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THE BOY TRAVELLERS
Route marked thus .... .
~~-~~-.~-~C..I~Z_ ~ ...^5~~s~-C~ia~CC~BR__~;_~*_ -1_1.~~ ~I
ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY THROUGH
FRANCE, SWITZERLAND, AND AUSTRIA, WITH EXCURSIONS AMONG THE
ALPS OF SWITZERLAND AND THE TYROL
THOMAS W. KNOX
"THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST" "IN SOUTH AMERICA" "IN RUSSIA" t ON THE CONGO"
"IN AUSTRALASIA" "IN MEXICO" "IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND" AND
'IN NORTHERN EUROPE" "THE YOUNG NIMRODS"
"THE VOYAGE OF THE 'VIVIAN'" ETC.
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
By THOMAS W. KNOX.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST. Five Volumes. Copi-
ously Illustrated. Square 8vo. Cloth, $3 00 each. The volumes sold separately.
Each volume complete in itself.
I. JAPAN AND CHINA.-II. SLAM AND JAVA.-III. CEYLON AND INDIA.-IV.
EGYPT AND PALESTINE.-V. CENTRAL ANRICA.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA. Copiously Illustrated.
Square 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. Copiously
Illustrated. Square 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO. Copiously Illustrated.
Square 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA. Copiously Illustrated.
Square 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO. Copiously Illustrated Square 8vo,
Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN GREAT BRITAIN. Copiously Illustrated.
Square 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN NORTHERN EUROPE. Copiously Illus-
trated. Square 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN" TO THE NORTH POLE AND
BEYOND. Copiously Illustrated. Square 8vo, Cloth. $2 50.
HUNTING ADVENTURES ON LAND AND SEA. Two Volumes. Copi-
ously Illustrated. Square 8vo. Cloth, $2 50 each. The volumes sold separately.
Each volume complete in itself.
I. THE YOUNG NIMRODS IN NORTH AMERICA.
II. THE YOUNG NIMRODS AROUND THE WORLD.
PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK.
S- Any of the above volumes sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the United
States, Canada, or Mexico, on receipt of the price.
Copyright, 1892, by HARPER & BROTHERS.-All rights reserved.
THE preceding volume of this series (The Boy Travellers in Northern
Europe) left our young friends at Stockholm, engaged in giving a welcome to
Doctor Bronson,who had just arrived from London. Having seen the Northern
lands of Europe, it was naturally the case that Mrs. Bassett and Mary desired
to visit the countries of the central part of the Continent; consequently, the
journey described in the present volume was planned and made, and we have
sought to give a faithful account of what the tourists saw and heard during
their wanderings. Mrs. Bassett and Mary were the constant companions of
Frank and Fred; the former shows that she has profited much by her ex-
periences of foreign lands and people, and the latter makes daily demonstra-
tion of her intelligence, careful reading, and keenness of observation to an
extent that might justify a change of title to The Boy and Girl Travellers
in Central Europe." But as the planning of their routes, together with all
the details of the journey, is left to Frank and Fred, we will adhere to the
old name for the book.
The scheme that has been followed in preparing the other volumes of
" The Boy Travellers is continued in the present record, and the readers of
" Central Europe will find the same characters, and the same general form of
talk, observation, and journal-making that they found in Great Britain and
Ireland" and "Northern Europe." Doctor Bronson is less conspicuous than
before, as his professional and business engagements kept him away from the
party for the most of the time, but he had no hesitation in trusting the details
of the journey to Frank and Fred. The devotion of the two youths to the
comfort and pleasure of Mrs. Bassett and Mary is worthy of the highest
admiration, and it is not to be wondered at that mother and daughter
thoroughly enjoyed the journey from its first day to its last.
The author has taken the same care to insure historical and geographical
accuracy in this account of Central Europe that he took in previous volumes
of "The Boy Traveller" series. Should errors be found, he trusts that they
will be attributed to the authorities consulted rather than to negligence in the
work of consultation. Wherever discrepancies occur in the authorities the
writer has given the preference to those of greatest weight, or to those whose
statements seemed to be confirmed by other events.
