FOR BOYS AND GIRLS
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A', ;J .
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WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS
D LOTHROP COMPANY
COPYRIGHT, 1887, 1892, AND 1893,
D. LOTHROP COMPANY
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TIE MEXICAN CABRERO SAVES ZACHARY.
IN A MEXICAN VALLEY.'
T was Indian Summer. The red sun was
hanging on the smoky rim of the mount-
ains which looked down on the plaza in the
wild, romantic Mexican valley. With the sun-
set hour came the usual stir of herds coming
home for the night. For the crops in the nar-
row valley were yet ungarnered, and being un-
protected by any fence, stock of all kinds was
herded by day and corralled by night to pre-
vent them from being captured, after the simple
Along the well-worn trail crossing the valley,
the cattle were coming in to the water, a vaquero
riding slowly behind their lagging columns.
Beyond these, a dust-cloud rolling nearer
marked the approach of the caballada. On it
came, and suddenly, like the wind from the
mountains, the horses, mad with thirst from
the hot day on the plain, rushed upon the val-
ley and broke with swelling nostrils for the
water. On either side an amansador, leaning
forward in his Spanish saddle, plied his spurs
and waved his rawhide lariat as he urged his
half-wild horse to full speed to keep the flying
herd in check.
A group of five young Americans, from .a
party of gdld hunters temporarily encamped
farther up the valley, had been roaming about
in search of pifion nuts, and had accidentally
come to the'verge of one of the numerous caln-
adas-narrow, shallow glens -branching in
all directions through the pifion hills. There
was no love lost between these Americanos
and the Mexican settlers, and defiant threats
and actions had more than once passed between
the cabreros who tended their herds of nimble-
footed goats, and the young sons of the campers
whose heads were full of the gallant deeds that
their fathers had performed during the war
On this particular night, Zachary Dodge, the
oldest of the party of American lads, had openly
defied the leader of the Mexican shepherd boys
before plunging down the slope to cross the
caaada, followed by his comrades, and had been
answered by a significant action, as, inserting a
stone in his shepherd's sling, the cabrero twirled
it about his head and sent it flying across the
glen. The excitement between the two parties
"Let us get to close quarters and meet them
hand to, hand. After me, boys!" shouted
Winfield, Zachary's brother, and the boys
dashed wildly along the canada, only to be met
by a deep washout too wide to be leaped across.
They ran helter-skelter seeking a crossing-place,
while the Mexicans ranged in line on the edge
of the low cliff above, waited ready and vigi-
lant for the anticipated assault. Suddenly, Zach,
who had found a place to cross and leaped over,
heard a noise like rumbling thunder, and turn-
ing beheld a whirlwind of dust with indistinct
moving heads and flying hoofs. The caballada
were pouring down with resistless force to
Startled, confused, he turned and ran hither
and thither, too bewildered to heed the shouts of
his comrades to run for the cabreros and escape
from his terrible peril. At this crisis, the tall
Mexican leader who had answered the defiant
yell, suddenly leaped down and seizing the
frightened lad dragged him with desperate
haste to one of the pifion-trees straggling up
He was none too soon. An instant later the
whole herd of horses had poured down and
filled the glen from side to side, and then
swept past like a whirlwind. And Winfield,
looking through the dust-cloud with a sickening
dread of what must have been his brother's
fate, saw Zach clinging to the tree, and the
cabrero, all danger past, already scaling the cliff
above to rejoin his shepherd companions.
It is needless to say that after this all hostili-
ties were suspended.
OYSTERS ON TREES.
T HE other day I heard somebody speak of
oysters hanging upon the branches of
trees on the borders of the Chesapeake Bay."
"That sounds like a fairy tale," thought I to
I determined to investigate. So I said: I
always supposed oysters grew under the water.
Curious sort of oysters those must be which
grow on trees along the banks of the Chesa-
"Chesapeake Bay has the finest kind of
oysters," said the Talking Man. "The reason
they are sometimes found growing on tree
branches is this. The spawn of the oyster
floats about in the water, tossed by wind and
waves. It has the quality of attaching itself
firmly to any solid substance it touches. Some-
times it might be the bottom of a ship, a rock,
or a tree branch. You know the bottom of a
ship often needs scraping on account of the
shell fish adhering to it.
"Now the branches of trees often droop into
the water. They do it along the borders of the
Chesapeake the same as on the banks of any
other river or bay. At high tide such branches
will be covered with water, and when the tide
goes back, the branches come to the surface
again. The spawn sticks on those boughs
when they are beneath the waves. In a few
CHIT CHAT. 7
days the tiny oysters begin to develop, and be-
fore long at every low tide the branch can be
seen hanging out, with little oysters growing
all over it. Sometimes a branch which is often
under water will be nearly covered with small
oysters. It looks very odd, of course, but it's
a common enough sight down there.
"They don't grow very large. To attain
perfection an oyster must be always under
water, and these hang half the time out of it.
When they are exposed too long to the hot
sun, they die. Their weight often causes them
to fall off. "
It sounds funny to talk of picking oysters
off trees," said I, "or even of seeing them grow
"Funny enough. Bat I've seen it lots of
times," said the Talking Man.
ONE of the prettiest of the simple poems
which George MacDonald loves to scatter
here and there in his books, is the little running
rhyme about daisies in his story At the Back
of the North Wind," which Diamond's mother
makes up as "no-sense verses." There is, how-
ever, both sense and music in the pretty rhyme,
which is printed without capital letters, or
commas, or any punctuation whatever.
and so with the daisies
the little white praises
they grow and they blow
and they spread out their crown
and they praise the sun
and when he goes down
their praising is done
and they fold up their crown
and they sleep every one
till over the plain
he's shining amain
and they're at it again
HOW A VILLAGEFUL OF CHILDREN
O NE bright summer morning, over forty
years ago, a little village in Northwest-
ern Ohio was in a state of great excitement, be-
cause every child in the village had suddenly
disappeared before breakfast. There was reason
for uneasiness; for it was a new country, and
the fears of the parents suggested wolves, bears,
or even Indians, though they saw no signs of
Where could the children have gone?
Had they fallen into the creek or into the
big rain-water troughs that ran across the end
of each house? Each father ran to the creek,
and each mother peered into her rain-water
trough; but no children were to be found.
They hadn't gone to the neighbors, for all were
There were wringing of hands and hurrying
of feet and shouting and general bewilderment,
until Mrs. Forrest said she saw the marks of
little bare feet in the sand. Then all the
fathers started to follow the tracks, and all the
mothers hurried to get breakfast; for they knew
the little folks would be very hungry when
they came home, which would surely be very
The tracks led along the hot sandy road;
and the swift feet of the men gained upon the
wavering steps of the little wanderers. They
would soon be in sight, the men said to each
other, as they hurried along. Yes, after half a
mile had been passed, they paused on the brow
of a little hill, and saw in the hollow the lost
Then half of the fathers shouted, Mary !"
and all the little girls stopped and looked back;
and half the fathers shouted, Ienry!" and
all the boys stopped and looked back. And
then both began to run, but were soon caught
by the fathers, who, now that they were no
longer afraid that something dreadful had hap-
pened, grew angry, and began to scold and
shake the children.
Where were you going ? asked one father.
"To grandpa's," said Henry.
To drandpa's," lisped Mary.
Which Henry? Why, there was but one.
And was there but one Mary? Only one.
Those two were all the children there were in
the whole village. And how big was the vil-
lage? It had just two houses and a post-office.
One house was of rough logs, and this was
Henry's home. The other was a board lean-
to," that was to be the kitchen to a bigger
house some day when Mr. Forrest got rich;
and that was Mary's home. The post-office
was a post with a box on the top. When the
mail-carrier came through the village every two
weeks, he left the mail in the box. The whole
village went out and helped themselves to their
letters and papers.
The two fathers made the children walk
home, though Mary was not quite three and
was in her night-dress. Henry was a year
older, and was dressed. Mary has forgotten all
about it; but her father says that even after
forty years he is sorry that he did not carry
8 CHIT CHAT.
ROBERT SHOWS HIS COURAGE.
SA NARROW ESCAPE.
T HE boy drove slowly forward. Zene, the
driver, had succumbed to the sleepiness
which a wakeful night on the road had made
overpowering, and retiring to the back part of
the wagon, had fallen into a heavy sleep. It
seemed as if old Gray and White also felt last
night's vigils. They drowsed along with their
heads down through a landscape that shimmered
Robert, loosely holding the reins, thought of
gathering apples in the home orchard; of the big
red ones that used to fall and split asunder with
their own weight, waking him sometimes from
dreams, with their thump on the sod. He used
to keep the chest in his room floored with
apples. They lay under his best clothes and
perfumed them. His ngse knew the breath of
a russet, and in a dark cellar he could smell
out the bell-flower bin. The real poor people,
to Robert's mind, were those who had no
orchards; who could not clap a particular com-
rade of a tree on the bark and look up to see
it smiling back red and yellow smiles.
Robert was half-asleep, dreaming of his fa-
vorite apples. He felt thirsty, and heard a
humming like the buzz of bees around the cider-
press. He and Corinne used to sit down by the
first tub of sweet cider, each with two
straws, and watch their faces in the rosy
juice while they drank. Cider from the
barrels when snow was on the ground,
poured out of a pitcher into a glass, had
S not the ecstatic tang of cider through a
straw. The bees came to the very edge
of the tub, as if to dispute such hiving of
diluted honey; and more of them came,
hanging with bent bodies, around the
Their buzz increased to a roar, fast and
furious, right within his ears. Robert Day
woke up suddenly and keenly--woke to
find the old white and the old gray just
creeping across a railroad track, and a loco-
motive with its train of heavy cars whiz-
zing at full speed towards them.
A breath's delay must have been fatal.
With his heart in his mouth, Robert real-
ized his danger, and in the same moment
nerved himself to escape it. He had no
whip, but doubling the lines and shouting
at the top of his voice, he braced himself
firmly and lashed the gray with desperate
vehemence. The respectable beast leaped
with astonishment, dragging his fellow
along; the fore wheels cleared the track,
the engine gave a prolonged shriek which
was so near that it seemed to Robert as
if it was almost within his head, and then crash
went the locomotive into the hind part of the
wagon, throwing the boy out at one side, while
Zene who had sprung forward went clear across
the gray's back and landed in a ditch beyond.
Well, there was no one killed or seriously
hurt. That was the first thought. The dam-
age to the wagon could be repaired in a day or
two, so that there was no long delay, and Zene,
who had blamed himself more than the rest
did, for deserting his post and leaving the care
of the horses with a young lad like Robert, be-
gan to pull himself together again, and feel
that there was no great harm done, after all.
But as for Robert, he hadad d driving enough
for one spell. Nothing could alleviate his mor-
tification that he had failed in his boasted skill
as driver, not even the consciousness that he
had proved equal to the occasion in the moment
of desperate need.
" T DON'T see why babies cry all the time,"
J exclaimed Dick impatiently.
"Poor little things," said his tender-hearted
sister; "that's the only way they can have any
CHIT CHAT. 9
AMONG THE CACTI.
CACTI GROWTH IN THE GREAT
T IE Great American Desert is a strange
and wonderful and fearful region.
It reaches from Idaho to the Gulf of Cali-
fornia, and includes portions of Idaho, Wyo-
ming, Utah, Nevada, Arizona and California.
It is over fifteen hundred miles long from
north to south, and nearly half as wide.
Now it is traversed by railroads, and travelers
rolling over it in Pullman palace cars, realize
little of the dangers and horrors that made it
so terrible to the pioneers and early settlers of
the great West. In those days the journey
across it in caravans seemed almost intermin-
able, and hundreds perished on its parching
sands every year. Even the patient oxen found
it beyond endurance, and lay down to die be-
side their exhausted and disheartened and suf-
The summer heat is something terrible, often
as high as 136' in the shade, and metal which
has been exposed to the sun is as hot as if it
had been burned in the fire. Terrible winds.
arise, and sand-storms as deadly as the simoons
of Asia threaten destruction to everything in
Express trains even stand no chance against
them, and it is frequently necessary to shovel
through great drifts of sand before proceeding
onward. The few rivers that traverse this vast
plain are as unnatural as everything else in this
strange and arid region; they rarely have any
mouth, and disperse their waters among the
sands that thirstily drink up their refreshing
In the southern portions of the desert are many
strange freaks of vegetable life. Immense cacti
grow here,,sometimfes to a height of sixty feet,
and as large round as a barrel, with tall branches
that grow upward, encircling the trunk, so that
they look like enormous candelabra set there in
the desert. Smaller cactus growths also appear
in wild and fantastic forms; some with branches
no larger than a small cup, in brilliant colors,
looking like vegetable pin-cushions, with points
instead of heads upward.
Through such strange growths as these, over
burning sands, past extinct volcanoes, geysers,
and dried-up lakes full of alkaline dust, the
sturdy pioneers of the West once made their
perilous way; their canvas-topped wagons, now
singly, now in cavalcades, making a track that
was marked by the bones of man and beast, as
one or another gave out under the pitiless heat,
the fierce simoon, or the weary, bewildering
strain almost worse for the mind than the body.
10 CHIT CHAT.
THE YOUTHFUL RHYMSTER.
A T the head of the table sat grandmamma,
and at the foot a maiden aunt. Then
came The Boy and The Boy's mamma, and op-
posite another aunt and her invalid husband, a
retired clergyman of-venerable aspect, at whom
none would mock but such as court the fate of
the boys who said, "Go up, thou bald head," to
the Prophet Elisha.
Among the little idiosyncrasies of this gentle
clergyman are two which especially appeal to
his nephews and nieces. One of them is his in-
creasing desire to "improve" the nieces and
nephews by setting them mental tasks, or re-
proving their animal spirits. The other is his
liking to have always upon the table some dainty
which is especially prepared for him and served
to him alone.
The dinner upon the day in question consisted
of a fine piece of roast beef to follow the soup,
with a well browned Yorkshire pudding beneath
it, and this in turn was followed by an entree
of potted pigeons and a well mixed salad ; but
in front of Mr. Merton was placed a particu-
larly pretty Haviland plate, with slices of cold
corned beef, cut as thin as possible, and daintily
garnished with watercresses.
In keeping with his usual habit, Mr. Merton
set the ball of conversation and mental improve-
ment rolling. He proposed that the company
should show their talents and sharpen their wits
by making rhymes. He would begin, and The
Boy should follow; so, fixing his mild brown
eyes upon his nephew, he said in measured
tones and somewhat irregular meter:
Walter loves the time
When apples are in their prime."
Every one looked at The Boy, who had been
so steadily devoting himself to pudding and
beef that it would have been small wonder had
his mental facilities been clouded. But quick
as a flash his answer came:
Mr. Merton likes corned beef,
And to eat it he had jes' as lief."
The solemn stillness which followed was
broken by Mr. Merton, who, having gratified
his slender appetite, rose to leave the table.
As he pushed back his chair the shrill voice of
The Boyopiped out:.
Mr. Merton leaves the table
Jes' as soon as he is able."
"Eat your dinner, Walter," commanded his
mamma, while grandmamma and aunts frowned
"Yes'm," responded the irrepressible.
"But I've been taught, though it may be fun,
It isn't polite to eat and run."
As Mr. Merton fled through the hall door
from his self-invoked shower of rhymes, the
servant who waited upon the table entered
from the butler's pantry with a pudding. As
he caught sight of this the clergyman started
to return. As he took his seat again his tor-
.mentor made his last effort without pausing for
"But when he sees the puddin' coming ,
Mr. Merton comes back hunnmin'."
HOUSES IN TREES.
A MONG the most interesting people living
in India, are the hill and jungle tribes.
These are the aborigines of India, correspond-
ing to our Indian tribes in the West.. They
are rude, uncultivated people, having different
languages, but none of them written. These
tribes probably were compelled to take refuge
in the hills during some of the early invasions
of India, and there they remain, finding it safer
to contend with the numberless wild beasts in-
festing these regions than with their fellow-
men on the plains. Dwellings on the ground
are not safe from the attacks of elephants and
tigers, and hence many houses of these tribes
are constructed in trees, out of the way of wild
beasts. These houses are said to be quite com-
fortable, though it is doubtful if any of us
would like to live in them.
TTILLIAM HUNT, the painter, used to
V say, Don't talk of what you want to
do do it."
Peter Cooper, who had but a year's schooling
in his life, began work in New York at fifty
cents a week, but he used to say to himself,
" If I ever get rich I will build a place where
the poor boys and girls of New York may have
an education free," and he did it.
Hiram Powers," the sculptor of the Greek
Slave," had little instruction in his art, and not
that until he had earned the money to pay for
it; he was thirty-two years old before he had
money enough to go to Italy.
Thomas Ball, the sculptor, had to help sup-
port his mother and four children at twelve
years of age by working in a grocery store at
one dollar a week.
CHIT CHAT. 11
THE MISSES AT SCHOOL.
(An unpublished poenm written sixty years ago.)
T HERE was once a school
Where the mistress, Miss Rule,
Taught a number of Misses that vexed her;
Miss Chief was the lass
At the head of the class,
And young Miss Demeanour was next her.
Who was tail, they don't tell,
But I heard 'twas Miss Spell--
I learned so from Miss Information,
Who was told in the street,
Where she happened to meet
With Miss Take and Miss Representation.
Poor little Miss Hap
Spilled the ink in her lap,
And Miss Fortune fell under the table;
Miss Conduct they all
Did a Miss Creant call,
But Miss State declared this was a fable.
Miss Lay lost her book,
And Miss Lead undertook
To show her the place where to find it;
But upon the wrong nail,
Had Miss Place hung her veil,
And Miss Deed hid the book safe behind it.
They went on very well,
As I have heard tell,
Till Miss Take brought in Miss Understanding;
Miss Conjecture then guessed
Evil things of the rest,
And Miss Counsel advised their disbanding.
A QUEER CLOCK.
D ID you ever hear of a cat clock? If you
were to go to China and wanted to know
the time of day, the boy you asked might say,
SWait and I'll tell you."
Away he'd go to some miserable shanty, and
bring out a sleepy looking cat, and softly push-
ing up her eyelids, assure you that it was not
You would wonder how the cat's eyes could
tell him. But it is a fact that the eyes of a cat
always become narrow before noonday; so nar-
row as to look like a fine line, up and down.
After twelve o'clock the pupil will grow large
Just look at your pussy's eyes and see if you
can tell, as the boys and girls do in China, what
o'clock is it. Perhaps you can.
BALBOA AND THE PACIFIC.
T a Spaniard belongs the honor of discover-
ing America, four hundred years ago, and
to another Spaniard the glory of piercing a
way to the great Pacific Ocean in 1513.
After the death of Columbus, King Ferdinand
divided the Spanish possessions in America
into two governments, one of which extended
to the Gulf of Darien. Ojeda was sent out to
found colonies in this southern portion, to con-
vert the natives from their savage customs and
spread the rule of Spain. The Indians resisted,
the Spaniards sank under disease, and most of
the colonists died. The few survivors founded
a small settlement at Santa Maria el Antigua,
and chose Vasco Nunez de Balboa for their
In 1513 Balboa subdued some of the neigh-
boring tribes and required them to pay a
tribute. One day two of his officers were dis-
puting about the division of some gold dust.
A native chief who stood by laughed at their
quarrel, and told them that if they wanted gold
he could show them a country where there was
enough to make all the vessels they used. At
the same time he told them of a great water
which aIy at a distance of six days' journey
towards the south.
Balboa's curiosity was excited, and he deter-
mined to test the truth of these statements.
He encouraged adventurers by presents and
promises to join him, but only a hundred and
ninety men could be raised. A perilous march
was commenced, and instead of six days, they
wandered for twenty-five through dense woods
and over pathless mountains.
Heat and disease had almost overcome the
weary and discouraged party, when the Indian
guides announced that from the top of the next
mountain the ocean could he seen. When the
top was nearly reached, Balboa ordered his
men to halt, and climbed to the summit alone.
There the broad blue Pacific stretched before
him, and falling on his knees he thanked God
for leading him to this great discovery. Then
calling his followers, he went down to the
Advancing into the water in full armor, he
unfurled the standard of Spain, and took pos-
session in the name of the king his master,
vowing to defend the newly discovered country
with his arms. Four years afterward, Balboa
was executed by order of Pedrarias, his suc-
cessor in the governorship of Darien. This
execution was said to be on account of treason-
able acts of Balboa, but in reality it was from
jealousy of his success, the envy and spite of a
The Young Idea.
Jr 7>.- 7: m..
-S- --: V -
BALBOA AND THE PACIFIC.
- I: cs~~
PHIL SAW THE TALL FIGURE OF A PLUMED AND PAINTED SAVAGE.
W,,M~--C I I~
14 CHIT CHAT.
AN INDIAN'S GRATITUDE.
A CURIOUS custom prevails among some
of the Indian tribes. When a sick
person is given up as incurable, he or she is
taken out into the forest and there left to die
This explains the meaning of the picture on
the fore-going page.
A young Indian girl, the daughter of the
chief, had been borne tenderly out in his strong
arms to a sheltered spot, where with a soft pil-
low of leaves-for her head, she had been laid all
unconscious under the trees, while the wretched
father withdrew to bear his grief as best he
Star Eyes was a beautiful girl, and had been
-the pride of her father's heart; but according to
the tribal custom he could only leave her to her
A young son of one of the settlers came upon
the motionless figure in a tramp .through the
woods with his dog; indeed, it was Samp who
first found the dying girl, and by whines and
barks attracted his master's attention to her
side, in the still watches of the night.
Young Phil understood at once when he saw
in the moonlight the reclining form of the poor
girl what it meant, for he knew the strange
traditions of the tribe. He resolved at once to
try every means in his power to save her. But
how? It was night, and Phil, with a little
party of boys, was camping out about three
miles from home. To traverse that distance
for help might be too late. Suddenly he be-
thought him of a flask of ginger which his little
brother Davie had smuggled into his ulster
pocket, all mixed and prepared, against a time
of need. It might do no good, but he would
try it; and sure enough, after several adminis-
trations at intervals, the medicine seemed to
take effect; the girl's eyes opened, and after a
time she was even able, with Phil's help, to sit
up, leaning against the tree, where she gradually
fell into a quiet sleep.
While the delighted boy watched her with a
sense of rare satisfaction, suddenly Samp, the
dog, who had followed all his movements with
seeming understanding, pricked up his ears, and
sat upright,! every nerve alert and quivering.
Turning quickly, Phil saw but a few paces off
the tall, erect figure of a plumed and painted
savage. He sprang to his feet, holding his gun
in his hands, while the dog crouched down as
if ready for a spring at the intruder, who on his
part halted in the moonlight. At the sudden
stir the Indian girl opened her heavy eyes and
looked around; her gaze rested on her father,
standing watching her with a look of awe and
bewilderment. The next moment he had gath-
ered her in his arms, and, grunting forth some
strange sounds evidently intended for thanks,
had borne her away in the direction of their
It was not many days after this that Phil
found at the stable door of his home, firmly
secured, a snow-white pony, with wampum sad-
dle curiously embroidered. A piece of white
paper attached to him bore the following
We brake camp terday and speed the far West.
With forests full of thanks we send him poney to
kind Pale Face, and Star Eyes work um saddle. May
Great Spirit spred loving wings over deer young pale
face. We take with us him gift of good fire water,
and saved the loved young squar.
CHIEF NOMANTIC X [his mark].
STAR EYES = [her mark].
T HE child of gypsy parents is born into the
world as poor a child as there is on the face
of the earth. It has no home save a tent or a
van by the roadside; it is dressed in rags, and
grows up under the open sky. Yet it is healthy,
ruddy and strong.
In due time, it is the habit of the English
gypsy to bring the baby to the church in the
village where his tribe is tarrying, for the pur-
pose of having it baptized. When it is thus
brought to receive the blessing of the church,
the mother endeavors to deepen its brownness,
and so increase its beauty, by rubbing it all
over with a dark liquid made from roots and
leaves of wild plants. When the little vagrant
has been christened, it is passed back to the
arms of the tramping mother, and neither child
or mother will probably ever be seen again
within the walls of a church.
There may come a time when the sturdy
infant shall be grown into a stony, dark-faced
girl with black and glossy hair, and ornaments
of gold in her ears; with a gown of many
colors, and a profusion of rings and chains and
bracelets. When this maiden is married, a
fantastic wedding ceremony takes place. The
gypsy wedding is apt to be in a sand-pit.
The tribe arranges itself in two long rows facing
each other. In the middle of the path between
them a broomstick is carefully held horizontally,
a little above the ground. The bridegroom
walks down the path and steps over the broom-
stick, then the-bride follows suit; they join
hands, and the wedding ceremony is over.
A little feasting is indulged in, and the
newly-married couple resume their wandering
life with the tribe.
CHIT CHAT. 15
W HEN the Russian wishes to pay a com-
pliment, he will invite you to dinner;
he will ask you to stand with the other guests
around a small side table, laden with hot curries
and cheese omelets, bread and butter and rad-
ishes, caviar, and plentiful beer, and a wicked-
looking white Russian whiskey called Vodka/;
here you make an ordinary meal, while wonder-
ing at the handsomely-decked table in the center
of the room, and why you were not asked to sit
down there. But this first meal finished, you do
sit down, and forthwith proceed with a dinner of
many courses, served a la Russe, every one eat-
ing with as much gusto as if breaking a fast.
You become accustomed to the Zakouska, as
all this side-show business is called, and dinner
gets to be unsatisfactory without it. So import-
ant a function is it, that even at the hurried
table-d'h6te of a station, no matter how insigni-
ficant or far away from the main road, the
Zakouska is never omitted.
The host, bent on serving his choicest dish,
will offer you Batveenya, which is the euphoni-
ous name of cold beer soup, a compound requir-
ing more courage to attack than enlisting for
the wars. Of what's it made? Alas! of what
is it not made! Spinach, salmon (they have
magnificent salmon in Russia), green onion tops,
strings of sausages, poached eggs, and beer -
much beer. To perfect this remarkable soup,
to which every true Russian is devoted, the
servant presents in one hand a dish of sour
cream,.and in the other cracked ice; the rule
is to take a liberal portion of each, and stir in
IN America we know very little, practically,
about chimney sweeps, but in Europe these
useful little servants are employed, even to this
day. Years ago when flues were narrower and
more tortuous, and mechanical appliances less
common than now, the trade was a large one,
and the master sweeps had many a poor little
sufferer trained to do the work laid out for
them. The smaller the boy, the more valuable
he was to his master, and children of tender
years were forced to go through the dark and
:winding passages, which must have seemed to
them almost like living tombs, and industriously
to brush away the soot which the large, open
fireplaces and the soft coal used as fuel made
very abundant. Their employers were hard
taskmasters, and often beat them, and the poor
little waifs led a wretched life in every way.
Now, the chimneys are swept by a jointed
flue brush, or by a circular brush passed down
from the chimney top by a rope; so that the
process is much less dangerous and difficult.
There is a true story of a little sweep who,
once upon a time, was found in broad daylight
fast asleep in one of the state beds of Arundel
Castle. It would seem that the lordly chimneys
leading to this chamber had many turnings and
windings, and the little fellow must have lost
his way, and when, covered with soot, finding
himself in the gorgeous chamber, with its mag-
nificent canopy bedstead and rich hangings, he
could not resist the temptation of getting be-
tween the snowy sheets, accompanied by his
sootbag and brush. How the women of the
bed chamber must have been startled It is to
be hoped they permitted the dusky little Cupid
the pleasure, undisturbed, of Nature's sweet
"The first of May, chimney sweeps' day," is
the one holiday of the year in the old country
devoted to the sweeps. They dress themselves
in fantastic colors and execute a sort of rough
morris dance, around a Jack-in-the-green, which
is a kind of cone-shaped, roughly-made basket
covered with evergreens, large enough to en-
tirely cover a man, leaving the lower part open
so that he can walk, his feet being visible, as
also a peep hole for his face. Whirling around
this Jack-in-the-green, the sweeps in their gro-
tesque dresses engage in a wild and vigorous
dance, to the accompaniment of rude music
made by beating their dust shovels with the
short wooden handles of their brooms. They
make the day one of both revelry and profit by
collecting money from house to house and from
the passers-by. This custom is kept up to the
4 TOW can you?" Swedish. "How do
I you fare ?" Dutch. How do you
stand?" Italian. Go with God, Seiior." Span-
ish. "How doyoulive on?" Ruscian. "How
do you perspire?" Egyptian. "How do you
have yourself?" Polish. "How do you find
yourself?" German. "Thank God, how are
you?" Arabian. "May thy shadow never
grow less." Persian. "How do you carry
yourself?" French. How do you do?"
'English and American. "Be under the guard
of God." The Ottomans. "How is your
stomach ? Have you eaten your rice?"
Chinese. These salutations are amusingly
UP AN ALPINE MOUNTAIN.
AN Alpine mountain has four natural divi-
'sions: the lower region, the wooded re-
,gion, the alp or pasture region, and the rocky
region. Let us climb one.
We leave the. valley, and by a steep, bushy
ascent soon reach the lower region. Here we
do not see many trees; but beautiful vineyards
and quaint little cottages called chalets, are
scattered along the slope, and happy little
family groups present themselves.
The slope grows steeper, and presently we
enter a big forest, wheie large oaks, tall firs and
pines, birches, beeches and chestnut-trees grow
This is the wooded region, traversing which
we emerge into the open air, and begin to see
something of the beauty and grandeur of the
Alps. Here are huge rocks half-covered with
lichens; vast torrents dashing with terrific noise
down from the glaciers; lovely cascades and
waterfalls; frightful ravines; and everywhere
around, above, an upheaving sea of giant mount-
ains, whose dazzling snowy crests glitter in the
sunlight; while, looking down into the valleys,
we behold green fields, apple orchards gay with
blossoms, rich vineyards and picturesque chalets.
