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Reliability of silicon bipolar junction transistors in integrated circuits

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Title:
Reliability of silicon bipolar junction transistors in integrated circuits
Creator:
Carroll, Michael S., 1968- ( Dissertant )
Neugroschel, Arnost ( Thesis advisor )
Sah, Chih-Tang ( Thesis advisor )
Zory, Peter ( Reviewer )
Nishida, Toshikazu ( Reviewer )
Sieberling, Elizabeth ( Reviewer )
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1995
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vi, 253 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Electric current ( jstor )
Electric potential ( jstor )
Electron tunneling ( jstor )
Electrons ( jstor )
Hot electrons ( jstor )
Hydrogen ( jstor )
Oxides ( jstor )
Silicon ( jstor )
Stress relaxation ( jstor )
Transistors ( jstor )
Bipolar integrated circuits ( lcsh )
Bipolar transistors ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Electrical and Computer Engineering -- UF ( lcsh )
Electrical and Computer Engineering thesis, Ph. D ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
The reliability of silicon bipolar junction transistors in integrated circuits is investigated. The decrease in the common-emitter current during bipolar transistor operation in BiCMOS circuits is analyzed and modeled. The current gain degradation during reverse-bias stress of the emitter-base junction is found to be the result of interface trap generation at the oxide/silicon interface and charging of the oxide layer near the emitter-base junction perimeter by energetic electrons and holes to increase the base current. A model for interface trap generation based on the rupture of weak impurity bonds by hot carriers is presented to explain the meaured kinetics of the increase in interface trap density. A surface electron channel after heavy reverse-bias stress is shown to exist over the quasi-neutral base from positive oxide charging. The stress voltage thresholds for positive oxide charging are also measured and analyzed. Accelerated reverse emitter-bias stress methodologies are presented which allow for more rapid and accurate determination of bipolar transistor time-to-failure at low power supply voltages. Hot holes are found to be the primary cause of interface trap generation for low stress voltages. Significant transistor degradation is measured for stress voltages as low as 2.5V, indicating bipolar transistor reliability will remain an important concern in the future. The base current relaxation transient following reverse emitter-base bias stress is analyzed and attributed to a decrease of trapped positive charge in the oxide layer near the emitter-base junction perimeter. The trapped holes in the oxide are modeled to tunnel from oxide traps to the silicon valence band during base current relaxation. The relaxation transient is found to occur after a certain delay time. The effects of Ib relaxation are also found to decrease at low stress voltages. The bipolar transistor reliability during operation at high current densities in the forward-active mode is investigated. an increase in the current gain is found at moderate forward emitter-base bias, and this phenomenon is attributed to the passivation of polysilicon/.crystalline-silicon interface traps in the emitter by atomic hydrogen. A model is presented which explains the measured results in both n/p/n and p/n/p transistors.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1995.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 246-252).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Michael S. Carroll.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Michael S. Carroll. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
002070209 ( ALEPH )
34461947 ( OCLC )
AKQ8471 ( NOTIS )

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RELIABILITY OF SILICON BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS IN INTEGRATED CIRCUITS







By

MICHAEL S. CARROLL


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1995










ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would like to thank my supervising professors Dr. Arnost Neugroschel and Dr. Chih-Tang Sah for their guidance during my doctoral research. I would also like to thank Dr. Toshikazu Nishida, Dr. Peter Zory, and Dr. L. Elizabeth Seiberling for serving on my supervisory committee. I also thank Yi Lu, Jack Kavalieros, Michael Han, and Steven Walstra for helpful discussions, and Kurt Pfaff for assistance in measurements and data analysis. The financial support from Intel Corporation and the Semiconductor Research Corporation is also gratefully acknowledged.










TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. ii

A B ST R A C T . . v

CHAPTERS

1. INTRODUCTION TO BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR
RELIA BILITY . 1

1.1. Introduction. 1 1.2. Bipolar Transistor Fabrication . 4 1.3. Shockley-Read-Hall Recombination Theory. . 9 1.4. Shockley Equations for BJT Currents. 11 1.5. Sah-Noyce-Shockley Recombination Current. 16 1.6. Surface Trap-Assisted Tunneling Current. 20 1.7. Reverse-Bias Current in the Emitter-Base Junction. 25 1.8. Analysis of Base and Collector Currents. . 28
1.9. Theory of Hot-Carrier Oxide-Silicon Interface
Trap Generation. 32
1.10. Bipolar Transistor Self-Heating. . 41 1.11. Sum m ary. 45

2. PHYSICAL DEGRADATION MECHANISMS OF SILICON BIPOLAR
JUNCTION TRANSISTORS DURING REVERSE EMITTER-BASE
BIAS STRESS . . 46

2.1. Introduction. 46
2.2. Fundamental Excess Base Current Mechanisms. . 52 2.3. Analysis of Hot Carriers During Stress. . 69 2.4. Analysis of Excess Base Current Kinetics. 78 2.5 Device Models for Excess Base Current. 95 2.6. Sum m ary. .101











3. CURRENT-ACCELERATED STRESS METHODOLOGIES
FOR SILICON BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
UNDER REVERSE EMITTER-BASE BIAS STRESS.103

3.1. Introduction . . .103 3.2. Background and Demonstration of Current Acceleration.106 3.3. Hot Carrier Analysis During Stress. 118 3.4. Demonstration of TTF Extrapolation on Two Technologies. 124 3.5. Sum m ary. 148

4. BASE CURRENT RELAXATION TRANSIENT IN SILICON
BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS AFTER
REVERSE EMITTER-BASE BIAS STRESS. .150

4.1. Introduction. 150 4.2. Experiments and Results.154 4.3. Model for Base Current Relaxation. 169
4.4. Sum m ary. . 186

5. EFFECTS OF HIGH CURRENT DENSITY OPERATION ON SILICON
BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS.187

5.1. Introduction.187 5.2. Experiments and Results.191
5.3. Model for Current Gain Increase and Emitter Resistance
D ecrease. .222
5.4. TTF Extrapolation of High-Current Stress Data. 229 5.5. Summary.237

6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. .241

6.1. Sum m ary. .241 6.2. Oxide/Silicon Interface Reliability.241 6.3. Oxide Charging and Discharging .243 6.4. Polysilicon/Silicon Interface Reliability.244

R EFER EN CES. .246

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.253










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy RELIABILITY OF SILICON BIPOLAR JUNCTION
TRANSISTORS IN INTEGRATED CIRCUITS By

MICHAEL S. CARROLL

December 1995


Chairman: Dr. Arnost Neugroschel
Cochairman: Dr. Chih-Tang Sah
Major Department: Electrical and Computer Engineering


The reliability of silicon bipolar junction transistors in integrated circuits is investigated. The decrease in the common-emitter current gain during bipolar transistor operation in BiCMOS circuits is analyzed and modeled. The current gain degradation during reverse-bias stress of the emitter-base junction is found to be the result of interface trap generation at the oxide/silicon interface and charging of the oxide layer near the emitter-base junction perimeter by energetic electrons and holes to increase the base current. A model for interface trap generation based on the rupture of weak impurity bonds by hot carriers is presented to explain the measured kinetics of the increase in interface trap density. A surface electron channel after heavy reverse-bias stress is shown to exist over the quasi-neutral base from positive oxide charging. The stress voltage thresholds for positive oxide charging are also measured and analyzed.

Accelerated reverse emitter-base bias stress methodologies are presented which allow for more rapid and accurate determination of bipolar transistor time-to-failure at










low power supply voltages. Hot holes are found to be the primary cause of interface trap generation for low stress voltages. Significant transistor degradation is measured for stress voltages as low as 2.5V, indicating bipolar transistor reliability will remain an important concern in the future.

The base current relaxation transient following reverse emitter-base bias stress is analyzed and attributed to a decrease of trapped positive charge in the oxide layer near the emitter-base junction perimeter. The trapped holes in the oxide are modeled to tunnel from oxide traps to the silicon valence band during base current relaxation. The relaxation transient is found to occur after a certain delay time. The effects of IB relaxation are also found to decrease at low stress voltages.

The bipolar transistor reliability during operation at high current densities in the forward-active mode is investigated. An increase in the current gain is found at moderate forward emitter-base bias, and this phenomenon is attributed to the passivation of polysilicon/crystalline-silicon interface traps in the emitter by atomic hydrogen. A model is presented which explains the measured results in both n/p/n and p/n/p transistors.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR RELIABILITY


1.1. Introduction


The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was invented in 1947 at Bell Telephone Laboratories to become the first solid-state amplifier. The theory of BJT operation was first proposed by Shockley in 1949 [1]. In the nearly fifty years following the invention of the BJT, many improvements have been made in device performance through extensive work on the optimization of the design and fabrication technology. The original germanium point contact transistors developed in the late 1940s were replaced by silicon planar diffused transistors in the early 1960s to allow for cost-effective mass production and the thin base layers necessary for high-frequency applications [2]. This led to the first integrated circuits, which were manufactured at Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation using silicon bipolar transistors, diodes, and resistors [2]. By the early 1980s, the metal oxide semiconductor transistor (MOST) had replaced the BJT in many digital logic applications, with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic gaining widespread use. However, the advent of bipolar-CMOS (BiCMOS) logic in the mid 1980s suggests BJTs will continue to be important for future VLSI circuit applications where the superior load capacitance drive of BJTs over MOSTs is necessary. However, the reliability of submicron, polysilicon-emitter BJTs in integrated










circuits still has several important unresolved issues which must be studied for BiCMOS and other logic designs to reach their full potential.

The decrease in common-emitter current gain (PF) when the emitter-base junction of a BJT is reverse biased during circuit operation has been studied extensively since it was first reported by Collins in 1968 [3-25]. This phenomenon has been determined to be the limiting factor in BiCMOS circuit reliability in some designs [8], which has intensified the investigation in recent years. Although a consensus has been reached that this phenomenon is mainly due to hot carrier degradation of the SiO2/Si interface near the emitter-base junction, the fundamental mechanisms causing the device degradation have not been conclusively demonstrated. Several empirical modeling attempts have had limited success in predicting the BJT 1F degradation rate in some cases [8,9,11], but faster, more accurate, and physically-based methods of determining the reliability of new BJT technologies are needed for the low-voltage (3.3V and 2.5V), deep-submicron BiCMOS technologies anticipated in the future.

Operation of polysilicon-emitter BJTs in the normal, forward-active mode at high current densities has been shown to cause fluctuations in $F as well as a decrease in the emitter resistance [26-33]. This reliability issue is expected to become more important as BJT emitter dimensions continue to decrease and current densities surpass ImA/lm2 or 100kA/cm2. A decrease in PF has been measured on many transistor technologies, and is modeled to be the result of SiO2/Si interface degradation near the emitter-base junction [26-29]. An increase in PF during high current density operation has also been measured in many instances and is attributed to the capture and release of atomic










hydrogen at grain boundaries in the polysilicon emitter contact and at the polysilicon/silicon interface in the emitter [31-33], by extending the model for boron acceptor deactivation in p-type silicon developed by Sah [34]. However, only limited work has been done on the PF instabilities at high current densities, and a detailed analysis is critical to improve the understanding of this problem.

The reliability issues introduced above will be studied and modeled in this work in an effort to determine the physical mechanisms involved, improve device time-tofailure (TTF) extrapolation methods, and evaluate the potential reliability problems at the low-voltage circuit operation expected in the future. This will serve as an important step in determining the necessary improvements to submicron BJT designs.

In this introductory chapter, submicron silicon BJT fundamentals for reliability analysis are presented as a foundation for studying BJT reliability. The important BJT current components encountered during operation will be characterized, and a model for trap generation at the SiO2/Si interface from hot carriers will be presented. In Ch.2, the fundamental [F degradation mechanisms during reverse emitter-base bias stress will be analyzed and modeled. In Ch.3, two accelerated methods for determining the TTF for BJTs due to F degradation during BiCMOS circuit operation will be presented and demonstrated. This analysis will also determine which degradation mechanisms are the most important for low-voltage operation in present and future circuits. In Ch.4, the post reverse-bias stress relaxation transient of the base current in submicron BJTs will be examined and modeled. In Ch.5, the changes in PF and the emitter resistance










decrease during high current density forward-active operation will be analyzed. Finally, a summary of this dissertation is given in Ch.6.


1.2. Bipolar Transistor Fabrication


Since the majority of the reliability issues for submicron BJTs have been attributed to device degradation at the perimeter of the heavily doped emitter-base junction [3-33], the characteristics of the emitter and base layers in different BJT designs must be taken into account when attempting to explain the fundamental degradation mechanisms. Therefore, the design and fabrication steps to form BJTs in VLSI applications must be examined. Submicron BJTs are generally fabricated using polysilicon emitter contacts to enable shallow emitter-base junction depths. BJTs which are to be integrated into BiCMOS circuits may have a fabrication technology which fits as closely as possible into the standard CMOS processing steps. In this case, the technology is referred to as CMOS-based BiCMOS process. If a high performance BJT is integrated into a CMOS process with little change in the BJT design, the technology is referred to as a bipolar-based BiCMOS process. In both cases, some compromises to the device designs must be made to allow cost-effective manufacturing. Two designs have emerged to satisfy this need. The majority of BiCMOS BJTs reported thus far have consisted of one of these basic designs, possibly with some additional features to enhance the performance or reliability.

