural
teachers to collect at the county seat.


Summer Schools for Teachers.--Cainesville and Tallahassee have been neglected, but Madison School has been
highly favored. When the extension of certificates at the two former schools has been understood the tide
may turn. The possibility of a rural teacher closing school and pulling off a stunt at Madison School prior
to the June examination, may have something to do with the patronage.

Vocational Work.---We do not attempt vocational training. Are not able to put it on first class--anything
else is a menace. Etymology and Syntax are of more importance than a smattering of so-called vocational
training. Industrial Schools, at best, can be established only at intervals.

Outlook.--The field for hard work is vast. The County Superintendent has two thorns in his flesh all the
time, the patron who says that what I had is good enough for son, and the professional wind-jammer who
finds fault but offers no remedy--he has none.

Any one can find fault, but it takes brains to construct.
Respectfully submitted,
W. H. Biggs,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a general report of the Columbia County schools for your
Biennial Report, I. beg to submit the following:

School Buildings.---During the past two scholastic years we have built seven frame buildings for white and two
for negro children, at an approximate cost of $10,500, and have spent over $3,000 in repairs and painting
school buildings. All school houses for the white children are equipped with patent desks and good blackboards
and other necessary appliances; buildings for the negro children in most districts have been repaired and
furnished, as could be done with school funds now on hand. The buildings erected at Watertown and Columbia
are a credit to any community.

High Schools.--The Senior High School at Lake City has an enrollment of nearly five hundred and is fully
equipped in every particular for high school work. It occupies two buildings, a handsome two-story brick
building and a splendid two-story frame building. In this school we employ fourteen teachers and maintain
the full twelve grades. We have started a Commercial Department, which we hope will aid in holding the boys
and girls in schools until they have completed the high school course.

We have several other schools that are doing excellent grade work and are acting well their part in fitting
the children for higher education.

Negro Schools.--The Junior High School at Lake City is doing very good grade work, has seven teachers with an
enrollment of nearly four hundred pupils. This school has an Industrial Department and other schools through-
out the county; this has been made possible by the appropriation from the Anna Jeans fund by Dr. James H. Dillard,

Revenues.--We are levying the maximum limit of seven mills, which will give us nearly $28,000 in the county
school fund. We have ten special tax districts levying about $8,000; the State one mill tax and interest on
State school fund, amounting to over $6,000; all the above, with about $1,500 poll tax, give a total revenue
of over $43,000 for school purposes. We hope to run all schools from six to eight months during the ensuing year.

Financial Condition.--The School Board of Columbia County is in better financial condition than it has been for
years. At the close of the school year, ending June the 30th, 1914, our total indebtedness was less than $2,000.
This condition enables us to borrow all necessary funds at a low rate of interest, thereby making it possible to
pay teachers and carry on all necessary improvements throughout the county.

Teachers and Salaries.--The teaching force of Columbia County is the best that our limited money can get and will
compare very favorably with that of any other county in the State. It comprises about sixty white and thirty
colored teachers, several of whom hold Life or State certificates and many are graduates of normal schools or
colleges. Salaries of white teachers range from $35 to $175 per month, the average being about $70 per month,
while the colored teachers receive an average of about $25 per month.

Industrial Education.--We are encouraging Industrial Education wherever possible, organizing clubs among the
boys and girls. The club work of this county has met with marked success.

School Board.--The County School Board is composed of men who seem to be interested in educational affairs. They
deserve much credit for the manner in which they have handled the finances of the county.

Conclusion.--I wish to thank the State Superintendent and those associated with him in his office for the many
courtesies they have shown me for the past two years, and extend my heartfelt appreciation to the citizens and
officials of this county for their loyal support and hearty co-operation in carrying on the educational work
of the county.

It is my earnest desire to see the educational interest of the State grow and make rapid strides along all

Respectfully submitted,
J. W. Burns,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--I beg leave to submit the following general report:


The past biennium has marked the greatest progress Dade county schools have ever experienced in many ways.
To give some idea of the activities along the line of new buildings, out of thirty-five white schools and
eight colored schools, all the buildings, save two, have been erected within the last decade. All the old
buildings have been outgrown, and the two old buildings now being used will be replaced within the next twelve

Senior High Schools.--We have two Senior High Schools, located at Miami and Fort Lauderdale, with an enrollment
of 240 and 30 respectively. The Miami High School has a faculty of ten teachers and offers the following
courses: Classical, English-Scientific, Collegiate-Preparatory, Commercial and Home Economics. This school,
now housed in the Central Grammar School, will have a separate building for next year, costing $50,000; it is
proposed in this school to have Manual Training and Domestic Science, as well as the regular courses. This
school has been placed on the accredited list by the Southern Association. The Fort Lauderdale High School
has a faculty of four teachers, and is also doing good work. This school will also have a new building designed
to accommodate both high school and lower grades, and will cost approximately $45,000.

Junior High Schools.--Junior High Schools are located at the following places. Cocanut Grove, Homestead, Silver
Palm, Dania, and Larkins, All, except Silver Palm, have modern concrete buildings, and the work in these schools
is very good.

Teachers.--We have not experienced quite as much trouble as usual in securing an ample supply of teachers. At
the same time we have endeavored to raise the standard, and require high school teachers to hold State certificates
and special certificates in the subjects taught.

Buildings.--As noted in the outset, our buildings are all new with two exceptions, and when the twelve buildings
now in course of erection are completed, we will have a school plant second to none in Florida. All the buildings
are equipped with patent single desks, and nearly all have libraries of one hundred volumes and over, dictionaries,
globes, charts and maps.

District Bonds.--The District bonding law has been a great boon to our county. Six districts have already voted
bonds, as follows:

Miami...................................... $150,000
Cocoanut Grove........................... 15,000
Ojus...................................... 12,000
Homestead................................ 10,000
Lemon City............................... 25,000
Ft. Lauderdale........................... 55 000

A Total of.............................$267,000

The buildings are being erected from the proceeds of these bonds, which have been designed by competent architects,
with proper precautions for lighting, ventilating and sanitary conveniences.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--As a rule the pupils are properly supplied with books, but in one or two instances the
dealers have been delayed in getting their orders filled.

Finances.--Owing to the fact that a large part of Dade County was homestead land, many of our citizens were not
taxed for five years after moving into the county. It is sometimes a year or two in all cases, whether home-
steaders or not, that children are sent to school before their parents contribute anything in the way of taxes.
This has worked a hardship on Dade county. Our population has increased about thirty per cent annually for the
last ten years. This has put our Board at their wit's end to supply school facilities to the people as fast as
they come in. This, together with the fact that we have been compelled to raise teachers' salaries about fifty
pet cent. in order to secure teachers, has added to the burden.

Special Tax Districts.--The whole county is subdivided into Special Tax School Districts, and the full three
mills is levied in all of them. The schools are run eight months, and the two senior high schools nine. The
result of longer terms has, to my mind, more than justified the extra cost.

Teachers' Institutes.--We have a Teachers' Institute which convenes annually the Friday and Saturday after
Thanksgiving. All white teachers of the county are required to attend, and I believe that much good has been

Teachers' Summer Schools.--Owing to the great distance from the educational centers of the State, but few of our
teachers attend the State Summer Schools, probably six or eight.

Vocational Work.--Vocational education in the way of commercial courses and home economics, has been taught in
the Miami High School for three years, with splendid success. Manual training and domestic science will be
added to two other schools during the coming year. We now employ a County Home Economics teacher, who gives
cooking lessons in eleven schools, and she also helps the county agent in the Canning Club work.

Conclusion.--In conclusion, while I am not entirely satisfied with the work of our schools, I know it is better
than ever before, and with the splendid buildings now being erected, with a splendid teaching force, which is
being strengthened from year to year, I am sure that Dade County schools have the promise of being as good as
the best in the State of Florida.

Yours very truly,
R. E. Hall
County Superintendent

Dear Sir:--I beg to submit, in accordance with your request, a brief report of the present conditions of the
schools in DeSoto county and the progress made in the last two years, with some of our plans for the future.


Senior High Schools.--We have three Senior High Schools, each of which has four teachers doing high school work.
These schools are located respectively, at Punta Corda, Arcadia and WaUchlula. All three are recognized by the
State Inspector as regular standard Senior High Schools. In the past we have offered only the classical course
with science required, which gave our students, who had completed the full course, eighteen college entrance
units. Our work has been thorough, as is shown by the stand our graduates have taken in higher institutions
of learning.

We are now erecting and equipping modern brick high school buildings at Arcadia and Wauchula, and are improving
the building at Punts Gorda, a new concrete structure completed four years ago. Each of these schools is being
equipped with the most modern apparatus for teaching Manual Training, Agriculture, Domestic Science, Domestic
Art and the other sciences. We are thus endeavoring to give the boys and girls some of the more practical things
of life along with the cultural. To take care of these new departments and the increased enrollment we are adding
to our teaching force and will have five teachers at Punts Gorda and six each at Wauchula and Arcadia doing high
school work.

Junior High Schools.--There are no Intermediate High Schools in the county and but one Junior High School doing
work recognized by the State High School Inspector. This one is located at Bowling Green and has five teachers,
one teacher devoting his entire time to high school work. The present building is a wooden structure, but we
are now enlarging the district with a view of bonding for about $15,000 or $20,000 with which to erect and equip
a modern Junior High School building at Bowling Green and to construct other schools in the District.

Next year we will have Junior High Schools at Nocatee and Avon Park, where we now have modern brick buildings under
construction. Sebring has also voted bonds to erect a Junior High School at that place, which we hope to have
completed before the end of the present school year.

Buildings and Bonds.--Arcadia Special Tax School District No. 1 voted bonds for $75,000 for constructing a brick
high school building at Arcadia, approximate cost, with equipment, $57,000, to be completed this year; remodeling
present concrete building, which is to be used as Grammar School, and fixing up the school grounds, $5,000; to
construct and equip a Rural Graded School at Venus, $8,000; the remainder of the issue to be used for other schools
in the District.

Avon Park Special Tax School District No. 3 voted bonds to the amount of $25,000; $20,000 of which is to be used
for erecting and equipping a Junior High School at Avon Park, the building to be completed for this term of school;
the remaining $5,000 is to be used for constructing rural schools in the District.

Wauchula Special Tax School District No. 5 voted bonds to the amount of $25,000; $10,000 of which is to be
used for purchasing a brick Grammar School building and lot, the remaining $15,000 to be used for erecting a new
high school building and equipping the same, the building to be completed for this term of school.

Nocatee Special Tax School District No. 6 has voted $15,000 to erect and equip a Junior High School building at
Nocatee, which building is to be completed sometime during the year.

Sebring Special Tax School District No. 37 has voted bonds to the amount of $17,500 to be used in building and
equipping a modern Junior High School building at Sebring, same to be completed this year.

Total amount of bonds voted during the last twelve months, $157,500. Other districts within the county will
probably vote bonds for from $40,000 to $50,000 during the next twelve months.

We have either under construction, or have completed during the past two years, ten frame buildings ranging in
cost from $400 to $1.500, all of which have been paid for out of funds raised by the community in which they are
located, except in one or two instances where the buildings were paid for out of the special district taxes. This
method of paying for buildings was occasioned by the fact that the Board found it necessary to curtail the
expense of building any school houses out of the general school fund in order that they might be able to increase
their teaching force and extend the length of term to seven months. Some of our best small schools have been
constructed in.this way, and in no instance have we found a community unwilling to bear its part of the expense
in the upbuilding of our school system.

Equipment.--Our schools have had, generally speaking, very poor equipment, but during the past year we have
purchased and installed maps, globes and charts in practically every school in the county. We are also trying to
place single patent desks in our schools and supply each school with good blackboards.

Recently the Board has purchased libraries composed of something like onebhulred and sixty volumes in a nice oak
case with record book, lock and key for same. In these libraries will be found hooks suitable for every grade
in the schools, and many that will be read with enjoyment and benefit by the parents.

These libraries have been purchased for the rural and small town schools, which may be secured by any of these
schools that has a suitable building for taking care of them, locks and keys for the doors, latches for the
windows, and its grounds cleared of palmetto and undergrowth and a substantial fence around same. The Board
agrees to pay one-half the cost of these libraries and to give the local school three years to pay its part.

Teaching Force and School Term.--Our local teaching force is wholly inadequate. We have to draw fully forty
per cent of our teachers from other counties of the State and some from other States.

We are gradually raising the salaries of our teachers and are paying higher salaries to those who are better
preparing themselves and who are not satisfied to continue to teach on a low grade certificate. In this way
we are increasing the efficiency of our teaching force. During the past two years we have increased the average
length of term for our white schools from 105 to 108 days, and our negro schools from 90 to 100. This does not
give the average length of term for each child, as fully 75% of our total school enrollment attend schools having
eight months term, due to the fact that many of our schools extend their term out of their district funds.

Feeling that the length of term offered in the past has been too short, the Board is now offering to all schools
making an average attendance of 75% of their enrollment for the first five months, an extension of two months out
of the general school fund, provided the average attendance for the last two months does not fall below 60%.


We thus make it possible for every school in the county to have at least a seven months' term, and as all
of them, with the exception of four small schools, are in special districts, it is possible for most of them
to extend their term to eight months. We run the High School Department of our high schools eight months
out of the general fund, because they are open to children from all parts of the county without charge.

We hope with the extension of our school term to be able to secure more efficient teachers and better results
from our school work.

Uniform Text Books.--Last year we put the State Adopted books into our schools, and while the people were put
to some inconvenience and extra cost at the time, I believe in the long run it will be quite a saving to the
State. Our patrons, with very few exceptions, willingly purchased the books for their children.

In the past we have experienced some delay in that the book companies were slow in filling the orders sent in
by the local dealers, but are avoiding this now by having orders placed sometime in advance.

inances.--It has been the policy of the Board to run the schools without going in debt. We closed the present
school year with a net cash balance of $8,208.49 in the general and special tax district funds together, which will
be more than doubled when the delinquent taxes have been paid.

Special Tax Districts.--We now have.thirty-seven Special Tax School Districts, each levying three mills, and we
have called an election to establish the thirty-eighth. These cover the entire county, with the exception of a
few scattering sections which are being voted into some of the already established districts.

Teachers' Institutes.--Each year we have held our Teachers' Institutes on Friday and Saturday after Thanksgiving.
Last year we invited Lee and Polk Counties to meet with us. On this occasion we had present five teachers from
Lee county, forty-five from Polk, and one hundred and twenty-five of our own teachers. Captain Geo. M. Lynch,
State Rural School Inspector, had charge of the Institute. Those present declared it to be the best ever held
in the county.

Vocational Work.--The past year we employed an agent for the Boys' and Girls' Club-work in the county. A number
of boys and girls took advantage of the opportunities offered and made quite a success of their work. I believe
in time the public in general will give its support to work of this kind, which it certainly deserves.

This fall we will introduce the vocational departments into all our high schools, and are building rural schools
with a view to putting in this work.

Attendance.--You will note from my Annual Report that we now have enrolled 4,692 children, with an average
attendance of 3,296. This is an increase of 35% in enrollment and 32% in average attendance for the past two
years; we expect this increase to be greater during the next two years. I am sorry to say that the attendance does
not increase as fast as the enrollment, but this is due partly to the fact that new people move in after the
school has commenced.

Compulsory Law.--We hope to see the next Legislature pass a compulsory school law, which I believe is the only
remedy for non-attendance.

Conclusion.--Sometime during the year the county is to have a fair, and we are planning to have a school exhibit
at this time. A number of concerns have given valuable prizes to be awarded at the County Fair to schools for
beautifying their grounds, etc. In this way we hope to get all our school grounds fenced and beautified, thus
making the school the most attractive place possible and the center of community life.

DeSoto County is fortunate in having a progressive School Board who are doing all in their power to better the
conditions of every school in the county and I hope with their aid to make our schools second to none.

Respectfully submitted,
Jas. O. Bickley.
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In answer to your request for a report covering the progress of the public schools of Duval County
for a period of two years, beginning July 1, 1912, and ending June 30, 1914, I beg to say that I can add little
to the statistical reports filed in your office the first covering the school year of 1912-13, the second
covering the school year of 1913-14.

New in Office.--I was commissioned by the Governor, Superintendent, December 13, 1913, to succeed lion. J.Q. Palmer,
resigned, and consequently had only a short time in that year to study the system and to observe the work of the
schools. It is evident that I have had little opportunity to do this the present term, as the schools have been
running only a few weeks, but such study of conditions as time and opportunity permitted, led me to the conclusion
that the most apparent need in this county to make the schools more efficient, was a greater number of teachers
with liberal education and trained in the art or profession of teaching.

Teachers' Summer School.--While I was aware of the fact that the summer school, for reasons that are patent to all,
could not be expected to furnish either in anything like full measure, I was strongly convinced that it would help,
and I, therefore, recommended that the Board adopt, for a time, the policy of conducting such a school to be opened
to all the teachers of the county. The recommendation was adopted, and on June 22nd the Duval County Summer
Training School opened and continued for a period of six weeks with practically ninety per cent of the teachers
in attendance, and I was satisfied with the result that better work is being done throughout the system.

Two City Supervisors.--Owing to the great number of schools in the county, I found it impossible to supervise
closely the work of all of them, consequently I recommended to the Board of Public Instruction that two supervisors
be employed to assist me in the Jacksonville schools, one for the primary grades and one for the intermediate and
grammar grades. The recommendation was approved and the supervisors employed have begun the work, which is expected
to increase greatly the efficiency of the schools of Jacksonville and also to prove a benefit to the rural schools,
in that the Superintendent will be able to devote more of his time to their supervision.



Music and Sewing.--Embodied in the recommendations providing for supervisors mentioned above, there was also a
recommendation that music and sewing be added to the course of study and that competent supervisors be employed
to instruct the teachers in these branches and to direct the work of the grades. This recommendation was likewise
approved, the two subjects added, and the supervisors employed. With instruction in manual training,which was
given for the first: time last year, the elementary schools of Jacksonville can claim to be on a par with modern
systems the country over.

One High School.--The Duval High School is the only high school, strictly speaking, in the county. The work
of this school is of a high order, its faculty being unexcelled in any secondary school in the country. In its
curriculum are to he found, in addition to the subjects usually taught in high schools, courses in Domestic
Science, Domestic Art, in Millinery, Mechanical Drawing, and Manual Training. Equipment of the most modern
type has been installed to accommodate the work of these departments.

The Rural Schools.---The rural schools of the county are housed in good, comfortable, framed school buildings,
and a majority of them are conducted for a term of eight months-the same length of term enjoyed by the Jacksonville
schools. In fact, there is no discrimination in this particular, when the rural schools maintain an average to
justify their continuance. Further, as an inducement for the better rural teachers to remain in the rural work,
a difference in their favor is made in salary. The county maintains several consolidated schools, transporting
pupils to them for several miles around, at considerable expense. In this way a longer term is possible, and
usually under more competent teachers.

Teachers and Salares.--A glance at my last report will show that there were employed in the schools of Duval
County the school year ending June 30, 1914, 330 teachers. Of these, 240 were white and 90 colored. The average
salary paid these was as follows: Males, white, $141.56 per month; female, white, $63.42; male, colored, $60.50;
female, colored, $37.90.

Enrollment and Average Attendance.--The average term in the county was seven and one-half months for white schools
and' -x months for colored. There were enrolled 8,045 white children and 3,992 colored, making a total of 12,537
pupils enrolled. The average attendance for the whole county was 9,496.

Special Tax Districts and Bonds.--There are at present no special tax school districts in the county. Many years
ago two districts were established, one embracing the territory included in the city limits of Jacksonville, the
other the rest of the county, that is, that part of the county lying outside the limits of Jacksonville. No tax
had been levied upon the property of either of the districts for years; recently they were abolished to make way
for a new district with Jacksonville as the center and taking in the surrounding territory or suburbs. This
proposed district is to he voted upon December 1st, probably before this report is put into print. It is proposed
to issue bonds upon the new district in the sum of one million dollars to build modern, fire-proof school buildings.

State Board of Examiners.--It is apparent to those familiar with our school laws, especially as pertains to the
examination and certification of teachers, that changes could be made that would aid greatly in the raising of
standards of instruction in the public schools, and it is hoped by all interested in the progress of education
in the State that the State Superintendent's plan for State Board of Examiners will meet with favor at the hands
of the Legislature to convene in the spring.

Yours truly,
F. A. Hathaway,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir;--Complylnft with your request of July 29th for a general report of Escambia County schools, I hereby
submit the following:

High Schools.--We have in Escambia County one Senior High School, one Intermediate High School, and four Junior
High Schools. *

The Senior High School at Pensacola had seven teachers during the past two years, with an enrollment of 163 for
1912-1913, and 200 for 1913-1914. This represents strictly a high school enrollment, since all grades below
the ninth are taught in the grammar school and the primary schools of the city. Prof. W. S. Cawthon was for
five years the very efficient principal of this school, resigning at the close of the last year to go to the
State University. He has been succeeded by Prof. B. B. Lane, under whose administration the High School has
had a very successful year. For 1914-1915 a still further increase in the enrollment is expected; the number
of teachers has been increased to nine, and Prof. Wm. Tyler has been made Assistant Principal. Courses are
offered in the departments of English, Mathematics, Latin, Science, History, French, Commerce, Domestic Science
and Education, the instructors in each department being specialists in their respective lines. The Commercial
Course is especially strong, covering four years of work, and the graduates in this department are filling
important positions in the city. The courses in Domestic Science and Education are to be offered for the first
time with the opening of school in September.

The Intermediate High School at Muscogee has done efficient work. The enrollment the past year was twenty-five
in the ninth, tenth and eleventh grades, with ninety in the grades below the high school. For the next year
two teachers will be provided for the high school and three for the lower grades.

The Junior High Schools are located at Century, Bluff Springs, Roberts and Ferry Pass; at Century there were
six pupils in the ninth grade; at Bluff Springs, four in the ninth grade and two in the tenth grade; at Ferry
Pass, five in the ninth grade; at Roberts, two in the ninth, three in the tenth, two in the eleventh and two
in the twelfth grades.

Special Tax Districts.--The efficiency in these schools, as to equipment and improvement of teaching force, has
been increased by the efforts that have been made since November, 1913, for the organization of special tax districts.
All of the high schools are now in a special tax district except that at Pensacola, and here a campaign is being
organized and petitions are ready for circulation; it is the present intention of a committee of citizens to
hold this election sometime during the next school year. Special tax districts exist now to the number of ten-



at Muscogee, Bellview, Molino, Walnut Hill, Roberts-Gonzalez, Ferry Pass, Quintette, Century, Bluff Springs-
Brynville, and the Goulding-Brent-Olive. All of these have been established within the past year; several
other communities are seriously considering the question.

Teaching Force--Summer School.--The teaching force of this county is steadily improving. We still have some
difficulty in securing teachers, but the supply has been increased by the Summer School established in 1913,
and has now just closed its second term, and the efficiency of our regular force has been greatly increased
thereby. For 1913 the faculty of this school was Prof. B. B. Lane (principal), Prof. M. L. Neal of DeFuniak
Springs, and Miss Core Giffin of Lakeland; for 1914 it was Prof. B. B. Lane (principal), Dr. W. E. Knibloe, of
Tallahassee, and Miss Cora Griffin of Lakeland. The enrollment for last year was seventy-five, this year one
hundred and six.

Certificates of Techers.--Two principals last year held State certificates. Nearly all of the city high school
teachers have qualified under the regulations of the State Department of Education requiring Special certificates
for the subjects taught, and the others will have so qualified before the opening of the school in September.
Nine teachers in this county hold Primary certificates, four of them being life certificates. Twenty-seven white
teachers hold First grade certificates, also three colored teachers. Second grade certificates are held by
sixty-six white and seventeen colored teachers, while thirty-eight whites and twenty-seven colored teachers have
third grade certificates.

Buildings and Equipment.--The organization of Special Tax Districts will enable us to improve our buildings. Two
buildings have been erected and one enlarged. Enlargements and improvements are underway or contemplated for
four buildings, two of them in Pensacola. The rapid increase in number of pupils within the city will necessitate
more buildings for high school, grammar school and primary schools during the next two years.

The equipment in the schools is generally good, though not always adequate, yet it is being gradually improved
and increased. The Board has found it necessary to go in debt for both buildings and equipment; and it is here
that the organization of special tax districts will prove our salvation.

Bonding Law.--No districts have yet taken advantage of the Special District Bonding Law.

Text-Books.--As the contracts of this county for text-books have just expired, the uniform text-book law has just
become applicable; local agents are making arrangements for supplies of books.

Teachers' Summer Schools.--The attendance of our teachers at the State Summer Schools has not been as large for
the past two years as previously, our Summer School having provided expert instruction in methods of teaching,
as well as in theory and practice of teaching, each of the branches usually pursued for certificates having been
taught this past summer with the greater emphasis being placed on the best manner of teaching efficiently such
branches in the grades. In primary work a model class was conducted. Many of our teachers have attended other
schools, both in and out of the State for special work.

Outlook.--With the increasing general interest of the people in their schools, and the efforts they are making
to improve them by the establishment of special tax districts and the maintenance of very effective Parent-
Teacher organizations, the outlook for the next two years is good. We are expecting many notable improvements
in Escambia county.
Respectfully admitted,
A. S. Edwards,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I have the honor of submitting herewith my report of the condition
of the schools of Franklin County for the past two years.

Enrollment.--The enrollment of pupils has not materially increased, but the average attendance, as compared with
previous years, has been better.

The enforcement of the Child Labor Law passed at the last session of the Legislature, will cause quite an
increase in our enrollment and attendance. Especially is this true of the negro graded school of Apalachicola.
In my opinion, this is an excellent law, and, if it is properly enforced, the result will be for lasting good
in all of our schools.

Schools.--We have seven white and two negro schools in Franklin county. We have one Senior High School located
at Apalachicola, and one Junior High School located at Carabelle. Both of these high schools are for white
pupils and are doing excellent work.

Rural Schools.--Each of our five rural schools is very small, and, on account of their distance apart and their
separation by bays, rivers, etc., it is absolutely impossible to consolidate any two of them. However, we are
doing our very best for these schools and the results obtained are very satisfactory, considering the fact that
the only teachers we are able to secure for them are young and without experience. And believing, "as is the
teacher, so is the school," and that nothing can take the place of the teacher, I wonder how we can hope for the
best results in any school where the teacher is often lacking in scholarship and the guiding principles of teaching.

Public Sentiment and Bonds.--It gives me pleasure to report rapidly growing interest among our people for better
schools. On the 5th day of last May we carried an election in Apalachicola, three to one, for the establishment
of a special tax school district and a three mill levy. On the 5th day of November we held an election for the
issuance of $30,000 of twenty-year five per cent bonds for the purpose of building and equipping a new school
building in Apalachicola. This election was carried in favor of the bond issue by more than three to one. The
ratification of these bonds is now pending. At the present time we have two special tax school districts, the
other of which is at Carrabelle. Fully 95 percent of our people live within these two districts, and they
embrace seven of our schools.



New Buildings.--Since my last report we have built two new school buildings. One frame six-room building for
the negro Graded School of Apalachicola, at a cost of $2,500. The other one is a small one-room building.

Teachers and Salaries.-We endeavor to employ the best teachers obtainable for the salaries we are able to pay.
Our preference at all times is for college and normal trained teachers with experience. Salaries paid white
teachers are from $35 to $135 per month, negro teachers are paid from $25 to $60 per month. We are making efforts
each year to stimulate teachers to better fit themselves for their work. We urge them to attend the summer train-
ing schools, and we propose from now on until we have reached the maximum to raise the salaries of those of our
teachers each year, who attend our summer schools and specialize in the work for which they are appointed. Those
who fail to avail themselves of these great opportunities, which the State offers them, will finally fail to receive
consideration when appointments are made.

Financial Condition.--I refer you to my annual report for financial data. For county purposes we levy the
maximum of seven mills. We keep our warrants at par by borrowing from banks at 8 per cent. This makes the
total for interest quite large. A great part of this interest would not have to be paid if the taxes were
collected promptly. Our Board did not get a final settlement for 1912 taxes until January, 1914.

Libraries.--We have enlarged the libraries of our high schools since my last report. There is more interest
being taken in libraries than ever before.

Special Tax Districts.--As previously mentioned in this report, we have two special tax districts. These two
districts comprise all of the eastern and western parts of our county, leaving only the central portion in which
there are only two small schools, yet to be made a special tax district.

Compulsory School Law, etc.--The need of a practical compulsory school law is becoming more acute, and we should
no longer delay the taking of this educationally progressive step. Why not pass a law permitting the county
school boards to borrow money from the State school fund? I am informed that this money is now being loaned to
other States at a very low rate of interest, while our counties are forced to pay seven and eight per cent.

Conclusion.--In conclusion I take pleasure in congratulating you on your principles in every department of your
duties. Accept my thanks for the courtesies and co-operation I have received from you during your term of office.

Respectfully submitted,
A. A. Core,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--I herewith submit my data for your Biennial Report, as per your request.

Superintendent J. R. Key.--Having held this office only three months, I am made to feel more keenly my own
inexperience in many of the duties incumbent upon me, and had it not been for the efficient service of the lamented
Superintendent Key, my task would have been arduous indeed.

The general educational conditions of the country are good, though there are many ways by which conditions might
be improved upon. Still, there has been a gradual increase of interest among our patrons, largely due to a
marked degree of greater efficiency on the part of our teachers during the last few years.

High Schools.--We ari aiming at one Senior High School for the entire county to be so equipped and furnished as
to meet all the requirements of a first rank Senior High School; and it is our aim further to induce all of our
Junior and Intermediate High Schools throughout the country to encourage all their graduates to attend our
Central High School where they may be fully prepared for college. This High School we have at the county seat,
and it very closely approximates an ideal at present.

New in Office.--Having been appointed to this office about three months ago, and it coming at a most busy season
it is with difficulty that I have found time to get together this material. The needs of our schools, however,
are not unknown to me, because I have been teaching in this county for the past eleven years, during which time
I have had the privilege of seeing some improvements in our public schools. Every foot of land in the county is
included in some school district, and the maximum tax is being levied.

More and more the onn-teacher schools have been consolidated, until now there is scarcely a locality in the
county in which a graded and junior high school is not accessible to the pupils.

Finances.--Gadsden county finances are in an excellent condition, and such a thing as a teacher having to wait
for his salary is almost unknown.

The spirit of progress is in the air and the people are enthusiastic over the public schools. Our teachers are
banded together in an Association, and we have monthly meetings where able men address us on points of vital
interest to the modern teacher.

Encouragement is always given to the teacher seeking or holding a high grade certificate, but we are sometimes
alarmed at the holders of such high grade certificates, who come to us from other counties and who prove to be
so poorly educated and so poorly prepared to do good classroom work. We are glad to see a premium being put on
the prepared teacher by the State, and we hope our State institutions will more and more refuse to admit any
to their halls who are not graduates of senior high schools.

In so many places the pupils are leaving the high school and going to college, thus weakening the high school
and forcing our institutiOns of higher learning to do work for which they were not established. We think the
best ends of education could be furthered if these institutions had no preparatory departments and should cease
forever from competing with the county high schools.



Buildings.-Our school buildings are comfortable and well furnished; and as we erect new ones we are careful to
make provisions not only for our present needs, but also for the needs of the next generation. When we order
desks it is the adjustable kind, and our blackboards, etc., are of the best material.

Text-Book Law.--The Uniform Text-Book Law has proven a blessing, in that it has provided us with some excellent
texts we were not then using, and in lowering the price generally, but it has worked a hardship where the people
were satisfied with the books they were using, and where they gave them up with great reluctance. Thus in many
places the pupils were not all supplied with the same kind of texts, nor did they always exert themselves to
secure the new ones. Our local agents usually keep the books, but they have to handle them on so small a margin
that they are not very careful about having a full supply on hand, and it is not unusual for quite a long delay
to thus be caused.

Teachers' Summer Schools.--The majority of our teachers attend Summer Schools, and most of them attend the State
Summer Schools. The extension of county certificates seems to appeal to them specially. And I hope Florida
will more and more provide for the needs of her teachers, so that the young teacher may not be forced to use
his meagre earnings for railroad fare to institutions in other States.

We are watching with pride the progress being made in every section of Florida, and shall see to it that Gadsden
county is not in the rear of the procession.
Chas. H. Gray,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request to furnish a report of the public schools of this county for the past two
years, I beg leave to submit the following report:

Buildings.--We have built seven school houses in the rural districts during the past two years. These houses
are all one-room buildings. They are painted and furnished with good patent desks and hyloplate blackboards.
We have done some repairing. The greater part of the repairing has been done at Jennings and Jasper. We have
a good school building in almost every district in the county, and they are all furnished with patent desks and
hyloplate blackboards.

Libraries.--We have no libraries in our rural schools. There is a small library in the Jasper school. We believe
in libraries in all of the schools, but we have failed to find any method of protecting libraries or other school
property. Under the present statutes of the State there is no remedy against trespassers on school property,
provided the trespasser is enrolled as a pupil in the school. There is practically no remedy where the trespasser
is not enrolled in the school. Until our statutes are so amended that school property will be protected from all
trespassers, whether teacher, pupil, patron or any other person, I regard it as a needless expenditure of money
to furnish every school with a library.

Teachers.--We are fortunate in securing all of the teachers that we want. Our teachers, as a general thing, are
progressive and do their work satisfactorily. We pay $40 per month to all of our rural teachers. Of course, we
pay better salaries in the high schools. We pay our teachers in money monthly, and we find that to be very
satisfactory with them.

State Certificates for High School Principals.--The rule passed by the State Board of Education, requiring principals
of high schools to have State certificates or special certificates, has caused a little inconvenience, but I
believe that it is a good rule. I see no reason why a teacher should object to an examination on the subjects
that he intends to teach.

Special Tax Districts.--We have one school that we are calling a Senior High School, and two that we call Junior
High Schools. We have forty-four white rural schools and sixteen colored schools.

All of the schools have a five months term, but we divide the term into a two months summer and a three months
winter term. The high schools, each one being in a special tax district, have an eight months' term. We have
only three special tax districts in the county.

Financial.--At the close of the last scholastic year the county school fund was out of debt and had a small
balance on hand. We believe in spending all that we can get for education, but we do not believe in running the
county in debt. A county, like an individual, should pay out once a year. The special tax districts are in
debt.. We allow the Trustees to run the districts in debt.

Text-Books.--We have been using the State adopted text books one year. The books are satisfactory, but the method
of furnishing them to the people is very unsatisfactory. The trouble seems to be with the local dealers, who
will not keep enough books on hand to supply the demand. The county school authorities are powerless to do any-
thing to remedy the evil. The law makes it our duty to see that the adopted books are used, and the dealers will
not keep the books. We had several hundred pupils in school during last summer that did not have a book. I find
that the book companies are willing and anxious to furnish the books to the dealers.

I believe that the law should be so amended that the County Superintendent should be allowed to inspect the stock
of books monthly and recommend to the book companies such books as will be needed, and then the hook companies should
be required to furnish such books as he recommends.

Teachers' Examinations.--The present examination law has about served its purpose. It was a good thing when it
was enacted, but after twenty years' service it should be amended so that all of the bad and worn-out features
will be eliminated. The examinations should be under the supervision of the State Superintendent and should he
conducted by him or his deputy. Teachers who teach in normal schools should not be allowed to serve on grading
committees when any of their pupils are taking the examination. It is an easy matter for a Normal School to
guarantee a certificate when they know that the grading committee will be composed of teachers from their faculty.

Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Jackson,
County Superintendent.



Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request of recent date, I beg to submit the following report of schools
in Hernando County.

High Schools.--Our Senior High School, located at Brooksville, has made most gratifying progress during the
past two years. The increase in enrollment and attendance has made necessary annual additions to the faculty.

The teaching force for the present term will consist of 12 teachers, four of these doing high school work.

Our school building, completed two years ago, is already overcrowded, making it necessary for us to provide
quarters for two grades in a rented building.

District Bonds.--We will, in the near future, submit to the electors of Brooksville Special Tax District the
question of issuing $10,000 district bonds for the purpose of enlarging and improving the school building.

The Junior High School at Spring Lake, with corps of competent and energetic teachers, is doing splendid work.

Rural Schools.--Our rural schools have been doing satisfactory work during the past two years, although I find
ever-increasing difficulty in securing competent teachers for the country schools. I am sure that the labors
of our Rural School Inspectors will result in great good, in bringing about co-operation of both patrons and
pupils with teachers, and in establishing better sanitary conditions.

Owing to financial difficulties, we have been forced to shorten the term of rural schools from eight to six

New Buildings.-We have erected only one new school building during the past two years, this was to replace
building destroyed by fire.

There is now in course of construction a new rural school building, also an addition to an established school.

Teachers.-We experience constantly increasing difficulty in supplying rural schools with teachers holding first
grade certificates. All teachers seeming to prefer work in the graded schools, and are very reluctant to accept
rural school work.

Finances.--We have levied and collected the legal limit of 7 mills general, and 3 mills special school tax, but
find that inadequate to fully meet the growing expenses of our schools.

Owing to an increase in the assessed valuation of real property we hope to improve our financial condition steadily
in future.

District Bonds.--There have been no bonds issued by special tax districts as yet, but we will submit an issue of
$10,000.00 to electors of Brooksville district within sixty days and feel assured that bonds will be voted. This
issue of bonds will be for the purpose of enlarging and improving building of Hernando High School, at Brooksville.

Industrial Courses.---I am very anxious to add Manual Training and Domestic Science to our high school course, but
will be unable to do so for at least another year on account of crowded condition of present building, and scarcity
of funds.

Examinations.--While the present system of uniform examination has accomplished a wonderful work for the children
of Florida, I believe that it has served its purpose, and, in view of the fact that we are continually hearing
cries of fraud, it rould be to the advantage of all parties concerned to place the entire business of examining
and licensing teachers in the hands of a State Board of Examiners.

Hoping the above report will meet your approval, I am

Sincerely yours,
W. A. Ihaxton,
County Sunerintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a general statement of the present conditions of the schools in Hills-
borough county and the progress made in the last two years, I beg to submit the following report:

High Schools.--We have in this county two senior high schools, one in Tampa and one in Plant City. The hilh school
in Tampa is probably the largest in the State, having enrolled last year 500 students amn having an average attend-
ance of about 480. The graduating class of 1914 numbered sixty-five regular graduates and two special. I undler-
stand that this is the largest class that was ever graduated from a Florida educational Institution. The Plant
City high school has reached an enrollment of 125. When we enter the new high school building in Plant City next
October, we shall have an equipment equal to any accredited senior high school. The building is now under
construction, and when completed will offer certain advantages at Plant City which have not been enjoyed previous
to this time. Large laboratory rooms for chemistry and physics and rooms for manual training and domestic
economy, together with rooms for a gymnasium and swimming pool, have been included in the design. The high
school in Tampa has every equipment one could wish, and in many respects is doing better work than many small
colleges. The board has planned to establish another senior high school in the southern part of the county,
at Wimauma, for which bonds have already been voted.

The county has no intermediate high schools and does not especially care for any. When boys and girls have
completed the third year, we give them any and all encouragement to finish. There are two Junior lHigh Schools
in Hillsborough county, one at Dover and another at Turkey Creek. Each of these schools has four teachers, and
one of these teachers devotes his entire time to high school work. When I became superintendent of schools I
found a very small Junior high school at Port Tampa. This was discontinued at my suggestion and the students
transported on the street car line to the county high school at Tampa.



The plan of concentrating attendance on the County High School, at Tampa, has caused the building to become
crowded. The Board has planned to double the capacity of the County High School, for which work funds are
already available. When complete the building and equipment will take care of 1,000 students. In Senior
high schools we adhere strictly to the college and university requirement, namely, not less than one teacher
for every thirty students.

Supply of Teachers.--The supply of teachers in Hillsborough county greatly exceeds the demand. This year I had
at least five applicants for every position filled. This gives the Board an opportunity to eliminate the weak
teachers and fill their positions with men and women of better fiber. The efficiency of the force is largely
a matter of the efficiency of the Superintendent. After making this statement I suppose I should say that it
is satisfactory. However, the work, while satisfactory as a whole, is never satisfactory in respect to each
individual teacher.

Supervising Teachers.--We are doing a great deal to bring the weak teachers up to an acknowledged standard of
efficiency. In addition to the personal supervision I give the schools of this county, I have an expert
primary teacher who has supervision of all weak teachers in the primary schools (grades 1, 2, and 3). We have
an intermediate school supervisor who is responsible for the work of the weak teachers in grades 4, 5, add 6.
These supervisors hunt the weak teachers at the beginning of the year and concentrate their work where it is
most needed. They are responsible for the work in these grades at Tampa, and suburbs, and at Plant City. They
are often sent to the country or anywhere I find a weak teacher at work. It seems to me that this is an ideal
plan of increasing the efficiency of the force and, to some extent, is preferable to summer institutes. The
drawing, penmanship and music, while taught by the grade teachers, has supervision from a specialist in each
subject. It is impossible to obtain teachers for grade work expert in every subject taught. The Board is
satisfied if they are efficient in the basal subjects and it is willing to help them out in the necessary frills.
There are two supervisors of manual training and two of domestic economy. In addition to these the boys'
supervisor of Corn Club work has also the supervision of penmanship in the country schools. Also, the supervisor
of the girls' Canning Club work has the supervision of music in the country schools. The latter is also a
specialist in domestic economy, and it is our plan this year to organize our country schools into domestic
economy centers, in groups of five schools to the center. With Tampa and Plant City forming two centers, only
about eight additional centers will be necessary. Each of the three supervisors will be at work in one of these
centers every Saturday. It is our plan to make the country schools in Hillsborough county just as attractive
as the city schools.

Work of the Superintendent.--With all of this supervision one would ask, what does the Superintendent do? He is
working all the time looking for weak places in his system and trying to make those weak places stronger. What
does it all cost? Less than 3% of the school fund, including the Superintendent's salary and expenses of School

We find no trouble in having teachers obtain Florida certificates. They seem to know they have it to do and
that is the end of it.

New Buildings.--The school buildings in Hillsborough county are in good condition. Since my term of office began
(19 months) we have replaced old buildings with new ones at the following places: Keysville (addition), East
Tampa, Plant City, Spring Head, Oak Grove (addition), Citrus Park, Piano, Gary, Keystone Park, Knights (addition),
Van Sant, Buffalo Avenue, Ballast Point (addition), Picnic, Benjamin, Sweetwater, Big Cypress, Gulf City. In
addition to these, contracts have been let for Jackson Heights, Livingston Avenue, Seminole Heights, Wimauma,
Seffner, Fern Lake, to be completed for the opening of school in September, 1914.

Bonds Voted.--Bonds have been voted for $225,000.00 and sold for five buildings in Tampa, as follows: Additional
buildings in Ybor City, building to replace old ones at Tampa Heights and Madison street, new building in suburb
Beautiful and a new building in Moody Heights. Two negro schools are also planned, one to supplant Harlem
Academy and one to supplant West Hyde Park. A bond issue in West Tampa provides for an addition to the Cuesta
school, a new school in Ellinger City, a new school in North West Tampa, and a new building for the negroes.
Further, we are to have new buildings at Limona and at Cork Academy, two country schools for which bonds are
already voted,'but not yet sold.

School Equipment.--The equipment of school buildings is almost the best that money can buy. Steel automatic
single desks are finding their way into every school and many of the double desks in the county have been
replaced. Last year we distributed 100 globes of the swinging type to schools throughout the county. This
year every school is to be furnished with a set of roller maps. I don't think we have a country school but
what has the best of hyloplate blackboards.

School Libraries and Book Cases.--The growth of the grade and one-teacher school library is almost a story
within itself. Numbers of sectional book cases have already been added to school equipment, and it is our plan
this year to see that no school is without a grade library. A committee is at work now reading and reviewing
one thousand volumes for the purpose of making selections of books adapted to conditions in Hillsborough county.
I find no trouble in persuading trustees to buy books with their special tax fund. We are buying large quantities
of the Lundstrum sectional book cases at $1.75 for units and $1.25 for tops ard bottoms delivered in Tampa. This
book case, while cheap, is very satisfactory. The factory will equip the unit with a lock for 25 cents additional.
By using the sectional case a country school or any other school can add one unit at a time just as needed. We
keep a small stock of book cases in the warehouse in Tampa, along with a large stock of school desks and other

Special Tax District Bonds.--The special tax school district bonding law has had a wonderful effect in Hillsboro
county. As soon as the law went into effect the County Board gave notice to all school districts that they must
bond before they could get any more money. The result has been that we have redeemed all old debts in all districts
with the exception of two, which we have reason to believe will vote upon bond redemptions within the next six
months. Districts have voted bonds as follows: Tampa, $225,000.00; Plant City, $40,000.00; Cork Academy,
$1,500.00; Spring Head, $5,000.00; Limona, $500.00; Cilchrist, $13,000.00; East Tampa, $6,000.00; Gary, $20,000.00;
Buffalo Avenue, $20,000.00; Wimauma, $5,000.00; West Tampa, $60,000.00; Seffner, $3,000.00; Fern Lake, $2,000.00.
In each case a five mill extra levy was made with the exception of Tampa and West Tampa, where so much was not


Text Book Law.--The uniform text book law is working admirably well. The law itself is a good one, but the
selection of texts is not wholly approved by our best teachers. We consider the Wheeler readers about the
poorest selection that might have been made. All pupils are properly supplied with texts, there being five
depositories in Tampa and two in Plant City. Many of the country stores, also, keep school books. Where we
find children too poor to buy the necessary books we promptly supply them from the special tax fund as pro-
vided for by Chapter 6163.

Bonding Law and Special Tax Districts.--As previously mentioned the bonding act has made it possible for
Hillsborough county to place its finances in excellent shape. There is not now one foot of territory in
Hillsborough county that is not within a special tax school district. We have fifty-eight such districts and
no district assesses less than the three mill limit. This gives a revenue to districts of between sixty and
seventy thousand dollars, which of course, materially aids the general school fund. In the future Hillsborough
county will operate strictly within its income.

Teachers' Salaries.--Our teachers have gladly attended institutes and summer schools. Salaries have been
materially increased in 1913 and 1914. We operate under salary schedules. For grade work the minimum of $60
gradually increases to a maximum of $100. For high school work the minimum of $75 and a maximum of $125 for
women; a minimum of $100 and a maximum of $150 for men. The schedules are based on years of service and efficiency.

Teachers' Study Circles.--We have a schedule of teachers' meetings and institutes. Graded school teachers meet
in faculty meeting study circles once each week. The superintendent meets the teachers in divisions each Friday
afternoon for two hours of study. The primary division meets on the first Friday, the Intermediate division on
the second Friday, Grammar school and Grammar school principals on the third Friday, High school teachers and
high school principals on the fourth Friday.

County Teachers' Bi-Monthly Association.--In addition to these study circles Iillsborough has a most excellent
county teachers' association which meets bi-monthly in Tampa and Plant City, alternately. The association did
very fine work last year. It has accumulated a library of nearly 500 volumes of choice pedagogical literature.
The books are kept in the Superintendent's office, which enables him to tell what teachers are reading and
growing. A regulation of the County Board requires a minimum of 1,000 pages read and reported in manuscript by
each teacher during the school year. While attendance upon meetings is not compulsory excuses for absences are
required. Hllsborough does not want any teacher who does not willingly attend its educational meetings.

Vocational Work.--Something has been said already of the vocational work. Manual training and domestic economy
are this year extended to all suburban schools; millinery is added to the course in the high schools, and such
work is finding its way gradually into the country schools.

Portable Art Exhibits.--An art exhibit, consisting of more than fifty very fine pictures, carbon copies of the
Old Masters, was purchased by the Board recently and is now on its way through the country schools. These pictures
are packed in a large trunk and are displayed upon the walls of the country school for a period of two days.
Days of exhibition are advertised before hand and parents and friends are invited to attend. Parents are then
asked to contribute a small amount to purchase one or more of these pictures for the school. The selection is
made from the exhibit and the order sent to the Superintendent. In this way we work to foster a more artistic
taste among country school children, to teach them to love the best art as well as the best literature, and to
obtain the best pictures for the school room. When the time limit is out, trustees of another school get the
trunk and thus the exhibit finds its way around the country.

Scholarship Records.-Hillsborough county now has a complete system of scholarship records. The system adopted
by the National Educational Associations, with some modifications, is in use in the cities, town, and country.
These scholarship records along with records of attendance are bound in a volume at the end of the year and
become a part of the records in the Superintendent's office. In this way we are able to get at the record of
any child in the remotest country district within a period of a few minutes.

The outlook for the future is bright.

Very Cordially,
Marshall Moore,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request of July 29, 1914, I herewith submit a report of schools and school work
in this county for the years 1913 and 1914, ending June 30, 1914:

Number of Schools.--The Board maintained 53 white and four colored schools during the last scholastic year.
There are 54 white and six negro schools in the county, one white and two negro schools were untaught, for lack
of teachers. Two more white schools were added during the past year, bringing the total number of schools in the
county up to sixty-two.

Teachers.--Our teaching force consists of eight first grade teachers, thirty-two second grade teachers, and twenty-
five third grade teachers. The number of third grade teachers is growing less, as the people are demanding higher
grade teachers each year and more efficient service. We have quite enough resident teachers to supply our

Enrollment.--Enrollrent has increased since the last school year 422; we now have 3107 white and 158 negro
children enrolled in the public schools of the county. We have one school employing six teachers, Bonifav School
No. 1, with fourteen pupils, doing ninth grade work; one employing four teachers, with four students, doing ninth
grade work; one school employing three teachers, with fifteen students, doing tenth grade work; one school
employing two teachers, with fourteen students doing ninth grade work (the above are village schools); two
schools employing two teachers each, with twelve pupils, in the ninth grade. We have fourteen rural schools
employing two teachers each, the others one each. There is much greater interest being manifested than ever
before among both parents and teachers, hence there is a general awakening along all educational lines in thfq


Special Tax Districts.--There are now thirty-five special tax districts in the county, six new ones having been
added since I came into office eighteen months ago. All of the districts levy a three mills tax, except four,
levying two mills each. About $3500 is collected from this source. This is largely used to aid in employing
better teachers and in lengthening the term of school. We are collecting in all ten mills school tax in our
county. This shows that our people are willing to go the limit for education.
Libraries.--Since I have been in office I have placed twenty-three libraries in the rural schools of the county,
containing 2,622 columes, estimated value $2,275. I hope soon to have good libraries in every school in the
county. There is yet a small bit of territory that can be brought into special tax districts, which will soon
be done, asd then the entire county will be levying district taxes.
Buildings.--We yet have a few ordinary trame iauol uuiiaings. These will soon be replaced with new and a-rEETVtff
buildings. The Board has within the last twelve months built six new buildings, and will by the end of the year
1914 have 17 or 18 new buildings completed, all well lighted and ventilated. When this is done all of our build-
ings will be practically new.