We come now to the pasture region, the
'.garden spot" of an Alpine mountain. Here
are fine pastures upon which browse herds and
flocks of cattle, sheep and goats. Beautiful
flowers grow here, the Alpine roses, saxifrages,
euphrasias and blue-eyed gentians.
Here many of the herdsmen live with their
families through the summer months, in their
homely huts, often perched on the very edge of
a precipice, so venturesome are these children
of the air."
Their sheep and cattle meanwhile browse on
the mountain grass, which though short is very
Above the pasture region rises the rocky re-
gion; and this goes up to the crest of the
mountain which, on the higher peaks, is covered
all the year with masses of snow and ice called
glaciers. These great fields of ice are the
source of many of the larger rivers which water
Another grand feature of this wonderful-
mountain region is its avalanches, which occur
frequently, their roar at the base of the Jung-
frau being almost incessant. These are some-
times so immense and gather such velocity that
they sweep down and overwhelm whole villages,
burying them under the heavy masses of snow.
CHIT CHAT. 17
In 1749, one of these "rolling avalanches,"
as these masses of sliding snow are called, de-
scended upon a little village in the valley of -
Tawich, swept it from its site and covered it "
completely. So quietly was this done, in the
dead hours of the night, that the villagers knew \
nothing of their misfortune till morning came,
when they began to wonder why it did not \
grow light! They were dug out from their
snowy prison, nearly all of them alive. But
think what an experience to live through !
Rock avalanches also occur, in which great
masses of rock that have been frozen and thawed,
again and again, become detached from the
wall of stone and crash down with ever-acceler-
ating momentum into the valleys below, dealing *.
death and destruction. Woe betide the un- \
lucky traveler who chances to lie in their
path He will be wary indeed if he can make
his escape from the terrible fate that threatens \"'r"':;
THE SWISS GUIDE.
T I-HE Swiss mountaineers are ahardy
"1 set of men, as indeed they needs
must be for the perilous life they con-
stantly lead. Their muscles are like
steel, and nerves seem to have been
... left out in their make-up. They pur-
sue their difficult business of guiding
tourists over the dangerous Alpine
ranges year after year, the son taking
it from the father, sometimes whole
families, father and sons, being en-
gaged in this calling. Simple, honest,
Slion-hearted men, they daily brave
"-,!, perils that by frequent overcoming
( have lost all terror, and their calmness
", and dignity lend courage to the trav-
S -elers, whom their strong arm and alert
eye guide in paths of safety.
Their musical jidel rings out with
clear echo, as they trudge ahead with
their alpenstocks, taking the first risks,
and ready to do a kind turn at any
SRtime for those they have in charge.
A BOCK AVALANCHE.
18 CHIT CHAT.
A JAPANESE DINNER.
THE novel and quaint oriental customs of
China and Japan are full of curious inter-
est to the keen, practical, less imaginative dwel-
lers in the Occident.
A no less distinguished traveler and author
than Sir Edwin Arnold thus graphically de-
scribes a Japanese dinner.
"It was our good fortune lately to be invited
to a typical native dinner at the Japanese club
in this capital (Tokio) Our dinner was
one of about twenty cushions, and we were re-
ceived at the entrance by about as many musu-
mes- the servants of the household who
upon our approach, prostrate themselves on
the outer edge of the matted hall, uttering
musical little murmurs of welcome and honor.
Our foot gear is laid aside, and we step upon
the soft, yielding tataamis, and are each then
led by the hand of some graceful, small mu-
sume to the broad ladder up which we must
ascend to the dining-room, enlarged for the
occasion by the simple method of running
back the shutters of papered framework. The
guests comprise European ladies, as well as
gentlemen, and all are in their stocking-feet,
for the loveliest satin slipper ever worn could
not venture to pass from the street pavements
to these immaculate mats. While you chat with
your friends you turn suddenly to find one of
the damsels in the flowered kimono and the
dazzling obi, kneeling at your feet with a cup of
pale tea in her tiny hands. Each guest receives
this preliminary attention, then the square cush-
ions are ranged round three sides of the room,
and we tuck our legs under us- those at least
who can manage it-and sit on our heels,
the guest of honor occupying the center posi-
tion at the top. To each convive then enters a
pretty, bright, well-dressed waitress, who never
speaks without falling on her little knees, and
knocking her nice little flat nose on the floor.
"Before each guest is first placed a cake of
sugared confectionery and some gaily-colored
leaf-biscuits, with a tiny cup of hot tea. Then
comes the first honorable table,' a small lac-
quered tray with bowls containing a covered
basin of tsuyu-soup the 'honorable dew'- a
little pot of soy, a gilded platter with sweet
and aromatic condiments, and some wonderful
vegetables environing some fairy cutlets of sal-
mon. You disengage your chopsticks from
their silken sheath, and prepare for action; nor
is it so very difficult to wield these simple knives
and forks of Eastern Asia, if once the secret of
the guiding finger be learned. Otherwise you
will drop the very first mouthful, to the gentle
but satirical laughter of your musume. .
Respectfully you consult 0 Shika San (the
waitress) as to what you should do with the
appetising museum of delicacies before you.
She counsels you to seize the tiny lump of yel-
low soy, to stir up and flavor therewith the
pink flakes of salmon. Now and again she
shuffles forward on her small-knees to fill your
sake-cup, or to rearrange your little bowls and
"And now, while you were talking with your
neighbors, she has glided off and reappears with
another tray, on which is disclosed a yet more
miscellaneous second service; numerous saucers
clustered round a fresh red lacquer basin of
vegetable soup, wherein swim unknown, but at-
tractive comestibles. You venture upon ques-
tioning the delighted 0 Shika San. Here are
shrimps, it seems, pickled with anzu (apricots),
snipe subtly laid in beds of colored rice, and
kuri (chestnuts); wild goose with radish cakes,
and hare seasoned by preserved cherries, amid
little squares of perfumed almond paste, and
biscuits of persimmon. The piede de resistance
is a pretty slab of fluted glass, whereon repose
artistic fragments of fish-mostly raw. You
play with your chopstick points among shreds
of tako (the cuttle-fish), kani (crab paste), saba
and hirame resembling our mackerel and soles;
and are led by your kneeling musume, to try
the uncooked trout, yamame. With the condi-
ments her little fingers have mixed, it is so good
that you wonder if it be not wrong, after all,
to boil and fry anything. With the warm,
strong sake to wash all down, you are begin-
ning to be conscious of having dined extraordi-
narily well, and also, perchance, of 'pins and
needles' in your legs. So you say Mo yoroshii
- It is enough !'- and now the service re-
lapses a little for music and dancing .
Meantime, obeying Japanese etiquette, each
guest in turn comes to the guest of honor,' asks
leave to drink from his sake-cup, raises the ves-
sel to his forehead, drinks, rinses it in the water-
bowl and fills it for his friend. The 'guest of
honor' must go round and pledge his associates
in the same way, while the three sides of the
convivial square break up into chatty groups.
"But dinner is not nearly finished yet. Before
each cushion is again laid a lacquered tray, and
this contains the choicest fish which can be pro-
cured a whole one with its tail curled up
in a garland of flower-buds, together with cakes,
scented spice-balls and sugar sticks,, which you
are to eat if you can. If not able to cope with
these new dainties they will be put into pretty
boxes and deposited in your carriage or jinrik-
isha; indeed, it is necessary to be careful in
leaving one of these entertainments, or you may
sit on a boiled mullet, or a stuffed woodcock, or
some cream-tartlets. While we dally with the
third service the Geishac dance again and again,
CHIT CHAT. 19
with wonderful spirit and charm performing
a comedy, and ending our long but never
tedious dinner of five hours with a special
figure called Sentakuya or the' Washerwomen's
Trio.' After this each musume led her guest
by the hand to the hall. Shoes were resumed,
carriages entered, and 'honorable exits' made
in a dazzling forest of lighted paper lanterns,
and a gentle tempest of Sayonaras (' farewell!')
and MIata irrashais (' Come soon again.')"
TOO MUCH FOR HIM.
P"D APA," asked Jamie, "what is New
Papa, who was a very wise man, raised his
mild, spectacled eyes from the great book he
was reading. New Year's ? he repeated, in
an abstracted tone. "A year, my child, is a
period of time containing three hundred and
sixty-five days, of twenty-four hours each; that
is, the common civil year, to which I presume
"The embolismic or intercalary lunar year
consists of three hundred and eighty-four days.
Besides these, there is the Gregorian year, the
astronomical year, the bissextile or leap year,
the sidereal or "-
Oh! thank you, papa," said Jamie, with a
little gasp; "I--I think perhaps I had better
go to bed now. Goo-good-night, papa! "
"- or astral year," continued papa calmly.
"Never interrupt a person who is speaking, my
STRIKING THE HOUR.
ING, dong, dong, went grandfather's clock,
With a terrible racket and noise;
"What is it doing ? asked little Ned,
Who's the most inquiring of boys.
"Striking the hour," I answered him;
He gaveme a timid touch ;
And asked in a hushed and frightened voice:
"Does it hurt the hour very much ?"
A VAST DOMAIN.
Q UEEN VICTORIA now rules over a pop-
ulation scattered in the four quarters of
the globe and the islands of the sea, aggregating
three hundred and sixty-seven millions, a
greater number than has ever acknowledged
the sovereignty of one person in ancient or
THE WORLD MOVES.
IN the narrow street of the Canongate, which
is the center of the most ancient quarter
of the city of Edinburgh, stands a massive gray
fortress, once the palace of the Dukes of Queens-
berry. It is little altered, and still gives to us
significant hints of the habits and conditions of
the Middle Ages.
Here are the vast apartments, royal in splen-
dor, occupied by the ducal family; there are
the guard-rooms which were filled by their
men-at-arms; in another wing are the great
butteries and kitchens where their food was
prepared, and in still another are the nests of
wretched little cells in which their faithful re-
tainers were housed, content to live as poorly
as the dogs of their master, provided they
could serve him and his family.
There are other apartments even more preg-
nant with meaning. The ducal family had a
strain of wolfish cruelty, it was even said mad-
ness, in their blood. The closet is still shown
in which the great Duchess Catharine, whose
beauty poets and painters have made perpetual,
was confined when she grew murderous; and
among the cellars is one, barred and grated,
where her idiot son, a monster in size and vice,
was chained during his whole life by his father.
Down to the present century the family were
noted for their bestial vices.
No retainer or man-at-arms dared to take note
of these things. Their errand into the world
was to serve the great family faithfully.
This palace is now used as an asylum for the
poorest poor of Edinburgh. The great duchess's
reception-room is a soup kitchen frequented by
the beggars of the .Canongate.
RICH OR POOR?
HTIE popular preacher of a wealthy church
one day indulged in a bit of sarcasm as he
noted the smallness of the collection which had
just been taken up. When I look-at the con-
gregation," he said, "I ask, Where are the
poor ?' and when I look at the collection, I ask,
' Where are the rich ?' "
" HI-AT does your dog eat? inquired a
visitor of the small boy.
"Oh! anything," responded Johnnie. "Last
night he ate a pair of rubbers and a sofa pillow
for his supper."
POLITENESS UNDER DIFFICULTIES.
A LOG HAD BROKEN THEIR FALL.
22 CHIT CHAT.
AN ADVENTURE IN CRUSOE LAND.
IN 1873 the United States corvette Omaha,
while cruising in the South Pacific Ocean,
ran in along Juan Fernandez, Robinson Crusoe's
famous island, and the captain determined to
stop and give the men a run on shore, with the
chance to fish and to hunt the wild goats which
abound on the island.
One of the younger midshipmen, Ryder by
name, full of romantic ideas of the spot made
famous by De Foe's universally popular story,
begged permission to be of the landing party,
and he and an older middy, named Hubbard,
who had been there before, went ashore with the
avowed intention of exploring the island.
At that time Juan Fernandez was in the pos-
session of a man who had leased it from the
Chilian government and used it as a sort of huge
potato patch; and some twenty Chilians, men,
women and children, were living in thatched
cottages on the spot of Alexander Selkirk's
This was a little disenchanting to Ryder, who
had fancied the island as lonely and uninhabited,
dreary with old ocean's roar, and given over to
romantic memories. He felt as if half the charm
of the place was gone, with the glamour of the
past so rudely dissipated, and almost wished he
had not come.
SI'll tell you what," said Hubbard, who had
no such fanciful associations, "we'll climb to
Alexander Selkirk's lookout. It's a notch on
the top of this mountain, and we're right at the
path which leads to it."
The ascent was not difficult; along a winding
path, overgrown with weeds, through under-
brush and over crackling leaves. After a half-
hour's- climb the ruined fortifications of Juan
Baptiste, which had been held and abandoned
by the Spaniards many years before, appeared
suddenly in sight through an opening. The
ramparts were overgrown with grass, and two
rusty, antiquated guns, unused for centuries,
yet bore witness of its former warlike appear-
ance. Some broken-down doors in the side
were entrances to caves which Hubbard said
had been used by the Chilians who occupied the
fort after the Spaniards, in which to confine
As the middies passed on, Hubbard related
the story which he believed to be the foundation
of Robinson Crusoe.
"In 1871," he said, "a Mosquito Indian was
left on the Juan Fernandez by the captain of a
pirate ship that was being chased by Spanish
men-of-war. The poor fellow had a much harder
time than Selkirk, for he was left with only his
knife and gun. But he seems to have been
wonderfully tenacious of life, for three years
afterwards, when a privateer anchored in Cum-
berland Bay, the Indian was found on the island,
alive and well."
The Lookout when reached proved to be a
flat stone placed in a notch of a large mountain,
called in English "The Anvil." It was on this
stone that Selkirk must have stationed himself
to look out for ships going north or south, to
relieve-'him from his lonely confinement. A
slab has been placed in this notch, which testi-
fies that Alexander Selkirk was carpenter of a
British privateer, the Cinque Ports, and that,
making a mutiny, he was put ashore on this
island in September, 1704. Here he remained
until February, 1799, when'he was taken off by
the privateer Duke and Duchess of Bristol, and
he finally died, a lieutenant in the navy.
Young Ryder felt his enthusiasm rekindled
as.he stood on the Lookout that must have been
so often pressed' by Selkirk, as, weary with
homesick longing, he scanned the ocean in vain
hope of a passing sail. At his feet was a preci-
pice stretching down into the sea. On either
side rose cliffs, almost perpendicular, and on the
side of one he could see the names of visitors
which had been carved in the rock. A wild
desire seized the midshipman to register his
name on the very peak. He struggled up by
desperate efforts, and found himself almost
among the clouds, with the ocean thousands of
Hubbard, his companion, had already stretched
himself at the base of the cliff for a good long
nap, and after enjoying the grandeur of scenery
alone till he was tired, Ryder, retreating from
the edge of the cliff, settled down on the
stubbed grass for a little rest before making
the descent. How long he lay there he never
knew, but when he woke the air was damp and
cold; neither sea nor sky visible. A heavy mist
and fog had stolen up the mountain from the
sea, and formed a blank wall on every side.
Suddenly the young middy awoke to his peril-
ous situation; a prisoner on this dangerous cliff,
in a heavy fog which would probably not dis-
perse until morning, and the ship was to sail at
He called his friend, but no answer came, and
finally the very hopelessness of the situation
suggested a grim means of escape. He dared
not attempt to climb in the impenetrable mist,
but if he could but make a right start he could
roll down into the notch, risking the fearful
alternative of taking the wrong direction, and
thus being dashed into the sea!
He could not see an inch- before him as he
felt round for the stump by which he had gained
the summit; it grew on the ocean side, and
this would guide him to take a diagonally oppo-
site direction, if he would strike the upward
CHIT CHAT. 23
path, and avoid being dashed to pieces on the
cruel rocks below.
He felt the stump, carefully took his bearings,
and with one prayer for safety, let go his hold
and'started on his short but terrible journey!
It was only a few'moments, but it seemed ages
till he rolled heavily against a solid object,
which proved to be not rock or tree, but his
friend Hubbard, who unable to resist the shock,
began the downward descent with him.
Suddenly they came to a halt; a log had
broken their fall and nearly broken their heads.
They scrambled up, lame and bruised, but con-
scious that they must struggle on, for the report
of the ship's evening gun at that moment echoed
among the crags. Five o'clock! Sunset in
that latitude, at that season of the year. Night
was approaching, but the mist was lifting.
They must be on the move toward the landing,
if they would not be left like Selkirk on the
Making their way under tough branches, over
stray logs, sliding, tumbling, they met at last
in the woods one of the wild dogs that haunt
the bush and have all the fierceness of savage
beasts. The creature sprang suddenly, with
fiercely burning eyes, right into their path.
There was a sudden rush, a snarl of rage, two
strong, knotted canes flying through the air, a
frantic dash, and that danger was passed. The
beast was killed, but Hubbard, overcome by
fright and pain, had fainted.
A moment later, while Ryder knelt beside
his friend, resolved not to leave him, other cries
broke on the air. "The whole pack are on
us," thought Ryder, as he buried his face in
his hands. There is no escape now."
"Halloo! halloo! shouted a friendly voice,
and the old boatswain held a lantern near his
face. "Here they are, boys; both of 'em!"
Then Ryder fainted, too.
How the two middies reached the ship they
never fully realized; but certain it is that
Ryder feels that De Foe did not half-exhaust
the horrible perils of Robinson Crusoe's stay on
that wild, lone island.
A BOSTON parrot insisted upon talking
one day when her master, a choleric old
gentleman, wanted to enjoy his after-dinner
At last, very much out of temper, he took
Polly from her cage, and giving her a vigorous
shaking, put her back, saying, Now keep still,
will you ?"
There was silence for a moment, then the
aggrieved Polly broke out in a shrill voice with,
Whew, how the wind blows !"
NAVAL FLAG SIGNALS.
A N admiral's flag is square, with four stars
in a diamond on a blue ground; a vice
admiral's has three.stars, forming half a dia-
mond. Rear-admirals have three flags, accord-
ing to rank, viz.: blue, with two white stars in
the center of the field, one above the other;
red, with two white stars; white, with two blue
stars. Commodores have also three flags-
blue, red, white, swallow-tail, bearing one star
in center of field.
The secretary of the navy floats a blue square
flag-a foul anchor surrounded by four white
stars. This flag came into use in 1866.
When the president comes on board a United
States vessel a blue square flag containing the
arms of the United ii':. is hoisted at the
main, honored with the salute of twenty-one
guns, and remains aloft while the president re-
mains on board. The vice-president is received
with the American ensign at the fore.
A flag of truce is a white flag displayed to
the enemy to indicate a desire for a parley or
The red flag is a mark of danger, and shows
a vessel to be receiving or discharging powder.
The black is the symbol of piracy.
The yellow flag belongs to the quarantine
service, and when displayed is a sign of conta-
A convoy flag is white, triangular in shape,
bordered with red, and is worn by men-of-war
when convoying merchant vessels.
A pilot flag is the jack, bordered with red,
hoisted at the fore.
A compass flag is a square flag divided into
four squares or cantons blue, yellow, white,
red, hoisted over the numeral flags of the signal
code representing the points of the- compass.
A dispatch flag is a white square flng with
five blue crosses, generally known as the five
clubs; hoisted forward denotes important and
urgent special service which must not be inter-
fered with by any officer junior to the one by
whom it was dispatched.
The cornet is a square flag divided into four
equal parts of alternate red and white, and
when hoisted anywhere without other flags is a
peremptory order for all absent boats and offi-
cers to return on board without delay. It is
also a signal for sailing, and has long been used
in the navy for that purpose.
To strike the flag is to lower the national
colors. A flag at half-mast means that a death
has occurred, and hoisted union down is a signal
of distress. Dipping the colors is lowering the
ensign some distance and then hoisting it again
to salute a vessel or fort.
New York Commercial Advertiser.
24 CHIT CHAT.
THE MEXICAN WAS THE FIRST TO ACT.
A PERILOUS SITUATION.
AMONG the frightful dangers attending
shipwreck, there is nothing which com-
pares with the peculiar and horrible menace of
being eaten by sharks. These terrible foes to
mankind lurk in tropical seas, waiting for their
prey, and ready to take advantage of any
disaster which brings the terrified victim within
It is this danger which threatens the unfor-
tunate boy who is making his perilous passage
to a place of safety, as related in the Silver
Wonder what's become of Tom -'bout
dark; he ought to be here."
As if in reply, Tom's voice reached them,
ringing out from the water edge to which the
rope bridge was stretched. "Help! help!"
Rushing to the rail, they saw Tom struggling
in the water, clinging to the slackened cable.
"Help!" he cried. "The sharks are after
In the thickening twilight they saw three
ghostly white bodies gliding through the water
towards the spot where poor Tom was splashing,
his body half-submerged. It seemed a hopeless
case, for there was nothing at hand to throw to
the sharks, and if one descended the rope to grasp
the boy, it would only slacken the more and
plunge him the deeper.
The Mexican was the first to act. Motioning
the mate to the capstan to tighten the cable, he
took his long, bright knife between his teeth,
and swinging over the rail, crept cautiously
along the rope. He dretv nearer and nearer,
but he was fully a rod away when the leading
shark turned over on his back and glided be-
neath the boy with open mouth set with white
and glistening teeth.
Caramba!" muttered Don Pedro between
his teeth, slipping along the rope; the boy's
gone! Ha! that was not badly done! "
By a convulsive upward fling, Tom had raised
himself out of the water at the right instant,
and the shark's jaws closed on empty air; not
on air alone either, for they clutched the lower
portion of his jacket and held on.
The sweat broke out on Don Pedro's fore-
head and hands. If he advanced one move
nearer he would sink the cable deeper, and
Tom's hold would probably give way. There
Swas but just one thing to do a risky thing.
But he reached round, drew his revolver from
his-belt, and leveled it at the head of the shark.
The aim was a sure one; at the report the
horrid jaws relaxed, and Tom was for a moment
free. But only for a moment, for before he
CHIT CHAT. 25
could move on into safety, the blood
from the wounded fish drew a score of
others, eager-and cruel; four at once
swam straight for the place of the
wounded one, disregarding Tom, who
now hung helpless with one arm over
the cable, and his eyes starting from his
bloodless face as he beheld the eddying
horror beneath him.
Don Pedro was again equal to the em-
ergency. Dropping his revolver, he
crept forward, seized the heavy, inert
fellow, and by a mighty lift and spring,
cleared the horrible, seething waters be-
low, and placed Tom before him- above
him on the rope. The tightening of
the cable, through the combined efforts
of John and the mate at the capstan,
raised them a little, but not beyond the
reach of the sharks, who by a lucky leap
could still have seized them both.
For your life," gasped Don Pedro,
as he motioned Tom to climb along the
rope. The boy understood the situation
well enough to draw himself though
slowly and clumsily-up the slanting
cable towards the ship's side, where at /
last John grasped him by the collar and
lifted him over the rail.
HOW THE FOX ESCAPED.
A HUNTER started up a handsome fo
which he followed closely, but no matt
how fast he rode the fox kept just out of reac
The race lasted some hours, during which tl
sly little animal doubled and redoubled his track
At last the fox showed signs of fatigue, and ju
as the hunter was preparing to close in" thi
struck a herd of hogs. The fox sprang on tl
'4Jr .' Ii.
*@~ ~ ~ hi '' IIh'
.li :a1 ,11
DON PEDRO MAKES A DISCOVERY.
back of a long-legged porker one of the kind
that can run very fast. The hog raised his
snout, gave a frightened grunt and started on a
swift run. The fox held his seat like a circus
rider, while the further the hog got away the
faster he seemed to go. The hunter, taken by
surprise, watched the strange pair until they
disappeared from sight.
.:,- -- i
';*I ..',.i -
A YOUNG SAILOR.
26 CHI CHAT
HOW LITTLE TOMMY WON A MEDAL
AND LOST A FORTUNE.
THE fire lieutenant was preparing his after-
supper smoke last evening.
"I suppose you never have heard about Little
Tommy and how he lost a fortune," he re-
marked. "It is a simple tale; one of those
occasions where it seems as if fate were bound
that certain men should not have any luck or
any money in this world.
"Little Tommy was a brave chap. He en-
listed in the cavalry when I was sergeant of a
troop. It was the first time that I had ever
held that position, and I was more set up
about it than I was afterward, when I was
given the stripes after going back into the
ranks for some foolishness. Tommy was about
four feet ten inches in height, and when he had
a big .dinner must have weighed as much as
one hundred and fifteen pounds.
"Notwithstanding his size, he was a plucky
fellow, and he carried a medal which in*itself
was a proof of its genuineness. How he won
it is quite an interesting story. He was in the
British army at the time of the Sepoy insurrec-
tion, attached to the medical corps of a regi-
ment which was actively engaged in that brutal
warfare-I will call it warfare, although it was
more a series of massacres.
One evening, after a day of engagements,
the colonel of Tommy's regiment was surprised
to see a flag of truce coming from the Sepoy
lines. The speculation the sight caused was
soon put to an end by the arrival of the flag-
bearer. He brought a note from the Sepoy
chief, an humble entreaty from the com-
mander of the rebel forces. His favorite, a
beautiful young girl, had been wounded while
watching the battle in a position close to her
lover, and all the science of the Sepoy physicians
could not relieve her suffering. In the note he
implored the English colonel to send a doctor
to the camp of the enemy, that the wounds of
the young woman might be cared for and her
"The English physicians and surgeons of the
regiments knew better than to go into the Sepoy
camp, even though the commander promised
protection under a flag of truce. The Sepoys
were not to be trusted. Never had the English
army engaged with so treacherous a people
"The flag of truce had been violated before,
and not a volunteer could now be found in the
whole brigade's corps of surgeons. Then the
assistants and the attaches of the medical corps
were asked. All but one refused. That was
'Little Tommy.' He went alone with the
Sepoy soldier, and all his friends of the regi-
ment bade him good-by. He himself made his
will and left last words for his loved ones at
home. Then in the darkness he went into the
camp of the enemy, and, although men passed
by him near enough to plunge a knife into his
breast, and muttered threats were made on all
sides, he came out safely after attending to the
woman and probably saving her life. That
little service won him the medal, and in time
might have secured promotion if he had
"But 'Little Tommy' came to this country
to seek his fortune. I suppose he deserted from
the English army, although he never told me
so. He went to Arizona and staked out a
claim. It was when the Apaches in that coun-
try were enjoying themselves by lifting the
hair of the settlers. But Tommy was not a
bit afraid of them. He got along well for a
year or two, and finally succeeded in buying a
team. It wasn't an elegant outfit, by any
means, but it answered his purpose. One
horse was about sixteen hands high, and thin
in proportion; the other was a mule, seven or
eight hands in height, and as round as a barrel.
They did their work, however, and that was all
Tommy asked. One day a friend wanted the
animals to plough a field. Tommy was a good-
natured fellow and he loaned them. That very
night the Apaches visited the neighbor's ranch,
and when they left carried with them a lock of
the neighbor's hair and Tommy's team.
"The man who went into a Sepoy camp with-
out flinching was completely broken-hearted at
his loss, and, without endeavoring to run his
ranch longer, gave it up and enlisted in the
United States cavalry.
"The ranch he gave up then is now the
center of Phonix, Arizona, and probably netted
hundreds of thousands of dollars to its next
owner. To-day Tommy is still a cavalryman,
earning eighteen dollars a month. That's the
luck of some brave men."
T HE Finland peasants wear shoes made of
strips of birch bark, plaited and drawn
together strongly. A person can make a pair
in an hour. Even children can plait and fashion
their own shoes.
Laplanders' shoes are of reindeer skin, taken
off near the hoof; they are soft and flexible.
They wear two pairs of stockings with them,
and then grass wrapped .all around the ankle,
and filling out the shoes so that the cold cannot
CHIT CHAT. 27
HE Troubadours were men who in olden
time (chiefly from the eleventh to the
thirteenth century) made the composition and
recitation of poetry a profession. Many of
them were actors, mimics and jugglers, and the
profession was a very lucrative one, its mem-
bers frequently retiring from business loaded
with gold and valuable goods given them by
the wealthy people whom they had amused.
Their accomplishments sometimes included
dancing, wrestling, sleight-of-hand, boxing, and
training animals. They often traveled in com-
panies from place to place in search of employ-
ment, or perhaps in midwinter appeared before
the castle gates at nightfall, a picturesque group
in crimson, violet and velvet-black, against the
white snow. The richer ones, however, re-
mained at home in winter, composing new
songs, learning wonderful tales, or practicing
tricks of legerdemain, games, etc., to make
their out-coming in the spring all the more
It was a merry life they led, in the main, in
the free out-door air and sunshine, singing their
gay, heroic or sentimental songs, sure of a de-
lighted audience. Kings and queens, nobles
and gentles, alike united to do them honor, and
load them with gifts.
For many years the Troubadours continued
to sing at ancient windows and in lordly halls;
but gradually, as times grew more peaceful, and
occupations more practical, the romance of
chivalry, the strange legends of field and court
lost their charm; the singers dispersed, taking
up other professions; and only now and then
one, like Sir Walter Scott's "last minstrel," was
left to wander about the country, earning a
scanty living from the few who in charity, per-
haps, listened to his worn-out songs.
There is something very pitiful and touching
in Scott's description of the poor old minstrel,
forsaken of all except an orphan boy:
The bigots of the iron time
Had called his harmless art a crime;
A wandering harper, old and poor;
He begged his bread from door to door;
And tuned to please a peasant's ear,
The harp a king had loved to hear."
)T WAS an eye for an eye and a tooth for a
In the old-time Scripture day;
But I tell my love that a heart for a heart
Is by far the better way.
W. Z. G.
JACK'S LITERAL INTERPRETATION.
T HERE is much sport at the expense of the
green-hands, or the "land-lubbers," as un-
sophisticated sailor lads are called.
The expressions used on ship-board are so
different or have such different meanings from
those on shore, that the new-comers have to learn
a new vocabulary, and the mistakes they make
before getting fully initiated, are ludicrous in
A sailor lad was standing idly watching a
coxswain and his men preparing to embark in
a small boat, when the coxswain shouted up to
him, "Let go the painter!"