The first design is the self-aligned BJT, which has similar fabrication steps as the self-aligned MOS transistor. A cross-section of two typical self-aligned polysilicon










emitter bipolar transistors are shown in Fig. 1.1 [35, p.87]. For the single polysilicon level self-aligned BJT shown in Fig.1.1(a), the p-type intrinsic base is formed by a boron implant inside an n-type well. A polysilicon layer is then deposited and implanted with arsenic to form the n+ polysilicon emitter. A nitride layer is deposited on top of the n+ polysilicon layer. These layers are then patterned to form the active device area. This is followed by a p+ implant to form the extrinsic base contact. The base contact is automatically aligned to the active device area, since the polysilicon emitter contact is used as the implant barrier. The silicon portion of the emitter is formed by out-diffusion from the n+ polysilicon layer. For the double polysilicon level self-aligned BJT shown in Fig.1.1(b), a p+ polysilicon layer is used to form the base contact. A hole is opened in the p+ polysilicon layer to form the active device area. The n+ polysilicon layer is then added, and the n+ silicon emitter is formed by out-diffusion from the polysilicon. For both of these processes, sidewall oxide spacers allow for close alignment of the metal interconnect layers. The collector contact is formed by an n+ implant into the n-type collector layer on the edge of the device. The advantage of the self-aligned BJT design is that it is easily integrated into a CMOS process and produces a very compact and high performance transistor design, since the active transistor area is automatically aligned to the p+ base contact. However, the close proximity of the highly doped n+ silicon portion of the emitter and the p+ base contact region may produce a high electric field in this region. This may cause reliability problems in BiCMOS applications, as will be analyzed in Ch.2. Some processing variations similar




















P n+ P +


n well


p substrate


p n+


n well


p substrate

(b)



Fig.1.1 BJT cross-sections for single polysilicon and double polysilicon self-aligned
processes. Adapted from Alvarez [35, p.87].


Si02


I I\I


ii1\










to the lightly-doped drain technology in MOS transistors have been used to decrease the electric field in this region [21].

The second design will be referred to as a non self-aligned BJT. A typical cross section is shown in Fig.1.2 [35, p.88]. In this design the p-type base is formed by a boron implant in a n-type well, and a p+ base contact is implanted at the edge of the ptype base. An oxide layer is then grown, and an opening is etched to form the active transistor area. The emitter polysilicon is then deposited over the oxide opening and the silicon emitter is formed by out-diffusion from the polysilicon. An n+ collector contact is implanted into the n-type collector layer on the other side of the active transistor region from the base contact. This design is not as compact as the self-aligned BJT, because more tolerance must be left for alignment of the oxide etch and emitter polysilicon deposition step which forms the active transistor area. Thus, the p-type base extends a longer distance between the active transistor area and the p+ base contact. However, this BJT design may require fewer steps to produce than the self-aligned process. It also does not place the p+ base contact directly next to the n+ emitter contact. This decreases the electric field in the emitter-base junction and may increase the reliability of the transistor during operation in BiCMOS circuits.

For each of the designs mentioned above, a substrate n+ collector (sub-collector) may also be added to the process to improve BJT performance, although this will increase the complexity of the fabrication due to required epitaxial silicon crystal growth over the subcollector to form the active device region. The collector technology has not been found to affect the reliability issues investigated in this work.



















SiO,



LL+�


n well


p substrate


Fig.1.2 BJT cross-section for a non self-aligned process. Adapted from Alvarez [35,
p.88].










1.3. Shockley-Read-Hall Recombination Theory


The recombination of electrons and holes in semiconductors determines the current which flows in p/n junction devices under normal operation. In order to understand and model BJT operation and reliability, the various recombination processes which determine the device operation must first be analyzed. The basis for modeling the recombination kinetics in silicon is the single trap level analysis first proposed by Shockley and Read [36], which assumes that recombination may be modeled by a single trap level in the silicon energy gap. The transition rates between electrons in the conduction band and the traps are the electron capture rate (cn) and electron emission rate (en), while the transition rates between holes in the valence band and the traps are the hole capture rate (Cp) and hole emission rate (ep). The steady-state rates of electron and hole recombination are then RN = CNPT - eN (1.1)

and

Rp= cpPNT - epPT, (1.2)

where N is the density of electrons in the conduction band, P is the density of holes in the valence band, NT is the density of electrons in traps, and PT is the density of holes in traps. The quantity NTr is defined as the total number of traps, so PT = NTT - NT. It is assumed that the equilibrium values for cn, Cp, en, and ep are good approximations for the values during steady-state situations. The steady-state rates of electron and hole recombination are required to be equal such that there is no build-up of charge at the










traps over time. Thus, the electron density in the traps may be found by from Eqs.(1.1) and (1.2) to be

NT(enN + ep)
N = (1.3)
cnN + en + cpP + ep

The result in Eq.(1.3) may be substituted into Eq.(1.1) or Eq.(1.2) to find the net recombination rate of electrons and holes. For steady-state conditions which are close to equilibrium, the recombination rate can be further simplified to be NP - n.2
R= i , (1.4)
(N + N1)tp + (P + P1)Tn

where

N = en/cn = niexp[(ET' - EI)/klT (1.5)

and

P1 = ep/Cp = niexp[(EI - ET')/kT]. (1.6)

The quantity ni is the intrinsic electron concentration, ET' is the effective trap energy which includes trap degeneracy, EI is the intrinsic Fermi Energy, k is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature. The quantities rn i/CnNT and rp = 1/CpNT are the steady-state recombination lifetimes of electrons and holes. Eq.(1.4) may be simplified for the case of n-type silicon where NN >> PN' ni, NI, and P1. In this case, the recombination rate simplifies to R = (PN - PN0)/Tp, (1.7)

where PN is the hole concentration in the n-type silicon, and PNO = ni2/NN is the equilibrium hole concentration. Therefore, the recombination rate is found to vary










linearly with the excess minority carrier density in neutral silicon, which is the basis for Shockley's minority carrier injection theory.


1.4. Shocklev Equations for BJT Currents


The important BJT current components for forward-active operation of a n+/p/n transistor are shown in Fig.1.3. Ideal expressions for these currents were derived by Shockley in 1949 [1], and a similar analysis is repeated in this section as a foundation for modeling BJT reliability. The electron current in the base will be examined first. The forward bias on the emitter-base junction during forward-active operation establishes an injected minority electron concentration, NB, in the p-type base. At the edge of the emitter-base space-charge region, x=OB, for low-injection conditions the injected electron concentration is related to equilibrium electron concentration in the base, NBO = ni2/NAA, by

NB(0B) = NBO exp(qVBE/kT), (1.8)

where NAA is the p-type base doping concentration, q is the charge of an electron, and VBE is the forward emitter-base bias. If the collector-base junction is assumed to be shorted (VcB=O) during normal BJT operation, then NB(XB) = NB0. (1.9)

The steady-state electron transport in the quasi-neutral base can be approximated by considering only the diffusion of injected electrons according to the equations JN = qDBdNB/dx (1.10)





















JP-r
JN(OB) JNXB)
i > j 0 >


base


XB Oc


Fig. 1.3 Schematic diagram of a BJT showing the important current densities which
contribute to the emitter current, base current, and collector current in forward-active operation. Solid dots represent electrons in the conduction band and circles represent holes in the valence band. Adapted from Sah [42,
p.833].


B
OV


JB


-VBE
E


JN(OE)


JE


JN(Oc)


Jp(Os)


4-C
Jp(OE) emitter


Jc M--


-XE


nV C
OV


OE OB


collector


. T










dJN/dx = RN = q(NB(X) - NBO)/B, (1.11)

where the recombination rate in the quasi-neutral base is assumed to vary linearly with the excess injected electron concentration, Ng - NBO, as demonstrated in Eq.(1.7). The quantity DB is the electron diffusivity in the base, and rB is the electron lifetime in the base. The solution to Eqs. (1.10) and (1.11) using the boundary conditions in Eq.(1.8) and (1.9) is



NB(X) - NBo = NBO[exp(qVBE/kT) - 1] sinh[(XB - x)L/LB) (1.12)


where LB = (DBTB)0.5 is the electron diffusion length in the base. The electron currents in the base at the edges the emitter-base and collector-base space-charge regions, x=OB and x=XB, are found to be

JN(OB) = (qNBoDB/LB) [exp(qVBE/kT) - 1] ctnh(XB/LB) (1.13)

and

JN(XB) = (qNBODB/LB) [exp(qVBE/kT) - 1] csch(XB/LB) (1.14)

by substituting Eq.(1.12) into Eq.(1.10). The difference of JN(0B) - JN(XB) is the electron current lost to recombination in the base as electrons diffuse from x=OB to x=XB. An equal hole current must flow into the base to compensate for the holes which recombine with the electrons. Therefore, the hole current due to carrier recombination in the base is



JP-r = (qNBoDB/LB)[exp(qVBE/kT) - l] osh(XB/LB) (1.15)
sinh(XB/L )










The injection of holes into the emitter from the p-type base by the forward-biased emitter-base junction also occurs in BJTs. This is the major component of base current, IgB in most current BJT designs before aging. The density of injected holes in the emitter at the edge of the emitter-base space-charge region, x=OE, is PE(0E) = PEO exp(qVBE/kT), (1.16)

where PEO = ni2/NDD is the equilibrium hole concentration in the emitter, and NDD is the emitter doping concentration. The concentration of holes at the emitter contact, x=-XE, generally depends on the contact recombination velocity, SE, for typical submicron transistors with shallow emitter layers and polysilicon emitter contacts. The recombination rate of holes at the emitter contact can be modeled to vary linearly with the excess hole concentration in the emitter at the silicon surface, PE(-XE) - PEO' such that

Rp(-XE) = SE[PE(-XE) - PEO]' (1.17)

The recombination rate of holes at x=-XE, Rp(-XE), must also be equal to the minority carrier hole current at x=-XE. Therefore,

-JP(-XE) = SE[PE(-XE) - PEO]" (1.18)

The hole transport in the emitter layer is governed by diffusion such that dJp/dx = -q(PE(X) - PEO)/ E, (1.19)

where tE is the hole lifetime in the emitter. The solution of Eq.(1.19) evaluated at x=0E with the boundary conditions in Eqs.(1.16) and (1.18) is [37] [ LE/TEsinh(XE/LE) + SECosh(XE/LE) ( Jp(0E) = qPEo [exp(qVBE/kT) - 1] ,+ (SELE/DE)SInh(XE/LE) (1.20)
EO BEcosh(XE/LE) + (SELE/DE)sinh(XE/LE)










where LE = (DE'E)0.5 is the hole lifetime in the emitter, and DE is the electron diffusivity in the emitter. Thus, the hole current injected into the emitter is found to have the same dependence on VBE as the injected electron current in the base, although the dependence on SE in the emitter makes the expression in Eq.(1.20) more complicated.

The current in the collector layer is dominated by the current from electrons which are injected from the emitter into the base and reach the collector-base spacecharge region, JN(XB), which was derived in Eq.(1.14). The collector current, Ic, may be approximated by multiplying Eq.(1.14) by the emitter area, AE' if interband impact generation in the collector-base junction space-charge region is negligible. Therefore,

Ic = (qAEni2DB/NAALB) [exp(qVBE/kT) - 1] csch(XB/LB). (1.21) The base current, IgB is the sum of the hole current injected into the emitter from the base plus the hole current which flows into the base to compensate for recombination of injected electrons. Therefore, IB is the sum of the currents in Eq.(1.20) and Eq.(1.15). However, in devices with very short base layer thicknesses, the hole current injected into the emitter will dominate IB So,


S(LE/Esinh(XE/LE) + SEcosh(XE ) (1.22)
IB = (qAEni 2/N DD)[exp(qVBE/kT) - 1] . (1.22)
- DI [cosh(XE/LE) + (SELE/DE)sinh(XE/LE)


The emitter current, IE' is simply the sum of the Ic and IgB An important conclusion from the above analysis is that the ideal components of IB and Ic will both be proportional to exp(qVBE/kT) for forward emitter-base biases. However, the ideal Shockley BJT equations are not adequate to completely describe device operation, since










the generation and recombination currents associated with the emitter-base and collector-base space-charge regions are ignored.