Furniture.--The estimated value of our school furniture is $4,058. Of this amount about $3,000 has been expended
within the last 18 months. We will spend about $1,000 more during the present year.

Financial Condition.--When I came into office in January, 1913, the school funds were in debt $3,609.27, with
several thousand more contracted for the future. With what has since been expended, we are to date, $17,181.85
in debt, less cash on hand, $7,659.55. This debt has been created by the erection of buildings, the purchasing
of furniture and by the increase of salaries of teachers. As we will soon have our buildings all completed and
supplied with furniture, heavy expenses over with, then our county will soon be on a sound financial basis, and
will be ready to go forth unhampered in the great work.

Institutes.--To date we have had no Teachers' Institutes in our county, very much to my regret. I am endeavoring,
however, to get our School Board to hold an Institute this fall. If I fail in this, I hope the time is not far
distant when we can have Institutes as a part of our school work each year, for I am sure that all agree that
there is much good to be accomplished through them.

District Bonding Law.--Our people are well pleased with the District Bonding Law. Yet they have not availed
themselves of its benefits, though I feel quite sure that it will be but a short while before they will.

Uniform Text-Books.--This law is generally approved by the people, yet, like most laws, it has some defects, which
no doubt will be corrected in due time. Our pupils are generally well supplied with books, however, they are
some times delayed, owing to the fact that our local agents are not supplied with the necessary books.

Compulsory Law.--It is my candid opinion that one of the most beneficial laws that could be written into our
statutes would be a compulsory attendance law. I feel quite sure that the majority of our citizens favor such
a law, and I hope the next Legislature will not adjourn until they have enacted some such law.

Grading Committees.--One of the pressing needs, at this time, is a change in the present mode of certification
of teachers. We should have a state grading committee, or some other mode of certificating teachers. All
connected with this work are aware of its defects, and I deem comment, unnecessary, for the many reasons are too
apparent why the present method of certificating teachers should be abolished. And it is to be hoped that the
next Legislature will change the present law on this subject.

Outlook.--This report would be incomplete without a few remarks on the future outlook of the schools. Everything
is very encouraging, our teachers are both aggressive and progressive, and are putting forth every effort to
prepare for the very grave responsibilities resting upon them. Many are attending normal schools and otherwise
trying to keep pace with the progress of the times. The patrons and the children all seem to be getting more
and more interested. Hoping that I have to some extent measured up to your expectations in rendering this report
of the general conditions of the schools of my county; and sincerely thanking you and your office force for your
uniform courtesy and kindness to me since my business relations began with you,

I am, very respectfully yours,
T. J. McDade,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit you the following report on the school conditions
in Jackson county.

School Term.--We have run our schools five months regular term during the last two years. Several special tax
schools have run from six to eight months.

Teachers' Salaries.--Our small income in this county prohibits our paying adequate salaries. Common school teachers
are paid, white, $30 to $60, negro, $22 to $40.

Finances.--Our total school revenue is less than $50,000, and we have to maintain 127 schools. [You have more
schools than are necessary-State Supt.] so we have to leave many things undone which we feel ought to be done.
We hope, with the increased valuation of the property in this county, our finances will be better shape. We
had a net cash balance of $597.19 at the close of last year, but received over $5,000 during the month of July.
Collections are still short.

Teachers' Institutes.--Our teachers have regularly organized associations. Very interesting meetings are held

Certification of Teachers.--During last year we used only one white and seven nepro teachers with temporary
certificates. This year we will use none. I am now a strong advocate of some kind of State examining board.
My observations during the past year have convinced me of its necessity. My grading committee has done its
duty and has been severely criticized for doing it.


Some Recent Improvements.
1. Special tax school districts have increased from 20 to 29, and five more now being created.
2. Good single patent desks and hyloplate blackboards have been placed in all our white schools, this has
given impetus to our school work.
3. School libraries have increased from none to 12 good graded libraries.
4. A laboratory has been installed in the Harianna high school.
5. Five new buildings have been completed, and needed additions made to eight.
6. Teachers' summer training schools were conducted at Marianna with attendance of 40 teachers at a session.
7. Average attendance of pupils over last year increased 20 percent.

The Special Tax Bond Law.--One district voted bonds for $12,000 for new buildings, but we have not been able to
sell bonds at a satisfactory price. Our county is somewhat overworked on the bond question. We are carrying
a heavy road bond issue, besides several municipalities are bonded.

We are trying to get our people more interested in schools with a view to creating more special tax districts
and thereby increasing our revenue.

Yours very truly,
C. B. King,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--The schools in Jefferson county are 56 in number, 19 are white schools. Ten of the white schools are
one-teacher schools, four have two teachers,two three teachers, one five, one four, and one eight teachers.
Salaries vary from $40 to $150 per month. Eight of the schools have an eight months' term, two seven months,
one six months, and the remainder five months.

High Schools.--We have two Junior high schools, one having one teacher doing only high school work with four
teachers in the entire school; one with two teachers doing only high school work with five teachers in the entire
school. One Intermediate high school with three teachers doing only high school work with eight teachers in the
entire school. These schools will have the same number of teachers, except the Intermediate high school will
have but two teachers doing only high school work.

The teaching force is sufficient, except in the lower grades I find the primary teachers over-run while the
teachers of the higher grades have little to do. I have tried, as far as it was practicable, to fill the schools
with normal trained teachers. I find that the normal trained teachers give better results and better satisfaction
than those without such training.

Negro Schools.--Many of the negroes failed in the examinations held last year, and on that account some of the
teachers had to teach one school for four months and go to another and teach the same length of time. Although
I had one teacher to teach two schools I found then I did not have enough teachers, so I issued a few temporary
certificates. Only three of the negro schools have had more than one teacher to the school. In January, 1913,
when I first entered upon my duties as Superintendent, I found that most of the negro teachers were taking in
school any time from nine to twelve o'clock, giving only an hour or two a day to the work, when they should have
given five or six hours a day. By close supervision I have succeeded in having the schools open at 8:30 o'clock
and dismissed at three o'clock. These schools show marked improvement. (Good for Taylorl--State Supt.]

Buildings.--The white school buildings, with few exceptions, are in very good condition. A few of these buildings
are comparatively new. The schools are poorly equipped. We have, of course, a few schools that are fairly well
equipped, but none as they should be. I hope, however, in the near future, to have them better equipped. The
negro school buildings are in a dilapidated condition and should be replaced with new ones.

Special Tax Districts.--There are two special tax districts in the county. These districts have recently held
an election for the purpose of electing trustees and deciding the millage. Monticello voted one mill, the same
it has been for several years; Union Hill voted two mills. Last year it was three mills.

Books.--There is always delay at the opening of schools on account of books, as the local agent always waits for
the teachers to notify him how many books will be needed before ordering. I think some better arrangement
should be made so that the children could get books on the day school opens.

The Board pays the teachers each month, and pays them one hundred cents on the dollar.

Monticello School Building.T-The special tax in Monticello district has been kept to apply on a new school build-
ing. The Board, just a few months ago, purchased the old Jefferson Collegiate Institute and will in a few days
let the contract for the remodeling of this old building, which, when completed and equipped, will cost about

Institutes and Summer Schools.--Two institutes were held, one in November and one in February. These institutes
were a great benefit to the teachers, inspiring them to better work. I hope to hold institutes each year. A
few of the teachers attend the State Summer Schools, trying to better prepare themselves for their work.

Transportation of Pupils.--The wagons for the transportation of pupils have become a great expense to the county
and the Board is trying to devise some plan to lessen the expense. In 1912 and 1913 the vans alone cost $5,608.45.
The past year they cost $4,355.15, a saving of $1,253.30. During the coming term the board has agreed to pay
fifteen cents a day, per capital, for each pupil hauled that lives over two miles from any school. The Board
will have nothing to Jo with the vans, they will be run by the patrons.

Cost of Negro Schools.--In 1912-1913 the negro schools cost $3,921.95; in 1913-1914, they cost $3,352.05, a
saving of $569.90. I can say that the schools are in better condition and there are less complaints than there
were two years ago.



Enrollment.--The enrollment in the white schools is larger this year than last year. The enrollment of the
years 1913-1914 was 1,004, the year previous it was 902. I am very much encouraged with the improvement of.
the schools, and believe that the time is not far distant when the schools of Jefferson county will be equal
to the best schools in the State.

S. H. Taylor,
County Superintendent


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I beg to submit the following brief report: We have 50 white and
5 colored schools in operation.

Buildings.--The Board owns all buildings used by white children, with the exception of two, and all used by the
negroes, except one. Ample water and heat are provided for all schools. The present administration has built
ten school houses, counting two annexes, all of which have been painted and furnished. All school houses are
furnished with patent desks, except two for negroes. This administration has supplied nearly all the schools in
the county with up-to-date libraries, charts, maps and globes.

School Term.--We have succeeded in running the schools five months, and in many instances the Trustees have
supplemented this one, two and three months.

High Schools.--We have a county high school that the entire county is proud of; we have recently added the inter-
mediate high school grades, and hope to be able to advance to a Senior High School next term.

Special Tax Districts.--We have seventeen Special Tax School Districts, and all, except two, have some cash on hand,
which is being used to lengthen the term, buy books and pay other incidentals of the schools.

Finances.--We have so far paid good salaries, and our warrants are good at the banks. Our buildings and repairs
have been so heavy we will run a little short before the taxes are collected, but not much more building is to be
done, so we hope soon to catch up and get some cash ahead.

Outlook.--Educational interest has increased wonderfully in the two years that I have been in office; I think this
is due to a considerable extent, to having the necessary apparatus to work with.

Home Teachers.--We have seventeen of our own LaFayette County boys and girls teaching in the county, and I am proud
to say they are giving the very best satisfaction. With our present comfortable and commodious buildings, and
all needed apparatus, together with the advancement that is being made in our road system, I look for increased
interest and results.

All of which I respectfully submit for your consideration.

With the kindest regards, I beg to remain,
Yours truly,
G. N. Trawick,
County Superintendent


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request I submit a brief report of the schools of Lake county.

High Schools.--Lake county maintains two Senior High Schools and two Junior High Schools, all doing good work.
Leesburg and Eustis maintain twelve grades. Umatilla and Montverde are the Junior High Schools, and the County
School Board and trustees expect these to be Senior High Schools within two years. Tavares, Mt. Dora, Sorrento,
Altoona, Clermont, Mascotte and Groveland are three-teacher schools and will, no doubt, be Junior High Schools
soon. Bay Lake and Lady Lake are two-teacher schools.

Teachers.--While we have had some trouble in securing good, efficient teachers, we feel that Lake county has,
as a class, excellent teachers. A large per cent of the teachers have college education and have had normal

Buildings.--Lake County School Board is, as fast as possible, giving to the children of the county up-to-date
school buildings. This effort is supplemented by trustees. These schools are not as well equipped as is desired,
but this subject is receiving attention.

Bonding Special Tax School Districts.--Four districts have bonded for building and equipping school houses:
Leesburg, $35,000; Clermont, $10,000; Fruitland Park, $2,000, and Umatilla, $10,000. The latter is for additional
buildings. Tavares will vote soon to issue bonds to the amount of $15,000. There is no opposition to the bond
issue in the district.

The Uniform Text-Book Law.--has proved a success. In one district, however, there was some trouble.

Finances.--The financial condition of the county is good. There was a surplus of funds from last year, rendering
it unnecessary to borrow any money for schools before December or January. The maximum seven mills has been levied
until this year. Only a six mill levy was made this year, as the increase in value of property, with six mills,
gives a sufficient amount.

Districts.--There are thirty-three Special Tax School Districts in Lake county, and nearly all are voting a three
mills' levy, even under increased assessed value of property.

Institutes.--A very successful Institute was held at Tavares in September. A large number of teachers attended.
The county School Board appropriated money to pay the expenses of the teachers while attending the Institute.


Summer Schools.--A large number of Lake county teachers attended Summer Schools.

Vocational and Educational Training.--Industrial work was introduced into the schools about two years ago and
success in it has followed. Much of the interest in this work is due to the efforts of Miss Flora B. Brown,
the N. 0. Nelson industrial worker. Her services were given to Lake county by N. 0. Nelson, St. Louis, Mo.
Miss Brown visits schools and homes and gets all interested in industrial education, school improvement clubs,
school fairs, co-operative methods of conducting rural business, etc.

School Bulletin.--Lake County Board of Public Instruction issues a monthly bulletin, which gives interesting
matter from the schools of the county.

School Fair.--Last year a school fair was held at Tavares in January. There were nearly 1,000 children in the
parade, and the number and variety of exhibits by the children were a surprise to all. There will be another
fair this school year, January 27, 28 and 29. The building is owned by the county.

Conclusion.--In conclusion, we take pleasure in stating that the educational outlook for Lake county was never
more encouraging. Patrons take more interest than usual in school matters.

Respectfully submitted,
Wm. T. Kennedy.
County Superintendent


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I beg to submit the following report of school conditions in the
County of Lee:
Marked Improvement.--Our school' system during the past two years has shown marked improvement; each year more
interest is manifested by teachers, patrons and pupils. There is an increasing demand from patrons for longer
terms and better school facilities. There remains, however, much to he accomplished, and while it has been our
policy to proceed in the administration of our school affairs, along conservative lines, we do not overlook an
opportunity, as far as our means will permit, to make improvements, better conditions and stimulate an educational

The Schools, Number, Etc.--For the scholastic year ending June 30, 1914, we maintained 32 white schools and 1
colored school. Our enrollment for the past scholastic year was: White, 1,528, making an average attendance of
1,065; colored, 153, making an average attendance of 125. The enrollment for the year ending June 30, 1912, was:
White, 1,251, with an average attendance of 848; colored, 129, with an average attendance of 86. In the rural
districts the length of term is not less than five months, and salaries paid are from $45 to $70 per month. The
term of a grammar school is not less than seven months, and salaries range from $55 to $80 per month.

High Schools--Our junior high schools run eight months, and salaries are from $60 to $100 per month. The senior
high school term is eight months, and salaries are $65 to $175 per month. I would like to say, right here, that
warrants drawn on the School Board are worth one hundred cents on the dollar, twelve months out of the year, and
have been for ever twenty-two years.

We employed fifty-four teachers last term and paid them a total salary of $22,768, which is $4,744 more than was
paid for the year ending June 30, 1912. This additional amount was expended in increasing our corps of teachers,
increasing salaries and extending the length of terms in a few of our more progressive communities.

Enrollment Increased.--The enrollment for the county has increased three hundred and five pupils, or little more
than 22 per cent during the past two years. The enrollment of Gwynne Institute the previous year was 440 against
551 for the year closing, or an increase of little more than 25 per cent.in one year.

Special Tax Districts.--We now have fourteen special tax school districts organized and in operation; two having
been added since the last biennial report. Every acre of land in Lee county is now in a special tax school district.
All of these districts levy the maximum of three mills. As a tribute to the progressive spirit and educational
interest manifested by the people of Estero special tax school district, recently established, the vote in favor
of a special tax school district and levy of three mills was unanimous. The special tax districts have aided us
much in a financial way, and have served greatly to stimulate interest in school affairs of the county. The money
from these districts is expended in lengthening school terms, supplementing teachers' salaries and improving
school property. Our districts are all in a healthy condition.

Libraries.--That the pleasure and profit of the pupil may he enhanced, and as an aid in making the school the social
center of the community, the establishment of graded libraries is encouraged. In pursuance of this policy, the
County Board will have established a graded library in every school in the county, with the exception of five, at
a cost of not less than $70 each, by the opening of the fall term. We have included in each of these libraries
four sets of graded readers for each of the four lower grades, and believe if these readers are used judiciously
by the teacher, the increased progress of the pupil will be marked.

District Bonds.--The Legislature of Florida in regular session, A. D. 1913, enacted a law authorizing special tax
school districts to issue bonds for the exclusive use of public schools in such special tax school districts. I
wish to say that this Act has proven a blessing in disguise to Lee county. Fort Myers' special tax school district
was the first to issue bonds under this new law. The amount issued was $35,000 for a high school building. The
building will be in readiness for the Ibeginning of tie next school term, August 31, 1914. A more modern, up-to-date
high school building is not in the Stae. The progressive and enterprising spirit of the citizens of Alva and
Labelle special tax school districts next manifested itself by the issuance of bonds in the amount of $15,000
and $25,000 respectively. The Alva district will have a handsome six-room brick hiildlnp, centrally located on a
four-acre lot. Labelle district will hnve a magnificent eight-room brick building centrally situated on a four-
acre lot. The high school building for Fort yearss district will contain seventeen rooms, located In the heart of
the city, on a bea.ut iful lot containLnp one and one-hanlf acres.


Standard of Teachers Raised.--The Superintendent, with the co-operation of the County Board is striving to
raise the standard of the teaching force of the county. As a step toward this end, no third grade teachers will
be employed in the future. A teachers' institute will be held November the 27th and 28th, next for the teachers
of the county. We hope through the medium of a county teachers' institute, to stimulate interest and awaken
in the teachers higher ideals for the great work in which they are engaged.

Finances.--The financial condition of the School Board is better than it was at the close of last year's work.
At the close of the fiscal year, June 30, 1913, the indebtedness of the General School fund was $9,599.25; at
the close of this year, June 30, 1914, $6,770.48. In other words, the Board has liquidated old indebtedness to
the amount of $2,828.77 during the past year, and has paid all current expenses.

Policy Favors Home Teachers.--It is the policy of the Board to give native teachers the preference, but Lee
county teachers, home talent, always get first choice, provided qualifications are equal. We encourage our
teachers to take special normal training, and reward them by promoting them to better paid positions.

Outlook.--While the public school system of our county is far from perfection, we believe a good work is being
accomplished, and that progress and improvements are being noted each year. In looking over the statistics and
comparing the present status and general enthusiastic school spirit that exists among our people generally, with
that of a few years ago, we believe that we are excusable for viewing it with a feeling of pride and satisfaction.

In closing this, my first, general report for publication, I wish to thank you and your office force for the
kindness and courtesy shown me during my term in office.

Yours very truly,
Jos. W. Sherrill,
County Superintendent


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, permit me to hand you herewith a "General Report" for the past two

Buildings.--On the east end of the Leon High School building has been added another entrance; this is made of
brick and cement, and a paved walk leads through the grounds to the sidewalk; lawn seats have been placed on both
sides of the wall, which makes it more attractive and convenient than before; two well equipped playgrounds have
been put in order for playing basket ball. The basement under the auditorium is to be improved and made into a
gymnasium; the contractor will complete the new space not later than September the 15th; fixtures have been
ordered and will be put in place by the contractor as soon as the room is complete; the size of this room is 25
by 95 feet and will add much to the school. The Junior High School at Chatres has been given another new, well
equipped school building, adding much to the convenience of the school. We have repaired quite a number of our
school buildings and now have them in good repair. We expect to repaint quite a number of buildings that need it
worst and will build about four new buildings for rural schools.

Special Tax District.--We have only one special tax district in the county, but we hope to organize one or more
before the end of the school year of 1914-1915. Our special tax district funds are not in good shape, the trustees
have spent a great deal of money for buildings and repairs, therefore, this fund is in debt.

Teachers.--There is a marked improvement in the qualifications of our teachers, from the fact that the summer
schools are better attended than ever before. Many of our teachers are doing good work. We are trying each year
to secure better teachers, and we wish we were able to pay better salaries.

Financial.--The financial condition of the county is good. July 1, 1912, we had a cash balance of $8,358.66;
July 1, 1913, we had a cash balance of $5,117.69; July 1, 1914, we had a cash balance of $13,303.90. With th6
finances in good condition and fairly comfortable school buildings, we look forward to a progressive era in

Schools and Terms.--Leon county maintains thirty-two white schools and forty-five negro schools. The County
Board of Public Instruction has fixed the term for white schools at six months and for negro schools four months.
The senior and junior high schools have eight months. The salaries of white teachers are from $30.00 to $187.50
per month; for colored teachers $20.00 to $70.00 per month.

General.--Our people are taking more interest in educational work each year. No school in the county wants a third
grade teacher to teach their children. The future seems bright for Leon county.

With best wishes for the cause all over the State.
Respectfully submitted,
H. H. Isler,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a General Report of the schools in this county for the last two
years, I beg to submit the following:

High Schools.--We have four junior high schools, located respectfully at Williston, Cedar Key, Bronson and
Montbrook. We expect to make Williston and Cedar Key senior high schools another year.

Teachers.--We make special effort to get the best teachers possible for the money, and as a rule we succeed very
well, and our teachers measure up with the average.


Buildings.--At Williston, for that progressive little town, we are erecting at a cost of $16,500 an eight-
room brick school building. I wish to add, in connection therewith, that we have five acres of land, the soil
of which is as good as any in the State. We expect to run in connection with the school an experimental farm,
under the direction of a competent instructor.

At Cedar Key, the citizens of the special tax district have voted to bond their district for $15,000 for the
purpose of erecting a new six-room brick building. The trustees phoned me just yesterday that they had succeeded
in acquiring five acres of land, overlooking the bay toward the mouth of the Suwannee River, for a new site.
Nature and man are working together here in making this one of the prettiest school sites in the world.

In the rural districts the School Board has completed two new buildings, and have three more under construction.
These buildings will be painted and fitted up with the proper furniture and apparatus.

Uniform Text Books.--We have some trouble in getting local agents to handle the hooks. The trouble is, the local
agents claim that the terms of the contract with the book companies are too severe, for so small a margin of
profit. The result is, we have only three agents in the county, which is not enough, as some of the schools are
situated from 15 to 20 miles from the local agents. Hence, parents fail to go or send after the books sometime
for two or three weeks.

Finances.--Our finances are in good shape. We had the benefit of a seven mill levy last year--the first time
since this county has been in existence--and will have it again this year. The money is being wisely spent and
is beginning to bear fruit.

Respectfully submitted,
Thos. W. Price,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I herewith submit a report of all school work in this county for the past
two years, ending June 30, 1914.

School Buildings.-Since submitting to you my last biennial report we have made an addition to the graded school
building at Hosford, two more rooms, which adds much to the comfort and appearance of the building. Have also
built four other small rural school houses.

Furniture.--In the past two years we have only had to buy furniture for the new buildings above mentioned, as we
had all buildings well supplied.

Terms.--We have two graded schools with eight months' terms each, all white rural schools have five months, all
negro schools four months.

Teachers' Salaries.--We pay our white teachers from $30 to $85 per month and negro teachers from $20 to $30 per
month. While we feel that this is hardly sufficient, owing to our financial condition, we cannot do better.

Schools and Attendance.-I am glad to say that we succeed in getting about all of our schools taught. The
enrollment is gradually increasing, and the average attendance is very good.

Finances.--Our finances have fallen behind some in the past two years, owing to the fact that the county is fast
settling up, which makes it necessary for more houses, furniture and a larger teaching force.

Respectfully submitted,
J. E. Roberts,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I give below my report for the schools of Madison County.

High Schools.--We have one Senior High School and three Junior High Schools. The senior high school at Madison
enrolled about one hundred in the high school department. Pinetta junior high school enrolled 15 pupils in high
school grades, Greenville 8, and Lee 3.

Teachers.-As a rule we can get a sufficient number of teachers to supply all our schools, but we frequently have
to use young, inexperienced, and untrained teachers. Sometimes we have to give special examinations, but not often,
in order to secure suitable teachers. Some more satisfactory way should be provided by the State for the training
of teachers for our schools, especially for our rural schools. Under the present system hardly one per cent of the
teachers in the entire State are trained in the normal departments of our State institutions.

State Board of Examiners.--We should also have a State Examining Board for the certification of teachers. We are
supposed to have uniform examinations, but they are uniform in questions only. There are perhaps fifty different
methods of conducting examinations and grading of papers. The necessity for special examinations would be
eliminated by having a State Board of Examiners conducting examinations in various sections of the State each month.

Buildings.--Some of our older buildings need repair, and this will be reached this school year. We shall erect two
or three one-room buildings, and one or two model two-room buildings this year. For some of these we have secured
special designs and hope to make them model rural schools in fact as well as in name. Nearly all our schools are
equipped with modern patent desks and good hyloplate blackboards. All have reference books and dictionary.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--All pupils are properly supplied with the uniform texts, our local dealers have at most times
an abundant supply. We have never had any trouble in securing books, as our dealers are informed as to the time
of opening schools and they have the books on hand when needed. However, the quality of some of the books, both
as to material and content, is far from what it should be.


Finances.--The indebtedness of the Board has been cut some $2,500 the past year, but increased expenditures this
year will put us still further behind. If taxes had been paid promptly we should have had all indebtedness wiped
out and a small cash balance on- hand July 1st. Since the year closed we have received more than 40 per cent of
the total assessment for the year. Part of this was received as late as October let, fifteen months after the
school year began. In the meantime, the Board paid 8 per cent interest on all outstanding warrants. This system
should be changed. The tax books should close earlier and final settlement be made, at least, by the first of
July of each year.

Outlook.--There seems to be more real interest in school affairs on the part of the patrons than heretofore.
School grounds have been beautified and flowers and trees planted. Shades and curtains have been bought and
pictures put on the walls, while flowers and ferns grow in many windows, making the school house an attractive
place for the pupil to live. In such places the average attendance is higher, and the grade of work better.
All these things combined tend to make the outlook for the future hopeful.

G. W. Tedder,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request I beg to submit herewith a brief review of the operations of the public
schools of Manatee county for the past two years.

Qualifications of Teachers.--The most hopeful outlook leading to a higher standard of education in the county is
based upon the growth in professional spirit in our teachers; more than a third of our teachers are university
and college graduates; others have had college and normal training, while a major part of the remainder have had
high school training. As a rule they are a faithful and conscientious band--willing and ready to do anything for
their own advancement and for the betterment of the schools in their charge.

Teachers' Training Course.--At the beginning of the school year 1914-15 a teachers' training course was started
in the county high school; the work during the first year is being offered to fourth year students only. If it
proves successful it will be extended to the third year students. The following subjects are being given in the
course: Fourth year, English, American History and Civics, Psychology and Pedagogy (one-half year each), reviews
of Grammar School branches. The students are required to visit the different schools of the town, and to make
reports on the work being done in the grades visited. Later in the year some practice teaching under the super-
vision of the school principals will be done. The students taking this course are deeply interested in their
work, and without question the course will prove a valuable factor in obtaining teachers for our county schools.

County High School.--Under the management of a thoroughly competent principal, Prof. Horace C. Gillespie, and an
efficient corps of assistants, the success of our County High School, located at Bradentown, the county site, has
been most gratifying and especially so since this school has been given a place in the list of Accredited High
Schools of the State.

Senior High Schools.--Our Senior High Schools, located at Palmetto and Sarasota, having met the requirements of
the regulations governing high schools, are both working under capable principals and assistants, who are
accomplishing excellent work in their line.

Junior High Schools.--Prof. W. H. Stephens, with a corps of competent assistants, has charge of this school,
located in the town of Manatee; the enrollment at present is 174 pupils in the ten grades. This school will
soon occupy a handsome brick building, now under course of construction.

Intermediate and Primary Departments.--In the city of Bradentown we have these departments in separate buildings.
The Intermediate department is in charge of Miss Eva M. GAtes, Principal, with 7 assistants and an enrollment of
210 pupils; the Primary department, Mrs. S. C. Stuart, principal, with 6 assistants and an enrollment of 160
pupils. The principals of these departments are two of our oldest teachers in point of service.

Graded Rural Schools.--These schools are located at Parrish, Ellenton, Terra Ceia and Palmview, each with 3 and
4 teachers, and all doing satisfactory work.

Erection of New Buildings.--For the past two years the improvement in school buildings and equipment is perhaps the
most marked feature of the educational progress and growth of the county. During the latter part of the adminis-
tration of the Board preceding the present Board, six handsome brick buildings were contracted for, costing when
completed $140,000. The money for constructing these buildings was borrowed by issuing Funding Warrants bearing
5 and 6 percent interest, maturing in 5, 1C and 15 years. The completion of these buildings fell upon the present
Board, which was done under many embarrassing conditions, resulting in the necessity of borrowing money annually
to operate the schools; however, we feel that our county is ranking well up in all the material points, educationally,
with any county in the State in her class.

Respectfully yours,
Wm. M. Rowlett,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--I have the honor and pleasure to make the following observations upon the progress and general conditions
of the public schools of Marion county during the last two years. Our constant purpose has been to accomplish as
much sane and conservative progress as possible with the means at our command.

Recent Progress.--During the year 1913 and 1914 we have made more progress in the matter of school buildings and
equipment than for any period in the past. The Ocala school had completely outgrown its facilities and the special
tax school district voted a bond issue of $75,000, and the county made a donation from county funds to supplement
the proceeds of the bonds of $15,000. With these funds we have erected in Ocala a grammar and high school building
that for general completeness and simple elegance and all round correctness for a school building would be very
creditable anywhere. To be in keeping with the new and more elaborate surroundings made additional equipment



in the way of seating and scientific apparatus necessary. Also, a well equipped domestic science department
has been installed, and it is contemplated to put in manual training a business department, and possibly
normal work.

High School Boarding Department.--The Board has converted the old high school building into a very attractive
and commodious dormitory, putting the boarding rates to the very lowest possible, and has an excellent matron in
charge. The purpose is to develop the best type of county high school with such departments as can be operated
successfully in connection with it.

Primary Buildings,--Besides the main building the former primary building is being remodeled and converted into
a modern building with all necessary equipment for work along this line. Also an extra building has been erected
in the northern part of the city, which at present is being used as an additional primary building.

New Building For the Negro School.--In the same building operations was included a very commodious building for
the colored school to cost about $7,500 which, in addition to the present good building, will serve their needs
for some time.

Dunnellon Bond Issue.--Last year the district of Dunnellon voted a bond issue of $12,000, which was supplemented
by a donation, from the general county fund of $4,000, and a modern brick and frame building erected which is
splendidly adapted to the purposes intended. It is a building that a city twice the size of Dunnellon would feel
proud of. The old white building has been moved and set up on a large lot secured for the colored school. They
have an able faculty of all lady teachers, and are making excellent progress. They are also doing very acceptable
work in home economics.

Citra Bond Issue.--The district of Citra has voted a bond issue of $8,000 and the county proposed to make a donation
from county funds of $4,000, and it is proposed to erect there a modern and commodious building which will be in
keeping with the progressive community.

Country Buildings.--There have also been a number of excellent buildings put up in the country. The best of these
is the Fellowship building, the completion of which was celebrated with an elaborate picnic and attended by
Governor Trammel and yourself. We have also new buildings at Shady, Fairfield, Eureka and a number of new colored

Total For Buildings In One Year.--By the first of January, 1915, our expenditures for new buildings for the current
year will approximate $110,000, and the county school property will be worth about $200,000.

Progress in Other Lines.--We have made special effort that our actual school work will not fall below the material
work in advancement. The reports of the present term indicate a largely increased attendance, and we have had to
supply additional teachers in a number of places.

Shortage of Teachers.--This leads to the greatest difficulty that we have. I refer to securing teachers qualified
for the work, and even teachers at all. We still have a few white vacancies and a large number of colored
vacancies. There is some explanation for the general scarcity of teachers. These conditions should be carefully
considered by our school people and by our Legislature and a remedy found if possible.

Different Examinations for Negro Teachers.--We have a large shortage of colored teachers, and while this is a
matter that is too generally passed very very lightly or with a sneer, it is one that should have the earnest
thought of the most intelligent and unprejudiced of our people. If we operate schools for negroes they should
not be made a farce or the purposes of the law nullified by the conditions that are absolutely impossible to
meet. It is time that the law recognized the injustice and ridiculousness of requiring the negro applicants to
make the same grades and reach the same degree of precision in their examinations that the whites do. They in
the first place do not have the same requirements to meet in the work that the whites have, their terms are
usually shorter than the white terms, their salaries are usually not more than 50 to 60 per cent of the white
salaries for the same time, and their facilities for preparation are nothing like as good as those at command
of the whites. Under these conditions it is both cruel and ridiculous to expect or require them to take the
same examinations and be graded with the same degree of exactness. Every effort should be made to root out
all attempts at fraud in conducting the examinations and in grading the papers and then the law should take
cognizance of the differences.

General Activity in School Building.--I think that the entire State is to be congratulated upon the activity in
general building and equipment interest. In scanning the trade journals it occurs to me that there is no part
of the United States where there has been more activity along these lines than in Florida. I take it that the
school officials, from the honorable State Superintendent, whose untiring efforts to maintain the entire system
upon a sensible and substantial basis we all appreciate, down the line to the smallest one, are responsible
for the marvelous development of our system. This, of course, includes our teaching force and all auxiliaries.

The observations are presented with the sincerest regards and warmest interest in our common work.

Very respectfully yours,
J. IH. Brinson,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complyin;: with your request for a General Report covering the progress of the Public Schools of this
county for the past two years, I beg to submit the following:

Great Progress.-We are rapidly perfecting our school system in this county. Our progressive campaign, started
a few years ago, is being prosecuted with the utmost vigor. The results are everywhere in evidence. The enroll-
ment of pupils is increasing every day, and average daily attendance of pupils has considerably increased. In
fact, there is more genuine school spirit among teachers and pupils than ever before.


Teachers.--In my opinion, it pays to employ the very best teachers obtainable. My experience has taught
me that when we find a good teacher, retain her at any reasonable cost. As a result of this experience, 1
feel that our corps of teachers have been materially strengthened. We are now employing more than double the
number of teachers we had four years ago, and as the qualifications of these teachers are much better than
they used to be, we are getting vastly better results.

Buildings.--Since my last General Report, I have been exerting every effort to build larger and better school
buildings. We are just finishing one of the finest stone buildings in the State, and expect to open it for
business about the first of the year. I have paid especial attention to sanitary and hygienic conditions in
the arrangement of the new school, and expect to limit the number of pupils to thirty to the room.

Rural Schools.--The "Key Schools," as we term them, are no better than they were when we started our campaign.
Possibly a few more in number; but, in the main, they are about the same. The isolation of the islands are
such that we can't combine any of them, and have to content ourselves with maintaining little one-teacher,
one-room schools. It is also difficult to secure competent teachers to accept positions on these islands.

In conclusion, I will add that I am well pleased with the general progress of our schools, and believe that
in the course of a few years we will have one of the best school systems in the State.

Respectfully submitted,
Virgil S. Lowe,
County Superintendent.


My dear Sir:-- I am pleased to comply with your request for a report of the condition of the schools of this
county and the progress made during the past two years. Since my last biennial report, Seminole County has
been cut off from Orange, leaving about three-fifths of the original territory. All totals, therefore, will
appear comparatively less.

General Summary.--During the past year Orange County maintained twenty-nine white schools with an enrollment
of 2,090, and an average attendance of 1,472, or 70 per cent of the enrollment; and seventeen negro schools,
with an enrollment of 944, and an average attendance of 653, or.69 per cent of the enrollment. These schools
were taught by seventy-six white and thirty-two colored teachers. The low average attendance in this county is
due chiefly to the growing desire of larger pupils to earn some money for themselves, and the unusual opportunity
afforded for this purpose by the orange and vegetable industries. The total enrollment shows an increase of
about ten per cent as compared with the same schools the year previous; this increase, however, being accounted
for largely by the growth of Orlando during the past two years and the consequent increased enrollment in her

High Schools.--The county has one Senior and three Junior High Schools. The Senior High School, situated at
Orlando, employs for the high school department alone a principal and five assistants at a cost of $605 per month.
For the grades of this school a principal and sixteen assistants are employed at a cost of $1,295 per month,
making a total cost of $1,900 per month for the teachers for this school.

The Junior High Schools are situated one each at Oakland-Winter Garden, Winter Park, and Apopka. Each of these
has two teachers doing High School work.

Salaries of Teachers.--There has been some increase of teachers' salaries from year to year, and the salaries now
range for the white teachers from $40 to $175 per month, and for the negro teachers from $30 to $70 per month.
The length of term is from six to eight months.

Special Tax Districts.--There are eighteen Special Tax School Districts, two having been created during the past
year. All but two of these levy a tax of three mills. The districts spend the money received from this tax
chiefly in improving their school buildings and equipment, in supplementing salaries of teachers, and in extending
length of term.

Patent Desks.--During the past two years patent desks have been placed in eight school houses that did not
previously have them, and others have been ordered, so that there is not a white school building in the county
now that will not be equipped with modern desks.

District Bonds.--Taft and Orlando Special Tax Districts have issued bonds since the new bonding law was enacted;
Taft for $4,000 and Orlando for $50,000. At Taft a splendid two-story frame building has been completed that
will furnish ample accommodations for the school for many years.

Orlando has erected a handsome and commodious brick building for the use of the Grammar School at a cost of
about $40,000. This spacious building, which it was thought would add sufficient room to take care of the
increasing school population for several years, is now filled with pupils and teachers.

Four other small school houses have been built and equipped during the period covered by this report.

The Teaching Force.--The standard of the teaching force is being gradually raised. The people are more and more
appreciating the worth of trained teachers, and every school is crying, "Send us a good teacher." The best
talent in our own county is utilized, and, to supplement this, trained and experienced teachers from other
counties of this State and from other States are engaged. We have not had any great difficulty in supplying
our white schools with teachers, but so many negro applicants have failed in examinations for teachers' certificates
that the supply of negro teachers is not sufficient for the demand.

No Institutes.--No Teachers' Institutes have been held in this county during the past two years, but many of our
teachers Ihve attended State and other summer schools.


Aggregate Paid Teachers and Transportation of Pupils.--The county the past year paid $34,115 for salaries of
white teachers, and $5,612 for negro teachers. About $2,700 was spent for transportation of pupils to various
schools. This feature of the work is still unsatisfactory to our Board, But we have not yet been able to abandon

Finances.--The total receipts from all sources, including cash brought forward, for tl-e school year ending
June 30, 1914, ad shown in Annual Report of the County Superintendent, amounted to $118,286.83. Deducting cash
on hand June 30, 1914, it is seen that Orange County spent during the past school year the sum of $73,762.44 for
all purposes in the educational work of the county.

Outlook.--The work has its discouraging features, and there are many obstacles to be overcome, many errors to be
corrected and improvements to be made, but we believe each year marks some progress towards better facilities and
better service and better results.

The current term has opened with increased enrollment and with increased interest, and the outlook for the school
year upon which we have entered is encouraging.

Thanking you for your interest in our work, and your helpful suggestions from time to time,

Respectfully submitted,
J. F. McKinnon,
County Superintendent.


My Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith submit the following brief report of the public schools
in Osceola County, for the two years ending June 30, 1914.

Special Tax Districts.--Since my last report to you there have been established two special tax districts. We have
erected three new school buildings, and have added five rooms to the St. Cloud high school. In addition to these
new schools several of the schools which had been abolished have been opened.

Increase in Interest.-Interest in school work has largely increased throughout the county, as will be shown more
clearly by the fact that in 1908-1909 the enrollment was only 869, while this year the enrollment will go to over
1,500. Also, in 1908-1909 the county only employed 38 teachers, while this year we have employed 54 teachers.

The School Board.--The School Board of this county has always been progressive, and has always adopted advanced
ideas along educational lines, as is shown by the standing of the schools of this county. Beginning next January
two of the old members of the Board retire, leaving only lion. W. C. Bass, the present chairman. However, Mr. Bass
has served for six or eight years, and the two incoming members are also active and progressive men, who will do
all they can to assist him in promoting the efficiency of the schools of this county.

Superintendent Retirlng.--On the first of next February I retire from this office, which I have held for the past
10 years, and it is with some regret that I give up the work.

I desire now to thank you in this, my last, report, for the many courtesies extended to me, and also to thank the
teachers of the county for their hearty co-operation and assistance. I also wish to assure you that, while I am
giving up the work, my interest in the same will not diminish, and I trust that at any and all times you will not
hesitate to call on me.

Again and again thanking you, and wishing for you every success, I beg to remain,

Yours very truly,
W. J. Sears,
County Superintendent.

Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request for a biennial report on the schools of this county, I submit the

Evidences of Progres.--The greatest evidence of the development of Palm Beach County is the increase in the
school enrollment since our last biennial report went to the educational headquarters of the State. Since June 30,
1913, we have gained in enrollment 598, over 45 per cent, and a total of 118 per cent since the formation of the
county in 1909. As in that year, comparing our school enrollment with the Federal Census of 1910, over 15 per cent
of our entire population was enrolled in our public schools. We have more than doubled in population as well as
in school enrollment, and using that as a foundation on which to base an estimate, we now have a population within
the county of 12,158.

Buildings.--Our building operations have kept pace with our growth in school population. Within the last two
years we have completed an eight-room building, with cross-halls, at Delray, at a cost of $12,000; a six-room
building at Boynton at a cost of $15,000, both containing all modern improvements; and at present the annex to
the West Palm Beach High School building, the contract price of which was $31,100 is nearing completion. In
addition to these we have erected four small frame buildings, at an expense of $500 to $1,400 each. All old
buildings are kept in a state of good repair, and we believe that paint adds to the longevity of the building
as well as to its neat appearance.

Furniture and Apparatus.--All of our schools are well equipped with furniture and apparatus. It has been our
policy to use only the best furniture that can be obtained, and to have it uniform throughout the county. While
the particular desks which we have adopted as the standard in our schools do not look so imposing as some other
makes, we are convinced that they are the most comfortable and durable of any that have come to our notice.



Teachers and Salaries.--We have experienced no inconvenience in procuring teachers, further than satisfying
ourselves that they measured up to our standard. On the contrary, we could fill our schools, except the smaller
ones, many times over each year with college professors, could we afford the salaries which would be an
inducement for them to accept positions with us. The fame of Palm Beach County operates against us in this
particular, bringing us a deluge of applications each year.

The average salaries paid last year for white males, $113.13; $70.27 for white females, and about the same
every year. The amount paid negro teachers during the same period was: Males, $57.50; females, $38.

Finances.--While the district treasuries have never failed to maintain a healthy financial condition, the county
treasury has not been so fortunate. Many of the large holders of Everglade lands were unable to meet their tax
obligations the past year, letting much of it return to the State, hence our county fund is considerably in
arrears at present. This, however, has caused no embarrassment in maintaining our schools. The past year we
should have received from all sources, for both county and district funds, about $83,000. The cost of maintain-
ing our schools was less than $77,000. From these figures you will observe that we would have made a fine showing
and had a neat balance to our credit in the treasury, but for the reasons before mentioned.

Special District Bonding Law.--The Special District Bonding Law has enabled us to bond one of our districts in
the. sum of $35,000, and another in the sum of $13,500. Two other districts have voted for bonds, one for
$25,000, and the other for $10,000.

High Schools.--At present we have but one senior high school, but according to certain ruling regarding them, I
am not certain that we have that. However, many educators who have been over the State remark that we have the
best one in it.

Our Intermediate High School, located at Delray, is the only school in the county where wood working has been
introduced, though arrangements have been perfected for its introduction into the County High School, the first
of January next. At Boynton a laboratory has been installed at an expense of about $1,000, while the Stuart
school has Domestic Science. Though the pupils of the Jupiter school have no manual training of any kind we
hope to provide them with these advantages ere many terms have passed.

The last three schools mentioned are Junior High Schools.

Transportation.--Because of the situation of many of our pupils in regard to water courses, as well as the distance
of others from school, transportation has become a serious problem, one which we have not been able to solve to
our satisfaction. Last year we expended $4,117.90 on this item, enabling pupils to reach the schools.

Text-Books.--In 1911, when the Uniform Text-Book Law went into operation in some of the counties, we had a five-
year contract, three years of which were unexpired. Now we are using the new books, some of which we find more
satisfactory than some of the old ones were.

Local Institutes.--As nearly all our teachers come from outside the county and return to their homes for their
vacation, we are unable to have a summer school in the county. This accounts for our small.attendance at the
State Summer Schools. However, though all our teachers are normal trained, we have our Local Institutes during
the school year, having perfected a county organization.

Yours very respectfully,
H. N. Lewis,
County Superintendent.


Sir:--I beg to submit the following report of school conditions in Pasco County.

High Schools.--Pasco County has two high schools at present, one situated at Dade City, the other at Zephyrhills.

At Dade City school we had for the last year three teachers, exclusive of the principal, who did high school work.
For the coming year we expect to use four teachers in the high school work, thereby practically relieving the
principal of too much work, that he may devote the major part of his time to inspection of the grammar and
primary grades. In this school we have a laboratory fairly equipped with chemical and physical apparatus,
together with some equipment for manual training. Our library is not as complete as we would have, on account of
finances, though the Board has made appropriations for its betterment and for the equipment in the laboratory.

The other departments of this school are measuring up to the standard of efficiency.

Zephyrhills School is now rated as a Junior High School, but it hopes to reach the requirements for the Inter-
mediate or possibly Senior this school year. Last year we employed two teachers in the high school, but this
year we will have three teachers who will do exclusive high school work. The laboratory and library have received
some substantial increases during this vacation.

All of the high school teachers hold full State certificates or specials on the subjects they teach.

Rural Schools.--The rural schools of Pasco County are all situated in Special Tax School Districts, which enables
them to run a term of school from one to three months, in connection with the term furnished by the general county
levy. Nearly all of the rural schools are furnished with libraries, maps, and globes, bought by the Trustees
out of the special funds. A great interest is being shown by the people of the rural districts towards the
improvements of the buildings and school grounds, quite a few have been painted lately. The average term last
year for the rural schools was six months. For this year we hope to average at least seven.

Teachers.--The teaching force of Pasco County is as good as can be expected under the present system of examinations.

In the majority of our schools we are able to use first grade teachers of experience. In some instances we have
to use third grade teachers, though it is the policy of the Board to encourage the raising of the grade of



Special District bonding Law.--Two of the Special Districts have already petitioned the Board for bonds.
Many others are talking of doing so at an early date. The cry is for brick buildings.

Finances.--The finances of the county fund are involved at this time, due to the increased amount of building the
county has done for the last two years. The district funds are standing with a substantial credit.

Institute.--The Board authorized the Superintendent to hold a three days' Institute, which was attended by all
teachers of the county but two. Ouite a bit of interest was manifested, notwithstanding this was the first
institute held in the county for number of years. The outlook for the future of the schools of the county is
very encouraging, manifested by the interest displayed by the people.

Yours truly,
J. W. Sanders,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Our schools speak for themselves more strongly than anything I can say for them. The $500,000 invested
in the magnificent schools of the county reflects the dignity of the Pinellas county child, and the $125,000
(three times the amount of two years ago) that the taxpayers of Pinellas county will provide this year for the
maintenance of their schools proclaims what the people of Pinellas think of education.

A Better Financial System.--If the County Treasurer's office is abolished, as it doubtless will be, I should favor
a law that would give the County School Board the custody of all school funds. If this Board is to be intrusted
with the education of the county, I would think the people could trust the same Board to handle the money. Under
the Present system the schools not only lose the heavy commission paid the Treasurer but are handicapped in many
other ways, which really are of a more serious nature than the loss of the commission. For example, there may be
money to the credit of a dozen funds and none to the credit of a particular fund that needs money at a certain
time. Under the present system we cannot use this idle balance of the other funds except by going to the bank and
borrowing it, and paying 8 or 10 per cent for using our own money. Certainly the school funds are a sacred trust
and should be safeguarded and protected in every way, but I hope that the next Legislature will see its way clear
to "Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's," allowing the County School Boards of the State the privilege
of receiving, holding and disbursing their own funds, without having to lose a large part in commissions and

Amendments to the Spraial Tax District Bond Law.--Chapter 6542 has proven a great blessing in many ways to the
schools of the State, but I think at least two amendments are necessary to make it more beneficial.

First. The school Board should have the actual custody of the proceeds derived from the sale of the bonds. Bonds
represent the taxes for twenty-five or thirty years hence, and the taxes for all these years will necessarily be
sufficient to provide for the bonds when they mature. Why should the County Treasurer, who is, in office at the
time of issuance of bonds, have the benefit of the commissions on the taxes that are presupposed for twenty-five
or thirty years hence?

Second. There should be some provision in this law for the sinking fund necessary for the retirement of bonds
when they fall due. Why not allow the County Board to invest the sinking fund of larger districts in the bonds
of smaller districts. The smaller districts can not sell their bonds to advantage, and if they are made to bear
6 per cent interest they would certainly be a safe and profitable investment for the sinking funds of a larger

The Missing Link.--The Florida Educational System has one serious imperfection. It does not provide for any
normal school. We have elementary schools and secondary schools and schools of higher education, but there are
no normal schools to train teachers for the innumerable schools of our State. The normal school is the basis of
all education. In the last analysis, the school is the teacher and in every case the teacher is what her train-
ing has made hier.

It is true there is a normal department in each of the two State schools, but for some reason they are not
serving the people. If I had employed all of the students enrolled (not graduates) in both of these schools
last year, I would not have had enough teachers to meet the demand of Pinellas County, the smallest county in
the entire State. We are spending thousands of dollars on the schools of higher education, both of which have
scarcely enough students to survive, for the reason that we have not brought the secondary schools to such a
standard of efficiency as to graduate 5 per cent of their annual enrollment.

Our Examination Laws.--Until we can train some of our own young people for teachers, why not give the school
officials of the State the right to employ teachers from other States, whose splendid normal schools have pro-
vided a surplus of well trained teachers? The schools must be provided with teachers. We do not have the teachers
in the State and we cannot get them from other States. The best teachers from other States, whose educational
systems are certainly equal, if not superior, to ours, cannot understand why their life certificates cannot be
accepted in Florida. They do not care to undergo one of our State examinations. Why should we keep this Chinese
wall (educationally) around Florida, when we are spending thousands of dollars annually in other lines trying to
induce people to come to Florida? Is it to protect our home talent? The day of tariffs and privileged interests
is no more. Give our home boys and girls the chance to become trained teachers and they will stand against the
competition from any State.

Thanking you for the privilege of submitting this general report in connection with my annual report, I am,

Very respectfully,
Dixie M. Hlollins,
County Superintendent.



My Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I beg to submit the following brief report as to the condition of
the schools of Polk County.

Our school system in the past two years has shown very marked improvement. The entire personnel of the Board
of this county was changed when the present members assumed the duties of office January 7, 1913.