The boy stared.
"Let go that painter there!" yelled the
Jack disappeared aft." He soon returned
and looked over the gunwale at the officer.
Now the "painter" is the name applied by sea-
men to the rope attached to the bow of a ship's
boat. And it also happened that one of the
ship's painters was standing on a suspended
stage surrounded by his pots, painting the stern
of the vessel. The coxswain grew impatient,
and seeing Jack still staring at him, he shrieked
"You young jackanapes, why don't you let
go that painter ? "
He's gone, sir," screamed Jack in reply,
"pots and all!"
Poor Jack, recognizing the necessity for
obedience, impressed upon every sailor from
the start, had acted according to his lights,"
and sent the astonished ship's painter and his
mixtures splashing into the harbor.
HOW A DOG GETS HIS FREE LUNCH.
A BRIGHT collie who is unusually fond of
doughnuts, has discovered an easy way
of obtaining his favorite dainty. One day in
company with his mistress he visited a bakery,
where, perceiving some doughnuts in a show-
case, he sat up and pleaded coaxingly with lifted
paws and short barks for a taste of the luxury.
The baker kindly gave him some, which were
apparently highly appreciated, as the collie has
not failed to make his appearance every day
since then and beg for more. If the shop door
is closed, he waits outside until some one opens
it, when he dodges in after his regular free
lunch. The kind-hearted baker has not as yet
had the heart to refuse the ingenious beggar,
though he is beginning to think that there is
truth" in the old adage about "riding a free
horse to death."
CHISTMAS NING IN LONDON
CHRISTMAS MORNING IN LONDON.
30 CHIIT CHAT.
ON CHRISTMAS DAY.
D OWN the road to London Town,
Came a flock of birdies brown,
On Christmas Day, on Christmas Day;
Sweetly singing all the way,
Under clouds- of silver gray,
A merry flock of birdies brown was it flew to
On Christmas Day.
Saddle-bags a-weighing down,
Rode a man to London Town,
On Christmas Day, on Christmas Day;
Floating locks so golden-gay,
Cheeks as pink as flowers in May,
Had the horseman riding down, singing, into
On Christmas Day.
Merrily to London Town,
Danced a troop of children down,
On Christmas Day, on Christmas Day;
Singing sweetly all the way,
Under clouds of silver gray,
Horseman, children, birdies brown, sped away
to London Town,
On Christmas Day.
In the streets of London Town,
Children sang, and birdies brown,
On Christmas Day, on Christmas Day
For the red-cheeked horseman gay
Scattered toys and crumbs, they say,
For the birds and children down in the streets
of London Town,
On Christmas Day.
.2ary E. Wilkins.
TO SCHOOL BY STEAMBOAT.
SOME of the Maine coast dwellers are no
better off in respect to school and church
privileges than are the people of the remote
Aroostook wilderness, who seldom see anything
but trees and bears. A man who lives on Great
Diamond Island, Portland Lower Harbor, has
three children of school age; but there is no
school on the island, therefore he appealed to
the Mayor of Portland for assistance in the
matter. It has been arranged that the children
shall be transported daily at the city's expense
to Peak's. Island, where there is a school. So
they now enjoy the proud distinction of having
a private steamboat at their disposal for their
passage to and from school. Such privileges
do young people-athirst for learning receive in
this "land of the free," which has always been
famous for its educational advantages.
C ALIFORNIA in winter and spring presents
some of the most complete contrasts
within a few miles of travel that can be found
anywhere in the world. The grand snow peaks
of Southern California look down upon mar-
velous valleys, fruitful and pleasant, crowded
with towns, golden with acres of oranges.
Three hours' journey from the Canadian winter
of the Sierras carries one into foothill villages
and famous old mining camps, where men sit in
their shirt-sleeves and watch the overland trains
coming in with a foot of frozen snow on the
roofs of the cars.
In the vast redwood forests of Northwestern
California the loggers work all winter ii the
warm, rainy ravines, where snow seldom or
never falls. For more than four hundred miles
of coast the lumberman reigns supreme in a
moist, warm winter climate similar to that of
the Channel Islands. But one has only to climb
one of the higher peaks of the range to look
down upon sheltered, fertile valleys, lying east
and south, where Horticulture is king, and
where the industries of out-door life go on with-
out check or rest the winter through.
The hillsides in many places are grass-green
to the tops; men are ploughing and planting
everywhere; orchards are being pruned and
fertilized;-peas and potatoes are growing ready
to be sent to San Francisco markets or trans-
ported East; oranges, lemons, grapes and olives
present their various hues to brighten the green
leaves; the flowers are out in rich abundance;
and yet with all this profusion of summer bloom
and beauty, the mountain peaks are hidden in
snow and one can find all the winter weather
he wants without leaving the State, by a few
hours' ride in the cars.
JOSEPH HARDY NEESIMA.
1 OU will guess at once by the last name
that it is Japanese, though the first two
are English, and you may wonder how they
came together. If you read this article you
will find out who this Japanese boy with the
English given-names was, and why he is known
and honored not only in Japan, but in England
It was in the ancient city of Jeddo, Japan,
that the little Neesima opened his eyes, and an
odd-looking town it would seem to an American
child, with its black houses, paper front doors,
babies carried upon the back, and ladies along
the streets in baskets.
His father was secretary to a prince, and his
home was pretty and comfortable, after the
CHIT CHAT. 31.
fashion of Japanese houses; one of its striking
features was an array of hideous gods on the
sitting-room shelf, to which the little boy was
early taught to pay homage, offering them rice-
and tea on a salver, and repeating forms of wor-
ship. But after a time the child's common
sense protested against this absurd religion; he
saw that the gods never touched the food and
drink he offered them, and as he grew older he
could not be persuaded to pay homage to them.
His-father kept a little school, so he early
learned to read and write, and when he was
sixteen, his prince selected him as one of his
scribes. It was while he was so engaged that
a new light dawned on him, and to use the
quaint words with which he afterwards told his
own story: "A day my comrade sent me a atlas
of United States which was written in China-
letter by some American minister. I read it
many times and I wondered so much as my
brain would melted out from my head because
I liked it very much--picking out president,
building, free school, poorhouse, house of cor-
rection, and machine working and so forth.
From that time I wished to learn American
knowledge, but, alas! I could not get any
teacher to learn it."
His prince remonstrated with him, even
flogged him, and said, "With what reason will
you like foreignknowledge ? Perhaps it will mis-
take yourself." Neesima "said to him sooner,"
" Why will I mistake myself? If a man has
not any knowledge, I will worth him as a dog
or a pig!" At this the prince called him a
"stable boy," and kept him so busy that he had
no time for study.
These thwarted purposes cost him many
musings in his head," and at last made him
really sick. His physician after vainly trying
to cure him, one day said, Your sickness
comes from your mind, therefore you must try
to destroy your warm mind, and must take
walks for the healthness of your body, and it
would be more better than medicine." His
prince gave him "plenty times to feed his
weakness," and one day he went to the seaside
and while there, saw a Dutch man-of-war, which
started all sorts of patriotic reflections and
made him feel even more the necessity of for-
eign knowledge and of intercourse and trade
with foreign countries. -He sought for infor-
mation everywhere, that he might turn it to
account for his country.
A day I visited my friend and I found out
small Holy Bible in his library that was written
by some American minister with China lan-
guage. I lend it from him and read it at
night. I was afraid the savage country's law,
which, if I read the Bible, government will
cross whole my family."
There were at that time three crimes in
Japan for which crucifixion was the penalty;
the murder of a master by a servant, a parent
by a child, or the reading of the Bible!
This book gave Neesima his first ideas of
Christianity, and from this time his "mind was
fulfilled to read English Bible."
He finally obtained permission to leave home
and go to Hakodate, a port where he hoped to
meet some Englishman or American. Here he
sought in vain for any teacher of English, and
began to meditate leaving the country alto-
gether, though if he went in that way, death
would be his only welcome back. Friends
helped him to get away secretly, and on July
18, 1864, he started on his strange journey, first
to China and from there across the ocean to the
goal of his desires, America. He had many
hard and perilous experiences, but when he
reached Boston he found a life-long friend and
patron in Hon. Alpheus Hardy, the owner of
the ship which brought him over. This gentle-
man placed him at the Phillips Academy, An-
dover, and it was while here that he was taken
into the Church under the name of Joseph
From that time his course was onward and
upward. He went from Phillips to Amherst
College, and then returned to Andover Theo-
logical Seminary to fit himself to preach the
Gospel to his people for whom his heart was
always burning, and into whose darkness he
longed to bring a light. About the time when,
having completed his studies, Mr. Neesima was
ready to return home, the Japanese Embassy
came to this country, and Mr. Mori engaged
him as translator and aid. Together they vis-
ited the institutions of the United States and
England, and the self-exile was able to go back
to Japan under more advantageous circum-
stances than he had expected, through his con-
nection with the Embassy.
It was Mr. Neesima's constant desire to found
a school which should be a blessing to his
country. He began with a half-dozen boys in
a private house; at his death in 1890, his
Doshisha covered a group of schools where
nearly a.thousand students are taught. There
is also a training school for nurses, and special
provision is made for the education of young
He was adored by his pupils, beloved by the
missionaries, trusted by his Government, and
honored by his Alma Mater with her highest
academic degree. More than three thousand
people were present at his funeral; his body
was borne to its resting place by the hands of
loving students, while a funeral cort6ge over a
mile in length sadly followed it to the grave
which has become a shrine.
32 CHIT CHAT.
THE HOME OF THE WINDMILL.
THE COUNTRY OF WINDMILLS.
OF all the world, Holland is the windmill
country. As one draws near the shore
there come in sight "windmills, cows, sheep,
Dutchmen, churches, steeples and little red-tiled
houses," but mostly windmills; and above all
at Zaandam, where there are about four miles
The Dutch windmills are large, strong, full
of life and power. Some are made of stone,
round and octagonal, like medieval towers;
others are of wood, and present the form of a
box stuck upon the apex of a pyramid. The
greater part have thatched roofs, a wooden
gallery running round the middle, windows
with white curtains, green doors, and the use
they serve inscribed upon the door. Besides
drawing water, they grind flour, wash rags,
crush lime, break stone, saw wood, crush
olives, and pulverize tobacco.
At night among the trees they have a fan-
tastic appearance, like fabulous birds watching
the heavens; by day they look like enormous
frames for fireworks. They whirl round, stop,
go fast, go slowly, breaking the silence with their
low, monotonous tic-tac; and when they catch
fire, which they do sometimes, especially the
grain-mills, they make a wheel of flame, a
tempest of burning meal, a whirl of fiery clouds,
which has something diabolical and eerie in its
Windmills are, in fact, a necessity of exist-
ence in Holland, that low flat country, which
was continually being invaded by the sea and
flooded by the rivers, until Dutch enterprise
and ingenuity constructed dykes with canals
around them, and then put into service an
army of windmills, which, putting force pumps
in motion, turned the water into the canals,
which carried it off to the sea.
There is a double meaning in the old phrase,
"'The Dutch have taken Holland," for indeed
they have taken it out of the very arms of the
hungry and ravenous sea, and so cared for and
protected it that it has become one of the most
fertile, best regulated and wealthiest countries
on the globe.
T HREE times Sue sends her cup to me
And says her tea is wrong;
I vainly try to weaken it,
But still she says "too strong."
"Too strong of what?"
At last I ask my funny little daughter,
Who looks at me and gravely says,
"Too strong, mamma, of water."
CHIT CHAT. 33
BOGER ASCHAM AND PRINCESS ELIZABETH.
QUEEN ELIZABETH'S SCHOOLMASTER.
Q IUEEN ELIZABETH'S schoolmaster's
name was Roger Ascham, and a famous
teacher he was, besides having a famous pupil.
Elizabeth was only fourteen when she first
began to learn of him, for it was ten years
before she became England's queen. She was
a very bright girl and a good scholar. At the
age of twelve she wrote very nice letters in
French, Spanish and Italian, and was studying
geography, architecture, mathematics, astron-
omy and history. She was especially interested
in history, and was also fond of poetry, writing
excellent verses of her own.
Roger Ascham had studied almost all his life
at St. John's College, Cambridge, the most
famous college in Cambridge at that time, and
was considered wonderfully learned because he
knew so much Greek and wrote such beautiful
Latin letters. He was the author of "The
Schoolmaster," the first great book ever written
in England on education, full of wise and
advanced ideas such as are in vogue now.
The Princess Elizabeth was a pupil after
Ascham's own heart; she loved to study, had a
great memory and much perseverance. She
became a fine Greek and Latin scholar, could
talk French and Italian as well as English, was
skillful in music, and, indeed, as accomplished
as many scholars of the present day. After
Queen Mary died, and the Lady Elizabeth
became queen herself, Roger Ascham became
her secretary, as he had been previously for
Queen Mary during almost her entire reign.
Even after she ascended to the throne, the
royal pupil retained her thirst for knowledge
and her love of study. She spent several hours
daily reading and studying with her wise secre-
tary and teacher, who was very proud of his
share in her education. He loved to tell of her
accomplishments, and in one of his letters to a
/friend at Strasburg, he thus refers to her
knowledge of languages:
"I was one day present when she spoke in
three languages at once to three ambassadors
-the French, the Swedish and the Imperial.
She spoke to them in Italian, French and Latin,
not hesitatingly or confusedly, but with ease
and fluency, in reply to the various things they
T HE first Chinese baby born in the United
S States, is the son of the Chinese minister
at Washington, and his name is "Me a Un,"
which his mother informs her friends means
34 CHIT CHAT.
HOW STATES WERE NAMED.
(An explanation frequently to be found in colonial
M AINE takes its name from the province
of Maine in France, and was so called
as a compliment to the Queen of Charles I.,
Henrietta, who was its owner.
New Hampshire takes its name from Hamp-
shire, England. New Hampshire was originally
Vermont is French (Verd Mont), signifying
Massachusetts is an Indian word, signifying
"country about the great hills."
Rhode Island gets its name because of its
fancied resemblance to the Island of Rhodes in
The real name of Connecticut is Quon-eh-ta-
but. It is a Mohican word, and means "long
New York was so named as a compliment to
the Duke of York, whose brother, Charles II.,
granted him that territory.
New Jersey was named for Sir George Carter,
who was at that time governor of the Island 6f
Jersey, in the British Channel.
Delaware derives its name from Thomas
West, Lord de la Ware.
3MI,,! ii .1 was named in honor of Henrietta
Maria, Queen of Charles I.
Virginia got its name from Queen Elizabeth,
the Virgin Queen."
Kentucky does not mean Dark and Bloody
Ground," but is derived from the Indian word
" Kain-tuk-ae," signifying "Land at the Head
of the River."
Ohio has had several meanings fitted to it.
Some say that it is a Suwanee word, meaning
"The Beautiful River." Others refer to the
Wyandotte word Oheza, which signified "Some-
Missouri means "Muddy Water."
Michigan is from an Indian word, meaning
" Great Lakes."
Colorado is a Spanish word, applied to that
portion of the Rocky Mountains on account of
its many-colored peaks.
Nebraska means shallow waters.
Nevada is a Spanish word, signifying "snow-
Georgia had its name bestowed when it was
a colony, in honor of George II.
Oregon is a Spanish word signifying "vales
of wild thyme."
Dakota means leagued or allied tribes."
Wyoming is the Indian word for "Big
Montana means mountains.
A NOVEL CONSIGNMENT.
N the early settlement of Virginia it was
found necessary to import from England
young women as wives for the planters. A
letter accompanying one of these shipments,
and dated London, August 12, 1621, illustrates
the simplicity of the times, and the concern for.
the welfare of the colony. It is as follows :
We send you in the ship one widow and
eleven maids, for wives for the people of Vir-
ginia. There has been special care had in the
choice of them, for there hath not any of them
been received but upon good commendations.
In case they cannot be presently married, we
desire that they be put with several that have
wives till they can be provided with husbands.
There are nearly fifty more that are shortly to
come, and sent by our most honorable Lord and
Treasurer, the Earl of Southampton, and cer-
tain worthy gentlemen, who, taking into con-
sideration that the plantation can never flourish
till families be planted, and the respect of wives
and children for their people on the soil, there-
fore have given this fair beginning, for the
reimbursement of whose charges it is ordered
that every man that marries them gives one
hundred and twenty pounds of best leaf tobacco
for each of them. Though we are desirous
that the marriage be free, according to the law
of nature, yet we would not have these maids
deceived and married to servants, but only
to such freemen or tenants as have means to
maintain them. We pray you, therefore, to be
fathers to them in this business, not enforcing
them to marry against their wills."
THE HOME AND GRAVE OF EMERSON.
T MERSON'S house is always one of the first
S1 objects of interest pointed out to the
stranger in Concord. It is a plain, white, old-
fashioned building, shaded by magnificent pines.
The grave of the great thinker, in "Sleepy
Hollow" Cemetery, is a sacred spot, and the
well-worn paths about it show that it has been
visited by thousands of devoted pilgrims. It
is commonly asserted that Emerson's grave is
marked by a great block of uncut granite, his
only monument. The block is there, but it is
not granite. It is a magnificent piece of quartz,
six or seven feet high and four feet thick,
wholly uncut or polished, and without any in-
scription upon it. No memorial could be more
impressive. It is as grand and simple and gen-
uine as the character it commemorates.
We have only one mouth to go with two ears;
We should listen much more than we talk, it
W AS there ever such a snowstorm before ?
The boys were perfectly wild over it,
and when, on going home from school, they
came to a field where the snow had drifted till
it was high enough in places to bury them, their
enthusiasm knew no bounds. Inthey plunged,
one after another, getting, in some cases, more
than they had bargained for. It was a wet
snow, and they easily went down into it deeper
and deeper, and, floundering about, began to
wonder if they should ever strike solid ground.
Tommy Brown, who was a small boy, though
with a big ambition, suddenly found himself in
great danger of being submerged under the
yielding mass, and only the kindly efforts of
Frank Hill and Teddy Raines enabled him to
keep his head above the snow till brother Phil
could come to his rescue, and drag him out to
a shallower bank.
Then followed a snowball fight such as city
boys can have no idea of, a regular fusilade,
balls flying in every direction and generally
hitting their mark, leaving red streaks and
swelling bumps, while every rag of clothes was
saturated with water and melting snow. But
then, one never takes cold snowballing," Tom-
my assured his mother, when she anxiously sur-
veyed his wet garments.
THE BRUSH BRIGADE.
N OT long ago I heard a mother tell her
boys that intimate and constant ac-
quaintance with brushes went a great way to-
ward making a gentleman.
The remark struck me and I asked how many
brushes one needed to be familiar with.
Tell her, boys," said their mother, and the
merry fellows shouted:
One to brush our hair we need,
And one to polish our boots,
And one to clean our nails indeed,
And one to dust our suits,
And one to give our hats a switching,
To make us all look very bewitching,
And that's the song of the Brush Brigade."
Will always twists everything they have to
remember into a jingle, and then they don't
forget it," said the mother, smiling, as the
brigade went off in a vivacious procession to
practice on the brushes.
Tramps went out, but gentlemen came back,"
said the clever little mother, when they came in
again; presenting each of the brush-improved
four with an apple turnover for his lunch-box.
D UTCH cleanliness is proverbial. Perhaps
there are no people in the world who
scrub and brush and scour so persistently as
the women of Holland.
A traveler passing through Rotterdam streets
to the railway station, writes: The house-
cleaning that goes on twice a week in the early
morning was in progress. All the maid-servants
in the city, in lilac cotton gowns, white caps,
white aprons, stockings and sabots, were busy
with their sleeves rolled up, washing doors, walls
and windows. Some courageously seated upon
the window-sills, half-in and half-out, were clean-
ing the panes with sponges; others, kneeling
on the steps, rubbed the pavement with a
cloth; others, with syringes and long, flexible
tubes such as we use to water gardens, directed
vigorous jets of water against the second floor
windows, that fell again in heavy showers;
some, with sponges and rags tied on the ends of
long canes, mopped other windows; some pol-
ished the knobs and metal plates on the doors
some cleaned the stairs; some the furniture,
brought out into the street for that purpose.
The door-steps were encumbered with buckets,
pans, brushes, brooms and benches; water
dripped from the walls, ran into the gutters,
and splashed and sparkled everywhere. And
while most kinds of labor in Holland are done
in a slow, deliberate manner, with this it is quite
different. The women dart about, with 11,!, .1
faces, unheeding the passer-by except to drive
him off with jealous looks from the pavement.
In short, there is a rage and fury of cleanliness,
a sort of mania for general ablution, as if it might
have been some strange, religious rite, prescribed
to purge the place from the infection of unclean
The inside of Dutch houses is as scrupulously
neat as the exterior. Each house is soaped,
sponged and rubbed like a person. The tidy
maid-servant blows in the cracks, pokes in the
corners, scrubs, scours and polishes till the walls
are as white as snow; everything metal shines
as if just new, and the saucepans are like mir-
rors. Not a speck of dirt or dust is permitted
on the floors or furniture; not a trace of the
necessary kitchen work remains in that apart-
ment, and a lady in a ball-dress might go into
every nook and corner without soiling the purity
and delicacy of her gown.
P ROBABLY the rarest stamp in existence
was lately sold in London for two hun-
dred and fifty pounds. It is an American five-
cent stamp issued at Brattleboro, Vt., in 1840.
DESCENT INTO THE CRATER OF HALEAKALA.
38 CHIT CHAT.
HALEAKALA, OR THE HOUSE OF THE
O N the island of Maui, one of the Hawaiian
group, is the mountain of Haleakala, or
The House of the Sun. It is an extinct volcano,
rising ten thousand feet above the sea, and has
in its top the largest crater in the world.
The crater is twenty-five hundred feet deep,
its circumference is twenty-eight miles, and its
largest diameter nine miles. It is shaped like
a horseshoe, and has two great breaks in its
sides, through which the rivers of lava used to
flow out and down to the sea at Koolau and
Kaupo. The wall, with the exception of these
two gaps, is continuous and very steep, even
perpendicular in some places. The ascent to
the top of the crater is very difficult, and the
rarified air makes the climb more and more
difficult, until at the summit, which reaches an
altitude of ten thousand feet, it seems at first
almost impossible to breathe. About a mile
from the top is a large cave, formerly occupied
by travelers for a night's shelter.
The sunsets from this mountain peak are
said to be indescribably splendid. Standing
on the brink of this dark and silent crater, it
seemed as if the ocean rose to the horizon, which
hung midway between the zenith and the base
of the mountain, the sun apparently setting half-
way down the sky. The brilliancy of the
moon from such an elevation is singularly great,
almost supernatural, and with the darkness of
the non-illuminated parts of the crater and the
unearthly stillness, strikes one with awe. When
the moon does not shine, the darkness is sudden
and intense, as there is no twilight in the
The descent into the crater is less difficult
than the ascent of the mountain, and parties
who make it think themselves well repaid by
the novel and curious experience, which can be
found nowhere else. The bottom is irregular
from the old lava flows which have proceeded
from the numerous cones or fire chimneys,
many of which cones are over five hundred
feet high, while the highest is over eight hun-
dred feet. Though their fires are dead, the
sight is said to be grander than the active
volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa.
The lava has formed into curious and fantas-
tic shapes, now like huge coils of rope, now like
folds of rich drapery, again like a petrified
waterfall, or forming a sort of roof with pen-
dants like icicles. The floor between these
cones in many places is as firm and smooth as a
shell road, and one can ride for miles at a
canter, in and out, between the great cones,
which tower up like immense chimneys out of
the bowels of the earth.
T HE Prince and Princess of Wales' oldest
daughter, now the Duchess of Fife, is
possessed of unusual good sense and delicate
tact. These qualities show to advantage in her
new home, for while she has been obliged to set
aside some of the ceremony and state in which
she was bred, she must yet "hold her own," as
the daughter of England's royal heir and the
granddaughter of its Queen. But such is the
natural amiability and grace which the well-
bred daughters of the lovely Princess of Wales
possess, both by inheritance and training, that
in her new position the Duchess of Fife has
won golden opinions" from all the adherents
of the House.
On one occasion an old friend of the Duke's-
mother came to make a short visit to the castle.
She was painfully conscious of the fact that her
hostess was of royal descent, as her manner
showed, and the Duchess, realizing her worth
as a valued friend of the Fifes, though she was
not possessed of high rank, desired to set her at
ease. She accordingly sent for the lady to
come to her special apartments, and on her
appearance, welcomed her with sweet and
gracious cordiality, and entertained her for an
hour in a delightfully informal manner, showing
a knowledge of the guest's family and interests
that was in itself flattering, ending the inter-
view with a pleasant apology for having to join
the Duke and assist him with some papers. It
is needless to say that the lady felt herself in-
deed a welcome and an honored guest, and will
ever hold in tender remembrance her sweet and
gracious hostess and the gratifying attentions
The would-be "exclusiveness" of snobs ap-
pears foolish indeed in contrast with such sim-
ple and high-bred courtesy.
N EELIE was a summer boarder,
And to please her they did try,
So the fruits, each in its season,
Were in turn made in a pie.
Every day was something different -
Blackberries and currants red,
Blueberries and juicy apples
With rich spice and sugar wed.
But her favorite saw she never,
Looked in vain the table o'er;
Till one day she asked her mother,
"Don't the minces grow no more ?"
Xi. F. IL
CHIT CHAT. 39
THE STORY OF A HAT.
TWO poor little brothers they had but one
And both wore the same one, can you guess
how was that?
Each boy had a head? 0, yes! each had a
And both heads had one hat on, as just has
Their grandfather's? No, a boy's hat made for
Yet worn by two heads! Can you guess how
Small heads? No, indeed, sir! Their heads
were not small.
You've not guessed my riddle, not guessed it
I'll tell you the answer. The hat was of straw,
As old an old hat, sir, as ever you saw,
It was torn round about, just under the band,
And left in two parts; do you quite understand ?
And when these small brothers walked forth in
Why, one wore the rim, and the other the
THE PEASANT WIFE WHO WAS SO
T HERE was once a peasant who had a wife,
and she was so discontented with every
thing they had that she complained all the time
and grew very cross. When she went out into
the farmyard and looked at their cows, she
thought they were miserable creatures compared
to other cows. When she sat with her husband
to eat, she thought the food and the plates were
wretched, that the kitchen was too small and
the fields not large enough. She wanted every-
thing as good as the richest in the parish, you
One Christmas Eve there came walking into
the kitchen a woman who looked very peculiar.
It was no other than the old witch who had her
abode in the high hill over beyond the pasture.
The old peasant woman was standing beside the
stove cooking Christmas porridge and muttering
as usual, of course. But the witch, who was
one of the good-natured sort, spoke to the
peasant couple and said :
"As long as Lisa here that was the old
peasant woman, you must know "is not sat-
isfied with the way things are, you may wish
for three things and you shall have them. But
think well for eight days before you wish for
the first, so you may wish wisely."
With this the witch disappeared.
Lisa was beside herself with delight, you may
know, and pondered all Christmas Eve and
Christmas Day over what she should wish -for
herself. But at night, when she put the supper
on the table, she thought the sausages were not
good enough for her, so she said: "If only a
body had a fine, great sausage!" and immedi-
ately a sausage appeared on the platter before
her. But this made the old man angry, so he
said: "I wish the sausage were hanging on
your nose, I do!" At once the sausage was
hanging on Lisa's nose, and the old man was
not strong enough to pull it off.
Now for the first time, they remembered Ihat
they had already made two wishes, and so had
only one left. But what good would it do the
old woman to be ever so rich, if she had to go
round with a sausage hanging on her nose all
her days? So the old man was obliged to wish
the sausage off again, and then they were just
as rich as they were to start with, as any one
can guess. Translated from the Aiccdidh of
A RAT FUNERAL.
IIE sagacity of even the smallest animals is
something almost marvelous. They seem
to do by instinct what our higher intelligence
teaches us by slow degrees, and their uncon-
scious imitation of human ways is often surpris-
ing. Some children living in Belgium were
witnesses to what they called "a rat funeral,"
which showed these little rodents to be pos-
sessed of a proper sense of feeling.
They (the children) were accustomed to feed
the rats that came up from the river to their
kitchen door, and the little creatures soon be-
came quite tame, making their appearance for
their rations regularly. One of their number
(probably the oldest) was very stiff, could
hardly walk alone, and was always accompanied
by a younger one. One morning the children
missed him, and for two days none of them
appeared. On the third day a funeral proces-
sion was observed emerging from their ordinary
passage. First came two of the rats dragging
the poor old defunct member of their household,
then several others followed with measured
steps and slow." Their dead comrade was
carefully borne to a ditch and dropped in, and
the company returned home. On the following
day the remaining rats came for their rations as
usual, happy, we may suppose, in the conscious-
ness of having done their duty to their elder
40 CHIT CHAT.
DRILLING THE CREW.
CUSTOMS ON SHIPBOARD. MAKING POEMS.
T HE fire-alarm, so common in cities that it is
daily heard with indifference, is more terri-
ble on shipboard than a storm at sea. Fighting
the fire there means fighting for life. No one
is allowed to ring the fire bell but the ship's
cook, whose authority extends to the deck as
well as the kitchen. If a fire is discovered, he
must be notified; he sounds the alarm, and the
crews muster at the signal. They are as well
trained as any city fire company, having been
thoroughly drilled in all the duties that pertain
to that service.
Each sailor is expected to look after his own
clothes, and to keep them in good condition.
If his cap gives out, he has the pleasure of
fashioning another. Washing days come round
quite as often as convenient, and mending days
are sandwiched in between intervals of busy
Now and then come days of comparative
leisure, when old clothes are looked over and
carefully mended, and the ingenuity shown by
some old salts in the way of repairing dam-
ages would put many a thrifty young house-
keeper to the blush.
Y OU would like to make a poem
Of roses and dew?