Nearly all of the routes described in this book have been personally
travelled by the author, and some of them more than once, and nearly every
city, town, or other place of interest which has been visited by The Boy
Travellers in Central Europe was previously visited by him. As far as possi-
ble he has aimed to speak from personal knowledge, but he has not hesitated to
use the work of other travellers over the same ground, and believes that he
has done so to the advantage of the reader. The authorities thus drawn upon,
whether books or individuals, have been mentioned in the pages of the volume,
and need not be repeated in the preface. Statistical information concerning
populations, manufactures, commerce, military and naval forces, and the like,
have been obtained from official sources, or, where such were lacking, from
the most authentic of non-official publications. Dimensions of buildings,
parks, etc., heights of mountain,, and kindred measurements have been taken
from guide-books, either general or local, and in some cases from measure-
ments personally made by the author during his visits to the places described.
The writer hereby tenders his acknowledgments to the courtesy of Messrs.
Harper & Brothers for the privilege of using such of the illustrations as
were originally prepared for other of their publications.
With this brief explanation of the manner in which the story of the
journey through Central Europe has been prepared, the author submits it to
critics and readers, including alike the friends of the amiable Mrs. Bassett,
and the school companions of Frank, Fred, and Mary, with the hope that it
may receive the same kindly and generous greeting accorded to other
volumes that describe the wanderings and give the observations of "The
T. W. K.
NEW YORK, July, 1892.
FROM ENGLAND TO FRANCE.-- ORMANDY BOATS OF AN ANCIENT TYPE.--APPROACHING HAVRE.-
THE FRENCH COAST NEAR THE MOUTH OF THE SEINE.--LIGHT-HOUSE AT SAINTE-ADRESSE.-
MEETING AN OCEAN STEAMER.-HIGH TIDE AT HAVRE.-ENTERING THE PORT.-THE SEMAPHORE
AND SIGNAL STATION.-FULL NAME OF THE CITY.-IN THE CUSTOM-HOUSE.-THE ECONOMICAL
AMERICAN, AND HOW HE AVOIDED THE DUTY ON CIGARS.--CLEANSING POWER OF TIDES IL-
LUSTRATED.--A COACHMAN'S ATTEMPT AT FRAUD.--FRASCATI'S. -SCENES AT THE BATHING-
PLACE.-MARY TELLS HER EXPERIENCE.-AN AMUSING REGULATION . Page 1
A DRIVE IN THE SUBURBS OF HAVRE. -SAINTE-ADRESSE AND THE LIGHT-HOUSE. -VILLAS, GAR-
DENS, AND OTHER SUBURBAN ATTRACTIONS.--HOUSES OF ALPHONSE KARR AND SARA BERN-
HARDT.--MONUMENT TO GENERAL DESNOUETTES AND ITS PRACTICAL USES.--AN AMUSING
INCIDENT.-AN EVENING WALK ALONG THE STREETS AND QUAYS.-THE RUE DE PARIS.-IN
THE FISH-MARKET.-THE FISHING FOLKS OF NORMANDY; THEIR ORIGIN, OCCUPATION, AND PE-
CULIARITIES. -VISIT TO A FISHING VILLAGE.-INTERIOR OF FISHERS' HOUSES.--MUSSELING
AND SHRIMPING.--A FISH AUCTION.--HAULING BOATS ON SHORE. -HARFLEUR AND HAVE
CONTRASTED.-THE DOCKS OF HAVE; THEIR EXTENT AND COST.--DEPARTURE OF AN OCEAN
STEAMSHIP.-" C. G. T." .. . . . .. .19
COMPLEX RULES OF THE "1 G. T." TARIFF FOR DOGS, MONKEYS, AND PARROTS.- COMMERCE OF