Senior High Schools.--We have at present four Senior High Schools, namely: Lakeland High School, at Lakeland;
Summerlin Institute, at BarLow; Fort Meade High School, at Fort Meade; and Mulberry High School, at Mulberry.
It is the intention of the Board to recognize the Winter Haven Intermediate High School as a Senior High
School the forthcoming term, thus making a total of five Senior High Schools in the county. The five schools,
the past year, had an enrollment of 2,957 pupils under the supervision of 79 teachers. We have placed 88
teachers in these schools for the forthcoming term, and expect the enrollment to be approximately 3,500.
These school are maintained for eight months, salaries of teachers being paid from the county school fund.
The salaries paid teachers in the high schools the past year were as follows: Each assistant in the high
school department, $85, teachers in the grammar school department $55 to $65, and for teachers in the primary
department $55 to $85 per month, while the salary of the principals of the schools varied from $165 to $220
per month. This year we have arranged the salaries of teachers of these schools more uniformly. The salaries
of the principals we have fixed according to the size of the school at $165 to $235 per month. The first
assistant's salary in each school will be $100 per month, and each assistant in the high school department will
be $85 per month, In the grammar school department, the salaries will be $60 to $65 per month; in the primary
department, the salary of the principal will be $85 per month, and each assistant from $60 to $65 per month.
Much of the success of these schools was the result of the teachers co-operating with the principals.

Brick Buildings.--These high schools all occupy handsome brick buildings, except the Winter Haven school, but
this thriving town has shown that it is not lacking in public spirit by recently voting in favor of a $40,000
bond issue for the purpose of erecting a large 15-room brick school building, work on which will start at an
early date. This, together with the two large brick buildings now in course of construction in Lakeland, will
make a total of seven large brick buildings accommodating five senior high schools, having a total of 94 large

Auditoriums and Value.--Each school has a large auditorium, the seating capacity varying from 500 to 1,500. The
entire value of these buildings, together with their sites (including the $40,000 building for Winter Haven),
will amount to $169,500. This does not include furniture and apparatus. The four present high schools have
complete laboratories, including all apparatus, and all other equipment that is necessary to make them rank with
the best in the State.

Intermediate and Junior High Schools.--We had one intermediate high school the past year (Winter Haven), which
will be recognized as a senior high school, as above stated. We have only one school which is ranked as a
junior high school. This school is under the supervision of five teachers.

Graded and Rural Schools.--We have 75 graded and rural schools, under the supervision of the 113 teachers. Of
this number, 54 are one-teacher schools and the remainder are two, three and four-teacher schools. It has been
the policy of this Board to consolidate as many small schools as possible, thereby giving longer terms and more
efficient teachers. We have an excellent rural school system, one which I doubt if any county in the State can
surpass. One of the features of the rural school system is the Rural School Improvement Associations which are
being organized in all the rural school vicinities. The Board has co-operated by offering valuable prizes, such
as libraries, charts, etc., to the schools making the greatest improvement in a certain time set by the Board.
This is found to be a great saving, as the Board has, heretofore, been having to pay out large sums annually for
repairs, which will not be necessary where these associations are organized. Another feature is the uniform
student examinations which have been recently adopted in this county. All examination questions will be sent out
from this office, and the result of the examinations will be the basis for the promotion of pupils, making the
grades of all schools uniform, whether city or rural schools.

Salaries of Rural Teachers.--The salaries of teachers in these schools vary from $45 to $115 per month, the length
of term varying from 5 to 8 months. The schools are maintained for 5 months from the county fund, and where the
schools are within a special tax district the terms are usually lengthened at the district's expense. Teachers'
salaries are usually supplemented from the district funds.

Better Attendance.--My annual report to you shows that the average attendance of these rural schools has increased
from 10 to 15 percent over previous years. This I attribute in a great measure to the careful supervision that
I have been able to give them, by the County Board employing the necessary clerical help in my office.

Negro Schools.--The negro school system in this county is very complete, as we have 14 established, employing 35
teachers. My annual report shows that the total enrollment of these schools for the term of 1913-14 was 1,212.
Salaries of the teachers vary from $35 to $70 per month; the length of term varying from 4 to 7 months. The value
of the property of these schools at present is $8,320, while there is to be a $5,000 building erected at Lakeland
this winter.

Teachers.--Counting no teachers twice who were employed the past year, our teachers held tihe following grades of
certificate: State 7, Special 2, Primary 9, Life Primary 3, Life rirst Crnde 3, First Crade 79, Second Grade 65,
Third Grade 14, Temporary 10. Some of the teachers holding temporary certificates secured regular certificates
at the examination called in October. Our supply of teachers the past year was small, but this year I have more
than enough to supply all schools of the county. ouite a number of them are preparing themselves for better work
this year by attending the State Normals and other good normals. To make tlhe teaching force of this county more
efficient, the Board conducts an Institute at Bartow each year, for one week, before each June examination. A
Tri-County Institute, including the counties of Polk, I.ee and DeSotq, was held last year at Arcadia, and we are
making an effort to make it permanent and we hope to have it meet in Bartow next fall.


Special Tax School Districts.--There have been 10 special tax school districts created within the past 18
months, making a total of 46 districts in the county. Several others will be created within the next few
months, thus embracing all territory of the county into such districts. Under the Special Tax District Bonding
Law, six districts have been bonded. Four of these districts have sold their bonds; of this number, one has
received its money; the others have been approved and the money will be available soon. Four of these districts
bonded so as to erect fine brick buildings, and the other two for the purpose of paying for buildings already
erected and for thelrequipment. The following districts have bonded for the amounts mentioned: Lakeland,
$50,000; Bartow, $15,000; Winter Haven, $40,000; Auburndale, $15,000; Mulberry, $15,000, and Frostproof, $15,000,
a total of $150,000. Three other districts have filed petitions for the issuance of bonds, to be acted upon
by the Board at its next meeting.

Uniform Text Books.--The uniform text books were placed for sale in Lakeland and Bartow. I found that this
would be an inconvenience in both expense and delay for pupils living in other parts of the county, so I took
the matter up with the Book Companies and they have placed agencies in Mulberry, Winter Haven and Fort Meade.
All dealers seem to have a sufficient number of books to supply the demand. I feel very much pleased with the
change and all teachers seem to be very much pleased with the new text-books.

Financial.--The increase in school funds has been nearly 50 per cent in the past two years. The amount assessed
for school purposes for the year of 1913 was about $145,000. Of this, about $115,000 has been collected thus
far. We have a net indebtedness of $169,762.97, most of which is for borrowed money for buildings, and the
remainder is for indebtedness incurred before the present Board assumed the duties of office.

Outlook.--I feel very much encouraged with the progress that we have made the past two years. Our Board is a
unit and each member seems to have the same fixed purpose in view, that is, to do something for the betterment
of our schools, and I am sure that much has been accomplished in the past two years, and the outlook for the
future is very bright.

Florida Educational Association.--The next meeting of the Florida Educational Association will be held at Lakeland,
in this county, and we extend a cordial welcome to the educators of the State at large, and we hope to give you
a reception that will be a credit to any town many times the size of Lakeland. We feel that the educational
interests of our county will be greatly benefited by this great force of educators.

Please allow me to congratulate you on the great progress that you have made during your administration. I wish
to thank you for the courtesy that I have received from your office.

May your efforts be crowned with further success.

Respectfully submitted,
C. A. Parker,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I am submitting herewith a report of the condition of the schools of
Putnam County for two years ending June 30, 1914.

Evidences of Progres.--In the past two years Putnam County has done nothing of which to boast. Yet, we believe
we are making steady progress in school work. As evidence of this the patrons of our rural districts are
demanding stronger and better qualified teachers, and in order to secure such they are, in several places,
supplementing the teachers' salaries.

We are now having a series of teachers' Institutes, which we believe will make a decided improvement in our

We have erected a few new buildings and remodeled some of our old ones.

Our financial condition is improving slowly. Our debt is now very small.

Respectfully submitted,
J. D. Cottingham,
County Superintendent.


Sir:--Complying with your request, I hereby submit the following statement of what has been accomplished in this
county for the public schools during the past two years.

I have been hard at work ever since assuming this office, on January 7, 1913, and I still see a great deal of
work ahead of me and my fellow Superintendents. To enumerate everything that has been done in the schools of
this county during the past two years would take more space than you have allotted me. Therefore, I shall
confine my remarks to the most important things accomplished.

Buildings and Salaries.--All the school buildings in the county have been repaired that needed it, supplied
with good water and fuel and kept in a sanitary condition. Five new school buildings have been erected, and two
are being constructed in the rural districts. Salaries have been raised in some of the rural schools, which has
insured better management and produced better results. I find that we are compelled to depend largely on the
teachers in the rural districts, owing to the nature of the work that a County Superintendent has to do, not
giving him much time for direct supervision of rural schools. In order to secure competent teachers sufficient
salaries must be paid them. There has been a decided increase in school attendance under the improved conditions
of the schools, both in the rural districts and in the city.


Dental Clinic and Improvements in St. Augustine School.--Under my administration the School Board has
established in the St. Augustine school the following improvements:

A fully equipped Kindergarten, Manual Training for pupils above the sixth grade, and a Dental Clinic. The
Dentist's office is located in the St. Augustine High School building, and all public school pupils are
examined and their teeth treated free of charge. This applies to pupils of the entire county. The Dental
Clinic was made possible by the generosity of Mr. John T. Dismukes, of St. Augustine, who pays the dentist's
salary. The Board furnished the outfit for the Dental Clinic and furnishes the necessary supplies. This
work has been very successful with us and has helped the pupils wonderfully. I am reliably informed that this
is the only school in the Southern and Western States wherein the teeth of the pupils are examined and treated
free. The salaries of the teachers have been raised. A supervisor of Penmanship has been employed for the
St. Augustine school, who teaches penmanship in all the grades in the high school. A teacher of Modern
Languages has been employed. Forty-five minutes recitation periods and a nine month's session for the St.
Augustine high school have been established, which has placed it on the accredited list.

Commercial Course:--The Commercial Course of the St. Augustine high school has been improved and is equipped with
nine typewriters, representing the three standard makes. A full two-years' course is given, consisting of the
following subjects: Shorthand, Typewriting, Bookkeeping, Commercial Law, Business Arithmetic, Business English,
Spelling, and Penmanship. A pupil satisfactorily completing this course is capable of taking a position in an
up-to-date business office.

Hot Lunches and Other Improvements in the High School.--The St. Augustine High School Orchestra has been improved
and now consists of twelve pieces. All the members of the orchestra are boys. Hot lunches are served in the
basement of the high school building. The steam heating of the St. Augustine school building has been repaired
and put in excellent condition, which makes this splendid building second to none in Florida.

Financial.--The financial condition of the school fund of this county is not as good as I would like to see it.
When I became Superintendent I found an indebtedness of about $75,000. The most of it was out at 82 interest.
Last year about $7,000 was paid out for interest alone. Through my efforts and the aid of the school board we
have reduced the rate of interest from 8% to 5 1/2%, thus saving for the school fund about twice as much money
annually as my salary amounts to.

One Special Tax District.-There is only one special tax district in this county. I tried to get the people to
establish a school district in St. Augustine, but it was voted down.

Larger Tax. Free Books, Etc.--I find that seven mills is not enough to run the schools of the State properly, and
I am in favor of amending the State Constitution so as to abolish the maximum levy of seven mills and permit school
boards to levy enough to operate the schools of the State properly. The cry is for better salaries for teachers,
longer school terms, and the people are willing to pay for it; but our State Constitution prevents them from doing
so. I am in favor of free school books to resident pupils. We go to great expense to establish and operate
schools and many pupils are unable to purchase the tools to work with, namely, books. We might go a little
farther and fill in this missing link and save money by it. The school might be ever so good, but if the pupils
have no books they cannot have the knowledge properly imparted to them.

Compulsory Law and the One Hill Tax.--I am in favor of compulsory education, and I feel that it can be operated
satisfactorily. I am opposed to the method of the distribution of the one mill State tax, because hundreds of
dollars appropriated for school in this county go to other counties. This county is in debt for schools, and
some of the counties receiving our money are not as much in debt as we are. Some are not in debt at all.

Respectfully submitted,
D. D. Corbett
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request of recent date, I herewith submit the following data of the schools of
St. Lucie County:

Since the 1912 report was published, two new schools were established, and the enrollment increased from 895
to 1,163 for white schools; and three colored schools were established, and the enrollment increased from 167 to
277. There are 25 white schools employing 45 teachers and 7 negro schools employing 9 teachers. Five of the white
schools and four negro schools have summer terms only. This is on account of the schools being located in the
section where winter gardening is carried on.

Financial Condition.--At the time of the last report the county was several thousand dollars in debt. Last year
there was over $1,000 surplus at the beginning of school year, and after all the extra expense which the Board
was put to, by the purchase of additional grounds for the county high school salaries of new teachers, architect
for new building, etc., there was surplus of $1,000 the first of July, 1914.

The salaries of the teachers have been materially increased, new furniture installed, and graded libraries have
recently been bought by the trustees for 16 different schools, ranging in cost from $130 to $180.

Special Tax Districts.--St. Lucie County contains 13 districts, which embrace the entire county, 11 of which are
in excellent condition and the other two will get out of debt this year. These districts have been enabled to
add from one to three months to the school term and augment the salaries of the teachers.

High Schools--Open Air Study Hall.--St. Lucie County has only one Senior High School, located at Fort Pierce,
but has five schools where ninth and tenth grade work is done, but cannot really be called Junior High Schools,
as they do not come up to the requirements of the State regulations.



In the last report I spoke of our intention to build a high school building to cost not less than $50,000. I
am glad to report tiht we have now in the course of erection a building that will cost $75,000, and hope to
occupy it by the New Year, 1915. It is the intention of the Board to install every modern convenience, including
electric lights, gas for heating and Domestic Science use, drinking fountains, lavatories, etc. The auditorium
will seat 1,200 persons. It contains an open air study hall on the third floor, sixty feet square, a feature not
found in many places. The school ground consists of eight acres in the best location in the city. At present
there will be 12 teachers employed. Seventy-five thousand dollars time warrants were sold to secure funds for
building the new high school.

Building and Other E:tpenses.--Not counting the high school, the Board has expended for building during the past
two years about $6,000, furniture, $1,300, lots $5,300, salaries of teachers $36,000, and other expenses about
$12,000, besides the cost of administration.

Institutes.--The Annual Teachers' Institute was held the second week in September. Nearly every teacher in the
county was present. Teachers were allowed car fare and $1 per day for each day attended.

The Institute this year will be held in the new building after the holidays.

Respectfullly yours,
J. W. Hodge
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I herewith send you the following report In connection with the annual
report from Santa Rosa County:

Schools.--We maintained 82 schools for white children and 12 for negroes last year. A few of those schools were
very small and will not be continued for another year, unless there is a prospect of an increased attendance.
Our Board has adopted a plan of closing schools when the average daily attendance falls below 10 pupils. This
was tried in a few instances last vear and worked well. Communnitles, finding that their schools would be closed
unless the attendance improved, would, usually, not permit a low attendance.

The enrollment in our schools last year was 355 more pupils than the enrollment of the previous year, and the
average daily attendance was 352.6 more than it was the previous year.

Consolidation Needed.--We still need to consolidate a few of our small schools and make larger and better ones.
In this matter school officials should use good business judgment, regardless of "community sentiment." Until
this is done school consolidation will be a farce, and school, officials mere figure-heads to sign contracts and

Teachers Needed.--The supply of teachers in this county is never sufficient to meet the demand. However, our
supply of home teachers is gradually growing. We now have 66 resident teachers. The county will employ during
the year about 110. It is a regrettable statement that our teachers, as a whole, are not keeping progress with
the schools. We have trouble every year in supplying the best schools with competent teachers. Last year we
only had among our entire teaching force about 4 or 5 normal trained teachers. Terms will be shortened this year
and the salaries increased wherever thoroughly trained teachers can be secured. For instance, a school that is
to run 6 months at $50 per month will be run 4 months at a salary of $75 per month, if a well trained teacher is
secured. In this manner results are obtained that never would be with mere certificate holders in charge.

Certification of Teachers.--Upon the subject of certification of teachers, I will say that we most assuredly need
a change. The State has outgrown its present system. The method of examining teachers should be partly oral and
partly written. This could be worked out by a committee of good school men and passed by the next Legislature.
There should also be an age limit at the bottom. Children make poor teachers for children.

Buildings.--Our buildings are all frame. All are ceiled, fairly well lighted and ventilated. Several of our
buildings are almost new. The old onesare kept in good repair.

During tihe past two years we have spent $5,717.99 for new buildings. In tihe erection of a few of those buildings
the communities in which they are located donated considerable in material and labor.

During the coming school year the Board will erect several new buildings. Many of those buildings will be an
improvement upon the present style of buildings in use in the county.

Bonds Voted for Brick Building.--Tie Baker special tax school district has voted bonds for the erection of a brick
building. The County Board has agreed to assist th, district about half on this building. It is to be modern
in every particular.

The Milton special tax school district has been enlnrped so as to take in tie town of I:ar.dad and the surrounding
communities, and tile name changed to the Milton-llandad district. This district is contemplating the issuance
of bonds soon to erect a modern brick buildiln. This building is badly needed and will sddl much to tlhe school
spirit of the towns.

School equipment Needed -.--Our schools are not properly equipped for the best work, but we are doing the best we
can to equip them with the available funds. Last year the special districts spent about $100 for libraries.
About an equal amount will be spent for the same purpose this year.

Text-Books.--Many children are never supplied with all needed textbooks. This is due to many causes, chief of
which are: The negligence of many parents in supplying their children w'ith tie proper material for work, and the
negligence of local book dealers to keep an adequate supply on hand.


Institutes and Teachers' Summer Schools. -For the past two summers Prof. L. W. Buchholz has been secured to
conduct a training school for our teachers. This work has been eminently successful. The work was strictly
professional. No cramming for examinations was permitted. The attendance at this school was very good.

Vocational Work.--Our schools are doing very little along this line. The majority of our schools are taught by
one teacher. Hence very little time is found for other than text-book work. However, the greatest hindrance to
this kind of work is the lack of competent teachers. Let the State give us these and the problem will be solved.
Without them we better let the work alone, and let the teachers we have teach what they know how to teach, even
though it be only the three "proverbial" R's.

Finances.--The financial condition of the county is good. The policy of the Board has been to spend each year
only the amount of its income. By adhering to this policy it has kept the school fund out of debt, preserved
the credit of the county, and was able to close the last fiscal year with a cash balance of $3,937.01 in the
general school fund, and $1,513.16 in the district funds.

General Outlook. -The future prospect for our schools is very encouraging. The schools are supplied with strong
teachers for the coming year. This assures a good attendance with good results. Interest in school work has
increased during the past two years throughout the county. This we believe is permanent. The real school
spirit seems to be here to stay. Therefore, we think the coming year will be the best in the history of the

Respectfully submitted,
J. T. Diamond,
County Superintendent.


My dear Sir:--In compliance with your request of recent date, for a report of the public school work in Seminole
county for the past years, I submit the following:

Organization of the County.--Less than two years ago the Legislature took away that part of Orange county known as
North Orange and named it Seminole county; in August of the same year the Governor appointed county officers and
house-keeping began in the baby county. To begin with, there was no money in the general fund and but little more
than $1,000 in the special school fund, but the county Board and Superintendent had nerve and good bank friends,
and so the schools throughout were maintained for eight full months, and the body of the report will show with
what degree of success.

Special Tax School Districts.--There are in the county, five special school districts, embracing all but a mere
fraction of the county, and each assessing three mills for school purposes. The income from this source was
something like $6,000 last year, and will likely be double the amount for this year, and the general fund proportion-
ately increased.

School Statistics.--During the past year Seminole county maintained ten white schools, with an enrollment of 1,023
and an average attendance of 823; eight negro schools, with an enrollment of 725, and an average attendance of 526.
These schools were taught by 39 white and 10 colored teachers. Salaries of white teachers, $40 to $225 per month,
aggregate salaries for the two terms of four months each, $18,796.25. Salaries of the colored teachers, $30 to
$90, per month, aggregate, $4,953.75. Transportation of children to schools in the county cost $2,529. For
improvement of school houses end equipment, $5,701.42; for all other purposes, $2,792.77. The total income from
all sources for the year, $30,272.61. Warrants issued for all purposes, $34,774.21.

You will note that Seminole departed from the rule of Old Mother Orange and gave eight months schools throughout
the county.

Harmony Prevailed.--With but one minor exception harmony prevailed among teachers, patrons, children, and the local
and County Boards, and as far as the Superintendent is able to judge, from every standpoint, was one of the most
successful school years in the history of schools in this section.

Outlook.--The prospects of increased enrollment, and with improved equipment, more efficient teachers, and more of
them, and very much larger income, this year, leads to the flattering conclusion that at this time next year all
outstanding warrants will have been retired, all school debts paid, and that we shall have bigger, better schools
than ever, and cash in the treasury.

Respectfully submitted.
D. L. Thrasher,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request I am submitting you herewith a report of the conditions of the schools for
the two years ending June 30, 1914.

Schools.--We have twenty-two white schools and ten negro schools. These were all taught in buildings owned by
the County School Board with one exception. This one is in an isolated community where we are trying out the

Transporting Pupils.--We are now transporting quite a few pupils, and therefore the number of white schools are
gradually decreasing. This, of course, is giving the children the advantage of the graded schools.

The Teaching Force. -The teaching force of this county is of a higher class than has ever been known. Eighty-five
per cent of our teachers have had either college or high school training. The country schools are realizing that
there is strength in unity, and therefore, are consolidating so as to get the advantage of graded school work.


School Buildings.--We now have the county lined up with good school buildings that are creditable to any people.
The old shabby board buildings are a thing of the past. Nearly every one of the country one-teacher school
buildings is painted and looks as if some one lives there.

Brick Building and Bonds.--We have now erected a new brick school building at Wildwood at a cost of $14,000
complete. We have made arrangements to erect a new concrete building in a country neighborhood where we have
consolidated two little district schools. The district voted bonds for the building at Wildwood, and other
districts are arranging to do the same. The county has put but very little into buildings from the general funds.

Nearly all the schools are seated with new patent single desks and the black-board is of hyloplate.

Teachers' Salaries.--Teachera' salaries are not regulated altogether on the grade of certificate. We are governed
to a certain extent by the experience and the educational advantages. At present the salaries run from $125
per month down as low as $40 for the smallest little country schools. Salaries of negro schools run from $25 to
$40 a month.

Finances.--The money for school purposes is increasing steadily as the county develops. Last year we expended in
this county in round numbers $ 36,000. This included expenditures for all purposes. The county has some outstand-
ing warrants which are taken care of by the Leesburg State Bank at face value at the rate of 6% per annum.

County High Schools.--The county is now maintaining one senior high school and five junior high schools. These
are run in a first class manner we think, as we are employing first class school men at their head. The senior
high school is located at Webster, and is housed in a first-class brick building which is modern in every way.

The junior schools are located at Oxford, Wildwood, Coleman, Bushnell, and Center Hill. The buildings at these
places are in first class condition, ranging in cost of construction from $2,500 to $14,000.

Libraries.--Our libraries at the present are not what we should like, but we hope that they will be better. As
special tax districts feel able, they purchase new books. All the schools are furnished with good unabridged
dictionaries by the County School Board.

Conclusion.--I will say that all the schools are moving along without friction, and we are rather gratified with

We are very anxious and hope to put in domestic science and real agriculture in the near future. This work is
being done in a way, but we do not call it first-class work.

I thank you very much for the privilege of submitting this report.
Respectfully submitted,
G. H. Tompkins
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I hereby submit this, my report of the condition of the public schools
in Suwannee County.

School Property.--The Board of Public Instruction of Suwannee County has made special effort to keep every school
house in good repair, realizing that the nearer each house is kept in good shape the easier it is repaired when
needed. All the school houses are now painted and will, from time to time, be kept up in this way in good shape.
There are a few of them now needing repainting. This the Board expects to do this year, and by the end of the
next school year all school property of the county will be in first-class order.

New Building. -We have built seven new buildings during the last year and have them all in good shape. There is
one more to build, which the Board expects to make arrangements for at its next meeting. We also have all the
houses where white pupils attend furnished with patent desks, and as the enrollment gets greater we place furni-
ture at once to fill the demand. The Board has enlarged four houses, that is, has put additions to them, after
finding it necessary, and has supplied assistant teachers.

High Schools.--We have one senior high school and three junior high schools in the county. All the rural schools
are being graded as fast as possible. We have now several rural schools graded that haven't reached a junior high.
We have our teachers to make special effort to this end, and by so doing the work is much better lined up than it
has ever been before.

Libraries.--We now have about twelve libraries in the rural schools of this county and more are being placed every
year. The interest in placing libraries is greatly increasing, and when the patrons of one school see the benefits
derived from a good library, they usually speak to the neighboring patrons of the benefits derived therefrom, and
in that way the number of libraries increase.

Special Tax School Districts.--There are now sixteen special tax school districts in this county, one of which was
established this year, and we have in one more petition for the establishment of another. Nearly all of these
districts are in good shape financially. Each one has for the last year equipped itself with good maps, globes,
charts and necessary apparatus for the advancement of the school. Each one has made special effort to lengthen
its term, in addition to what the county appropriates to it, and at the same time supplements the salaries of
teachers, enabling it to employ a better grade of teachers.

Teachers.--We make special effort to get the best teachers possible. We also try to place the teacher at the
place that we think will suit best, that is, one that their competency will correspond to the grade of the school.
We try to place each teacher on his merits in all the school work, this being, in my opinion, the best way to make
a teacher do his best to make the proper advancement of the pupils. While this is not entirely satisfactory all
the time, yet it is the best way that I have been able to give a majority satisfaction.


Financial Condition.--The financial condition of the county improves each year. There has been much repair
work done in the last two years and several new buildings erected, but the Board was very economical and
made these improvements within their income and put aside a small sinking fund. We have outstanding coupon
warrants to the amount of $22,000, on which we have to pay interest at the rate of 6 percent semi-annually,
and then we borrow some money from our local banks, which enables us to run until the taxes of that year come
in. These coupon warrants come due at different intervals. One comes due next year, when the Board will be
in good shape to meet it.

Very respectfully submitted,
J. W. O'Hara,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit herewith a report of the schools of Taylor County for the
past two years.

High Schools.-I am sorry to report that we have no high school at the present time in the county that could
claim recognition as such. About three years ago the School Board established a normal department in the
high school with the very commendable object of preparing teachers at home. This department, until last year,
had no entrance requirements, and has for the three years been run parallel with the high school. The result
has been that, while it has given us a number of home teachers, it has sapped the life out of the high school.
Practically all the boys and girls who might have entered the high school switched off into the normal as a
short cut to making money. The normal, ran parallel with the high school, has had two undesirable results:
first, it has ruined the high school; second, it has had a tendency to lower the standard of teaching in the
county, but the Board has at last seen its mistake and will not again maintain a normal department parallel
with the high school in time and grades. We have plans drawn and a bid accepted for an annex to the high school
building that will cost approximately $17,000, and are going to work to rebuild the high school, We hope to be
able in two years to report a senior high school.

Rural Schools.--We have in the county at this time thirty-seven white and two colored schools--one less than was
reported two years ago. In the meantime, we have consolidated a number of schools and sold some of the old
buildings. We have expended during the past two years for new buildings and additions to old onee$4,064.24.
Our old buildings are all in good repair, and we are making special efforts to make them more attractive and
home-like by fencing and improving the grounds, providing curtains for the windows, pictures for the walls, etc.

Teaching Force.--I am sorry to report that our teaching force is not what it should be, either in supply or in
efficiency. We are filling our schools every year with young teachers who have had neither experience nor
special training, and who, in many instances, lack the scholarship necessary for successful teaching. It is no
wonder that the results are poor. We must do something--I hardly know what to make teaching more attractive, and
thereby hold more men and women in the profession.

Teachers' Salaries--Special Tax Districts.--Salaries in our county are too low, except in the Perry school, where
we pay from $60 to $125 a month. Other teachers are paid from $35 to $55 per month, according to grade of certi-
ficate and length of term of service. The trustees of the special tax districts, of which we have twenty-one, often
supplement these figures, but this is a mere contingency. We need to raise salaries of teachers and with these the
standard of teaching.

Our School Board seems to be awaking to this fact. As evidence of this, the Board agreed this year to add $5 per
month for one year to the salary of those teachers who attended one of the State Summer Training Schools for
teachers, and we expect to repeat this next summer. This is a good "sign of the times." Another good sign is the
fact that the people of the county are beginning to demand better teachers. It is a hard matter to place a third
grade teacher in our county. It is my prediction that when the people fully realize the neds of better teachers
they will be willing to pay for them; and we all know that popular sentiment, more than anything else, keeps
teachers' salaries down. I long to see the day when eve ry teacher in our grammar schools will be required to have
at least, a high school education, so that he will be four years in advance of his highest prospective pupil; but
we cannot hope for this with the salaries we pay.

Euipment.--Our schools are all amply furnished with patent desks and good blackboards. Host of the special tax
district schools have purchased graded libraries, wall maps, charts, globes, etc. In fact, we have done more in
the way of equipment in the last two years than ever before.

Free Text-Books.--The schools are well supplied with text-books. The books are ordered by the County Superintendent
and furnished free to the children upon the requisition of the teacher, the books becoming the property of the

We have not yet come under the State Uniform Text-Book Law, as our county contracts do not expire until next year.

Finances.--We have paid all of our old outstanding indebtedness, leaving unpaid warrants of the year to the amount
of $10,407.77. To offset this we have cash in the treasury to the amount of $5,038.97, leaving a net indebtedness,
both county and special tax district, of $5,658.80. With the raise in tax values we expect to be able to pay this
off this year.

Outlook.--The educational outlook of the county is, upon the whole, encouraging. We are making progress, if but
slowly. Our county's material progress is rapid, and we are trying to make educational progress keep pace with it,
but find it difficult. The greatest drawback is irregular attendance, the only complete cure for which is com-
pulsory education.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

F. S. Jackson,
County Superintendent.



Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I beg leave to submit the following report of the progress made during the
last two years and the present condition of the school system in this county.

It will be difficult to compare the present condition with those of two yea rs ago, since this county failed to
make a report at that time. Accept my apology for this failure, and allow me to say that the writer was not in
office at that time.

High Schools. 1912.--During the period ending June 30, 1912, the following high schools were maintained:
One Senior high school, three teachers, enrollment 50.
One Senior high school, two teachers, enrollment 30.
One Junior high school, four teachers, enrollment 18.
One Junior high school, one teacher, enrollment 15.

During the period

During the period

During the period

ending June 30, 1914, the following high schools were maintained: (This includes the coming term)
One Senior high school, four teachers, enrollment 75.
One Senior high school, three teachers, enrollment 31.
One Senior high school, three teachers, enrollment 23.
One Junior high school, two teachers, enrollment 20.
One Junior high school, one teacher, enrollment 12.

Grammar Schools 1912.
ending June 30, 1912, the following Grammar schools were maintained:
Ten Graded schools for white children, teachers employed 27.
Twenty-one Rural schools for white children, teachers employed 21
Five Graded schools for colored children, teachers employed 20.
Nine Rural schools for colored children, teachers employed 9..

ending June 30, 1914, including the coming term, the following schools were maintained:
Twelve Graded schools for white children, teachers employed 33.
Twenty-four Rural schools for white children, teachers employed 24.
Five Graded schools for colored children, teachers employed 23.
Eleven Rural schools for colored children, teachers employed 11.
Total number of schools maintained in 1912, 49; teachers employed 87.
Total number of schools maintained in 1914, 57; teachers employed, 104.

The slight increase shown is due to the consolidation of small schools forming district schools.

Teachers' Salaries. 1912.--
High school principals, maximum salary, $150; minimum, $120.
High school teachers, maximum salary $75; minimum, $60.
Grade teachers in city, maximum salary, $65; minimum, $45
Principals of two and three-teacher schools, maximum salary, $75; minimum, $60.
Other teachers in such schools, maximum salary, $50; minimum, $45.
One-teacher rural school, maximum salary, $45; minimum, $35.

Teachers' Salaries. 1914--
High school principals, maximum salary, $175; minimum, $135.
High school teachers, maximum salary, $115; minimum, $75.
Grade teachers in city, maximum salary, $75; minimum, $60.
Principals of two and three-teacher school, maximum salary, $90; minimum, $75.
Other teachers in such schools, maximum salary $60; minimum, $50.
Total monthly increase in maximum salaries in two years, $115.
Total monthly increase in minimum salaries in two years, $90.

Buildings.--Volusia County has always prided herself in good school buildings.. Two years ago the school buildings
in the county were in very good condition generally, though not modern, and lacked in attractiveness.

During the year closing 1913, $2,415 was spent for repairs and new buildings.. During the year closing 1914,
including the work now in progress, we will spend nearly $18,000 for repairs and new buildings.

At present, modern four-room school buildings are being erected at Pierson and Seville; the fourth room is being
added to Ormond, and for the first time this school will have three grade teachers and a special high school
teacher, and the first two years of a high school course will be taught there..

Modern one-room school buildings are being erected at Turnbull Bay, Glenwood, Clifton and Winona, and a six-room
school building for the colored children at DeLand. Every old building in the county is being repaired where
necessary. In every case of a new building or repair, special attention is being given to heat, light, and ventila-
tion, as well as the inside conveniences which may be of use to the teacher in maintaining a neat and attractive
room, and to assist her to illustrate to the pupils the necessity of sanitation, neatness and order.

By September 28th, Volusia County will have modern, well equipped school buildings in every district, all of which
are wainscoted and plastered, with the exception of four which are ceiled. Every building will be painted, except
one; this is a temporary school. The best fixtures and equipment will be found in every building; many of the
yards are fenced with neat, substantial fences and supplied with pumps or wells with platforms and roofs on the


City School Buildings.--Daytona has one of the most modern up-to-date school buildings in the South, which was
erected six years ago at a cost of $50,000, realized from the sale of district or municipal bonds. The building
is equipped with a modern heating plant, electric lights, and with necessary plumbing throughout; the best furni-
ture equipment, including laboratory equipment, may be found in this school.

DeLand has a modern frame building adequate to present needs, except that it is not fireproof.

Seabreeze has a modern frame building, with an annex for the Primary department, which is adequate in every respect
except that it is not fireproof.

New Smyrna has a fire trap which is a disgrace to that pretty little city and to the entire county. The building
is far too small, old and dilapidated, and lacks in every way of conveniences to the school. Two years ago a two-
room California bungalow was erected for use there; at present an additional two-room bungalow is being erected;
even with these, the school facilities there will be inadequate for the coming term. A $40,000 bond issue for
school purposes was killed by New Smyrna last February by a tie vote; it is believed, however, that such issue will
pass one year from that date by a large majority.

Euipment.--Every school building in the county is being well equipped with indestructible desks, teachers' desks,
ample supply of blackboards, charts, maps, globes, dictionaries and dictionary stands; small libraries will be
placed in every country school as fast as deemed wise. It is our purpose to allow our schools to want for nothing
that is essential and necessary. We expect to place in schools having sixth, seventh, and eighth grades full equip-
ment to teach denominate numbers in a practical manner. Practical work should be encouraged.

Classification of Schools.--We have a plan which will classify all schools in the county for a basis of promotion
and class requirements.

The Grammar school department of the high school, and the schools of the two, three, and four teachers, will form
class one. Schools of one teacher will form class two. The requirements for schools of class two will, of course,
be more lenient than those for schools of class one.

Suppose a pupil in a school under class two finishes the eighth grade and wishes to enter the ninth grade in a
high school, a sub-ninth grade for the smaller schools has been provided, covering higher mathematics, English,
history, composition, elementary Latin, and elementary algebra. When a pupil from a country school has finished
the eighth grade he is then required to do the work of this sub-ninth grade. We find when he has done this work
he is ready to take up the regular ninth grade work in a high school. Should the teacher in a small school be
unable to do the required work of the sub-ninth grade in Latin and algebra, these subjects are omitted. This
seems to us to be the only manner by which the boy of the small rural school, having a term of six months, may
prepare for regular high school work in a school having an eight months' term. Schools of two or more teachers
usually have eight months' terms. The pupils of such schools seem able to prepare for the regular high school
work without trouble.

Rural Conditions.--We find our people in the rural districts more interested in educational affairs than ever
before. There is a continual cry for better teachers and longer terms. We are trying to meet the needs of the
rural schools by methods outlined below.

This year, as stated elsewhere, the minimum salary for the rural school teacher is $50 a month against the minimum
salary of $35 two years ago. We have searched the State over for capable, well trained teachers for these
schools, and we are looking to the future for very satisfactory results.

Modern, up-to-date school buildings are being erected in every rural district where a new building is necessary;
in every district the buildings are being repaired and placed in first-class condition, modern, up-to-date,
sanitary furniture fixtures, and ample supply of charts, maps, globes, etc., is being placed therein.

At present the writer is working on a course for teachers and pupils along the line of preserving and decorating
the school building and premises; short talks are being prepared showing why it is necessary that the school
grounds, outer buildings, etc., should be well kept, and why the school room should be attractive, and giving our
best methods of getting the pupils to carry on the work.

It is no wonder that the average country pupil never gets higher than the eighth grade. He has lived for seven
or eight years in a little frame school building that hasn't even a coat of paint or a window shade to shut out the
sun, to say nothing of the absence of many other things that would serve to make the school room pleasant and

We believe that the same advantages should be offered the boys of the rural district as are offered the town boy,
so far as it is possible, and to accomplish this is one of the principal aims of the present administration. We
appreciate the fact that community life, standards and ideals can be reached and elevated in no better way than
through the school room, and we propose to use the school room as a sort of mission for this work.

I believe the school room should be made a real home for the boy, furnished, equipped, and arranged so as to make
it so pleasant and attractive that he will feel glad that he is there instead of rejoicing that the term closes.

Teachers who will add these ambitions to the required ability to drill arithmetic and grammar, will add much to
the teaching profession. The writer may be considered a crank on rural school propositions, but until the boys
and girls of the country are offered as nearly as possible the same advantages as are offered to the boys and
girls of the city he will still be heard on rural school propositions.

Let us join in a united effort to raise the standard of the rural schools in every section of this fair State.
These schools need better buildings, better trained teachers receiving more pay, and more attention from the
County Boards and the County Superintendents.


Consolidation and Transportation.--The Board of Public Instruction maintains that consolidating the smaller
schools into larger district schools is the best and surest way to build up a system of district graded schools.

During the two years closing July 1st, seven small rural schools have been abolished. The pupils attending
these schools who live more than three miles away from the nearest district school are transported.

During the term closing July, 1913, sixty-nine pupils were transported at a cost of $1,196. During the term
closing July, 1914, eighty-four pupils were transported at a cost of $1,345. We find that this is even less
than it would cost to maintain small rural schools for these pupils, without speaking of the increased advantages
offered by the schools to which they are transported.

Organizations.--We are attempting to organize in every section of the county, where possible, Parent-Teacher
Associations, School Improvement Associations and Reading Circles for the parents. Literary Societies, Junior
Civic Leagues and Corn and Tomato Clubs for the young people.

During the last school term were organized three Parent-Teacher Associations, with a membership aggregating
three hundred; four Literary Societies, with a membership aggregating one hundred; one Junior Civic League,
membership sixteen; one Corn Club Association, membership nine, and one Tomato Club, membership fifteen.

During the coming term we hope to organize our teachers in two School Improvement Associations; one for the coast
and one for the west side of the county. These associations will hold monthly meetings, and once each term hold
joint meetings at some place in the county. We also hope to perfect an organization for athletics. Many of our
schools have such organizations, but lack proper regulations and restrictions. One organization for the entire
county, of which each school may become a member, provided the requirements are met, we hope will stimulate the
student body and serve as a means to eliminate the great trouble with pupils who slight their work for athletics,
and rid ourselves of those who attend school solely for athletic purposes.

Teachers and Certification.--Both last year and the year before we experienced some trouble in securing the service
of capable well trained teachers; we feel that we have been very fortunate in this regard this year. Every school
in the county has a teacher assigned for the coming term, and we believe that the teaching force selected will
prove to be among the best in the State. Thanks to the University of Florida, to Dr. Thackston and to Captain Lynch
for much assistance.

Every high school principal employed for the coming term will hold a State certificate. Every high school teacher
will hold a Florida first grade certificate and specials on the high school subjects to be taught. The majority
of the grade teachers in the city schools hold Florida first grades. Every principal of two and three-teacher
grammar schools hold Florida first grades, while subordinate teachers in such schools, for the greater part, hold
first and second grade certificates. We have employed for the coming term only six third grade white teachers,
while, with the exception of perhaps a dozen, all colored teachers employed for the coming term hold third grade

We believe that the teaching force employed for the coming term is a great improvement over the teaching force in
the county during the last two years. To a great extent we have relied upon the judgment of the State High School
Inspector and the members of the faculties of the State Universities.

General Conditions.--At the beginning of the period for which this report is made, the school system in general
lacked much in organization and unity of purpose. It seemed that very nearly every school in the county maintained
a different standard. The high schools were all on a different basis and, therefore, the results lacked uniformity.
The grammar schools differed widely in the ground covered and the results accomplished. As a result of much effort
we now find our schools standardized and the work more uniform in every respect. We attribute this result to a
great extent to the adoption of the uniform county student examinations for the sixth, seventh and eighth grades
and to a close canvass of the grounds covered by the high schools.

At present we are perfecting a high school organization of which all high schools in the county must become members.
By this means the high schools in the county will be more uniform in purpose and in result. It is probable that
a Board of Examiners will be appointed from the high school faculty in the county, the duties of which will be to
pass upon the promotion requirements and credits of the respective schools.

The high school course suggested by the committee appointed by yourself has been adopted and will be followed very
closely. Should this method, as outlined, be definitely decided upon, the Board of Examiners will consist of one
teacher from each high school in the county, who will be selected by the County Superintendent upon the recommenda-
tion of the principal.

New Departments.--So far as finances will permit Industrial or Vocational Departments are being added to our schools.

During 1913, a department of Domestic Science was added to the Daytona School, with Miss Lucile Mitchell as
directress. The equipment for this department was furnished by the city of Daytona at a cost of $1,000. The
enrollment during the year ran as high as twenty-five, and we are pleased to say that a good percentage of the
number enrolled in thiu department are young ladies whose parents are well fixed financially and keep servants.
It is, therefore, unnecessary that these pupils do homework, still we find them seeking the methods. There were
also a great many enrolled in this department who put their experience into practical use at home.

A Department of Music and Art is being added to the Daytona school, with Miss Edith Bainter as directress, who for
several years has been on the faculty of the Daytona school. We also hope to add to this school a Manual Training
department for the boyn, also a Business Department.

Commending with the term 1914, DeLand will maintain, for the first time, a Vocational department. A Manual Train-
ing department for the boys from the sixth grade up is now being arranged. Twelve work-benches, with a full set
of tools for each, has been purchased at a cost of $225. Prof. H. D. Shaw, of Lunenburg, Vermont, has been
employed as director of this department. Mr. Shaw has been director of a Manual Training department in that
State, also in the State of Kansas, and has proven his ability in both places. We expect great results from this
department in DeLand.


A Department of Music and Art is being added to the DeLand school; Miss Lydia WIllitowski, who for several years
has been on the faculty of the DeLand school, has been engaged as directress of this department.

We hope that it will be possible in the near future to add to the course in DeLand domestic science and business.
To the course in New Smyrna, domestic science, business, music and art, and manual training. To the course in
Seabreeze, domestic science, music and art, business and manual training. To the course in Daytona, business and
manual training.

Bonding Law.--Chapter 6542, Laws of Florida, offers great advantages to those counties unable to erect modern
school buildings both for towns and rural districts. While we approve of this law, we do not advocate bonding
except for those towns and districts requiring facilities which the Board is unable tooffer.

Six years ago Daytona bonded under municipal bonding act for $50,000, and from the proceeds of said bonds erected
a handsome brick building, which is considered one of the prettiest, best equipped, and most modern buildings in
the South. In 1914, an additional issue for $50,000 was voted. From the proceeds of the sale of which will be
erected two ward schools for white children and two ward schools for colored children. When these buildings are
completed, Kingston on the north will be consolidated with the north Daytona ward school, and Blake on the south
will be consolidated with the south Daytona ward school.

Lake Helen, a little town of four or fivehundred people, maintaining a school of three teachers, has recently
bonded for $15,000, under Chapter 6542, and plans are now being made for a modern brick school building of four
recitation rooms, one Assembly Hall, one principal's office, two sanitary toilets, basement, heating system and
electric lights, building to be fireproof; total coat of same not to exceed $10,000, the additional $5,000 authorized
will not be sold unless it is deemed necessary to purchase additional grounds for the school.

It is hoped that both DeLand and New Smyrna will take advantage of this Act and pass an issue in the near future.
We have discovered that many counties make a mistake by issuing 5 percent bonds; such bonds we find are not good
sellers at present.

State Text-Book Law and Supply of Text Books.--The writer considers the State Text-Book law as it now reads a
burden to the people of Florida. The fifty percent change in our present adoption, authorized for 1916, should by
all means be postponed for a period of five years. Many counties in the State have only recently adopted the books
prescribed by the State Text-Book Commission in 1911; two years hence these counties will be compelled to buy half
as many books again. The word five in the original bill should be struck out and the word ten should be written
in place thereof; when this amendment or with the bill revised authorizing a twenty-five percent change every five
years has been passed, it will be more reasonable.

Supply of Text-Books.--During the first term in 1913, shortly after the prescribed books were adopted by this county,
we had a great deal of trouble in securing text-books through the local agents on the coast; this was all due, I
believe, to a failure on the part of the local dealers in that section to put in orders for a sufficient stock.

I understand from the Southern School Book Depository that all dealers in this county will be well stocked by
September 15th. We had considerable trouble with one local dealer last year with regard to exchange prices; he
would not allow the proper exchange values on certain books; this trouble has been overcome, however, by the
appointment of his successor.

The writer makes it a point to see that every child in the county, whose parents are unable to furnish books, is
supplied with the proper books. During the last year many pupils were furnished books by the county.

1913, Receipts...................................... .. $ 79,098.52
1914, Receipts......................................... 97,120.90
Two years, Receipts............................... 176,219.42

1913, Disbursements...................................$ 62,858.18
1914, Disbursements................................... 72.035.79
Two years, Disbursements...........................$134,893.97

District Funds.
Number of Districts in county, twenty-one.

1913, Receipts............................ .. ..... $ 8,588.20
1914, Receipts................................. ........ 19,177.48
Two years, Receipts................................$ 27,765.68

The school levy for the present year has been fixed at seven mills general school tax; three mills for special tax
districts; and five mills bond tax in district No. 14. We hope the increase in tax valuations, as a result of an
action by the State Tax Commission, will enable us to reduce the general school levy next year.

The Outlook for the Future.--The future looks exceedingly bright for the school system of Volusia county. Our
people in general are becoming more interested in educational affairs and seem more willing than ever before to
lend a helping hand in this regard. We believe this is due to a great extent to an effort on the part of the
Board to acquaint the people with the conditions existing in the county. Due publicity is given every action
taken by the Board, and on every possible occasion the assistance and co-operation of the citizens are solicited.
We cannot expect an uninformed public to demonstrate an interest in our affairs. The people should first be
informed as to the actual conditions. Until this is done we cannot justly criticize them for a lack of interest
in educational affairs.

Respectfully submitted,
C.R.M. Sheppard
County Superintendent



Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request of recent date for a report of school conditions of Wakulla county for
the past two years, I take pleasure in submitting the following:

There has been a marked improvement in the school system of Wakulla county in the past two years, and the interest
manifested by the patrons, teachers and pupils has been very gratifying.

Summary School Statistics.--The Board has maintained twenty-two white and twelve colored schools during the past
two years. The average length of term for the white schools was 126 days; the colored schools 100 days. There
were eight schools last term which run eight full months. Or account of the school term having been lengthened it
has been possible to grade nearly every school in the county.

New Buildings.--Since making my last report the Board has erected two one-room frame buildings, and has made needed
repairs on old ones. Our buildings are now in good condition and are equipped with patent desks, good black-boards
and apparatus. Through the aid of special tax districts, libraries have recently been placed in five of the schools.

Want of Teachers.--We have not had enough resident teachers to supply our schools, but have not experienced much
difficulty in securing enough teachers for all the schools to open on time. As a whole the teachers have been
very efficient and have done good work. There has been a gradual increase in teachers' salaries for the past two

Special Tax Distrlcts.--Wakulla county levies seven mills for school purposes. In addition to this nearly three-
fourths of the county is embraced in six special tax school districts, four of which levy three mills.

The finances of the county are in good shape and all of its obligations are met promptly.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--The Uniform Text-Book law will not go into effect in this county until June, 1915. While
we have been very well satisfied with the old method of adopting text-books we will welcome the change. We have
more or less trouble in securing books on account of the small commission allowed dealers and on account of the
inconvenience of ordering from so many different publishers.

The Outlook.--The future of the schools of Wakulla county seems to be bright, but on account of the low valuations
on real estate and personal property the Board is handicapped for a lack of funds to make all the needed improvements.

In closing I wish to say that the School Board deserves great credit for the progressive spirit manifested by them
and for their hearty co-operation with the County Superintendent at all times in any movement for the betterment
of the schools of the county.

Yours very truly,
Charles K. Allen,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I am sending you the report of progress of the public schools of this
county. I have tried to report to you in a comprehensive manner and trust it may serve its purpose.

High Schools.--We have three high schools in Walton County, one senior and two junior. The Senior High School at
DeFuniak Springs offers to the people of Walton County an opportunity of a two-course curriculum, classical and
scientific. There are twelve teachers employed in this institution, one for each grade. We are also offering a
normal course during this scholastic year for those desiring to teach. Our high school teachers are well equipped
and make a specialty of the work they have in charge.

School Buildings.--We have a Junior High School each at Freeport and at Laurel Hill. Our buildings are all up-to-
date and well furnished. The Board of Public Instruction has been very liberal in their appropriations for build-
ing purposes.

School Libraries.--We have placed libraries in all the larger schools, suitable for school work. These have been
very much appreciated by teachers and pupils. These libraries are well graded to correspond with the grade of the

DeFuniak School.--At DeFuniak the conditions are such that we thought best to furnish a school for all the county
which should serve as a base for the grade work of all other schools of the county system. This school makes no
charge to pupils of other districts. It welcomes all boys and girls wishing to take the high school course or
even the lower grades.

Wonderful Progress.-Taking all collectively we have made wonderful progress during the two preceding scholastic
years. The amount expended last year for white teachers alone was $25,931. We pay an average salary and under-
take to secure average talent. We built five new school houses last year and four the preceding year.

Rural Schools.--We are proud to report that we have the rural schools well graded and believe that there has been
marked progress towards furnishing a number of high class institutions. The rural schools belong to the farmers
and laborers. Their children are our future citizens. I have, therefore, worked among this class more persistently
than anywhere else. More country school houses have been built than I thought possible during the whole term of
my administration. The Board has spent several hundred dollars during the past two years. The value of school
property is something like $65,000. The enrollment reached 3,292 pupils last year. The average attendance was

Patent Desks and Blackboards.--The rural schools are supplied with patent desks and good blackboards. The rooms
are well heated and the water supply is good. We are using a good grade of pumps where we are able to put them
down successfully. Many places have good wells or springs.