Of dawn? and from the rainbow
A color or two ?
Of little Mabel's beauty -
Her fragrant lips?
Of the tossing sea out yonder,
And the shining ships?
Of lovers sitting silent
On the silver sand ?
Of a baby's bright curls blowing,
And a dimpled hand?
I know one who makes poems
From ugly prose;
Her life holds no rainbow,
Neither a rose.
Her hands do common duties,
Her small feet run
On dull and weary errands
From sun to sun.
The aged and the helpless
Bring to her their needs;
And each day a word -is added
To the poem that God reads.
CHIT CHAT. 41
T HE drosky is, par excellence, the national
Russian vehicle, and nothing like it exists
in any other country. Whether belonging to
the rich or the poor, its form and construction
are the same: a small, toylike open carriage,
very low, running on four wheels, of which the
hinder are not more than two feet and a half in
diameter and the other pair not more than
eighteen inches. The carriage has a seat for
the driver without any back to it, and a seat
for the passenger. Over the wheels are splash-
boards. The horse stands almost naked be-
tween the shafts, which latter are attached
directly to the front axle, rather than to the
body of the carriage. The Russians drive,
holding one rein in each hand, and seldom use
a whip. But one horse is generally used with
a drosky, though two and three horses are em-
ployed for the more stylish ones, one being
sometimes tackled in front of the other two.
Foreigners are apt to find these conveyances
anything but comfortable or convenient.
DROSKTES ON RUNNERS.
A similar vehicle is used in Finland, and a
speed of travel of fourteen English miles by the
hour is easily attained in them, over the excel-
lent roads of that country.
--ALEXAN R I"-i.
THE EMPEROR OF ALL THE RUSSIAS.
A LEXANDER III., Emperor of Russia,
came to the throne in 1881, after the
assassination of Alexander n., and has thus
far held his difficult and precarious position,
though Nihilist plots have been
thick about him. The Empress
is Dagmar, daughter of King
Christian of Denmark, and sister
of the Princess of Wales; a wise
and good woman in a place of
dangerous power. Her influence
-''' over the emperor is said to be
strong and helpful, but it is al-
most like living over a volcano,
to reign in Russia, and the royal family can
never know what ease and freedom is.
During the first eighteen months after his
coronation, the servants nearest to the emperor
and his family were changed as often as twice
a month; and when he goes on an extended
journey, thousands of soldiers and attendants
accompany him in various capacities, to protect
and keep away dangerous intruders.
The doctrine that "a man's house is his
castle," the proud boast of Englishmen, is un-
known in Russia. At any hour any house may
be entered and searched, and any of its inmates
sent to prison; not even a child of ten years
can go from the country to St. Petersburg or
Moscow to school without a passport; nor
can a servant change his place without such a
42 CHIT CHAT.
VARIOUS USES OF EGGS.
T is an error to suppose that eggs have no
considerable use except for food. They
are employed in calico printing, in photography,
in gilding, in clarifying various liquors and in
bookbinding. A large business has sprung up
in the preparation of photographic paper with
salted albumen, and one establishment alone is
said to have used more than two million eggs
in six months for this purpose. Many attempts
have been made to find a vegetable or animal
substitute for albumen, but in vain. A prize of
two thousand dollars offered thirty years ago by
an English society for the discovery of a mate-
rial or process of replacing albumen in calico
printing, still remains untaken.
Nor are the yolks of eggs used in manufac-
turing wholly wasted. Theyare also employed
in the arts, and a manufacturer in Vienna solidi-
fies them. Possibly, too, the development in
canning will before long give us canned eggs,
or perhaps condensed eggs, suitable at least for
cooking. At any rate, it would seem worth
while to raise part of the eggs which are
condensed by other countries.
YOU have only one calico gown, dear doll,
But don't you feel sad or ashamed, dear
When I'm rich I will buy you a mantle of lace,
And a bonnet to suit your sweet little face.
I will spend my whole fortune on you, dear doll,
For I won't need a thing for myself at all -
When I take you abroad on a pleasant.day,
"She's that beautiful doll's mamma," they'll say.
LTHOUGH something is known about the
A speed of birds and animals, there are few
ascertained facts concerning that of insects and
fishes. They rarely move in anything like a
straight line, and it is hard to arrive at any-
thing more than approximate results. In
"Poachers and Poaching" the following ex-
ample is given:
I have frequently had the opportunity of
dropping into company with our largest species
of dragon-fly along a particular roadside in
On foot one has scarcely any means of judg-
ing of its speed, for in a moment it is past you
and out of sight; but what is the experience
when you are driving, say at the rate of eight
or ten miles an hour?
The rapid voyager shoots by you almost out
of sight; then turns, swerving widely from left
to right, and passes you again in both directions,
traversing repeatedly the ground over which
you are traveling but once.
We are apt to exaggerate in these matters,
but with every allowance, having compared the
flight of the dragon-fly with that of a passing
hawk, swallow and cuckoo, I have computed
that it is capable of flying at a speed of one
hundred miles an hour.
WITH HIS PERMISSION.
T HOSE who saw an elegant gentleman driv-
ing down Beacon Street one snowy day
last winter with an expression half-quizzical,
half-perturbed, might have guessed for a long
time before hitting upon the cause of his un-
usual aspect. It was one of those days when
neither policemen nor city ordinances, home
rules nor school regulations can prevent the
ordinary boy from throwing snowballs, and
small Grace did not see why she should be cut
off from the general amusement; but being
obedient, according to her lights, she asked
permission to snowball any friend whom she
might see in the street.
"Certainly not," answered her scandalized
"But if I ask their permission, mayn't I?
With their permission, mamma ? "
"Yes, with their permission, you may," was
the dry answer.
Out sallied Miss Grace, trailing her sled be-
hind her and looking as innocent as a whole
boy choir pinching one another while in full
song. She gathered a good large snowball, and
waited for her victim who soon approached in
the person of the gentleman aforesaid. Forth
she sallied into the middle of the street, and he
supposing that she wanted to fasten her sled to
his sleigh in order to try that pastime which is
only less exciting than being aboard a yacht
towed by a big steamer, slackened his pace.
"Good-morning," she cried; "may I?"
"And welcome," he said -involuntarily
adding an indescribable sound, for Grace's
snowball was very soft, and when it struck the
back of his neck it seemed to disperse into a
cloud and to fill his eyes, although enough re-
mained inside his collar to cause him to sit with
great rigidity during the remainder of his drive.
Grace found herself summoned into the house
before she had time to repeat her experiment.
"Why, he gave me permission, and you said I
might," was all the apology to be obtained
from her, and the most elaborate explanation
did not avail to make her perceive her naughti-
ness. G. Ifamlen.
CHIT CHAT. 43
DID you know that this familiar phrase,
Hobson's Choice," preserves the mem-
ory of a very good and useful man ?
Thomas Hobson was bor in 1544 ; he was for
sixty years a carrier between London and
Cambridge, conveying to and from the Univer-
sity. letters and packages, also passengers. In
addition to his express business, he had a livery
stable and lbt horses to the University students.
He made it a rule that all the horses should
have, according to their ability, a proper division
of work and rest. They were taken out in reg-
ular order, as they stood, beginning with the one
nearest the door. No choice was allowed, and
if any man refused to take the animal assigned
him he might go without any. That or none.
Hence the phrase, Hobson's Choice."
In the spring of 1630, the plague broke out
in England. The colleges of Cambridge were
closed, and among the precautions taken by the
authorities to avoid infection, Hobson was for-
bidden to go-to London. He died in January,
1631, partly, it is said, from anxiety and fretting
at his enforced leisure. Iobson was one of the
wealthiest citizens of Cambridge, and did much
for the benefit of the city, to which he left sev-
eral legacies. His death called forth many
poems from members of the University, officers
and students, among them two by the poet
Milton, then a student at Christ's College.
P. .L Cole.
GUIDED BY INSTINCT.
rT HAT self-preservation is a law of nature
-L with every order of being, the following
story told by a standard writer, well illustrates:
One morning at the breakfast table, we were
startled by an unusual noise, like the croaking
of frogs, coming from a potato patch near the
house. Upon investigation we discovered a
dozen or more frogs, evidently intent upon
gaining some desired spot. We watched their
movements, and saw thehm'march directly to a
pond in a meadow a few rods distant. The
question arose: Where did they come from?
As they had come in the direct line from a
pond on what was called Notch Hill, and it
was a time of great drought, my father sug-
gested that we examine that pond. We did so,
and found it dry except a little mud at the
bottom; a few remaining frogs in a dying con-
dition, told plainly of the effort they had been
forced to make in order to fulfill the first law of
nature. They had traveled about half a mile
from one point to the other, through fields and
fences and other obstructions.
A N Exchange tells of Professor Lloyd
Morgan's experience with South Afri-
can death-dealing snakes. One of his pupils
brought him, in a large cigar box, a "ring-hals-
slang," a deadly and courageous snake not un-
common at the Cape, and turned it out on the
veranda for the professor's delectation.
It was a spiteful little fellow, with an omin-
ous hood, dark, glossy skin and glistening
It struck viciously at the cigar-box held up
before it, indenting the wood and moistening it
with venom and saliva. I was anxious to dis-
sect out the poison-gland and examine the fang
of the snake, and my friend kindly presented
the reptile to me, after first tying it up securely
in the cigar-box.
After examining the fastenings, I placed the
box on the window-sill of my bedroom, which
looked into the veranda, and left it there for
the night. Next morning I procured a pan, big
enough to drown a small python, placed the
cigar-box therein, loaded it with bricks, and
poured in water to the brim.
I gave the "ring-hals" three hours to get
thoroughly drowned, removed the bricks, took
out the box, gently cut the string, lifted the lid
-and found that I had been soaking, with the
utmost care, an empty cigar-box. It had been
securely tied, and how a creature more than
thrice the girth of my thumb had managed to
escape is still a mystery to me.
I leave the reader to. imagine the detailed
search of every cranny of our bedroom on which
my wife insisted. For several days every boot
had to be hammered with a stick before it was
put on. I stood on chairs and shook all vari-
eties of garments, lest they should be occupied.
No "ring-hals" was forthcoming. A week after-
ward, however, he appeared in the kitchen, and
I dispatched him in a more effectual manner
than by drowning.
W OULD you like to change places with
Would you like to change places with her?
You envy them so that quite dim
Are your eyes ; then say yes why
They seem very happy ah, yes;
Their joys 'twere easy to choose -
But their troubles they have them, I
Now whose would you take? Answer-
THE FESTIVAL OF DOLLS.--THE FAVORITE.
46 CHIT CHAT.
THE FESTIVAL OF DOLLS.
T HE little Japanese girls look forward to the
third day of March with as much eager-
ness and delight as little American children look
forward to Christmas. On this day occurs
lIina-no-sekku, or the Festival of Dolls. This
is a special holiday for the girls, as iNobori-no
sekku, or the Festival of Flags, on the fifth of
May, is for the boys. On the third of March
the little girls wear their finest dresses and
brightest sashes, their black hair is smoothly
arranged and decorated with the prettiest hair-
pins and crape..
The parents arrange on one side of the best
room"a few shelves rising up like steps. These
are covered with cloth and the dolls ranged
thereon. The principal dolls represent the
Empress and Emperor, are resplendent with
gold brocade and tinsel, and are surrounded by
other models representing court musicians and
others. Many of them are heirlooms of great
antiquity. The dolls are not played with, but
are ranged in great state on the shelves,.and
food made of rice and beans, as well as little
square cakes of rice-flour, are placed in dishes
before them, while the little girl sits on the
floor in front, rapturously enjoying her treasures
and inviting her girl friends to share her delight.
SHE was ironing her dolly's new gown,
S Maid Marian four years old,
With her brows puckered down
In a painstaking frown
Under her tresses of gold.
'Twas Sunday, and Nurse coming in
Exclaimed in a tone of surprise:
"Don't you know it's a sin
Any work to begin
On the day that the Lord sanctifies?"
Then, lifting her face like a rose,
Thus answered this wise little tot:
"Now don't you suppose
The good Lord lie knows
This little iron ain't hot?"
Elizabeth TIK B ....
T IHE Japanese language is said to contain
Ssixty thousand words, every one of which
requires a different symbol. It is quite impossi-
ble for one man to learn the entire language,
and a well-educated Japanese is familiar with
only about ten thousand words.
TRUE TO LIFE.
T HAT "little pitchers- have long ears" is
amusingly illustrated in the following in-
cident, the eldest of the "little pitchers" referred
to evidently having been within ear-shot of one
of the fashionable receptions of the day, and,
with a child's quick imitativeness, making use
of what she had seen and heard for the benefit
of her companions.
She was a bright little girl of about ten years,
and she was playing with three or four girls a
little younger than herself.
Now, I'll tell you what we'll do," she was
overheard to say, we'll play reception."
"Reception? What's that?" queried one of
the little girls.
"Oh it's a kind of an afternoon thing, some-
thing like a party; only you don't do much of
anything but stand around and just kind o'
giggle. Oh! it's ever so easy to play. We'll
want to make believe that we have tea in these
little teacups of mine. Come on, I'll show you
how to play it."
They arranged a little toy tea set on a tiny
table in a corner of the room, and then the
Now, I'll be the lady who is giving the re-
ception Mrs. Mortimer,' you may call me.
All of you go out into the hall and come in
with your hats on and rush up to me, and I'll
"'My dears! how good it was of you to
And what must we say ?" asked one of the
Oh! you must say, Why, we wouldn't have
missed it for anything,' and then we must all
giggle and laugh."
"Well, because-well, just because that's
the way the big folks do. I don't know why,
and I guess they don't. Now let's begin playing
In came the little guests, and the scene that
followed was all the more ludicrous to the con-
cealed listeners when they heard the erudite
"That was something like it, only you didn't
giggle enough. Now you go and get some tea
and stand around drinking it and all talk at
once, and then you must all come and shake
hands with me and say:
"' I have had a perfectly lovely time,' and
I'll say, 'Oh! I'm so glad! and you'll come
again, then, won't you?' and you'll say, 'Yes,
indeed!' real loud and screechy, and I'll say,
'Oh! you must,' and then you go. It's a real
nice thing to play if one knows how to play it
right. Now let's play it all over again."
CHIT CHAT. 47
"A WRITTEN EXCUSE."
I ONCE taught a country school in the back-
woods, and as was the custom then, I re-
quired a written excuse when a pupil was absent
one or more days. Some of those excuses I
have kept and they afford me a deal of amuse-
ment after all the years that have come and
gone since then.
Here is an excuse brought one day by a tall,
red-haired boy of seventeen :
"Dere Cir Pleze to eggcuce Henry for ab-
sents yesterday. We made sourkrout and he
had to tromp it down. Allso he had to Help
bucher 2 pigs.
Did your father write this excuse himself ?"
"No, sir," replied Henry, "I writ it for him
'cause he can't spell very good."
I am glad to add that Henry's spelling im-
proved while I had him in charge. Another
boy brought me this excuse:
SKind Teacher: Ab could not come yester-
day on account of taring his pants very bad
just before starting, so it took me most all day
to mend them up."
A boy of about ten years who had been ab-
sent two weeks brought me the following:
"John Henry had a soar tow, also a soar
throte and a soar finger. Pleese egscuse."
A girl of about fourteen whose mother af-
fected a degree of culture and great mental
superiority over her neighbors, brought me the
"Dear Sir: I trust you will pardon Alcione's
wholly unavoidable absence yesterday. Cir-
cumstances are not always controllable by our
finite minds, as you are no doubt aware. We
are all subject to immutable laws and are con-
stantly doing that we would not alas! There-
fore Alcione's unavoidable failure to attend
yesterday's session. I trust I may not soon have
to indite a similar unexpected circumstance.
Believe me to be
"Yours truly and respectfully,
"ANASTASIA C. H-."
Simpler and more directly to the point was
the excuse brought me by a tow-headed little
girl of about eight years, whose mother wrote:
"Phoebe could not be there or she would of
went. I think she et too much sossage for
breakfast. She sha'n't do it agen. Pleese
"]- TOW often we hear people who have
JLr. been brought up to better ways of
talking trying to get a foreign twist on words
in common use in New England, with an Eng-
lish pronunciation sanctioned by long use and the
best authorities. The word depot' is one of
these, and though there is no authority in the
world for calling it daypo' in an English sen-
tence, it is frequently so spoken by people who
can't tell French from C' .... i... This foolish
habit is neatly taken off by an exchange in the
following anecdote. Bub, how far is it to the
daypo ?' he asked of a lad on Jefferson Avenue.
'Daypo is French, isn't it?' queried the boy in
reply. Yes.' Then you'd better ask some
Frenchman. You couldn't find it in English.' "
Reading this newspaper paragraph to a friend
who has a quick, responsive sense of the humor-
ous, I received from her hand in about five
minutes the following impromptu:
"It is but a step-oh
Down to the dep-oh,
The way is quite steep-oh
That leads to the deep-oh.
I slipped on a grape-oh
Just by the day-poh.
In a store near the dee-pot
I bought this small tea-pot.
Perhaps to end the agitation
We'd better henceforth call it station."
HE DID AS HE WAS ASKED.
A PROPOS of the ready comprehension and
native wit attributed to the Sons of Erin,
Patrick's compliance with the customer's wish
stands out in bold opposition. Patrick was the
man about the grocery store. It was a busy
season, and the grocer was waiting upon two or
three customers at the same time.
"Patrick!" he called out, where's the
"The pound weight, is it? Sure it's Misther
Jones that has the pound weight."
Mr. Jones has it? What do you mean ?"
"An' sure didn't ye till me to be perlite to
the regular customers?"
"Well, thin! Misther Jones comes in the
day for a pound o' tay. An' says he, whin I
axed him what quality o' tay he wud have,
Whativer ye give me,' says he, give me the
weight!' So I put in the pound weight in the
package wid the tay, perlite-like, an' it's himself
that's gone wid it! "
48 CHIT CHAT.
THE EMPEBOE COIMMODUS ENTERING TEE ARENA.
THE ROMAN EMPEROR COMMODUS.
T HE ancient Romans delighted in sports, in
spectacles and festivals, and the history of
those days is full of accounts of their games of
skill and prowess, as well as of the terrible
contests in which gladiators not only strove
with each other, but with wild beasts in the
arena, while admiring crowds looked on and
Commodus, the young son of the great and
good emperor, Marcus Aurelius, was especially
fond of the sports of the amphitheater, and on
his accession to the throne, the boy-emperor
became the active patron of the gorgeous spec-
tacles which made Rome gay and brilliant with
The brightest day of all the numerous spring
festivals was the festival in honor of Flora, god-
dess of flowers and of spring the beautiful
Roman May day. Even before daybreak, the
slaves of the citizens and the peasants from the
campagna came bringing in great masses of
greens and flowers, and "busy hands trimmed and
festooned door-posts and temples, statues, altars
and baths. The beautiful little temple of Flora,
which stood not far from the great Circus Max-
imus, was especially decorated. The May-day
revelers twined their garlands around its
marble columns, and laid upon its altar the
fairest of their floral offerings, hoping thus to
gain the favor of the charming goddess herself.
The flamen florialis, or priest of Flora, who
stood at the altar, wearing the tall, conical
white cap, the long white mantle and the olive
wreath of his order, received and arranged their
offerings, while youths and maidens danced a
sort of minuet or flower-dance, and sang a joyous
Then followed the games of the Florialia, in
the great Circus Maximus. Crowds thronged
the spectacular, or wooden seats, while in the
vast amphitheater, the factions, or ushers,
awaited the arrival of the emperor.
The descendant of a long line of Roman
patricians, the son of a regal father and a
beautiful mother, Commodus was strikingly
handsome. As he strode into the arena in his
long white toga, embroidered with imperial
purple, and glittering with jewels, while the
attendant priests and guards and nobles filed in
grand procession after him, with glistening
standards and sacred relics, it is no wonder that
the vast audience felt proud of their young
emperor, and greeted him with tumultuous
CHIT CHAT. 49
LAPP BABY IN CRADLE.
A LAPLAND cradle is made of a single
piece of wood, little less than three feet
long, and perhaps eighteen or twenty inches
wide, covered with a skin. It looks like a canoe
or a shoe. In very cold weather they put extra
skins on, the mothers sling the cradles over
their shoulders, and carry them around the
country. This custom of covering the baby
with a skin reminds one of the old nursery
rhyme, which may have originated in some such
"Bye low, baby bunting,
Father's gone a-hunting;
Mother's gone to get a skin,
To wrap the baby bunting in."
A SUBSTITUTE FOR SALT.
W AY up in Lapland they have no salt, and
so they season their food with the bark
of the pine-tree! This must seem to you very
much like eating chips, or "sawdust" but the
Laplanders are very fond of it. There is quite
a process to be gone through with before it can
be eaten. They peel off the bark from the
lower part of the trunk of the tree, and separat-
ing the outer rough part, they take the inner
bark which they carefully divide into its several
thin coats. When they have thus reduced them
to as thin pieces as they can, they expose them
to the sun during the summer months--to
dry. When thoroughly dried, they tear them
into thin and narrow slips, and place them in
boxes made of the outer bark taken off of
other trees, and fresh for this purpose. They
bury these boxes in deep holes dug in the sand,
and let them remain there one whole day. The
next day they collect a number of stumps of
trees, and other wood, and placing them over
the places where the bark is buried, they set
them on fire. The following day they take up
their buried boxes, and the heat having pene-
trated so deep into the earth, the bark is found
to be greatly affected by it, and has received a
red color, and a very agreeable flavor some-
what sweetish. This the Laplanders eat with
all their food as we do salt.
The Lapps are very shrewd. They are sharp
at a bargain and know just what they want.
Most of them can read. They are ingenious in
making things, and manufacture fur boots, fur
bags, spoons made of reindeer horn and bone,
with the sketch of a reindeer in the center of
the bowl, etc.
They are not very neat, and their besetting
vice is drunkenness. There seems, however, to
be more excuse for this habit of indulging in
artificial warmth, surrounded as they are by
ice and snow which
fetters body and
Their huts are
bark and turf,with-
out a window, but
with a hole at the
top to let outsmoke /1
and admit light.
In the center a ti c
fire is always burn- %'
ing, and over it
hangs a pot, while
around it on the
ground lie the fam-
ily. Their wraps
are made of rein-
deer skins with the A LAPLANDER.
fur turned inside.
Indeed, the reindeer are their chief depen-
dence, for food and clothing and for traveling.
T HE following extract, we learn, is taken
JL from a letter of thanks sent by a bride to
one of her husband's friends:
Your lovely etching was received, and gives
us both great pleasure. It is now in the parlor
hanging above the piano, where we hope to see
you very soon, and as often as you find it
50 CHIT CHAT.
A STRAY SHOT.
T was early in '64 while our brigade (Hood's)
was still in Tennessee, that one morning
we received orders to be ready to march at a
moment's notice. We had been idle for some
time and the prospect of action was not unwel-
come. Besides, a brush" meant a possible
supply of blankets, clothes .and commissary
stores of all of which we were in sore need !
Those of us who had them, rolled up our ragged
blankets ; the bugles sounded fall in," and we
were on the march.
We learned presently that the Federals were
advancing by Cumberland Gap, where we had
about a regiment of cavalry and a battery of
light artillery. It was a splendid day; the
ground was covered with a fresh fall of snow
that glistened in the cold sunshine, and melted
away here and there, showing patches of warm-
looking brown earth. The sky was a soft pale
blue overhead; and the crisp little wind that
blew in our faces had lost the biting edge it had
at dawn. Our spirits rose as we fell into the
familiar regular swinging step, and there was
no tri' lin .
\W. 1, 1 Iamped steadily forward for some
time when we heard, all at once, a sharp firing
of small-arms ahead, and rapid work by the bat-
tery. It seemed to be a short hot fight without
the usual skirmishing, and we were put at once
on a double-quick. But much to our disap-
pointment when we came to the bit of open
country where the firing had seemed so brisk,
save for the trampled snow and one or two
wounded men and a few dead horses, a broken-
down caisson, a saber dropped here and there,
or a blue or gray cap caught on a bush or tossed
on the ground, there was no evidence that a
regiment of cavalry and a battery of artillery
had here met an enemy in hand-to-hand conflict.
The Federal troop, which proved to have been
a single regiment out on a scout, had retired
beyond the Gap, and our own force had followed
in the direction of its former position.
We were grumbling loudly at having come so
far for nothing, when a woman, mounted on an
old sorrel horse and wearing a blue homespun
sunbonnet, came galloping down the road. She
dismounted at a small double-log cabin near by,
and walked rapidly over to the spot where we
were making ready to camp.
Had we seen anything of her two little boys?
she asked, turning a pale, agonized face upon
us. They had been perched upon the fence
when the Rebs began forming in line just across
from the cabin, and the older one, "a leetle
turned o' six," had taken his little four-year-old
brother by the hand and run out into the road,
to look on. Then, in a moment and before
anybody could cry out to them even, the Yanks
had come thundering along and they had been
caught between the lines and swallowed up in
the rush and roar of battle. When the short-
tussle was over they were nowhere to be seen.
She had-gone on to where our lines had been
re-established, and had there got ready leave to
pass over to the Federal camp; but no one had
seen or heard anything of the missing children.
Would we help her hunt them ?
Wouldn't we! Every man volunteered with
a whoop. We formed a long line-like a skir-
mish line and started, searching every foot of
ground carefully, and calling out cheerily as we
went. We peered under the edges of fallen
trees. We turned over brush-heaps. We
scattered the dead leaves that had drifted into
root-bound hollows. We dragged the little
pools of water made by the melting snow.
We had gone over two or three miles in this
way. The short afternoon was waning, and
the wind was growing sharp and keen with the
lengthening rays of the sun. A halt was called.
Some of the officers and older men consulted
hastily together and were about decided to beat
around in the opposite direction, when suddenly
a shout came:
Here they are! "
The shout was caught up and turned into a
glad yell as it rolled along the line. 1 had
heard the "rebel yell" before; and I heard it
many a time after, when it meant victory at the
close of a life-and-death struggle, but I never
heard our boys in gray sound such a note of
triumph as went up from their throats that day,
as they double-quicked it to the spot where
those two little runaways were lying!
It was in an old field, whose long-neglected
furrows were covered with a thick growth of
yellow sedge all wet with melted snow and'
shining in the soft red rays of the setting sun.
A bushy squat pine had shot up here and there;
the rotting rail fence was overrun with black-
berry vines and almost lost in a jungle of brown
withered mullein and pokeberry stalks that grew
in its sheltering corners.
The children were in one of these moist, tan-
gled fence-corners. Their little blue homespun
frocks -for they both wore dresses- were all
torn and draggled. Their chubby faces were
brier-scratched and dirty. Their bare heads
were matted with dry leaves and straw. But I
reckon every man of us thought that God's blue
sky never looked down upon a prettier picture
than they made lying there, fast asleep and
clasped closely in each other's arms.
We held our breath after that first shout'for
fear of frightening them. And when the griz-
zled old sergeant, whose very look was wont to
make the recruits tremble in their boots, stepped
~__ Illill=:ll II~il-YW---=-----I
CHIT CHAT. 51
toward them with a soft almost bashful smile
on his lips, and stooped, we all took off our
caps and leaned eagerly forward. How we all
envied big burly tender-hearted Tom J--
when the sergeant ITeckoned him and laid the
oldest boy, all rosy and flushed with sleep, into
his arms! The little fellow opened his blue
eyes and stared vaguely around, then clasped
his arms about Tom's neck and gave a long
sigh of content.
The sergeant stooped again with a low chuckle
of satisfaction. "The little-un is asleep for
sure!" he said, as he lifted him gently and
turned. The next moment he staggered under
his light burden and- almost fell. A hoarse
groan burst from his lips. The little head
with its tangled mass of yellow curls rolled
heavily to one side; the little arms hung inertly
down; the sergeant's hands where they sup-
ported the tiny neck were all dabbled in blood!
The stray shot had done its cruel work well!
It had ploughed across the small white throat
and the baby head was almost severed from the
little body. The "little-un" was indeed asleep
for sure !
A kind of frozen horror swept over the group
gathered in that old field. No man dared for
a while to look his neighbor in the face, and
when he did lie saw there an expression that he
has not forgotten yet if he lives!
Ten minutes before we were all ready to toss
up for the privilege of carrying those little
chaps home. But now every man of us hung
back, dumb and unnerved. And the sergeant
and Tom turned slowly and tramped away
through the falling shadows to lay the living
and the dead together in that waiting mother's
arms. We followed silently, with uncovered
When the Federal officer in command heard
that the children were lost, he offered to disarm
his men, stack their guns with ours and join in
the search. And more than once that night
our pickets were challenged from the other side
and anxious inquiries made for the little ones.
When the answer went back across the hush
and the silence of the night we could feel,
though we could not see, the look that swept
over the faces of our foes. And that look made
us all akin!
THE HEROISM OF A CHILD.
IN the Bodleian library at Oxford, we are
told, is a most touching record of heroism
and self-sacrifice on the part of a child.
"The lower door of St. Leonard's church,
Bridgeworth, was left open, and two young
boys, wandering in, were tempted to mount
to the upper part, and scramble from beam to
All at once a joist gave way. The beam on
which they were standing became displaced.
The elder had just time to grasp it when f .ii1_.,
while the younger, slipping over his body,
caught hold of his comrade's legs. In this
fearful position the poor lads hung crying vainly
for help, for no one was near.
At length the boy clinging to the beam be-
came exhausted. He could no longer support
the double weight. IHe called out to the lad
below that they were both done for.
"Could you save yourself if I were to let go
of you?" replied the younger lad.
"I think I could," replied the elder.
"Then good-by, and God bless you!" said
the little fellow, loosing his hold.
Another second and he was dashed to pieces
on the stone floor below.
His companion clambered to a place of safety."
THE LOST SHEEP.