1.5. Sah-Novce-Shockley Recombination Current


The ideal BJT current equations derived in the last section assume that recombination in the space-charge region of the emitter-base junction is negligible during forward-active operation compared to the injection of electrons from the emitter into the base and the recombination of carriers in the quasi-neutral layers. This may not be the case in some transistors, and the base current associated with carrier recombination in the emitter-base space-charge region, or Sah-Noyce-Shockley current, may be quite important. The increase of the base current due to surface recombination at the SiO2/Si interface has been found to be an important reliability concern in BJTs [331]. The recombination kinetics for a single trap level derived by Shockley, Read, and Hall can be extended to provide an analysis of recombination in the space-charge region of a forward-biased p/n junction. This was first done by Sah, Noyce, and Shockley in 1957 [38]. Since the assumptions leading to the linear dependence of the recombination rate on excess minority carrier density in Eq.(1.7) are not valid in the space-charge region of a p/n junction, a more detailed analysis must be performed. The electron and hole distributions vs. energy assuming a Boltzmann distribution are N = niexp[(FN - EI)/kT] (1.23)

and


P = niexp[(E - Fp)/kT],


(1.24)










where FN and Fp are the electron and hole quasi-Fermi energies. Eqs.(1.5), (1.6), (1.23), and (1.24) can be substituted into Eq.(1.4) to obtain an approximate steady-state recombination rate in terms of the carrier steady-state lifetimes, the intrinsic Fermi energy, and quasi-Fermi energies. If n = tp = , Eq.(1.4) becomes (n/it) sinh[(FN - Fp)/2kT]
R = , (1.25)
cosh[(E - FNp)/kT] + exp[(F, - FN)/2kT] cosh[(ET' - E)/kT]

where FNP=(FN + Fp)/2 is the average of the electron and hole quasi-Fermi energies. The current due to recombination in the emitter-base space-charge region is JSNS = q JRdx, (1.26)


where XEB is the space-charge region thickness. An analysis of Eq.(1.25) demonstrates that the recombination rate in the junction space-charge region depends nearly exponentially on three quantities: (1) the difference of the electron and hole quasiFermi levels in the space-charge region or approximately the emitter-base junction voltage, VBE; (2) the energy difference between the intrinsic Fermi level, EI, and the average of the quasi-Fermi levels, FNP; and (3) the energy separation between the trap level, ET, and the intrinsic Fermi level, E. Therefore, for a fairly uniform trap density spatially and vs. energy in the silicon energy gap, the maximum recombination rate will occur for traps near midgap at the point in the space-charge region where the average of the two quasi-Fermi levels is also near midgap. This is illustrated in Fig. 1.4, where the maximum recombination point is shown by a solid dot. The total recombination current in Eq.(1.26) may be approximated by integrating only over the shaded area in Fig.1.4, since this is where the majority of the recombination takes place. The approximate
















n+ Si


p Si


-VBE E*


*B Ov


Fig.1.4 Energy band diagram for the emitter-base junction of a BJT showing the
maximum recombination point (solid dot) in the emitter-base space charge region according to Eq.(1.25) with In = p. The Sah-Noyce-Shockley current may be approximated by assuming recombination dominates in the narrow
shaded region near this point. Adapted from Sah et al. [38].










thickness of this recombination region, XR, may be found by calculating the length of the space-charge region where IEI - FNpI < 3kT. For IEI - FNpI > 3kT, the recombination rate has decreased by a factor of ten from the maximum.

Carrier recombination in the emitter-base space-charge region of a BJT will increase IgB as holes are required to flow into the space-charge region to maintain the steady-state concentration. In most BJTs, the component of IB due to Sah-NoyceShockley recombination current is dominated by surface recombination at the SiO2/Si interface. This is because the density of traps at the Si/SiO2 interface, NIT' is usually much larger than the density of traps in the bulk silicon. Energetic carriers are also known to increase NIT through impact bond-breaking processes. Therefore, the surface Sah-Noyce-Shockley IB component produces many of the instability problems associated with BJTs. An approximate expression for this recombination current may be obtained by assuming that the current is dominated by recombination in the effective recombination region, XR. The interface traps near midgap are assumed to dominate the recombination current. If SN = Sp = So is the recombination velocity of the interface traps at the maximum recombination point, then Eq.(1.26) becomes [38] IB-SNs = (qARniSo) [exp(qVBE/2kT) - 1] (1.27)

The quantity AR = PEXR is the effective surface recombination area, and PE is the emitter-base junction perimeter. The recombination velocity and, consequently, IB-SNs is directly proportional to the density of interface traps, NIT through the relation So = 0.5qni7cOgthNIT [39]. Another important point from the above analysis is that the SahNoyce-Shockley surface recombination component of IB is proportional to










exp(qVBE/2kT), while the IB components due to recombination in the quasi-neutral base or emitter were shown to be proportional to exp(qVBE/kT) in the last section. Therefore, the two BI components may be distinguished by the measured reciprocal slope factor, n, of the base current, where IB oc exp(qVBE/nkT). The reciprocal slope factor will be n=1.0 when IB is dominated by recombination in the quasi-neutral layers, and n=2 when IB is dominated by recombination in the emitter-base space-charge region.


1.6. Surface Trap-Assisted Tunneling Current


The injection of electrons from the emitter to the base during forward-active BJT operation and the recombination of these injected electrons in the quasi-neutral base and emitter and in the emitter-base space-charge region have been analyzed in the previous two sections. The recombination processes examined so far involved electron and hole capture and emission at traps in the silicon energy gap based on Shockley-Read-Hall processes. Another possible recombination process involves quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons from the conduction band in the emitter to traps in the energy gap in the emitter-base space-charge region, as shown in Fig.1.5. A hole is then captured at the trap to complete the two-step process. Another possible process involves holes in the valence band of the base tunneling to traps in the energy gap followed by electron capture. These two-step tunneling processes were analyzed in detail by Sah in 1961 [40] to explain the excess current in gold-doped tunneling diodes. Very similar processes may occur at the SiO2/Si interface in the emitter-base junction, although the interface traps are distributed throughout the silicon energy gap. Surface trap-assisted tunneling















p Si
n+ Si v(x) V=-q(Vbi - VBE) E
-VBE Ec F



B-T Fp


Ev Ev OV

0 Xt XEB












Fig. 1.5 Energy band diagram for the emitter-base junction of a BJT showing the trapassisted tunneling process during forward bias. The electron tunneling potential barrier from the conduction band in the emitter to the trap (triangle) is shown by the shaded region. The average electron tunneling distance is
labeled xt. Adapted from Sah [40].










currents were identified in submicron self-aligned BJTs by Li et al. [41]. If the tunneling event is the rate limiting step in the two-step tunneling process, then the current due to trap-assisted tunneling will have different characteristics than the recombination currents based on Shockley-Read-Hall processes.

The probability for an electron to tunnel from the conduction band in the emitter to a trap in the emitter-base space-charge region is determined by the potential barrier between the conduction band in the emitter and the trap, which is shaded in Fig.1.5. The approximate potential barrier shape may be calculated for an abrupt, one-sided junction, which is a valid approximation of the emitter-base junction in submicron BJTs. The potential energy, V, vs. position in the emitter-base space-charge region using the depletion approximation is found by applying Gauss's Law and integrating twice to get [42, p.412]

V(x) = -[2qNAA(Vbi - VBE)/ESi]0.5x + (qNA/2si)x2, (1.28) where NAA is the base acceptor impurity concentration, Vbi is the junction built-in voltage, esi is the silicon permittivity, and x is distance perpendicular to the emitter-base junction from the emitter edge of the space-charge region. The potential energy is set to zero at the emitter edge of the space-charge region (x=O), and V = -q(Vbi - VBE) at the base edge of the space-charge region (x=XEB). Since the emitter-base space-charge region width is

XEB = [2Esi(Vbi - VBE)/qNAA]O.5, (1.29)

Equation (1.28) may rewritten as

V(x) = -2(Vbi - VBE)(x/XEB) + (Vbi - VBE)(x/XEB)2. (1.30)










The electron tunneling probability through the potential barrier described by Eq.(1.30) may be approximated by [42, p.64]


= exp [-2 (x)dx] (1.31)


where

a(x) = { 2mx[V(x) - E] }05/h. (1.32)

In Eq.(1.32), E is the electron kinetic energy, mx is the electron effective mass in the tunneling direction, and fi = h/21r is the normalized Planck constant. The limits of the integration in Eq.(1.31) are from x=O to x=xt, where xt is the average tunneling distance for electrons as shown Fig.1.5. The current due to the tunneling-limited recombination pathway may be approximated by assuming that the tunneling step is rate limiting. This means the traps involved in the tunneling of electrons may be considered to be mostly empty since the hole capture event occurs much faster than the electron tunneling step. Therefore, calculating only the tunneling rate of electrons from the conduction band to traps in the energy gap will allow the tunneling-limited recombination current to be approximated. Only the traps in the energy gap at energies slightly greater than the bottom edge of the conduction band in the emitter are assumed important, as this is where the electron density in the conduction band is largest. Since most of the tunneling electrons have low kinetic energy, E is small in Eq.(1.32) compared to the tunneling potential barrier height. Equation (1.30) may be substituted into Eq.(1.32) and integrated in closed form in Eq.(1.31) to produce T = exp[-2(2mx/h2)0.5Yt(Vbi - VBE)0.5XEBI, (1.33)










where

yt = 0.5[(xt/XEB) - 1][(2xt/XEB) - (x/XEB )2]05 + 0.5arcsin[l - (xt/XEB)]. (1.34) The quantity y, depends on the average tunneling distance from the emitter edge of the space-charge region to the trap, xt, in relation to XEB. A constant ratio of xt/XEB is assumed to allow yt to be independent of VBE and simplify Eq.(1.33). Equation (1.29) may also be substituted into Eq.(1.33) to yield

T = exp[-4(mxesi /i2NAA)0.5yt(Vbi - VBE)] = exp[-(Vbi - VBE)/VT]. (1.35) The surface trap-assisted tunneling current is found by integrating the tunneling probability over the initial and final electron density of states. The initial and final density of states are assumed not to vary significantly with VBE, which makes the tunneling current proportional to the tunneling probability such that IB-Ts = B-TO exp[(VBE - Vbi)/VT], (1.36)

where IB-TO and VT are constants. Equation (1.36) will be used in Ch.2 to model the measured surface trap-assisted tunneling current. The value of VT found during leastsquare fit to the data may be used to calculate the approximate average tunneling distance for electrons. The constant IB-TO will directly depend on the interface trap density in the emitter-base space-charge region and the electron density in the emitter near the space-charge region. The density of available traps in the space-charge region for tunneling will most likely vary as VBE is changed, since NIT is known to vary with energy in the silicon energy gap. This may cause some small deviations of the measured current from Eq.(1.36), and may also provide information on the variation of NIT with energy in the top portion of the energy gap.










1.7. Reverse-Bias Current in the Emitter-Base Junction


The leakage current which flows in the n+/p emitter-base junction of submicron BJTs during reverse-bias is known to be an important cause of PF degradation [8,9,11]. Therefore, the source of the reverse-bias emitter-base junction current must be analyzed to understand BJT PF degradation. For the heavily doped n+/p junctions in submicron BJTs, the major source of reverse-bias current for junction voltages below breakdown is the interband tunneling of electrons from the valence band in the emitter-base space charge region to the emitter conduction band. This is shown in Fig.l.6, where the valence-band electrons are indicated by solid dots surrounded by circles. This notation emphasizes that the tunneling process leaves behind holes in the valence band of the space-charge region as electrons tunnel to the emitter conduction band. The tunneling process may be direct, phonon-assisted, or trap-assisted. Two trap-assisted tunneling pathways are also shown in Fig.1.6. The tunneling probability for the direct or phononassisted pathways for electrons in a reverse-biased p/n junction may be approximated by assuming a triangular potential barrier at the point in the junction where the tunneling rate is maximum, which is near the emitter edge of the space-charge region. This tunneling barrier is shaded in Fig.1.6. The tunneling probability is [42, p.65]


T = exp -4(2nX)03E G , (1.37)
3qhE


where mx is the tunneling electron effective mass in the direction from base to emitter, E G is the silicon energy gap which determines the height of the triangular potential tunneling barrier, and E is the electric field in the emitter-base space-charge region near













secondary electron


p Si


impact generation


(T) v
interband tunneling (direct or phonon-assisted)


Fig. 1.6 Energy band diagram for the emitter-base junction of a BJT during reversebias showing the tunneling (direct or phonon-assisted) and trap-assisted tunneling pathways. The shaded area represents the electron tunneling potential barrier from the valence band in the emitter-base space-charge region to the conduction band in the emitter. Interband impact generation and
thermal generation are also shown. Adapted from Neugroschel, et al. [24].


*B
OV


n+ Si


+VEB E* ,










the emitter which determines the slope of the triangular potential barrier. The tunneling current is found by integrating the tunneling probability over initial and final electron states. Since the tunneling probability is an exponential function of the electric field, the tunneling rate is dominant at the highest electric field point in the emitter-base spacecharge region. Therefore, current may be approximated as being proportional to the tunneling probability at this point. This gives an emitter current of IE = IEO exp(-Vo/E), (1.38)

where IEO and VO are constants. The value of Vo may be calculated approximately from the electric field, silicon energy gap, and effective mass. The maximum electric field in the space-charge region of a one-sided junction may be written as Emax = Eo(Vbi + VEB) n (1.39)

where Eo is the maximum electric field at equilibrium and n is a constant. For an abrupt junction n will be approximately 0.5. By assuming the tunneling current is dominated near the point in the space-charge region where the electric field is Emax, the tunneling current in Eq.(1.38) may be rewritten as

IE = IEO exp[-Vl/(Vbi + VEB)n]. (1.40)

A least square fit may be performed on the measured reverse emitter current to find IEO' V1, Vbi, and n in Eq.(1.40). For the submicron BJTs measured in this work the value for n has been consistently found to be close to 0.5, indicating the one-sided, abrupt junction approximation made in this and the last section is valid for evaluating the tunneling currents.