Certification of Teachers.-We are getting rid of the "Examination Dodgers" as rapidly as practice will permit.
I am requiring teachers to take examinations within this county. Third grade teachers are chosen last. We
are using but few third grade teachers from other counties, not that we do not recognize the efficiency in the
certificates issued in other counties, but in order to make our teachers more uniform in qualifications and
that we may have a better knowledge of their capabilities as teachers. I have required colored teachers to take
special examinations in many cases where they presented certificates. We are paying cash to our teachers, very
few school warrants have been discounted. The only way to secure good talent is to pay for it.

State Board of Examiners.--In a previous letter I have recommended a State Board of Examiners. In this letter
I wish to say that I take, as a new point for discussion, the problem of securing competent members of Boards
of Public Instruction. I would recommend a longer term in office and would suggest that the chairman be required
to spend a goodly part of his time in the office of the Board. At present the general condition operates to
produce very poor inefficient service.

Very truly,
D. N. Trotman,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I am sending you my bi-ennial report of the conditions of the schools in
Washington County as it now exists. This report can be justly applied only to Washington County for the past
twelve months.

County Divided.--What was Washington County previous to that time, has been divided into two counties, forming
Washington and Bay Counties. Before the division of Washington County, there were 78 white schools and 35
colored schools in active operation. Of that number, we maintained two high schools, one at Chipley and the
other at St. Andrews. There were twelve special tax districts. By the division of the county, we now have 46
white schools and 22 colored schools in Washington County, that have been very successfully taught during the
year closing June 30, 1914.

Washington County Suffered by Division.--The schools of Washington County suffered in consequence of county
division. We were left sixty percent of the schools and only 48 percent of the school funds. Seven of the
special tax districts were left in Washington County and five given to Bay County. We have formed one special
tax district since the division, making now eight in all in this county.

High Schools.--We now maintain one high school in the county for eight months. This school is located at Chipley,
and I speak of it with a strong degree of pride for the efficient and substantial work that it has done. The
last year's work has been most gratifying and the most successful term during its existence. The enrollment was
the largest in its history and the work most efficient. We are obtaining most of our teaching force through this
school. Ten teachers are employed in this spelndid faculty, with Prof. J. R. Ward as principal. I feel that
we are fortunate in securing his services.

Chipley has enlarged its district and has voted bonds to the amount of $30,000, the proceeds of which will be
used in constructing and furnishing a $25,000 school building.

Rural Schools and Salaries of Teachers.--All the schools of Washington County are rural schools, excepting the
Chipley school. We have four rural graded schools employing three teachers each. Our rural schools were taught
five months last year, and we paid our white teachers $30 to $75 per month. This year we will have to cut our
terms to four months, as a result of short funds. We paid our colored teachers $20 to $40 per month.

Negro Schools and the Jeans Fund.--Our colored schools are in a very progressive condition. Last year we received
assistance from "The Negro Rural School Fund, Anna T. Jeans Foundation," a Supervisor was appointed under my
direction, whose work was very gratifying. We have the opportunity of using this fund again this year, but I
regret to have to say that public sentiment is opposed to educating the negro, so much so that the Board of Public
Instruction of Washington County will not accept the funds placed at their disposal.

Teaching Force.--The teaching force in this county is ample, supplied mainly by the young men and young ladies
reared and educated in the county. They are rendering very efficient service, and obtain their certificates
in their first examination, while others make second or third grade certificates. The tendency is for better work
and higher certificates..

Buildings.--All our old buildings are frame, except the one at Chipley, which is brick. The present conditions
are fairly good, though they need some improvements in the way of painting, ventilating and warming. Two new
frame buildings were erected last year, and a magnificent new structure will be erected at Chipley this year.
In some of our schools the equipment is fairly good, while in the majority it is far from satisfactory.

Special District Bonding Law.--I approve of the law allowing districts to vote bonds for the purpose of erecting
school houses, equipping them, lengthening terms, etc. The only disadvantage I find is, that the real and
personal property in some districts is not sufficient to raise sufficient funds to accomplish the desired end.
We have only one special tax district in the county, Chipley, which has held a bond election and voted bonds for
the purposes expressed, the amount of which was $30,000, bonds to run twenty years. As property valuations and
population increases I think other districts will follow Chipley's example.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--We are just beginning to introduce the uniform text-book law into this county. The contract
under which the county was placed having expired August 2, 1914. All our schools are not yet supplied, but are
making an exchange of the old books and getting the new books as fast as they can be obtained.

We have only one local agent in the county. No one else is willing to handle the books for a 10 percent commission.
This agent keeps the books on hand, but has not been able to supply the demand up to the present time. I like
the system of the uniform text-books, but I find some patrons complaining at having to buy a new supply of books
so often.



Filnnces.--Our county had nil her schools tauRht last year and paid the teachers' salaries and the expense of
administration, but 4o nre heiRnnlng the year practically without any money to our crdlIt. We are owing
approximately $1,000. This was caused, an I have stated, by the division of the county and of the funds. We
will run our rural schools only four months this year in order to et t ot of debt and pet nome money ahead.

Special Tax Dlstricts In f.ood Condition.--Our special tax districts are all in Rood condition financially. .Ech
one has some money over and shove all indebtedness and Is using it to good advantage in Inproving school houses
and grounds, In buying books and libraries, or in nipplementinp, teachers' salaries and lengtheninp terms.

Teachers' Institutes--We havo In this county a "Washington County Teachers' Institute." The same was organized
in May, 1913. We have held two sessions, botl well attended and fruitful of pood results,

There seems to be a spirit of co-operation between parents, teachers, and pupils that T am Rinl to see. We have
organized in this county n "Boys' Corn Club," which I am wntchlnn with interest hoping to aee the principles of
industrial tralinp, developed in our schools.

Attendance of Ieachera at State Summer Schools.--1 am sorry to any that our teachers do not show n proper appre-
ciation for SLate Summer Schools. Very few are taking ndvantnpe of these opportunities I think we have four
this year that attended summer schools in the Stnte.

Vocational Work.--Very few of our young teachers are making preparations for teaching as a life work. They are
not choosinR teaching as a vocation, but an a steppln.-stone to "nomethlng better," as they call it. This is
a very deplorable condition of thilnp., and we cannot expect to see it corrected until we can have longer terms and
pay better salarie, Where we can run our terms only four or five months, and pay $15 to $75 per month, we can't
expect to hold our beqt talent and gpt the best resullts from our school.,

Future outlook ror Our S;chools,--Notwitlitandinpg the short terms nnd low salaries In our county, I can see the
spirit of prorrans ani a desire for education in our schools and amonp our citlen,. I am noltciting the co-opera-
tion of teachers, parents, and school officers. I am trying to estcnl'lRh principle of manners and morals among
the youth of tile county and pointing them to higher ideals of cltlienhlip nnd usefulnRes.

tlespectrully submitted,
W. T. Ilorne,
County Superintendent.



It was impossible to get a report from this county.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I herewith submit my report of the schools of Biker oiinty for the
past two years.

Buildinps,--We have erected three new buildinp.s in rural districts and, by dolnp, a great amount of repair work,
we have a majority of our school buildings in fairly Rood condition, however, much has been left undone, because
funds with which to do the work have not been available.

The value of school property has been increased $10,000, This has been done without any other means of raisinp
money than direct L.iation, and thin increase has been made without reluciln salaries or the lenpth of school
terms, and I may add that the valuation of property In the county hain not increased in proportion to some other

Special Tax Districts..--There were 6 special tax districts in the county when I came into office four years ago,
now we have 12 and will soon vote on the thirteenth, then 75 percent of the territory of the county will be In
special tax districts, that Is, 15 of the 26 white schools will be added by special tax intrict funds.

We give not less than six months' terms In all special districts, and the biildinpa are kprit repaired and supplied
with furniture.

Several of the districts created before I came Into office have bkeen cilllrRia d.

Tenacers.--We do not Ihnv enough Ihome teachers to supply our Hchooli, blit hlnv(' enertllly hlir.t i lli to !t't enough
to do our work. At times we have found it difficult to .et compliliont olleH.

Uniform Text-Book l.nws.--I think this law good and believe it will be to the bent liltrrut of tie schiIlI system
of Florida for It to remain in force. At times we have haid trouble in iL.ttlnp local diilers supplied with books,
on account of conoastion in transportation facilities. Upon the whole 1 find the text-lhooks under this law better
than those under tile old county system; yet there are a few texts In uitie uider thil law thlat I would like to see
replaced by better books. This, I think, should be done in Justice to the school clilllren of Florida.

Canningl Clubs.--I Introduced tills work into tils county three years apo a nl It ias aade reasonable progress. Wu
do not have al aRent for either thie irsa' canning club work, or the boys' corn cliiu this year, for reasons over
which we had to control, but we have made arrannpments to have aln anrget for tl\e p.lri begiurlnni the first of tile
year, and I am very hopeful, that there will be an naent also for thle oys' corn clui next year.



I feel that this work is one of the great problems before us, and that it is so important that we cannot afford
not to give this subject our most hearty support. There ti much to he done before this work will be thoroughly
developed, but when developed will make Florida the greatest State in agriculture In the South.

The agents for the girls' canning club have been paid out of the school funds, and we have always felt that we
have gotten value received for all money thus invested.

Libraries.--We have several small libraries, in the schools of the county. Much interest has been taken, by
school officials, teachers, and patrons in giving the children good reading matter, and I feel sure this interest
will grow rapidly in the future.

State Course of Study.--I hope to see uniformity in all grades. The State is, and has been, in need of a State
course of study for several years.

I hope the next Legislature will consider the wisdom of this matter.

I think this course of study should be worked out by a committee of the best school people of the State, in order
that the interest of the school children may be safe-guarded against experiments.

Teachers Examinations,--This subject is not new to me, for I have thought the present examination system has long
out-lived its usefulness, and I have wanted to see a change.

Judging from the attitude of the Legislature in the past we are not ready for a State Examining Board.

I believe in a law modeled after the Civil Service System of our Federal Government for examining applicants and
grading papers.

The question of examining teachers is one of the greatest political speculations in some counties, and has done
as much to abuse its purpose and intention as anything connected with the school system.

Many county Superintendents have been elected because they have promised certain persons that they would see that
they made certificates, therefore, examinations are uniform in county only, and this was never the intention of
the law.

I will favor any change that has a tendency to better our examination system.

School Boards.-I do not favor an increase in the number of members., but favor a change that will put an educational
qualification on all school officials.

Summary--I feel that we have made reasonable progress during the last four years.

We have increased the value of school property $10,000, lengthened school terms, increased teachers' salaries and
have tried to grade all schools so that there would be some system in their work. I found conditions rather
peculiar, every school was an institution to itself; tllis we have eliminated and made all a part of a system.

We have worked hard to establish a standard high school in the county and have succeeded so far as competent teachers
are required, We are forced to allow high school teachers to do more work than they should, but hope this will
soon be remedied.

We have the schools running to the advantage of the cllldren and at all times the interest of the children have
been kept in mind and placed above all other considerations.

Perhaps, the County Superintendent has not been as popular as he might have been, had he favored certain political
interests more.

Hoping to see the educational interest of Florida advance until it will be second to none in the South, I am,

Very truly yours,
Walter A. Dopson,
County Superintendent.


It was impossible to get a report from this county.


Dear Sir:--I have the pleasure of transmitting herewith a report of lBradford County Schools for your ilennial

The last five years have been the Rod Letter period in tile history of Bradford County schools for growth, progress,
efficiency and benefits to the children of tile county. The prowing needs of the county required the building of
9 new school houses, 8 for the white and one for the negro children.

Illgh Schools.--Four ligh Schools are established, 12 Intermediate and 2 Juniors. L..ke Butler School Is Intermediate
and has an enrollment of 333; Starke is Intermediate with an enrollment of 184.

Junior Illglh Schools.--Lawtey hna on onrollmunt of 221; Ri;frord 231.


The great work, the hard work and the most patient and trying work in establishing these llilh schools was
bringing them up to the standard of the State Board of Educatlon requirements. This State standard established
by the State Board of IEduction is proving to be the protective salvation of the educational Interests of the
State from outside and unauthorized influences from other States. Yet, for the last thirty years nearly all of
the high schools and college positions, as well as other renumerative positions, have been given to so-called
educators and specialists from other places than Florida and Lthe South. The impressive thought is, must the
Southern born man or woman be dependent upon foreigh and imported teachers and so-called specialists for

Teachers.--The increasing efficiency of our high schools is solving the problem of a supply of legally certified
teachers. The average salaries of the tenclers of the county are as follows: iale 166.86, Females, $40.55.

Special Tax Districts.--There are 28 districts with a total of 28 schools, white and negro embraced in these
districts. thesee Special Tax districts with 84 trustees, nil with the widest difference of opinions, are draw-
backs to the School Board and Superintendent in selecting teachers. 'hle children of the State can be benefitted
in an unmeasured degree iby a law empowering the county to vote a whole county into a special Tax District and
raise the limit of assessment to ei.ht or ten mills.

Bondlng Districts.--liradford hian four Bonded Districts which have voted bonds and erected brick buildings. Starke
$3S,OUo; Lake butler $20,000; Lawtoy $11,000; Hlford $81,000. All of the bondlnp districts have spent the amounts
for the erection and equipping four new buildings.

We have learned, after building four very fine school buildings, that more child space and more classrooms to
accommodate thel rapid increase in children is beat.

Out_ Buildins.--The out buildings for country schools have neatly all been repaired or improved no that they are
tenable at least. The condition can be rated as fair. The sanitation is not good. The drinking. water is pood
in nearly all the schools, and the matter is kept continuously before the teachers and trustees by the Superinten-
dent. The law for the medical inspection of thi schools has proven to be ineffectual. No physician of Bradford
will give his time for the amount of compensation provided by the law. 'he evils of alcohol and narcotics in
faithfully taught in Bradford.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--This county uses the uniform text-books and the most of them are good. A change of the
reader is an absolute necessity. The teachers and pupils need a reader with all the hard words of the lesson
of chapter put at the beginning of the lesson, syllabicated, pronounced, and clearly defined, One of the greatest
needs of tile State is a commission of educated and practical men. We will never get the full benefits of education
for our State until we get a Board of Control, a text-book commission of educated men.

School Finances.--The School Funds of the county are in arrears, owing to several causes: First, in the last 15
years our school children have doubled in number; Second, 19,000 acres of the chest land in the County have been
taken oft the tax assessment rolls of the county. These lands have been purchased by the State for the State Farm
Prison. Three thousand acres of this land, properly cultivated, will produce in a normal year enough to feed all
convicts of the State two years. This is one of the causes of deficit of $19,022.85, on the first of July, in
the general school fund. The special tax district funds, on the first of July, showed that $2,949.43 was the cash
on hand. Our teachers have been promptly paid, The School Board borrowing the money from our local banks to pay
them. Three of our local banks have patriotically and willingly accommodated the teachers in the payments of
their warrants. The only way of reducing the expenditures has been to shorten the term of school anti hold down
expenses. Nearly all of our schools have been supplied with patent desks. This lias cnuned an expense of over
$15,000 in the last two years.

County Institutes..We have a County Institute which is now doing some good work.

Teachers' Summer Sclools.--We have two Teachers' Summer Schools which are conducted by local teachers under their
own financial management. They furnish nearly all of the county's teachers. I have innvpected and closely super-
vised these schools and always found them doln. thorougll grade work, I endeavor to send as many tenccers as
possible to the State Summer Schools. l get all my teachers to take some summer tralnlnvp that I can. I get
about twelve of fifteen to take training in the State Schools each year and wish I could get all to go to these
schools. I have kept the strictest observation on those who attend tie State Summer Schools and have found that
it had increased their work and capacity to benefit children from 50 to 75 percent. If we could compel all Leachers
to attend these State training schools, the benefit would be imnmesnurable. It would do away with tile accesity
of county normal schools and ie one of the greatest benefits to thle clilldren of the S nite. We havt in Ivisl,
extravagant and flood abundance too many of the so-called normal Instructors.

Vocational Tralnlnp.--Tils county is beginning to take hold of the vo.:,tlonal work, Ltti. II, in ithe Clir (.Ild
and Canning Club work. Approximately 125 Rirls have received instruction in the C(:,in lnrC lib work, with great
benefit to the county. The county commissioners dropped Lite Corn Clu.ii wor two years nao. 'liherre were fliitureI
which were unsatisfactory to them.

Compulsory School Attendance.--There hie ben no inivriveimln In i ii tunllly llo ,l:ivV' 111 l 1v c ll Ion oui i r th xfr'v .re .11,! 1.rolo)gy
of the law pa!nued Iy tie Ina t I.,erlulature. This ljokvir, dovl,'r, lItil (ptillo Vxcu' er (if I i iw Is inot hluvlt lth
friends of education In lBradford County aind illi whli' Statl wivnt (If iv' coIul, r t' ,11 L5ti t lull r l throusnh ,ltlir
sources thalin offLce holders and office nehklcrs) liut a iSLtaiL w.il, ii;l.iLnda orv, (o'ni!, i v ilvu) ilv tondtV llm i- liw ,11 Ioi
by the next l.ergislature il what is niueded i nd wantiel.

School Libraries.--.'e have libraries in all tit, a lcholols n'x vv.pt voI t' $I I' !, mli, l.v r rural t,i l,(o-hii 'hi tlvt. libraries
are not so well clhousen a they would lvev been if they lihil ibe l.c rsIrti tl, I Ilv ch,' lrvc it bools to til li h t H l booku ,
recommended by tlie State. The trustees and Silcool Ioa.rd hl.iv bi.i tli viil li.m: of lti Li.w-vi a.,irits, lnd It will
always be so untL1 the trustees are restricted by law in Ili 'll ixpl'lndlit lur l.

Tealcher-Trainiln .lup irtmcnt. --Tlii cuiunty Il.I o 1 lrlli l' !`1pirtrn,'l l iwo l trai n iin de vpartviii,,nt In lite Univi- nilty
and Women's Collepe are as cheap or cheaper thlnan cny couiintv .11111d fvI rdl ,illnd al' I.i lI, r l. t i Ir eIlIIppedi In all
lines for teacliinp, than any county tranlinn dirpanrtnmlnil riild !I .


Transportation of Pupils.--We had Transportation, but for the past year it has been stopped, being unsatisfactory
on account of local jealousies, and the want of hard roads. While we had it, the children and schools were greatly

County School Boards.--The present number of members are perhaps as satisfactory as five would be. Yet the amount
of tax money handled by School Boards is larger than the amount handled by County Commissioners. If a competent
County Superintendent was given more freedom from the School Boards by p,giving him a veto power over all actions of
the School Boards in the plain cases of violation of the school laws, there would be no need for enlarging School
Board. lie should have a defined ex-officio veto power over the School Boards whether consisting of three or five
members. If five members, two should be retired every year.

Uniform Text-Books.--t approve of uniform text-books in all grades of the high schools and the same methods of
grading the rural schools, so that the child from the rural school can enter the high school.

State Courses of Study.--This course of study should embrace all grades from the first to the twelfth. The Leg-
islature should provide for a committqe.of ten educated men, whose maximum qualifications should be literary
college diplomas and lowest qualification should be a State certificate. The State Superintendent to he ex-officio
Chairman of this committee of Ecn. Thii committee to report, print and promulgate such a course of study, and
further provide for the enforcement of- it.

Free Text-Books.--I favor the use of the hunter's license, fish Commission, and other outside funds to provide for
free books.

Progress.--Bradford County has made more progress in the last four years than the county made in twelve years before.
The enrollment has been doubled, now aggre.atinp. 3,000 children. It has had perhaps double the amount of super-
vision and superintendence of any county in the State. Bradford, Dnde, Ornn.o and liIlllshorough are the ranking
counties in the State for growth in tile last four years. One special and pointed evidence is tile increased average
attendance, something I have persistently and unceasingly worked for. The one mill tax whichl In apportioned to
each county on the average attendance and not on tie enrollment) of last year ans as follows: Amount paid by
Bradford $3,117.26; Amount paid back to county $5,365.44; clear gain to tih county of S2,248.18. This gain cannot
be estimated or compared with the benefits tile children of tile county received from reg.lnr attendance. The
work that it has taken to get the attendance and other benefits has averaged thirty days of every month of my
time, while the schools are running, with lots of night work.

Comparative Efficiency of Town and Rural Schools.--The largest amount of my hope, interest, time and work has been
in the country schools. Country teachers have far more to contend with than town teachers. 'lle country pupils
are the country's brightest, safest and greatest future asset. Any Legislation looking to the betterment of the
country schools is a thing always to be wished and worked for.

Examination System.--Our Examination System is a good one, if we could only get honest and competent Superintendents
to enforce and guard it. A State Board of Examiners, in my opinion, would, I think, with a careful discretionary
and recommendatory power vested In the State Superintendent In the selection of this Board of Exaniners, lie a
strong help and improvement of the present system.

New Laws.--The greatest educational need of our State is competent teachers and competent school officers. The
greatest drawback to progress in education in our State is that the school offices are political offices which can
be obtained through political channels and used honestly or dishonestly, and our school tax, or children's fund,
is wasted or unwisely used for selfish gain. The children of the State and counties need better protection of their

We need a law requiring competency in School Boards and County Superintendents. For county superintendents the law
should require the holding of a Literary college diploma from a reputable and chartered literary college, (not
Normal School), providing that the holder of such diploma or of a State Certificate, on which he has taught four
years, may be eligible and have Ihis name placed on the ballot by presenting to the School Hoard and Circuit Court
Clerk his State Certificate, or college diploma and evidence that lie lhai taught four years under a Florida Certifi-
cate. Such a law would in a large measure take tihe important office of County Superintendent out of politics as
well as give the children of the State protection. A law giving the counties tile power to embrace tile whole county
as one Special Tax District and providing a Supervisor for each school would be of great benefit and no detriment
to the educational cause.

Respectfully submitted,
F, C. Schell
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit tie following report!

The interest in schools, as noted in last report, still continues, as evidenced by time improvement along many lines.

New Bulldings.--We have now finished, and under construction 10 new buildlnes, containing, In all, forty rooms and
three auditoriums. Three of those are re-enforced concrete and fire-proof. They are all for white pupils, Tile
cost of the buildings without equipment is $125,494.36.

School Buildings Repaired.--The buildings, for the most part, are in fair condition. The cost of repairs for the
white schools for tile two years amounts to $2,0115; for the Negro schools $659.411, ibut $580 of that was for an
addition to one of their buildings.

IlgiJ Schools.--We have not yet brought our high schools up to tlhe standard adopted by the State.

At Titusville we have twelve grades; three teachers doing higih school work; fifty-onI pupils in tile high school
grades; but we still lack the laboratory equipment and tie Library. I think these will be added as soon as tile
new building is finished. Ten teachers in all.


At Cocoa we have twelve grades; three teachers doing high school work; thirty-five pupils In the hilh
school grades; seven teachers in all: lacking in laboratory equipment snd library. T think these will hb
supplied as soon as the new building is finished,

At Eau Gallie we have a twelve grade school one teacher doing full high schnnl work, nnd one doing pnrt high
school work; six teachers in the school; twenty-two pupils in the high school prades; lacking Inlaoratory
equipment and library.

At Melbourne we have a school of twelve grades; two teachers doing full high school work; seven tenochrs in
all; twenty-two pupils in the high school grades.

This is an increase in the high school pupils, and high school teachers. 1 think that in the next two years that
all of these schools will be standardized.

I think that our nigh schools should conform to the Standard adopted hy the State Board of Education first, and
if that is not high enough, get the best standard we can find.

Teachers.--We still have trouble in getting efficient teachers for some of our school; and trouble to keep them
after we get them in some schools. This is largely due to ignorance and indifference on the part of the ones
most vitally interested in having good schools. Another trouble is due to the law as to time of engaging teachers.
Our Board puts it off until many of the beet teachers are engaged elsewhere.

Special Tax School Distrlcts.--Lnat year the people of School Hoard District No. 3, held nn election and voted to
disestablish the special tax district as then constituted; and than by the proper petitions and elections divided
the district up into four Special Tax School Districts. We now hnve six Ruch districts instead of three as
formerly. They also voted a 3 mill tax in each of the six Districts.

Bondinpe listricts.--In 1915., Special Tax School District No. 1, called an election, voted itself a bond-district
and authorized the issue of $100,000 of 25 year, 6% coupon bonds to build and equip school houses. One house
of six rooms and auditorium, is finlshedl and a fourteen room house with auditorium and gymnnntum In almost completed;
also a two-room rural school house. These are all concrete and fireproof. Other houses in this district will be
built later.

In 1916, District No. 2, hold an election and voted itself a bond-district and authorized the issue of $50,000
school bonds, 25-year, 6% coupon bonds; and have begun tile erection of a 14-room school building with auditorium.
It is to cost $40,693, and to be ready for use next year.

Last year district No. 3, voted on a bond issue, but it failed to carry. There In a movrnment to re-submit the
question at the end of the year. We are encouraged to think that it Wll carry this time.

School Sanutntion.--The most of the out-buildlngs have been put in condition to meet the requirements of Chapter
6836; but in many places, the children have undone the work by destroying the screens and other precautions.

Teachlini the .vlln of Alcoholics and Narcotica.--We have insisted that the teachers comply with the requirements
of the law. Several of them have bought the book, "Health is Wealth" and nre using it, and Home lare using, "Tlie
King and Ilia Wolderful Castle."

Uniform Text-Bock lnw,--I favor thie uniform law and think it should extend to the high school studies also. I
think the texts should be selected by a Board of progressive teachers of the State. The books seem to be generally
satisfactory to the teachers in this county. There is some serious objection to the Text in Crammar.

Finances.--At the beginning of the school year the county was out of debt. lust at this time, November, 191l, the
County School Fund is over-drawn, by reason of the schools beginning before the taxes nrn paid.

The teaclirs are paid promptly. The Board issues a warrant for the teaclir's salary. It is deposited in the
bank, and the bank takes interest on the warrant until enough tnxen are collected to pay it, and then the bank
sends .it to the treasurer and gets tle money for it,

The bonded indebtedness is taken care of by a 5-mill special levy in District No. 1, anid a 4-mill levy In District'
No. 2.

Teachers' County Institutes.--Ench year we have a four days County Teachers' Institute, and have prominent
Educators of the State on Instructors.

This is held during the week just proceeding the opening of the schools of the county, nnd all of the teachers
are required to attend. The Board pays a part of the expenses of the teachers who attend all of the sessions
of the Instituto.

During thie school year, 1915-1916, the teachers of the county organized an Educational Association, including
thl School Hoard nod Superintendent in the membership. The hoard paid the expense of thei teachers who attended.
Because some of the teachers took advantage of thu Board in this, and started in to have ai good Lime at tih
expense of the county funds, tie Board refused to pay their expenses for the year 1916-17; so the really interested
teachers have taken up the work again this year and are carrying It on without the help of thie annrdl. 'Thy are
doing interesting and helpful work along educational lines.

Teachers' Summer Schools.--Six teachers of the year 1915-16 reported as having attended a Summer Teachers' Train-
ing School. All white. And 15 white teachers, and three nggro teachers reported attendance in 1916.

Vocational Work.--Wu have no school in which special vocational training Is given, but we are planning to put
that into the high schools that are building new houses, as soon as the buildings are equlpped.

Canning, Corn nnd Other Students' Clubs.--We have a county farm demonstration agent, Mr. Alf. Ntilson. lie works
under tile direction of thu Board of County Commissioners, and I hnve no data as to his salary. I expect him to
work more with the schools this year than formerly.


We took up the Home Demonstration work last year, as an experiment, with Mrs. Mable E. P. Cay as County Agent.
The Board paid her $300 for seven months work. The State and National Governments, together paid her an equal
amount. The work was so satisfactory to all concerned that the Board retained Mrs. Gay as agent for another year.

They agree to pay her $500 for ten months' work, and she is to receive a like amount from State and U.S. funds.

She reports "more than 100 enrolled" now. They are not reported separately as to sex,

Compulsory School Attendance.--The question of Compulsory School Attendance has not beenagitated in this county
yet, and has not been voted upon. Some communities are thinking a little of trying it next year. There seems to
be considerable sentiment in favor of such a law for the white children, and I believe it would carry in this county
if a little effort were put forth in the right way. I am in favor of a State-wide, Mandatory Compulsory Attendance
law for the State.

School Libraries.--No general attempt has been made in this county to establish School Libraries. A few schools
are beginning to build up libraries, in a small way. I believe a State-wide "Library Propaganda" should be started,
with interested persons behind it, who would select five good books for this year, to be put into every Rural
school in the State, as a nucleus. Organize the pupils into a "Pupil's Reading Circle." Provide a certificate
of standing for each dhild who reads a definite number of books and makes report on them to the teacher in charge.

Then add a small number of new books each year, at the beginning of school. The certificates to be given each
year to the children earning them. The child having five such certificates might be presented with some prize of
some intrinsic value. This must be worked out more in detail when the actual work begins.

Teacher-Training Departments.--There are none in this county and I am not in favor of establishing one at present.
We have not the facilities for conducting it properly; and I prefer to send my teachers to the State schools.

Transportation of Pupils.--We have transported pupils to seven schools during these two years. Transporting 216
pupils, at a cost of $5,776.90. An average cost of $26.75 each for the term of seven months and a half; or about
17.8 cents per day per pupil.

County School Boards,--I think that five members would be a better number for the School Board, and that they
should be selected for office upon their educational, business and moral qualifications instead of political
influence. The County Superintendent should be chosen in the same way, and be a member of the Board with a voice
and vote in the proceedings. I favor the proposed four year term of Board members.

Uniform Text-Books.--I approve of uniform textbooks throughout the State, and I would extend it to the high school

State Course of Study.--There should be a comprehensive State course of study, covering all grades from the primary
to the twelfth grade. This should be compiled by a committee of educators, printed by the State Department, and
furnished to the several County Boards at a nominal cost. This would be possible if we had the uniformity outlined

Free Text Books,--No. Unless they are brought and given to the children as their own to have and to keep. Again
No. With the same proviso. If the question means free to loan from child to child, then my answer is, NO.

Progress or Retrogression.--The average salary of teachers has changed in 1914 to 1916, as follows: White males
from $72.40 to $78.20; white females from $55.16 to $54.86; negro males from $45 to $45.25; negro females from
$32.42 to $31.83.

The decrease in the salary for women is due to the increase in the number of third grade and temporary certificates.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural and Town Schools.--Our rural schools are very little, if any, below the town schools
in efficiency, except in special cases. In four years we have increased the length of term of the rural schools
to eight months, the same as the town schools. The grades of certificates are uniformly as high in the rural schools
as in the town schools. The equipment is not quite so good in the rural schools as in the graded schools, and with
the number of grades to handle, the teaching cannot be so good as in the graded schools. I do not think the
condition calls for special legislation at this time.

The Present Examination System.--No. It is too long drawn out. Too nerve-racking. There should be more examina-
tions. At least, one or more about the first of May, if the present system is continued.

I like the idea of a State Examining Board, as suggested.

New Laws Recommended.--I would recommend a law permitting County Superintendents to endorse State certificates from
other States of the Union, and forbidding them to endorse third grade certificates from other counties of this
State. I would recommend a law abolishing the third grade certificate, or restricting it to one year with no

Other Subjects.--As this closes my term of office, I may be permitted to say, with some degree of satisfaction,
that I can see a marked improvement in the schools of the county during the four years of my supervision, and to
express the hope that improvements may continue under the supervision of my successor.

Respectfully submitted,
Edwin E. Macy, M.D., A.M. of Ed.
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a statement in detail in regard to the progress of the schools of
Broward County for the past two years, I take pleasure in submitting the following report:



New School Buildings.--Since the county came into existence October let, 1915, there have been several new
buildings completed. Worthy of special mention is the building at Pompano. This is a splendid, reinforced
concrete structure with four classrooms, and auditorium, principal's office, library and lavatories. The build-
ing is nicely furnished throughout; and is situated on a beautiful five acre lot, which sl all cleared, and is
now being planted in trees, grasses arid flowers. More teachers have been added, and the work is nrogressing
very satisfactorily. The new building at Ilallandale, which has just been completed and put into ulee, is the most
imposing and beautiful structure in that part of the county, which goes to prove that educational interest at
Hallandale is taking the lead. This building is up-to-date in architecture, arrangement and equipment. It has
five classrooms, library room, principal's office, lavatories, and a large auditorium. The spacious grounds and
splendid building make this school site the community center. A new building for the negro race has also been
erected at Hallandale. It is a great improvement over the old plan of renting the church building.

With the completion of the new building at Fort Lauderdale, a little more than a year ago, a big step forward in
educational work was taken. The building is a modern, up-to-date, reinforced concrete structure, and practically
fireproof, and was planned to take care of both the high schools and grammar grade departments. The present
session is our second year in this building, and it is now taxed to its utmost capacity, in fact, we are renting
two other nearby buildings to relieve the congestion. We are planning to have a separate hibli school building end
several ward schooL buildings in the near future.

The Dania District has voted $20,000 bonds for the erection of a new reinforced concrete building at Davie, in
the Everglades, and for an addition to the Pania school building. With a new building and equipment at Davie, we
expect to make that school equal to the best in the county. With a new addition to the Dania school, we plan
to make that school a Standard Junior ligh School, according to the regulations of the State Board of Education,

High Schools.--The Fort Lauderdale High School is the only Senior High School in the county. This school has
grown considerably since your last biennial report. At that time there were thirty scholars enrolled and four
teachers. At present this school has an enrollment of ninety-three students, with a corps of seven teachers, all
of wilhi are regularly certificated and have college degrees. The equipment has been enlarged and courses of study
have been considerably extended and improved. With the hard surfaced roads leading into Fort Lauderdale from
every section of the country, we have found it to be of great advantage to consolidate the high school work by
giving transportation to high school pupils to Fort Lauderdale from all sections of the county.

Teachers.--We have had very little trouble in getting a supply of legally certificated teachers. This East Coast
is an attractive place to winter, and very attractive salaries are paid our teachers; and so, the calibre of our
teaching force has been improved from year to year.

Special Tax School Districts,--Broward County is divided into five Special Tax School Districts. Each district
has voted a special tax of three mills. This increase in our funds makes it possible to give all schools of the
county an eight months term.

Bonding Districts.--Four of the districts have voted bonds for the purpose of constructing new buildings and for
additional equipment. The total bonded indebtedness of the four districts amounts to $100,000.

School Sanitation.--The general condition of the building and grounds is cleanly and presents an inviting
appearance. All out-buildings are screened, and special care is taken to meet the requirements of the State
Sanitary Laws.

Teaching the Evils of Alcoholics and Narcotics.--In all schools of the county a special effort is being made to
observe general health laws. Physical training is encouraged and the evils of alcoholics and narcotics are being
emphasized. The booklet "Health is Wealth" has been furnished to teachers of the grammer grades by the Board of
Public Instruction.

The Uniform Text-Hook Laws.--The Uniform Textbook Law is giving general satisfaction. The book stores are generally
well supplied with such books as needed. Most of the adopted books are satisfactory.

School Finances.--Under the circumstances, the financial condition of Broward County is all that could be expected,
When it came into existence on October 1st, 1915, we took up the work that had been put into operation by both
Dade and Palm Beach Counties. Our treasury was empty and we were obliged to borrow from the banks a large part
of the money for running expenses of last year. This has caused us to be somewhat in arrears with the general fund.
This district funds are in good shape, with a balance to their credit. All teachers are paid. When there were no
funds in the treasury, the Board borrowed money from the banks, under Chapter 6828, Laws of Florida.

Teachers' County Tnstitute.--The Browerd County Teachers' Institute was organized about a year ago with all the
teachers of the county present. Subjects of special interest were discussed and a Teachers' Association was
organized. This work is being kept up and is proving of special interest and value to the school work of the

Canning, Corn, and Other Students' Clubs.--Our county has no farm demonstrator, but a Canning Club agent has been
appointed by the State Department, and Canning Clubs are being organized throughout the county. A Pig Club was
organized during the past summer by the County Superintendent. Nearly 100 school boys joined the Club, and each
member has been supplied with a registered Duroc-Jersey pig. The boys have made wonderful progress in their
Pig Club work. All of the pigs are growing beautifully and are expected to be put on exhibition at the Broward
County Fair, which will be held during the last part of February, 1917.

Compulsory School Attendance.--The Compulsory School Attendance Law has been voted upon and put into operation
throughout the entire county. We have not sufficiently tried out the law to speak intelligently as to results.

School Libraries.--Considerable interest has been manifested in the establishment of school libraries in all of
the schools of the country. Trustees of several districts make appropriations each year to enlarge the libraries.
Our motto in regard to school libraries is: "Books are Teachers' and Students' Tools."


Transportation of Pupils.-The transportation of pupils has given the County Board more or less concern owing
to the fact that it has been hard to regulate the system, and to deal equitably with all sections of the
county. It is the policy of the Board to establish a school or give transportation to any community where
there is not less than ten grammar grade pupils, or where there are not less than six high school pupils. Trans-
portation is considered a substitute for a school.

Uniform Text-Books.--I most heartily approve of a uniformity of text-books and a uniform course of study for the
grammar grades.

I should also recommend that a uniform standard course of study for the high schools be adopted by the State Board
of Education.

Respectfully submitted,
J. M. Holding,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--I have the honor of submitting to you the following brief report of the schools and the school work in
Calhoun County for the two years, ending June 30, 1916:

New School Buildings.--During the last two years we have spent $3,601.49 for new school buildings and $971.54 for
repairs of buildings. This money was spent in the rural districts for one and two room school buildings, and these
buildings, I am glad to say, are somewhat modern in arrangements, due consideration being given in the lighting,
the ventilating and general arrangements in the planning.

We have found that the cost of a good, substantial and properly lighted and arranged school house over the poorly
arranged and carelessly thrown together is not so much. And then we have something that the community appreciates,
that the children appreciate and something that stands for and is worth the money invested.

Expenditures during the two years, ending June 30th, 1916:

For salaries of teachers, $23,885.80; new school buildings, $3,601.49; repairs of buildings, $971.54; school furni-
ture, $1,059.90; insurance of school buildings, $444.00; school lots, $485.00; free books, $336.54; apparatus,

High Schools.--We cannot report a single high school. We have the required number of pupils in the ninth and tenth
grades in the Blountstown school to class it as a Junior high, but owing to the fact that we are not maintaining
this school for the full eight months and that our principal does not hold either a State or special certificate,
prevents us from classing it as a Junior high school. We hope, however, to be able to class it as such in our
next biennial report.

Teachers.--While our teaching force is fairly good, and while our teachers, as a whole, are growing more efficient,
there is room for improvement and the times demand it. We have very little trouble in supplying our schools with
loyal certificated teachers, especially our rural and lower grade schools.

The salaries of our teachers range from $25 to $100 per month; negro teachers get $20 per month. The average
monthly salary of our teachers 4 years ago was, males $31.51; females, $34.01; negroes, $20. The average monthly
salary of our teachers now is, males $47.28; females, $38.78; negroes, $20. The records show that four years ago
we had an enrollment of 1,326 white, and 415 negro children. The records show that we now have an enrollment of
1,718 white, and 377 negro children.

Special Tax School Districts.-We have 21 Special Tax School Districts, which includes practically all the territory
in the county, only a small bit of territory remains undistricted. All the districts levy a three-mill tax bringing
in a revenue of from $40 to $750 to each district. This money is used for lengthening the term of schools, for
supplementing the salary of teachers, for supplementing the county appropriation for new buildings, etc. We have
32 white schools and 11 negro schools, all of which are in special tax districts, except one little white school
and one negro school. We have one six teacher, one five-teacher, one three-teacher, eight two-teacher and 21 one-
teacher white schools, all of which we maintain for a term of six months; 4 negro schools, 4 months.

Bonding Districts.--We have had but one district to vote bonds, viz: Special Tax School District No. 16 and it
being the only district that has attempted to carry a bond issue. The $3,500 bond issue of this district (No.16),
mentioned in my last biennial report, was sold, but it was soon discovered that the district was not legally
established and the bonds were redeemed. Since that time the district has been legally established and a bond
issue of $15,000 voted. We hope to have with this money, by the next scholastic year, a nice, modern six-room
school building, with an auditorium, erected.

Uniform Text-Books.--We favor the uniform text-book law, yet we do not get as good a grade of books as to workman-
ship, as we did before this law was enacted. I think the Text-Book Commission should think of and look after this
in making new adoptions. Our agent keeps us fairly well supplied with books. We have a book list with the
prices printed, which we send out to the teachers with instructions, where the agent is unable to supply these
books, to order them direct from the book companies. So we avoid having much trouble with the book proposition.
I have no special objections to the others, but I am in favor of changing the present adopted arithmetic. I
find that practically all of my teachers are in favor of a change.

School Finances.--We are in debt, but our financial condition is not serious. Owing to the fact that only a very
small percent of our taxes are paid before late in the spring, and owing to the fact that two-thirds or more of
the expenditures'for salaries of teachers come between July and January, it makes it necessary for us to have to
borrow about $8,000 for a period of eight or ten months in the year. We levy the maximum 7 mills, and our
warrants are always worth par. If our taxes could be paid in the fall, when they should be, and we could put off
opening our schools until the first of October, I see no reason why we should have to borrow but very little,
if any, money. Most all of our Special Tax School Districts, financially, are in fairly good shape.


Teachers' Institute.--We have an organized Teachers' Association, but owing to our county being 25 or more miles
wide, and 70 long, with practically no railroads in the county, it is impractical to assemble the teachers of
the county into institute meetings more thanonce a year. But we hold a two-days' meeting every year, and we
believe that it is an incentive to the teachers, and we feel that a great deal is being accomplished for the
betterment of the schools by these meetings.

Compulsory School Attendance.--We have had one district to vote on this question, but the result was against
compulsory attendance. I hear very little talk and no movement contemplating putting it into operation. I
think the remedy to make it a success would be a State-wide, mandatory compulsory attendance law. Public senti-
ment in this county seems to be in favor of such a law.

School Libraries.--Wi advocate the school library, and we have several schools with libraries worth from $50 to
8100. What librarian we have, however, are in the mote wealthy Special Tax School Districts; but we are
encouraging School Improvement Organisation* in which the children and the teachers can have a hand in raising
some funds to add to the libraries and start new ones.

State Course of Study.-- think there should be a State Course of Study, and I think it should embrace all the
grades from the lst to the 12th, includive. I believe the Letgilature should provide for a committee to adopt,
print, and promulgate such a course.

Free Text-BookMs-I am not in favor of the free text-book system. I am not in favor of using the present school
fnda, not the hunting licenses, fish commissions, or any other money that is, or may hereafter be, appropriated
for school purposes, being used or spent for free books. It is my experience where people will not, and are not
interested enough to send their children to school on their own books, they are not going to send them much on
free books. Of course, there are a few people that would send their children to school, who are just not able
to buy the necessary books. In such cases there is a law that gives the School Board the right to furnish the
children of such unfortunates with free books, and that, I think, is as far as the free book proposition should

In conclusion I wish to say, taking all things into consideration, I am very aell pleased with the progress that
our schools have made in the last two years. The people have co-operated with us splendidly and the school spirit
among the masses is growing stronger every day.

Respectfully submitted,
J. Flake Durham,
County Superintendent.


My Dear Sirt--In compliance with your request, I herewith beg to make the following report of the condition of the
schools of Citrus County. As you know, I am filling out an unexpired term, and have only been in office a little
more than a year, and am, therefore not fully conversant with conditions prior to that time.

High Schools.--We have three high schools in Citrus County, as follows! Inverness, with an enrollment of 224, of
which 44 are in.the high school department; Floral City, with an enrollment of 97, and 15 above the eighth grade
and Crystal River, with an enrollment of 95, and 8 above the eighth grade. The Inverness high school fully
measures up to all the requirements of the State Board. There are four teachers in the high school department,
three doing exclusively high school work. We have an excellent nucleus for a library and laboratory. About $500
was put into them the present term. The Floral City school has one teacher giving whole time, add one part time
to the high school, and has a nice start towards a library and laboratory. This school is doing excellent work,

Teachers.--We have an excellent body of teachers in Citrus County, who are, as a whole, doing fine work. It
seems to be hard for all the teachers to fully realize the great importance of their profession, and to measure
up to the high standard required of those who succeed in this noble calling. I am highly pleased with a large
majority of our' teachers, and the excellent work they are di6ng. A large number of our teachers are Citrus County
girls. We have experienced no difficulty in securing teachers, except for the colored schools. It is very
difficult for the negro applicants to pass the regular teachers' examination, and for this reason the supply of
negro teachers is very limited. The majority of the negro schools do not have pupils above the sixth grade, yet
the teacher is required to pass an eighth grade examination. I believe another grade certificate should be
established, called the Fourth Grade, and questions based on the sixth grade be given in the examination for such
certificates. Teachers holding this Fourth Grade certificate would not be permitted to teach above the sixth grade.

Special Tax Districts.--There are 16 special tax school districts in Citrus County, with a total of 23 white
schools and 9 colored schools. There are 888 white pupils enrolled and 419 colored. Fourteen of these districts
levy a millage of three mills and two a millage of two mills.

Teachers' Instituts.--Citrus County has an organized Teachers' Association, with C. H. Williams, Principal of the
Inverness school, as President, and Miss Rena Turner, Secretary. A fine program was carried out at Inverness on
November 29th, 1916. Regular meetings were held in 1915-1916. I believe that these meetings do a great deal of
good for the teachers and schools, and should be encouraged. All teachers should be required to attend and take

Summer School.--A summer school for the county teachers was held at Inverness for six weeks, prior to the teachers'
examination in June, 1916, and I am sure a great deal of good resulted. There were 45 teachers and prospective
teachers enrolled. We intend to make the county normal a permanent institution, not to take the place of the
State Normal, but as a supplement to it. A large number of our teachers attended the summer schools at Gainesville
and Tallahassee. Our Board provides that the salaries of all such teachers as attend one of the State or county
normal shall be supplemental $5 per month.

Course of Study.--I believe strongly in a course of study for the guidance of the schools, that the work may be
uniform and standard. A State Course of Study would be a great improvement over the present system of separate
county courses of study. The Legislature should appoint a committee of five educational men of the State, to be
composed of two County Superintendents and three practical teachers, to adopt a course of study embracing all the
grades from the first to the twelfth. Such course of study to be printed by the State and furnished all the counties.


There are numerous other subjects that I might discuss here, but time and space forbid, i will be glad to
address another communication to you later in regard to new plans and amendments to existing laws.

Yours very truly,
H. J. Dame,
County Superintendent.


Dear Mr. Sheates-*Complying with your request, t am sending herewith condensed answers to the two dozen questions
asked, question 24, vis.i "Progress or Retrogression" covers eight years up to January 1, 1917. Other data two
years only.

Hew Buildints.--West Tocoi school building 25 x 30, hip-roof, metal cover, novelty siding, dressed floor and
ceiling with flue built from ground, windows hung on weights so ta to ventilate from the top; cost $397.66, not
counting the framing, which had been used in the old building, $100 paid from special tax district fund, balance
from general fund.

Montezuma school building, our regulation size, visit 20 x 30, barn-roof, finished as above with boxed in rafters
and projections, cost $402.94 from general funds. Kingsley, school building, same esie and plans, cost $383.18.
Some old framing was used in this. All three buildings are for whites, and painted with creosote. I have learned
to have some one other than the carpenter put on the creosote, as the carpenter will put it on when his scaffold
is up, and when scaffold is down ha will color the part covered by the Scaffold with the bottom of the treosote,
which is always the darkest when not properly stirred, and which makes a blotch on the side of the house. The
Clay County School Board has quit buying good lumber for amateurs to butcher up, Just because "I live in the
neighborhood and need the work."

Repairs on Building.--During the biennium I have spent $1,147.54 for repairs on white school buildings, $351.45
was paid from general fund, the balance from Special Tax District fund No. 6. This district ceiled and painted
every school house in the district save two which are haemed in by camphor farms and cattle tanches in such a
way as to make the permanency of the sites doubtful. For colored schools, $251.53 have been spent for repairs.
Special Tax District No. 12, paid $127.55 general fund the balance.

High Schools.--We attempt one high school only, maintain twelve grades, fully up in curriculum to the Buckman Bill,
let the other fellow name it. The principal holds a State Life certificate and his assistant in high school work
has a State certificate. The necessity of securing a playground at once, so as to save same to posterity, has
delayed the purchase of goods necessary to meet the State's tentative requirements for accredited high schools.
This defect can be met from next year's appropriation without curtailing running expenses. Our graduates from
the twelfth grade manage to get in the best colleges and hold their own among pupils more profoundly blessed.
This school has 10 in 9th grade, 8 in 10th grade, 4 in llth grade, and 5 in 12th grades total enrollment 289.
Monthly average attendance 260, with six teachers in the lower grades. There are 38 pupils in the 8th grade,
many of them were in that grade last year, and some others completed high school work last year.

Teachers.--Our supply of teachers for rural schools is ample, but the number of 3rd grade teachers holding 2nd
grade jobs is appalling. Board should cut out all preparatory work and train the teachers already holding certi-
ficates. Teachers in the graded and high schools attend Summer Schools because it is required of them to keep
in line with school work so as to get their jobs. Rural teachers are not held to so strict accountability and
camp on easy street. Find the remedy.

Special Tax School Districts.--No. 1, Middleburg, one colored school; No. 2, Pecria, one white; No. 3, Orange Park,
one white and one colored school; No. 4, High land, lapsed for want of voters in district; No. 5, South Clay, nine
white and one colored school; No. 6, South Clay, twelve whites and four colored schools; No. 12, Green Cove
Springs, one white and one colored school. This covers the entire county. None of these districts have issued

Out Building.--The out-building condition is a problem. This county spent $805.32 in an attempt to comply with
Chapter 6836. I attempted to fly-proof the box only. Screen doors are an absurdity at a school house. Anything
that will keep a fly out will keep her in, and the children will see to it that she gets in, and one careless or
deliberate act will do the balance. Where drainage will not admit of a pit, I screen the back. Screen wire
will last boys one year only. Girls are not so expensive. Taking the State at large this is a good law poorly

Health is Wealth.--The teaching of this apology is mandatory in Clay County. Board buys the books and the
Superintendent is supposed to collect for same, after mailing them out to the teachers, who are required to use

Uniform Text-Book Law.--Agents are well supplled and are prompt in making exchanges. This is our first year with
State adoption and t withhold opinion as to needed changes.

School Finances.--The general fund has a $10,000.00 debt in New York. These warrants are to mature $1,000 July let,
each year, until paid, interest six percent semiannually. Board funded all floating warrants under the new law.
Counting taxes due, which are now paid, this fund carried a surplus of $1,000, after retiring the warrants due
July let, last past. Net debt is about $9,000 July let, 1916.