F OR the Son of Man came to seek and
Sto save that which was lost." Most
tenderly has Miss McLean given this thought
in her pathetic little poem :
De Massa ob de sheep-fol'
Dat guard the sheep-fol' bin,
Look out in de gloomerin' meadows,
Whar de long night rain begin-
So He call to de hirelin' shepa'd,
"Is my sheep, is dey all come in ?"
Oh, den says de hirelin' shepa'd,
"Dey's some dey's black and thin,
And some dey's poo' ol' wedda's,
But de res' dey's all brung in,
But de res' dey's all brung in."
Den de Massa ob de sheep-fol'
Dat guard de sheep-fol' bin,
Goes down in de gloomerin' meadows,
Whar de long night rain begin -
So He le' down de ba's ob de sheep-fol',
Callin' sof', Come in, come in !"
Callin' sof', Come in, come in !"
Den up t'ro' de gloomerin' meadows,
Fro' de col' night rain and win',
And up t'ro' de gloomerin' rain-paf,
Whar de sleet fa' pic'cin' thin,
De poo' los' sheep ob de sheep-fol',
Dey all comes gadderin' in,
De poo' los' sheep ob de sheep-fol',
Dey all comes gadderin' in.
QUITE AT HOME.
A FARMYARD SCENE.
54 CHIT CHAT.
A BROKEN PANE AND WHAT CAME
E LBERT 'il 1i I was in haste, for he feared
he was late for school, but nevertheless
he could not (or did not) resist the temptation
to stop just as he turned the corner to throw a
stone by way of parting salute to the direction
of Miss Mehitable Goldsmith's prim little one-
story house. This species of salute was a re-
cently established custom with the pupils of
the Spring Street school, and was regarded as
a sort of declaration of independence, an act
of defiance against tyrants in general, and Miss
Mehitable Goldsmith in particular. For months
open warfare was waged between Miss Mehit-
able and the school clildlen.
We can't turn 'round but she picks upon
us," Tom Monroe had remarked to Bert that
very morning. "I should think she not only
owned the sidewalk, but the whole street
within a rod of her house. She won't let the
boys play marbles on what she calls her side-
,. ,i1., and it's as much as one's life's worth to
roost for a minute on her old fence. Crabbed
old maid !" Tom ended explosively.
"I wonder if she'll have another note up this
morning," said Bert; "it's please don't let your
children do this, and please don't let your chil-
dren do that. I guess the teacher wishes Miss
Mehitable would move away. What a howil
there will be when she notices our salute We
must keep that up strong, all of us ;" and so
it happened that Bert's stone was thrown with
unusual vigor that morning, and with most un-
expected results, for as Bert sped away the
sound of falling glass assailed his ears.
I've done it now," Bert told himself rue-
Bert reached school just as the last bell was
ringing, but his mind was in a perfect tumult
of excitement during the opening exercises.
At the conclusion of these, however, he had
decided upon a plan of action. Bert sometimes
made mistakes, but he was a manly boy, after
all. IIe stepped lightly to Miss French's desk.
Will you please'excuse me for half an hour
or so?" lie asked imploringly. "I had the
misfortune to break a window on the way to
school, and I want to go back and make the
Miss French looked at Bert searchingly<
"This comes of the bad practice of throwing
stones, I suppose. Yes, you may go."
"Thank you," said -Bert, walking out of
school in a very unenviable mental frame;
"I'd as lief beard the lion in his den, the
Douglass in his hall,' as face Ma'am Goldsmith."
Meanwhile Miss Mehitable was holding a
council of war.
"It is getting to be more'n flesh an? blood
can bear," she said to her sister; an' I don't
see as finding' fault does an atom of good. That
little snipper-snapper of a teacher's tired of me
an' my notes, an' I believe the children fairly
hate me, but I'm not going' to have my windows
broke an' my property injured. I'll go to law
P'rhaps you've been too hard on the chil-
dren, and found too much fault with 'em,"
mildly ii_. --i ..1 Mercy Goldsmith.
I never could bear boys," said Miss Mehit-
able; "an' there's no smoking the pipe of
peace with such little rascals. But I'll stop this
stone-throwing or perish in the attempt."
"It's very curious," said Miss Mercy reflect-
ively, but those children, boys and girls, have
a trick of stopping midway 'round the corner
and tossing a stone high up into the air. P'r-
haps it's some sort of modern superstition that
preys upon the youthful mind."
"Ancient or modern, they'll have to stop it,"
said Miss Mehitable grimly.
I do declare," said Miss Mercy, "if there
ain't Elbert Smith, the unlucky youth who
smashed our glass," and she bustled to the door
to let him in.
Elbert entered with a very unhappy expres-
sion upon his frank, boyish face. lie declined
the offered chair, and stood in the middle of
the room twirling his cap.
Well, young man ? said Miss Mehitable.
"I threw a stone about half an hour ago, and
accidentally broke one of your windows," said
Bert, turning very red.
"Accidentally !" said Miss Mehitable, with
Yes, ni'm, accidentally," said Bert respect-
fully. I threw the stone on purpose, but I
didn't mean to do any barm with it, and I came
to tell you I'm sorry, and I beg your pardon."
But that don't mend my window, and you
had no business to be throwing stones," said
Miss Mehitable, in her most aggressive manner.
Bert choked down a feeling of rising wrath,
and replied humbly : I am going for the man
who set our glass, and he'll come as soon as he
can, and, of course, I'll pay for the work out of
my own pocket-money, an' I'm awful sorry to
give you so much trouble;" and Bert was
hastily retreating from the room when Miss
Mehitable peremptorily checked his progress.
Bert critically measured Miss Melitable's
threatening front, and concluded that his
chances for escape were small should that stal-
wart individual attempt to administer a thrash-
ing. But to his unqualified surprise, Miss
Mehitable exclaimed, "Now, I like that, that's
manly! Any more of your kind of boys in
that pesky school ?"
CHIT CHAT. 55
Lots of 'em," said Bert loyally.
"I'd like to see them," said Miss Mehitable
emphatically; no one knows how I have been
tormented since that school was built. My
property has been injured, but you are the first
boy who has ever offered of his own free will to
pay damages. Bring him a piece of mince-pie,
Bert wasn't proof against Miss Goldsmith's
mince-pie, and as he discussed the savory mor-
sel, Miss Mehitable's face seemed to undergo a
She looked so kind and pleasant," Bert
told Tom Monroe afterward, "that I could
hardly believe that she was the same person
who had scolded us up hill and down so many
You all hate me, I suppose," Miss Mehit-
able smilingly remarked, as Bert ate his pie.
Bert was embarrassed. It seemed the height
of rudeness to dispatch the Goldsmith mince-
pie and at the same time reply truthfully to
this remark, but Bert was equal to the emer-
gency; he hadn't read the papers for nothing.
I think," he said cautiously, "that just at
the present time the relations between you and
the Spring Street school are somewhat strained,
if you'll excuse my saying so, Miss Mehitable.
But it's all owing to a misapprehension. You
don't understand the boys and girls and they
don't understand you."
"Perhaps the boy is right," Miss Mehitable
reflected after Bert had gone. Isn't there
some sort of a proverb, Mercy, about giving a
dog a bad name? I have found fault syste-
matically with the school children, and just
for a change I believe I'll adopt an opposite
"Mince-pie, my! they say the two sisters are
capital cooks!" was the comment that went
the rounds, and a vision of Bert Smith hospi-
tably entertained by the Misses Goldsmith went
far to appease ruffled feelings, and to re-establish
friendly relations between Miss iM. !!;I 0i.1- and
the pupils of the Spring Street school.
We'll drop our salute," Bert had said; and
we may as well try to please Miss Mehitable.
We've been fearfully exasperating, J'll own."
She's been just as exasperating," said Tom
stoutly. "But if there's any such thing as the
milk of human kindness in her, we'll give her a
chance to show it."
A prolonged truce followed. A friendly nod,
a kindly smile from the Goldsmith sisters, helped
to facilitate matters, and Miss Mehitable capped
the climax at the close of the brief summer
term by furnishing a generous supply of the
most delectable lemonade wherewith to regale
the thirsty pupils of Spring Street after their
arduous labors Exhibition Day. The Misses
Goldsmith are now respected friends and patrons
of that "pesky school," and when..1.. i ..-, come,
as they do sometimes, Miss Mehitable has re-
course to her sister's favorite sentiment:
Evil is wrought by want of thought,
As well as by want of heart."
FISHING WITH A PIN.
W HEN I was a "little shaver" with a
straw hat badly worn
(All the crown deep-crushed and dented, and
the brim cross-stitched and torn),
I used to go a-fishing, and sometimes wading
Where the stream was very shallow, to catch
fishes with a pin.
I would take a pin and bend it to the much de-
sired crook -
For it took a full-size penny if I bought a steel-
And when the worm was on it, it was happi-
ness run o'er"
Just to hold it in the water, with one foot upon
I could not land a big fish--but my wishes
then were small,
And the big boys with their steel hooks some-
times caught no fish at all.
But I'd often get a "nibble "- though I some-
times used to wait,
And twitch in vain then look, and see the
capture of my bait.
But luck some days was better, and the shoals
of small fry came,
And when I pulled the line out it was not with-
out its game;
A red-fin," or a shiner, I lifted out upon the
And felt the thrill of greatness o'er my moistened
True- I've fished with better weapons, and in
more exalted ways
Since I used the feeble pin-hook in the long
vanished days ;
But I never took the pleasure in the landing of
That I took in early childhood just in "fishing
with a pin."
C OACHES were first used in England in
Glass windows were first used in England in
the eighth century.
56 CHIT CHAT.
COMarG DOWN THE MOUNTAIr.
SNOW-SHOE THOMPSON'S RUN.
N EAR the northwest corner of our country
there was, many years ago, an outpost,
a lonely stockaded fort in the midst of hostile
Indians, hemmed in by great mountains, and
shut off from the world in the winter by the
deep snows. There was only one means of com-
munication during these long months, and that
was by the mail-carrier who once in two weeks
carried the mail on his back from the nearest post-
office to the Fort, a two days' trip on snow-shoes,
and one night each way he camped out in
the snow. In those days white men and their
ways were anything but- well known to the
Indians, and they knew nothing of the Nor-
wegian snow-shoes that were used .by the mail-
carrier, whose expertness on them had gained
him the sobriquet of "Snow-shoe Thompson."
I~ ~I: a
Perhaps you may not know just
what a Norwegian snow-shoe is;
briefly, it is a strip of wood- fir,
usually from nine to fourteen
feet long, rounded on the bottom
and flat on top, curved up slightly
S at the front end, two or three
':'; inches thick and three to four inches
wide, and with a place for the foot
to rest in, with a toe-strap just in
front of the center. The snow-
shoer carries a stout pole, eight or
S nine feet long, which he uses as
"'.. a brake when coasting, by placing
one end on the snow behind him,
holding the other end with one
S hand, and throwing his weight on
the m ddle of the pole with his
Other hand ; this forces the end
into the snow, and when coasting
Fast throws a cloud of snow high
above the coaster. .These snow-
shoes are used very much as skates
are, only they must be kept parallel.
In coasting you must keep your
wits about you, for it is as rapid
S movement as tobogganing, and an
instant's indecision would often
: have serious results-such as send-
." ing you against a tree or over acliff.
'- The Fort was at the bottom of
a long slope, and as soon as the
sentry would see the black dot
Z.. moving on the white surface at the
crest of the mountain, he would
.-, .. l notify the corporal of the guard
that the mail was coming, and the
entire garrison would turn out to
see Snow-shoe Thompson come
down the mountain. Minute by
minute the size of the "dot"
would increase until, as he shot down the final
slope, they could recognize Thompson in the
midst of a cloud of snow torn up by his brake.
One day toward spring Thompson found him-
self near his journey's end on one of his trips
to the Fort. He had worked up the steep side
of the last mountain between himself and the
Fort, and on arriving at the top was surprised
to find that the snow had nearly all disappeared
and only lay in patches on the slope he must
travel down to reach the Fort. This was a dis-
appointment, for it meant an eight-mile walk in
place of the usual few minutes' coast. He left
his snow-shoes and pole at the top of the moun-
tain, and started for his destination.
Before he had gone half a mile his keen eyes
told him that he was not alone on the mountain-
side; in fact he had walked into a very com-
plete trap -a hunting-party of Indians had
CHIT CHAT. 57
completely hemmed him in on three sides, know-
ing that on the fourth they could run him down
in the snow. At least they thought they could.
Thompson took in the situation at a glance,
and turning, ran for his life. Iis winter's work
had put him in good training, and he reached
his snow-shoes nearly two hundred yards ahead
of his pursuers, who refrained from shooting,
wishing for the honor and amusement that a
live white man would give them in their village
where they could kill him at their leisure; but
Thompson knew all this, and lost no time in
shooting down the steepest part of the mountain
before him. The Indians rushed shouting over
the crest of the mountain eager to capture their
quarry. To their unbounded amazement there
-nearly a mile below them, skimming along as
a bird flies was the man they had chased. As
they gazed, Thompson put down his brake and
the snow flew up and hid him from sight.
That was too much; with one accord the
Indians turned and ran ; for, as they told the
tale to the awe-struck village, "the evil spirit
in the form of a white man had led them into
the deep snow and then, in an instant, he was
far away -flying-and then the snow rose and
swallowed him up!"
For years afterwards no Indian hunted on
Lieut. IF P. PFrmont, U. S. A.
THE FIRST AMERICAN FLAG.
T HE first American flag that was saluted by
any foreign nation is owned by Mrs. H.
R. P. Stafford, of Cottage City, Mass. The flag
has thirteen stripes and twelve stars. The
patriotic ladies of Philadelphia presented it to
John Paul Jones, whose name has become
famous for the successful victories he gained
for America. hI floated from the mast of the
PAUL JONES'S STARRY FLAG.
Bonhomme iic/hard, in its engagement with
the English vessel &erapis, and was shot away
and fell into the water. Mr. Jamnus Bayard
Stafford, father of Mrs. Stafford's husband, a
lieutenant, jumped into the water and saved it
from an untimely fate. lie was wounded by a
British sword and disabled for life. After the
war was over the flag was presented to him for
meritorious service. Three thousand dollars has
been offered for these old "stars and stripes."
It was exhibited at the Centennial by Lieu-
tenant Stafford's daughter. At the inaugura-
tion of President Harrison it was carried in the
O NE of our contemporaries tells of a negro
known as "Tim" White who lives in
one of the smaller towns of Kentucky. On one
occasion it was necessary to record his full name.
The not unnatural supposition that Tim "
stood for Timothy was met with a flat denial.
"No, sah My right name is What-timor-
ous-souls-we-poor-mortals-be White. Dey jes'
calls me Tim fo' sho't, sah !"
58 CHIT CHAT.
AUSTRIAN GOOD MANNERS.
T IHE innate courtesy of the Austrian people
is extremely gratifying to strangers. The
traveler will almost invariably meet with kind-
ness unmixed with-the mercenary spirit'that
often strikes one unpleasantly. If you ask the
way in Vienna-say, of a cook coming from
market with a heavy basket on her arm, she
will vouchsafe you a good-natured answer in
her high, shrill tones; and when she perceives
that, speaking pure Ilanoverian German, you
do not understand her dialect, she will go far
out of her way to put you in the right direction,
and will leave you with a friendly nod and
The solitary wood-cutter whom you met in
your wanderings up and down the wooded hills
in the neighborhood of Vienna will greet you
with a kindly Griisz Gott or Kiiss die hand."
In this connection we may mention a pleasant
habit of deference from youth to age. We
allude to the courtesy of the young girl and of
the young married woman to the elder lady,
sometimes accompanied by the Austrian kiss on
the hand -the usual salutation of children to
parents, of inferiors to superiors.
THE CHILDREN'S PARADISE.
JTAPAN is evidently a, Paradise for babies,
S and boys and girls. The babies are one
and all slung upon the back in a deep fold of
the kimono. There they sleep, eat, drink and
wabble their little shaven pates to and fro, with
jolly, beaming faces, and fat brown hands and
The children are friends of everybody, and
play ball and fly kites in the most crowded
thoroughfares, never rebuked, never ill-treated,
with grave, happy ways, and long flowing robes
which give a certain quaint dignity to even the
youngest. They race along the public way andi
fly their kites of the most astonishing devices,
or clamber about the stone gods and demons of
some Buddhist temple, or frankly stare at the
passing foreigner with their languid almond
eyes and little painted mouths wide open.
A CURIOUS PHENOMENON.
A T the Cape of Good Hope, near Table
Mountain, the clouds come down very
low now and then without dropping in rain.
At such a time, if a traveler should go under a'
tree for shelter from the threatening storm, he
would find himself in a drenching shower, while
out in the open, away from any tree or shrub,
everything would be as dry as a bone!
QUITE A WONDER.
W E are told that the largest grape-vine
in the -world is growing at Oys, Portu-
gal; it has been bearing since 1802. Its maxi-
mum yield was in 1864, when it produced suffi-
cient quantity of grapes to make one hundred and
sixty-five gallons of wine; in 1874, one hundred
and forty-six and one-half gallons, and in 1884,
only seventy-nine and one-half gallons. Last
year it seems to have taken an extra spurt, the
expressed juice of the grapes it produced again
exceeding the one-hundred-gallon mark. It
covers an area of five thousand three hundred and
fifteen square feet, the stem at the base meas-
uring six and one-half feet in circumference."
TOLD ON AUTHORITY.
<" T HERE are only four eggs of the great
auk now in this country," says an
oblogist, and they are valued at five hundred
dollars each. It seems odd to think of a bird
becoming extinct, but no one has seen a Labra-
dor duck, either, since 1856. There are but
five mounted specimens in existence, and none
of the eggs are in existence. Kirtland's warbler
is another bird that is rare. Until recently but
seven had ever been captured, and these all
were found in a region near Cleveland, Ohio,
less than a mile square. Specimens were worth
one hundred dollars apiece. But a little while
ago a naturalist who chanced to visit the
Bahama Islands came upon a colony of the
birds, and knowing what a mine he had struck,
shot about twenty and brought them to this
country. When he began to unload, the story
came out and the market sagged, so that now
you can get a Kirtland for five or six dollars.
The Connecticut warbler is another bird of
interest to oblogists, because no one has yet
seen its eggs. It passes up the Mississippi
River in the early spring, and probably mates
far in the interior of British North America,
and goes South in the fall by the way of the
Atlantic seaboard. If any one can find the nest
of this little fellow with four eggs in it, it will
be two hundred dollars in his pocket."
F OLLOWING the custom of his fathers,
"the Corean wears his hair plaited down
his back, it being considered unholy to cut it or
even to wear it loosely around the neck and
shoulders. After he gets married the law per-
mits him to wear it curled up on the top of his
head. To tell a married Corean that he ought
to wear his hair down is equivalent to telling
him that his wife is the better man of the two."
CHIT CHAT. 50
NAMING THE CHILDREN..
A GOOD many youngsters now in their
teens" probably remember a little
story that went the rounds of the newspapers
two or three years ago, concerning a family
"out West," in which the children were called
by numbers until the age of twelve years was
reached, when the twelve-year-old chose a name
for himself or herself as the sex chanced to be.
As the parents had often heard young people
complain sadly about their names, they decided
that their children should have the privilege of
suiting themselves in this particular. But the
newspapers have never told us for how long the
children were pleased with their self-selected
names, or if they were not wishing after the
lapse of half a year that they had not chosen
George instead of Clarence," or "Eleanor"
instead of "Ida May."
But what I had in mind at the outset to do,
was to tell you some of the curious names by
which children are called in the North Carolina
Mountains. The mountaineers do not all know
how to read, are not very wise, and very often
when they hear a new name, they only indis-
tinctly remember it, and in time come to pro-
nounce it very differently from what they at
first heard it. Then, too, they like fine-
sounding names, and such as nobody else has,
and they evidently see no reason why the
names of things cannot be given to children.
One little girl, in the neighborhood where I
spent a summer high up in the Blue Ridge,
was called Toledo Blade Wilson," probably
from her parents or some relative having seen
a newspaper called Toledo Blade. Two sisters
were respectively Modena" and Montana."
A woman who came with berries to sell was
Mrs. Huldah Iluckleby." Another was
Charlotte Ingebo Barnes." "Lanna St. Forge
Bennett" was still another. "Parthena Camela
Caroline," and "Mary Arizona Samantha
(' in. ur, I," were the royally long names of
two.sisters, while Susan-Arlesa-Mary-Mragda-
line-Milly-Minerva-Clementina Peak has pos-
sibly the longest name of any girl in the United
I went one day with a twelve-year-old who
had a tripod," to see him photograph a mount-
aineer's cabin, where we found over a dozen
children. And here are some of their names:
"Penella Caroline," "Marget DaKorah," and
"Belzora were three sisters. Georgia Iowa"
was their cousin. Mindy," "Lithy," Geecr-
easy Lithy," Zigcurtis," Rachnel Geecreasy,"
" Mary Texansa," "Jims Thomas," "Dora,"
--M.I I ," "Ida Rathelda,""Williani," "Becky,"
"Barhy and George Washington," were the
names of the cabin owner's grandchildren.
THE LITTLE MEN IN GREEN.
SHEY were shut up below, in a dungeon of
A million and one little grasses -
But the sunshine so bold, with its lances of
Made a million and one shiinng passes,
And he opened the way ere the first April day,
For the sake of the little green grasses.
And they crept forth at night, with a footstep
That never a soul could have heard them,
And they climbed up the hills, and they fol-
lowed the rills,
And they peeped in the little pools' faces,
And they danced on the ground with never a
In a million and one dreary places.
And they wandered away by night and by
The gay little, green little grasses-
Through the forest they went, and they set
their green tent
By valley and hilltop together,
And their fingers so small they snapped did
In the face of the wind and the weather.
And they grew did they all till now they're
They can dance with the clover and diisy,
And they grew and they grew till now it is true
The thing that is coining to pass is,
The world, here below, belongs as we know,
Belongs to the little green grasses.
SAYS a noted contemporary, puns are not
the highest kind of wit, but now and
then one is good enough to, be a credit to its
The story told in Butler's Book of the
pupil who, required by lMaster Ilopping to
render into simpler language the line,
Eyes in a fine frlnczy rolling,
answered, Hopping mad, sir," has its parallel
in an anecdote related of Master Barnes of the
old Hacker School in Salem.
The teacher one day noticed an idle pupil
staring out of the window, and asked him what
he saw there.
"lHouses, sir," was the reply.
"Very well," said the master sternly. "Look
here and you'll see Barnes."
GLORIOUS FUN !
62 CHIT CHAT.
ORIGIN OF THE BANANA.
T -IE banana goes back to the earliest days.
SAlexander's soldiers, as Pliny says, joined
the sages of India, seated in its shades and
partaking of the delicious fruit. Hence the
name "sapientum given the plant, which like-
wise bears the name of Jupiter's fair daughter,
Musa. Now, it has been shown that the banana
is of Malayan- origin. How did it get to India
and to South America and Mexico ? The feet
of birds have borne seeds a full ten thousand
miles, while the cocoanut floated well nigh the
world around, in the great ocean of currents.
But the banana has no seeds, nor has, it a
casing like the globular cocoanut to float it
around over the waters. Then it must have
been carried by man. It is significant that the
Aztecs had traditions of visits by people over
the seas, while there was to confirm it an
admixture of religion of the Brahmins in their
It may well be that the despised banana
actually proves that before Columbus was, or
Leif Ericsson ever had an existence, some
swarthy denizens of the Old World had migrated
across the waters.
Manilla rope is made in the Philippine Islands
of the stem of the banana. This stalk, which
usually grows to be six inches in diameter and
from fifteen to twenty feet high, has a very
valuable fiber, from which are woven beautiful
Many of the finest India shawls and wrappers
worn by ladies of fashion are manufactured
from this fabric. So, too, an excellent article
of paper is made from it.
The banana belongs to the lily family, and is
a developed tropical lily, from which, by ages
of cultivation, the seeds have been eliminated,
and the fruit for which it was cultivated greatly
In relation to the bearing of this plant,
Humboldt, who early saw the wonders of the
plant, said that the ground that would grow
ninety-nine pounds of potatoes would also
grow thirty-three pounds of wheat, but that
the same ground would grow four thousand
pounds of bananas, consequently the ratio to
that of wheat is one hundred and thirty-three
to one, and to that of potatoes forty-four to
The banana possesses all of the essentials to
the sustenance of life. The savage of the sea
isles and the jungles owes what he has of
physical strength to this food.
Wheat alone, potatoes alone, will not do this.
When taken as a steady diet it is cooked -
baked dry in the green state, pulped and boiled
in water as a soup, or cut in slices and fried.
F AR out to sea, in the southern latitudes of
the Indian Ocean, more than a thousand
miles from the continent of Africa or of Australia,
lies an uninhabited island,xnamed Desolation or
Kerguelen.. Ships passing on their way from
Europe or the United States to Melbourne, sail
quite near this lonely land and sometimes enter
Christmas Harbor, at the northern end, for
fresh supplies of water. HIere, if the sailors
visit it at any time between the months of
October and January, they will see vast num-
bers of the wandering albatross describing grace-
ful curves high in air, or sweeping down on the
tableland where their curious nests are placed.
The albatross, if it is a great wanderer, is also
a lover of home and has an excellent memory,
for after five months' voyaging over. many
leagues of the dreary ocean's waste, it always
returns at the end of that time to the land of
its birth, and occupies year after year the same
It is an odd nest that this remarkable bird
makes. It is in the shape of a half-cone, and
this is the way it is constructed. After a heavy
fall of rain has softened the earth, both the
male and the female go to work with a will,
digging with their strong bills a circular ditch
six feet round, pushing up the mud, mingled
with grass, nearer and nearer the center of the
circle, pounding and shaping the mass into a
solid mound two feet high; at the top is a shal-
low cavity in which the mother albatross lays
only one white egg.
It requires more than two months to hatch
out the young, which at first appears a moving
white ball of the finest silky down. It grows
slowly, remaining many weeks in its nest, care-
fully fed by its parents. At last, as if urged by
some mysterious force, the father and mother
suddenly leave the child, and wander for many
months over the trackless ocean, far out of
sight of land. It is a beautiful sight to see the
albatross swooping with extended wings from
the cloudless sky, and touching the waves with
almost the lightness of a feather.
The baby albatross manages to live until the
parents' return, and when they start on their
next journey, it is able to accompany them, to
learn in its turn, the mysteries of the sea; and
after a long and stormy voyage over unknown
waters and strange countries, it will return to
this island of Desolation, to choose a mate and
bring up a little one for the restless life which
the albatross loves so well.
Most young people have read or heard of
Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner,"
wherein the albatross plays such a tragic part.
The poem tells how as the ship was making
CHIT CHAT. 63
its perilous way through thick fields of ice in
the bitter cold -
At length did cross an Albatross;
Through the fog it came;
As if it had been a Christian soul,
We hailed it in God's name.
It ate the food it ne'er had eat,
And round and round it flew,
The ice did split with a thunder-fit;
The helmsman steer'd us through.
"And a good south wind sprung up behind;
The Albatross did follow,
And every day, for food or play,
Came to the mariner's hollo !
"In mist or cloud, on mast or shroud,
It perched for vespers nine;
While all the night, through fog-smoke white,
Glimmered the white moonshine.
God save thee, ancient Mariner !
From the fiends that plague thee thus! -
Why look'st thou so?' With my cross-bow
I shot the Albatross!
"'And I had done a hellish thing,
And it would work me woe;
For all averred, I had kill'd the bird
That made the breeze to blow.' "
A strange calm overtook them ; the sun rose
burning hot, there was no wind, and -
Day after day, day after day
We stuck, nor change nor motion,
As idle as a painted ship
Upon a painted ocean.
Water, water everywhere,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water everywhere,
Nor any drop to drink."
The sailors threw the whole blame on the
ancient mariner, and hung the dead albatross
about his neck in punishment; and ever after-
ward, through all the terrible scenes which fol-
low, he is oppressed with the remorse which
clings to him like a poisoned garment, and gives
him no relief except as he relates his story to
some other, to teach a lesson of love for all the
creatures that God has created.
BOBOLINK AND THE STRAWBERRY
BOBOLINK sat on the fence and sang;
And his song was so light and gay,
One would never have thought that he cared
Till, tripping along that way,
Came Dorothy Dewbright, the strawberry girl.
Bob saw her, and turned his head
In his short, quick way; and his song so gay
He dropped. Chk, chk he said.
Quoth Dorothy: "That is the note of alarm
To your brooding mate, I think.
Your nest must be near-I will hunt for it
Just to see it, Sir Bobolink."
So in hollow and nook she began to look,
And diligent search to make;
While, bonny and bright with his spots of
Bob flitted from stake to stake.
Now he stopped to sing, with rollicking ring,
SHis merriest Bobolink glee;
Then, as Dorry would stir, he would look to-
And Chk, chk, chk! it would be.
But his flitting and perching, and all Dorry's
No nest to her sight revealed;
Yet the charm drew her on, till they both had
To the end of the strawberry field.
Then uprose Bobolink, and with many a kink
And loop in his jubilant lay,
Over meadow and river, in airiest quiver,
He flew, as if never so gay.
And sensible Dorry, although she was sorry
To lose him, went back to the spot
Where the strawberries were thick, and began
So busily, she forgot
To question or think about Bobolink -
If he had a nest or not.
"He prayeth well who loveth well
Both man and bird and beast.
He prayeth best who loveth best
All things both great and small;
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all."
T HE ostrich, unlike other birds, does not
make a nest. Instead, she scoops a hole
in the sand with her hard bill, and leaves her
eggs there in the hot sun-
shine, so that they will be
safe while she goes away for
The eggs are very large,
and weigh two or three
pounds. The color is white
spotted with yellow. The
young ostrich is gentle, and
sometimes becomes so tame
that little children can ride
on its back.
"A full-grown bird can
carry two men on its shoulder
at once, and run with them
so fast that the riders almost
lose their breath.