The holes left behind in the emitter-base space charge region may create additional electron-hole pairs through interband impact generation (or avalanche multiplication) if the holes attain sufficient kinetic energy. This is shown in Fig.1.6. This process is important only at relatively high VEB, where the carriers in the emitterbase space-charge region are accelerated to high kinetic energy. The secondary electrons generated through the impact generation may also create additional electronhole pairs, and junction breakdown is achieved when the impact-generation efficiency approaches unity. Current in the emitter-base junction is also produced from thermal generation of electron-hole pairs, but this current is found to be negligible in submicron BJTs compared to the tunneling and interband impact generation currents.


1.8. Analvsis of Base and Collector Currents


A schematic diagram of a n+/p/n BJT is shown in Fig.1.7. The desired current flow for forward-active operation consisting of electrons from the emitter being injected by the forward-biased emitter-base junction into the base and collected by the shorted or reverse-biased collector-base junction into the collector is labeled as the collector current, Ic. The collector current is affected by the intrinsic transistor area, the base doping concentration, and by generation of electron-hole pairs in the collector-base junction, but will generally be expected to remain stable during normal device operation. The base current, IB' consists of holes from the p-type base which recombine with electrons in the base, emitter, or emitter-base space-charge region. These recombination mechanisms were analyzed in sections 1.4 and 1.5. Several of these recombination











































Fig.1.7 Schematic diagram of a BJT showing the various recombination processes
which contribute to the base current along with the desired electron current flow from emitter to collector. The diamonds are bulk silicon traps and the triangles are interface traps at the SiO2/Si or polysilicon/Si interfaces. The tunneling limited recombination current is not shown. Adapted from
Neugroschel and Sah [22].
















n+ Si p Si Ec
-VBE FN
Ec

B-1Bs
'B-Ts IB-2s IB-1Bs

,B-lEs 4-O Ev ov
Ev
















Fig.1.8 Energy band diagram showing the recombination processes in the emitter,
base, and emitter-base space charge region along the silicon surface. The triangles represent interface traps at the SiO2/Si or polysilicon/Si interfaces.
Adapted from Sah et al. [38].










pathways are illustrated in Fig.1.7 for recombination at either bulk silicon traps (diamonds) or surface traps at the interface between the silicon and oxide or polysilicon layers (triangles). Bulk traps are created during crystal growth or device fabrication and are either due to crystal defects or impurity atoms. Their density is not expected to be affected by device operation since high temperature or particles with very large kinetic energy are required to alter the impurity atom concentration or create additional crystal defects. However, the density of interface traps may increase substantially during device operation if carriers are accelerated to kinetic energies on the order of several electron-volts in the vicinity of the interface. Therefore, the base current components due to surface recombination may change during device operation and cause reliability problems. In Ch.2, the increase in IB-2s will be shown to cause a decrease in PF during BJT operation in BiCMOS circuits. In Ch.5, the decrease in IB-lEs will be shown to increase OF during operation at high current density.

The location of the recombination is used to differentiate the recombination pathways in Fig.l.7. The IB-2s component is due to surface Sah-Noyce-Shockley recombination in the emitter-base space-charge region with reciprocal slope factor n=2. The IB-1Eb and IB-1Bb are the bulk recombination components of IB in the quasi-neutral Emitter and Base with reciprocal slope factor n=l. The surface recombination components of the base current along with the surface trap-assisted tunneling current, IB-Ts, are also shown in the energy band diagram in Fig.l.8.










1.9. Theory of Hot-Carrier Oxide-Silicon Interface Trap Generation


It is well known that the increase of Ig and decrease of PF during reverse emitterbase bias stress is due to an increase in the surface Sah-Noyce-Shockley current as NIT increases [3-25]. It has been proposed that the breaking of Si-H interface bonds by hot carriers may be the dominant interface trap generation mechanism for some transistor technologies. Under this assumption, a model for interface trap generation may be constructed. This was first done by Hu et al. [43], but many of the details of the model were not investigated. Thus, a similar model is presented here for use in Ch.2. A schematic diagram of the model presented here is shown in Fig.1.9. Interface traps are assumed to be created or passivated through the reaction Si-H Si- + H, (1.41)

where Si- is a broken Si-H bond or interface trap. The quantity H is the atomic hydrogen concentration near the SiO2/Si interface. The energy for the reaction to proceed from left to right (generation or increase of NIT) is provided by hot carriers. The reaction will also proceed from right to left (passivation or reduction of NIT) if there is sufficient atomic hydrogen near the interface. The rate equation for the net NIT generation may be written as

dNIT/dt = eH(NB - NIT) - CHNITHI (1.42)

if a first order reaction is assumed. The rate coefficients for NIT generation and passivation are eH and cH, and Nm is the density of Si-H interface bonds which may be broken by hot carriers. The hot carrier density and kinetic energy will directly affect eH











































Fig.1.9 Schematic diagram of the model for SiO2/Si interface trap generation
presented in this chapter. The circled H symbols represent atomic hydrogen which is emitted and captured at interface traps. The triangles represent interface traps which are initially passivated by the atomic hydrogen in the
unstressed device. The model is similar to that proposed by Hu et al. [43].










and the rate of NIT generation. The quantity HI is the effective areal hydrogen concentration near the interface which is defined as H = Hdx = H(O)XI, (1.43)


where H(O) is the hydrogen concentration very near the SiO2/Si interface, and XI is the width of the SiO2/Si interface region. For low NIT and HI, the NIT generation process will be dominant and Eq.(1.42) can be approximated as NIT = eHNIBt. (1.44)

This suggests that if NIT and HI are low at the start of the reverse-bias stress, then the rate of NIT generation will be proportional to the stress time. As interface traps are created during the rupture of Si-H bonds, the density of hydrogen also increases near the interface. In general, HI depends on the rate of interface trap generation and the rate of hydrogen diffusion away from the interface. This may be modeled by the rate equation dHl/dt = dNIT/dt - DHH(O)/Xo, (1.45)

where DH is the hydrogen diffusivity, and Xo is the oxide layer thickness. In Eq.(1.45), the atomic hydrogen density is assumed to have a linear gradient in the oxide layer as shown in Fig.l.10. The hydrogen concentration is assumed to be small compared to H(O) at the top of the oxide layer where the polysilicon emitter overlap acts as a hydrogen sink. Eq.(1.45) may be rewritten as dHi/dt = dNr/Jdt - (DH/XIXo)HI (1.46)

A general solution for NIT from Eqs.(1.42) and (1.46) is difficult to obtain analytically. However, the following discussion lends some insight into the form of the solution. As









H(O)


E JH= DHH(O)/Xo







I I
X /(1 cm)


Si SiO2 polysilicon






Fig.1.10 The linear atomic hydrogen concentration gradient in the oxide layer which is
assumed in Eq.(1.45). The hydrogen flux away from the SiO2/Si interface is
JH = DH[H(O) - H(Xo)]/Xo = DHH(O)/Xo, since H(0)�>>H(Xo).










HI builds up, the rates of generation and passivation of NIT will eventually become nearly equal, and dNIrdt and dH/dt will drop to zero if HI remains unchanged. At this point, the NIT generation is limited by the hydrogen diffusion from the interface. In this case, the rate of interface trap generation would be equal to the rate of hydrogen diffusion from the interface, or

dNrT/dt = (DH/XIXo)HI. (1.47)

By substituting Eq.(1.47) into Eq.(1.42) and integrating over time, Eq.(1.42) becomes N IT + (cHXIXo/2DH)N2 = eHNBt, (1.48)

where it is assumed that NIT << NIB. According to Eq.(1.48), the kinetics of NIT generation would be expected to follow a power law dependence, or NIT c= tm, where m ranges between 1.0 at short stress times and 0.5 at long stress times. Eventually, as NIT approaches NIB, the NIT generation rate drops to zero, because there are very few weak interface bonds left to be broken.

A general solution to Eqs.(1.42) and (1.46) may be approximated by converting the differential equations to difference equations using the Euler approximation. For simplicity, the initial NrI and HI concentrations are assumed to be negligible, and NIB is assumed to be much larger than NIT. The results of the general solution for NIT and HI vs. stress time are shown in Fig. 1.11 for three different hydrogen diffusion rates. For all of the curves in Fig.1.11, the initial rates of NIT and HI generation are proportional to the stress time, or have a slope of m=1.0 when plotted on logarithmic axes. For low hydrogen diffusion rate (low DH/X Xo), the NIT generation and passivation rates eventually become comparable. Therefore, dNIT/dt and dHI/dt drop to nearly zero. At










1012
1 I , I I,
- -- . . large DH/XIXo NIT to.s .
moderate DH/XIXO
1011 ------ small DH/XIXo


) 1010109 =11


108
NIT H IH oc t HI -to05
107 I iiil I ii i li1 I i i
10-1 1 10 102 103 104

t/(ls)






Fig. 1.11 The approximate general solution for the time dependence of the interface trap
density (NIT, top three curves) and atomic hydrogen concentration at the interface (HI, bottom three curves) from Eqs.(1.42) and (1.46) is calculated using the Euler approximation. Three different hydrogen diffusion rates are shown to demonstrate the effect on NIT and HI. For moderate to high diffusion rate, the NIT curve is proportional to tm, where m varies between 1.0
and 0.5.










longer time, the hydrogen finally starts to diffuse from the interface, and NIT and HI are both proportional to to05. For the moderate and large hydrogen diffusion rates, the hydrogen begins to diffuse away from the interface before the NIT generation and passivation rates become comparable. Therefore, the NIT curves show a smooth transition from m=1.0 to m=0.5 for NIT, as suggested by the approximate solution in Eq.(1.48). As shown in Fig.l.12, the approximate solution for NIT in Eq.(1.48) is an excellent approximation of the calculated general solution for NIT for moderate and high hydrogen diffusion rates when NIB >> NIT. Only for the low hydrogen diffusion rate does Eq.(1.48) deviate from the general solution for NIT. If the assumption that N >>� NIT is removed, then the calculated general solution to NIT shows a drop in dNITdt when NIT approaches Nm, as shown in Fig.l.13. However, Eq.(1.48) does not account for the drop in the NIr generation rate as NIT approaches NB. Thus, an extra term must be included in the right side of Eq.(1.48) to give


N IT + (cHXIX2DH)NIT2 = eNt- eH ITdt, (1.49)


which is solved to yield


-1+ [1 + (2cHXIX/DH)(e HNBt - NTdt)e 0.5
NIT = . (1.50)
"r CHXIXdDH

The solution for NIT in Eq.(1.50) may be approximated by calculating NIT over a number of points and using a summation of NIT over time to approximate the integral. In Fig. 1.13 it is demonstrated that the solution for NIT from Eq.(1.50) is an excellent approximation, even when NIT approaches NIB. The advantage using Eq.(1.50) rather















CJ

E c.

z


10-1 1 10 102 103


t /(ls)






Fig.1.12 The calculated general solution for NIT from Eqs.(1.42) and (1.46) is
compared to the approximate result for NIT from Eq.(1.48) for three different hydrogen diffusion rates. For the moderate and large hydrogen rates, Eq.(1.48) is shown to provide an excellent approximation of NIT if NIB >>
NIT.


104














10"
general solution for NIT
� - 1

E 10lo10 Eq.(1.50)


109


108


107 ii i ii1 I i l li 1 Ili
10-1 1 10 102 103 104

t /( s)







Fig.1.13 The calculated general solution for NIT from Eqs.(1.42) and (1.46) is
compared to the approximate computed result for N from Eq.(1.50). The total number of interface bonds, NIB', is set to 10'cm2 to illustrate the saturation of NIT at long stress time. The result for NIT from Eq.(1.50) is shown to be an excellent approximation of NIT, even when NIT approaches
NIB.










than calculating the general solution for NIT from Eqs.(1.42) and (1.46) is that a much larger At may be used between the calculated NIT points in Eq.(1.50), which reduces computing time significantly. The integral in Eq.(1.50) does not become important in the solution for NIT until NIT becomes comparable to NIB. In Fig.1.13, NIT from Eq.(1.50) is calculated at 500 points to maintain a good approximation of the integral, whereas a minimum of 105 points (maximum At of 0. Is) is required when solving for the general solution for NIT. Although the theoretical analysis of NIT generation in this section assumes that broken Si-H bonds are the major cause of NIT, the same analysis may also be applied to other impurity interface bonds using the same rate equations.