Special Tax School District Ho. 12, Green Cove Springs, owes $681.51 after getting in the taxes. Other districts
nominal. Combined Special Tax Districts carry about $1,000 net surplus. All warrants issued for running
expenses are stamped payable at the local bank, and draw 8 percent interest on daily average balances. The
amount falling due each year is included in the annual budget and taken care of. Board will pay out in ten years
without retrenchment.

Sumnnr Schools.--Three teachers attended Gainesville, one Tallahassee, one University of Tennessee, and two, who
live in Clay County, and teach elsewhere, attended University in New York State.


Vocational Work.--Nothing doing. Not able to pay for the best, and do not want anything else.

Students' Clubs.--In 1915 we had a County Demonstrator and a Canning Club Agent. Both did excellent work among
the student body. In 1916 there was a County Demonstrator only. He did good work among the boys. In reconstruct-
ing the county finances to meet the new laws, we found it necessary to retrench and the farm and kitchen business
was cut out. W. E. Brown was the demonstrator and was taken care of by the county commissioners, citizens and
the usual farm appropriation. His pay was $1,200. Hiss Lonnie Landrum, of DeFuntak Springs, was paid $100 per
month for six months, one-half by the Agricultural Department, $100 by the County Commissionera, and the balance
by the School Board. Miss Landrum proved to be an expert organizer, and Escambia County drew a price when it
secured her services in 1916. Mr. Brown recently removed to Alachua County.

Compulsory School Attendance.--This law is a good intention with no chance to win. The yeomanry of Clay County
would knock that: apology into a cocked-hat. It would take one month off of every school to enforce it, and the
truant officer would go home across lots a-crying after each and avery court. It might work in Special Tax District
No. 12, Green Cove Springs. The School Board has diverted every pupil possible from this school on account of
the congested condition. Some one else may try that law when this deponent is far, far awiy.

Teachers' Training Department,--This county should have this under State auspices in lieu of the two months given
each year for certificate mill. The difference in cost is insignificant. Want of house room has kept it off so
far. A school that is taught with a view of getting a certificate and no training is a menace to education.

County School Boards.--The present plan of nominating members by voters in this district only is bad. It gives
two country members a chance to bully-rag the one from town. Yes, put on one more member and let the County
Superintendent vote. A good woman is always better than a sorry man. Put some of them on.

Transportation of Pupils.--Experience has taught this county to transport only when it is too far to walk, and
not enough pupils to run a little school. The intention is good, but in this county the execution has always
been poor.

Uniform Text-Books.--After going to the expense of putting on uniformity it is better to adhere to it and enforce
it from top to bottom. There is more necessity in the high school than in the grammar schools because the books
cost more. It takes a lynx-eyed superintendent, with at least a high school education, to prevent each new high
school teacher from slipping in the books with which they are more familiar. Teachers are not to blame for this.
I would want Binghams' Latin books, but every one is entitled to his choice. School books are adopted in State
groups. Florida should stand by her section.

State Courses of Study.--A State course of study is imperative. Without it Uniformity is annulled. Draw a school
bill embracing every grade, from the chart to the twelfth grade, and get the Legislature to pass it. Enforce it
by making it mandatory. By an oversight Florida history was put in the sixth grade here in changing to State
Adoption July, 1916. It was a lucky error, as it proved to be the place for it. But other schools put it in last,
and we are out of line.

Free Text-Books.--If the boards buy any free books at all it is just as well to buy all, as many get them who are
able to pay for them. But here is the trouble--books carry disease. Scarlet fever was contracted hers this term
of school from books used in a city two years ago. The expert knowledge of the afflicted parents, alone, prevented
a panic, and the mussing up of that school house with high flavored disinfectants, That family are not agitating
loans of books now not even among cousins. Hunting license money is not much of a cash asset without a special
officer to enforce the law. Free text-books is a necessary adjunct to a compulsory school law.

Progress or Retrogression.--When I came into office eight years ago the Green Cove Springs school was held in
an old five-room wooden building, now it occupies a $10,000 brick-concrete building with commodious play
grounds. A one-room wooden building was erected this year to accommodate the overflow. Orange Park school
was taught in the town hall, it now occupies a house and grounds worth $3,000. Middleburg school house has
been renovated at a cost of about $800. Pine Grove school was being taught in a log school house, that was
torn down and replaced at once. Highland got a new $500 school building. Eleven new rural school buildings
have been erected. Eight other buildings have been ceiled and painted. All other buildings are of dressed
lumber, and have ample grounds and sanitary surroundings. Adequate school buildings cover the entire county
like the dew. All schools in Special Tax District No. 6 and many in other Special Tax Districts are supplied
with maps, eight to the set, globes and New International Dictionaries. All teachers' salaries have been
raised and the force is nearly, but not quite, equal to the requirements. The finances are so graved that,
with care enough to keep officers out of prison, all will be well under the excellent financial system
inaugurated by our efficient Comptroller, at al.

Comparative Efficiencies of Rural and Town Schools.--As a rule, town schools have the best teachers, because they
are selected by trustees who are practically named by the board, at least they have no active opposition. Rural
teachers circulate petitions and often times rural schools get teachers in this way whom the Superintendent knows
to be incompetent. Sometimes he heads them off but oftener he is tired and lets it go. A law limiting the salary
of a third grade certificate would help the cause some, though it would not cure it.

The Present Examination System.--The present law is so well understood that a change of some sort is desirable.
It is an easy matter to drill for an examination held, year after year, from the same set of text-books. Grading
committees differ widely. A State committee would equalize all certificates of a like grade. A State Board of
Examiners would beat the present system as now in vogue. Suppose we try it?

Respectfully submitted,
W. H. Briggs,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir: In compliance with your request fof a general report, covering a period of two years, of the schools of
Columbia County, for your Biennial Report, I beg to submit the followings


New School Buildinas.--During the past two scholastic years we have built ten new school houses, five for white
and five for negro children, at a cost of nearly $8,000; nine of them were frame buildings and one brick building.
The brick building was erected at Fort White. These new buildings gave 21 new rooms. All these buildings were
built from the County School Fund.

School Buildings Repaired.--About $2,000 have been spent in repairing and adding additional rooms to school build-
ings in the country districts where same were needed. Practically all the schools, both white and colored, in
the towns and in the rural districts are in good condition.

High Schools.--The Columbia High School, located at Lake City, is a Senior high school and is fully equipped in
every particular for high school work. The high school work is carried on in a handsome, two story brick building
and the grammar school is in a splendid two story frame building. The buildings are located on a five acre plot
in a pine grove on West Duval street. The enrollment of the school has nearly reached the 500 mark and of this
number nearly 100 of them are high school students. Fourteen teachers are employed in the school. The commercial
department, which was added two years ago, is doing excellent work. The Junior high school, located at Fort White,
has an enrollment of over lOOpupile, with a faculty of four teachers and is doing high school work through the
tenth grade, while they also have a music teacher with a splendid class of about 30 pupils.

We have several other schools that are doing excellent grade work and with a little more help and stronger patronage,
would be regularly classed as Junior high schools; vil.: Watertown, Hagan, Columbia, Summerville, Ellieville,
Mt. Tabor, Corinth and Midway. Also several other graded schools that are doing good work and acting well their
part in preparing the children for higher education.

Negro Schools.--Richardson'a Academy, located at Lake City, has an enrollment of over 400 pupils and nine teachers.
The school is doing good grade work and would be a Junior high school if the teachers were properly certificated.
We have several other one and two-teacher schools in the rural districts that are going good work. We have an
industrial teacher for the rural schools, who is doing good work throughout the county; this has been made possible
by an appropriation from the Anna Jean's fund by Dr. James H. Dillard, President.

Teachers.--We have an adequate supply of teachers in the county, that Is, white teachers, and I have only had few
occasions to issue temporary certificates. We think that our teaching corps will compare very favorably with
that of any other county in the State. It comprises about 70 white and 45 colored teachers, several of them holding
life or State certificates and many of them being graduates of normal or Colleges. We employ very few third
grade teachers. Salaries of white teachers range from $35 to $175 per month, the average being about $70 per
month, while the colored teachers receive on an average of about $25 per month.

Special Tax School District.--We now have ten Special Tax School Districts embracing 27 schools for white and
colored. Most of these districts levy a three-mill tax, and the funds thus raised aid in giving longer terms and
better equipment for the schools within the districts.

Teaching the Evils of Alcoholics and Narcotics.--The evils of alcoholics and narcotics are being taught in the
schools of Columbia County. Several of the teachers have supplied themselves with "Health is Wealth." The Women
Christian Temperance Union is co-operating with teachers and helping them to carry on the great work.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--We are a strong believer and supporter of the Uniform Text-Book Law. Our local agents
usually keep the books on hand, but in some instances the teachers have had to order the books for the pupils.
We do not approve any radical change in the books adopted, as it would be a hardship on the patrons of the schools,
but if changes are to be made, we would suggest a change in the English and the Readers.

School Finances.--At the close of the scholastic year ending June 30, 1916, the county school fund was in debt
$20,746.47, the district fund was in debt $488.61, making a total indebtedness of $21,235.08. At the time the
annual report was made, statistics showed that there was $12,000 of school money uncollected, this amount taken
from the.total indebtedness leaves a net indebtedness of $9,235.08. Our warrants are always worth their full face
value and are as readily accepted by the banks as any check of draft. Through the careful management of the School
Board, they have been able to secure most of the funds to pay current expenses at a low rate of interest.

Vocational Work.--The only vocational work that has been carried on in this county was the Boys' Corn Club and the
Girls' Canning Club among the white children. Classes of Domestic Science and Industrial work have been organized
among the colored children by the Industrial teacher. We hope to see the day come when Columbia County will have
well organized industrial and agricultural schools with a well arranged course of study that will teach the boys
and girls how to make their own living. We believe that a cottage for the teacher on the school lot would greatly
aid in establishing industrial and agricultural schools.

State Course of Study.--As we have a State Uniform Text-Book Law, we should by all means have a Uniform State
Course of Study. We believe that the books should be uniform in all the grades and the course should embrace all
the grades from the first to the twelfth. We hope that the next Legislature will see its way clear to make an
appropriation sufficient and provide for a committee to adopt, print and promulgate such a course.

Free Text-Books.--If hunting license, fish commission and other outside funds could be used to supply books without
using the present school fund, we believe that the Legislature should frame a text book law.

The Present Examination System.--We believe that the present examination law has about served its usefulness and
that a new law should be passed giving us a State Examining Board composed of six members, two for each Congressional
District, If this cannot be done we would suggest some amendment to the present law regarding the certification
of teachers. The holder of a second or third grade certificate should be granted a first grade certificate upon a
creditable examination in the following branches English, Civil Government, Pedagogy, Algebra and Physical

Progress and Retrogression.--We are glad to report that the schools of Columbia County have steadily increased
from year to year in their enrollment and average attendance. During the eight years of my administration in the
office of County Superintendent there has been more real progress along educational lines than any other period
of years in the history of the county, as shown by the annual reports from the County Superintendent to the
State Superintendent.



County School Board.--We do not approve of any change in the number of School Board members, and the method
of selecting them, we think, is a fair one. We believe three competent men as members of the Board and a
school man holding nothing short of a first grade certificate as Superintendent and ex-officio member of the
Board can administer the official duties of the office in such a manner as to obtain desired results. Members
of the Columbia County Board of Public Instruction are good business men and have given the educational affairs
of the county their closest attention, and have provided school facilities as best they could with the limited
funds of the county.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural and Town Schools.--We have tried to keep the rural schools graded and up to the
standard, thus giving the country children all the advantages that children generally enjoy that live in town.
It is our aim to make it possible for a child to obtain as good a common school education living at home on the
farm, as it can get by going to town.

The old school buildings in the rural districts have in many instances been replaced with nice new buildings,
painted and equipped with patent single desks, charts, maps and globes, the same as the town schools; of course
there are conveniences in town that cannot be had in the country but we are glad to state that pupils coming
from the rural districts are able to enter the grade work of our town schools, and are the ones, as a rule,
to complete the high school work and receive their diplomas.

Conclusion.--As this is probably my last Biennial Report, I take pleasure in extending my sincere thanks to the
Hon. State Superintendent, W.N. Sheets, and those associated with him in his office for their kind assistance
which they have rendered me from time to time during my administration. I also wish to express my heartfelt
appreciation to the people of Columbia County for their great co-operation in this great work, and also to the
County School Board who have assisted me in overcoming the difficult school problems, which have confronted me
from time to time.

It is my earnest desire to see the educational interest of both county and State grow and make rapid strides along
all educational lines, thus keeping our standard on as high a plane as that of any state in the Union.

Respectfully submitted,
J. W. Burns,
County Superintendent.

Dear Sir:--I beg to submit herewith my report for the biennium for the years 1914-1915, and 1915-1916.

New School Buildings.--Seventeen modern, concrete buildings have been erected within the last two years, though
work on several was started before July 1, 1914. The total amount expended for these new buildings is $251,194.61;
however, the amount of $36,860.56 was expended for a public school building in Ft. Lauderdale in Broward County
which was created at the last session of the Legislature. This leaves a net amount of $214,334.05 expended in
Dade County proper. The funds used in the construction of these buildings were derived from the sale of special
tax school district bonds. Two districts have since issued bonds for $10,000 and $25,000, respectively, for new
buildings which should properly come in the next biennial report.

School Buildings Repaired.--Owing to the fact that the policy of our Board is to erect concrete buildings, the
amount expended for repairs has been very small. The largest item of repairs has been that for plumbing.

High Schools.--We now have in Dade County two Senior High Schools as follows?

Miami High School, 274 pupils; Homestead High School, 32 pupils. There are five other schools doing high school
work, some of which should be accredited Junior High Schools; namely: Redland Farm Life School, 13 pupils; Ojus
School, 10 pupils; Larkins School, 5 pupils; Lemon City School, 16 pupils.

I am in favor of High Schools being required to measure up to State School Regulations, but I earnestly urge that
the regulations be so modified as to make it possible for more of our High Schools to be accredited. I also
recommend that regulations be adopted making the work in the high schools more uniform throughout the State,
clearly defining the number of units required for graduation, and giving credit for vocational training, especially
Home Economics and Manual Training.

Teachers.--The supply of efficient teachers is limited, and I have had considerable difficulty in getting enough
teachers legally certificated. The average monthly salary paid teachers for 1915-1916 was $84.60. The average
monthly salary paid teachers for 1913-1914 was $59.42, an increase of $25.18, or 42% increase in two years.

Special Tax School Districts.--Dade County is subdivided into ten Special Tax School Districts embracing all of
the territory of the County. Of these Districts eight have issued bonds within recent years with which modern,
fire-proof buildings have been erected.

School Sanitation.--In all of the schools except a very few, sanitary plumbing has been installed, and several of
the rural school have water pressure systems and septic tanks for sewerage disposal.

The Sharon Law.--An effort has been made to faithfully carry out the provisions of Chapter 6832, Session Laws of
1915. All of thn schools report that they are faithfully observing this law. The book "Health is Wealth" has been
supplied to all of the schools by the Board.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--On the whole, I think the Uniform Text-Book Law has been a success in Florida. The school
books now in use are not generally approved. In my opinion there should be a change in the Readers, Spelling
Books and Histories, and a good text-book in Grammar should be adopted. I am not satisfied with the adopted
Writing Books, and would much prefer a writing system similar to the Palmer.

School Finances.--The Special Tax District accounts are in good condition but the County fund is in arrears. This
has been caused by our having to increase teachers' salaries, and by the fact that the rapid increase in population
is much greater than the increase derived from taxation. This year, however, our assessed valuation has been
raised materially, and we will have sufficient funds to meet this year's budget, with a balance to apply on the
outstanding indebtedness. Our county is levying the full seven mills for the general school fund.


County Teachers' Institute.--Heretofore we have been having an annual Teachers' Institute, which meets in
conjunction with the County Teachers' Association for a two days' session, Friday and Saturday after Thanks-
giving each year. In addition to this I have for the past year called the principals together in meetings one
Saturday in each month, which I have found less cumbersome than a county institute, and through which I can
keep in close touch with the work of the teachers.

Summer Schools.--Some thirty of my teachers have been attending Summer School under State auspices. We are
greatly handicapped by the distance our teachers have to travel to attend these schools, but those who have
attended find the work well worth while.

Vocational Work.--I am glad to say that Dade County has taken the lead in vocational training. Six of our schools
have well equipped departments in Home Economics; five in Manual Training; one in Commercial; and one in Agricul-
tural Work. About 150 students are taking vocational training in the county.

Canning Clubs.--Dade County has one Canning Club agent, Miss Genevieve Crawford, who is paid a salary of $100;
$50 from the county and $50 from the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Her work in this county has been very

Compulsory School Attendance.--Dade County, as a whole, voted almost unanimously for compulsory school attendance,
it being the first County in Florida to take advantage of the Law. It is successfully administered in this County
I favor a State-wide compulsory attendance law. I am sure that the sentiment in this county will be overwhelmingly
in favor of such a law,

School Libraries.--Nearly all the schools of the county have well selected libraries of about 150 volumes each for
the schools, and in some of the larger schools libraries ranging in size from 200 to 600 volumes, One plan that
I have found successful is the offer of the Dade County School Board to appropriate $1.00 for every dollar raised
by any community for a school library.

Teacher Training.--We have not yet been able to establish a Teacher Training Department in Dade County for the
reason that we were not able to meet the requirements adopted by the State Board of Education.

Transportation of Pupils.--The system of consolidating schools and transporting pupils, in lieu of establishing
small schools in rural communities, has been the policy of our Board. In one Special School District seven small
schools, having from one to four teachers each, have been consolidated. Bonds were voted for $25,000, a large
and commodious concrete building has been erected, and this District now has a school which is equal to those of
the city. The sentiment in this county is very strong for transportation and consolidation. The greatest difficulty
in the way is that this plan is a little more expensive, but the results obtained fully justify the increase in cost.

County School Boards.--The present number of members of the School Board is satisfactory in this county; though I
would not be opposed to the plan of having five members of which the County Superintendent shall be ex-officio the
fifth member. The plan of electing for four years, and only two retiring every two years, I think, would be good.

State Course of Study.--With the uniform system of text-books there certainly should be a uniform course of study
to include the grades from the 1st to the 8th. I hope that the Legislature will provide for a committee to promul-
gate such a course. This course of study should have such notes and directions as would enable a teacher to
intelligently follow the course.

Free Text-books.--I am greatly in favor of providing free text-books to all the children of Florida. The only
difficulty in the way seems to be a financial one. The plan suggested having hunting licenses, Fish Commission,
and other outside funds used for this purpose seems to be very good.

Progress.--Dade County schools have never before shown the progress and splendid work, as in the biennium just
passed, notwithstanding that Dade County has been twice divided by the creation of Palm Beach and Broward Counties.
The territory still remaining has a greater enrollment than ever before in its history. There are approximately
five thousand'children enrolled in the Dade County schools.

Comparison of Rural and Town Schools.--The remark that is often made that rural schools are neglected for town
schools is not to be made in speaking of Dade County schools. With the aid of Special Tax School District Funds
the physical condition of the rural schools are fully equal to those of the city, and in most instances the teachers
employed are just as competent.

Examination System.--I do not approve of the present system which was inaugurated to meet conditions which do not
now exist. It has splendidly served its purpose, but I am sure that the time has come for the creation of the
State Examining Board as was recommended to the last Legislature,

New Laws Recommended.--I recommend the passage of the law providing free text-books; a State Examining Board and
a law providing for the establishment of a County Agricultural High School in every County in the State of Florida.

County Agricultural High School.--This year marks the beginning of what is hoped to be one of the most useful
factors in our public school system. At Lemon City, where the Special Tax School District has provided a $25,000
building and a ten acre campus, a course of Agriculture and Horticulture has been inaugurated under the direction
of one of the most competent instructors to be found. The salary of the director is paid by the County Commiss-
ioners from the agricultural fund for which one-half mill is levied each year. In this school courses are also
given in Home Economics and Manual Training, besides the regular Junior high school academic studies. It is hoped
that by endowment or otherwise, to secure sufficient funds to erect two dormitories at the school, where the boys
and girls of the county may receive practical education near home at the minimum cost.

Respectfully submitted,
R. E. Hall,
County Superintendent.




Dear Sir:--I have the honor to submit herewith a statement of educational progress in DeSoto County for the
biennium, ending June 30, 1916:

New Buildings.--It is the policy of the Board of Public Instruction of DeSoto County to require all new communities
to either build their schools by bonding or private subscription, In this way the Board has received more than
$8,000 from private individuals not included in our financial report.

Bonds.--Bonds have been sold or voted to erect the following buildings:

Arcadia Grammar School, brick, $20,000; Buck Lake Rural, wood $10,500; Oak Hill Rural Graded, brick, $8,000; Port
Ogden High School, brick, $18,000; Arcadia Dormitory, brick, $10,000: Popash Rural Grades, brick, $5,500; Port
Green Consolidated High School, brick, $17,000; Gardner High School, brick, $10,000; Limestone High School, brick,
$8,000; Joshua Creek, Rural, wood, $2,000; Pine Level High School, brick, $8,000; Venue, equipment, $3,000. Total
buildings to be completed during the next six months: 9 brick, 2 wood, cost $111,000.

You will therefore, see that when these buildings are completed, DeSoto County will have 19 brick school buildings,
when three years ago she had only one.

School Buildings Repaired,--My records show that we have repaired 51 school houses for whites at a cost of $11,386,
and three'colored schools for $391.88. Our motto has been "Repair an old building with a new," because we
believe that the best is not too good for the boys and girls of DeSoto County.

Attendance Upon Summer School.--Fifty teachers of this county attended the summer schools held at the University
of Florida and the Florida State College for Women, and sixteen were in residence at Peabody, University of
Chicago, Columbia University, New York, and other institutions of high standing.

Vocational Work.--We believe that education has both a utilitarian and a cultural value. Vocational work is made
coordinate with the purely cultural studies. It has been introduced into a number of the rural schools in one
form or another, such as simple sewing, cooking, preparing soup and little hot dishes at the lunch hour, small tool
work, etc. In the seven high schools well equipped laboratories and shops have been installed for manual train-
ing and home economics, and special teachers provided for instructional work. Approximate number of high school
pupils in manual training, 125; home economics, 185; commercial, 20.

Canning, Corn and Other Students' Clubs.--We believe that great good can be accomplished through the organized
efforts of boys and girls and have given all possible encouragement to those having in charge the organization and
direction of Agricultural Club work. The Canning Club agent has prosecuted her work zealously and along lines
approved by both the school officials and teachers. Miss Allie Stribling, the agent, receives a salary of $1,000
for nine months, the County Commissioners and Board of Public Instruction paying jointly $500 and the Government
the remaining $500.

Judged by the increased interest manifested by farmers, as well as the young people in modern scientific methods
of farming and the values of conservation and the efforts in school work and home life in the communities where
club work has been successful, the movement is worthy of the most cordial encouragement. We are proud to report
that DeSoto County is the pioneer, and today the leader, in boys and girls Poultry Club work. There are approximately
40 girls in the Canning Clubs, 30 boys in the Corn Clubs and 20 boys and girls in the Poultry Clubs. Each year
for the past three years, girls and boys have been sent to the short course terms held at the University of Florida
and the State College for Women.

Compulsory School Attendance,--The local option compulsory attendance law was adopted by the county in an election
held January 1, 1916. One year's experience has convinced us of the inadequacy of the law and the necessity for
a State-wide, mandatory compulsory attendance law. Sentiment in DeSoto County is strongly in favor of the State-
wide law.

School Libraries.--A school library of 160 volumes has been provided for each school in the county. To obtain
this library the school must have a rating of eighty points in the efficiency schedule for a standard school and
pay one-half the cost of the books. Practically every school in the county has availed itself of the conditions
required and secured the library. During the past biennium the value of libraries has increased from $1,050 to

High Schools.--It is with pardonable pride that I report the progress and efficiency of the high schools of this
county. According to the report of the State Inspector of High Schools, DeSoto County ranks second in the number
of standard four year high schools in the State. The schools located at Wauchula, Arcadia and Punta Gords, meet
the requirements of the State Board of Education for standard senior high schools in all but one item, the quali-
fication of one teacher. Junior high schools at Bowling Green, Sebring and Nocatee, and the intermediate school
at Avon Park, meet every requirement of the State Board. Ft. Ogden lacks a few of the demands for Junior school,
but with the $18,000 bond issue voted by this district last month the school will build and equip a plant equal
to the best in the county.

We believe that the high schools should measure up not only to the State Regulations, but up to the standard set
by the Southern Commission, which lists accredited high schools in the South. Florida can give and receive much
good by a closer affiliation with her sister States in the South. The educational policy of a State should be
free from bigotry, prejudice and political bumcombe; it should seek the best ideals wherever they may be found.

At the close of the last biennium there were 352 pupils in the high schools of the county; the biennium previous
showed an enrollment of 266. Three years ago pupils were accredited with high school standing in schools of two
teachers or more; this year, under a regulation of the County Board, schools with less than four teachers are not
permitted to offer instruction in high school subjects. The enrollment of high school pupils in the eight schools
which are permitted to offer high school instruction, December 1, was 404, and was apportioned as follows: Arcadia,
170; Wauchula, 104; Punta Gords, 51; Avon Park, 21; Bowling Green, 19; Nocatee, 17; Sebring, 11; Ft. Ogden, II.

1914 1-916

Teachers.--No more loyal, progressive teachers are to be found in the State or elsewhere than those in the schools
in DeSoto County. This accounts to a great extent for the marvelous progress made along educational lines in this

We are not having much trouble in securing teachers legally certificated, as we have only one teacher in all our
schools that does not hold a regular certificate, and only two that have not fully complied with the State Board
of Education requirements, which requirements are to be met by them at the regular examination this month.

Special Tax School Districts.--Number of Districts in County 40, each levying three mills; Schools for whites in
these districts, 78; schools for whites not in these districts, 1; schools for negroes in these districts 4.

The one school not included has four sections of land which were left out when the districts around it were organ-
ized and this amount is not enough to form a paying district.

Bonding Districts.--The progressive people of DeSoto County have voted $297,000 bonds in 14 districts, sn election
is called on the 15th for $8,000, making $305,000 in the 15 Special Tax Districts with which we are building or
have built and equipped 20 brick and 7 frame school houses.

While these were being built we placed the funds in our local banks at 5 per cent interest, which netted the dis-
tricts approximately $4,000 during the past two years. This was not an easy matter to begin with, for I believe
with one exception other Superintendents, before the law was amended in 1915, placed these funds in the hands of
the County Treasurer, thereby losing the interest, and, besides, paid him 1 per cent commission for handling the
funds. To avoid doing this, it was necessary for us to have a law suit with the Treasurer, which we won, and
have thus saved to the taxpayers of these districts in the past two years over $5,000 in interest and commissions.

School Sanitation.--In the 27 new school buildings erected during the past two years sewage disposal systems have
been installed, or sanitary outhouses have been built. It is the plan of the Board to have all the toilets screened.

Alcoholics and Narcotics.--All the schools of DeSoto County teach the evils of alcoholics and narcotics and comply
fully with the requirements of Chapter 6832, Laws of 1915.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--This is not the time or the place to engage in an academic discussion of the merits or
demerits of the uniform text-book law. However, I wish to say that I regard the educational value in the principle
of uniformity the principal consideration. The operation of the law in this State places the chief emphasis upon
the economic values. An amendment to the law abolishing the dual board system of book adoption and vesting the
selection of books in a commission composed of educators of established reputation and successful experience in
school work, would remedy some of the evils which result from the present system of adoption. Almost without
exception the schools of this county demand a change in the basal readers, Wheeler's, and in the spellers. They
are absolutely unsuited to the needs and interests of the children.

School Finances.--We believe that our finances are in very good condition when the many improvements made in the
past four years are considered, and the increase in school term from 5-1/2 to 7 1-5 months, the number of teachers
from 130 to 186, and average monthly salary from $55.10 to $61.34 for all teachers. During the same time the
assessed valuation has increased from $5,226,101 to $8,463,072. This shows that the teaching force has increased
in proportion to the assessed valuation, not counting the increase in length of term and average salary paid.

Comparison of the balances in general school fund for the years 1912 and 1916 shows a balance in the former year
and a deficit in the latter. The apparent deficit, June 30, 1916, was due to the delay in the payment of 1916
taxes. In the year 1912 all but $3,345.14, or 10 percent of the taxes, was paid prior to the close of the school
year, June 30, while at the close of the school year, 1916, $28,308.41, or 48 percent of the taxes, were uncollected.
During the months of July and August, 1916, $22,859.67 were collected, and if this amount, which was due April 30
had been paid prior to the close of the school year, a balance of $908.28 would appear in the place of the deficit.
Warrants for the teachers' salaries are paid promptly. To do this, it is necessary for us to borrow money until
the taxes are paid, which money we are securing locally at 5 and 6 per cent on short-time loans.

County Institutes.--Two County Institutes have been held annually during the past biennium; one the last week in
July and the other the last week in August. The institutes were a combination of an institute and a school of
instruction, the programs affording the teachers an opportunity to discuss the problems of school work and the
Superintendent an opportunity to outline the plans and policies for the school year. The opening of the first
section of schools in the first week in August and the second section in the first week in September made it neces-
sary to divide the County Institute into two groups, as above stated.

A Bi-county Institute, composed of the teachers of Polk and DeSoto Counties, was held the Friday and Saturday
following Thanksgiving at Arcadia, Three hundred and forty-six teachers and school officials were present, twenty
or more attending from Lee and Manatee Counties.

Teacher Training Departments.--A Teacher Training Department was established in the DeSoto County High School,
September 13, 1915. The primary aim is to train teachers for the rural schools. Three courses of study are offered:
Diploma course, one-year special course, four months' short course in the spring. Students may enter the diploma
course upon certificate showing the completion of the Junior High School course of study or upon examination in the
subjects embraced in that course. Sixteen units, equivalent in value to high school units, are required for grad-
uation. Rural school Pedagogy, School Management, Methods in Primary and Grammar School subjects and elementary
psychology are the required professional studies. The one-year course reviews the elementary studies and a study
of the approved methods in these subjects. The subjects are not only discussed in class, but are demonstrated in a
model school which is conducted for this purpose. This model school occupies the same relationship to the Methods
Department that the Physical Laboratory does to the Physics Department. It has been determined by experiment that
methods learned in classrooms are soon forgotten if not demonstrated. Teachers or young men and women over 21 years
of age are permitted to enter this course. The spring course embraces all subjects required for the State Uniform
Teachers' Examination. This course is offered for the benefit of the teachers who are unable to take the regular
courses. An elective course in Home Economics and Manual Training is offered to all students in the school. This
work deals directly with the needs of the rural school. Special instruction is given in sight singing and art
studies as they relate to grade work.

Transportation of Pupils.--In the past the Board of Public Instruction has paid transportation to all children that
live three miles or more from school at the rate of 10C per day per average attendance, provided they are transported,
but nothing if they walk. Operating under the following regulations of the County Board of Public Instruction, we
have been able to discontinue eight schools through consolidation, provide for the abolition of four others, and are
giving 110 country boys and girls high school opportunities.



Regulation Regarding High School Attendance.--Whereas, According to regulations adopted by the Board of
Public Instruction at their regular meeting in May, 1915, relative to schools In which high school work may be
carried on, which regulations are a part of the rules and regulations of the State Hoard of Education; and

Whereas, the larger part of the expense of maintenance of the high school are paid by the county at large,
and each child eligible to enter a high school department should he given an equal opportunity to attend;
therefore, be it

Resolved, by the Board of Public Instruction of DeSoto County, that any boy or girl having completed the grammar
school course of study and having made such other requirements as to examination as may hereinafter be required
by the County Superintendent before allowing the following amounts, to be applied on transportation or board, to
attend one of the high schools in the county:

Four miles and less than five miles from high school....................$2.00 per month
Five miles and less than six miles from high school...................... 3.00 per month
Six miles and less than seven miles from high school.................... 4.00 ncr month
Seven miles and less than eight miles from high school................... 5.00 per month
Eight miles and less than nine miles from high school................... 6.00 per month
Nine miles and less than ten miles from high school .........,.......... 7.00 per month
Ten miles or more from high school ...................................... 7.50 per month

Be it further resolved, that a failure on the part of any pupil taking advantage of said offer for any month or
months to make a passing grade will deprive said pupil of transportation or board for said month in which failures
were made, and failure to make a grade for the year will deprive the pupils of all further consideration until they
have made good. The Board further reserves the right to designate the high school which the pupil may attend.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural and Town Schools.--We have given the major part of our time and effort to the
organization and development of a system of rural education. A standard of efficiency possible of realization with
the resources at our command has been established. All the factors that are essential in the organization and
operation of a productive school plant are grouped under the following heads and scored on a basis of one hundred
points: Buildings, Ventilation, Room Decoration, Equipment, Grounds and Outhouses, Water Supply, Community
Activities, Teacher.

The physical condition of the school--ventilation, lighting, sanitation, water supply, furniture and equipment--
has been improved more than one hundred percent. School grounds have been enlarged, fenced and beautified, and
wherever practicable consolidation has been effected. Community organizations, composed of parents and others
interested in the welfare of the children, were organized and made vital factors in the school life. A library
selected to meet the needs and interests of both children and adults was provided for each rural school in the
county. Cookirg, sewing and manual arts have been encouraged and are proving a fine leverage in a number of the
schools in lifting the school work out of the traditional ruts. High School advantages are offered every country
boy and girl, first through the strategival location of the seven high schools; second, through subsidies granted
by the Board of Public Instruction to the pupils completing the eighth grade and living four miles or farther
from a standard high school. These bonuses range from $2.00 for a distance of four miles to $7.50 for a distance
of ten miles and further. The school term has been lengthened and the average is a few days over seven months.
Teachers' salaries have been advanced, and the teaching force greatly improved. More than 60 percent of our
rural teachers attended a Normal School this past summer.

All in all, I feel that I can safely say that there is no "neglected country school" in DeSoto County, and that the
work of the rural school compares most favorably with the work in the town schools. In the report of the State
Inspector of Rural Schools, Hon. Shelton Phillips, the two highest efficiency scores made in the State were
credited to this county.

Suggested Laws.--A State-wide compulsory attendance law; a State Supervising Architect; provision making mandatory
professional supervision of the rural schools; modification of the State uniform examination law, are suggestions
for legislative inquiry and consideration.

The cost of the provision for the extension of High school advantages approximate $4,000 annually. Our experience
teaches us that transportation is both practical and economical.

County School 3oards.--If all counties have Boards that co-operate with and support the policies of the superinten-
dent as has the Board in DeSoto County with which I have worked, I see no need for a change.

I do not believe, however, if the Superintendent was ex-officio a member of the Board, it would add dignity to the
office, thus making it possible for a strong Superintendent to do more and a weak man to show his colors. This
would necessitate five members and they should be elected for a term of four years, two retiring every two years.

Uniform Text-Books.--Uniformity may easily become deformity. If the law was framed to safeguard the child's
interest against ignorance, prejudice and false conceptions of economic values of book commissions, uniformity would
be acceptable for the primary and grammar grades. In the present changeable and changing conditions in the world's
politics, science and arts, uniformity of text books for high schools would be a positive menace to educational

State Course of Study.--A State Course of Study seems to be a present vital need. DeSoto County, however, has met
this need and the schools are working under a course of study and syllabus which aims to unify the work of the
schools by giving a minimum uniform standard of work required in each grade for promotion and by furnishing the
basis for a clearer and more efficient direction and supervision. Grades from the first to the twelfth should be
embraced in a State Course of Study. The legislature should provide for a committee to adopt, print and promulgate
a course of study; the members of the Committee to be named by the Florida Educational Association.

Free Text-Books.--I am not in favor of a system of free text-books, if the funds needed to supply the books must
come from the county school funds.


Progress or Retrogression.--Schools awarded first prize at South Florida Fair, Tampa, 1916:

Rural schools of DeSoto County secured the highest rating for efficiency in the State, by State Inspector of
Rural Schools, Hon. Shelton Phillips.

We have built 29 new buildings throughout the county, equipped them with modern educational apparatus, issued
bonds for the erection of 11 more, increased the length of the manual training and home economics, provided special
agent for the betterment of the rural school activities, won the highest honors in State school contests; all of
this and more, and we are proud to report that the general school fund is clear from debt. Through a business
administration, the Board of Public Instruction are now able and are offering, without increase of taxation, a high
school education to every boy and girl that are not in reach of same, by paying part of their expenses to attend
one of the high schools. One hundred and ten of our county boys and girls are taking advantage of this opportunity,
We challenge anyone to show a county in the State that can offer a greater record of progress.

(A) State Board of Education composed of Educators.
(B) Educational qualifications for County Superintendent and Rural Supervisors.
(C) A Rural School Supervisor for each Congressional District.
(D) Adoption by law of State Uniform Course of Study.
(E) State-wide Compulsory School Attendance Law, extending time from 80 days to length of term.
(F) State school supervising architect.
(G) Amend law for County Depositories, designating the bank that will make the highest and best bid for
Respectfully submitted,
Jas. O. Buckley,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--To comply with your request for a biennial report of the work of the Board of Public Instruction and the
progress of the schools of Duval County covering the scholastic years of 1915-16 is both a pleasure and a privilege.
The report on topics suggested in your circular follows:

New Buildings.--In my report for 1913-14 I wrote of the plan to form a large Special Tax District in Duval County,
with Jacksonville as a center and extending out in all directions far beyond its limits--the district to be formed
with the fixed purpose of bonding it in the sum of $1,000,000, to be expended for the purpose of purchasing sites,
erecting modern, fireproof school buildings and the furnishing or equipping of the same, Our plans carried, the
district was formed, and a magnificent one it is, containing approximately thirty-six square miles, with an assessed
valuation (on 50 percent basis) of about $40,000,000. The million-dollar bond issue was authorized and today there
are completed and under construction nine new buildings and three additions to old ones. The new buildings range
from a four-room one-story brick for suburban and outlying districts to a sixteen-room, two-story, fireproof in
the city. The eight and sixteen class room buildings contain, in addition, an auditorium, principal's office,
library, clinic, a restroom for girls and one for boys, domestic science kitchen and dining rooms, manual training
shop and storage rooms and two open-air classrooms each. In the additions to the buildings which have been added
to, the same arrangements have been made for auditorium, manual training, kitchen and dining room, etc., as in the
new ones. In other words, every elementary school building in the city will have an auditorium, principal's office,
library, clinic, a restroom for girls and one for boys, domestic science kitchen and dining room, manual training
shop and storage rooms, and open-air classrooms.

Our building program, when completed, will include for the white children 13 out-and-out new buildings and 7
modernized buildings, making a total of 20 for the district and 7 for the negroes, with 3 of the present old
buildings remodeled. The Stanton School for Negro Youth, plane for which have already been prepared and approved,
will be one of the completest of its kind in the country. This building will occupy an entire block, will have
two stories and a basement, will be of fireproof construction throughout, with provisions for a High School depart-
ment, Domestic. Science, Domestic Art, Laundry, Shop Work, etc.

School Buildings Repaired.--At the close of the rural schools in the spring the Board of Public Instruction, in
company, with the Superintendent, made a tour of inspection, taking in practically every building in the county,
and authorized such repairs as were found to be needed and the repainting of every building; the thorough repair
and repainting of the outbuildings, as well, and authorized such changes as were necessary to make them conform
to the requirements of Chapter 6836, Laws 1915. The Board also authorized the Superintendent to place flag poles
at each of the schools and to purchase flags for the same. It is planned next summer to replace many of the old
desks, especially the antiquated double desks in these schools with new and modern furniture and to place in them
such charts, maps, globes and other equipment as may be considered necessary for the best work. It is planned,
also, to provide each of these schools with small libraries of suitable, well-selected books.

High Schools.--Duval County maintains two high schools, both in the City of Jacksonville; one for the whites, the
Duval High School, and one for the colored youth, Stanton. Stanton School is both elementary and High School
combined. Duval High School is of senior grade, and no one is employed to teach therein except such as have
received a degree in a reputable college, university or Normal School. The attendance at the high school has
increased in four years from (average attendance 1913-14) 397 to (average attendance 1915-16) 529, and the present
enrollment for 1916-17 is 666.

Teachers.--Although the Board is constantly raising the requirements in scholarship for the teachers, we are finding
it easier with each succeeding year to get a supply of competent teachers. This is due largely to the fact that
the Board conducts a Summer School every year for a period of six weeks, employing the best instructors that can be
had, and to the further fact that salaries are being increased from time to time as funds warrant it. Salaries
in the past three years have been increased from a minimum of $40 in the city to $50, and from a maximum of $65
to $75 in the grades, with a corresponding increase in the rural districts. The salary schedule is based upon
both experience and professional training. Beginning with the fall of 1917, no teacher will be employed in the
schools of Jacksonville and suburbs who is not a graduate of a four years' standard high school and who, in addi-
tion thereto, has had less than one year at a reputable Normal School, or, in lieu thereof, from two to three years
successful experience as a teacher; and for the rural schools none will be considered except those who have had at
least two years in a high school, with a reasonable amount of professional training. Third grade certificates are
not to be considered at all in either rural or city schools, except in very rare instances.


Special Tax School Districts.--There is only one special tax school district in the county, the Jacksonville district,
discussed in the opening paragraph of this report. Petitions have been secured for two more districts, one at
Baldwin and the other at Riverview, and the elections will be held in the near future to determine whether these
sections are to be formed into such districts. The people want them, and I have no doubt will vote to establish
them. Then modern brick school buildings will be erected in these new districts.

Teaching Evils of Alcoholics and Narcotics.--The teaching of the evils of alcoholics and narcotics was not post-
poned pending the passage of a law requiring it. The teachers of this county have been teaching the evils of
such for years. I, however, in the fall, following the passage of the 1915 law referred to, called my teachers
together, explained and emphasized the requirements of this new legislation and went into details with them as
to the best and most effective methods of presenting these subjects to the children. We did not purchase "Health
is Wealth," although I consider the little book a very satisfactory outline and guide. I did not feel, however,
that it would be reasonable to require the teachers to purchase this book out of their own small earnings and the
county was not in financial condition to do it.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--It is my opinion that the uniform text-book law is working exceedingly well and satisfact-
orily, considering the fact that it is new in this State. We have little or no difficulty in obtaining the books
prescribed. I am not prepared to criticize any particular one of the adoptions, but if I may pass on criticisms
which I have heard urged by competent teachers and supervisors, I would say that Wheeler's Readers should be
replaced by a more satisfactory set of books. And, too, I have been told that the Spellers could be improved upon
without much trouble, and Ilyde's Grammars are said to be out of date. However, all this may be, I should deem it
unwise to make many changes, for, after all, it is not so much the question of the book that makes the teacher's
work efficient as the teacher herself. The difference in merit of books is usually imaginary and has its birth
in the minds of publishers and their representatives, who desire to sell their wares. The "Superiority" claimed
of one text-book over another is over-stressed and over-worked.

School Finances.--The school finances of Duval County are in splendid condition--the best that has existed for
many,many years. For the first time in the memory of the oldest citizen of this county, the public schools opened
in the fall with sufficient funds in the hands of the county Treasurer and in banks to pay the first month's salaries
better than that, we paid December month's salaries, that being the third month of the school term, and had left to
our credit in cash in the general fund $49,514.45, and in the Special Tax School District No. I one-mill fund approxi-
mately $18,000. We will pay January salaries and shall not be forced to borrow money before the end of February,
and all this is true in spite of the fact that the teachers' salaries were increased throughout the county last fall.
While we shall have to borrow money for expenses of operating schools after February, we shall not be forced to
borrow anything like 80 percent of our estimated receipts, the maximum allowed under the law for any year.

Canning Clubs.--This is the second year that the county has had a Canning Club and Home Economics agent. The work
under the joint auspices of the Board of Public Instruction and the Federal Government was begun a year ago, the
Board of Public Instruction appropriating $500 for each year and the Government $400. Mrs. J. H. Wellington was
employed by the Springfield Improvement Association before the county school board undertook this activity and
when the Board, at the suggestion of the Association officers, (Mrs. W. S. Jennings, President) decided to take
over the work, it retained Mrs. Wellington as its agent. She has done, and is doing, splendid work. I consider
the money that is being put into this enterprise well spent.

School Libraries.--As stated in a preceding paragraph, it is planned to place libraries in all of the schools in
the near future. I expect to place in the budget for the next school year an item for this purpose. Our city
schools, many of them, are provided with a splendid nucleus of a library, while the Duval High School library
contains many valuable and helpful books of reference. Then, too, the city Public Library has, for several years,
and is now, supplying in a very satisfactory manner, books for the city and suburban schools. These library books
are well selected and are sent from school to school by the public librarian, a very capable, competent and obliging
official who leaves nothing undone to reach the children and younger people in his territory. Mr. L. W. Joaselyn
is a valuable asset to the City of Jacksonville and Duval County.

Teacher-Training Department.--A Teacher Training Department was established in the Duval County High School last
fall, and a competent, capable and splendidly trained instructor put in charge. Up to date 21 pupils have enrolled
and Mrs. Warner, the instructor, is very much gratified over the progress that these young people are making in
her department. I am looking for this Teacher-Training venture to develop into the strongest factor in supplying
well-trained teachers for the public schools of this county, It has great possibilities.

Commercial Department.--A Commercial Department was added last fall and an able specialist in such courses employed
to take charge of it. At present stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping and elementary commercial law are being
taught. The department started off with an enrollment far larger than any one had anticipated and has continued
to increase until now there are more than 100 boys and girls pursuing these practical subjects.

Spanish Department.--Classes in Spanish were also organized at the opening of the high school. This department
promises to grow in popularity as the people here appreciate more the rapidly increasing demand for a knowledge of
the Spanish language, due to our proximity to and constantly increasing trade with the South American republics.

Transportation of Pupils.--This system has been in vogue in this county for a number of years, but it is not so
extensive now as it was ten or twelve years ago. We have a number of consolidated schools to which children
are transported, and they are also hauled to a number of our one and two teacher schools. In many districts
Duval County is sparsely settled and the distances, therefore, are great, making it necessary to transport the
children to the schools. The system is rather expensive, costing approximately sixteen cents per pupil per school
day, and unless handled with a great deal of care and judgment, will bankrupt any county.

County School Boards.--I favor the small Board. I prefer the present membership of three to a Board of five. It
is argued that with the membership of three on the Board it Is possible for a majority of two to dictate its policies.
My opinion is that the majority of a large Board, if it so desires, can be as pernicious and hurtful to the public
good as the majority on a small Board. There is no difference essentially in the size of majorities. Certainly,
the small Board will do its work with greater dispatch and I think in most instances more thoroughly than a larger
Board. I am unalterably opposed to making the Superintendent ex-officio a member of the Board. The school super-
intendent stands between the Board and the people; he is, or should be, the executive head of the system.



To make him a I rber of the Sord, with voting power, would, I believe, tend to weaken his influence as an
executive and edtcatiMona leoado both with the people and with the Board, because of the danger of his becoming
involved in wrangling end squabbiings that might arise, which would tend to lower the dignity of his position
and curtail his power and infivence as Superintendent. While the elective method of selecting school board
members may net be the ideal one, I si apt prepared to say that the appointive is a better one. Much would
depend upon the p9litital I enuentes entering into the appointment. I prefer to let the people do it. One,
at least, knows then where to plase the responsibility. this is my honest opinion on this question.

We in Florida are operating our spho9ol under the county unit plan, with a State Board of Education and Superin-
tendent at the head of the entire system, and, it seems to me, that it follows that there should be, as far as
it may be practieable, q4fatrity in the esursee of study in the several counties. This could only be brought
about by the adoption of a nitoar State Courde of Study extending from the first through the twelfth grade. Of
course, difficulti~t waitd be enotattefd in administering such a law, because of the fact that all counties do
not have the $U#W ln~th p1 tier not do they require the same standards of scholarship among their teachers.
As to how such 4 u001ttt law1 would beat be enforced, I am unable to says but certainly, with uniform text-books
and uniform a14W and State regulatiotte, it follows that an effort should be made toward providing a uniform course
throughout the State.

Free Text-Booka and Comn lszy Attendance.--In this connection I wish to say that with all the objections, and
there are many, I favor free text-ooks. I favor compulsory attendance; worked hard for the passage of the
present law, #nd heve assisted in seocring the necessary petitions to hold an election in this county this summer
to make it effective next year. I hope that the next Legislature will so amend the law as to extend the period
of copulsoty attendance tro 80 to 120 days. No state has a right, however, to require its children to attend
school without seeing to it that every child is provided with the necessary books. The State is not educating its
youth actuated by philanthropic motives, but because she realizes that an educated citizenship costs less and is
more desirable than an ignorant Or illiterate one. Free text-books and compulsory education go hand in hand.

Educational Pronree.-WWe are unfamiliar with the meaning of the word retrogression in this county. The public
schools are making slw, but real and aertain, progress. This is due primarily to the fact that the teachers of
the county are improving both In chol4reship and in method, and to the further fact that there is a constantly
growing sentiment among the people in favor of better schools.
Our city schools are more efficient than our rural schools, which is true in every county in the United States.
The best has always been given to the cities; not so much because the cities are selfish, but because the better
teachers prefer to teach in the city. Most teachers take a position in a rural school at a good salary. This
ought not to be, but it is, And some other incentive beside money will have to be offered if we are to induce our
trained teachers to accept rural positions. After all, under present conditions, you cannot blame the teachers.

The Present Examination System.--I think that the present examination system is far from perfect and is subject to
many abuses. There certainly should be some changes made in it, or a new system evolved altogether. A State
Examination Board, recommended at the last Legislature, I approved, along with other school men and women, as well
as the State Educational Association and County Superintendents' Convention. I still favor that as against the
present, but am not sure that that is the best system that could be devised. In this connection, I would like to
state that I favor now, and have for some time, some form of recognition of diplomas or certificates from other
States, when it can be shown that the holders from outside are capable, competent and qualified. Competent teachers
would have nothing to fear from such reciprocity, and the incompetent ought not to draw a salary from the public
fund. There are only three states in the Union and one Territory that do not extend recognition to one extent or
another to teachers from without. These States are Florida, Connecticut, New Hampshire and the District of Columbia.
This is rather significant. Leaders in school administration and educational thought are, I think, agreed that
there should be some sort of standardization among the states in the important matter of licensing teachers.