"The baby ostrich is not
very pretty, but when it
grows to the age of five or six years it has
such a glossy black back, and such beautiful
white wing and tail feathers, that it is a rare
and fine sight."
AN ODD FAMILY.
A LITTLE round house in red and green;
Seven little sisters who never are seen.
Quiet as mice when the cat is about
They never come in, they never go out.
Never a sign of life they show
Till their house is spoiled, and they're buried
In the moistbrown earth. Awhile they lie,
Till the sun shines warm in the summer sky;
Then up they spring, so slender and tall!
The same green raiment is worn by all.
But they throw it aside when the cold wind
And stand unclad 'mid the winter snows.
The little round house with the little folks in it
Johnny the rogue! is eating this minute!
THE VALUE OF THE CAMEL.
T HE camel for various reasons is especially
adapted to desert life. The formation of
its feet seems expressly to fit it for the dry
READY FOR A JOURNEY.
burning sand of the desert. The cushions of
flesh on the soles prevent it from sinking into
the sand, and enable it to walk rapidly
where a horse could not go.
Then, too, it can live several days with-
out food or water. When it drinks, the
water is stored in one of the perforated
cells of its stomach, where it nourishes
its body when a fresh supply cannot be
obtained. Its hump is a storehouse for its
food. Before starting on a long journey
its master feeds it well, the hump grows
large, and the fat stored there nourishes
the body when fresh food cannot be had.
It can carry heavy burdens and travel rapidly
at the same time.
,It can smell water when more than a mile
)"Ti, ,,W ,
CELLS OF THE CAMEL'S STOMACH.
from it. It has often saved the lives of caravans
by directing them to water.
It becomes aware of the approach of the
terrible sand storms long before its master can
detect any signs of one. When overtaken by
the storm it lies down, stretches its long neck
on the sand, and closes its eyes and nostrils.
CHIT CHAT. 65
li. -.- _=
IN THE MIDST OF THE CROWDED STREET.
"WE RUNNED AWAY."
T WO little rascally darlings, they stood,
SHand clasped in hand, and eyes full of
Stock-still in the midst of the crowded street,
Naughty as ever children could be.
Horses to right of them, horses to left,
Men hurrying breathless to and fro,
Nobody stopping to wonder at them,
Nobody there with. a right to know.
Oh! what a chance for a full truant joy!
Earth holds no other equal delight.
Hark! it is over a shriek fills the air,
A woman's face flashes pallid white:
"0, babies! whose are you? How came you
The busy street halts aghast, at bay;
Serene smile the infants, as heavenly clear
They both speak together: "We runned
T is stated that the most ancient sacred fire
now existing in India was consecrated twelve
centuries ago in commemoration of the voyage
made by the Parsees when they emigrated from
Persia to India. The fire is fed five times every
twenty-four hours with sandal wood and other
fragrant materials combined with very dry fuel.
This fire, is visited by the Parsees in large num-
bers during the month allotted to the presiding
genius of fire.
66 CHIT CHAT.
"WHAT'S IN A NAME?"
S HE was a blue-eyed, fair-skinned and unde-
niably red-haired little girl who ran furi-
ously home from the country schoolhouse, on
the afternoon of a July third, not quite a score
of years ago. Her face showed the mingling
of English and Scotch characteristics ; just now
it was tearful and angry besides.
Why can't they let me alone! Why did
mother give me such a name!"
That was about the sum of her vexed
Well, it was funny. One couldn't exactly
blame the boys for laughing when at roll-call
every morning they heard the name : Inde-
pendence Day." If the red blood surged back
to her ears once, it had a hundred times as she
answered: "Present." That roll-call was her
biggest trial. Her mother always called her
"Pen," and to casual listeners that might mean
"Penelope." The girls often said "Indie," for
it was in the days when the i-e's had it all to
themselves, and she didn't mind that so much.
But boys are merciless, and to hear them snig-
ger and whisper, Reg'lar Fourth o' July, ain't
she?" was an almost daily martyrdom; while
there would sit Miss Thompson, the teacher,
with spectacles on her -nose, and- her short
sight intent on the list of names, checking
them off, oblivious of what was passing behind
This day a fresh grievance had come in the
suggestion from a youngster at recess, that they
"beg a lock of Miss Independence Day's hair
to light firecrackers with to-morrow." Well!
To have such a name and red hair into the bar-
gain was too much, and she grew more and
more raging. She had one of those strong, in-
tense natures which bear long in silence, but
once giving up, give up utterly for the time.
Bursting into the house she threw herself into
her mother's arms in a passion of tears, sob-
bing: Why did you give me such a dreadful
Mrs. Day petted and soothed, and drew from
her by degrees the story of accumulated woes.
When she was somewhat quieted, she said:
"I always meant to talk to you about your
name, Pen dear, but was waiting till you were
a little older. I'm sorry I didn't do it earlier,
but I had no idea what my little daughter was
bearing. You know your father and I lived
in England years before you were born; your
brother whom you never saw, lies in a green
churchyard there. But -we were poor and life
was pretty hard for us, so we decided to try our
fortune in the United States. Everything pros-
pered with us after we came here. Your father
found constant work, and we were very happy.
I suppose that was the reason he became so
devoted to his adopted country. He used to
say he was the best kind of an American citi-
zen; others were born so, but he was one from
choice. Then came the Civil War, and I could
see he was uneasy thinking he ought to enlist.
But he wouldn't until he had saved money
enough to keep me comfortable, so it got to be
in the second year. I remember 'twas the
twentieth of March he left me, the March
before you were born. The last thing, he
whispered to me: When the baby comes, call
it "Independence." That name'll answer for
a boy or a girl either, and it fits so well on
"Day."' I half-thought he meant it for a joke
to make me smile instead of cry, but there was
no time to explain, for the next minute he had
kissed me and was gone. I needn't tell you
how lonely and anxious I was. The time went
on to those dreadful days in the first week of
July, 1863. Yes, your father was at Gettys-
burg. How anxiously I watched the papers,
and on the third that's nine years ago to-day
-the evening paper brought terrible news to
me, as to many another woman. There was
the list of the dead, and there was his regi-
ment; there was his company, and there was
his name -James Day. No other man named
Day in that company; there could be no mis-
take. He had been killed at the first of the
fighting. I can see those fearful letters now
when I shut my eyes." Here Mrs. Day quite
broke down, and little Pen couldn't say a word,
only stroked her mother's hand silently.
After a minute Mrs. Day controlled herself:
"Next morning, the morning of July fourth,
you came, my darling, my comforter. And
this is the reason why you are 'Independence
Day.' I couldn't give you any other name.
You are your father's own child ; his hair, his
eyes, even his intense nature, are yours. Now
that she knows, I am sure my little daughter
will be brave as he was, and proud of her name
because of him. Remember always, dear, not
a boy of them all would laugh if they knew the
real story; they would be too manly."
So it happened that when Miss Independence,
Day went to school on the morning of July fifth,
there was a certain new dignity in the child's
bearing; when roll-call came her voice had lost
its petulance and had gained an unknown sweet-
ness; withal a ring which reminded one of a
clear-toned bell. Something in her air said,
"You may tease as much as you like, I sha'n't
mind, for I've got a secret; and we all know
that when boys find teasing doesn't tease, they
This is not all, however, nor even the best
part of the story. One day before her torment-
ors had grown tired of "stirring her up," as
CHIT CHAT. (37
they called it, she chanced to wear a string of
coral beads. Jack Lyman, the would-be'wit of
the school, snatched at it rudely, calling out,
"Here's 'Indie's coral strand!'" Seeing her
look of perplexity he added mockingly: "If
yer don't know what that means, better jine a
girl's missionary society."
Stung by the contempt in his voice, resolute
little Independence made up her mind that
she would know what it meant. Of course she
asked her mother, and though Mrs. Day was
not overwise on missionary topics, she had
heard Bishop Heber's grand old hymn, and
explained its meaning as best she could.
The story took hold on the child with a
strange fascination. She never would put on
those beads again, but she often took them out
of their box and looked at them with some-
thing like affection, repeating softly to herself,
"Indie's coral strand." She always said "In-
die's," not India's; as if it were a personal
God sometimes uses small and strange means
to accomplish great purposes. By such a little
thing the girl's interest in missions was awak-
ened. It grew as she grew to womanhood, and
India became the country of her dreams.
Her twentieth birthday found her motherless,
with no duty to bind her to this side of the
world; it found her also strong in purpose to
live her life in that far-off land, working for its
people. If, mingling with this devotion, was a
lurking thought that no heathen would ever
learn to call her by her Christian name, who
will blame her?
Thus it was that little Independence Day
grew up to be a self-reliant woman; and on this
Fourth of July she is too far away for any mis-
chievous boys to twit her on her red hair, or
on her name, and too happy in her work to care
if they did. H. A. _.
A SECOND GIANT-KILLER.
T HERE was once a small boy, but his name
was not Jack,
And he hadn't a bean-stalk at all;
Yet he "hitched his hatchet" with sturdy
Which helped him to climb a high wall.
Now the name of that hatchet, can any one
A giant he killed with it, too !
The name of the wall which he climbed was
The giant he conquered was Slothfulness,
And Work was the hatchet that slew.
Harriet S. Fleming.
THE BLUECOAT SCHOOL.
E VERYBODY has heard of the Bluecoat
School at Christ's Hospital, London, but
not every one knows how this time-honored
institution was started. It was the good boy
king, Edward VI., half-brother to Elizabeth,
who had the honor of being its founder.
He listened to a two hours' sermon one Sun-
day from the bishop who had the right to
preach to royalty, on the needs of London's
poor; and being a thoughtful, tender-hearted
lad, he straightway invited the preacher to a
conference in his private room. A long talk
followed, which resulted in a generous arrange-
ment, by which a great number of poor children
were to be taken care of and educated, and the
"glorious charity" was to be continued on ind
on. This was the origin of the famous Blue-
coat School, a charity that was to live on
through the ages, though the kind-hearted
founder died only two days after signing the
By the provision of the charter, the boys are
obliged to wear the peculiar costume or uniform
which was planned at the start; a dark-blue
cloth garment, partly tunic, partly gown, with
a girdle about the waist; yellow worsted stock-
ings with knee breeches, a sleeveless undercoat,
called a yellow," and a band around the neck.
They usually wear no caps (though a small black
worsted cap is part of their belongings), and are
to be met running about the streets barchel-ded
in the coldest of weather.
One of the curious customs of this venerable
institution is connected with Easter, at which
season the boys all go in procession to the
Mansion House of the Lord Mayor of London.
As the boys pass the Lord Mayor, each receives
a gift in new coin fresh from the mint; as they
leave, they are given each a couple of plum-
buns and a glass of wine or lemonade.
Such famous writers as Coleridge, Leigh
Hunt and Charles Lamb were Bluecoat boys,
and were not ashamed of it. They have
severally written of the school, and Lamb's
essays on the subject are especially interesting.
A GOOD SUBSTITUTE.
T HE laughing plant of Arabia produces
Black, bean-like seeds, small doses of which
when dried and powdered intoxicate like laugh-
ing gas. The victim shouts and laughs like a
madman for about an hour, when he becomes
exhausted and falls asleep, to awake after
several hours with no recollection of his wild
70 CHIT CHAT.
HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY.
SOMEBODY must have done it. Every boy
in the playground said so, and of course
when every boy says so, it must be right. Now
this is all about it.
There was to be a football match at Dr.
Humphrey's Academy for Young Gentlemen,
and every boy was bright with excitement at the
prospect of the grand time to come off the next
Friday afternoon. All talked about it; talked
in the times between lessons, talked in bed in
whispers until the gas was turned out and it
was time to go to sleep.
Now Thursday came and the Academy boys
were to have a good game to themselves to
make quite ready for the morrow.
I say, Tom, you'll try your best, old fellow "
"Yes, Grantham; you'll see what a way I'll
kick that ball."
"The doctor is going to look out of the win-
dow, I hear, so we must do our best."
But there was one boy in the group who said
nothing, a roguish lad, always ready for some
joke, and he had made up his mind to have a
good one over this game of football. So when
the lessons were over, and the boys streamed
downstairs to the playground, "Tim the Whis-
tler," as they called him, had already been to
the stable and walked off with the ball. At first
he was very perplexed what to do with it, but
finally Tim climbed up and stuck it safely
between the branches of the elm-tree near the
"Where's the ball?"
"I don't know. Is it lost?" cried a dozen
"I've looked in the stables, and I'm sure it
was there last night," said the head boy again,
The lads rushed hither and thither like mice,
but no ball could be seen. All the while "Tim
the Whistler" sang in a corner of the play-
ground, cutting out a boat, to the tune of My
Country, 'tis of Thee." At last one boy espied
it in the tree, and, with shouts of triumph, they
soon secured it and had their game.
But when it was over, the head boy, Pigott,
who had a sharp tongue of his own, would find
out who had hidden the ball. Everybody said
"No," until "Tim the Whistler" came in sight,
and was asked point blank, "Did you do it ?"
He might have done as so many boys do, try
to get out of a thrashing by telling a lie; but
Tim was not the boy to do that. With all his
spirit of mischief, he was a good, truthful lad.
"Yes; I did."
What! You mean to say that you coolly
hid our ball, and so made us lose half an hour
looking for it?"
"Yes, I did; but if it has put you out, I'm
Nonsense ; I'll teach you a lesson."
So speaking, Pigott seized "Tim the Whis-.
tler" by the collar and was going to make him
whistle, and no mistake, when a tapping at the
study window made him look round. The win-
dow was thrown up, and the doctor's voice was
heard, speaking very sternly:
"Pigott, take your hands off that boy."
This he promptly did. Every boy felt it
would have been a cowardly thing to hit a
little fellow like that, and especially for only a
bit of fun.
That evening, however, Tim the Whistler "
was sent for by Dr. Humphreys, and had a few
words said to him which he would not be likely
soon to forget. The doctor told him that he
didn't mind a bit of fun, and especially he was
leased to find that he refused to tell a lie.
What he wanted "Tim the VWhistler" to re-
member was, that this sort of joking might
make him enemies in the school, and spoil the
good influence which, as an honest lad, he tried
THE TABLES WERE TURNED.
A FISIMONGER was much amused at a
countryman who stood for a long time
looking at a crab outside his shop. The rustic
garb and brogue of the countryman and his
open-mouthed curiosity excited an interest in
him, and so: the fishmonger at once invited him
This, however, was not the countryman's
wish; he was only passing through the city,
having been to one of the cattle shows, and
brought his dog with him.
"Will he bought ? he said to the fishmonger.
"Well," he replied, just put your finger in
his claw, or shake hands with him; you are
"Na, na, thank'ee; but if ye like, I'll just
The man consented to this, and so the coun-
tryman backed his dog. The crab at once
seized hold of the animal's tail, and the dog
bolted in terror, carrying the crab with him.
"Stop him!" cried the fishmonger; stop
your dog; he has run away with my crab."
But the countryman, who was from York-
shire, said, "Na, na! I'se Yorkshire, and Jock's
In his conceit the fishmonger meant to play
a practical joke, but instead he was taken in
his own craftiness.
The countryman, though a fool, as he thought,
had the best of it.
THE AIR WE LIVE IN.
IT is not often that we are led to think how
thin the shell of air in which we live really
is, and how close above our heads lie the bor-
ders of the vast abyss of space in which, if we
ventured, we should perish like fish thrown out
It is true that when we climb a lofty mount-
ain we are impressed by the comparative life-
lessness of its peaks, but then one naturally ex-
pects an effect of that kind from the barren
aspect of all rocky eminences. It is different
with a high, broad tableland, covered with soil,
and lying in full sunshine above many of the
clouds that darken the lower earth. In such a
land, we are apt to think, it must be very pleasant
But, as a matter of fact, these elevated
regions present most convincing proofs of the
li e-destroying effects of the thinness of the air
at a height of two or three miles above the gen-
eral surface of the earth. One of the best in-
stances of this has been brought to light through
the explorations of travelers on the great Asiatic
tableland on which the Oriental imagination
has bestowed such names as the Roof of the
World," and "the Halfway House to Heaven."
Marco Polo was informed, and many people
since his time have believed, that thi; tableland,
whose area may be about three times that of
the State of Massachusetts, was a brilliant land
of sunshine and rich pastures.
But recent travelers who have ascended to it,
and crossed it, inform us that the plateau, whose
mean elevation above the sea is not less than
twelve thousand feet, is a barren waste, rough-
ened with hills and mountains which are coated
with ice, swept and pinched by bitter winds and
frosts, and so lacking in the ability to support
even the hardier forms of vegetable life that it
cannot feed the caravans that cross it. It pos-
sesses some isolated oases where life clings to
This barren condition of the plateau is owing
to the fact that it lies about two miles and a
half above sea level.
What a striking sense of the closeness of our
confinement to the surface of the earth is fur-
nished by a fact like that!
T HERE is an immense garden in China that
embraces an area of fifty thousand square
miles. It is all meadow land, and is filled with
lakes, ponds and canals. Altogether it is as
large as the States of New York and Penn-
A HERO OF OUR DAY.
S /[ANY years ago," so says one of our
contemporary writers, "there was a
fire, that burned down a large part of the great
city of Chicago. Hundreds of homes were
swept away, and many strange events occurred
while the flames were raging.
A rich lady was hurrying through the crowd
of frightened people, trying to save a few of
her household goods. -I!.: saw a small boy, and
called him to her, saying, Take this box, my
boy, and do not part with it for one instant
until I see you again. Take care of it, and I
will reward you well.'
The boy took the box, and the lady turned
back to save some more of her goods, if possi-
Soon the crowd came rushing between them
and they were separated. All that night and
the next day passed. The lady took refuge
with friends outside of the city, and heard
nothing more of boy or box.
Her diamonds, a large amount of choice
jewelry, and all her valuable papers were in
the box, and of course she was in great distress
at losing them.
But on Tuesday night a watchman found the
boy sitting on the box, and almost buried in
the sand and dirt that had fallen about him.
He had been there all through the long hours,
without food or shelter. At times lie had
covered himself with the sand to escape the
The poor child was almost dead with fright
and fatigue, but had never once thought of de-
serting the precious box that had been trusted
to his care.
Of course he was amply rewarded by the
grateful lady, but the boy who could be so faith-
ful to a trust would be rich and noble without
SAY well is good, but do well is better;
Do well seems spirit, say wIell the letter;
Say well is godly, and helpeth to please,
But do well lives godly, and gives the world
Say well to silence sometimes is bound,
But do well is free on every ground.
Say well has friends, some here, some-there,
But do well is welcome everywhere.
By say well to many God's Word cleaves,
But for lack of do well it often leaves.
If say well and do well were bound in one
Then all were done, all were won, and gotten
72 CHIT CHAT.
MARY OF SCOTLAND.
THE QUEEN'S LITTLE SKYE.
T HE winter of 1587 was a gloomy one for
the beautiful Mary Stuart, the captive
Queen of Scots. It is not strange after her nine-
teen years of imprisonment in English castles,
manor houses, and even common inns, that the
buoyant spirit and elastic temperament, which
supported her in the darkest hours, had almost
During the autumn of 1586, she had been hur-
ried from Tutbury to Chartley, to Tixall, then
back to Tutbury, and finally to Fotheringay
Castle. As she rode with her few faithful ladies
and attendants under its frowning portcullis,
she whispered, "Now I am lost!" And her
words were prophetic; for Fotheringay Castle
was the last prison-house of Mary of Scotland.
Through the whole month of January she
was sick with a rheumatic affection of the
limbs, which prevented her walking from her
bed to her chair.
All this sad time she and her "Maries," four
ladies of her own name, and educated with her
in France, were much diverted by a little dog
called B4bb, that had been given to the queen
by one of the guards the summer before.
B6b6 would lie at her feet, cuddle himself into
her arms as she sat at her table, and would not
eat unless they brought his food into her room
where she could watch him while he made his
dainty meal. He was a very gentle, tiny Skye
terrier; and it made the ladies laugh to bring a
gleam of anger into the little creature's appeal-
ing blue eyes by pretending to pull the queen's
dress a little rudely; or by disturbing some
article of her toilet which she had commanded
him to guard. Also, after the manner of heart-
sick captives in all ages, they diverted them-
selves by teaching him quaint odd tricks, like
catching a ball, sitting on his hind legs, holding
his forepaws like hands as if begging, and find-
ing each of them, if the queen called them by
name, when they had hidden behind the tapestry
Shich concealed the rough moldy walls of the
old fortress of the Plantagenets.
On Sunday, February 5, 1587, an unusual
feeling of apprehension seized the imprisoned
household. The guards were doubled, no two
persons were allowed to talk together, poor
terrified B1b4 wailed ceaselessly, and the sen-
tinels were startled by a brilliant meteor like
a flame opposite the queen's window, which
returned thrice. In the evening Earl Shrews-
bury and Earl Kent arrived from the court of
Queen Elizabeth, and among their servants, a
sinister-faced man, dressed in black, who was
known only too well and whose name was
whispered with horror. Well might men shud-
der as they saw him; for he had been seen on
every one of the blood-stained scaffolds of the
Two days passed in quiet; but late on the
afternoon of Tuesday, February 7, the earls
demanded audience with the Queen. She was
ill in bed; but she said if the matter was im-
portant she would rise and see them at once.
They answered, "Their matter would brook no
delay." When the ladies took up the queen's
mantle to wrap it around her, they found be'b
hidden in its great hood of fur.
The Earl of Shrewsbury, without preface or
hesitation, told Mary it was the will of Queen
Elizabeth that she should die at eight of the
clock the next morning.
All present exclaimed at the brief space
between the sentence and the execution; all
but Mary, who, as Shrewsbury himself tells us,
only smiled a little, not even her hands tremb-
ling, he noticing them because she was playing
with a little dog in her lap. Shrewsbury had
been her jailer for many a year and had told
Elizabeth repeatedly, that there was naught
in earth or heaven the Scotch queen feared."
Paulet, who alone of all her keepers disliked
her personally, likewise relates how uncon-
cernedly she played with her little terrier, while
they read her death-warrant.
I will not dwell upon the night of anguish
which followed the departure of Elizabeth's
messengers, nor upon the bitter farewells of the
early morning. Neither will I rehearse again
the pathetic story of the execution of the
queen. Shrewsbury and Kent, Paulet, and
Melville, her devoted Protestant secretary, all
tell us that, as they led her through the great
banqueting hall of the castle to the upper end
where, by the side of the gigantic fireplace, a
platform had been built to support the heads-
man's block, a reprieve was confidently and
momentarily expected. But no reprieve came,
and the soul of Mary Stuart escaped like a bird
from the snare of the fowler. For two hours
after her death none of her ladies were allowed
to go near the body; but when Jane Kennedy
was permitted to remove the clothes and man-
tle, she heard a little moan. Startled, she
wiped away her tears, and looking carefully,
found again in the great hood, faithful B6b6!
In the confusion he had followed his mistress
unperceived. Forced from the spot, he attacked
Paulet so fiercely that the latter shrank away.
The affectionate little creature never touched
food nor drink and died three days after the
BY THE COW-YARD BARS.
-T ^ l I llL E t l,- ki !,,e l...: .-.l ,.t, a, ; lI r.. ', ,.,._lhif.I
GAIN \T T-H
GAZING AT TiE
On the dewy grass at the milking hour,
He lay as he gazed at the dawning stars.
And who knows what they were saying to him ?
For his wondering eyes grew bright grew
While they danced in glee and seemed to keep
To his quickened heart with its throbbing
Is the milking done?" said his father's voice;
"What! here are the cattle outside the bars,
And that stupid boy lies there in the dew,
With his face upturned to the moon and
And the boy stood up and was scolded well;
For how could the father, impatient, tell
Of the heights to which he would some day
His stupid boy with the dreamy eyes;
.How could the father, my children, know
That the greatest astronomer earth can show,
Stood faltering there in his little son,
Who was late in getting the milking done ?
But weary of honors in after years,
A man looked back through smiles and tears
To the old home scene and the silver stars,
And the dreaming boy by the cow-yard bars.
74 CHIT CHAT.
SO EASY TO BE MISTAKEN.
SQTOP him! Stop him!"
) An eager crowd of youngsters, of all
ages from five to twelve, were shouting lustily,
the little ones perhaps louder than any, after
a nimble-footed lad who was careering down
the street pursued by some half-dozen of them,
while the rest contented themselves with exer-
cising their lungs.
They were just out of afternoon school, and
ready for anything in the way of fun or excite-
ment. A couple of hours' arithmetic and draw-
ing had made them as wild as young ponies just
let out to grass.
What's he been doing?" cried a sturdy
little fellow who came along swinging his books
round and round by the strap.
He's got Jem's toffee," explained a mop-
headed urchin who was watching the chase from
the top of a low wall by the roadside. Jem
was going to treat the fourth-standard boys,
and Jack Dutton has made off with the whole
lot. He says he'll chuck it over the bridge; if
he doesn't have some, nobody else shall."
"But he's only in the third," said Theoph
Brett, letting his books dangle in peace for a
That's what makes him so mad, because Mr.
Summers has put the others over his head. lHe
vows he'll make it hot for them."
"No boy would stand losing all that toffee,"
No more will Jem," said the mop-headed
boy. Halloo! they're gaining on him."
"They won't catch him before he gets to the
bridge;" cried two or three at once. "Jack
can beat any of them at running."
"Jones is nearly up with him; hooray!"
Jones!" exclaimed another contemptuously,
"he can't run;" and in the midst of the general
hullaballoo, Jack distanced his pursuers by two
or three bounds, paused a moment on the bridge
to fling his arms over the railings, and then
dashed away down the road, leaving the others
He's done it!" exclaimed the angry crew.
"I knew he would," said Theoph, giving his
books such a violent swing that the strap broke
and sent them flying half-across the road.
That very evening an indignant conclave met
at the back of Mr. Breft's farmyard to decide
what should be done to Jack Dutton.
One or two of the boys were for lying in wait
for him, and giving him a thorough good lick-
lug; but Jem put his foot down on that at once.
"It's my quarrel," said. he, "and if there's
any fighting done I ought to do it."
"It's our quarrel quite as much," cried the
others. "Jack has robbed all the lot of us,
and we must all join together to punish him."
Some were in favor of pea-shooters, but only
a few of the boys had got them. Some sug-
gested one thing, some another.
After a deal of I-,!1 l-_, it was at length de-
cided that every tourth-standard boy should
contribute a pennyworth of toffee, to be put in
Jack's desk between his books and papers.
"He wanted toffee, let him have enough of
it," said Jenm; and if ever a boy had too much
of a thing Jack Dutton did. When he opened
his desk the next morning, there wasn't a paper
or a book in it that was not stuck together with
the horrid stuff. Everything in it, maps, scrib-
bling-books, copies, drawings, class-books, rub-
ber and pencils, were so besmeared and sticky,
that he could do nothing with them.
His look of horror was so unmistakable that
Mr. Summers saw at once something was wrong.
"What is the matter?" inquired he.
"I believe I know the meaning of it, sir."
Twenty pairs of eyes were fixed on Jack.
Surely he would never be so mean as to split.
"But you mustn't, please, expect me to men-
tion names, sir," he went on; "it all comes
from a little mistake. If one of the boys hadn't
been in such a hurry, he would have found out
by now that his toffee is still in his desk where
he left it."
Upon this the desks were all opened simul-
taneously, and to Jem's surprise, the great
packet of toffee which he believed to be melt-
ing at the bottom of the river under the bridge,
lay neatly tied up as he had brought it from
Theoph Brett, who sat next him, sprang to his
feet. The fact is, sir," said he, "it's not one
of us, but every fourth-standard boy, who is in
Mr. Summers looked very grave. Some
grudge you have been paying off?" he asked.
"We thought we had a grudge, sir," answered
Theoph, "but it turns out we were wrong."
So much for hasty conclusions!" said Mr.
Summers. "I am sorry to find that boys in my
school have no nobler rule by which to live.
Grudges are unworthy of the boys of such
fathers as you all possess."
A look of shame passed over all the faces,
and Theoph muttered something about not lik-
ing to be thought tame-spirited.
"If to obey a manly instinct is to be tame-
spirited, I for one shall never trouble myself
about the opinions of others," answered Mr.
Summers. "You see how you have wronged a
boy by suspecting him unjustly. As you were
all concerned in the damage you have done to
his books, I think it would be nothing but right
that you should join together in making it good;
but this I leave to your own sense of justice
Before the fourth-standard boys had been out
of school five minutes that morning, a subscrip-
tion was raised to buy Jack a fresh set of books,
and not within the memory of those boys was
a grudge ever heard of again.
AN INTERESTING LAKE.
ID you ever hear of a Lake of Ink ?
Look on your map for a town called
Yuma in the Territory of Arizona, and then let
me tell you of a lake of ink which is sixty-five
miles southwest of Yuma, and is truly amazing
in appearance and -effect.
"Ashes and oil cover the surface of this lake
an half-inch thick when the waters are quiet,
and several inches thick when the wind blows.
The water is jet black, though it does not color
the skin of bathers, who after being in for ten
or fifteen minutes feel as if they were under the
influence of the very best brandy. Under a
glass the coloring matter seems to be a mi-
nute black substance held in suspension by the
water, which adheres to white cloth when it is
From time immemorial this region has been
the resort of Indians who have found in the
hot mud baths relief from fevers, rheumatism,
and other diseases. Indians bury their invalids
up to their mouths in the hot volcanic mud for
half an hour, then carry them covered with
mud in blankets to the edge of the lake of ink,
in which they are steeped, as it were, for an-
other half-hour, after which they are rolled up
in blankets and laid out to sweat on hot sul-
phurous sand or rock. At night the patients
are removed to ground not quite so warm, and
left to sleep.
The cures are said to be wonderful and un-
failing to white people as well as to aborigines."
A DOGGED TRICK.