1.10. Bipolar Transistor Self-Heating


When BJTs operate at high current densities, the energy losses of carriers through phonon scattering may locally heat the silicon crystal to temperatures much higher than the ambient temperature [44]. This is known as transistor self-heating. The amount of the temperature increase of the device above the ambient temperature, AT, is related to the total power dissipation, P, by

AT = RthP, (1.51)

where Rth is the thermal resistance of the device. Therefore, the key to predicting the magnitude of the self-heating in BJTs is to measure RthA measurement procedure which is useful for extracting the approximate Rth is to measure IB vs. reverse collector-base bias, VCB [45]. If Is is dominated by recombination in the emitter, and VCB is well below collector-base junction breakdown,










then the measured increase in IB as VCB is increased is strictly due to device self-heating and is an accurate measurement of the change in device temperature. This measurement is demonstrated in Fig.l.14 for a 0.81tm x 3.2ktm BJT at VBE=0.64V and an ambient temperature of 1500C. The data in Fig.1.14 is replotted vs. P in Fig. 1.15, where P = IcVCE. (1.52)

Eq.(1.52) is valid for forward-bias VBE in the low to moderate range where resistive power losses in the device contacts are negligible, and the majority of the self-heating is due to phonon scattering in the reverse-biased collector-base junction. For submicron transistors, it may be difficult to measure significant self-heating without raising VBE to large values at room temperature. Thus, the measurement is performed at elevated ambient temperature to solve this problem. Since IB is an exponential function of device temperature and is not a function of VCB for voltages well below junction breakdown [45],

(AIB/IB)/p = Rth a(ln[IB])/aT. (1.53)

Thus, Rt may be solved to be

Rth = [(kT2)/(EG - qVBE)B[(AIB/IB)/aP], (1.54)

where EG is the silicon energy gap. The value of Rth is obtained from the slope of the curve in Fig.1.15, and is found to be Rth=0.95K/mW.

In Ch.5, the transistor self-heating must be calculated for very large values of VBE, where the transistor current is limited by the emitter series resistance rather than minority carrier injection. In this case, the power dissipation is P = IEAVBEO + IC(VCE - AVBEO), (1.55)






43


1.66
T=150oC
1.65-- VBE=0.64V

1.64

CD 1.63-.m 1.62-

1.61

1.60 I I
0 1 2 3 4

VBC /(lV)






Fig.1.14 The base current vs. reverse collector-base bias at 1500C and forward emitterbase bias of VBE=0.64V. The increase in IB is caused by transistor selfheating as the power dissipation increases.

















m 0.01- a(AIB/IB)/aP = 0.028mW'



0.0



-0.01
0 1 2

P /(1 mW)






Fig.1.15 The percent change of the base current vs. transistor power dissipation at
1500C and VBE=0.64V. The slope of the curve is found to be 0.028mW-1, which yields Rth=0.95K/mW from Eq.(1.54). This measurement technique is
from Reisch [45].










where AVBEO is the voltage drop in the emitter contact. Eq.(1.55) is approximately equal to Eq.(1.52) if IE = IC.


1.11. Summary


The background necessary for the analysis of BJT reliability in the subsequent chapters of this dissertation was given. An introduction to the common fabrication procedures was given in section 1.2. In the next four sections, theoretical expressions for the measured transistor currents during forward-active operation were presented. In section 1.7, the reverse-bias leakage current in the emitter-base junction was examined. A model for trap generation at the SiO2/Si interface from the rupture of Si-H bonds was presented in section 1.9. Finally, transistor self-heating was analyzed in section 1.10.
















CHAPTER 2
PHYSICAL DEGRADATION MECHANISMS OF SILICON BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
DURING REVERSE EMITTER-BASE BIAS STRESS


2.1. Introduction


It has been known since the 1960s that the electrical characteristics of oxide passivated silicon bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) change during operation. A reduction of the common-emitter current gain (PF or hFE) due to an increase of the transistor base current, IB, during an application of reverse emitter-base bias to near the junction breakdown voltage was first reported by Collins [3,4] in 1968. He performed reverse-bias stress experiments at various current levels and temperatures and proposed that degradation of the SiO2/Si interface near the emitter-base junction was the probable cause of the PF decrease. He also demonstrated that junction breakdown was not necessary for PF degradation and found no significant temperature dependence of the degradation rate. Additional studies were performed by Verwey [5] in 1969 and McDonald [6] in 1970. The increase in Ig was attributed to an increase in the surface recombination velocity at the SiO2/Si interface at the emitter-base junction perimeter and charge injection into the oxide. The increase in the surface recombination is caused by the breaking of interface bonds by hot electrons and holes generated during the reverse-bias stress to increase the interface trap density, NIT. Experiments with a field










gate over the emitter-base junction [5,6] showed that both electrons and holes can be injected and trapped in the oxide, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage applied during the stress. These experiments also showed that the stress-induced excess base current, AIB, was a function of the silicon surface potential. The gate-controlled BJT was first described by Sah [46] who studied the base current mechanisms in detail [47]. The gate-base voltage controls the surface potential and recombination rate at the surface of the emitter-base space-charge region as well as the size of the induced surface channel in the quasi-neutral base, and thus controls the BJT base current and PF [47,48]. A principle result obtained by Sah was that if a surface channel is induced by the gate potential, the channel current due to the recombination either in the channel bulk spacecharge region or the SiO2/Si interface can give a reciprocal slope factor (diode ideality factor) n for the base current larger than 2.0 in the current relation, IgB exp(qVBE/nkT). This exceeds the slope factor for Sah-Noyce-Shockley recombination current in the bulk emitter-base space-charge region which requires 1.09n<2.0 [38]. Thus, the measured slope factor of the base current can be an important indicator of the surface channel presence in VLSI transistors without the gate electrode.

The effects of reverse-bias stress on the characteristics of advanced BJTs received renewed attention in the last decade from a number of investigators [7-25] as the use of BiCMOS logic became widespread. In 1985, Petersen and Li [7] demonstrated that the large reverse-bias leakage current in heavily-doped n+/p emitter-base junctions in submicron BJTs can degrade PF even at reverse-bias voltages much less than breakdown, and avalanche was not a necessary condition for BJT degradation as was










found in earlier studies on larger transistors. They also showed through the use of light to generate carriers in the base that the increase in AIB or degradation of 3F may be accelerated by the injection of additional electrons into the emitter-base junction during reverse-bias stress. In 1987, Joshi et al. [8] were the first to demonstrate that significant PF degradation may occur from the transient reverse emitter-base bias stress of the pullup BJT in a BiCMOS inverter during output node transition from high to low. They showed that the AIB increase was directly related to the current flowing in the emitterbase junction during stress, and that device failure may be predicted by measuring the cumulative stress charge. They also suggested that the reliability of BiCMOS circuits may be limited by the BJT reliability from reverse emitter-base bias stress. In 1988, Tang and Hackbarth [9] proposed a model for the rate of AIB increase based on a single first-order rate equation for NIT generation and annihilation in the emitter-base spacecharge region. The model was demonstrated to fit the data measured in their work, but was not able to predict the time dependence of the increase in AIB in some other technologies or stress conditions. Hackbarth and Tang [10] also demonstrated that the reverse-bias leakage current in the emitter-base junction may also increase during reverse-bias stress. Also in 1988, Burnett and Hu [11] developed a largely empirical degradation rate model for AIB based on a measured power law dependence of AIB on stress charge. They measured BJT degradation for a small range of reverse-bias stress voltages using constant current stress, and found good agreement with their power law model. Hu et al. [43] had used a similar model for MOS transistor (MOST) degradation in earlier studies. In this work, a NIT generation model was developed in which the










rupture of H-Si bonds was assumed to be responsible for the majority of the NIT increase, and the diffusion of hydrogen was considered along with the generation of N., by hot carriers and the annihilation of NIT by hydrogen recapture at the interface to account for the measured kinetics. The model by Burnett and Hu [ 11 ] proved to be convenient for BJT reliability analysis, but the accuracy of the model over a wide range of stress voltages has not been proven. The model also lacked a physical basis for the power law dependence of AIB on stress charge, thus making the extrapolation to low stress voltages questionable. Furthermore, this model is based on constant reverse-bias current stress rather than constant reverse-bias voltage stress. As will be demonstrated in this chapter, constant current stress is physically incorrect for analyzing hot carrier effects, because it does not maintain a constant hot carrier kinetic energy during stress. In Ch.3, it will be demonstrated that the hot carrier kinetic energy is the fundamental parameter responsible for interface trap generation.

In 1991, Niitsu et al. [12] measured anomalous rates of AIB increase which were not consistent with those predicted in the model by Burnett and Hu [10], and these effects were qualitatively attributed to oxide charging. In 1993, Kosier et al. [13] measured a similar superlinear AIB time-dependence in radiation-induced BJT degradation. This effect was also attributed to oxide charging, but the radiation-induced oxide charging is expected to differ from hot-carrier oxide charging in magnitude and location. In 1995, Maugain et al. [14] used a quantitative model to explain the anomalous AIB increase. They extended the model by Burnett and Hu [11] to include a modulation of AI B due to the change in silicon surface potential from positive oxide










charging, but no justification for the assumed exponential dependence of AIB on surface potential was presented. They also used constant current stress over a very narrow range of reverse-bias stress voltages near junction breakdown to examine the AIB increase, and did not propose a model for positive oxide charging or attempt measure a threshold voltage below which positive oxide charging will not occur.

In 1993, Huang et al. [18] also extended the model by Burnett and Hu to include the temperature dependence of reverse-bias stress in submicron BJTs. The rate of AIB generation was found to be inversely proportional to temperature for the stress conditions and BJT technology investigated in their work. This was explained by a higher NIT annihilation rate, or larger hydrogen capture rate according to Hu's model [43] at higher temperatures. In 1994, Momose et al. [19] performed similar measurements and found that the peak degradation rate occurred at approximately 500C, suggesting that the temperature dependence of AIB generation is technology dependent.

The first.significant investigation into the microscopic mechanisms for BJT degradation at stress voltages much less than breakdown was performed by Kizilyalli and Bude [20] in 1994. They suggested that to explain the current gain degradation during reverse-bias stress in heavily doped n+/p emitter-base junctions, the effect of both interband tunneling generated hot holes and interband impact generated secondary hot electrons must be considered. They also speculated that holes injected into the oxide could be responsible for interface trap generation. Recent efforts in reliability modeling have also focused on determination of the 10-year time-to-failure (TTF) using a voltageacceleration method [21]. Using this method, T'F is measured at stress voltages higher










than those encountered during operation, and the results are extrapolated to the lower operating voltages using an empirical curve fit.

In spite of these extensive investigations of BJT degradation during reverse-bias stress, detailed microscopic models of the dominant degradation mechanisms and their geometrical locations are still not well understood. Even the source of the hot carriers causing the increase in IB has not been conclusively determined. The purpose of this chapter is to report a systematic experimental delineation of the P3F degradation phenomena under reverse emitter-base bias stress in submicron Si BJTs and model their effects on BJT degradation rate. In particular, the microscopic mechanisms of NIT generation and positive and negative oxide charge build-up during reverse-bias stress and their effects on surface recombination are discussed in detail. The reverse-bias stress voltage thresholds necessary for positive and negative oxide charge will also be presented. It will be noted that the fundamental BJT degradation mechanisms are identical to those which cause instabilities in the silicon MOS transistor (MOST) [4951] with only modification of spatial distribution of the carrier recombination sites because of different BJT and MOST geometries. The study shows that the location of AIB is a very important factor in determining the degradation rate. It is further shown that the device models accounting for the degradation are exactly those studied before, i.e. interface trap generation at the SiO2/Si interface of the oxide passivated surface of the p-type base of the n+/p/n Si BJT and the n-type surface channel on the p-type base [46-48]. Measured results will show that AI B after heavy stress cannot be explained entirely by an increase in the recombination rate at the narrow emitter-base junction










space-charge region, and requires an electron surface channel on the p-type base which is induced by positive oxide charge. The effects of both positive and negative oxide charging on the rate of AIB increase are also modeled. The device models presented here originated from previous investigations by Sah which were described in a research report by Neugroschel [22].

Experimental results and fundamental mechanisms of AIB generation are described in section 2.2. The analysis of hot carrier kinetic energy and the location of interface trap generation and oxide charging are described in section 2.3 The measured kinetics of AIB generation are examined and modeled in section 2.4. Finally, the device models explaining AIB are described in section 2.5.


2.2. Fundamental Excess Base Current Mechanisms


Most of the results in this work were obtained from non self-aligned n+/p/n BJTs fabricated by CMOS-baseline BiCMOS technology. Fig.2.1 shows a schematic crosssectional view of the device. Its n+ polysilicon emitter contact overlaps the oxidized surface of the extrinsic p-type base and creates a MOS capacitor with gate-base voltage equal to the emitter-base voltage (VEB = VGB). This emitter polysilicon overlap experimentally controls the surface electric field at emitter-base junction and the p-type base in this device, which are important parameters in determining the transistor degradation rate. The results and the analysis presented below are, however, very general and apply to BJTs fabricated by other technologies, such as self-aligned BJTbaseline BiCMOS processes.












0V
9 B


Fig.2.1 Schematic cross section of a BJT showing the recombination processes which
contribute to the base current. The diamonds are bulk silicon traps, and the triangles are interface traps at the SiO2/Si or polysilicon/Si interfaces.
Adapted from Neugroschel and Sah [22].