Respectfully submitted,
F. A. Hathaway,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request that I send you my biennial report, I beg to hand you the following:

New School Buildings.--During the past two years there has been built in Escambia county 10 new buildings with a
total of 35 rooms, costing about $55,000. The most substantial of these are the Jos. B. Lockey Grammar School,
a semi-fire-proof building of nine rooms, on the west side of Pensacola, and costing $18,000; the James M. Tate
Industrial School at Gontalez in process of construction will cost when complete more than $20,000; the Molino
School, a three-room brick structure; and the Oak Grove School, containing four rooms and built of brick. All
the others were frame buildings. All the above mentioned buildings were built from the general funds, with the
exceptions of the James M. Tate Industrial School. The citizens of that district voted a bond issue of $12,000,
which is to be spent in its construction. This is the only bond issue we have in Eacambia County.

Pensacola Higih School.--During the past two years there has been marked improvement in the work of the Pensacola
High School. The enrollment in 1915 was 295, and in 1916 was 351. This large increase in enrollment made necessary
additional teachers, and the faculty now numbers thirteen regular teachers, and three special teachers. Progress
has been made along many lines. The Domestic Science Department is now definitely established and has more than
demonstrated its value. Music was added to the curriculum as a regular subject this year.

Quite noteworthy is the development of the High School Student Activities, the formation and organization of a
Dramatic Class, under a special instructor, and a Students' Orchestra and participation in Athletics by a
greater number of boys and girls.

Assisting in the movement to have the high school better serve the community, mention must be made of the Parent-
Teachers' Association with its widened sphere of influence and usefulness.

The high school maintains the standard course of study. Courses are offered in the departments of English, Mathe-
matics, History, Latin, Science, French, Commerce, Domestic Science and Education, the instructors in each depart-
ment being specialists in their respective lines.


The high school this year is being housed in the old Grammar school building, a frame structure of fourteen
rooms, centrally located for the entire city. We regret to admit that the building is not at all suited for the
high school, but we expect a special tax district of Pensacola soon, and it is the intention of the citizens to
subsequently vote a bond issue with which to build a home for the high school as well as some other buildings.

We have four other schools doing high school work that have been mentioned.

Muscogee, classified as an Intermediate High School, is doing excellent work. Its principal, Hiss Sue Yent, holds
a State Certificate and Hiss Maggie Taulbee, her assistant in the high school department, has taken half her
examination for a State Certificate. They have five teachers in the school and an enrollment of 125, with 23 in
the high school department.

Century, a school of seven teachers, with an enrollment of 230, is doing good work as a Junior High School. They
feel that with their present teaching force they will be able to strengthen the high school department.

Bluff Springs and Perry Pass are teaching high school subjects, although they realize that they cannot do standard

Pensacola Grammar Schools--The erection of the Joseph B. Lockey School, mentioned under the head of "New School
Buildings," and the converting of the old high school building into a grammar school building, expending thereon
$6,000 in addition to the original cost of $25,000, which gives us a modern fireproof building of eleven rooms
costing something over $30,000, has enabled us to adopt the plan of two grammar schools for the City of Pensacola,
one on the east side and the other on the west, with the High school in the center. All the grammar grades are
housed in these two buildings with the exception of four rooms, which are temporarily being taught in the annex
of the present high school building.

Pensacola Primary Schools.-We have at present eight primary school buildings, with a total of forty-three rooms.
These are located wherever the population requires them. In general, they are substantial frame buildings and are
fairly >ell equipped. They barely accommodate the first four grades.

James W. Tate Industrial School.--We are now building a nine-room, semi-fireproof, brick structure on a forty-acre
site at Gonzales, to be known as the James M. Tate Industrial School. This building is to be equipped with sanitary
drinking fountains, toilets, steam heating system, commodious corridor space, stairways, fire escapes, etc. The
sewerage will be disposed of by means of a septic tank. Water will be supplied by a 2 1/2-inch well, set in a
4-inch casing and pumped by a gasoline engine, 6-horsepower, into a 10,000-gallon tank. This engine will also be
utilized for driving other machinery, which is to be added from time to time. This school is located thirteen miles
north of Pensacola on the L. and No. and C., F. and A. Railways, in one of the best farming communities in West
Florida, and I see no reason why it should not develop into one of the leading agricultural schools of the State.
We expect to have taught thorough courses in domestic science and arts for the girls, and agriculture and manual
training for the boys, as well as other usual subjects, and the equipment will be installed with these ends in view.

The grounds have been surveyed and a comprehensive layout made of all necessary driveways, walks, buildings, etc.
The orchards and shade trees will be planted according to the survey and likewise every other permanent improvement
made from year to year will develop this plan, The site in rear of the main building is to be cross-fenced into
five-acre plat. for farm demonstration purposes, with the necessary barn and stock sheds conveniently located.

We hope, by the establishment of this school, to induce the pupils who have finished the eighth grade in the smaller
schools to come to this one and thereby enable us to eliminate as nearly as possible the teaching of high school
subjects in the small schools.

Special Tax Distric:s.--We have thirteen Special Tax Districts at this time, only three having been created since
my last biennium. Petitions are now being circulated to call an election to place Pensacola under Special Tax
School District supervision.

County Teachers' Associations.--Our teachers have had for several years a Teachers' Association for the county, which
meets four times each year, beginning the second Saturday in October. The city teachers also have an association;
besides, the primary teachers have a separate Primary Association; yet all ex-officio belong to the County Teachers'

Teachers' Summer School.--We have had four very successful summer schools. We began in 1913 with three Instructors
and an enrollment of 50 teachers. In 1916 we had five instructors, among them being some of the best educators
in the South, and an enrollment of 100 teachers. We encourage our teachers to go to the State Summer Schools or
to good schools outside the State. The teachers who cannot go away we urge to attend the local Summer School,
and we provide for them the best advantages possible.

Canning Clubs.--At present we have no farm demonstration agent. We do, however, have a very efficient Canning Club
Agent, in the person of Hiss Lonny Landrum. She is a graduate of the Florida College for Women, a practical teacher,
and is doing good work in this county organizing the girls and ladies into poultry clubs, conducting many school
cooking demonstrations, sewing circles, etc., in addition to her usual duties as Canning Club Agent. She has 33
women and 65 girls and boys enrolled in poultry clubs and 80 girls are enrolled in canning clubs for the coming
year. This work is in 20 different communities located in every part of the county. Numbers of Bulletins on home
questions have been given to the women of the county who are not club members. We are co-operating with the
National Government to the extent that she will be employed in this county this year ten and one-half months.

School Fair.--I also want to mention the School Fair of this county. Only two schools undertook the fair this
year--Bellview, under the leadership of its principal, Miss Vallie Jones; and Barth, under the direction of its
teacher, Hiss Eula Padgett. This being the second year for Bellview, they had a splendid exhibit of farm products
and live stock of the community in the names of the school children. This is the first year for Barth, but the fair
was a decided success. The fairs were worth a great deal to the communities, both in the way of education and
inspiration. Of course, the Canning Club girls played their part.



School Exhibit at Escambia County Fair.--The school exhibit at the Escambia County Fair has grown in the past
seven years from a mail display in the corner of a tent to a large and interesting exhibit occupying 50 feet.
by 100 feet in the Agricultural Building. The eight primary schools, two grammar schools and the high school
of Pensacola, and the schools of Brent, Ferry Pass, Quintette, Cantonment, Barth and Century had exhibits, and
the work wee tastefully arranged on tables or hung on the wall. Many drawings were shown, and taken as a whole,
showed marked improvement over work of former years. The interest in drawing is growing, end when its value
correlated with writing, language, geography, history, manual arts and domestic art, is fully realized, it will
have a place in every school in Florida. Some of the rural schools of Escambia County have already asked for it.
Varied work from all schools included examples in writing, language, geography, history, mathematics, commercial,
manual arts, and home economics, and this work was carefully examined by the parents and friends of the pupils.
The visitors' register showed seventeen States and one foreign country were represented by people interested.

State Course of Study.--We would recommend that the State prepare a course of study for grades, one to eight,
both inclusive, and that the course of study throughout the State be uniform.

Comparative Efficiency of City and County Teachers.--Except for the advantage of having one teacher for each grade
(an advantage that only the centers of population can have) I see little difference in the city end rural schools.
One disadvantage to the rural school children worthy of mention here is the lack of high school accommodations.
We are planning, however, to maintain a high school in the county, peculiar to the needs of the rural children.
We,however, face the difficulty of getting the children to attend, as only a few will be able to bear their own
expenses. I see no way out of this unless the country or State make an appropriation for part of the expenses for
all eighth grade graduates who live more than five miles from some standard high school. I believe this is being
done in some of the counties of the State now, and I shall recommend it to our Board next year.

The Outlook.--The enrollment in Escambia County schools has increased in the last four years more than 1,000 and
the average attendance likewise has increased. Not all of this is due to increase in population, but is due to
the increased interest in education on the part of the public. With our present buildings, our special tax districts
and prospect of others to be created we really believe that we are entering upon an era of better schools, both
city and rural.

Very respectfully submitted,
A. S. Edwards,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request I have the honor to submit herewith a brief report of the condition of
Franklin County schools.

The past biennium has marked more progress in educational matters than we have ever experienced at any stated period
before. Our people are becoming more interested in education and, therefore, they have supported every movement
introduced to them for the betterment of schools.

New Buildings.--The fact of the creation of a Special Tax School District for Apalachicola and the carrying of a
Bond election in said District for the purpose of erecting in said District a new school building, was made mention
of in my last report. Since that report we have erected a splendid brick building in Apalachicola at a cost of
$27,000 with the money realized from the sale of said bonds. This building is modern in every detail. It has
twenty-three rooms in all. The auditorium seats 450 persons. The building was planned and erected only for the
needs of the present, but for the future needs of the people. During this year we have been successful in creating
another special tax school district. With the creation of this district we have the satisfaction of seeing
Franklin County wholly divided into special tax school districts.

Enrollment of Pupils.--Our enrollment has increased during the past two years but very little. However, the average
attendance is better. This is another evidence of the people's awakening to a deeper concern for the welfare of
their children.

Finances.--Our last final report, July 1, 1916, shows an indebtedness of $9,557.42 net, but we note on the same
report that only $1,638.06 of last calender year's taxes had been collected, and the amount assessed for said
year was $10,670.84. Amount still due July 1, 1916, $9,032.78. Amount of poll taxes due $211, making a total
due at the close of the school year, 1916, of $9,243.78, if this amount had been in hand at that time our report
would have shown an indebtedness of only $313.64, The next item in connection with this undesirable condition is,
that during the last scholastic year we paid $740 interest for money borrowed at eight percent, with which to
pay the expenses of the schools. Such conditions should not exist. The people should not be burdened with this
unnecessary expense. The money paid by our Board for interest during the school year ending June 30, 1916, would
have run our rural schools for six months.

Legislation.--We favor the passage of such a law at the next session of the Legislature whereby it will be
obligatory on the part of the Tax Collectors to close their books by the 1st of April of each year. The people
will pay their taxes by a certain time if they know they must do so. On the other hand, if they can put off the
payment of their taxes they will do so as long as possible. If such a law was passed and put into force it would
not only be a great benefit to Boards of County Commissioners and Boards of Public Instruction, but it would be
very much to the advantage of Tax Collectors, The tax-payers would then know that the collectors were forced by
law to make their collections within a certain time and would, therefore, pay up.

Uniform Examination Law.--Our present Uniform Examination Law for teachers has served its time. It has been a
good law, but we need a new law now. No one, perhaps, realizes this fact any more than our esteemed State Super-
intendent, and your plan for a State Examination Board, in my opinion, would be the only law whereby the proper
results could be obtained in the certification of teachers, and I think that it is the duty of every County
Superintendent end Board of Public Instruction in the State to assist you in your endeavor to have this law
passed at the next session of the Legislatures

Respectfully submitted,
A. A. Core,
County Superintendent.




Dear Sir:--Complying with your request to furnish a report of the schools of this county for the past two years,
I beg to submit the following:

New Buildings.--Since my last report we have put up two new buildings. One is a three-room frame building for the
white school at Hardaway; the other a two-story frame structure for the negro children at Quincy. The building
at Hardaway coat $1,200, while the one for the negroes was built at a cost of $2,000. In each case one-half of
the amount was appropriated from the general school funds, the other being contributed by the patrons of each

School Buildings Repaired.--During the biennium we have repaired several of the older buildings: besides in many
places, it has been necessary to add additional recitation rooms, due to the growing attendance in such schools.
Approximately $2,500 was spent in providing the material for such repairs, most of thelabor being performed by
the patrons free of charge.

High Schools.--We are maintaining but one Senior high school which is located at the county seat. It is open to
all students of the county who are prepared to do the work of the high school. The school has a good library and
ample laboratory fixtures, which enables it to do efficient work in each department. All teachers employed are
properly certificated, according to the laws of the State and the Regulations of the State Board of Education.
We believe the courses offered here are first class, and that the entire work of the school will compare favorably
with the best high schools in the State. There are no intermediate high schools in the county. At present, we
have three junior high schools, but after this year we shall have two more, making five in all. These three are
located at Havana, Gretna and Greensboro. At Havana there are 15 pupils in the high school; 9 in the ninth, and
6 in the tenth grade. At Gretna, there are 14 pupils in the high school; 11 in the ninth, and 3 in the tenth grade.
The one in Greensboro has a total of ten pupils in the high school; 8 in the ninth, and two in the tenth grade.
These all have good library and the necessary laboratory equipment, worth not less than $100 each. The principal
in each school has the required certificate and only one of the standard courses is offered, thus meeting all the
requirements of a good Junior high school.

Teachers.--We are usually fortunate in getting all that we need in the county. Seldom do we find it necessary to
go elsewhere for teachers, except what is due to the shifting about of some from place to place. As before stated
the great majority of them attend the summer schools, because the method of having their certificates extended
without going through the regular examinations rather appeals to them; besides, it invariably furnishes us with a
better grade of trained teachers. It is certainly a good step in the right direction and it is to be hoped that
the State will more and more realize the great need of the prepared teacher, and, in the future, make ample
provision for the summer schools.

Special Tax School Districts.--There are now 12 Special Tax School Districts in the County, 4 of which have been
established since my report two years ago. In each of these districts we have a good school in charge of capable
and experienced teachers. Everywhere in the county can be found increased interest and enthusiasm, as is attested
by the continued creation of these districts. Education has begun to get hold of the people, and the entire
situation looks very encouraging.

Bonding Distridts.--Neither the county or districts have as yet taken advantage of the law authorizing the issuance
of bonds for school purposes.

School Sanitation.--The various schools of the county have complied with the requirements of Chapter 6836, or will
have done so by the time this report is put into print. Also, the Act requiring that the evil effects of alcohol
be taught to the pupils of the lower grades, is carried out to the letter. The little book,"Health is Wealth,"
is being used as a guide in this instruction. The several schools furnish the text at their own expense.

Uniform Text Book Law.--I am in thorough accord with the Uniform Text-Book Law of 1911, In my judgment, it is the
best measure passed in the interest of the poor boys and girls of this State for many years. It has been in effect
here since its passage, and no doubt has saved the people immense sums of money every year in the purchase of
new books. I should like to see the law so amended as to include high school books, and I hope the next Legisla-
ture will not adjourn until such an amendment has been enacted into law.

School Finances.--The school finances are in very good condition. There are no debts of any kind on either the
county or the special tax school district funds. However, it is sometimes necessary to borrow money on short loans
to enable the Board to pay off teachers promptly. We are getting this money now at 5 percent.

Teachers' County Institutes.--In Cadsden County, we have what is known as the Gadsden County Teachers' Association.
The membership is composed of teachers, patrons and others interested in the public schools. Meetings are held
every month or two during the year in different sections of the county at which time very interesting programs
are carried out. Everywhere, the people are filled with the determination to provide better schools for their
children, which assures us that we may confidently hope for greater things in the future.

Corn and Tomato Clubs.--The county has had a Farm Demonstrator for several years, but until recently there was
no Canning Club Agent, Mr. M. N. Smith of River Junction receiving the appointment as Demonstration Agent too
late this year to do anything in the way of organizing Corn Clubs among the boys. He is now interesting the boys
in this phase of the work and hopes to make a good showing next year. It may he of interest to state that Mr. C. II.
Smith of River Junction was awarded the prize this fall for the best corn produced in the State. The salary of
the Agent is $1,200, one-half of which was paid by the county, the other was furnished by the Federal Department.

Canning Clubs.--Bleginning in January, the Canning Club work will be in charge of Miss Ruby McDavid of Iltnson. Her
salary will be $600 for a period of six months. Of this amount, $300 was appropriated from the general fund of
the county, the other being furnished by the department having such work in charge. With the assistance of these
two agencies in the field another year, we feel assured that the general educational conditions in the county will
be very materially benefitted.

Teacher-Training Department.--As yet we have no such department organized in connection with any of our schools.
No doubt it would be a very useful department if properly installed, but scarcity of funds and lack of space have
made it impracticable to attempt anything along this line. However, it is our purpose to undertake it as soon as
the demand is made and when funds will justify it. I consider this a very worthy measure, as it will enable us



to procure teachers who have been trained in the profession of teaching rather than to be forced to use
those who have attended some so-called Normal School established here and yonder over the State, the sole object
of which seemingly having been to prepare students to pass the examinations and get certificates.

County School Board.-I fail to see the need of increasing the membership from three, as at present, to five
members. I am against creating any more useless offices and, being unable to see the wisdom of having five
members constitute the County Boards of Public Instruction, I go on record as opposed to the proposition,

School Libraries.--Considerable interest has lately been created in the various school communities in providing
good libraries for the pupils of the several grades. This has been encouraged by our County Board by adopting a
resolution agreeing to pay one-third the expense of installing these libraries. Many schools have already
purchased them and others are planning to do so in the near future.

Progress.--My annual report will show that the enrollment for the year ending June 30, 1916, was 5,704, with
an average attendance of 3,945. This is an increase of about 10 per cent in enrollment and about 8 percent in
average attendance for the last two years. Of course, these figures are not big enough to cause us any unnecessary
comment, but at the same time they are such as to lead one to believe that we are gradually progressing along all
lines. We.anticipate a much greater attendance in the future than we have had in the past, because of the
interest to be found throughout the entire county.

Very truly yours,
Charles H. Gray,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request of Nov. 21, I beg leave to submit the following brief report.

New School Buildings.--During the past two years we have built 2 school houses at a cost of about $300 each,
The houses were one-room school houses built in the rural districts. During the same period we have spent $1,200
repairing school houses.

High Schools.--We have one Senior School in the county. It is located at Jasper. Last year there were 52 pupils
enrolled in the high school grades. The school has never been recognized by the State Board of Education but we
are making efforts now to gain recognition by that Board.

We have a junior high school at Jennings with an enrollment in the high school grades of 21, and another junior
high school at White Springs with an enrollment in the high school grades of 20. Neither of these schools has
been recognized by the State Board of Education.

Teachers.--We have no trouble in securing teachers for our schools. We have enough teachers in the county to
teach our schools, but we get a few from other counties and send them a few of ours just to show them that we
are willing to exchange.

Special Tax School Districts.--We have only 4 special tax school districts with one white school and one colored
school in each district.

Sanitation.--Our out-buildings are not up to the requirements of the State Board of Health because we have no funds
with which to meet the requirements. However, we have built a number of out-buildings for our schools and are
building more as our funds will permit.

Teaching The Evils of Alcoholics and Narcotioa.--As soon as we are informed by the State Superintendent that a text
book for that important study had been adopted, we passed a resolution requiring our teachers to teach the subject
in our schools. The people refused to purchase the books for the pupils, then I requested the teachers to lecture
the pupils at least once each week on the subject. As we have not had an open saloon in this county in 20 years
and it is certain that we will never ha#e another one, I believe that the children of this county are reasonably
safe from the evils of both alcohol and narcotics.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--We are satisfied with the uniform text-book law. The only inconvenience about it is, the
profit is so small that we cannot get merchants to keep the books. I believe that if the law was amended so that
County Superintendents could handle the books for the contractors, it would be a great convenience to the people
in getting books.

School Finances.--While we do not get enough money and equip our schools as we would like to have them, we manage
to keep out of debt. At the close of the laet school year our report showed that our net indebtedness was $122.46
for the county school fund and $4,177.78 for the special tax districts. At the same time there was due us about
$5,000 from uncollected taxes.

Compulsory School Attendance.--We have never voted on the question of compulsory school attendance in any part of
this county. The people are opposed to it and I see no good reason for it myself.

Teacher-Training Department.--We maintained a Teacher-Training Department in our Senior high school last year with-
out asking for State aid. Under the able management of Prof. J. H. Cuilliams, the department was a great success
and we are making application this year for State aid. The law is a good one and should never be repealed.

County School Boards.--We are well satisfied with the present number of School Board members. I can see no objection
to a two-year term. If the members give satisfaction, they are always returned.

State Course of Study.--I favor a State Course of Study in all twelve grades. The Legislature should empower the
State Superintendent to appoint a committee to outline the course. The course should be furnished to the counties,
and for two years the course should be advisory only, but after two years the County Superintendents should be
required to enforce it just as they now enforce the course of study adopted by the County School Board.


Free Text-Booke.--Ordinarily, I am in favor of getting as much as I can free, but I am opposed to free text-
books. I have had a little experience with free text-books and I find that where the books come free it takes
about three times as many books as when the books are purchased by the parents. Books are so cheap that the
poorest can purchase them. It would be better to let the people buy the books and increase the appropriation
to Teacher-Training Departments.

New Laws Recommended.--County Superintendents should be furnished an assistant during the months that their
rural schools are being taught, and the Superintendents should be required to spend four or five days in the
week visiting and supervising schools.

The Present Examination Law.--I favor the present system with a few changes. There should be a State Grading
Committee, whose duty should be to grade all of the papers or to review the grading of the County Grading
Committees. The State Board of Examiners recommended to the last Legislature, in my opinion, was a very poor
excuse for its author to get employment. I see no reason why the State should pay out tens of thousands of
dollars per annum to a Board to travel over the State and examine teachers. If County Superintendents are not
capable of conducting teachers' examinations, then the Legislature should raise the requirements for County
Superintendents. I believe that County Superintendents should be required to hold at least a first grade certi-
ficate and should have at least five years' experience in teaching.

Conclusion.--I had such short notice that this report was wanted that it was impossible for me to make a full
report. I trust that it will reach the State Superintendent's office in time to be included in his report.

Respectfully submitted,
J. A. Jackson,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In reply to your request for a statement of operation and conditions affecting schools in this,
Hernando County, during the past two years, I beg to submit the following:

New Buildings.-We have erected only one new building during the past two years. This was a white rural school.

Repairs.--All school buildings are kept in good repair. Expenses of repairs will average approximately $1,000
per year.

Teachers.--We have found little difficulty in filling all positions with legally certified teachers, but find an
increasing number of very young teachers. Many obtain certificates after completing the ninth or tenth grade of
school. I believe an age limit should be established and maintained, making 19 years the minimum age for teachers.
Average salary paid teachers is about $51 dollars a month, a slight increase in the two years.

Special Tax School District.-The entire county of Hernando is embraced in 11 special tax school districts. These
districts embrace 19 schools for whites and 8 schools for negroes. All districts have voted and now levy and
collect the full legal limit of 3 mills.

Bond Districts.--Brooksville District No. 1 is the only district voting bonds as yet. This district voted $10,000
for addition to Bernando High School building, this addition has been completed and is now in use.

School Sanitation.--All schools are provided with necessary out-houses, some of which have been screened as
required by Chapter 6836, Laws of 1915. All others will be screened in the near future.

Uniform Text-Books.--This county was exempted from compliance with uniform text-books law on account of existing
contract and furnishing free-books.

School Finances.--Our general funds is badly in arrears. Special tax district funds are kept intact. Local banks
have cashed teachers' warrants at face value.

A law should be enacted by the 1917 Legislature permitting counties to issue bonds sufficient to retire present
indebtedness, and a constitutional amendment should be submitted to the people allowing an increase in the levy of
either the general or district funds for school purposes.

Teachers' Institutes and Summer Schools.--We do not maintain Teachers' Institutes or Teachers' Summer Schools.
Many of our more progressive teachers take advantage of the Summer School at Cainesville.

Vocational Work.---No attempt has been made to introduce vocational work into our schools on account of lack of

Canning and Corn Clubs.--We have both Canning and Corn Clubs, also Pig Clubs, all of which have been very successful.
Mr. T. J. Daniel is Farm Demonstrator. Miss Kate Townsend has charge of Home Demonstration Work; 40 boys are
enrolled in corn clubs, while about 36 girls are participants in canning club work.

Compulsory Attendance.--We are not in position to enforce compulsory attendance, hence have not urged the holding
of elections.

School Boards.--The present number of Board members is satisfactory. An increase to four members, with the Super-
intendent an ex-officio member, would only add to the responsibilities and perplexities of the Superintendent.
The present method of selection of the School Boards is not ideal. School affairs should be removed from contact
with politics, if possible.


State Course of Study.--If the uniform text-book law is to be maintained, by all means have a State Cour-" .>f
Study, covering the entire course from chart class to graduation from the high school.

Free Text-Books.--l favor free text-books. On no account would our people, who have had 25 years' experience
with this system, agree to its discontinuance. The yearly expense per pupil for books does not exceed 60 cents
under this system.

Progress.-Schoola have shown satisfactory progress during the past two years and there has been a substantial
increase in enrollment and average attendance.

Respectfully submitted,
W. A. Thaxton,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a statement of what the school officials in Hillsborough county have
accomplished during the past two years, I take pleasure in submitting to you the following report:

New Buildings.--Hillaborough county has erected 43 new school houses during the administration of the present Board
23 of which have been built in the last two years. Of this number, 19 are for whites and 4 are for negroes. The
19 buildings erected for whites contain 182 classrooms; the 4 negro schools have 25 classrooms. Money for the
erection of these buildings was obtained through the issue of bonds upon the special school districts.

Repair of Buildings.--It has cost something more than $15,000 to keep the white school buildings in repair for
the past biennium. The upkeep of the negro schools has been approximately $2,000 for the same period.

High Schoole,--Hillsborough county has two Senior High Schools and four Junior High Schools classified after the
6-3-3 plan of organization. In addition to these, we have four Junior High Schools under the Florida classification.
I consider each of the schools mentioned up to the standard of State Regulation. I approve the State fixing a
standard not only for high schools, but for elementary schools, and demanding this standard be maintained. However,
a County Superintendent of schools, or principal of a high school, should be permitted to show cause why the stand-
ard has not been maintained before any action is taken which might injure any particular school in the county.
I see no excuse for having our standards made by out-of-state bodies. Florida school men are supposed to read
and keep up with the best in education as well as other current happenings. The high school enrollment now amounts
to 470 in the Senior Schools and 1,305 in the Junior Schools.

Teachers.--We get all the teachers we need and have at present an over-supply. While the quantity is always ample,
the quality is not satisfactory. Unfortunately certification under the Florida law does not necessarily mean one
who is prepared to teach. We have tried to overcome this by carrying on teacher training through a supervisory
system. This year we have conducted a model one-teacher country school and required country teachers to visit it
and make notes. We have followed this up by seeing that these same methods were applied by the visitor after she
returned to her school. The average salary in the Senior High Schools is $92; in the Juniors $61. While the
salaries have not been increased during the past two years in the high schools, they have been materially increased
in the elementary grades.

Special Tax School Districts.--All of the territory in Hillsborough County is now within a special school district,
of which there are 57 in the county. In these districts are 80 schools for whites and 20 for negroes.

Districts Bonded.--Bonds have been voted in 17 school districts in the sum of $419,900. Most of this money was
spent in the erection of the 43 new school houses. A part, however, went to refund outstanding indebtedness of
the districts.

School Sanitation.--Practically all of Hillsborough's country schools meet all sanitary requirements of the State.
The city schools have met these requirements for some time.

Evils of Alcohol and Narcotics.--The provisions of this law have been carried out to the letter. "Health is Wealth"
has been, and is being taught to every grade in the county.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--The uniform text-book law operates satisfactorily in Hillsborough County. Most of the
books in use are satisfactory. There is more in the teacher than in the text. All depositories are supplied

School Finances.--The county school finances are not in the best shape, not from any mismanagement by school officers,
but because of the heavy demands made upon the school funds without a corresponding increase in tax values. The
millage being fixed, unless the assessment grows, with increased attendance and extra demands, the school income
will not cover the school expense. Neither the general school fund nor the special tax school funds have any
floating debt. With exception of the 17 bonded districts, there is no indebtedness upon special tax school districts.

Teachers' County Institutes.--Hillsborough County has held a four weeks county normal or coaching school every
year. This has been held in order to get certificates for the country teachers. Our best teachers have been
going to Tallahassee and Gaineaville for summer work, and some few to the larger universities. The county has a
very active teachers' organization and reading circle.

Vocational Work.--Manual training and domestic economy are taught in the schools, not as vocational training, but
as cultural courses to give training to motor activities. Efforts are being made in the junior high schools to
study the vocational tendencies of children at the adolescent age. The only real vocational work is the applica-
tion of the scientific study of agriculture to the farms of the county, which is being done by the teachers in
the country schools and by the corn and canning club agents. These agents are now paid by the County Commissioners
from the agricultural tax.


Compulsory School Attendance.--Hillsborough County, at present, has eight school districts in which the
compulsory school attendance law is operative. For lack of school funds the School Board has not encouraged
the voting of the law upon the city of Tampa. I am confident Hillsborough County would carry an election for'
compulsory school attendance by a two to one majority.

School Libraries.--Two years ago the School Board issued an approved list of library books agreeing to contri-
bute $10 from the general school fund when the trustees had appropriated $10 from the district funds and $10
had been raised by the school from private subscriptions. Since adopting this plan about forty percent of
the schools have received libraries with approximately 50 volumes each.

Teacher-Training Department.--Illsborough County has no teacher training in the high school. In as much as
the county employs a number of competent supervisors the school board uses this means of training teachers.

Transportation of Iupila.--No transportation is paid out of the general school fund. Two districts have trans-
portation for which they pay out of the special tax fund.

County School Boards.--The present number and method of electing school boards seems to be satisfactory. I
think it would be n mistake to make the Superintendent a memberrof the Board. He has too many responsibilities
now. It would be wise to separate the superintendent from the business department and demand of him expert
supervision. To accomplish this he would have to be elected by the School Board from the best available material.

Uniform Text-Books.--The Uniform Text-Book Law seems to be working well. I heartily approve uniformity for the
elementary schools. Where children are taught by specialists in departments, I do not think uniformity would
work so well.

State Course of Study.--I approve a State Course of Study for all grades from one to twelve. However, unless
this course is made out by expert school men and women, it will be harmful. Standards set for city and country
schools could easily be maintained by withholding any part of the State school fund.

Free Text Books.--I heartily approve free text-books for all grades. Florida will always be behind in educational
work until she gets them. The question is how to get the money to buy them and keep on buying them.

Progress or Retrogression.--The school enrollment of the county has doubled during the past quandrennium, and
the teaching force has been multiplied by two with an increase in expense of ninety-two percent. Forty-three
new buildings have been erected and eleven country schools consolidated.

Efficiency of City and Rural Schools.--The city school upon the whole is better than the country school. This
will be true as long as people would rather live in the city than in the country. The best teachers will work
in the city for less money.

Present Examination System.--The examination and certification of teachers is probably the most difficult of
solution of the problems involved in education.

For the sake of efficiency, I believe the normal trained teacher should be recognized without examination from
whatever State she may come. I favor at least five first-class normal schools operated by the State with stand-
ard curricula. There is no dearth of supply of teachers with certificates, but a scarcity of those who are
trained for work. It matters not what system of examination you employ, it will not produce trained teachers.

New Laws Recommended.--I recommend a law creating a County School Finance Board. Such a Board, if made up of
the School Superintendent the chairman of the county board, ode banker, one merchant, one lawyer, one doctor
and one successful farmer, and given power to make up a school budget and levy sufficient millage to take care
of the budget, would not only keep the schools out of debt, but would secure to the county a wise expenditure
of funds.

Very cordially,
Marshall Moore,
County Superintendent.


My Dear Sir:--Herewith is submitted a brief report for your biennial report of educational conditions and progress
in this county.

New Buildings.--During the past two years, we have erected 18 new buildings for white children; one for negroes, at
a cost of about $200. There are but few negroes in the county and they are badly scattered. Each of these
buildings is 26 by 40 feet in size and contains 2 rooms. The cost was met from the county school funds end from
private donations. All were located in the rural districts, except one modern high school building erected in
the town of Bonifay, coating $19,000. The funds for the latter were raised by bonding the special tax school

During the past 4 years, 23 new buildings have been erected, which is by far more school buildings than have
been erected in the history of the county. The total cost of all approximating $29,000.

School Buidings Repaired.--Six school buildings for whites were repaired at a total cost of about $300.

High Schools.--There is but one high school in the county, this is located at Bonifay, the county seat, and had
an enrollment last term of 350 pupils, 31 of these in the high school department. The Regulations of the State
Board of Education for standardizing high schools are heartily approved, and we think the Bonifay school richly
deserves to be classed as a standard Junior High School.

There is connected with it a Teacher-Training department, which enrolled 40 students the past term and did
excellent work. In all other schools of the county there are enrolled about 70 pupils in the ninth grade, though
it is not claimed these are high schools.


Teachers.-There are employed about 92 teachers in the county, of these about 25 or 30 are secured from other
counties. We have no difficulty in securing teachers, and, as a whole, the teachers are capable and efficient,
most of them giving general satisfaction and good results.

Special Tax School Districts.'-There are 37 special tax school districts in the county, 12 of these have been
created within the past three years, and they embrace 61 white schools and 7 negroes.

Bond Districts.--Bonifay special district No. 3# is the only one having voted bonds; the amount was $18,000,
which sold for $19,000, with this the Bonifay high school building, a modern brick structure, was erected.

School Sanitation.--The county has made considerable progress in school sanitation, and it is hoped that the
schools of the county will be on a par in this respect with the best in the near future.

The Evils of Alcohol and Narcotics.--Very little has been done so far towards putting into operation the provisions
of Chapter 6832, Acts of 1915, though our teachers are teaching the evil effects of narcotics practically without
the use of the booklet, "Health is Wealth." The books have not been supplied because the School Board has been
badly handicapped by the lack of funds.

The Uniform Text-Book Law.--So far, the uniform text-book law has proven very satisfactory, though fear exists
that books will be changed too frequently. Some complaint has arisen because the local agents have not been
supplied with the books as promptly as it appears they Might have been. The books are generally approved, there
are some exceptions. I believe the grammars and arithmetics could be changed with advantage.

School Finances.--The County School Board is in arrears, their total outstanding indebtedness, June 30, 1916,
was $35,300.08. There has been paid since that date $4,934.35. The indebtedness of the special tax school
districts, June 30, 1916, was $9,090.85, but two-thirds of this amount will be paid in the next few weeks.
Teachers are paid promptly, the money being borrowed to meet monthly payrolls. School finances are likely to
continue in arrears in this county, because obligations are increasing all the time while the income remains
practically the same. Expenditures have increased within six years 75 percent, while the income has not increased
over 2 percent. This accounts for the deficiency in funds. There can be but one remedy for this situation, that
is raise property assessments.

Teachers' Institutes.--Holmes County has no organized teachers' association, though several efforts have been
made. While past efforts have availed nothing, still I feel that the country will soon awaken on this subject.

Teachers' Summer Schools.--About eight of the teachers of this county attended the Summer Schools held under
State auspices the present year.

Vocational Work.--It is regretted that nothing has been done along this line, from the simple fact that the county
has not been in such financial condition as to take on any extra expenses.

Canning Clubs and Farm Demonstrator.--The county had a Farm Demonstrator until recently; he resigned, but it is
hoped that another will take his place and the work will be continued. Ilis salary was $85 a month, one-half paid
by the County Commissioners add the other by the general government. It has been arranged for a Canning Club
agent to begin work in January, 1917, on a salary of $75 per month, one-half to be paid by the County School
Board and the other half by funds coming from the United States government.

Compulsory School Attendance.--No step has been taken towards putting the law of 1915 into effect, though the
people favor it. The cause simply lacks some one to agitate the matter and to lead it. If it was put to a vote,
I feel sure that two-thirds of the people would favor it. I also believe that a great majority of the people
would favor a State-wide mandatory school attendance law.

School Libraries.--Within the past four years libraries have been put in twenty schools of the county, each coating
from $54 to $160. They have proven very helpful to the schools. There is no question but that the money was
well invested, and Trustees and other school officials are urged to place good libraries in every other school
in the county.

Teacher-Training Department.--The School Board of Holmes county was among the first to establish a Teacher-Train-
ing Department under the law of 1915, and was so well pleased with the results that the department is continued
the present school year. As stated, it was connected with the Bonifay High School, with J. J. Hathaway as

Transportation of Pupils.--It has not been found necessary to introduce this system into this county.

County School Boards.--Three members composing a County School Board is not satisfactory, because it permits any
two to control. I favor enlarging the Board and making the County Superintendent a member ex-officio, so that
he may not be a mere figure-head, as under the present system, and subject of the whims of two men who may know
scarcely anything about school affairs.

The present method of selecting members of school boards is very satisfactory and could not be improved upon,
unless they be elected by the whole county instead of by districts.

Uniform Text-Books.--The uniformity of text-books has many advantages and is heartily approved, especially for
the first to the ninth grade.

State Course of Study.--There should be a uniform State-wide Course of Study for all grades from the first to
the twelfth. The Legislature should provide for a State Committee composed of experienced educators, with the
State Superintendent as chairman, to prepare, print and promulgate the course, and the State Superintendent
should be empowered to enforce it.

Free Text-Books.--This is a great problem, though not untried, and wherever tried it has proven satisfactory. I
favor it on the grounds of economy, and a greater blessing could not come to thousands of children of Florida.
Even if it should take all the hunting licenses and commissions arising from the fish industry, and one-half the
interest of the State school fund, I believe it would be a wise thing and meet the approval of a large majority
of the people.


Progress and Retrogresslon. --Hlolims County has made most wonderful progress during the past four years
educationally along all lines. School enrollment has increased from 260 to 4032; average attendance has increased
over 65 percent; the number of schools has grown from 50, taught part of the term, to 68 taught the full term
each year; the number of principals has increased from 60 to 92; the number of assistant teachers has moved up
from 10, teaching part of the term, to 33 in 1916. The increase in number and value of school buildings was
partly given under the head of "New Buildings." Four years ago there were only eight new frame buildings,'23
have since been added, not counting the high school building, larger in size, better in architecture, many of
them painted, and better in equipment in every respect. Nearly $8,000 have been expended for patent desks and
blackboards, while four years ago there was tbthing but a plank blackboard in the county.

Comparative Efficiency in Town and Country Schools.--The county schools do not compare favorably in efficiency
with the town schools, because the small appropriations made the country schools proved insufficient to secure
as well equipped teachers; but where practically equal advantages are given the country schools, their efficiency
is equal to, or even greater than the town schools. County teachers and pupils possess equal merit, but do not
have equal opportunity with the town teachers and pupils. No special legislation is needed for county children,
but simply impartially executed laws.

Present Examination Law.--The present system of examination is too well known and too much abused to do real
service in educational uplift, and should be abolished. The State Examining Board might prove the best solution
of the problem of certificating teachers, but I favor letting the County Superintendent hold the examination and
create a State Grading Committee.

Conclusion,--I would say in general that the schools of this county are in a flourishing condition. The rural
schools, by means of their district funds, have increased their terms from 4 to 5 and even 7 months.

On retiring from office and taking a retrospective view, after 4 years in the service, and witnessing the intensi-
fied interest in education, on the part of the people, the growing interest and activity of teachers, the spirit
for better buildings and equipment, and the general tendency to move forward and upward in all matters relating
to education, I can but feel gratification and a pardonable pride in the work accomplished.

This being probably the last biennial report that will ever be made by me, I take special pleasure in extending
sincere thanks to Hon. W, N. Sheets, State Superintendent of Public Instructio), for his kind forbearance and
time assistance rendered me time and again during his administration. My sincere gratitude is also expressed
to the good citizens of Holmes County for the many favors which they have so generously bestowed upon me; to
the County School Board for the valued assistance rendered me in over-coming the many perplexing problems confront-
ing me during my administration; to one and all who assisted and befriended me during my term of office, with
gratitude in my heart, I extend unfeigned thanks and my best wishes for your success and happiness.

This, my last report, is respectfully submitted.

T. J. McDade,
County Superintendent.


Hon. Chas. B. King, County Superintendent. (It was impossible to get a report from this county.).


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request for a general statement of the present condition and progress of schools
in Jefferson county, I beg to submit the following reports

New School Buildings.--Three new school buildings have been erected and furnished within the past four years:
Monticello school building, costing $21,000; Mars Hill, $317.50; Granger, $283.23. The Monticello building was
paid for by the Board with borrowed money. The other two were paid for with county money. Honticello building
has twelve rooms, an auditorium that will accommodate 400, a heating plant, and all modern conveniences. These
buildings are for whites.

School Buildingn Repaired.--Bethel and Aucilla buildings have had a new coat of paint, and some little repairing
has been done on a few other buildings. Nothing has been done to the negro school buildings, but they are in need
of repairs.

High Schools.--There is an Intermediate High School at Monticello with twelve grades. The high school department
enrolled 46 during the past year. There is also one Junior High School with an enrollment of 10 in the high
school department. I most heartily approve their beipg required to measure up to State Regulations. Let the
standard be raised, not lowered. The State is the proper authority to standardize schools, as it is more capable,
and there could be no uniformity without State supervision and State direction. I am doing all I can and more
than I have authority to do. I have asked several times for more authority in placing teachers and in other
matters. As soon as the law can be so amended as to give the County Superintendent more power, I expect to
raise the standard, Especially have I contended that Monticello be made a Senior High School and that the course
of study be up-to-date in every respect.

Teachers.--It is rather difficult to get high-grade teachers at present salaries. We have little trouble in
getting third-grade teachers, while normal trained teachers are the best. The salaries have been decreased this

Special Tax School Districts.--There are now three Special Tax School Districts in the county. District No, 1,
Monticello, embraces one white and one negro schools The other embraces one white school only. Neither of
these districts has voted bonds.

School Sanitation.--Some improvement in out-buildings have been made, but they are not yet as they should be.



Teaching the Evils of Alcohol and Narcotlcs.--We encourage the teaching of the evils of alcohol and narcotics
in our schools and the teachers are expected to do this. Some few of our teachers in the primary and inter-
mediate grades have purchased "Health is Wealth" at their own expense and use it in their classes.

School Finances.--County funds are in arrears, both the district and the general funds. June 30, 1916, the out-
standing warrants against general school fund were $16,278.52; against district funds $1,380.95. The outstanding
warrants against general fund here reported does not include borrowed money, only those now due. The school
board made arrangements with the local banks to pay the teachers each month. When the Board made out the budget,
in July, for the coming year, a sinking fund of $7,000 was reserved to meet the warrants that would be coming
due during the year.

Teachers' County Institutes.--In the year 1914-15 two very profitable institutes were held in Monticello.
During the year just closed, we did not have one. In the fall when we should have had it an epidemic of diptheria
broke out and the school had to be suspended for two weeks. In the spring a Chatauqua was held and one day
was devoted to education. Aside from this nothing has been done along that line.

Teachers' Summer Schools.--A few of the teachers of the county attended the Summer School at Tallahassee. More
attend each year.

Vocational Work.--I believe in vocational work and encourage it but we are handicapped by our finances. We
expect to introduce some of these subjects into our schools as soon as finances permit, especially in the Monticello

Canning, Corn and Other Students' Clubs.--For one year we have had a farm demonstrator, Mr. Milton C. Gardner,
who has organized 8 clubs with 41 members. Some of the boys have done well and had exhibits at the County Fair,
held a few weeks ago. Recently a Canning Club agent, Miss Jennie Carter, was appointed for this county, and
she has already organized 11 clubs with 58 members. Mr. Gardner's salary is $1,200, $600 being paid by the
county and $600 by the United States Government. Miss Carter's salary is $1,000; $600 being paid by the county
and $400 by the General Government.

Compulsory School Attendance.--No part of the county has voted this law. No movement has yet been made to put
it in operation. I think such a law would not meet with favor.

School Libraries.--We have libraries in five of our schools, but we need more and better libraries. We must
come up in this matter, for no school can do efficient work without a good library.

Teachers' Training Department.--We have not yet aroused sufficient interest in the School Board for this department.
It is sadly needed.

Transportation of Pupils.--A per diem allowance has taken the place of the van wagon system, and we find it to be
less expensive and more satisfactory. The Board pays each child living two and one-half miles from the consoli-
dated schools 10 cents per day for every day it attends school.

County School Boards.--I would be glad to have five members on the Board. It would give the Superintendent a
voice in matters and secure better representation to the different parts of the county. I hope that part of the
law will be amended at the coming session of the Legislature.

Uniform Text-Books.--I think text-books should be uniform in all grades below the high school.

Free Text-Books.--I do not favor free text-books.

Progress or Retrogression.--Some progress has been made during the four years. In most of the schools both the
enrollment and average attendance have increased yearly. The high school department had more pupils the past
year than it has ever had in the history of the school. We have better teachers and they seem to take greater
interest in their work and in the pupils.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural andTown Schools.--Aa to the efficiency of the rural and town schools, I will
answer in the language of the rural school inspector who recently made us a visit: "The teachers of Jefferson
County will compare favorably with any in the State."

Present Examination System.--The present examination system is all right if properly carried on, but the Super-
intendent and his assistants have to keep wide awake. One thing I will say, that persons should not be allowed
to go from one county to another to be examined. They should take in their home county, except where they are
attending a normal school, then it would be all right for them to take the examination at that place.

New Laws Recommended.--I think that we have enough laws and that those we have ought to be enforced.

More interest has been taken by patrons the past two years than ever before, and I trust that the teachers and
Superintendent will receive more co-operation in future than they have in the past.

Yours truly,
S. H. Taylor,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sirs--Complying with your request I beg to submit the following report for the biennium ending June 30, 1916:

New Buildings.--We have erected 9 new buildings at a cost of $4,640.32, and have repaired some 40 old buildings
at an expense of $966.94, all paid out of general school fund.


High Schools.--Our county high school has been advanced to the intermediate grade and measures up to the
State Regulations, and we expect it to advance to a Senior next season.

Teachers.--I have been fairly successful in securing legally certificated teachers at all times, but have often
met with disappointment in getting the work done that should have been done. The fact is, the efficiency of
the teaching force is entirely too low. In many places where interest runs high, the people meeting with
disappointment despair, and this brings about a reaction that will not be overcome in years.

Special Tax School Districts.--We have 21 Special Tax Districts embracing 47 white schools and 5 negro schools,
though the negroes get no benefit from the special district funds.

Out-Buildings.--Our out-buildings are generally in good sanitary condition, although the law of 1915 has not
been carried out in every instance.

Alcoholics and Narcotics.--I fear that this most important subject has been and is being neglected to an alarming
extent; teachers do not seem to have the proper conception of the awfulness of the effect on the human body and
soul. "Health is Wealth" has been and is still being furnished the teachers, but it is almost, if not altogether
a failure, as it cannot be used as text-book to any advantage, and but few teachers are well enough posted to
give lectures that would be of much benefit.

The Uniform Text-Book Law.--The operations of this law seems to be generally successful and satisfactory, while
in my opinion there is entirely too much dead matter contained in most of our readers.

Finances.--As to our financial condition, I would say we are in fairly good condition considering what has been
done, of course, when a considerable number of schools start in summer, we run aground for money before the
taxes are collected, but we usually have enough brought over to run well into the new year. Our Special Tax
Districts are in good shape and all will come out and have a balance when taxes come in, except one.

Teachers' Institutes.--I am sorry to have to state that our teachers have no organization at all; and this brings
me to the point of Teachers' Summer Schools, which I heartily approve and would suggest a law compelling every
teacher to attend a teachers' training school at least 20 days each year, to be conducted under auspices of the

Vocational Work and Compulsory Attendance.--As to vocational work there is not a stronger advocate of vocational
educational living than I am; I believe that very human niche in government, society and commerce should be
filled by an actual citizen, who feels and bears responsibility; who fills his place with vision, character and
vitilized activity, whether he be worth pennies or millions, whether he plows, wields an anvil, occupies the
pulpit or interprets the law; but courses of study, vitilized efforts and all other means will fail if not applied,
hence we must have some means of getting the children to the school and that can be accomplished through only
a compulsory school attendance law. The cause so many oppose it, but individually, I would favor a State-wide
mandatory law with as few provisions as possible.

Libraries.-I believe in a good up-to-date library in every school for the benefit of the entire community,
hence during the four years just closed, I have succeeded in getting libraries in nearly all of the schools of
the county, but owing to the indifference and incompetence of teachers in many places, they are not getting the
benefits that they should.

Transportation of Pupils.--We pay transportation for pupils living 3 miles or more from the school, at the rate
of 15 cents per day each, unless more than three attend from the same place, then we pay 50 cents per day.

County School Board.--I consider this one of the most important of all questions, but hardly know how to express
myself, in fact, I believe it would be a violation of law to do so. As it now is, it is awful, but how to better
it is the question. I believe there should be 2 or 4 members selected of the best men in the county, and that
the county superintendent should be ex-officio the third or fifth member, and that all should be men whose ability
and integrity are beyond question.

Uniform Text-Books.--I heartily approve uniformity, I mean uniformity for all grades including high schools I
also approve a state course of study for all grades, and would suggest that the State Superintendent be allowed
to select a committee of four to assist him in adopting, printing and promulgating such a course, but I would
everlastingly and uncompromisingly oppose a free text-book system, except as we now have it.

Interest in Schoola.--I am proud of the fact that interest has increased in this county until the average attendance
is some 40 percent. more than it was four years ago.

Rural Schools.--Now as to the neglected country school. I don't think there is much in it. Of course, the country
schools in general do not make as rapid progress as the town and city school, but the fault is not altogether
in the system. There are many reasons for the backwardness of the rural school, but the main reason is the
indifference of parents.

Examination System.--I do not approve of the present examination system, because it is not practical, it's not a
test of one's knowledge and ability. I think a State Board of Examiners, say three to each Congressional District,
would be an improvement, but I think this Board should be allowed to hold oral as well as written examinations
and make reports to the grading committee numbers to correspond with other papers.

Very respectfully,
C. N. Trawick,
County Superintendent


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request I submit the following brief report of the schools of Lake County:



uildin .--Lake County School Board continues the policy of giving to the children of the county up-to-date
shool buildings, well furnished and equipped. Within the last two years a large amount has been spent for
building and repairs and preparation at the beginning of this school year for continuing this work was planned.
With a few exceptions all the school buildings are first-class and modern.

Three new buildings for white schools and three for negro schools are planned for the coming year.