O UR Captain, although a shepherd dog, was
very fond of going with the horses on
the road. When the house-mother and his
little playmate, Bess, remained at home it was
not difficult to persuade him to stay; but if the
whole family set out together neither commands
nor threats would induce him to remain behind.
Almost his sole duty was to keep the cows
that loitered along the road from entering the
yard through the open gates. He attended to
this so faithfully that never a cow dared pause
for a nip of the grass that grew so tall along
our roadside fence, though close-cropped else-
where. But once, when the family wished to
go off for the day, the big gate to the driveway
being out of order, Captain's master tied hiim to
one of the gate posts by a rope long enough to
give him full range of the gate-way. After
Captain's duties were carefully explained to
him, the family drove off in full confidence that
the kitchen garden would be defended from
marauders. On their return at evening, the
dog lay listlessly where they left him, not
deigning even to wag his tail by way of greet-
ing. Presently, to their astonishment, they
perceived signs of .cattle having trespassed.
Afterwards our neighbor opposite told us that
Captain lay during our absence of a Nwhole sum-
mer day, motionless at one side the gate-way,
never stirring when cattle approached, until the
cows, emboldened, walked in and out as heed-
less of his presence as though lie had been a
Sara lF. Good(ich.
OWN past the savory bed and the parsley,
And close to the tumble-down picket
The caraway grew that Grandma planted
And there it has been growing ever since.
When dear old Grandma her meeting' bunnit"
I-ad carefully tied on the Sabbath Day,
She always put in her best-gown pocket
A generous handful of caraway.
For the dear old soul would grow a-weary
To sit so long in the cushionless pew;
And oft the parson's doctrinal sermon
Would trouble her tender feelings, too.
And when she had heard so much election "
That her heart for the others began to bleed,
She sensed the better God's love behind it
By eating a bit of her meeting' seed."
Solemn and mild upraised to the parson
Her gentle old face on the Sabbath Day,
She drank the sweet there was in the sermon
The bitter she flavored with caraway.
Though caraway is not fair to look at,
Though you may not fancy its taste indeed,
Yet still it shall grow there down in the garden
Because it was Grandma's meeting' seed."
V.,"' E. Wilkins.
GRANDMA, IN I1rR "MEETIN' 1UNNIT."
INDIAN BABIES RESTING.
78 CHIT CHAT.
F you were to ask me where the North
American Indians live, I think I should
answer, "anywhere and everywhere between
the Gulf of Mexico and Lake Winnipeg, and
between the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean."
They lead a sort of gypsy life, stopping for a
time in wigwams made of buffalo skins which
have been curiously painted and then sewn
together; then gathering up their goods and
chattels, removing all trace of their camp, and
Almost as soon as it is born the North Ameri-
can Indian baby is put on a long narrow board
which has been first covered with skins or mat-
ting. Leather thongs or straps are twisted
round the baby and its strange-looking cradle,
and then the little creature is left with its head
only poking out. The advantage of this ar-
rangement, you see, is that when the mother is
busy she can prop her baby, cradle and all, up
against a tree, or a post, or the side of the wig-
wam, just like any other parcel, and not be
afraid lest it should break its little legs or arms.
Now, if you ever have to choose between be-
ing a boy or a girl amongst the Red Indians,
take my advice and be a boy. The boys have
a fine time of it there, if doing as you please,
and watching your sisters work for you, can
make any one happy. I do not say it does, you
know, but I have heard some little people of
my acquaintance wish they could lead that sort
As soon as the Indian boy is old enough he
swims, runs races, plays games, fishes, and shoots
with bows and arrows. The only toys he has,
that I know of, are balls and kites, but he
manages to amuse himself very well.
He is an active, very active member of The
Do-as-you-please Society, until he grows up and
becomes a "brave." Then he has all sorts of
horrible tortures to endure to show his courage.
Meanwhile, the girls, as soon as they can run,
begin to help their mothers in carrying water
and wood. By and by they learn to sew to-
gether the skins of the animals which their
fathers and brothers kill; they hunt for roots
and berries, and other food which it is possible
for them to get, and they have very little time
to amuse themselves. Yet they are happy, and
take a pride in the brave doings of their men-
The Indians are fond of all games, wrestling,
racing, but specially ball playing; though I
fancy few would care to play the last game as
From five hundred to one thousand young
men will begin at about nine o'clock in the
morning and go steadily on till sundown, with
only a few minutes' rest. There are two sides.
Each party has its goal, which is made with two
upright posts and a pole-across the top. Just
half-way between the posts there is a stake
where the ball is thrown up when the signal is
given, by the firing of a gun.
The players may not touch the ball, but they
each have two sticks which vary in shape
according to the different tribes. For instance,
one tribe has the sticks bent into an oblong
hoop at the end, with a thin covering of thongs,
very like our lawn-tennis rackets. As soon as
the ball is in the air, they spring at it, catch it
between the rackets, and throw it as far as they
can toward their own side.
No one is allowed to wear moccasins, and
the only articles -of dress are beautiful bead
belts above the usual cloth round the waist,
and a "tail" of white horsehair or quills, and
a mane on the neck of horsehair dyed various
The object of each party is, of course, to throw
the ball between their respective goals. When
this is done, it counts as one game, and there
is a halt of a moment. Again and again the
ball is started till one side scores a hundred,
and is declared the conqueror.
All this is very hard work, you will say, but
it is harmless amusement. Unfortunately, how-
ever, there is something else to be lost besides
the game. A great deal of betting goes on,
and knives, dresses, blankets, pots and kettles,
horses and guns, are often lost and won.
Naturally enough, then, the wives and sisters
of the side who will lose their goods and chat-
tels if they do not conquer, take a great interest
in the game. It was amusing to see them rush-
ing after their husbands and brothers to remind
them, by sharp cuts of a birch across their bare
shoulders, that unless they play their best they
will lose their belongings.
It has been said that a young man of the
Sioux tribe once declared he would never leave
the ground alive, if his side were beaten.
One of the prettiest sights you could see is a
snow-shoe dance. You must remember that
the buffalo is the North American Indian's
best friend. On its flesh he lives, with its skin
he clothes himself and covers his wigwam.
During the summer he kills it with bow and
arrows or guns, but the moment the snow begins
to fall the Indian rejoices, because he knows
that he can get at the buffalo much more easily.
Picture to yourself a large, light frame of
elastic wood covered with webbing of small
thongs of raw hide. Slip your feet under these
thongs, and there you are on a pair of snow-
shoes. With them you will be able to go
quickly over the top of the snow, instead of
sinking into it at every step.
CHIT CHAT. 79
So the Indians find that with their snow-shoes
they can get quite close to the poor buffaloes,
who have no shoemakers, and cannot make
shoes for themselves. As soon as the first snow
falls, the Indians celebrate the event with a
song of thanks to the Great Spirit who sends it.
They have a legend that their ancestors
were saved in a "big canoe" on the top of a
mountain, while all the rest of the world were
drowned. Every year as soon as the willow
leaves are full grown under the bank of the
river," they hold a festival in memory of this,
and if you were to ask an Indian what the wil-
low had to do with the "big canoe" he would
answer, The twig which the bird brought into
the big canoe was a willow bough, and had full-
grown leaves on it." So, you see, the story of
the flood must have reached them somehow.
But to go back to the snow-shoe dance.
They put a prettily ornamented pair of snow-
shoes on a post, or something equally conven-
ient, they decorate it with flags and spears, and
then dance round singing their song of thanks-
A gentleman who has traveled amongst the
North American Indians gives a touching little
anecdote about a buffalo.
Mr. Catlin says that the white wolves are
great enemies to the buffalo. They are about
as big as a Newfoundland dog, and follow the
herds of buffaloes from one end of the year
to the other. When any animal drops behind
through age or sickness, they seize him at once.
One day Mr. Catlin found a large buffalo
surrounded by white wolves. The gentleman
and his friends rode as near as they could with-
out frightening them, and took a sketch of the
scene. Then they went nearer, and found that
the poor buffalo had lost its eyes and the skin
of its legs, yet it bravely faced its enemies.
Mr. Catlin pitied the poor creature and rid-
ing up to him, scattered the wolves right and
left saying, "Now is your chance, old fellow,
and you had better be off."
Though blind and nearly dead, the poor
creature seemed to recognize a friend, and
made off to the prairies.
It was only a little act of kindness to a wild
animal, yet I like that story as well as any Mr.
WHAT SHE NEEDED.
INDIGENT people sometimes include strange
things under the head of "necessities" when
receiving "help" from kindly disposed persons.
The agent of a private relief association once
received the following note from a woman in a
state of actual destitution. She was the mother
of six small children, and was one of those un-
fortunate persons who had seen better days,"
and wished her benefactors not to lose sight of
Although now sadly reduced in financial
circumstances," she wrote, the time has been
when I had an abundance, and I feel keenly
the deprivation of many things that would not
be missed by persons unaccustomed to them ;
therefore, in addition to fuel and provisions of
all kinds, I desire something in the way of a
dressing-jacket, in shades of cardinal, and a few
invisible hair nets to match the hair inclosed.
Also, if you will be so kind, something in the
way of fancy shoes for my three little girls, and
suitable ties for two boys with blue eyes and
fair complexions, and one with dark hair and
eyes. A neat and suitable molasses-pitcher
would also be acceptable, and a few skeins of
shaded cardinal and green embroidery silk for
an unfinished tidy.
Thanking you for your interest in my family
and your offer of assistance, I am,
Very truly yours,
CLAA M. 1B.
J. .M. IL.
A WHITE ROBIN.
Wa E have all heard of that rara avis, a
white crow. I had long desired to see
some bird whose plumage varied in like manner
from the color of its compeers. My wish was
gratified one September day when a bird that,
at first glimpse, I had thought a stranger, turned
out to be a robin masquerading in a white coat.
A few days later, in the midst of a large flock
of robins which were feeding upon the lawn, I
saw the same bird (as I assume, since the mark-
ing was so unusual). Its back appeared to be
pure white; wings and tail white bordered with
olive gray. This light coat set off the dark cap
and red waistcoat to great advantage.
Birds are said to peck at and drive off any of
their own species which show striking variations
of color from the established type. But, as far
as could be seen, this robin was in good favor
among its fellows. When (all too soon for my
curiosity) the whole company took alarm at the
scream of a jay, the white bird flew off sur-
rounded by the others.
The following spring, strangely enough, I saw
another robin in mottled garb. This bird had
much less white in its plumage, though sufficient
to render it conspicuous. The latter appeared
to be a female, while the former had the pro-
nounced black and orange of the male birds, on
head and breast.
80 CHIT CHAT.
BESSIE wanted to learn a text;
She thought it such fun" to be called
As the children were at her Sunday-school,
Where the teacher heard them by row and rule.
So we told her the shortest text we knew;
And very solemn our baby grew,
As she walked about with a grown-up air,
Twisting a curl of her flaxen hair.
And over and over the words she said,
Till "she knowed she'd dot 'em way in her
And "Jesus wept" was her last good-night,
And her daily greeting at morning light.
The long week drew to a close, at last;
And the wished-for moment came too fast,
For when her teacher smiled at her
And called her "next," she could not stir.
The tears were ready and would not stay;
But a bright look chased them soon away,
And she gave a spring to her teacher's side:
" 'Next' does 'member her text -' Cwist
LITTLE things have their influence. Thoreau
says: "I have read that a descent of an eighth
of an inch in a mile is sufficient to produce a
THE FAIRY PRINCE.
OME roses tangled in the grass -
Some sunken stones oh! is it
The sweet old place, the dear old place,
That once I used to visit ?
The farmhouse with its porch and wall
And roof with woodbine covered,
The bench of hives, their tenant bees,
The flowers round which they hovered,
Sweet peas, sweet balm, sweet clover-
Why, but to name them over
A fragrance fills the air
As from some garden flitting,
And I again seem sitting,
A child with yellow hair,
Within the open doorway, all eagerness to see
If that proud prince, the Peacock, would spread
his train for me.
That fairy prince, the Peacock!
Oh! never monarch knew
Such matchless gold and purple,
Such wondrous green and blue!
All shining as with jewels, rare colors blent
Like some enchanter's vision he glistened in
CHIT CHAT. 81
'd ,* h '
THAT PROUD PRINCE, TUE PEACOCK.
And ivory towers and silver walls
In beauty rose before me;
No more the shelt'ring woodbine leaves,
But waving palms were o'er me.
I saw (my splendor-loving heart
Held dear that Bible story)
The Peacocks of King Solomon
In all their Eastern glory;
In palace courtways builded
Of cedar carved and gilded,
With psalteries sou'rding loud,
And grinning apes attendant,
'Mid splendor most resplendent,
And proudest of the proud,
They walked, the ancient kinsfolk in realms
beyond the sea,
Of that same prince, the Peacock, who spread
his train for me!
But like a vanished rainbow,
That royal bird to-day !
On wings of fire the farmhouse,
Long since has flown away!
And I, a grave-faced woman, still linger as I
To pluck remembered roses from out the
tangled grass. Marian .Douglas.
OF the thirty-two ducal and princely families
established by Napoleon I., fourteen are extinct.
A N instance of dog sagacity as well as dog
intelligence is recorded of Prince, a St.
"One evening his master heard a call from
the driver of a four-horse team which was pass-
ing his house. 'Come and take care of your
dog,'.he shouted, 'he has stopped my horses
and will not let them go on.' His owner
went to see what was the matter, and dis-
covered Prince standing in front of the team,
presenting his huge body as an obstacle to its
further progress. An investigation revealed
the fact that a child, wearied with play, had
lain down in the road and fallen asleep. As
soon as the little one was removed from its
dangerous position, Prince signaled to the
horses and the driver that they were at liberty
to pass on. IIe had seen the peril, and by his
prompt action had saved the sleeping child from
injury and possibly from death."
HI-IE Sabbath day's journey of the Jews was
S two thousand yards, the traditional dis-
tance from the end of the Ark of the Covenant
to the farther side of the Israelites' camp, where
they had made a stop in the wilderness, the
point where the Sabbatical law was given.
82 CHIT CHAT.
ONE OF THE WORLD'S HEROINES.
SO long as tales of daring are told, just so
long will the memory of Grace Darling
endure. Every now and then we come upon
something as remindful of her splendid quality
as is our contemporary's following account of
"At Grace Darling's Grave."
"In the northwestern corner of the church-
yard at Bamborough, under the shadow of the
huge fortress-crowned crag whence -
King Ida's castle, huge and square,
From its tall rock looked grimly down--
visitors to this lone and wild corner of the
Northumbrian coast come upon the tomb of a
world-famous heroine, Grace Darling. A some-
what pretentious canopied monument is sur-
mounted by the carved effigy of a maiden lying
in peaceful slumber, an oar clasped to her side.
Just at hand is the fine parish church, and round
it lies the tiny town of Bamborough, once a
borough, but now a mere shadow of its former
Above the kingly burgh, which man nameth
Babbanburgh,' and away across a narrow chan-
nel of sea, lies the group of barren basaltic
islets and cruel rocks, called the Fame Islands,
the dread of vessels coasting from England to
Scotland. On the most easterly rises the tall
light-house tower on the Longstone Rock.
Just fifty years ago there was laid to rest in
her early grave amid the stormy surroundings
of her short life one of the greatest heroines
the world has ever known. After this lapse of
time the story of Grace Darling's noble exploit
is worth recalling. From the narrative of the
only cabin passenger who survived, published
in the Spectator of the following week, we learn
that the steamer F. < *'. ,- ', bound from Iull
to Dundee, met with a violent storm off St.
Abb's Head on September 5th, and becoming
unmanageable on account of leaking boilers,
drifted into the Fame Islands, where she struck
in the small hours of the morning. The passen-
gers, in bed when warned of breakers close
under the lee of the vessel, rushed on deck, and
an awful scene of terror ensued, 'the shrieks of
the females on deck mingled with the roaring
of the ocean, and the screams of the wild fowl
disturbed from their resting place.' The steamer
parted three minutes after striking, the stern-
half being instantly washed away down the
terrible current of the Piper's Gut, carrying
twenty-five passengers with it. The fore-part
remained wedged in the rocks. Eight of the
crew, with the one cabin-passenger, escaped in a
boat almost miraculously, for they unwittingly
took the one outlet through the breakers, but
the captain, sticking to the ship, was washed
overboard and drowned with his wife in his
arms. At daybreak, the light-house keeper on
the Longstone described nine survivors clinging
to the rocks in the boiling sea. IIe opined that
a rescue was impossible, especially as he was
the only man at the light-house. But his
daughter thought otherwise. In an account of
the inquest, the Spectator says: 'Nine of the
persons saved owe their lives to the humanity
and intrepidity of Grace Darling, a fine young
woman of twenty-two, daughter of the keeper
of the Northumberland Light-house. Her father
would not venture out till she urged him to
make the effort, and offered to take an oar her-
self. They then put off, and, at extreme risk,
succeeded in rescuing nine persons from the
wreck.' The famous boat, one of the high-
bowed 'cobbles,' in use in those parts, still
exists, and was recently on view at the Fish-
eries Exhibition in London.
Yet Grace Darling was of no athletic mold.
William Howitt, who interviewed her a few
years later, speaks of her as 'not tall or hand-
some, her figure not striking.' She was carried
off by consumption in her twenty-sixth year.
But sympathy gave her strength, and she must
have been a skillful oarswoman, as it was en-
tirely owing to her exertions that the cobble
was kept afloat while William Darling rescued
those nine people. Howitt tells us how little
Grace's head was turned by her fame. Atten-
tions and rewards were showered upon her.
The Duke of Northumberland gave her at
Alnwick a gold watch, the IHumane Society
sent her a vote of thanks, its president a sil-
ver teapot. Seven hundred pounds were sub-
scribed for her, and boat-loads of curious
sight-seers crowded the light-house tower. -er
exploit was ridiculously dramatized in London,
and she was offered twenty pounds a night to
appear in the play merely sitting in a boat. Yet
Howitt found her 'a little, simple, innocent
young woman-a perfect Jeanie Deans-with
the most gentle, amiable, quiet look, the sweetest
smile a thoroughly good creature shunning
public notice, even troubled at the visits of the
curious' -sitting at her sewing with neatly-
braided hair and plain print dress, wearing
the Duke's watch and surrounded by masses
of presents, chiefly books. She refused many
offers of marriage, including one from an artist
who came to take her portrait, because they were
not quite the right thing. But the bridegroom
who claimed her was Death.
Grace Darling's deed! I heard the tale from one
Whose manly voice while telling it sank low,
Sufferingly to a reverential tone,
Such as naught draws from him but worth or woe,
And generosity that breaks the blow.
CHIT CHAT. 83
Type of the British heart! which still shall turn
With saddened pride and brotherly emotion
Towards her whose name, though ne'er it grace an
Shall oft be heard through sighs of wind and
Where 'twill avail again, as erst, to save.
For there was in thy virtue more than Roman,
Artlessly brave, self sacrificing woman!
That which shall gain her life even from thine early
Obit. October 20, 1842.
A SCHEMING PARROT.
T HETHER parrots think or not, has long
S been a debated question, but the parrot
that "pressed the button" seems to have dem-
onstrated. in favor of the scheming qualities of
this bird, as the following story will testify:
"A gentleman who has recently returned
from Mexico, and who brought with him a par-
rot which he purchased in Vera Cruz, has been
very much astonished at some tricks which that
bird has learned during the few days he has
been in the house. The bird's owner, Col.
Howard Johnson, occupies a beautiful residence
in the suburbs; and Jocko has from the first
shown the liveliest interest in all his surround-
ings. It was very soon found that he could
not be allowed his liberty in Mrs. Johnson's
room, as he at once formed a terrible antipathy
to a beautiful panther-skin rug, in which the
head is remarkably lifelike; and the moment
he was released he would make for the rug, and
begin biting savagely at its eyes and nose. He
escaped from his cage one day, and almost
demolished the nose of the rug: after that he
was chained to his perch.
"It happened that for several days in succes-
sion the perch stood by the wall, close beside
the electric bell. When Mrs. Johnson touched
the button Jocko took notes, with his head on
one side and a most inquiring air; and when
the servant appeared immediately afterward,
Jocko gave a faint croak of astonishment.
After witnessing this performance several times,
it was evident that Jocko began to see some
connection between the button and the servant.
He spent a great deal of time studying the but-
ton, running his beak softly around it, and
apparently communing with himself, his mis-
tress watching him meanwhile, highly amused
at his cleverness. At last, whether accidentally
or otherwise, Jocko discovered the connection,
and pressed the button. The next moment a
servant appeared, and the little schemer straight-
ened up, and said with great gravity, 'Jocko's
hungry.' His mistress's shouts of laughter and
the servant's astonishment did not in the least
discompose him. He had rung for what he
wanted, and he insisted on having it. The
scheme worked well, to Jocko's manifest
TWIST YE, TWINE YE.
rTWIST ye, twine ye; even so
L Mingle shades of Joy and Woe,
Hope and Fear, and Peace and Strife,
In the thread of human life.
While the mystic twist is spinning,
And the infant's life beginning,
Dimly seen through twilight blending,
Lo! what varied shapes attending!
Passion's force, by Patience knit;
Doubtful Reason reigned by Wit;
Toil, forgot in sighing Rest,
Joy, we know not which is best.
Earnest Gladness, idle Fretting,
Foolish Memory, wise Forgetting;
And trusted reeds, that broken lie,
Wreathed again for melody.
Ah the deep, the tender playing,
Worded Silence unmeant Saying:
Ah! sweet Anger, insincere,
Trembling Kiss, and glittering Tear.
Vanished Truth, but Vision staying;
Fairy riches-lost in weighing.
And fitful grasp of flying Fate,
Touched too lightly, traced too late.
Graceful Pride and timid Praise,
Love diffused a thousand ways;
Faithful Hope and generous Fear,
In the mystic dance appear.
Now they wax and now they dwindle,
Whirling with the whirling spindle;
Twist ye, twine ye, even so
Mingle human bliss and woe.
THE great organ in the old Mormon church
at Salt Lake City has two thousand seven hun-
dred and four pipes each thirty-two feet long
and large enough to admit the body of a man
of ordinary size.
JOCKO. THE SCHEMING PARROT.
"' .I =:' --- ^ } \, ;
M E T A
- O" KEYS AT PLAY.'
86 CHIT CHAT.
A MONKEY SUSPENSION BRIDGE.
"rI HEY are coming toward -the bridge;
_L they will most likely cross by the rocks
yonder," observed Raoul.
How, swim it ?" I asked. "It is a torrent
O, no answered the Frenchman. Mon-
keys would rather go through fire than water.
If they cannot leap the stream they will bridge
Bridge it! and how?"
"You will see in a moment," my companion
Presently the monkeys appeared upon the
opposite bank, headed by an old gray chieftain,
officered like so many soldiers.
One, an aide-de-camp, or chief pioneer, per-
haps, ran out upon a projecting rock, and after
looking across the stream, as if calculating the
distance, scampered back and appeared to com-
municate with the leader. This produced a
movement in the troops.
Meanwhile several of the monkeys (engineers,
no doubt) ran along the bank, examining the
trees on both sides of the array.
At length they all collected around a tall
cotton-wood tree that grew over the narrowest
part of the stream, and twenty or thirty of them
scampered up its trunk. On reaching a high
point the foremost, a strong fellow, ran out
upon a limb, and taking several turns of his
tail around it, slipped off and hung head down-
The next on the limb, also a stout one,
climbed down the body of the first, and whipped
his tail tightly round the neck and forearm of
the latter, dropped off in his turn, and hung
head down. The third repeated this maneuver
upon the second, and the fourth upon the string
rested his forepaws upon the ground. The
living chain now commenced swinging back-
ward and forward like the pendulum of a clock.
The motion was slight at first, but gradually
increased, the lowermost monkey striking his
hands violently on the earth as he swung.
Several others upon the limbs above aided the
This continued till the monkey at the end of
the chain was thrown among the branches of a
tree on the opposite bank. Here, after two or
three vibrations, he clutched a limb and held
The chain was now fast at both ends, form-
ing a complete suspension bridge, over which
the whole troop, to the number of four or five
hundred, passed. It was a comical sight to
witness the quizzical expression of countenance
along that living chain.
After the troops had passed, one monkey
attached his tail to the lowest on the bridge,
another girded him in the same manner, and
another, until a dozen more were added to the
These last were powerful fellows, and running
up to a high limb, they lifted the bridge into a
position almost horizontal.
Then a scream from the last monkey of the
new formation warned the tail end that all was
ready, and the next moment the whole chain
was swung over and landed safely on the
opposite bank. The lowermost links now
dropped off like a melting candle, while the
higher ones leaped to the branches and came
down by the trunk. The whole troop then
scampered off into the chaparral and dis-
HOW AN INDIAN REMEMBERED.
SHEN I was a very little girl I lived with
grandpapa and grandmamma Smith, in
a little log-house in the wild woods away in the
One evening grandmamma and I sat on the
doorstep waiting for grandpapa to come home.
He was off in the forest chopping down trees.
It was almost sunset when some one walked
out from the trees and stood before us. Was
it grandpapa ? O, dear, no! it was a big, tall
Indian, with his blanket wrapped around him
and moccasins on-his feet. He had a bundle of
willow twigs on his arm.
Grandmamma turned very white, and trem-
bled, while I clung to her, too frightened to
cry. We had never before seen a "wild
He looked at us very solemnly for a moment,
and said : "'You frightened ? Me no hurt."
Then he told grandmamma that he had
broken his knife cutting the willow twigs to
make baskets; and he asked her to give him
an old knife.
She went into the house and brought him
out an old knife and a bowl of milk. He drank
the milk; then took the knife, examined it,
and stuck it into his belt. He then looked at
us and said:
"You good woman. You kind to poor
Indian. Indian never forget."
And he turned away and went into the
When grandpapa came, he told us that there
was an Indian village about seven miles back
in the forest. The Indians make baskets, and
took them to town to sell or trade for other
things. He thought this must have been one
of them. We often saw Indians after that, but
we were not afraid of them.
CHIT CHAT. 87
Long after, when I was about eight years
old, an Indian basket-peddler came to our
house. Grandmamma bought a basket from
him, but when she offered to pay him for it he
would not take it.
"No, no," he said; "one day, a long time
ago, you gave an Indian a knife, and milk to
drink when he was tired. He told you the In-
dian never forgets. Here is this basket for the
little girl. She was a baby then."
And lie gave me the loveliest little basket you
ever saw; I have kept it ever since.
The Indians of North America are fast losing
their old habits and beliefs, some of which
were very interesting.
Every tribe made careful provision for the
welfare of the dead. The Indians of British
Columbia put up a curious set of likenesses of
their departed relations over their graves, some
of which do not seem very complimentary.
The weapons, utensils, and clothes which may
be of use to them in the next world are care-
fully placed near them, but are not usually
buried with the corpse.
Irreverent travelers in recent years were so
fond of stealing any good pots and pans or
guns so placed for the benefit of the departed,
that it has now become the custom to bore a
hole in such vessels, and to place them in this
state on a pole. For a departed spirit, a pot
-with a hole in it, or a gun with the lock re-
moved, is apparently supposed to be as good as
new. Many of these natives under Christian
instruction have now become good citizens.
THUNDERSTORMS AT SEA.
A -N electric storm at sea is one of the alarm-
ing experiences to which a mariner is
exposed, but, as a matter of record, it is one
that is least fruitful in disastrous results. As
a rule very few precautions are taken to guard
against a stroke of lightning, especially in the
merchant service. Ships of war are usually
fitted with lightning conductors -a precaution
made necessary by the explosives stored away
in their magazines. But these safeguards are
seldom seen on a merchant vessel, judging by
the extreme rarity of the cases where they
have been struck. Jack's claim that he is safer
on the ocean than on shore during an electrical
disturbance must be admitted. It is a. well-
established theory that one caught in a thunder-
storm should not take shelter under a tall tree,
especially if he stands in a clearing. Why
lightning should strike an isolated piece of
.timber on shore and spare it after it has been
converted into a vessel's mast, is yet to be
T IIE ordinary, costume of both sexes in Iun-
S gary is simplicity itself. The women
wear a high-necked ankle-long chemise of white
homespun linen, with full sleeves gathered at
the elbow and richly embroidered, usually with
blue. Bands of embroidery decorate the waist
and skirt. The chemise is girded to the body
by a thick woollen belt, binding tightly to the
figure the upper edge of a narrow apron of bril-
liant woollen homespun. A kerchief is usually
worn on the head, and the feet are habitually
bare. On Sundays and fete days the girls ex-
change the coarse garments for others of choice
texture, the chemise being fine and carefully
pleated, and the apron of mull or muslin deli-
cately embroidered with white. Tall red mo-
rocco boots, with yellow heels and soles and
curious pointed toes, adorn the feet, and around
the neck are hung many rows of gaudy glass
The hair is elaborately plaited in a broad
band, which is brought over to the forehead
and then turned back again. This is held in
place by dozens of ornamental pins, while" in
the hair and around the face, bright-colored
geraniums, marigolds and other flowers are
skillfully arranged. On their wedding day they
cover their heads with a wonderful square struc-
ture, more like a pastry cook's piece montJt than
a bonnet, wear an ample white lace shoulder
cape, a brilliant scarlet petticoat, with white
lace apron and tall red boots. This dress is
preserved with jealous care, and is never pro-
duced except on Sundays and holidays. The
men's costume consists of loose linen trousers,
like a divided skirt, a full tunic, a waistcoat
with silver buttons, hussar boots, and a small
Both sexes have for an outer garment
either a sheepskin cloak or a greatcoat of very
thick felt-like white woollen with broad square
collar, and sleeves either sewed up at the
bottom, or else short. These coats and the
sheepskin cloaks are often gaudily embroidered.
HOW JOHNNY REASONED.
I ITTLE Johnny, after indulging in a long
and silent reverie, evidently believed tlat
he had reasoned out for himself a most happy
solution from a very narrow escape, as the fol-
lowing conversation will show:
"I'm glad I isn't a girl," said little Johnny.