-VBE
Et,,,1










The observed degradation phenomena in submicron silicon n+/p/n BJTs are illustrated in Figs.2.2 through 2.10. Fig.2.2 shows the collector and base currents, Ic and IB' measured as a function of the forward emitter-base bias, VBE, before and after increasing reverse emitter-base bias stress. They show that the pre-stressed Ic and IB are nearly ideal, i.e. following Shockley's ideal theory [1] of Ic and IB oc exp(qVBE/kT) for VBE>0.4V. The reciprocal slope factor, n, is nearly equal to that predicted by Shockley's ideal minority-carrier injection theory, where n=nl-1.0, and F=IC/IB= constant (independent of VBE or Ic). After successive reverse emitter-base stresses, Fig.2.2 shows that Ic does not change, as predicted by the ideal theory. However, IB increases with stress by greater than four orders of magnitude at low VBE due to the increase of a stress-induced excess base current component, AIB, with reciprocal slope factor of n=n2 2. The increase of AIB is generally attributed to an increase in the Sah-Noyce-Shockley space-charge region surface recombination current, shown as IB-2s in Fig.2.1, due to an increase in the interface trap density, NIT' in the emitter-base space-charge region. For long stress times, an additional AIB component with n=n4=4 appears for VBE<:0.3V. This BI component was previously measured in the gated BJT in the 1961-2 studies by Sah [46,47] and was explained by the formation of a surface electron channel connected to the emitter-base junction. A surface electron channel is created when the surface of the p-type quasi-neutral base layer is depleted or inverted by a positive voltage on the gate or by trapped positive oxide charge to allow electron conduction prior to electron-hole recombination. The existence of a AIB component with n=4 is a key experimental hint which suggests that positive oxide









10-4 1
Stress: VBE=-5.5V for 104s

1 0-6
- n=2c

10-8






10-12 1 I I
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

VBE /(1 V)





Fig.2.2 Base and collector current vs. emitter-base voltage for a n+/p/n BJT before
and after several periods of reverse-bias emitter-base stress. The stress consisted of VBE=-5.5V for a total of 104s. The measured curves for IB are at 20, 50, 100, 2000, 5000, and 104s of stress time. The excess base current, AIB,
is defined as the difference between in base current before and after stress.










charging must be included in the model for AIB presented in section 2.5. Quantitative analysis will also show that the greater than four orders of magnitude increase in IB in Fig.2.2 at low VBE cannot be accounted for entirely by an increase in NIT in the thin emitter-base space-charge layer, further supporting the presence of a surface channel.

The temperature dependence of Ic and IB vs. VBE before stress and after moderate and heavy reverse-bias stress is shown in Figs.2.3 through 2.6, and an activation energy plot from the data in Fig.2.6 is given in Fig.2.7. Figs.2.8 and 2.9 show the temperature dependence of the reverse-bias emitter current, IE, before and after stress. As shown in Figs.2.3 and 2.4, both Ic and IB maintain a nearly ideal reciprocal slope factor of n=1.0 for the temperature range from 291K to 77K before stress. After a moderate stress of VEB-stress=5.5V for 100s, Fig.2.5 shows that IB contains a stress-induced AIB component for the entire temperature range. Since AIB has a reciprocal slope factor of n=2 at 291K, it is often interpreted as strictly due to Sah-Noyce-Shockley surface recombination in the emitter-base space-charge region. However, AIB is shown to deviate severely from the Sah-Noyce-Shockley theory at low temperatures, where the reciprocal slope factor would be calculated to be n-8 from the measured data at 77K. At low temperature, AIB is instead modeled accurately by a forward-bias surface trap-assisted tunneling expression, where

IBT-s O exp[(VBE - Vbi)/VT] (2.1)

as derived in Ch.1 as Eq.(1.36). This tunneling mechanism is similar to the excess tunneling current mechanisms analyzed by Chynoweth et al. [52] and Sah [40] in tunnel diodes, except the traps involved are interface traps and, therefore, are distributed in the
















< n=1.0
10-8 -

-- 291K
1010- 77K
10-10



10-12 I I I
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

VBE /(1 V)





Fig.2.3 Base current for an unstressed BJT vs. emitter-base voltage measured at
several temperatures from 77K to 291K. The measured curves are at 77, 95,
125, 155, 195, 240, 265, and 291K.
















, _n=1.0 S 10-8



10-1�- 77K



10-12 I I I
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

VBE /(1 V)





Fig.2.4 Collector current vs. emitter-base voltage measured at several temperatures
from 77K to 291K. The measured curves are at 77, 95, 125, 155, 195, 240,
265, and 291K.





























10-


0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0


1.2


VBE /(1 V)






Fig.2.5 Base current measured at several temperatures from 77K to 291K vs. emitterbase voltage after a moderate reverse-bias emitter-base stress of VBE=-5.5V for 100s. The measured curves are at 77, 95, 125, 155, 195, 240, 265, and
291K.


















m


10-1


10-


0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0


1.2


VBE /(1 V)





Fig.2.6 Base current measured at several temperatures from 77K to 291K vs. emitterbase voltage after a heavy reverse-bias emitter-base stress of VBE=-6.OV for 1000s. The measured curves are at 77, 95, 125, 155, 195, 240, 265, and 291K.






61


Stress: VBE=-6.OV for 1000s

CO\ VBE=0.8V
Co 10_1Ce)


-0




EA=O.20eV O 10-5C IB-4s after stress o IB-2s after stress
O ic EA=0.40eV
S10-I I I I

- 10
3 4 5 6 7 8

1000/T /(1 K-1)


Fig.2.7 Activation of plot of Ic, IB-2s' IB-4s from Fig.2.6 vs. 1000/T after heavy stress.










silicon energy gap. This perimeter tunneling current has also been identified in selfaligned BJTs [41]. The value of VT at 77K is found to be 0.0521V from a least-square fit to the data, as shown in Fig.2.5. If the base impurity concentration is NAA=2x1018cm-3, the electron tunneling effective mass is mx=0.20mo, and the average electron tunneling distance is xt=0.26XEB (26% of space-charge region thickness), then the value of V ,=0.0521V is also calculated theoretically. At room temperature, AIB is a combination of surface recombination and surface trap-assisted tunneling, thus explaining the reciprocal slope factor slightly greater than 2.0. The measured data indicates that for the moderate stress case NIT in the emitter-base space-charge region has increased which increases both IB_2s and IB-T,. However, no significant change in the electric field in emitter-base junction at the silicon surface due to oxide charging is suggested at this stress level.

After additional heavy stress at VEB-stress=6.0V for 1000s on the same device, Fig.2.6 shows that AIB has increased such that it dominates IB for the entire forward emitter-base bias range. The primary AIB mechanism has changed after heavy stress such that it follows the Sah-Noyce-Shockley space-charge layer surface recombination theory with n=2 much more closely for the entire temperature range. The reciprocal slope factor gradually increases from n=2.0 at 291K to n=2.8 at 77K, which indicates a slight deviation from the ideal recombination theory. However, this deviation is much less than that measured after moderate stress in Fig.2.5, and does not suggest any significant contribution from the surface trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Instead this deviation from the Sah-Noyce-Shockley theory at low temperatures is explained by










electron conduction in a stress-induced surface channel before recombination. For low current levels at the higher temperatures in Fig.2.6, an additional AIB component with n=4 is measured due to this same surface channel electron conduction before recombination. The surface trap-assisted tunneling current which was dominant at low temperatures after moderate stress has decreased dramatically after heavy stress such that it is nearly insignificant.

There are two possible reasons for the large decrease in the trap-assisted tunneling current. The first is a decrease in the density of available interface traps for tunneling in the emitter-base space-charge region. However, this disagrees with the large increase in the Sah-Noyce-Shockley recombination current which suggests a large increase in NIT in the space-charge region. The second possibility is an increase in the tunneling potential barrier related to a decrease in the emitter-base junction electric field or increase in the tunneling distance. This will decrease the trap-assisted tunneling current drastically, and may be modeled by a change in VT in the Eq.(2.1). The decrease in the electric field at the surface of the emitter-base junction space-charge region is consistent with the formation of a surface electron channel during heavy reverse-bias stress, already suggested by the AIB measurements as mentioned above. The thickness of the emitter-base space-charge region at the silicon surface is increased as positive oxide charging depletes the surface of the quasi-neutral base. This same effect will be shown to increase the Sah-Noyce-Shockley surface recombination current in addition to decreasing the surface trap-assisted tunneling current.










An activation plot of Ic and Ig after heavy stress is shown in Fig.2.7. The ideal Ic is shown to have an activation energy of EA=0.40eV at VBE=0.8V, or Ic ni2exp(qVBE/kT) exp(-0.40/kT). This is consistent with the fact that ni2 NcNvexp(-EG/kT) = exp(-EG'/kT), where EG'= 1.20eV for the temperature range in Fig.2.7, and qVBE - EG' = 0.8eV - 1.20eV = -0.40eV = -EA. The activation energy for the stress-induced AI B at VBE=0.8V is EA=0.20eV for the higher temperatures, which corresponds to a niexp(qVBE/2kT) temperature dependence since ni = exp(-0.60/kT). This temperature dependence for AIB is expected for Sah-Noyce-Shockley recombination [38]. However, at low temperatures the temperature dependence of AIB decreases, due to a deviation from the Sah-Noyce-Shockley theory as surface channel electron conduction becomes more important. The surface channel recombination component of IB with n=4 at low current levels for the higher temperatures can be decomposed from the measured total AIB* This current component is labeled IB-4s in Fig.2.7 and is found to have an activation energy of EA=0.1 eV or approximately a ni.5-Sexp(qVBE/4kT) temperature dependence. This current component drops below the noise level for lower temperatures. The measured temperature dependence in Fig.2.7 for the surface channel recombination current is consistent with the surface channel currents measured in gate controlled BJTs by Sah [47].

The reverse-bias emitter current, IE' in the unstressed device is shown in Fig.2.8. The major mechanism for 1E in the heavily doped n+/p emitter-base junction at voltages much less than breakdown is expected to be interband tunneling of valence-band






65



10-4
interband impact generation
106=- (avalanche)

interband
- tunneling
1 0-



10-10 39 4
-E-T exp (1.1 + VEB) 0.54


10-12- I
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

VEB /(1 V)







Fig.2.8 Reverse-bias stress current, IE-stress, vs. emitter-base voltage for an unstressed
BJT. For VEB stress<4.5V, the stress current may be modeled by the interband tunneling formula shown, as shown by the least-square fit of Eq.(2. 1) to the data (dashed line). For VEB-stress>4.5V, interband impact generation current
becomes important.










10
o-o_- ' I " ' I I ' ' I
Unstressed device



10-8
291K

< - 77K


- 1 i0-10- interband
_ tunneling



10-12 I II
0 1 2 3 4 5

VEB /(1 V)






Fig.2.9 Reverse-bias stress current, IE-stress' vs. emitter-base voltage for an unstressed
BJT at various temperatures from 77K to 291K. The measured curves are at
77, 95, 125, 155, 195, 240, 265, and 291K.






67



10-6 T=77,95,125,155,195,240,265,291K

Stress: VBE=-6.OV for 1000s


291K
< 10-8 -
surface
trap-assisted
o _ tunneling 77K


, 0-10
-- ' interband tunneling


10-12
0 1 2 3 4 5


VEB /(1 V)






Fig.2.10 Reverse-bias stress current, IE-stress, after heavy stress at various temperatures
from 77K to 291K. The measured curves are at 77, 95, 125, 155, 195, 240, 265, and 291K. The interband tunneling current is still dominant for VEB-stress>3.0V and for all VEB-stress at low temperatures. An additional trapassisted tunneling current is important heavily stressed devices for
VEB-stress<3.0V.










electrons in the space-charge region to the quasi-neutral emitter conduction band, or Zener tunneling. The excellent fit of IE to the interband tunneling expression [53], IE-T O exp[-Vl/(VEB + Vbi)m], (2.2)

suggests that this mechanism indeed dominates for stress voltages below =4.5V in Fig.2.8. The derivation of the simplified expression in Eq.(2.2) appears in Ch.1. The values in Eq.(2.2) used in the least-square fit to the data in Fig.2.8 are Vbi=l.lV, V,=39.4V, and n=0.54. The fact that m is close to 0.50 indicates that the one-sided, abrupt junction approximation is valid for the emitter-base junction in reverse bias. If the base doping concentration is assumed to be NAA=2x1018cm-3 and the tunneling effective mass is mx=0.20mo, then Vbi= 1.1V and V4=39V, which are close to the values used in the least-square fit. At reverse-bias emitter-base voltages approaching junction breakdown, the interband impact generation of electron-hole pairs or avalanche multiplication also contributes to the measured IE*

The temperature dependence of the reverse-bias emitter current before stress is shown in Fig.2.9. The small temperature dependence for IE is further support of the interband tunneling mechanism. After heavy stress, as shown in Fig.2.10, the reversebias IE contains an additional stress-induced component for VEB<3.0V. The larger temperature dependence of this stress-induced IE along with its increase during reversebias stress suggests that it is due to reverse-bias surface trap-assisted tunneling, which is the inverse of the two-step process involved in forward-bias trap-assisted tunneling. This reverse-bias trap-assisted tunneling current component may be an important source










of hot carriers at stress voltages less than 3.0V in devices with large interface trap density.