Within the past two years the following new buildings have been erected

Leeasburg, $45,000; Travares, $15,000; Umatilla, $14,000; Grand Island, $2,000; Clermont-Minneola, $10,000;
Fruitland Park, $1,800. During past two years about 15 school buildings were repaired at a cost of several
hundred dollars with the following new ones built: One new building for negroes at Clermont; one for whites
at South Clermont; one for whites at Mount Dora.

High Schools.--Lake County maintains two Senior High Schools,--Leesburg and Eustis; one Intermediate, Umatilla
High School; three Junior, Travares, Clearmont-Minneola and Montverde.

Every effort is being made to bring these schools up to the standard of Regulations of the State Board of Educa-
tion, and it is believed that this will be done during the next school year. We approve of their being required
to measure up to these Regulations rather than standardized by regulations made by those unauthorized to act in
this matter. Mascotte, Groveland, Sorrento and Mount Dora are four-room schools and ninth grade work is being
done in them. All these schools are becoming better each year. Attendance good in all.

Teachers.--It has been somewhat difficult to get a supply of efficient teachers but in nearly every case competent
teachers legally certified have been secured.

Special Tax School District.--Lake County has 34 Special Tax School Districts and the maximum three mills is levied
in all except a few in which two mills furnishes sufficient revenue. Funds from the districts assist in supplement-
ing the teachers' salaries and in extending the length of term.

Bonding Districts.--The following districts have bonded for school buildings:--

Leesburg, $45,000; Travares, $15,000; Umatilla, $14,000; Grand Island, $2,000; Clearmont-Minneola, $10,000. Sor-
rento has bonded for $2,500 and will erect a two story school building near the new building erected a few years
ago. Bay Lake bonded for $2,000 and will erect a handsome two-room school building.

School Sanitation.--The School Board is making every effort to meet the requirements of Chapter 6836, Acts of
1915, and expects to have all schools comply with this law.

Teaching Effects of Alcohol and Narcotics.--Teachers are not neglecting the work of teaching the effects of Alcohol
and Narcotics, but in some schools this has not been done as effectively as required.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--Has been successful in this county. In some places there were some complaints that agents
were not properly supplied with books.

School Finances.--The financial condition of the county is good, both as to county and district funds. The
school year opens with a surplus from last year's county school fund. All districts, with few exceptions, had a
good surplus at the opening of the school year. Teachers salaries are paid promptly. From December to May we
have been borrowing for expenses, as the taxes collected are not equal to amount of expenditures through these
months. We have secured a very low rate of interest for this purpose.

Institutes.--Successful institutes are held in the county. They are well attended.

Summer Schools.--A large percent of the teachers of Lake County attended Sunner Schools.

Vocational Work.--Industrial work has been introduced in the schools of Lake County, and in many schools excellent
work is done. Equipment for the schools is needed and efforts are being put forth by the school board and
trustees to assist in this department. Home Economics is taught in Leesburg High School and Montverde Industrial
School and to a limited extent in many other schools of the county. The county farm demonstrator assists in
Canning, Corn and other Students' Clubs. Only a limited number of boys and girls are engaged in the work. Teachers
have been furnished with works on Manual Training, Home Economics, and other helpful books to assist in this work.

Montverde Industrial School.--Montverde Industrial School is doing the best of work. Opportunity is given pupils
to pay part of their expenses while attending this school. A large girls' dormitory has been completed for the
opening term, 1916-1917.

School Pair.--The Annual School Fair has been a success since its beginning. It is held the last week in January
of each week at Tavaree. The number and variety of school exhibits, industrial and regular school work were
encouraging to friends of education. More than three-fifths of the white school children of the county were in
the parade the last day of the Fair.

Compulsory School Attendance.--This county has not yet voted upon this law. It is very probable an election will
be called at the end of this school year. We prefer a State-wide, mandatory compulsory attendance law.

School Libraries.--Many of out schools, in fact, nearly all Special Tax School Districts, have school libraries.

Teacher-Training Department.--Lake County has not yet established a teacher-training department in any of the high
schools. This will likely be taken up next year.

Transportation of Pupils.--Where it is possible to do so, small schools are transported to larger schools. We
find that in many cases it will not cost as much to transport a small school as to employ a teacher for the school.
The children transported have advantages in the school to which they have been transported they could not have
in the small rural school. Transportation is generally made to high schools and to schools having three or more


County School Boards.--The present number of members of school boards has proved satisfactory in this county,
but we believe that five members, of which the County Superintendent shall be ex-officio the fifth member,
the four being elected for four years, and only two retiring every two years, would be much better.

Uniform Text-Books.--We approve State text-book uniformity below the high school would not object to the
same through the high school.

State Course of Study.--We favor a State Course of Study through all grades from the first to the twelfth, but
especially from first to eighth. The Legislature should provide for a committee to adopt, print and promulgate
such a course of study.

Free Text-Books.--If the hunting license, fish commission and other outside funds can be made to supply the books
without using the present school fund, we favor a system of free text-books.

Progress and Retrogression.--The progress of our schools is shown by our up-to-date, well-equipped school build-
ings and by the increased enrollment and attendance of pupils as compared with the same four years ago.

Present Examination System.--We do not know of any better system than the present examination law. It has its
objections, but we do not believe there is anything better. The principal objection is the length of the
examinations. Of course, there may be other objections, such as incompetent and unfair grading committees, etc.

Conclusion.--In conclusion, it gives us pleasure to state that the outlook is bright. Patrons are interested,
as shown by their voting nearly $100,000 bonds for better buildings and equipment in this county.

Respectfully submitted,
Wm. T. Kennedy,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Taking the topics suggested by the State Superintendent, it is with pleasure that I submit the follqw-
ing report.

New School Buildings.--We have erected 6 new school buildings during the last four years at an approximate coat
of $85,000.

Fort Myers' Special Tax School District voted bonds amounting to $35,000, from which Gwynne High School was built
and furnished. It was found necessary to use $5,000 from the general school fund to complete the high school

A one-room school building was erected at Eddy at a cost of $500, funds used were from both general school fund
and district funds.

LaBelle Special Tax School District voted bonds in the amount of $25,000, which was used in securing a school lot,
erecting and equipping a junior high school. This is one of the most beautiful and best equipped school plants
in the state.

Owing to the congested conditions existing in the Edgewood Grammar School, we had to add another room. A one-room
bungalow building with toilets, was constructed; it being the intention of the School Board to inaugurate the
"Unit System," so much used in the States of California, Washington and Michigan.

The increased attendance necessitated the erecting of a four-room building at Fort Myers, which was done at a
cost of $400.

The Alva Special Tax School District voted bonds in the amount of $15,000, which was used in erecting and equipp-
ing an up-to-date junior high school. The Alva School is doing Intermediate High School work.

High Schools.--Lee County maintains one senior high school only. This high school takes its place among the
accredited high schools of the State. Its laboratory, which represents an outlay of $750, is well-equipped. The
library contains something over $600 worth of books. The enrollment, at present, is 87; corps of teachers five.
The graduates from Owynne High School easily enter the State College for Women and the University of Florida
without examinations.

For several years past there has been a marked improvement in the qualifications of our teaching force, which I
attribute, largely,, to the Lee County Teachers' Institute, organization of Parent-Teachers' Association, lengthen-
ing of school term to eight months, increased salaries, and community interest in general. Our schools begin
the first Monday in September, if possible, fair salaries are paid, and little difficulty experienced in secur-
ing teachers.

Special Tax School Districts.--All of our schools are in special tax school districts. Every district with the
exception of two levy the three mill tax; these two, two mills. Our people would not think of disorganizing
any of the special tax districts, as is largely through these special funds that school terms have been lengthened
and free text-books furnished in some of the larger districts.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--The uniform text-book law is satisfactory as far as it goes, but it is not sufficiently
far-reaching. I would recommend uniform high school text-book law be enacted and that a committee of the leading
educators of the State be appointed by the State Board to make the selection for a period of not less than three
years. Our school book depository keeps us well supplied with grammar school books. As to the satisfaction
the grammar school texts are giving, we would certainly condemn the Wheeler Readers, which is obsolete, to say
the least.



School Finances.--We have liquidated approximately $8,000 old outstanding indebtedness during the past four
years. Our school warrants are worth 100 cents on the dollar. If we have not the money to pay teachers'
salaries, our credit is good at the local banks. These banks manifest a co-operative spirit, which is greatly
appreciated by the School Board.

Teachers' County Institutes,--Lee County has a well-organized teachers' association, known as Lee County
Teachers Institute, which convenes at least twice a year. The first meeting, which is held during the week
immediately preceding the week in which the schools open, is productive of much good.

Our second and third meetings are very helpful to the school officials and serve their purpose admirably as a
stimulus to the teaching force.

Vocational Work.--Lee County has one senior high school and three junior, all of which are well-equipped with
Home Economics Departments. Much interest is taken in Domestic Science and Domestic Art both by the pupils
and patrons. The Board appropriated $400 this year to supplement the salary of a Home Demonstration Agent.
The work being done by the Home Demonstration Agent correlates beautifully with the Home Economics Departments.
The Board is devising ways and means for the introduction of Manual Training Departments in the high schools.

Compulsory School Attendance.--Only one special tax school district has voted to put this law into operation.
Has it succeeded? Well, I should say not, it is a farce and a miserable failure. None of the schools of Lee
County have a term of less than eight months, consequently, an 80 day, compulsory school attendance law is
"null and void and without value," as practically all the children of school age, attend school at least half
of the term. I would certainly recommend that a State-wide, compulsory, attendance law be enacted by the next
Legislature. If this is thought to be impracticable by our lawmaking body, I would suggest that the present
law be so amended as to cover the entire length of term, and have severer penalties attached thereto.

School Libraries.--Every school in Lee county has a graded library, costing not less than $70, with the exception
of five very small schools. These schools will be provided with libraries at an early date. Our school libraries
are well selected by a committee of three of the leading educators of the county, viz: Prof. R. M. Sealey, Super-
intendent of City Schools; Mrs. Laycock, who has been teaching in the grades at Fort Myers for the past 12 years;
and Mrs. W. J, Odom, who has been doing primary work in the same grade for 12 years. These libraries were paid
for by the special tax school districts, and the local Boards of Trustees believe this one of the best invest-
ments they have ever made.

Transportation of Pupils.--It is the policy of the Board to transport pupils from sections where it obviates the
necessity of establishing new schools. At present there are five regular transportation busses running. Next
term there will be more, and the number will increase from time to time as the public roads are hard surfaced.
Good roads, that are being contemplated, when completed, will add materially to the consolidation of schools and
thereby, will greatly improve school facilities throughout the County.

In concluding this report, I wish to say, that it is with some degree of pride, that I point to the progress
made along all educational lines, during the past few years. With the co-operation of the present School Board,
the assistance given by the local Boards of Trustees, the co-operation of teachers and the interest that is being
manifested by both patrons and pupils, I predict even greater progress for the schools of Lee County in the future.

Yours truly,
Jos. W. Sherrill,
County Superintendent.


Dear Siri--In compliance with your request, I beg to submit the following report of school conditions in the
County of Leon:

Buildings.--The school buildings in Leon County are in good condition. Since the last general report, we have
built and equipped a Kindergarten Department. The building is 25 by 50 feet, metal roof and cost $1,166, the
equipment costing about $400. We have torn down and bdilt new buildings at the following white schools:
Natural Bridge, New Hope, Troy, Rose, Meridian, Lake Hall, Eastman, and Silver Lake, costing $3,106. New build-
ings for the negro schools as follows: Woodville, Mt. Zion and Ward, costing $953. The above schools are all
one-room buildings and the expense of same came from the county fund.

Repairs.--We have done a great deal of repairing and have good frame buildings at each place.

High Schools.--We have our Senior high school at Tallahassee. It has made most gratifying progress during the
past two years. The increase in enrollment for the past year is 30 percent in the high school department. I
consider our Senior high school up to the Standard of the Regulations of the State Board of Education. I positively
feel that every senior high school in Florida should be required to measure up to the Regulations as the standard,
and not use a standard outside the State. We have added a thorough commercial course to our high school. We
have finished the basement rooms of the Leon High School, which cost $1,000, and they have been well equipped for
an up-to-date commercial department on one side of the hall and a gymnasium on the other side. We also have
domestic Science and Domestic Art Departments. We have no Junior or Intermediate high schools in Leon County.
The school at Woodville and Chaires cannot be classed as such.

Teachers.--As a rule, we can get a sufficient number of teachers to supply all our schools, but we frequently
have to use young, inexperienced and untrained teachers. We have always been able to get teachers legally certi-
ficated. Only one or two temporary certificates have been issued within the last two years. Salaries of white
teachers range from $35 to $225 per month. The salaries of negro teachers are from $25 to $75 per month,
which shows an increase since the last report. All our white rural schools run six months and the negro schools
four months.

School Sanitation.--Every white school in the county has been provided with fly-proof out-buildings. The larger
schools, Woodville and Chaires, have been supplied with a sewerage system, also the Lincoln graded school for
negroes. We have been unable to supply our negro schools with the sanitary fly-proof toilets, with the exception
of one or two. As soon as the funds will permit, we will have all supplied.



Uniform Text-Book Law.--The Uniform Text-Book Law is just what we need, so as to be able to classify our schools
in Florida, Books are not promptly supplied to agents, or at least, orders are filled so slowly that they are
sometimes several weeks behind. The books that are being used generally meet with the approval of the teachers.

School Finances.--The funds of the county are in good condition, and it does not owe a single dollar. The
special tax school district No. 1, owed January 1st, 1913, the amount of $24,209.74 on the new Leon High School
building. At this date, Dec. let, 1916, the amount of indebtedness has been reduced to $17,709.74, hence,
$6,500 has been paid on debts of the district in four years. We pay teachers promptly.

Teachers' Schools.--The attendance of teachers upon the Summer School from Leon County was approximately 25 white
teachers and about 30 negro teachers.

Canning, Corn and Other Teachers' Clubs.--Our Farm Demonstrator receives a salary of $1,500 per year, $900 of
this salary is paid by the County Commissioners, and $600 by the general Government, He is doing very helpful
things for our boys and farmers, in organizing Corn Clubs, Pig Clubs, and Poultry Clubs. Forty-five boys are
enrolled in Corn Clubs. Our Canning Club agent receives a salary of $1,000 per year, $400 from the School Board,
$100 from private donation, and $500 from the United States Government. She has done a great work in Leon County
organizing the Canning Club work and House-keeping Clubs. The total number of girls in this work is 45.

School Board Members.--I think a Board composed of five members, of which the County Superintendent should be
ex-officio, the fifth member, the four being elected for four years and only two retiring every two years, would
be one of the best laws that could be passed.

The Examination System.--One of the pressing needs at this time, is a change in the present way of certificating
teachers. We should have a State Examining Board. All connected with this work are aware of its defects, and I
deem comment unnecessary for the many reasons are too apparent why the present method of certificating teachers
should be abolished. It is hoped that the next Legislature will change the law of examining teachers.

Outlook.--While the public school system of Leon County is far from perfection, much good work is being accomplished
and progress and improvements are being noted each year. In looking over the statistics and comparing the
present status and general enthusiastic school spirit that exists among our people generally with that of a few
years ago, we view it with a feeling of pride and satisfaction.

In closing this, my last general report for publication, I wish to thank you and your office force for the kind-
ness and courtesy shown me during my term of office.

Yours very truly,
H. H. Isler,
County Superintendent.


Hon. Thos. W. Price, County Superintendent. (It was impossible to get a report from this county.)


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I herewith submit a report of all school work in this county for the
past two years, ending June 30, 1916.

New School Buildings.--The past two years, we have done but little in the way of new school buildings, having built
only three small one-room houses, at a cost of $344.68 for the three. All were paid out of the county fund.

School Buildings Repaired.--We have had but little repairing to do for the past two years, paying out only $857.76
from the county school fund.

High Schools.--I regret to say that we have no Junior High Schools in the county, that come up to the standard of
the Regulations olf the State Board of Education.

Teachers.--While we have but few teachers that reside in the county, we are not put to much trouble in securing
competent teachers from other counties. We pay teachers from $30 to $90 per month.

Special Tax Districts.--We have but two Special Tax School Districts in the county, embracing four white schools
and no negro.

Bonding Districts--We have no Bonded Districts in the county.

School Sanitation.-The condition of our out-buildings are very good, though we have complied with the require-
ments of Chapter 6836, Acts of 1915, at the larger schools.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--We have strictly complied with the law. We have no trouble in getting the books adopted
through the agents. The present adopted books are giving general satisfaction to the people of this county, I
can see no cause for any change.

School Finances.--At the close of the present biennium, our county school funds were in arrears to the amount of
$1,751.43, but this is much less than it was two years ago. We borrow money from the hank to meet all of our
obligations. We have a small balance on hand in the district funds.

Teachers' County Institutes.--We have no organized County Teachers' Association.

Compulsory School Attendance.--We hnve no school district in the county run under the compulsory law. Still I
believe a majority of the citizens of the county'would vote for a compulsory school law.



Canning. Corn and Other Students'Cluba.--We have Boys' Corn Clubs with about 20 boys enrolled, and they have
been making fine progress. But we have no Canning Clubs or other Students' Clubs. Mr. A. W. Turner, is our
Farm Demonstrator, his salary is $85 per month, this money is paid $60 by the general government and $25 from
county funds.

Teachar-Trainine Denartment.--We have no teacher training department in any of our schools, as we have an
insufficient number of pupils far enough advanced.

County School Boards.--According to my idea, the present number of School Board members are not sufficient,
and would suggest that the Board be composed of five members, of which the County Superintendent should be
ex-officio, the fifth member. The four being elected or appointed for four years, with only two retiring
every two years. I rather favor the Board members being recommended by the County Executive Committee and
appointed by the Governor.

Uniform Text-Books.--I favor uniformity of textbooks, especially through the eighth grade.

Free Text-Books.--I am not in favor of free text-books, only in cases of charity.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural and Town Schools.--My observation in regard to rural and town schools are, that
rural teachers and pupils are as efficient with few exceptions as those of the town. I do not think that any
special Legislation is necessary.

Conclusion.--Aa my term of office expires January 1, 1917, and I wish to thank you for the courteous manner in
which you have treated me during my administration under you. I wish you much success in your future school work.

Yours very truly,
J. E. Roberts,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--In compliance with your request, I submit herewith a report for this county for the past two years!

Buildings.--Seven new buildings have been erected in the past two years at a total cost of $4,000. All these are
for white rural schools. Two have two rooms each, the others one room. No extensive repairs have been made,
but nearly all buildings have had minor repairs at a total cost of $2,800. Funds for buildings and repairs have
been supplied entirely by the School Board from the regular county school fund.

High Schools.--Madison has a good Senior High School and Pinetta a Junior, but neither of these will quite measure
up to the standard set by the State Board of Education as to the number of teachers. There are 60 pupils in the
high school at Madison and 13 in the Pinetta school. I think it best for the State Board to fix the standard, as
the members of this Board understand local conditions better than some outside body.

Teachers.--We have as a whole an efficient corps of teachers, measuring up, I am sure, with any other county in
the State. But this does not mean that all are proficient in their profession. We have no trouble in securing
a supply of legally certificated teachers, but we sometimes have to use the young, unqualified and inexperienced,
Salaries have advanced as rapidly as funds would permit, the average now being $56 for white teachers as compared
with $36 ten years ago.

Sanitation.--Whenever it has been necessary to erect or repair an out-building we have used the plan sent out by
the State Board of Health, and within the next year all buildings will be of this type. While the plan has been
used, it could be made more practical and less costly with just a few changes.

Alcoholics and Narcotics.--Very few schools are observing this law in full. Dealers have supplied themselves with
the text, "Health is Wealth." and the attention of teachers has been called to the law on the subject, with the
result that moat of them are securing and using the book to a limited degree.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--This law has operated in this county with very little friction. Dealers have been
promptly supplied and usually keep a full stock on hand. The quality of the binding is perhaps as good as we
could expect at the price, but some of them are not very substantially bound. Teachers in the primary grades
have found fault with the Readers especially, and the Grammars and Spelling Books are not altogether satisfactory.
So far, I have heard no complaint in regard to the other texts. I believe it would be better to have the texts
uniform in all grades.

Finances.--Our finances are in fairly good shape, considering the amount of building and furnishing we have done,
the increased length of term and higher salaries paid, with all taxes in for the scholastic year the general fund
was in arrears $3,200, and all the districts $250. A good portion of this indebtedness is represented by interest
which we have to pay on account of the fact that taxes are so slow coming in. We pay our teachers promptly and
borrow the money to do it. Forty percent of the seven mill levy is collected after July 1st each year, part
coming in as late as October. This should be remedied by a law requiring the tax books to close January 1st, and
final settlement made March 1st. In order to make this law effective, the Comptroller should be required to
enforce a settlement promptly. This would relieve a large burden of interest in a great many counties.

Boys' and Girls' Clubs.--This county had a very efficient Demonstration Agent, Mr. D. R. McQuarrie, and for the
past year a good Canning Club Agent, Miss Jennie Carter. The first was paid $100 per month for full time and
the latter $90 per month for nine months, half of the salary of each being paid by the County Boards. This work
is slowly but surely having a marked effect, giving a different outlook both to the home and the school. About
150 boys and girls are enlisted as members each year and practically every pupil is affected by their work.

Compulsory Attendance.--No part of this county has taken advantage of the local option compulsory attendance law,
and no movement is contemplated. Sentiment is slowing growing in favor of a State-wide law and, in my opinion, this
is the proper step to take. Such a law should be reasonable and at the same time rigid enough that it may be


Teacher-Training Department.--We have not attempted to put this department In our high school, and before this
work can be a success we must have competent teachers in charge. Better trained teachers for all schools are
sorely needed, but we cannot hope to have them unless those in charge of their training are qualified for the
work. It will be worse than useless to flood the counties with young, inexperienced teachers who are able to
pass an examination but who are in no other way qualified for the responsible positions they hold, and this
will be the result of placing incompetent men at the head of these training departments.

Transportation.--There are three schools in the county to which pupils are transported, 7 wagons being used to
transport 125 pupils at a total cost of $1,475. The average cost has been about 12c per day per pupil. The
most serious difficulty is the coat, which has been increasing rapidly in the past few years. If the cost
continues to advance we shall have to discontinue this work, much as I should dislike to see it done.

The School Board.--The School Board, as now composed, has given satisfaction here, I believe. Making the Super-
intendent a Board member and increasing the number to 5 would be satisfactory to me, as would also the suggested
change in the length of term.

State Course of Study.--I favor a State Course of Study for all grades, elastic enough to meet the varied condi-
tions, but a standard for all schools. A committee to draft and print such a course should be provided for by
law, and a Manual for the teacher should be printed, also, to go with this Course of Study.

Free Text-Books.--Under present conditions I do not favor free text-books, for we need all the funds we have to
provide for longer terms, higher salaries, more trained teachers and better equipment. But if the funds could be
secured from some outside source I believe it would be a good thing.

Rural and Town Schools.--The terms in this county provided for from the general fund by the Board are the same
length for all schools, 6 months, but a few are extended to B months by district funds. The town schools are
perhaps a little more efficient, but this can be accounted for by the longer terms provided for by the districts,
better attendance and better grading. Several of our rural schools have a summer term and a winter term and the
average attendance and interest are not so good where this condition prevails. But given as favorable conditions
as the town school, the rural school will show just as efficient work.

Examinations.-I favor the State Examining Board recommended to the last Legislature, but see little prospect of
this measure ever becoming a law. Certainly some change should be made in the present law so as to make the
examination more uniform. It is now uniform in name and questions but not in conduct or grading. Until the
grading and method of conducting the examinations are changed, certificates issued in some counties will not be
at par elsewhere.

New Laws.--Since the passage of law requiring reports to the Comptroller the many forms and reports have become
expensive and burdensome, and the clerical work of the Superintendent has nearly doubled. Many new and expensive
record books and blanks, supplanting those just as good in many instances, had to be bought and, in some counties,
a special clerk to keep these records and make out the reports is required. Already we had to report to the
State Superintendent, State Auditor, Clerk of the Court and have the Financial Statement published in the local
paper, as well as keep at least three copies of each warrant in the office. These reports cover in detail the
same items reported to the Comptroller, the report to him is useless and the law requiring it should be repealed.
But if allowed to stand, then the Comptroller should shorten and simplyfy his forms so as to make the work less
onerous and burdensome.

Progress.--Slowly, perhaps, but surely, we are making advancement along all lines. We have erected a few real
modern rural school buildings and have put in better equipment in practically all of them. The enrollment has
increased 650 and the average attendance 450 in the past 4 years, but the percentage of attendance has increased
but little. Thick is the source of our greatest leak. For every dollar expended a little more than 60 cents
reaches the pupil directly, and a part of this is lost by irregularity. This cuts the efficiency of the schools
almost in half. This condition should be remedied in some way, if possible.

Respectfully submitted,
G. W. Tedder,
County Superintendent.


Hon. W. M. Rowlett, County Superintendent. (It was impossible to get a report from this county.)


Dear Sir:

New School BuildLngs.--During this period we have erected a number of buildings that will stand as educational
monuments for years. In Ocala we have erected a modern high and grammar school building at an expense of about
$60,000, remodeled the primary building at an expense of about $12,000, thus giving us a $20,000 house; built a
new building at North Ocala worth $5,000. For the negroes we have erected a new building costing $7,500, and it
was put up by a reliable negro contractor, and this, with the old building, gives them a plant worth probably

At Dunellon we erected a splendid building for a town of its size, costing about $13,000, and removed and
repaired the old white school building for the negroes, thus giving them ample house facilities.

The Weiredale house has been remodeled and repainted, making a very presentable and serviceable building.

At Citra we have put up an unusually fine house for the size of the place, costing about $12,000, and excellently
adapted to its purpose.

At Fellowship we have a well arranged country school building costing about $2,500.


Besides those mentioned there were several small country houses erected, well adapted to the needs.

The funds for the building operations were obtained by bond issues of the Ocala, Dunnellon and Citra districts
and donations of the county to meet the proceeds of the bond issues.

Repairs.--In the matter of repairs, there have been numerous repairs and remodeling for both white and colored
buildings. The idea has been to keep the houses in a good state of repair, so as to preserve the buildings as
they are, and in numbers of cases so remodeling them as to suit changing conditions.

High Schools.--The Ocala High School has all along been recognized as one of the good senior high schools of
the State. It has measured up to the standard of the State. The Dunnellon school has for about three years
been recognized as a senior high school and its graduates have been honored as such. The only school that we
have had to rank as a junior high school was the Citra school, and it was able to qualify in all particulars
as a junior high school.

I approve their being required to measure up to Florida standards as high schools. It may be that we can advantage-
ously consider outside requirements in connection with the Florida standard, but the making and prescribing of
the standard should be from within and not from without.

Howard Academy at Ocala is the only colored high school, and that is a junior high and comes up to the requirements.

Teachers.--The question of an adequate supply of efficient teachers is always the most important question that
arises in school administration, for here it is that the entire system centers. Up to the last year we had
experienced a shortage of teachers even after having exercised all possible diligence and discretion in making
our selections. We have certain county regulations that sometimes hamper us somewhat in securing teachers, but
which we think have a generally wholesome effect upon the system. We have a regulation not to pay more than $40
a month on a third grade certificate, nor more than $50 per month on a second grade. The salaries on first grade
certificates depend upon the position occupied. We also do not place any teacher as principal with one or more
assistants under him except that teacher holds a first grade certificate. These regulations have been made by
the county for the purpose of holding out inducements to the teachers to advance themselves and make the better
grade of certificates. The salaries have been maintained and the terms have been held up to the former length
during the depressed period of the last two years.

Special Tax School Districts.--We have 41 special tax school districts with about 70 schools, white and negro, in

Bonded Districts.--The Ocala District has bonded for $75,000 for building and equipment purposes; the Dunnellon
District for $12,000; the Citra District for $8,000. The last has also voted an additional issue of $2,500 for
funding some indebtedness, the bonds will be sold on February 6, 1917. Each of these issues have sold favorably
and the proceeds have been used in building, equipping and relieving indebtedness of the several districts,

School Sanitation.--The buildings in Ocala, Dunnellon and Citra have approved inside sanitary plumbing and I have
been active in inspecting sanitary conditions at all the schools I visit and in calling the attention of the
teachers, trustees, supervisors, and in many cases, the school children to the necessity of keeping their toilets
in clean, decent, and sanitary condition. I have been much gratified at the improvement in these particulars in
recent years.

Teaching the Effects of Alcohol and Narcotics.--For many years these subjects have been taught in the advanced
grammar grades, since the Act of 1915, was passed we purchased 130 copies of healthh is Wealth" and supplied our
teachers and think that it has been pretty generally used. We take some pride in the fact that the work was pre-
pared by our city health inspector who makes daily calls at the primary school, Dr. H. F. Watt and Miss Nellie C.
Stevens, the latter for many years principal of our primary school. I think it would have been difficult to have
found two parties better equipped for this work than the ones mentioned.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--Marion County has so far operated under the county adoption made in 1910. Our adoption
would have expired in 1915 and we anticipated the situation that would arise by the State uniform adoption
expiring in 1916, and secured a special Act of the Legislature allowing Marion County to continue the use of the
books already in use until the next regular State adoption, and the same Legislature set up the time for the next
State adoption, which gave us the use of our books for seven years. Whenever there is a State uniform adoption
made, we shall fit into it. I must say that we have had difficulty in having the books satisfactorily handled,
but hope to have this remedied.

School Finances.--Up to the time that we began extensive building operations, we had usually had a surplus of more
than $1,000 at the end of each fiscal year, but in the building operations we had to meet the bond issues of the
several districts and also to build a number of houses in places where there was no bond issue, which made it
necessary to borrow money. This we did in some cases by issuing an ordinary warrant payable at a future date with
interest, and in consultation with our attorneys we got up a special form of warrant with interest coupon attached,
that we used for borrowing local money upon. This has proved quite convenient and satisfactory to lenders of
money. We also sold two issues of funding warrants to Chicago houses amounting to $40,000.

The total amount of county indebtedness on June 30 was $86,528.67, since then we have had many offers of local
money on our coupon warrants, but have been refusing most of it. Some of our districts are in arrears and quite
a number have money in advance that they can hardly use. It is usually the districts with a large number of pupils
and a comparatively large expense that are behind, while the districts having valuable property--usually railroad--
to tax and small inexpensive schools to operate, are the ones that accumulate a surplus.

There has never yet been a time that our teachers have not been paid promptly. Our warrants have always been paid
upon presentation. This has been arranged for by making arrangements with a local bank to cash our warrants upon
presentation at face value and then carry them until they could be taken up.



We are probably now facing the most difficult situation that we have ever had. Our arrangements were in
smooth working order until recently, when the treasury had to be transferred to the depositories and when it
came to a final settlement with the Board and knowing that he was short in the funds he retired to the cemetery
and committed suicide by shooting himself, leaving a shortage of $13,000. Were we not hampered by the pesti-
ferous State regulations, we would not have a particle of trouble in financing ourselves and paying every
obligation and moving along smoothly. As it is, we shall do our beat to get a settlement of the shortage, but
in the meantime we shall have to finance ourselves or close down the schools, which we do not want to do. In
the matter of reducing our indebtedness, we levied a county levy of 7 mills and set aside two mills for an
indebtedness fund.

County Educational Association.--This has been a feature of pride with us. For many years we have been main-
taining an Association that would meet in Ocala on the first Saturday after the School Board would hold its
regular county meeting. These had been helpful, but we were not reaching a satisfactory number of county teachers
nor the people, so I suggested the plan last school year of going to the county. We have never lacked for
invitations for the next meeting and, in numbers of instances, there has been the liveliest rivalry for the
next meeting place.

These occasions brought a large number of teachers; our programs have been interesting and the programs thoroughly
enjoyable. We have generally been favored by having some outside speaker with us of State reputation, and it
has been the means of cementing the city and country teachers and people as it seemed that nothing else could.

Summer Schools for Teachers.--We have had good numbers in attendance upon the Summer Schools at the University of
Florida and the Florida State College for Women. We have not operated summer schools of our own for the reason
that the State Summer schools are very convenient and the expense comparatively small, and the advantages larger
than we could hope to provide by local support.

Vocational Work.--We have done no special vocational work with the exception of the domestic science and art work
in the "cala and Dunellon schools. In the Ocala school we have an excellent domestic science equipment and fairly
good in Dunellon, and have had special teachers in each place and have gotten very satisfactory work from them.
In the Ocala building we made provision for manual training space, but have not felt able to equip the department
and set it to work. Agriculture is taught according to the course in all our schools and we have had good interest
in it, and a number of our schools have made very good gardens.

In our Ocala negro school we have a very well equipped manual training department and are getting work there among
the boys, end the girls get domestic training. They have a teacher furnished by the Anna Jeans fund for negro
rural industrial train: ig and we have had the same teacher for a number of years and the results seem to be

Students' Clubs.--For a number of years we have had a farm demonstration agent, this year he is Mr. R,W. Blacklock.
He has been very active with the boys in their Corn Club and Pig Club work and most creditable displays have
been made at our country fairs, the last of which was the ninth. A yield of 115 bushels to an acre of corn was
made and the hampshire hog was adopted as the club hog and the banks assisted the boys in buying their hogs; the
result is that all over the county there has been great interest in the raising of the best hogs and a largely
increased corn yield.

From the beginning of the home demonstration and canning club work we have had the same demonstration agent in
the person of Mrs. Carolyn Moorhead, of Ocala, she has been exceptionally active and efficient in canning club
and home demonstration work. Her people have had most creditable displays at our county fairs.

Compulsory School Attendance.--We have done nothing so far in putting the compulsory attendance law into effect,
that ia, we have held no election to establish it. The matter has been discussed somewhat and I am of the
impression that an election would carry in the county for it and I am quite sure it would in certain special tax
school districts.

I favor a State-wide mandatory compulsory attendance law, reasonable in its provisions, but not full of loop-holes
to operate against its enforcement,

School Libraries.--In the matter of libraries I regret to say that we have had no county policy more than to
encourage those districts that had the money to buy libraries and to be of as much service as possible in helping
in the matter of selection. The high schools are quite well provided with library facilities, and many of the
country schools have very good selections of reference and supplementary reading works.

Teacher-Trainino Deoartments.--We have discussed the matter of putting in a department of teacher-training in the
Ocala school, but have not felt that the county could make the appropriation for it so far. In a number of
schools advanced pupils have taken work looking forward to the teachers' examinations but not in the sense of
teacher-training as contemplated by law.

Transportation.--About eight years ago we abolished a very unsatisfactory system of transportation and have not
resumed any system other than that in a few instances districts pay the expense of transportation of such of its
pupils as may be some distance from the school. This county formerly had a number of wagons made and operated
with the idea of avoiding the necessity of operating a number of small schools, and, of course, securing the
advantages of concentration. The arrangement was found to be expensive, annoying, unjust in many cases and
thoroughly unsatisfactory and worthy only to be abolished.

It is probable that there are conditions under which it would be advantageous and promote economy and efficiency,
and it may be that we have a few places where this could be done to advantage, but I should not favor an attempt
at general transportation and with our sparse population, it is absolutely impracticable in most communities.
We have very few, if any, pupils who cannot get to some school.


County School Boards.--I am doubtful of the advantage In increasing the number of the members of the county board.
Three members seem to me to be the ideal number, and I am doubtful of the wisdom of giving the superintendent a
vote and mixing him up with the board and making divisions between him and his board members. I am rather of
the opinion that the present arrangement with three members of the board with one from each of three districts
is a better arrangement than increasing the number of the board members. With the present arrangement the
superintendent is the secretary, and as such, and as superintendent, I am inclined to believe he will exercise
more influence with his board than if he were one of them, and voting either with or against them and arousing
opposition in his own camp.

I do not know that the manner of selecting the board is an ideal way, and I hardly know how to suggest a better
way. If it were so that the County Commissioners' districts and the school board districts correspond in number
and boundaries it occurs to me that it would be a good arrangement, in which case I should prefer reducing the
commissioner in number to three than in increasing the school board to five.

Uniform Text Books.--I approve of uniformity of text-books for all the grades, at least to the high school, and
I rather incline to uniformity there. It is absolutely impossible to comply with the innumerable notions of
teachers in regard to the texts to be used, and it would possibly be a good thing to allow changes not to exceed
the texts in a certain number of subjects every year. This would prevent continuing to use an unsatisfactory text
providing the matter could be passed upon by a competent committee.

Free Text-Books.--We do not furnish books free with the exception of a number of districts where they have funds
on hand and use a portion for furnishing free text-books. There are many arguments in favor of a general system
of free books. If the public school is to be made the most efficient machine possible it would seem a necessity,
and yet, with our conditions in Marion County, I would not favor an attempt at present. There are some objections
that seem to have some merit in them. At present we need every dollar that we can get for the present schedule
of expenses without taking on any more.

Prore la.--We have tried to move forward safely and sanely. No one enjoys real progress more than we do. There
is so much stuff labelled progress that is spurious and mere clap-trap that it keeps one on the defensive all the

The white enrollment has risen from 2,684 in 1912 to 3,055 in 1916; the average attendance of--in 1912 to 2,431
in 1916. The negro enrollment has not shown a corresponding increase, it being 4,006 in 1912 and 4,144 in 1916,
thus reducing the difference between the white and negro enrollment.

The increase has been healthy and steady and we think it will be more rapid in the future than it has been in the

The receipts for school purposes have also increased, and by the report for June 30 of 1916 we see that the
receipts, exclusive of borrowed money, have exceeded $100,000.

Rural and Town Schools.--It is my feeling that the cry of "the neglected country schools" is being overworked.
In many cases the cry is made in campaign times for purely political effect, and in other cases it is made by
well-meaning city people who feel that they just must break loose somewhere, and in other cases by people with
a constitutional grouch that just must vent itself.

It is possible that in some instances the rural schools have been neglected. To be frank, I must say that I do
not look to see the time when the rural schools will be as well provided for and have as well prepared and as
well paid teachers as the village, town and city schools. It is well known that accumulation of population and
business interests, with a corresponding accumulation of wealth, just as surely brings certain advantages in many
lines as the people in the centers are more able to afford these advantages.

I have only the most tender feeling for the rural school--yes, the real country school in the woods--and no one
would nurse it more tenderly and tenasiously than I would, but I know it is impossible to furnish as good build-
ings and equipment and as well prepared teachers in all the country schools as the centers of population, business
and property have.

As it is, the centers of wealth and the public utilities pay the principal part of the taxes, and if this were
not the case we would have no public school system of general extent, and the beat that we can do is to do the
best we can with what we have or can get to do with, The difference already between the rural school equipment
and teachers and those of the town is less than it is often represented to be. In our country associations
our country teachers and town teachers are all together and heartily commingle, and the main difference is that
the rural teacher can save some of her salary and the town teacher cannot.

Present System of Examining Teachers.--The present system is subject to much criticism and has been much discussed.
I regard it as having many strong features and feel something of a hesitancy in deciding that a State traveling
board of examiners is the best thing, I have felt that if we had a State central grading committee to do the
grading of the papers, so that the grading as well as the examination would be uniform, this arrangement would
more nearly meet the situation.

For the real purpose of an examination, that is, testing for knowledge. I doubt there being anything better than
a cold-blooded written examination under fair conditions. I doubt that any examination can determine the teach-
ing qualities of an applicant. I believe that the teaching and personal qualities will have to be principally
established by contact and acquaintance, resulting in what is known as reputation, and that no examination--
written, oral, partly written and partly oral can at all definitely determine these qualities.

Much is said about personality entering into the matter. Insofar as the examination is concerned there should be
no personality. This is and should be a cold-blooded method for ascertaining whether the applicant either knows
pr does not know certain things. The personality should be a separate consideration, and it is a very living and
potent consideration and one that is not easily determined by an examining board within a day or two. Personality
is exceedingly deceptive and the best of us frequently have to revise our first personal impressions,


I should like very much if 1 could suggest something that would really be of some constructive value on this
very important subject. I know that our honored State Superintendent has labored in season and out of season
with this perplexing and annoying question of examinations and that he is in a better position to discern the
weaknesses and deficiencies of the present system than anyone else.

One thing I do know is that every school officer should do his very best to honestly and ably enforce the regula-
tions, whatever they are: then the faults would soon become so plain that there would be no difficulty in having
them remedied.

New School Legislation.--I feel that there should be some qualification requisite to a party becoming a candidate
for a county superintendent If the present mode of selecting him in to continue. It is not Infrequent that
parties are nominated for this very responsible place who possibly are fairly good citizens but who have no
special qualifications whatever for the work that is before them. In some cases these are old men, and nominated
simply because they are "good old men," and when they have passed beyond the period of growth and development.

I think we have made a miserable blunder in abolishing the treasurer's office and I would have the coming
Legislature make other provision for taking care of the work than that we now have. I am doubtful of any arrange-
ment being as generally satisfactory as having a separate officer bondpd and held responsible for the funds and
the accurate keeping of the accounts. If the salary or the receipts are too much this can be easily corrected
by a scale of commissions and, In fact, it had already been just about adjusted.

Conclusion.--In bringing this to a close I wish to say that we shall do everything possible to promote the best
educational interests of Marion County and, also, those of the State of Florida. Our present School Board consists
of Hon. Gordon S. Scott, Chairman, who served in a most efficient manner a number of years ago and is now begin-
ning his second term of recent service. The board has been very conservative in its changes. At the last election
Hon. B. R. Blitch voluntarily retired after a service of sixteen years and was succeeded by Mr. Chas. R, Veal of
Cotton Plant, an active and intelligent young man. At the same time, Hon. J. S. Granham, of Fort McCoy, also
voluntarily retired after continuous service on the board of fourteen years and was succeeded by Mr. A. J. Stevena,
of Sparr, who has, for a number of years, been actively interested in school matters.

In beginning my third term as superintendent of Marion County I wish to pledge my fidelity and honest and earnest
support to the distinguished leader who has so faithfully dedicated himself to the school interests of our
splendid State and who has again been chosen to stand at the helm of our educational craft on her onward voyage.

Very respectfully submitted,
J. H. Brinson,
Superintendent of Marion County.


Hon. Virgil S. Lowe, County Superintendent. (It was impossible to get a report from this county.)


Hon. L. L. Owens, County Superintendent. ( It was impossible to get a report from this county.)


My Dear Sir.--In pursuance of former custom and at your request, I here submit my report of the schools of Orange
County for the two years closing June 30, 1916. During this period definite progress has been made.

New Buildings.--There have been erected 8 new buildings for the white schools end 3 for the negro schools. All
of these but one are one-room buildings, and with slight exception have been paid for from the Special Tax
District Funds, at: an aggregate cost of about $7,000. One of these buildings, erected in the town of Winter Park,
and now approaching completion, is a modern, ten-room, two-story brick structure, with auditorium and basement.
This building, when completed, will cost about $35,000. For its erection and equipment bonds were issued by the
district. In addition to the erection of these buildings, b buildings for white schools and 5 for negro schools
have been repaired and enlarged and needed furnishings supplied. As a result, the school buildings of Orange
County have been made much more cumtortable and adequate for their purposes. Thd increasing enrollment, especially
in the city of Orlando, gives intimation that further enlargement will be required in the near future.

Nigh Schools.--We have one senior high school located in Orlando. This school is of accredited standard, employing
seven teachers in the high school department, who hold state Certificates of State Specials, in addition to the
Principal. The enrollment in the high school has reached the total number of 171. In the grammar school depart-
ment of this senior high school there are eighteen teachers in addition to the principal, with an enrollment of
810. We have in the county, also, three junior high schools--Oakland-Winter Garden, Winter Park and Apopka. There
are four other schools doing high school work, but which do not yet comply with the high school regulations. In
these seven schools 102 pupils are enrolled, who are taking high school courses. These, with the enrollment in
the senior high school, give us a total high school enrollment of 273, a very large increase in the number of high
school pupils during the past two years.

Teachers and Schools.--Ninety-one white and thirty-one negro teachers are employed in the county who supply
respectively 31 schools for whites and 16 schools for negroes. We have not been able to secure a supply of
teachers from our own county, but have drawn from other counties of the State and from other States. We have
had much difficulty in getting teachers for our negro schools, owing to the failure of many applicants to obtain

We are glad to report, in this connection, great advance in the elevation of the standard of our teachers. It
is now regarded as, almost discreditable for an Orange County teacher to hold no higher than a Third Grade Cer-
tificate. The large increase in the number of State and Special Certificates held by our teachers is further
evidence of progress in the elevation of our standards. During the school year that closed June 30, 1914, two
years ago, no teacher in the service of the county held a State Certificate, not even the principal of the
senior high school, and there were only two teachers in the service who held State Special Certificates. At
this writing, 8 of our teachers hold State Certificates by examination. 7 hold State Graduate Certificates


and 11 hold State Specials. This advance may be regarded as the result of persistent insistence on the part
of the County Superintendent.

It is also gratifying to report the appreciable and much appreciated increase in the salaries of our teachers.
We believe that Orange County has surpassed all other counties of the State in the increased salaries of teachers
throughout the county, the minimum salary of white teachers being $60, which is 50 percent increase over the
minimum of two years ago.

Special Tax School Districts.--There are 18 Special Tax School Districts in the county, embracing all the schools
of the county except one white and one negro school. These districts, with one or two exceptions, assess the
maximum of three mills special tax and have done great work in the erection and repairing of school buildings.

Bondina Districts.--Five Special Districts have issued bonds in the total sum of $87,000, which has been spent
in the purchase of school lots and in the erection and equipment of school buildings,

School Finances.--Orange County has been fortunate in closing each year during the present administration, as
well as for several years previous, with a cash balance both in the General and the Special School funds, and
without the necessity of borrowing money, except temporarily in a few instances and by bonding in the districts
as stated. Teachers have been promply paid at the close of each month and all bills have been promptly paid
at the close of each month and all bills have been promptly met.

Cannina Club and Other Demonstration Work.--For the past two years, Orange County has maintained an agent for
Corn Club and other agricultural work and for the past year, a Canning Club Agent. The latter has been paid
in part from the school fund, while the former has been supported independently of school money. Gratifying
progress, in both lines of this work, has been made and hopes for great future good inspired.

Compulsorv Education.--This county has not yet taken up the question of Cumpulsory Education. While the sentiment
is in favor of compulsory school attendance, it is felt that the law is inadequate, especially in that it provides
for compulsory attendance for only a part of the school term. A compulsory law covering the entire school term
would find favor with our people.

Transportation of Pupils,--One of the most perplexing problems with which we have to deal is the transportation
of pupils. The difficulties encountered seem to increase rather than diminish and the conviction that this feature
of our system is impractical has impressed the County Board and the Superintendent. During the past year about
$4,000 has been paid out for the transporting of 214 pupils to various schools.

In General.--Some improvement along all lines of school work has evidently been made. Yet it is equally evident
that some change in our public school system and methods are needed. Among these changes may be named: a larger
membership of County School Boards, the requirement of educational qualifications for County Superintendents and
the conferring upon them of additional powers, uniform text-books throughout the entire course, a State course of
study for schools of all grades, free text-books, compulsory attendance for the entire school term and improvement
in the system of examination of teachers. There are some school laws on our Statute books that need to be repealed,
or at least amended and made effective. To enter into any discussion of these desired changes would extend this
report beyond a proper length.

I wish to express my appreciation for the interest that the State Superintendent has manifested in the school work
of our county and to myself as County Superintendent.

Bespeaking for you the hearty co-operation of all school officials and great success throughout your incoming term,
I am,
Yours sincerely,
J. F. McKinnon,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Comply with your request for a report on the schools of Osceola County for the two years ending June 30,
1916, I beg to submit the following:

Appointed to Office.--Upon the resignation of the Hon. W. J. Sears from the office of County Superintendent to
become a member of Congress, I was appointed to succeed him and received my commission February 2, 1915. As my
term in office has been less than a year and a half of the biennium, I am better able to report on the last than
the first year of work.

Bu.tdings.--Before the close of the last school year, the Board authorized the erection of three one-room buildings
for white in the rural districts. These buildings, which will be completed before the opening of the fall term
of school, will cost about $2,100 and be paid for out of the general fund. They will be painted, ceilled or
plastered and equipped with patent single desks, maps, globes and good blackboards. It is the policy of the Board
when planning new buildings to give special attention to the arrangement for proper light and ventilation.

In the past two years the Board has spent $2,832,98 for repairs on buildings for whites and $1,665 for negroea,
With a few exceptions all the buildings in the county are painted and in good repair.

High Schools.--We lay claim to but one senior high school according to the standard fixed by the State Board of
Education, the Osceola County High at Kissimmee. This school employs a faculty of 25 teachers and enrolled last
year 640 pupils, 94 being in the high school department. It offers a two-course curriculum and maintains depart-
ments of music, expression and domestic science and household management. It has a well chosen library, a well
equipped laboratory, two literary societies, an athletic association, a fine orchestra and a school paper published
monthly. As soon as we can secure more room, we expect to add manual training and a teacher-training course. The
thoroughness of the work done in this school is shown by the fact that its graduates take front rank on entering
higher institutions of learning.


At St. Cloud we have an irregular four-year high school with a faculty of ten teachers and an enrollment of 285
pupils, about 30 being In the high school department. While this school is doing the work of a regular senior
school, we do not claim it as such, as it does not meet the requirements of the regulations as to the number of
teachers engaged in high school work. It has a good library, a well equipped laboratory and other apparatus necessary
for a school of this class. As the town is growing rapidly, we expect in a year or two, to be able to place it
on the list of accredited senior high schools. During the last two years the enrollment in the high schools of
the county has increased about 10 percent. Before leaving this subject I wish to say that I heartily approve the
regulations of the State Board of Education in regard to high schools and recognize no other standard than the one
fixed by that body.

Teachers.--While it is our policy to give employment to our home teachers as far as possible, we find the supply
is inadequate to meet the demand. One of our greatest difficulties is in securing teachers for the high school
departments who have proper qualifications to meet the requirements of the State Board's regulations. This is
especially true in regard to young men to teach the sciences and take charge of the athletics. Another drawback
is the number of inexperienced teachers with low grade certificates. While there is some good material in this
class of teachers, so few have the necessary training to enable them to eliminate the experimental stage in their
teaching. I would suggest that the law be changed so that one of the requisite for a certificate be a certain
amount of normal training in some accredited institution, and that the life of a third grade certificate be one
year and that a certificate of this class be issued to the same person but once.

Special Tax Districts.--There are six special tax districts in the county, four of which levy a three mill tax.
Within the territory embraced by these districts are 15 white and 2 colored schools. The St. Cloud District has
been enlarged so that now it includes six schools, where there was formerly but one. The amount of revenue
derived from these districts is about $8,000, which is used to supplement teachers' salaries, extend the school
terms, purchase libraries and other apparatus and meet other incidental expenses. We have no bonded districts.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--We have had no trouble with the operations of this law. At times we have had some difficulty
in obtaining books from the local agency, but this has been overcome by the appointment of another agent. I favor
a uniform State Course of Study and Uniform Text-Books throughout all grades, and believe the next Legislature
should take the necessary steps to bring this about.