"Why, dear? asked mamma.
"'Cause I wouldn't like to grow up into a
woman an' have to watch a little boy like me."
88 CHIT CHAT.
by moonlight. This habit her
grandmother thought both
wrong and unsafe, and finally
exacted a promise from Nellie
that she would not go there at
night alone. In this connection,
the following incident related by
her later in life to a friend, shows
-General Washington in a pleas-
ant home light.
Nellie was missing one even-
ing, and was finally brought
-home from the interdicted woods
___ *i "to the drawing-room, where the
general was walkingup and down
with his hands Lehind him, ac-
cording to his wont. Mrs.
-Washington, seated, in her great
arm-chair, opened a severe re-
Poor Miss-Nellie was reminded
of her promise, and taxed with
her delinquency. She admitted
her fault, but essayed no excuse;
-- and when there was a pause,
moved to-retire from the room.
.-- --She was just shutting the door,
when she overheard the general
attempting, in a low voice, to
intercede in her behalf.
STUART S PORTRAIT Op WASHINGTO.
GENERAL WASHINGTON'S FOSTER-
N ELLIE CUSTIS, Washington's foster-
daughter, was the child of John Parke
Custis, Mrs. Washington's-son by her first mar-
riage (the Jacky mentioned in various letters
of his step-father). General Washington, on her
father's death, begged the widow to give him her
tivo youngest children, his home seemed so deso-
late, and she reluctantly consented.
Eleanor, or Nellie, as she was generally called,
was only two years and a half old at the time
of her adoption; she was a beautiful child, with
smiling black eyes and thick curly brown hair.
She grew up into a brilliant and handsome girl,
fond of gayety and fun, but not much interested
in books or in music. Her foster-father bought
her a harpsichord costing one thousand dollars
(there were at that time only two or three pianos
in the United States), but the fine instrument
did.. not prove the incentive to study that he had
hoped. The Moun't Vernon Ladies' Associa-
tion has this now dilapidated piece of furniture
in its possession.
Mistress Nellie'was more fond of outdoor life
than of study, and it was her especial delight
to wander alone in the woods of Mount Vernon ..
CHIT CHAT. 89
A STREET IN HOLLAND.
"My dear," he was remarking, "I would say
no more. Perhaps she was not alone."
Miss Nellie reopened the door, and advanced
to the general with a firm step.
'" Sir," said she, you brought me up to speak
the truth, and when I told grandmamma I was
alone, I hope you believe I was alone."
The general made one of his most courtly
bows. "My child," he replied, "I beg your
HOLLAND AND HER PEOPLE.
AMONG the curious customs of Holland
is that which announces the fact of sick-
ness in the family. When any one is ill, a
bulletin is affixed every morning to the door,
so that friends need not make special calls.
A similar kind of announcement is made on
the occasion of a birth in the household. In
some towns the birth of a boy baby is made
known by hanging to the door a pink silk ball,
covered with lace, which is called in Dutch "a
proof of birth." If the baby be a girl, there is
a small bit of paper attached; if twins, the lace
is double, and for several days thereafter a bul-
letin announces that the mother and child are
doing well or the opposite.
The manner of closing the shutters after a
death is also according to the degree of rela-
tionship ; for a father or mother all are closed
save one; for a cousin one only is closed; for a
brother or sister, two, etc.
NOT A BELIEVER IN THE "HIGHER
A CORRESPONDENT who once taught
a country school in the backwoods of
the West, one day received the following note
brought to him by a new pupil, a dull-looking
boy of about fifteen:
Respected Sir: It is not my dezire that the
bearer, my Son Reuben, be put into ether
Gramer or Fizzyology, neether of which Studys
do I think of any practical value to a plane
farmer as he will Likely be, therefour you will
not put him in. anything but reeding, spelling,
Rithmeteck, gogerphy and writing, them being all
I ever studyed and all I ever had any need of.
By obeying this dezire you will grately oblige
P. S. I do not objeck to him being learned
plane singing and Good manners if you are
kapable of such instruction."
THE STORY OF ZERO.
T -HERE is a time of the year when we all
begin to think of "Zero." The word is
from the Spanish, and means empty, hence noth-
ing. It was first used in a thermometer, in
1709, by a Prussian merchant named Fahrenheit.
"From a boy he was a close observer of nature,
and when only nineteen years old, he experi-
mented by putting snow and salt together, and
noticed that it produced a degree of cold equal
to the coldest day in the year.
And that day being the coldest that the old-
est inhabitant could remember, Fahrenheit was
the more struck with the coincidence of his
scientific discovery, and hastily concluded that
he had found the lowest degree of temperature
known to the world, either natural or unnatural.
He called the degree zero, and constructed a
thermometer, or rude weather glass, with a
scale graduating up from zero to boiling point,
which he numbered 212, and the freezing point
32, because, as he thought, mercury contracted
the thirty-second of its volume on being cooled
down from the temperature of freezing water
to zero, and expanded the one hundred and
eightieth on being heated from the freezing to
the boiling point.
Time showed that this arrangement, instead
of being truly scientific, was as arbitrary as the
division of the Bible into verses and chapters;
and that these two points no more represented
the real extremes of temperature than "from
Dan to Beersheba" expressed the exact ex-
tremes of Palestine.
But Fahrenheit's thermometer had been
widely adopted, with its inconvenient scale,
and none thought of any better until his name
became an authority, for Fahrenheit abandoned
trade and gave himself up to science. Then
habit made people cling to the established scale.
The three countries which use Fahrenheit
are Britain, Holland and America. Russia and
Germany use Reaumer's thermometer, in which
the boiling point is counted 80 above the freez-
ing point. France uses the centigrade ther-
mometer, so called because it marks the boiling
point 100 from the freezing point.
On many accounts the centigrade system is
the best, and the triumph of convenience will
be attained when zero is made the. freezing
point, and when the boiling point is put 100 or
1,000 from it, and the sub-divisions are fixed
If Fahrenheit had done this at first, or even
if he had made it one of his many improvements
after the public adopted his error, the lack of
opportunity, which was really his, would have
secured to his invention the patronage of the
SAVED BY A WOLF.
FTH-E most formidable animal in the Island
S of Newfoundland fifty years ago was the
wolf, though, thanks to the energy of the Gov-
ernment in offering rewards for its capture, it has
since been nearly, if not wholly, exterminated.
In 1842 extraordinary tales were told of a
huge wolf who ranged about near St. John's,
and at the head of Conception Bay, defying
every effort made to capture him. He had
killed some sheep and goats, and, it was said,
even children. Traps were set for him; parties
of fishermen, stimulated by the Government re-
ward, went out hunting him, but all to no pur-
pose, and, as if emboldened by their want of
success, he would appear suddenly at a village
in daylight and carry off small animals, close to
the doors of the "tilt" or hut.
It needed but this for the superstitious popu-
lation to invest him with supernatural powers.
Those who were rich enough coined silver bul-
lets, that metal against which, it was supposed,
even a "charmed life was not safe.
At last matters grew so bad that Master
Lupus inaugurated a reign of teri'or. The in-
habitants of certain fishing stations durst not
stir abroad after nightfall, and in many places
prayers were offered up for his doom. Matters
having come to this crisis, Lieutenant Wilmer,
of the 4th Royal Veteran Battalion, then on a
visit to St. John's, and several other officers,
formed a party to hunt the animal down.
Having arrived on the scene of his exploits
they tracked him on the snow for eight miles,.
and at length came up with him at Turk's Gut,
He was observed by them crouched in a little
thicket of bushes, opposite the door of a "tilt"
inhabited by a poor widow.
When discovered he was about twenty feet
from the "tilt," looking intently at some sheep
which were in a shed attached to the "tilt,"
waiting, apparently, for them to come out to
spring upon them.
Finding himself observed by the hunters he
got up and made off, running very fast, with a
sort of limping spring in his gait. As soon as
he broke from cover the men pursued him.
One fired and knocked him down, but he im-
mediately recovered and continued his flight.
Another then fired, apparently breaking one of
his legs, for the officers with their rifles were
very different sort of antagonists from the poor
fisherman with his flint and steel "brown Bess."
The wolf, however, still endeavored to scram-
ble off, hauling himself along on the snow with
great difficulty. Another shot proved too much
for him, and he rolled over.
The animal had made no cry nor any re-
CHIT CHAT. 91
distance, simply endeavoring to run from the
hunters, not even growling when struck by
He was a noble specimen of his race, his color
being like that of the silver-gray fox, and re-
markably handsome. From nose to tail he
measured five feet, the total length being six
feet six inches, with a height of two feet nine
Great, indeed, was the satisfaction of the
hunters in capturing "the terror" so easily;
and here his adventures ought to have ended.
But, as the sequel will prove, they had but
As one of the men was about to dispatch him
Lieutenant Wilmer interposed, and suggested
that, since he did not appear to be mortally
wounded, he should be taken alive and exhib-
ited. One of the bullets had traversed part of
his skull, stunning him.
This suggestion was acted upon; an empty
molasses luncheon was procured and rolled to
the spot, into which they shoved him, covering
the front up with strong bands of hoop-iron.
In this durance vile he was carried to the town
of St. John's, where, a more substantial resi-
dence having been built for him, he was ex-
hibited to the admiring townspeople at sixpence
For a time the investment proved profitable;
but, curiosity being satisfied, his cost speedily
became a burden, for it took no small amount
of raw meat to satisfy his diurnal appetite.
It was resolved to kill him and have him
stuffed, but Lieutenant Wilmer interposed once
more to save his life. He had some good qual-
ities in him, and evident capacity for civilization.
Wilmer offered to buy him, having conceived
the idea of making him a present to his
regiment, which he was about to rejoin, for a
regimental pet, like the tiger of the Madras
Fusiliers, or the goat of their Welsh confrjres.
This was accordingly carried into effect, and
behold Mr. Wolf leaving his country "for his
country's good," with the prospect of never
again setting foot on his native heath. But
events turned out otherwise, as the sequel will
(Concluded on page 98.)
AN EMPEROR'S WARDROBE.
I-IE German Emperor's wardrobe is said to
Sbe an extensive one. It has been re-
marked that he has occasion to change his cos-
tume oftener than any mortal, excepting the
modern belle. For instance: "l e might arrive
in Kiel, the chief German port of war, in tray-
eling costume, reviewing the marine in the uni-
form of a German admiral, then visit the various
schools in civilian's dress, dine on a foreign
man-of-war in the uniform of an admiral of its
nationality, and in the evening give a reception
in some gala dress. For each of these occasions
a different dress is absolutely necessary, accord-
ing to etiquette. lie has made as many as ten
or twelve changes in eighteen hours. Iis
wardrobe has reached gigantic dimensions. It
contains at present more than one thousand
costumes, divided into six classes. The military
costumes include all the different uniforms of
the highest ranks of the German army. The
court dresses for great ceremonies are classified,
except the coronation robes, with scepter and
crown, which are taken care of specially, in-
cluding the uniforms of the different orders,
and the costume for the torch-light polonaise
at great festivals, which is entirely of silk, with
knee-breeches and gartered hose. The civilian
garments, among which the dress-suits and
walking costumes of English cut play a leading
part, contain every piece of dress that is worn
by fashionable men at present. To that cate-
gory belong also the incognito dresses and the
Freemasons' costumes. He has, besides, bath-
ing, riding, driving, sleighing and skating cos-
tumes, from the Tyrolese to the Russian fur-gear
for bear hunting.
The so-called dresses of courtesy include the
uniforms of foreign regiments whose honorary
chief he is, besides the costumes lie is obliged
to don in visiting foreign courts. Even Chi-
nese and Japanese court dresses are not for-
gotten, and there is a display of Persian garbs
which the emperor wore during a visit to the
Shah. All of these costumes are duplicated
in case of accident."
FROM BAD TO WORSE.
A LADY whose Chnistian name was Jane,
and whose little daughter was named
after her, engaged a housekeeper who was also
Thinking that three Janes in one household
might occasion confusion, the lady said to the
new-comer, who was a tall, angular women, with
a rigid air and an unconmpromising cast of
countenance, "I think, Jane, it will be better
for me to call you by your last name, if you
have no objection."
"No'm. I have no objections," answered
the housekeeper, standing stiffly erect, valise in
Call me Darling,' ma'am, if you prefer.
That's my name."
THE GERMAN EMPEROR AND HIS TWO ELDEST SONS.
AMONG THE GIANT TREES OF CALIFORNIA.
F94 CHIT CHAT.
WHY IS IT?
HY one class of people more than another,
should object to felling timber, has long
remained a subject of interest and inquiry to
the many. Yet the truth exists that the "Span-
iards dislike to fell trees or cut live timber of
any sort, and this fact perhaps accounts for the
giant trees of California. The Spaniards, two
centuries ago, pushed their way through Mexico
to California, and, save the clearing of paths
through the dense forests, not a twig did their
axes chop down. Nor do the Spaniards trans-
planted to this continent ever destroy timber.
With stubborn pertinaciousness strangely at
variance with their lethargic dispositions, they
continue to build their houses of stone and
mortar at great expense of money and physical
exertion, when timber in abundance surrounds
them out of which they could construct log
houses, as did other pioneers, at a minimum of
cost and labor. Why, the Spaniard doesn't
even fell trees for firewood, but picks up dead
limbs as they fall to the ground, or pulls them
from the trees with his lariat."
AN ENTERPRISING ASIATIC NATION.
T VENTY years or so ago Japan was a land
of mystery; Europeans were forbidden
to travel,.or, indeed, to land, except at a few
treaty ports. To-day it is the most advanced
and most enterprising of all Asiatic nations.
The empire of Japan is a long chain of about
four thousand islands, reaching from Kam-
chatka to Formosa. Of these, only four are
large enough to be described; these have an
area of one hundred and sixty thousand square
miles, and a population of thirty-five million.
Many of these isles are of rare beauty; the
vegetation is sub-tropical; the seas, bays, cliffs
and headlands are almost unequaled for natural
Here and there on the rocky backbone of the
center of the islands are volcanoes of great size
and height. One of these, Fusi Yama, is a
snow-capped peak, to which the Japanese make
pilgrimages. It is twelve thousand four hundred
feet high, and is visible for one hundred miles.
Aso-sau, another crater, is twelve miles in
Earthquakes are common; and the Japanese,
therefore, build slight, but convenient houses
of bamboo and paper. Stbrms, cyclones and
water-spouts are frequent.
The southern islands have a climate resem-
bling that of the south of France, and the
northern ones that of Scotland.
Rice, wheat and millet, and most fruits are
carefully cultivated. The mulberry-tree is es-
pecially important; paper, cordage and articles
of dress are made from it. But the bamboo is
of still greater value : from it are built houses
often enriched with exquisite carvings; sails
for the largest ships are made from it, besides
screens, boxes, and fans of tiniest and loveliest
design. It furnishes also spoons, vessels for
cooking, water pipes and pens for writing, while
the young shoots are cooked as a great dainty.
Another useful tree is the camphor, the bark
of which, cut in small pieces and boiled, yields
the well-known fragrant gum.
The great pines, some of them two hundred
feet high, are the commonest of Japanese trees.
Tea, differing slightly from that of China, but
of great delicacy of flavor, is grown, and fetches
very high prices. The flowers and plants of
Japan are more varied and beautiful than those
of any other temperate country.
The gardens of Japan are works of art.
Miniature oaks and pines a yard high, with
fishponds, rockeries, shell paths and bamboo
carpentry, make a charming and fantastic gar-
den in a space of a few square feet. Out of
straw they make coats and hats for rainy
weather ; out of paper, walls, windows, pocket-
handkerchiefs and umbrellas.
The Japanese are excellent potters. We
have learned to prize highly Satsuma and Kioto
ware, and also the beautiful egg-shell pottery,
all of which are sold in Japan at very moderate
prices. Japanese bronzes are still more famous.
In our museums there are Japanese models and
castings of figures and animals of wonderful
delicacy. In lacquer work and enamel they
also excel. In fact, in Japan every workman
is an artist.
The wild animals of Japan. are the bear,
wolf, and wild boar; the fox, monkey, badger
and squirrel. The birds include the eagle,
hawk, heron, pheasant and stork; the latter
bird is the symbol of long life.
The minerals found in Japan are gold, silver,
lead, iron, petroleum and coal.
The religions of Japan are mainly two: Shin-
toism, the old national faith, and Buddhism.
The temples are very wealthy and numerous.
In the town of Kioto alone, there are said to
be ninety-three Shinto and nine hundred and
thirty-five Buddhist temples.
Kioto, the religious capital and the queen of
Japanese cities, is connected by river with Osaka.
There are only two lines of railway in Japan, one
eighteen and the. other sixty-six miles long;
but many more are in course of construction.
The harbors, also, are full of steamers, both
native and foreign. Several lines of steamers
ply regularly from port to port; from Nagaski
in the south, to Tokio and Yokohama.
CHIT CHAT. 95
The history of Japan goes back to very an-
cient times; accurate records have been pre-
served for nine hundred years. But the greatest
era in the national life was the revolution of
1863, when the Mikado again became the ac-
tive governor of Japan, and the Tycoon and
his feudal chiefs were set aside. A govern-
ment was then formed on European models;
and now a regular parliament has been sum-
moned to meet at Tokio.
A PUZZLE FOR GEOLOGISTS.
T HIE geological mystery of Texas is the
Llano Estacado or Staked Plain, which is
in reality a great, steep-sided island in an ocean
of land. Its elevated surface embraces fifty
thousand square miles, almost perfectly smooth,
unbroken by trees or bushes, and carpeted with
grass. Two streams, the Canadian and the
Pecos, flow around it, and both have cut nearly
one thousand feet below the level. The wall
of this vast tableland can be seen a distance of
fifty miles. The soil is rich and from six to
thirty feet deep. There is a porous sediment
of soil, sand, gravel and salt in horizontal layers
to a depth of two hundred feet, then, beneath,
a great floor of sands, clays and granites, in
part the Trinity sands, in part the red beds.
There is a little surface water, the soil being
as porous as a sponge. The one stream that
traverses the plain breaks suddenly out of the
ground, ripples over pebbly bottoms for ten
miles, and then mysteriously disappears. The
spongy soil has sucked it up.
More than a thousand wells have now been
dug into the porous strata, from which the
water does not flow, but is pumped freely by
windmills, and the Staked Plain is made thereby
a pasture for countless herds of cattle. The
water evidently soaks into the ground, is stored
in the mortar beds and grits, and prevented
from going farther down by the underlying red
beds. In the years to come this great Staked
Plain may serve purposes but vaguely dreamed
SIR WALTER SCOTT'S MEMORY.
MANY stories are told of Sir Walter Scott's
splendid memory. "Not only," writes
Lockhart, "did he recollect every stanza of any
ancient ditty of chivalry or romance which had
once excited his imagination, but it seemed as
if he remembered everything, without exception,
if it were in anything like the. shape of verse,
that he had ever read.
Hogg used to tell that one day, lamenting in
Sir Walter Scott's presence his having lost his
only copy of a long ballad composed by him in
his early days, and of which he then could only
recall one or two fragments, Scott said to him,
with a smile, "Take your pencil, Jamie, and I'll
dictate your ballad to you word for word ;" and
he did it.
Lockhart also gives the following anecdote:
"One morning at breakfast in my father's house,
shortly after one of Sir Walter's severe illnesses,
he was asked to partake of some of the baked
meats that coldly did furnish forth the break-
"'No, no,' he answered; 'I bear in mind
at present, Bob, the advice of your old friend,
From seasoned neats avert your eyes,
From hams, and tongues, and pigeon-pies;
A venison pasty set before ye,
Each bit you eat mmemento mori.'
"This was a verse of a clever rhyming pre-
scription sent out some thirty years before, and
which my father then remembered to have
repeated upon one of the Liddesdale rambles.
The verses had almost entirely escaped his
memory, but Sir Walter was able to give us a
long screed of them."
THE DISAPPEARING DESERT.
W TE are told that it "is not at all unlikely
that in the twentieth century the Desert
of Sahara will have disappeared as completely
from the maps as the Great American Desert
has done in the nineteenth. In the year 1857
the French engineer, M. Jus, demonstrated that
that portion of the Sahara desert included within
the area of French Algeria, contained large un-
derground supplies of water, and the number of
wells bored since that time in the department
of Algiers, Oran and Constantine amounts to
more than thirteen thousand. These wells
vary from one hundred to four hundred feet
in depth, and the pressure of the water forces
it a couple of feet above the surface of the
ground. It is then led to ditches, and is carried
in this way to the vineyards, date-trees and
wheat fields. No fewer than twelve million
acres of barren land have been made fruitful in
this way, an enterprise representing perhaps the
most remarkable example of irrigation by means
of artesian wells which can anywhere be found.
Algeria owes to this method of cultivation that
it is becoming a most important wine-producing
country, as may be gauged from the fact that in
1806 it sent to France ten million five hundred
96' CHIT CHAT.
by a coating of long and coarse hairs,
which penetrate through the thick soft fur
next the skin.
These hairs are 'removed in a very clever
manner. Being much larger than the hairs
which constitute the fur, their roots pene-
trate the skin much more deeply. In order
to remove them the dresser lays the skin,
with the fur downward, on a table. With
a long-bladed knife, as sharp as a razor, he
shaves off the skin, cutting it just deep
enough to sever the roots of the bristles,
without touching those of the inner fur.
The bristles are then easily removed, leav-
ing the fur untouched.
The skins, when first taken from the
animals, are taken to the salt-house, and
treated with salt for two or three weeks,
when they are sufficiently pickled to be
packed up in bundles for exportation. They
are first sent to San Francisco, from which
port they are shipped direct to London;
for, strange to say, the sealskins of the
world go to London to be dressed.
After the hair has been removed the skins
are dried, then damped and again shaved.
They are next stretched, worked, dried,
softened and dyed. Eight, and sometimes
-._ even twelve coats of dye are required to
.... produce the desired color.
A1W INTELLIGENT ANdIAL. -
HOW SEALSKIN FUR IS OBTAINED.
T HE common seal is found on the northern
Shores of our own country, but is not put to
any use. It is a most intelligent and affectionate
animal, being easily tamed, and becoming very
fond of a kind master.
There are several instances known where seals
have become so much attached to the fisher-
men as to spend the greater part of their time
on shore, and even in the house, only going in-
to the sea for the purpose of obtaining food.
Seals are very playful among themselves, and
may be seen at times turning somersaults in the
water, or playing at "follow my leader," where
one performs a number of feats which the others
try to imitate.
The sealskin fur, which is so much prized
for clothing purposes, is not taken from the
British animal, but from a group of seals belong-
ing to Northern regions, Alaska being the chief
When the skin is first taken from the ani-
mal, it gives no promise of the soft beauty
which makes it so valuable, being apparently
coarse and rough. This appearance is caused
NE stood on mamma's shelf, the queen
Of all her bric-a-brac:
A Chinese teapot, ages old,
With many a chip and crack.
"I think," so Katie mused, "I'll buy
A teapot for my mother;
'Cause this old thing's so full of cracks;
There's one, and there's another.
' She'll have it on the tea-table,
I heard her say to-day,
When Mrs. Wilder comes to tea
And Mrs. Neutral Gray.
CHIT CHAT. 97
"I'd feel so very mortified
To have the people see !
What makes her use the worstest things
When there are folks to tea ?
"A shiny brown one's twenty cents;
It isn't very pretty,
But then it hasn't been all cracked
And mended up with putty."
So Katie, for the shiny one,"
Spent all her money bless her I
And stuck the cracked old thing away,"
Down on the kitchen dresser.
JUD AND HIS BANJO.
'~ --IS'R, does you want to hiah?"
_IVI. I looked up to see a pleasant, good-
looking, tidy colored boy of perhaps fourteen.
His name was "Judson Lincoln Nicholls."
"There's two names," said I, "of distin-
guished Southern families, and Lincoln is cer-
tainly as good." Liking his appearance, and
needing a boy to keep my studio in order, I
employed him. He proved a treasure: his
capacity for asking questions and making re-
marks exceeded anything in my experience.
For instance: my next-door neighbor on that
floor was a physician, who had a nicely polished
and strung human skeleton hanging in his
private office. One day Jud caught sight of it
through the half-open door, and came hurrying
in to me full of wonder and amazement at its
resemblance to a man. I explained it all to
him, and was very much amused at his sober,
"But, Mis'r Jeemes, does you reckon I is got
one of dem things inside er me ? "
One night my attendant informed me that he
had been making a banjo; I told him to bring
it along, knowing his excellent ear for the
weird fanciful negro melodies, and about eight
o'clock that warm evening in April, I heard
the faint picking of a banjo on the stairs. As
it came nearer and nearer I decided it could
not be Jud, for it sounded exactly like a real
banjo. At last he emerged from the deep
shadow of the hall and stood quietly picking
his instrument in the doorway. A large red
rose, with a few crisp leaves, hung from his
mouth. (These darky boys all love flowers.)
Examining the instrument," I found it
made out of a "Havana" cigar-box, with real
banjo strings knotted together. The brand on
the box was "Good Luck." Pins were used
in the absence of nails for fastening it together,
and I think I noticed a wooden peg that sug-
gested half of a match. For the piece of wood
to which the strings were fastened at the lower
end, was substituted a piece of shoe-leather
with the eyeholes in it. The brass eyelets
through which the shoestring originally passed,
were here used for the banjo-strings, being just
the proper distance apart--"sure enough
strings," Jud said, meaning positively genuine.
I have seen many other banjoes made by these
boys out of oyster cans, gourds, etc., but this
one is the more interesting in detail.
98 CHIT CHAT.
PAGANINI AND HIS SON.
PAGANINI, the great violinist, had a little
son, whom he wished the world to know
by the high-sounding names of Alexander Cyrus
Achilles, though at home he was content to call
him simply Achillino. A friend once called to
take Paganini to the theater where he was to
play in a concert in the evening, arranged be-
tween the acts. This is the description the
friend gives of how he found him: "I went to
Paganini's lodgings, and I cannot easily describe
the disorder of the whole apartment. On the
table was one violin, on the sofa another. The
diamond snuff-boxes which sovereigns had given
him were one on the bed.and one of them among
his child's toys; music, money, caps, matches,
letters and boots, pell-mell here and there;
chairs, table, and even the bed removed from
their place, a perfect chaos, and Paganini in
the midst of it. A black silk cap covered his
still deeper black hair, a yellow tie loose round
his neck,'and a jacket of a chocolate color hung
on him as on a peg. He had Achillino in his
lap, who was very ill-tempered because he had
to have his hands washed. Suddenly he broke
loose from his father, who said to me: 'I am
quite in despair; I don't know what to do with
him; the poor child wants amusement, and I
am nearly exhausted playing with him.' Barely
were the words out of his mouth, when Achil-
lino, armed with his little wooden sword, pro-
voked his father to deadly combat. Up got
Paganini, catching hold of an umbrella to de-
fend himself. It was too funny to see the long,
thin figure of Paganini in slippers, retreating
from his son, whose head barely reached up to
his father's knees. He made quite a furious
onslaught on his father, who, retreating, shouted,
'Enough, enough! I am wounded!' but the
little rascal would not be satisfied ere he saw
his adversary tumble, and fall down vanquished
on the bed. But the time passed and we had
to be off, and now the real comedy began. He
wanted his white necktie, his polished boots,
his dress-coat. Nothing could be found. All
were hidden away. And by whom? By his
son Achillino. The little one giggled the whole
time, seeing his father with long strides travel-
ing from one end of the room to the other,
seeking his clothes. What have you done
with all my things?' he asked. 'Where have
you hidden them ?' The boy pretended to be
very much astonished, and perfectly dumb. He
shrugged his shoulders, inclined his head side-
ways, and mimically indicated that he knew
nothing whatever of the mishap. After a long
search, the boots were discovered under the
pillowcase, the necktie was lying quietly in one
of the boots, the coat was hidden in the port-
manteau, and in the drawer of the dinner-
table, covered with napkins, was the waistcoat.
Every time Paganini found one of the missing
objects he put it on in triumph, perpetually ac-
companied by the little man, who was delighted
to see his father looking for the things, where
he knew they could not be found; but Pagani-
ni's patience with him was unwearied."
SAVED BY A WOLF.
(Concluded from page, 91.)
N the following October, detachments of
the 4th Royal Veteran Battalion and their
families, with a few belonging to other corps in
Canada, embarked on board the ship larpoooner,
Joseph Bryant master, at Quebec, bound for
Deptford. With them was the new pet of the
regiment, who was inclosed in a strong iron
cage on the hurricane deck. Like most other
animals, he did not enjoy a first voyage, and
had every trace of fierceness effectually taken
out of him by the rolling of the ship.
On arriving in the gulf the weather proved
boisterous and the wind contrary. Not a sight
of land, nor an observation of the sun, could
be depended upon for several days. The fol-
lowing Sunday evening, at nine o'clock, the
second mate on watch called out, "The ship's
aground!" at which time she lightly struck on
the outermost rock of St. Shotts, in the island
A scene of wild confusion arose. Women's
shrieks mingled with the storm-blast. The
phosphorescent glare of the flying sea seemed
but to light up the blackness of the night to re-
veal its horrors. The ship beat over, and had
not proceeded a mile ere she again struck, fall-
ing over on her larboard beam ends. And now,
to heighten the terror and alarm, it was per-
ceived that a lighted candle had set fire to some
spirits in the captain's cabin, which in the con-
fusion was with difficulty extinguished.
The ship still driving on, her masts were cut
away, and in falling hurried several brave men
In this situation every one became terrified;
the suddenness of the sea rushing in carried
away the berths and stanchions between decks,
when men, women and children were drowned,
or killed by the force with which they were
driven against the loose baggage, casks and
stores floating below.
All who could gained the deck, hnd from the
confusion which prevailed the orders of the offi-
cers and master to the soldiers and seamen were
unavailing. The boats had been carried away.