2.3. Analysis of Hot Carriers During Stress


In Fig.2.11, the schematic cross-section of a BJT under reverse-bias stress is shown. As was discussed in section 2.2, the major reverse-bias current mechanism for VEB-stress<4.5V is interband tunneling, labeled (T) in Fig.2.11. The maximum tunneling probability occurs at the maximum electric field point in the emitter-base junction, which is near the emitter edge of the emitter-base space-charge region and also near the SiO2/Si interface for a typical base doping profile in which the peak of the boron distribution is near the interface [21]. This locates the reverse-bias tunneling current near the SiO2/Si interface where the BJT degradation is known to occur. The valenceband electrons which tunnel to the emitter conduction band are generally not energetic enough to break interface bonds or charge the oxide after tunneling, as shown in the energy band diagram for the reverse-biased n+/p emitter-base junction in Fig.2.12. This is because the electron tunneling is concentrated very close to the quasi-neutral emitter, as shown in Fig.2.12. Although the tunneling electrons are not energetic, the holes left behind in the valence band of the emitter-base space-charge region after electron tunneling are accelerated toward the base by the junction electric field and may become energetic (hot) holes. Since the electron and hole quasi-Fermi levels are very near the conduction and valence band edges for typical n+/p emitter-base junctions, the hot holes may attain a maximum kinetic energy of =qVEB-stress as they reach the quasi-neutral










+VEB-stress E tIE


OV


B A NiTA A


y


n+ emitter E
E


p+Base contact


-> lB3


v x


p base


n collector Open


Fig.2.11 Schematic cross section of a BJT during reverse-bias stress with open
collector or reverse-biased collector-base junction. The interband tunneling (T) and interband impact generation (I) processes which make up the
measured emitter current are shown. Adapted from Neugroschel et al. [24].










secondary hot electron


*B OV


n+ Si EMITTER


interband tunneling


E Xy
X


Fig.2.12 Energy band diagram of a reverse-biased emitter-base junction indicating
interband tunneling (T) and interband impact generation (I). Tunnelinggenerated hot holes, impact generated secondary hot electrons, and thermally generated hot electrons are shown. The hot holes are shown to acquire a maximum kinetic energy of Ek-max = qVEB-stress at the base edge of the
emitter-base space-charge region. Adapted from Neugroschel et al. [24].


p Si BASE


primary hot hole


I

















(f, h)

E (c,d,e) +( A +ANI� *fa
~ ~i*


,,J


01%


SiO2

)T


-- B

IB OV


vX














Fig.2.13 Magnified schematic diagram of near the emitter-base junction indicating the
interface trap generation and oxide charging pathways. Interface trap generation by hot holes and electrons is indicated by an asterisk. The solid triangles are unbroken interface bonds and the empty triangles are broken interface bonds. The pathways for positive charging of oxide hole traps (hexagons) and negative charging of oxide electron traps (squares) are also indicated. The letters denoting the oxide charging pathways correspond the
processes in Fig.2.14. Adapted from Neugroschel et al. [24].


n+ Si










p Si
Ec

Ev OV





-QOT

SiO2 (g)
+VEB-stress FN Y v Ec A A
Ec
Ev O O (b)
n+ polySi +QoT
(h)
(f (a)


E

x






Fig.2.14 Energy band diagram along the direction perpendicular to the Si02/Si
interface near the reverse-biased emitter-base junction of a n+/p/n BJT. The injection of hot holes into the SiO2 valence band and capture at oxide hole traps (hexagons) is shown as process (a). The direct tunneling of hot holes to oxide hole traps is shown as process (b). The injection of hot electrons into the SiO2 conduction band and capture at oxide electron traps (squares) is shown as process (c). The tunneling of hot electrons into the SiO2 conduction band or to oxide electron traps is shown as processes (d) and (e). The impact generation of electron hole pairs in the polysilicon emitter contact overlap and the back injection and capture of hot holes at oxide hole traps and SiO2/Si interface traps are shown as processes (f) and (g). Process (h) is similar to (g), but involves direct tunneling to oxide hole traps. Adapted from Sah [54,
p.397].










base, as demonstrated in Fig.2.12. The hot holes may break strained interface bonds to increase NIT through an impact process, represented by the star in the magnified schematic diagram of the emitter-base junction in Fig.2.13. The open triangles represent interface traps, and the filled triangles represent unbroken weak interface bonds. Since interface trap generation is known to have a strong kinetic energy dependence, NIT will vary along the SiO2/Si interface with the maximum located near quasi-neutral base during reverse-bias. The hot holes with kinetic energy greater than 4.3eV (the SiO2/Si valence band barrier height) may be injected into the oxide valence band and trapped at oxide hole traps (hexagons) to positively charge the oxide, as shown in Fig.2.13 and in Fig.2.14 as process (a). The hot holes will acquire the necessary kinetic energy of 4.3eV as they near the base edge of the space-charge region. Therefore, both NIT and +QoT generated from hot holes are expected to be maximized near the edge of the quasineutral base. Since the hot hole mean free path is X= 5nm, the average energy loss is in the =60nm space-charge region during stress is less than 0.75eV for hot holes, since the maximum optical phonon energy is =60meV. Interband impact electron-hole pair generation may cause substantially larger energy losses, but this only affects a small percentage of the hot holes until VEB-stress nears junction breakdown. Hot holes with kinetic energy less than 4.3eV may tunnel to oxide hole traps close to the SiO2/Si interface, as shown in Fig.2.14 as process (b), but this process will produce only small amounts of +QoT. It should also be noted that interface traps generated at the surface of the quasi-neutral base will give positive interface charge, +QIT, due to the empty donor-










like interface states, which will deplete the surface of the p-type base. This will enhance the effects of +QOT in forming a surface channel in the quasi-neutral base.

For stress voltages approaching junction breakdown, the interband impact generation of electron-hole pairs becomes an important contribution to the measured reverse-bias current. At lower VEB-stress' impact generation may still be an important source of hot electrons, compared to the density of thermally generated electrons in the space-charge region. The impact generated hot holes, however, will be of much smaller density than the interband tunneling generated hot holes until VEB-stress nears junction breakdown. The impact generation mechanism is labeled (I) in Figs.2.11 and 2.12. The impact-generated secondary electrons may also break interface bonds through an impact process in a similar manner as hot holes, as shown in Fig.2.13. The secondary hot electrons will produce the largest NIT very near the edge of the quasi-neutral emitter, since this is where they attain their maximum kinetic energy. Secondary hot electrons with kinetic energy greater than 3.13eV (the SiO2/Si conduction band barrier height) may be injected into the oxide and negatively charge oxide electron traps (squares), as shown in Fig.2.13 and in Fig.2.14 as process (c). Hot electrons with kinetic energy less than 3.13eV may also tunnel to the oxide conduction band or directly to oxide electron traps, as shown in Fig.2.14 as processes (d) and (e). Hot electrons which are injected into the oxide but not captured at oxide hole traps may also impact generate hot holes in the polysilicon emitter contact overlap. The impact-generated hot holes in the emitter polysilicon may be back injected into the oxide and trapped at oxide hole traps to positively charge the oxide [54, p.397], which is labeled (f) in Fig.2.14. This positive










oxide charge generation mechanism during electron injection into the oxide was recently proposed, analyzed, and experimentally verified in thin oxide MOS transistors [55,56]. Hot electrons may significantly contribute to BJT degradation if their density is comparable to hot holes. However, the location of the NIT, -QOT and +QoT generated from hot electrons is near the quasi-neutral emitter, which differs from the location of the NIT and +QoT generated from hot holes near the base. Since the majority of the surface recombination in the emitter-base space-charge region during forward bias takes place in a narrow portion of the space-charge region, the location of NIT and QOT is very important in determining their relative contributions.

The fundamental VEB-stress thresholds for oxide charging are determined by considering the kinetic energy requirements of hot carriers to be injected into the oxide [54, p.408]. As mentioned above, the kinetic energy threshold for hole injection into the oxide valence band is =4.3eV, based on the valence band potential barrier at the SiO2/Si interface. Since the maximum hot hole kinetic energy is =qVEB-stress for the interband tunneling generated hot holes, as shown in Fig.2.12, the minimum stress voltage for positive oxide charging from direct injection of hot holes, as shown by process (a) in Fig.2.14, is VEB-stress=4.3V. Although the conduction of holes in the oxide valence band may be limited by the opposing electric field during stress as shown in Fig.2.14, the injection and trapping of holes will still occur. For thicker oxides in self-aligned BJTs, the field in the oxide may be much less than that shown in Fig.2.14. The minimum stress voltage for impact generation of hot holes in the polysilicon emitter contact overlap and back injection of the hot holes into the oxide, as shown in process (f) in










Fig.2.14, is also VEB-stress=4.3V [54-56]. This is easily estimated by considering the minimum energy required for electrons in the polysilicon layer to impact generate hot holes with kinetic energy greater than -4.3eV such that they may be injected into the oxide valence band. Thus, the two important sources of positive charge initiated by both hot holes and hot electrons are cut off for VEB-stress<4.3V. Therefore, the anomalous AIB increase associated with positive oxide charging [12-14] is not expected for VEB-stress<4.3V. This is confirmed by the measurement of the AIB generation kinetics at VEB-stress=4.0V in Fig.2.15 which shows no anomalous increase in the AIB generation rate. Limited positive oxide charging very near the SiO2/Si interface may be measured for VEB-stress<4.3V for the case of direct hole tunneling to traps in the SiO2, as shown in process (b) in Fig.2.14. However, the amount of positive charging will be small due to the exponential dependence of the tunneling probability on distance. This phenomenon will be encountered in the model for the IB relaxation transient in Ch.4. The threshold for negative oxide charging is determined by the =3.13eV conduction band potential barrier at the SiO2/Si interface. However, since the majority of hot electrons are generated as a result of interband impact generation, this kinetic energy threshold is not easily translated to VEB-stress* At VEB-stress<4V, the density of impact generated secondary hot electrons will be small and significant negative oxide charging will also be expected to cease.

The SiO2/Si interface traps are generated by two mechanisms of breaking the strained Si-Si, Si-O, or Si-H bonds: (1) the direct impact by energetic holes and electrons in the emitter-base space-charge region already mentioned above and shown










schematically in Fig.2.11, and (2) the hole-capture energy of holes back injected into the SiO2 as they are captured at SiO2 interface traps [54, p.397]. This is shown by process

(g) in Fig.2.14. As will be explained in section 2.5, the large increase (>104) in the magnitude of the stress-induced AIB as shown in Figs.2.2 and 2.5 cannot be explained exclusively by an increase in NTr in the very narrow emitter-base space-charge region by the two mechanisms just described. Instead, positive oxide charging over the quasineutral base is necessary to induce a surface channel which increases the recombination area.


2.4. Analysis of Excess Base Current Kinetics


The fundamental recombination and tunneling mechanisms causing the IB increase and pF decrease have been delineated, and the hot carriers created during stress have been examined. The time dependence or kinetics of the AIB increase, which directly determines the device time-to-failure, will now be analyzed. Further support for the AI B mechanisms measured in section 2.2 will be obtained. One method for quickly measuring the effects of a reverse-bias stress on AIB is to measure IB and Ic at a single forward emitter-base bias, VBE-meas, which corresponds to the expected operating point in the circuit. This method allows for frequent sampling of Ig and Ic without significant interruption of the reverse-bias stress, and provides a true worst-case measurement of device degradation. A constant reverse-bias stress voltage, VEB-stress' is used in all measurements of the AIB kinetics. Constant current stress has been used during reversebias stress by other investigators [11,12,14], but this method obscures the measurement










of detailed kinetics since the stress voltage and hot carrier kinetic energy are changing during stress.

The AIB kinetics measured at VBE-meas=0.6V during reverse-bias stress varying from VEB-stress=4.0V to 6.0V is shown in Fig.2.15. The percent change of IB or AIB/IBO is plotted vs. the stress time. An accelerated stress method involving the use of base layer punch through current during reverse-bias stress is used at VEB-stress=4.0V to accelerate the stress current and reduce the stress time by approximately 100 times [23]. The measured data in Fig.2.15 indicates that the AIB increase is initially proportional to the stress time, or AITB c t at short stress times. For moderate stress times, the rate of AlB increase slows such that AIB c to05, and may slow further at longer stress times to AIB t03. For VEB-stress>4.3V in Fig.2.15, the rate of AIB generation is shown to suddenly increase such that AIB o t1.4 at long stress times. This anomalous or superlinear AIB increase has been measured by other investigators during both reverse-bias stress and radiation stress, and has been modeled to be the result of positive oxide charging near the emitter-base junction during stress [12-14]. Eventually, the rate of AIB increase slows and then saturates as the various processes involved in the AIB increase reach steady-state. The AIB kinetics at short to moderate stress times may be explained adequately by a simple first-order interface bond breaking model [11,43], but the deviation from this model may only be explained by also considering both positive and negative oxide charging near the emitter-base space-charge region as demonstrated in this chapter.