Finances.--Our financial condition is growing better, and had the tax books closed at the proper time, we would
have been out of debt at the close of the year. As it is we had a net indebtedness in the general school fund of
$2,760.67, as against $16,110.12, on June 30th, 1914. In the meantime the expense of maintaining the schools has
increased from $30,000.92 to $36,671.59. None of our special tax districts are in debt, but we have a net balance
on hand of $4,620.43. We always pay our teachers promptly and keep our warrants at par. When short of funds, we
borrow from whatever source we can get the best terms. With the increased valuation of property, the saving of
the treasurer's commission and interest on old debts, we expect to have a substantial balance on hand at the close
of another year.

Teachers' Institutes.--Our teachers met the day following Thanksgiving last year in a teachers' institute. As this
was the first meeting of the kind held in the county in about fifteen years, we were somewhat doubtful as to the
success of the venture. However, nearly all of the teachers were present, and a very profitable day was spent in
discussing subjects pertaining to school work. It is our purpose, hereafter, to meet at least once a year. Last
spring the faculty of the Osceola High School conducted a six weeks' training class for rural teachers and those
desiring to teach. Part of the requirements of this course was to visit the different rooms and make observations
and, at times, take charge of the classes. In this way the students came in contact with the actual school work
as carried on under the direction of trained teachers. The county was at no extra expense for this course, as
the members of the faculty gave their services voluntarily.

Canning and Corn Clubs.--We have both canning club and farm demonstrating agents. Miss Albina Smith, our efficient
canning club agent, is doing splendid work in the county. We are giving special attention to this line of work
and the results obtained are very satisfactory.

There are now about seventy girls enrolled in the clubs and many more will be added during the next year. The
school board appropriates $500 for this work and $500 is obtained from the Federal fund.

The farm demonstration work is under the direction of Mr. B. E. Evans, a graduate of Auburn, Ala. The
results of this work is shown by the improvement in the methods of farming and the increased yield of corn
per acre. The agent receives a salary of $1,800 per year, $1,200 of which is paid by the County Commissioners
and $600 from the Federal Fund.

Compulsory School Attendance.--Since the close of the school year, one special tax district has voted for compulsory
school attendance and one school board district will vote on it in the near future. I have not urged the adoption
of this law as I consider it only a makeshift and not at all what we need. I favor a State-wide, mandatory law
that will compel attendance for the full length of the term of school. The sentiment in this county is largely
in favor of such a law.

School Libraries.--During the past year we have installed libraries in seven rural schools. These libraries contain
about 140 volumes and are graded to meet the requirements of pupils from the first to the eighth grades. They cost
about $130 and were paid for out of the special tax district funds.

Examination System.--I do not approve the present examination system because it is uniform in name only. This is
shown by the fact that teachers who have secured certificates in one county have been known to fail altogether
in an other county. I believe a State Examining Board would be much better, provided the examinations could be
held in different parts of the State so that the expense would not be too heavy on the teachers.

General Outlook.--While we are a long ways from a state of perfection, I feel that we have made substantial progress
in the past two yeatre. We have established a number of new schools, painted and repaired a number of old buildings
and equipped them with patent desks, maps, globes and blackboards. That the interest in educational matters is
being aroused, is shown by the demand for better teachers and better houses and equipment. With a State Course
of Study, a state-wide compulsory school law and more rural school inspectors, I believe the next few years would
be marked by a rapid advance along educational lines.

Yours truly,
C. E. Yowell,
County Superintendent.



Hon. W. H. Lewis, County Superintendent. (It was impossible to get a report from this county.)


New Buildings,--Pasco County School Board has the buildings in such shape that they are comfortable, sanitary
and conducive of excellent ideals with regard to the general development of the community.

High Schools.--Our high school buildings have within the last two years been equipped with water drainage closets.
In schools in towns that do not have a water supply the School Board has established tank and tower with gas
engine attached for the means of water supply, which has been done at a very low cost, about $150. This, with
the sanitary closets connected with cesspool, makes a fairly economical and efficient means of sewerage disposal.

Rural Schools.--In the rural districts the School Board has endeavored to replace the closets with closets built
in conformity with the State regulations. Within the last two years the School Board has completed some 10
buildings for the rural schools, of which number 2 are of brick.

At Richland the School Board constructed a brick school house at a cost of $6,395, said house containing five class-
rooms, the three on the upper floor convertible into an auditorium by means of sliding doors. This building is
equipped with sanitary drinking fountains and water carriage closets.

Our other rural schools are constructed according to community needs, one-room buildings ranting in price from
four to five hundred dollars. All of the school buildings of the county are either built anew or repaired with
an eye to comfort and health of the children, except three buildings.

Teachers.--The schools of Pasco County have been filled with teachers, though some with low-grade certificates,
this probably due to the fact that appropriations were necessarily small for the rural schools.

Special Tax School Districts.--Every foot of land in Pasco County is now included within special tax school
districts, 28 in all, aggregating an increase to the school fund of about $11,000 each year.

Bonding Districts.--Two districts have voted bonds for the benefit of their schools, another has filed petition
for election, this makes, in all, $24,000 in bonds.

School Finances.--The sacool finances in Pasco County are in arrears, due to the necessity of providing adequate
buildings and sanitary equipment. The money for building has been obtained by making temporary loans of local
banks, then issuing time warrants to take up the present indebtedness these warrants are made to mature serially
$2,000 each year.

Teachers' Institutes.--Pasco County has two teachers, association, made so as to assure the teachers an opportunity
to attend meetings without heavy expense. These meetings are of much value to teachers and school officials, we
usually have some of the State school officials in attendance.

Compulsory School Attendance.--Pasco County has two special tax school districts and one School Board district
under the compulsory law. We have not been able to get much results from the law, as it failed to provide for
the salary of the attendance officer by making an additional levy for that purpose. In fact, some of the latest
school laws, the above compulsory attendance law and sanitary equipment law for rural schools, are burdensome
in that they require certain things and fail to provide the funds for the execution of them.

School Libraries.--Eighty percent of the schools of Pasco County are furnished with libraries made possible by
the speciAl district funds.

Transportation of Pupils.--Pasco County has placed the transportation of pupils up to the several districts of
the county as they have sufficient funds to handle this matter, this of course, is restricted to an expenditure
of 10 cents per pupil per day by the County Board.

State Course of Study.--We believe that a State Course of Study should be adopted for all of the schools of the
State, more especially for the high schools. This will prevent school officials from making too risky experiments
with texts that are inferior in their development of the subject-matter.

Caution as to New Laws.--We believe that the constitution should be amended so as to give the County Board the
right to assess as much as 10 mills for school purposes, even if the special districts have to be abolished. We
also believe that one essential point is overlooked by the law-making bodies in making of school laws, that is,
they fail to provide for the execution of the law when they fail to provide for the expense incurred.

J. W. Sanders,
County Superintendent


Hon. W. N. Sheets,

Dear Sir:--The modern and improved and thoroughly equipped school buildings located in every district of Pinellas
County, each of which is maintained for a full eight months in the year, together with the liberal funds provided
by bonds voted and taxes levied for their erection and maintenance, speak more strongly of the educational progress
and spirit of Pinellas County than anything I can say.

High Schools and High School Regulations.--Pinellas County has five high schools, four Senior High Schools and
one Junior High School, All the senior high schools are on the accredited list of the Southern Association of
Colleges and Universities, which is the highest authority in the South to pass upon the character and standard
of the work done by high schools. The fact that the schools are on this list permits its graduates to enter,
without examination, any of the colleges comprising the Association, and as both the State Colleges are members



of this Association any of our graduates may enter these schools without examination. I feel that the heroic
effort of the State Board of Education to set up and maintain a standard for the high schools in the State is
worthy of support in every way, and I am only too glad to do anything consistent with the welfare of the schools
of the county to co-operate with this movement. But as long as the standard of the State Board of Education does
not have the sanction of law, and as the last two Legislatures have flatly refused to enact it into law, and as
long as the State Board of Education can offer no inducements to County School Boards for having the high schools
meet this condition, and as no penalty can be inflicted for their failure to do so, the regulations are not likely
to be productive of the good results for which they were instituted. And until these regulations are broad enough
to provide for emergencies and the rapid development in certain sections they tend to tear down rather than build
up high schools, which certainly is not the intention of the State Board of Education, As to the accrediting
being done by an outside Board of Educators, I only have to say that as long as a great number of the graduates
of the high schools of the State go outside of the State for their college work I can see no reason why the
high schools should not meet the regulations of the Association of Southern States, and I honestly believe that
the work of this outside Board of Educators has carried on in this State, through Dr. Thackston and Professor
Cawthon, has been and is one of the very greatest forces operating to build up and standardize the high schools
of the entire State. There is an Association of Colleges and Universities for every section of the United States,
and they have operated to build up the work of the high schools of their respective sections more than any other

Teachers and Teacher-Training.--The State does not have a supply of teachers and will never have a supply of teachers
until it provides some way to train teachers. It is manifestly unfair to the boys and girls of the State who
want this work to refuse it to them on the grounds that they are untrained and at the same time offer them no
opportunity for training, while hundreds of teachers are imported and employed annually from other States. Nothing
causes school officials so much embarrassment as the matter of turning down the applications for positions in the
schools of local people who have had neither experience nor training and who are even unconscious of the need for
either. The average man feels that the graduates of the local high schools should be immediately available for
work as teachers in the lower grades of the school. He does not stop to think that teaching is a profession and
that a mere graduate of high school is no better prepared to teach school without further training and preparation
than he would be to practice medicine, law, or dentistry without further training and preparation for these
special subjects. As a result of the failure of the State to offer training for its teachers two things both of
great harm to the State are being done; the State is importing hundreds of teachers annually, many of whom are
incompetent and only looking for a winter resort, and is allowing hundreds of inexperienced, untrained, incompetent
girls and boys to attempt the work of teaching in the public schools. There is, and can be, but one solution of
the matter. The State should provide, as every other progressive State has done, Normal Schools for the preparation
of its teachers. The Constitution provides that the Legislature may do this. Public policy and the welfare of
our schools demand it on every hand. The action of the last Legislature in attempting to establish a one-horse
Normal School, or Teacher-Training Department, in every county has certainly failed. Only a very few of the
counties attempted it last year or this year, and in view of the utter failure made I can hardly see why the Legis-
lature would again provide funds for something that has proven so impracticable. In Pinellas County we have tried
each year to run the Normal School and have done the very best we could under the circumstances, and have gotten
some little results, but one might as well attempt to run a saw mill with one employee as a Normal School with
one teacher. Why not break up the State University and the Woman's College and give to each county in the State
one of these teachers who could teach advanced courses for the few pupils in that county? This would certainly
save the State much money and would allow the boys and girls to remain at home. Of course, no one would think of
or advocate such a thing for a moment, but after all, it is just as feasible and just as sensible as it is to try
to carry on the work of two Normal Schools with all their necessary departments by placing one teacher in each of
the fifty counties of the State.

School Finances.--The school finances of Pinellas County are in good condition and all bills and salaries are
promptly paid, but the day is fast coming in Pinellas County, as it is in every other county that has voted a
large number of bonds for school improvement, when more school funds must be provided. Under the present law when
a district votes bonds for buildings, etc., an additional tax may be levied to provide funds for the interest and
principal of these bonds, but no additional income is provided for the extra and heavy expense incurred in maintain-
ing these enlarged and high priced school plants. The entire Tax System of the State should be revised. It is
inadequate and out of date. Florida is the only State in the Union where the poor and small land owner pays the
burden of the taxes. There should be State Regulations vested in a Tax Commission with far-reaching powers to
give the State a uniform system of taxation.

Vocational Work.-The schools of Pinellas County are giving a great amount of attention to Vocational Work. Six
of the schools, including the five high schools, now offer thorough courses in Domestic Science and Manual Train-
ing, and the work of the entire county is so arranged that every boy and girl in the county may have from two to
four years of this work. A great deal of attention is being given to agricultural work and the county has
established an Agricultural High School in Largo, for which $5,000 has been appropriated for land and equipment,
and an instructor has been hired by the year to take charge of this department. A great effort has been made to
stimulate and encourage the work in this subject so long neglected. The 20 acres of land thus purchased is to
be equipped as a modern farm and boys who enroll in agricultural work are to have an opportunity to learn agricul-
ture at first hand.

In addition the County School Board has given its support and co-operation in the matter of Canning Club work
which has been organized for the first time in the county. The work is well under way and encouraging results
are being obtained. In a personal way I have organized and maintained a Pig Club in the county and will reorganize
it for another year in connection with the agricultural school at Largo.

Reports and Report Blanks.--Something ought to be done in the matter of reports required of the County Superintendent
and School Boards. The monthly financial statements are now used are antiquated and are so arranged that it is
impossible in using these forms to make any report of value. They do not include any mention of the great sums
received from the sale of bonds or give any information about the financial condition of the districts or of the
general school fund. Now that the Legislature and the people have gotten rid of the useless and expensive Cpunty__
Treasurer and are.making a change in the financial system, why not have a modern system of accounting and
reporting school finances? What has been said about the monthly reports is equally true about the annual report,
as now made by the County Superintendents. These reports do not give the real information that the public wants
and the school system has outgrown them in every way. The greatest waste of time and money in making reports is
the semi-annual doomes-day book, as now required to be made to the State Comptroller. The intention of this law


is good and I am a great believer in publicity of public affairs, and every official should strive to keep the
public informed as to what is going on through his office. But why should County Superintendents be required
to waste weeks and weeks making complete copies and records of their books every six months only to have theai
copies stored in the attics in Tallahassee? When a bond issue has been voted and it is reported that the bonds
will run for 25 years and that interest will be paid semi-annually at 62, why should it be necessary to report
this every six months and make great transcripts of the records semi-annually? If the School Boards are to be
required to make financial reports, both to the State Comptroller and to the State Superintendent, why not make
such report as will be of some value to these departments and the public in general?

Thanking you for the opportunity to submit this special report, I have the honor to remain,

Very Respectfully,
Dixie M. Hollins,
County Superintendent.


Hon. Cheater A. Parker, County Superintendent (It was impossible to get a report from this county.)


Dear Sir:--Supt. Cottingham is confined to his bed and no report of the last two years' work can be made except
to say that schools are improving and much interest in educational matters is being manifested by the people
of Putnam County.

Yours truly,
Mrs. J. D. Cottingham.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I hereby submit the following statement of what has been accomplished in
this county for the public schools during the past two years!

New School Buildings.--Five new school buildings have been built in the county during the past two years; two of
them have been donated to the county to be used for school purposes. The other three were built by the County
Board of Public Instruction with an aggregate cost of $2,200. These school houses contain one room, were built
for white pupils, and funds used to build them were borrowed.

School Buildings Repaired.--White Schools, 1915--No. repaired, 16; cost, $1,087.35; funds borrowed, White schools
1916--No. repaired, 18; cost, $2,096.63; funds borrowed. Negro schools, 1915--No, repaired, 3; cost, $214.58;
funds borrowed. Negro schools, 1916--No. repaired, 3; cost, $114.57; funds borrowed.

High Schools.--For white pupils there is one senior high school in the county, situated in St. Augustine; one
intermediate high school at Hastings; one junior high school at Bunnell; one negro junior high school in
St. Augustine.

I do not consider them up to the standard of the Regulations of the State Board of Education in every detail I
approve of their being required to be up to the State Regulations and do not approve of them being regulated by
an unauthorized body of educators outside of the State. However, I think that the State Regulations should be
modified in some respects relative to the qualifications of teachers in high schools, and that there should be
a more accurate method used in placing schools on the approved list because some schools that were placed on the
list do not live up to the State Regulations and therefore, were not entitled to be on the approved list.

Teachers.--The supply has been ample, the efficiency good. Have had some trouble in securing legally certificated
teachers in high schools. Average teachers' salaries for the whole county is; white schools, male $75, female $45;
negro schools, male $40, female $31. There has been no increase in salaries.

Special School Districts.--There is one special tax school district in the county, situated at Hastings. There
are two white schools and two negro schools located in said district.

Bonding Districts.--There is no bonded special tax district in this county.

School-Sanitation.--The out-buildings of the schools have been arranged to comply with the law regulating such
buildings. All of the school children were inspected last year by the medical inspector, as required by law,
The teeth of all of the pupils of the free schools of the county are treated free. The Board maintains a Dental
Clinic and has a Dentist employed who does nothing else but treat the teeth of the school children. This is made
possible by the donation of $1,000 annually by a generous citizen.

Teaching the Evils of Alcoholics and Narcotics.--The teaching of the evils of alcoholics and narcotics is taught
as required by law.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--There are no legally constituted book agents in St. Augustine, book dealers here having
failed to put up their required bond. While we get books through them, I think conditions could be improved.

School Finances.--The financial condition of the county is not good. The condition of the general school fund of
the county is not good, but the condition of the special tax school district fund is very good. The general school
fund is $114,911.12 in arrears. There is $1,057.61 balance on hand to the credit of the special tax school district
fund. Teachers have been paid promptly up to the present time, but we will not be able to pay them promptly after
January 2nd, owing to a law which goes into effect on that date, which regulates the school finances. We manage
to pay our teachers promptly by having a bank cash our warrants and carry them at a low rate of interest until
they are cancelled by money received from the seven mill levy and other sources.



We have no plan at present to reduce our indebtedness. We had two plans during the past by which we expected
secure funds to be used toward reducing the school indebtedness; the first was to create a Special Tax District
in St. Augustine; that failed by a large majority of people voting against it; the second was to get the
Legislature to pass a resolution to have the State Constitution amended so that School Boards could levy a
maximum of ten mills, instead of seven mills, for school purposes in the county. This plan also failed. It
lacked one vote of the necessary three-fifths in order to pass the Legislature and, therefore, could not be
submitted for the ratification of the people at the last general election.

Teachers' County Institutes.--There is no organized Teachers' Association in this county. There has been no
Teachers' Institute held in this county recently, because there are no funds available for that purpose.

Teachers' Summer Schools.--Number of teachers who attended'summer schools; white males, 2; white females; 10;
negro males, 0; negro females, 9.

Vocational Work.--Manual training and mechanical drawing were taught in the St. Augustine High School for two
years, and a Commercial Department was taught in said school for a period of three years. The Board was compelled
to abolish both of these departments on account of not having sufficient funds to operate them.

Canning, Corn, and Other Students' Clubs.--St. Johns County has both a Farm Demonstrator and a Canning Club Agent.
Mr. H. C. Lawton, the State Farm Demonstrator, receives $2,300 annually, $1,500 from the County and the balance
from other sources. The Canning Club Agent is Miss Lois Godbey, and she receives $800 annually from the National
and State governments, the County Commissioners and the Chamber of Commerce of St. Augustine, the Canning Clubs
have more than doubled in number during the past year, and this county won the first prize at the Duval County
Fair in competition with many other counties. The Farm Demonstrator has created a new interest in the raising of
live stock and it bids fair to be one of the leading industries of St. Johns County.

Compulsory School Attendance.--Compulsory school attendance has not been instituted in this county because we
haven't sufficient funds to properly care for all of those who attend school voluntarily without compelling others
to attend, thereby creating further expense. I am in favor of State-wide, mandatory compulsory school attendance,
but not until necessary laws are passed with which to finance the schools, thereby securing sufficient funds to
meet the extra expenses that would naturally be incurred. The sentiment of the people of this county is in favor
of compulsory education, provided sufficient funds are appropriated to meet the conditions created by the enacts
ment of such a law.

School Libraries.--There is a library established in the St. Augustine High School valued at $500. Recently a
small library has been established in the Bunnell School.

Teacher-Training Departments.--There has been no Teacher-Training Department established in this county, as we do
not have the necessary funds required to institute such a department.

Transportation of Pupils.--Number of pupils transported (white), 1915--50; aggregate cost, $732.25; cost per pupil,
$14.65; 1916 (white) 71; aggregate cost, $843.75; cost per pupil, $11.88. No negro pupils transported. I approve
of the system of transportation of pupils to schools under certain conditions.

County School Boards.--The present number of the Board members is satisfactory. The present method is an ideal
one. I do. not approve of a School Board composed of five members with the County Superintendent as an ex-officio
member, I think quicker action can be obtained from a smaller Board than from a larger one, as it is hard to
secure a quorum in a case of emergency.

The Government recently sent out a report giving the results of their investigations as to which would be the
proper number of members of a School Board, in order to get the best results, and they claimed in this report that
three members of the Board was the ideal number; that better results had been obtained throughout the country with
a Board of three members than had been obtained from a Board consisting of five members.

Uniform Text-Books.--I approve of a uniformity of text-books below the high school.

State Course of Study.--The State Course of Study embrace only the grades from the First to the Eighth. I think
that the State Course of Study should be promulgated under the auspices of the State Board of Education and the
Legislature should authorize them to establish such a course and enact laws giving them full power to operate
and enforce the same.

Free Text-Books.--I am in favor of Free Text-Books, I am not in favor of using funds raised from hunting license,
fish commissions, etc., for securing free text-books, but feel that new laws should be enacted which would
provide funds for the purchasing of text-books.

Progress or Retrogression.--I feel that considerable progress has been made in the schools of the county during
the past years. A few of some of the most progressive things done for the schools during the past four years
have already been enumerated above. However, the following items may be added as accomplishments of the School
Board in the way of progress! The changing of $75,000 of Time Warrants into Interest Bearing Coupon Warrants,
and the reduction of the rate of interest on same from 8% to 5 1/2%; increasing the number of schools from 14
to 42. The establishment of a course of study for the schools of the county which was printed, together with the
Regulations of the Board and instructions to teachers. The schools of the county had been operated previous to
this time without any fixed or uniform course of study for the schools as a whole. Teachers' salaries were
raised which enabled us to obtain a better qualified class of teachers and retain well qualified teachers that
were already in our employ. Creating a greater interest and a better school spirit throughout the county by
visiting the rural schools and getting in touch with them and introducing athletics in the schools.

Comparative Efficiency of Rural and Town Schools.--The rural schools of the county are just as efficient as the
town schools are, taking into consideration the environments and conditions that exist, that Is, while the rural
schools are not as efficient as the town schools, still they are as efficient as we can possibly make them under
the existing conditions.



The Present Examination System.--! am in favor of the present eaminatlon system.

New Laws Recommended.-I recommend the following new laws relative to the free public schools:

(1) Change the date for holding teachers' examinations to some date other than the one on which the primary
election of the State is held.

(2) A law to establish four Normal Schools for the training of teachers in the State, one to be centrally
located in each congressional district and to be maintained by appropriation in the same manner that the State
University and other State institutions are maintained.

(3) A resolution by the Legislature to abolish the maximum amount to be levied for school purposes. (See school

(4) A law that will tax corporations directly for school purposes, provided the Constitution will permit it. If
not permitted, then I am in favor of amending the Constitution so that it can be done.

(5) A law that will enable the School Boards to borrow money for short periods of time so that they will have
money in the funds, thus enabling them to draw warrants for current expenses as required by a new law that goes
into effect on January 2, 1917. The above mentioned law prohibits School Boards from drawing any warrant unless
the money is in hand or in said fund. While the Tax Books open in October, few people pay their taxes until
March or April. It is impossible to operate the schools under this law unless you have funds ahead. The schools
open in October and the tax money is not usually received for six months after. You can readily see that the
schools cannot be operated under such a law unless they have funds ahead, there are not many counties in the State
that are so situated. If such a law, as above mentioned, would not be practicable, then I am in favor of abolish-
ing all of the laws that will prevent County School Boards from borrowing money for current expenses, provided
they do not exceed their income for the current year.

(6) I am in favor of a law that will enforce Statewide, mandatory compulsory school attendance and a law that
will provide text-books for pupils attending free public schools, provided that laws will be enacted whereby
sufficient funds will be appropriated to meet the increased expense that would accrue by the enforcement of such
laws. The State has a right to demand that its future citizens, who natrually become a part of the government,
be educated, and as books are the tosla of the pupils, they should be furnished free, because it is useless to
build expensive school houses and employ teachers to teach and not provide pupils with tools to work with, namely,

(7) I am in favor of a law that will cause people to pay a school tax who do pay any real or personal tax, and
therefore, are not paying any taxes with which to maintain schools.

(8) I am in favor of a law that will reduce some of the "Red Tape" that is required of a County Superintendent,
namely: Reduce the number of reports that have to be made by him. At present the County Superintendent is
required to make a monthly report in duplicate, file one with the Clerk of the Circuit Court and publish the other.
He has to make a monthly statement to the Auditor, and now it appears that under the new law creating County
Depositories, the Board will have to make and publish a monthly statement. lie is required to make a semi-annual
statement of finances to the Comptroller and an annual statement of school finances to the State Superintendent.
It appears to me that some of these laws could be condensed. While I think it is necessary that the public should
be notified of what is being done with the public funds, still I feel that it could be done in a more concise and
condensed form, thereby saving a great deal of clerical work in the office of the County Superintendents of the

Respectfully submitted,
D. D. Corbett,
County Superintendent.


Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I hereby send the following data of the schools of St. Lucie County for
your Biennial Report:

New School Buildings.--Since my last report our magnificent County High School building is completed at a cost of
$80,000 (building and grounds); and at Fellamere and Okeechobee two splendid new brick buildings, costing $40,000
each, are completed and now in use. The county high school building was financed by the sale of time warrants,
which the 1913 Legislature enabled the Board to issue by a special act. The latter two were built from money
secured by the sale of bonds on the Special Tax School Districts.

The St. Lucie County High School contains 14 classrooms, a large open-air study-hall, library, laboratory and a
large auditorium. It is furnished with a gas steam-heating plant, vacuum cleaner, electric system of clocks and
electric lights and a telephone system, besides the regular equipment of desks, chairs, lobes, maps, charts,
laboratories, etc.

The Fellsmere and Okeechobee buildings contain 12 classrooms each, besides auditoriums and large basements,
uncompleted, which will be used later for domestic science and manual training. Space forbids giving in detail all
the points of excellence of these new buildings. They must be seen to be properly appreciated.

A two-room brick school building has been erected at Fort Drum at a cost of $3,000. New frame buildings have
been erected at Osceola, Harris and Midway, each costing near $1,000. All the above schools are for whites.
No new negro school houses have been built since last report.

High Schools.--We have only one senior high school that measures up to the standard. Five teachers are employed
in the St. Lucie County High School, each holding State Certificates. There are enrolled about 100 pupils in
the high school department. Fellsmere has two teachers doing high school work, each holding State Certificates,
and there are 35 pupils enrolled in the high school. High school subjects are taught to ninth, and tenth grade
pupils at Vero, Sebastian, Jensen, Wabasso and Okeechobee. There are about 200 pupils enrolled in high school
subjects in the county. We certainly believe in standardization according to State Regulations and are working
to that end as rapidly as possible.


Teachers.-We have never had trouble in securing grammar grade teachers; in fact, could fill thrice the number
of schools; but teachers qualified, holding State Certificates, have been hard to get. One reason is that the
salary we can offer for the small schools is insufficient. Salaries for country schools range from $50 to $75
per month in one-teacher schools; from $75 to $100 per month for two or more room schools for principals; from
$50 to $65 for assistants. Principals in high schools receive from $100 to $150 per month, and assistants from
$75 to $100 per month. We have established a Commercial course in the County High School for pupils not wishing
to take the Classical or Scientific course. Salaries have increased from an average of $58 to $60 for white

Special Tax School Districts.--There are 13 Special Tax School Districts in this county. There is no part of
the County not in one of these districts, and a three-mill tax is assessed in all but two, in which only two
mills are assessed. The two bonded districts assess five mills extra for interest and sinking fund. There are
34 white schools and 7 negro schools in all these districts.

Uniform Text-Books.--All schools are supplied with the State adopted text-books. The dealers have had considerable
trouble in getting the books from the companies supplying them. Complaint has been made that all unsold books
have to be sent back at dealer's expense at the end of the term or paid for by the dealer. A great deal of
dissatisfaction has been expressed concerning the operation of this law, and we hope that a change for the better
will be made by the next Legislature. Why not the State publish our text-books? Wheeler's Readers, Progressive
Arithmetic, and Hyde's Crammars are unpopular and it is hoped that they will not be re-adopted.

The teaching of the evils of alcoholics and narcotics is in force in all our schools. A few teachers are supplied
with "Health is Wealth," others are using other books.

School Finances.--The condition of our schools financially has been good up to the last term. Over $7,000 of the
general funds and over $3,000 of the special district funds were not collected last year on account of delinquent
taxes, mostly from one large land company. The land has not been redeemed yet, thus causing about the same
shortage this year. Under the new law we can only borrow about 80% of the estimate, and after January 1st, 1916,
we can issue no warrant on any fund unless there Is money in that fund. It seems to me that the School Boards
are very much handicapped at present by this law. We will have to shorten the terms of schools in some districts
that haven't a large assessment, but several schools, while other districts with plenty of money and few schools
can reduce their village and yet have sufficient money to continue eight months.

Teachers have always been paid promptly, in fact, all bills have been paid when due. Heretofore, the bank has
cashed all school warrants at par and if our treasury was empty, we paid 6% interest from date of registry, till
money was available.

County Institutes.--The last week in August, 1915, a week's institute was held at the county high school building.
All teachers, white, were required to attend. Transportation and $1 per day were allowed teachers at a distance.
We had Hon. Shelton Phillips with us and enjoyed a very pleasant as well as profitable session. Splendid class
exercises were given and papers on various subjects were read and discussed. We will have a two days' session of
the teachers' meeting, December 1st and 2nd this year, 1916.

Vocational Work and Club Work.--Our County Board has not been able to finance this work up to the present. It was
the intention to begin this year with a Canning Club agent, but the delinquent taxes caused the Board to postpone
the matter,

Compulsory School Attendance.--I believe the majority of people are in favor of a compulsory law that would compel
the attendance of children between the ages of seven and sixteen, but do not believe the present law adequate and,
for that reason alone, I have not made any attempt to have a trial.

School Libraries-Free Text-Books.--About 75% of the schools have very good libraries, ranging from 100 to 300
volumes. Most of these books were purchased by the special districts, and more will be added from time to time,
I might mention here regarding free text-books. 96me districts that are in good financial condition furnish the
text-books to their schools. The Board has been opposed to the county furnishing free books from the fact that
all the money raised from the maximum millage allowed, seven mills, has been needed for other purposes. If we
had a surplus of money for our schools, no objection would be offered to free books.

Transportation.--The Board has pro-rated among the schools the general fund according to attendance. Pupils that
were isolated were allowed this pro-rata, provided they attended school during the time school was in session at
some school in the county. Schools have been furnished where there were enough pupils to give an average attendance
of six, or transportation has been given them to some other school. Where pupils have advanced to grades beyond
the schools attended, transportation or a definite sum for board has been allowed by those special districts that
were financially able. About 30 pupils are now transported to the St. Lucie County High School. Over $3,000 were
expended for transportation in 1915.

State Course of Study--Uniform Text Books.--Most progressive States have a State Course of Study. Florida should
have one. I believe we should have uniform text-books for high school subjects as well as for the grammar grades.
This course should lay out the subject matter to be covered not only by the year, but monthly. Tests should be
given at the end of each month, and I think the method followed in Illinois of having the monthly questions sent
out by the state in sealed envelopes a good one. I think the Legislature should provide for a Committee to adopt,
print and promulgate such a course and enact a law that each County Superintendent and School Board should see
that it was carried out in their county.

General Topics.--Comparing country with town schools.--Many of our best teachers are teaching in the country.
Most pupils that finish the grammar grades in the country schools and then go to the high schools are above the
average pupils in the high schools. It seems that the pupils in the towns have too many attractions to take their
minds off their lessons, as a general rule, but on the other hand where the parents hold a tight rein over their
children, they have many advantages the country.pupil does not enjoy.

Teachers' Examinations.--In regard the present system of teachers' examinations, I do not think that a State Board
of Examiners will be better. If the present law is carried out properly there is no objection to it. I would
like very much to have a change made in the time of the second examination. I think it should be held in August
instead of September.


The enrollment has increased from 1163 pupils to 1687 for white, and from 277 to 405 negro pupils since the
last report. Taxes collected for school purposes have increased over $25,000 since 1914.

Our schools generally are in excellent shape, the teachers are putting forth every effort to advance the pupils
morally as well as intellectually, and the pupils seem to realize the necessity of studiousness as never before.
We feel that St. Lucie county has made great advancement.

Respectfully submitted,
J. W. Hodge,
County Superintendent.

Dear Sir:--It gives me great pleasure to comply with your request for a report showing the work of the Department
of Public Instruction for Santa Rosa County during the past two years. Since my last Biennial Report, about one-
third of our county has been cut off to help form Okalooaa County; therefore, my last report to you will show
some of the totals to be less for the last school year than they have been for the past few years.

New Buldings.--During the past two years we have erected 11 new buildings, containing a total of 35 classrooms.
These buildings and the lots upon which they have been erected cost $50,407.58. Of this amount $24,319.80 was
derived from the sale of Special Tax District Bonds. The remainder, $26,087.78 was paid from the general school
fund of the county. During the past two years $1,779.04 has been paid for the repair of buildings. All new build-
ings erected where the location seemed to be permanent have been designed by a good school architect. We are
slowly replacing the old style "shoe box" buildings with those of modern architectural design.

I am sending you views of the new buildings at Munson, and Milton. I am also sending you a view of the Teacherage
located on the corner of the school lot in Milton. The house used for a teacherage was secured when the lot was
purchased for the new school buildings, and at my suggestion left on the lot, repaired, and arranged for a teacherage.
The principal of the school, Prof. A. D. Kean, is now occupying it and is much pleased to be located in a good
home so near his work.

High Schools.--Milton has the only high school in the county. During the past year it has been an Intermediate
High School. Next year it will probably be considered a senior high school. The enrollment last year in the
high school department was 32 pupils. This was the first. year it has been considered ass an accredited high school,
because heretofore the qualifications of the teachers in charge did not meet the standard requirements for high

We have a few other schools that do a little of the first year high school work, but we cannot hope to have them
classed as accredited high schools because of the shortness of the terms and the small number of pupils in the
high school grades. I heartily approve of State Regulations for high schools. Let us make such regulations worth
while and give the State High School Inspector ample authority to enforce them.

Teachers.--The average monthly salaries paid the white male teachers last year was $56.20; white females, $48.36;
negro male teachers, $40; negro females, $27.20. We do not have a sufficient number of resident teachers to
supply our schools. Hence, we must look else-where for them. Our greatest difficulty is to secure teachers whose
experience, training and scholarship are sufficient to supply the largest schools. We never employ teachers hold-
ing temporary certificates.

Special Tax School District.--We had 9 special tax school districts before the creation of Okaloosa County. Two
were cut off in it. Since that time one new one has been established, and petitions asking for the creation of
several others are now being advertised; therefore, it is expected that several others will soon be established.

The eight districts employ 41 teachers, almost half the teachers employed in the county. The salaries paid to
teachers employed in the districts are from $5 to $25 more per month than the salaries paid to teachers for the
same grade of work outside the districts.

Bonding Districts.--During the past two years the Baker district bonds for $5,000, voted three years ago, have
been sold and the proceeds expended to aid in the erection of a nice ten-room brick building at that place. Milton
district has voted an issue of $20,000 in bonds, and the proceeds have been expended to assist the county fund in
the erection of a modern brick building.

School Sanitation.--The requirements of Chapter 6836 have been met in all the largest schools. School officials
have found it almost impossible to meet these requirements in every small isolated school.

Uniform Text-Book Law.--Several of the local agents, it seems, never order a sufficient quantity of books at one
time to supply the demand. Consequently they frequently do not have what is wanted when called for. If this law
were changed so that the county could handle the books and the County Superintendent do the ordering, books would
be on hand when called for. Until this is done, much annoyance and delay will be caused by waiting for text-books.
The next Legislature should look into this matter.

Finances.--The school fund of Santa Rosa County on the 30th day of June, 1916, is in a reasonably good condition,
considering the amount paid from the general fund for buildings during the past two years. The county owes from
its general fund $37,968.83. It has a cash balance on hand amounting to $8,055.41 and a balance due by the Tax
Collector of $14,266.45, making the total indebtedness of this fund, if all taxes were collected, $15,546.97.
This indebtedness is caused on account of the large amount spent from this fund on the new building in Milton.
Our Board has planned to pay this amount at the rate of about $1,000 a year until paid.

Milton district is about $600 in arrears, if all its back taxes were collected, besides its bonded indebtedness.
All other districts have a cash balance on hand and no outstanding indebtedness. Our teachers have been promptly
paid, except the salaries paid from the Milton district funds.


County Institutes for Teachers.--We have been holding our annual Institute for Teachera during Friday and
Saturday after Thanksgiving lay, but this year arrangements have been made for the opening of all the schools
in the county on the same day, viz., the 18th of September, and for the holding of the institute just prior
to this time.

Miss Agnes Ellen Harris, of Tallahassee, and Dr. Harry Clark, of Tennessee, have been secured to deliver several.
addresses during the meeting. One feature of the program is the stress laid upon industrial work in the public
schools. On Friday during the institute all the school trustees and supervisors in the county have been requested
to be present and hear a lecture by Miss Harris and one by Dr. Clark, each prepared for the purpose of bringing
about a closer relation between trustees, supervisors and teachers. Our plan is to continue this method of
opening our schools and holdiir our Institute. We are also planning to hold two or more district Institutes in
rural communities during the year.

Industrial Work--Very little has been done along this line of work, because our teachers did not know how to go
about it, even on a small scale. They have not been urged to undertake it, because the officials knew that they
did not know how to do it successfully. In a few instances school gardens have been provided and some work done
along agricultural lines. Also, a few schools have done a little work in Domestic Science. Our greatest hind-
rance to this work is the lack of teachers trained to do this work in connection with academic studies.

Canning Clubs.--Miss Mary Gray was employed for 6 months last year as Canning Club Agent at a salary of $100 per
month. Half her salary was paid from the county school fund and the other half from Federal Funds. About 20
clubs were organized in the county with a total enrollment of 104 girls. Many of the girls did excellent work.
The work will be continued next year with Miss Janie Stroud as agent.

Corn Clubs.--We had Corn Clubs in the county during 1914-15 under the supervision of the County Demonstration agent,
but because of having no agent to look after the clubs last year the work was discontinued until an agent is
secured. Provision has been made to take up the work again next year.

Compulsory Attendance.--Our county has held no election on this question. It is being agitated in pprts of the
county and possibly will be voted upon in the near future. Personally, I think the law ought to be strengthened
so as to make it: worth while.

School Libraries.--Small libraries have been secured for 15 rural schools. These have been purchased by the use
of district funds, supplemented with funds raised by the teachers and pupils in their respective communities. A
few books are being added to these libraries each year. We have in the library in the Graded and High School
in Milton over 400 volumes. These have been secured in the same way that those have in rural schools. Acknowledge-
ment is here made to the administrator and the heirs of the late S. J. Harvey for his entire library, consisting
of books and book cases valued at over $200.

Teacher Traininl Department.--Provision has been made for this department next year. It is badly needed in this
county and good results are expected from it.

County School Boards.--I favor increasing the Board to five members and electing two of them the year the Superin-
tendent is elected and two at the next election. The terms of all schools officials should begin at the beginning
of the school year.

Uniform Text-Book.--We should have uniformity of text-books for all grades. They are needed more for the high
school grades than for any other departments.

Free Text-Books.--I am strongly opposed to a law providing for free text-books. Parents should be required to
furnish their children with the necessary text-books and other supplies, and let the school funds all be used in
securing qualified teachers and other needed improvements.

State Course of Study.--I heartily favor a State course of study for all grades taught in the public schools. This
course of study should be prepared by a legally authorized committee composed of the best school men in the State,
men who are thoroughly familiar with all the school machinery of the State. Then the school officials of the
State should be required by law to have it enforced.

Certification ofl Teachers.--The State has outgrown its present method of certificating teachers. The present method
was probably the best that could be secured 25 years ago when professional training was almost unheard of in
Florida. We need something better now, and must have it, if we are to make the educational progress that we are
entitled to. The examination should be partly oral so that the applicant's personality may be considered in grant-
ing certificate. A certain amount of professional training should he required, too, before applicants are
admitted to examinations. As I have stated before in a report on this subject, we need an age limit at the bottom.
We have too many mere children trying to teach school.

I am strongly opposed to giving County Superintendents authority to endorse, at will, certificates and diplomas
from other States. Conditions are different in Florida from what they are in other states. Other states require
laws to meet their peculiar conditions and needs. So does Florida. May she ever continue to protect her children
from the evils that the passage of such a law would subject them to.

Comparison of Town and Rural Schools.-Before the erection of the new school building in Milton last year, the
rural children were given the same advantages that were given to those in town. Their buildings and equipment
were about the name. The length of their school terms provided from the general fund of the county were the same.

It is usual for improvements to begin in town and extend to the country. I trust that this will be the case in
Santa Ross County, and that within a few years the rural communities will organize and demand the same advantages
that are given to town schools. We need a little special legislation in some places to compel School Boards to
give the rural child the same amount of money from the general fund that is given to the town child. In the
United States $3 is spent for the education of the boy in town, while only $1 is spent for the education of the
boy in the country. Is this giving every boy a square deal?
Respectfully submitted,
J. T. Diamond,
County Superintendent.




Dear Sir:--Complying with your request, I take pleasure in submitting to you the following report of the present
condition of the public schools in Seminole County.

New Buildings and Repairs.--During the past two years nearly every school building in this county has had more
or less repairs. Especially is this the case in the city of Sanford, where the proceeds of a $75,000 bond issue
have been expended in new buildings, additions to old buildings, repairs, and for furniture. The high school,
grammar school, and two primary schools in this city are among the finest in the state, and the citizens of
Sanford are justly proud of her attainments along this line.

High Schools.--Seminole County boasts 6f one excellent Senior High School, located at Sanford, under the able
direction of Prof. B. C. Ezzell, and three schools doing Junior High School work; one at Longwood, with Mrs. C.L.
Poulk, prinicpal; one at Oviedo, with Prof. A. L. Hatch, principal; one at Geneva, with Prof. J. M. Chaffer,

Hopper Academy.--Seminole County boasts of one very good Junior High School for negro children. This is under
the able direction of Prof. J. N. Crooms, Principal, who, for the past four years, has been serving in this
capacity with great satisfaction to his patrons. This school is generally known as Hopper Academy and consists
of six well equipped rooms. We expect soon to increase this to about double its present size and add thereto
an auditorium. The costs of these improvements will be approximately $5,000.

Teachers.--There are 58 teachers now engaged in teaching in the schools of Seminole County. These teachers are
all well qualified and equipped for their work, and are giving the highest satisfaction to both pupils and patrons.
There is at present no shortage of teachers here, as there are several good teachers holding certificates, now
residing in this county and ready for work when any vacancy occurs. However, we are stressing the advantage of
college men and women as teachers, even for our country schools, and are making a determined effort to place in
all our schools teachers holding diplomas from our best colleges.

Special Tax Districts.--There are five special tax districts in Seminole County, comprising all but a small part
of the county. All of these districts are levying 3 mills, and raised during the past two years something over

Commercial Courses.--Although as yet, we have been unable to provide for commercial courses in all our schools,
it is our intention to do so as soon as practicable. We feel that this is one branch that has been sadly
neglected in most of the schools of this State, and we expect to do everything in out power to make the schools
of Seminole county a model in this respect. At Geneva, Prof. J. M. Chaffer is giving a short course in bookkeeping
which is greatly appreciated by the patrons, and especially by this office, and we commend him very highly for
this good work.

Canning and Corn Clubs.--During the past two years we have spent about $200 in the promotion of this work, and
although at present we are not active in this line, we expect soon to be able to make a better showing.

Transportation of Pupils.--During the past two years this county has spent $6,642 in transporting children to
nearby schools, The total number transported is 420. We heartily believe in consolidation, wherever practicable
thus giving the out of town pupils the benefits of a well graded and modern city school system.

Free Text-Books.--There is no doubt that free text-books would be appreciated by nearly all of our patrons, and
this is manifested by the fact that several of our special tax districts are now furnishing free books to needy

State Course of Study.--It is our opinion that the Legislature should provide for a Committee to adopt, print and
promulgate a State Course of Study for the first eight grades, but not for the high school grades.

Country Schools.--Our country schools are not being neglected, but are receiving close attention, and are provided
with high class and efficient teachers. In spite of the difficulty of handling several grades, these teachers are
doing splendid work, and their various grades compare very favorably with the same grades in the city schools.

Present Examination System.--It is the consensus of opinion among the teachers of this county that certificates
should be extended as long as the holder is actively engaged in educational work, thereby obviating the hardship
and drudgery of repeated examinations. Further, we feel that our State should adopt reciprocal relationship with
other States as regards certificates from colleges and schools of recognized standing.

New Laws Recommended.--Most important among suggested new laws is a law making our school year of nine months'
duration, instead of eight, as according to the present law. Other southern States are giving a nine months'
school year, and Florida should not be allowed to fall behind in this respect.

School Libraries.--Nearly all of our schools have libraries of more or less importance. The Sanford high school
has a library of some 600 volumes, and the grammar school library contains about 500 volumes. We stress the value
of good reading, and encourage frequent use of these libraries for reference work.

Teachers' Associations.--Seminole County has at present no Teachers' Association, but one is now being planned,
and it is hoped that it will materialize early in the next year.

Finances.--During the past two years Seminole County has expended $85,245.84 for school purposes. This does not
include amount of the bond issue in the Sanford special district. The monthly salaries of our white teachers range
from $50 to $20.25, and that of negro teachers from $30 to $100. Our total enrollment last year was 1,955, an
increase of 107 over the preceding year. We are spending a little over $20 per child each year, which is about
twice as much as the average for the whole State, as shown by the last biennial report of the State Superintendent.


County School Board.--We consider the three members of our Board fully capable of handling the matters pertaining
to the county schools. Being men of business, experience and ability, and inspired with a desire for the improve-
ment of the coming generation, they are giving liberally of their time and talents to the advancement of our
school system, and Seminole County can point with pride to the results of their labors.

General Remarks.--As seen by the foregoing, Seminole County schools have made great progress under the able
direction of Superintendent D. L. Thrasher, recently resigned, supported by the efficient County Board, Chairman
E. P. Forster, and members S. C. Dickson, and C. F. Harrison. These have also had the hearty support and
co-operation of the local trustees of the several special districts. I do not believe you will find a better
equipped staff of teachers in the State than in this county, and it gives the new county Superintendent great
pleasure to become a factor in such an efficient educational system.

Very respectfully submitted,
T. W. Lawton,
County Superintendent.


My Dear Sir:--I beg leave to make to you the following general report of the condition of the schools of Sumter
County. Since the last biennium the schools of my county have marked the greatest improvement in the history
of the schools of old Sumter.

New School Buildings.--In the last two years there have been two new buildings erected in the county at a coat of
approximately $20,000. One of these buildings is located in the country, where two small schools were consolidated.
This school is doing extremely good work, and, in my opinion, is the only solution for the rural school problem.

Buildings Repaired.--The buildings all over the county are in good repair, generally speaking. In the last two
years there has been something like $5,00) spent on repairs of buildings. These repairs generally are in the
nature of repainting and the fixing of toilets in a sanitary condition. These buildings are not near up to the
standard, but we are working at them and as soon as the financial condition of the county will permit we will
put them in a No. 1 shape.

High Schools.--We have now in this county four Junior schools, one Intermediate and one Senior. These are located
as follows: Junior at Oxford, Coleman, Bushnell and Center Hill; Intermediate at Wildwood; Senior at Webster.
These are high schools in name and not in reality, if we are to measure them by the State Regulations. These
schools are doing good work, far better than if they attempted nothing in the way of high school work. We have
now about 125 pupils enrolled in these schools in the high school departments, and I would say that not more than
15 of this number would attend elsewhere if they were forced out for the lack of such school advantages. I am
in favor of standardizing the high schools of the State; but I am in favor, at the same time, of State aid for
them, so as to enable the smaller counties to have such schools.

Teachers.--For several years we have not had any trouble in supplying the schools with teachers. As a rule, the
class of our teachers is very good, but there is room for great improvement in the way of efficiency. We
almost refuse to employ a teacher with only a third grade certificate, but a great number of teachers that hold
first grade certificates do not know the first principle of teaching. I think that the old system of supplying
legally certified teachers has served its time and that a new and up-to-date system should take its place.

As to salaries, our salaries have been about the same for several years, ranging from $50 to $125 a month. We are
now well on the way to do better in the near future.

Special Tax School Districts.--There are now 14 school districts in the county. They take in the whole county,
with the exception of 12 land sections, and they are now asking for an election to create one for that school.
Every one of these districts is levying'the full three mills for school purposes.

Alcohol and Narcotics.--The evil effects have been taught in the public school of our county for years and we
continue the work. We are not using any specially prepared book on this subject. The book, "Health is Wealth,"
has not been supplied to any of the teachers unless they have bought them themselves.

Uniform Text-Books.--I think that the uniform text-book law is all right. We have not tried it but one year
and have had trouble all the year in getting these books placed in the hands of dealers so that the public could
get them. It seems that the contracting companies have so much "red tape" that the dealers do not care to handle
them. These books are all approved by the teachers with the exception of the English grammar, readers and arith-
metics. The teachers, generally, over the county, as well as myself, think that these books should be changed.
We hope that the Teat-Book Commission will look well into this in making the next selection.

School Finances.--With regard to the school funds will say that this county is in debt at this time. The assessed
valuation of this county has been raised nearly $1,000,000 in the last year, and if no misfortune overtakes us in
the next four or five years we will be out of debt and the schools in better shape. The people are thoroughly
aroused over the schools for their children and are willing for the extra school taxes no matter what they are.
Recently two of the school districts have voted bonds for the purpose of paying their outstanding indebtedness in
order to run their schools for a period of seven or eight months. As to the general fund we are running on the
budget system entirely.

Compulsory School Attendance.--We have no compulsory school attendance in this county at the present. We have not
encouraged this so far. Under the present law we feel that it is not a wise thing to do, it will incur a larger
expenditure on the part of the Board, and they feel that it will be an injustice on the tax-payers to bring on
more expense and already in debt. The people in this county favor a State-wide compulsory attendance law if the
Legislature will provide some way to meet the expense.

Transportation of Pupils.--At the present time the matter of transporting pupils in this county is not very much
noticed. We tried this and have found it a very difficult matter to handle. Once the thing is started the people
begin to ride the public funds, so to speak, therefore, making the expense more than the good derived therefrom.


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