100 I I
VBE-meas=O.6V

102


S10- VEB-stress=6 5.5V 5.0V V
S.4.5
S1-4.0





10-1- '
normal accelerated
stress stress
10-2 l ll 1 1
10-1 10 103 105 107 109

t /( s)







Fig.2.15 The percent change of the stress-induced excess base current, AIB/IB,
measured at VBE=0.6V is plotted vs. time while being stressed at varying VEB.stress from 4.0V to 6.0V. AI is shown to be proportional to tm, where m varies during stress. The slope m is initially close to 1.0 for short stress time.
It drops to 0.5 at moderate stress time, and as low as 0.3 for longer stress time.
For VEB-stress >4.0V, m increases suddenly to 1.4 before AIB saturates to a nearly constant value. The accelerated stress is performed with base-collector
shorted to provide stress current acceleration.










A model for interface trap generation based on the release and diffusion of atomic hydrogen from the SiO2/Si interface by hot carriers was proposed by Hu [43] and used by Burnett and Hu [11] to explain the measured effects of BJT degradation over a limited reverse-bias voltage range. A similar model for interface trap generation along with some additional details of solving the rate equations for interface bond breaking and hydrogen diffusion in general were explained in Ch. 1. The resulting approximate equation for the case of sufficient hydrogen diffusion that the rate of NIT generation does not saturate before becoming diffusion limited is


Nrr + (HXIX/2DH)NIT2 = eHNt - eH I dt, (2.3)


where NIT is the interface trap density, NIB is the total number of hydrogen passivated interface traps or total number of H-Si bonds, eH and cH are the emission and capture rates of hydrogen at the interface traps which are a function of the stress voltage, XI is the SiO2/Si interface thickness where the atomic hydrogen can react with the interface traps, Xo is the oxide thickness, and DH is the diffusivity of atomic hydrogen. The solution for NIT from Eq.(2.3) may be easily approximated numerically to yield NIT as a function of stress time. The stress-induced AIB may be assumed to be directly proportional to the change in surface recombination velocity, ASo, and the corresponding change in interface trap density, ANIT, during stress by the relation [38]

AIB = qARniASoexp(qVBE/2kT) = 4.8x10-8ANIT (2.4)

where [39]


ASo = 0.5xchANiT = 1.5x107AN (.


(2.5)










In Eqs.(2.4) and (2.5), AR = PEXR is the effective emitter-base space-charge region area where surface recombination is important, PE is the emitter perimeter, r is the capture cross section of the interface traps, 0th is the thermal velocity, and the reciprocal slope factor is assumed to be n=2. The numerical result relating AIB and ANIT in Eq.(2.4) uses reasonable values of XR=3nm, a=10-14cm2, 0th=107cm/s, and assumes that VBE-meas=0.6V as in Fig.2.15. The value of XR=3nm is estimated by considering the width required for 3kT variation of the potential on either side of the maximum recombination point in the emitter-base space-charge region, where FNP (FN + Fp)/2 = E. An abrupt junction approximation is used in the calculation with total space-charge region thickness of XEB=18nm at VBE=0.6V. The theoretical fit to the measured data in Fig.2.15 using Eqs.(2.3) and (2.4) is shown by the dashed lines in Fig.2.16. The values for NB, eH, and CHXIXo/DH used to obtain the fit in Fig.2.16 are listed in Table 2.1. It is evident from Fig.2.16 that the theoretical model for NIT generation results in an adequate fit to AIB for short to moderate stress times, but fails to properly model the AIB kinetics for long stress times.

It has been suggested that a more accurate theoretical basis for the measured data in Fig.2.15 at long stress times may be obtained by including the effects of oxide charging near the emitter-base junction during stress [12-14]. However, no detailed models have been presented which account for the location and pathways of the oxide charging, as described in the last section. Both positive and negative oxide charging may be modeled individually by first order models [50], where

QOT = QOT-[1 - exp(-aNNJ)1 = QOT[ 1 - exp(-t/t)]. (2.6)



















O
m
m


10-1 10 103 105 107


109


t /(1 s)







Fig.2.16 The theoretical fit from Eqs.(2.3) and (2.4) which model the generation of
interface traps is compared to the measured AB/IBo from Fig.2.15. The values for the parameters in Eq.(2.3) used to fit the measured data are given in Table
2.1.













Table 2.1 The values of the parameters used in Eq.(2.3) for fitting the data in Fig.2.15
vs. stress voltage. The result of the fit is shown in Fig.2.16.


VEB-stress /(1V)

4.0 4.5 5.0

5.5 6.0


NB /(lcm-2eV-')

1.3x1013 1.3x1013 1.3x1013 2.2x1013 3.0x1013


eH /(1s-1) 4.5x10-6 8.1x10-5 5.1x10-4 3.0x10-3 3.2x10-2


CHXIXo/DH /(1cm-2)

1.5x10-10 1.9x10-11 4.5x10-12 2.3x10-12 2.4x10-12


Note:


NIT(t-)OO) =~NIT(t-~66)~NIB










The quantity QOT, is related to the total number of oxide electron or hole traps, a is the oxide electron or hole trap cross section, and NINJ is the electron or hole fluence passing through the oxide. The fluence may be assumed to be proportional to the stress time ((YNINJ = oJt/q = t/t) if the current injected into the oxide does not vary significantly with time. Using the depletion approximation for a MOS capacitor [42, p.338], the surface potential may be calculated to be

Vs = [(VG - 0MS Q oCo + QrCo + VAA)0.5 - VAA5]2, (2.7)

where VAA=sqN AA/2Co2 es is the silicon perimittivity, NAA is the base impurity concentration, Co is the oxide capacitance, and #MS is work function difference between n+ polysilicon and p-type base.

It is well known from Sah-Noyce-Shockley recombination theory and gated BJT measurements that the surface recombination rate is an exponential function of the silicon surface potential, Vs, if the surface is depleted, in addition to being proportional to NIT [38,46-48,57]. This is demonstrated by measuring the base current due to recombination at the surface of the quasi-neutral base while sweeping the gate-base voltage in a gated BJT structure as shown in Fig.2.17. If there is oxide charging during reverse-bias stress, this effectively shifts the BI vs. VGB curve in Fig.2.17 to the left for positive charging or to the right for negative charging. This measurement is a basis for separation of the effects of QIT and QOT in MOSTs and BJTs [57]. It was assumed by Maugain et al. [14] in their quantitative analysis of the effects of oxide charging on AIB that oxide charging near the emitter-base space-charge region associated with hot carrier injection into the oxide would provide the same modulation of the total recombination

















- B OC exp(qVs/kT)

400o - AlIB


after SHEi :
200- stress


unstressed
0 " M i -
0 II IIII '1 I I I I II I I I I I I III I LI I I IIII
-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0

VGB /(1 V)







Fig.2.17 The base current vs. gate-base voltage in a BiMOS device, which is similar to
gated BJT as described by Nishida [49]. The base current is shown to have an exponential dependence on surface potential, Vs, as the gate-base voltage is changed. In a BJT without a gate, the oxide charge may modulate IB in a
similar manner.










rate in the space-charge region, and the measured AIB would, therefore, be proportional to exp(qVs/kT). However, no theoretical basis was given to justify this model. Since AIB is proportional to the integrated recombination rate in the emitter-base space-charge region, the exponential dependence of AIB on oxide charging is not necessarily expected. If NIT is fairly uniform throughout the space-charge region, then a small change in Vs due to oxide charging near the emitter-base junction will change the point in the space-charge region where the recombination rate is maximum, where FNP = (FN + Fp)/2 = EI. However, the total AIB will not vary exponentially with Vs. This is demonstrated Figs.2.18 and 2.19, where the distortion of the surface potential due to positive oxide charging during reverse-bias stress is demonstrated to change the point of maximum recombination rate shown by a solid dot, but does not increase IB significantly.

The positive oxide charge from hot holes and hot electrons will be located in the vicinity of the emitter-base space-charge region during stress. This means that the positive charge extends into quasi-neutral base during forward-bias, since the spacecharge thickness during forward-bias is smaller than during reverse-bias as demonstrated in Fig.2.20. Thus, the significant positive oxide charging for up to = 100nm over the quasi-neutral base will deplete the silicon surface in this region.

In order to present a first-order quantitative model for the AIB increase from positive charging, a situation is presented in which AIB is nearly an exponential function of AVs, as assumed by Maugain [14]. If the large density of +QIT and +QoT generated during stress depletes the surface of the quasi-neutral base such that it is nearly intrinsic,









E*

Si02

- B-2s
n+ Si p Si - B





n+ Si p Si
%,-Ec
-VBE FN (FN+Fp)/2
E F, N '\. . FN
Fp A-'F------/------------------E- Ev OV
Ev
Ey XR







Fig.2.18 The schematic diagram and energy band diagram along the silicon surface
near the emitter-base junction before stress or at short stress times with negligible positive oxide charge. The point of maximum recombination is designated by a dot, and the effective recombination thickness is shaded and
labeled XR. Adapted from Sah et al. [38].










E*

---- E 3 e +QOT S'02
AAA A+QIT
1 B-2s
n+ Si p Si - B
IB




n+ Si p Si
.-- Ec
-VBE FN (F+Fp)/2
FN'-E

----- --------------EE
Ev A XR" v OV









Fig.2.19 The schematic diagram and energy band diagram along the silicon surface
near the emitter-base junction after moderate stress and moderate oxide charging such that the quasi-neutral base is slightly depleted. The point of maximum recombination has shifted to the right from Fig.2.18. Adapted from
Neugroschel and Sah [22].









-VBE
E*

S'02 O IB-2s n+ Si p Si B
+1B OV
(a)

+VEB-stress
E*

N ANIT +QT Sio2
IE-T Oi
n+ Si pSi B
c I B OV

(b)







Fig.2.20 The energy band diagram along the silicon surface near the emitter-base
junction during (a) forward bias and (b) reverse-bias. The major current
pathways are also shown. Adapted from Neugroschel et al. [24].










E*
+IE


n+ Si
(FN+Fp)/2
-VBE FN




Ev -----


p Si f,-Ec


*B OV


XR


Fig.2.21 The schematic diagram and energy band diagram along the silicon surface
near the emitter-base junction after heavy reverse-bias stress and heavy oxide charging such that the surface of the quasi-neutral base has become nearly intrinsic. The effective recombination area is shaded and designated by XR'
Adapted from Neugroschel and Sah [22].










as shown in Fig.2.21, the surface recombination there will dominate the measured AIB. In this case, the modulation of the surface potential, AVs, from further positive oxide charging will have a strong effect on the measured AIB* This model is supported by the measurements in section 2.2 which suggested the presence of a surface electron channel over the p-type base. Thus, it is assumed to be a valid model for the devices in this work. The expression for AIB in Eq.(2.4) may be extended to account for the surface potential modulation as

AIB 4.8x1 0-18ANiexp(qAVs/kT), (2.8)

where the recombination rate at the surface of the quasi-neutral base is assumed to be nearly an exponential function of Vs. For small AVs when the surface of the quasineutral base is nearly intrinsic, this approximation is valid. Using Eq.(2.8), the theoretical fit to the data in Fig.2.15 is shown in Fig.2.22. The model in Eq.(2.8) predicts that the rate of AIB generation will increase with positive oxide charging and decrease with negative oxide charging. With both positive and negative oxide charging included, the theoretical fit is able to accurately model the AIB kinetics for the entire range of stress time. The values of NIB, eH, and cHXIXo/DH for NIT generation are the same as those used in the fit in Fig.2.16 and listed in Table 2.1. The additional parameters involving positive and negative oxide charge which are QOT-+/CO' QOT /Co, t+, and t_ are listed in Table 2.2, where the symbols with + and - refer to +QoT and -QoT respectively.

The one-dimensional model used to generate the theoretical fit in Fig.2.22 can only roughly approximate the two dimensional effects of interface trap generation and










oxide charging included


10 - experiment
I
I
VEB-stress=6.0 5.5V -O
m ,4.5V
4.0V





10-1 ,
," normal accelerated
' , stress stress
10 - ' ll I I I I I
10-1 10 103 105 107 109

t /(ls)






Fig.2.22 The theoretical fit from Eqs.(2.3) though (2.7) which model the generation of
interface traps and oxide charge is compared to the measured AIB/IBo from Fig.2.15. The values for the parameters in Eqs.(2.3) and (2.6) used to fit the
measured data are given in Tables 2.1 and 2.2.












Table 2.2 The values of the parameters used in Eqs.(2.6) through (2.8) for fitting the
data in Fig.2.15 vs. stress voltage. The result of the fit is shown in Fig.2.22.


VEB-stress /(V) NOTo+ /(1cm-2)

4.0 0

4.5 2.5x1012

5.0 2.6x1012

5.5 2.4x1012

6.0 2.3x1012


S+ /(ls)



6.3x105 4.7x104 2.7x103

1.3x102


NOT. /(1cm-2)

9.5x101 9.5x1011 9.5x10 9.5x1011 9.5x1011


Note:


N0T=Q01Jq


t_ /(ls) 8.9x106 1.3x105

6.0x103 2.1x102 2.9x101




Full Text

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xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0008240400001datestamp 2009-02-24setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Reliability of silicon bipolar junction transistors in integrated circuitsdc:creator Carroll, Michael S.dc:publisher Michael S. Carrolldc:date 1995dc:type Bookdc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00082404&v=0000134461947 (oclc)002070209 (alephbibnum)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English