HAVRE.--WOMEN UNLOADING SHIPS.-" PAUL AND VIRGINIA."-MONUMENT TO ITS AUTHOR.-
ANCIENT HOUSES IN HAVRE.--JOHN LAW AND THE SOUTH SEA BUBBLE.-NEW USE FOR
LOGWOOD.-- AHY AMERICAN CIDER IS SENT TO FRANCE.-FRENCH EXPLORATION OF THE NEW
WORLD.--JACQUES CARTIER AND OTIER NAVIGATORS. FROM HAVRE TO TROUVILLE. -THE
MOST FASIIIONADLE OF SEA-SIDE RESORTS.--THE BEACH AND THE RULES FOR BATHING.-
SCENES AT THE BATTING HOUR.-MISHAP TO BATHERS AND THE RESULT.--THE BEACH AT
Low TIDE.-THE CASINO IN THE EVENING.-DANCING AND GAMING ...... 39
THE CHILDREN'S BALL AT THE CASINO OF TROUVILLE.-ADVANTAGES OF EARLY TRAINING IN PO-
LITENESS.-GAMING AT THE CASINO.-COURRIERS AND LES PETITS CHEVAUX. SCENES IN THE
GAMING-ROOMS. DEAUVILLE; ITS ORIGIN AND HISTORY. DUKE DE MORNY. TROUVILLE
RACES.-VIEWS OF THE RACING-GROUNDS AND INCIDENTS OF THE RACES.-COSTUMES OF THE
BELLES.-ENGLISH VISITORS AND THEIR WAGERS.-POOL-SELLING.-VISIT TO THE CASTLE OF
BONNEVILLE.-REMINISCENCES OF WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.-HOW HE INVADED ENGLAND.-
BATTLE OF HASTINGS AND DEATH OF HAROLD.--DIVES AND CAEN.--A NORMAN FUNERAL.-
ROUEN.--THE CATHEDRAL.--MRS. BASSETT'S MISTAKE.-RICHARD THE LION-HEARTED.--MU-
SEUM OF ANTIQUITIES AND WHAT WAS SEEN THERE . .. Page 58
SOMETHING ABOUT JOAN OF ARC; HER BIRTHPLACE AND EARLY LIFE; THE SUPERNATURAL VOICES;
HER VISIT TO THE GOVERNOR; PRESENTATION TO THE KING; SHE LEADS THE ARMY TO BAT-
TLE; DEFEATS THE ENGLISH; HER WONDERFUL MILITARY CAREER; PERSONAL INFLUENCE WITH
COURT AND ARMY; CAPTURE, TRIAL FOR SORCERY, CONDEMNATION, AND DEATH; THE PLACE
WHERE SHE WAS BURNED.-FROM ROUEN TO PARIS.--CHATEAU GAILLARD AND ITS HISTORY.
-HENRY OF NAVARRE.-ARRIVAL AT PARIS.-REMINISCENCE OF THE DOCTOR.-FRANK'S OB-
SERVATIONS ON THEIR FIRST DAY IN PARIS.--THE STREETS AND CAFES.-CAFE TORTONI.--
CHAMFS-ELYSEES, Bols DE BOULOGNE, AND CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME . .. .75
THE BASTILE; WHAT REMAINS OF IT TO-DAY; ITS HISTORY AND USES; CAPTURE AND DESTRUC-
TION.-LETTRES DE CACHET.--LAFAYETTE AND THE KEY OF THE BASTILE.--THE LOUVRE;
ITS HISTORY.-CATHERINE DE MEDICIS AND THE PALACE OF THE TUILERIES; BURNING OF THE
PALACE IN 1871.-A CHAT ABOUT THE COMMUNISTS.-COMMUNES OF 1789 AND 1871.-THE
CORPS LEGISLATIF. -CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES IN SESSION.--GAMBETTA.--AN OLD SENATOR.-
HOW THE FRENCH PRESIDENT IS CHOSEN.-THE VENDOME COLUMN AND SOMETHING ABOUT IT.
-THE FATAL PHOTOGRAPH.-THE INVALIDES AND THE TOMB OF NAPOLEON.--A BIT OF
MORALIZING ...... . . . . 94
VISIT TO THE BOIS DE VINCENNES.--A MILITARY REVIEW.-HISTORIC INTEREST OF THE CHATEAU
OF VINCENNES.-THE FRENCH ARMY; ITS STRENGTH AND COMPOSITION; THE ACTIVE ARMY AND
THE VARIOUS CLASSES OF RESERVES; EVOLUTIONS ON THE FIELD; THE GRAND MAN(EUVRES;
How THEY ARE CONDUCTED; A SHAM BATTLE; AN IMPOLITIC GENERAL, AND WHAT HAPPENED
TO HIM.--THE FRENCH NAVY; THE FIRST. ARMORED SHIPS OF WAR, AND WHO MADE THEM;
How THE NAVY IS MANNED. CEMETERY OF PERE LA CHAISE; TOMBS OF FAMOUS PEOPLE;
STORY OF ABELARD AND HELOISE; A WALK THROUGH THE CEMETERY.-THE GUILLOTINE AND
ITS INVENTOR.-PRISON OF LA ROQUETTE.-PLACE DE LA RtPUBLIQUE.-MARKET OF THE TEMPLE.
-MARKETS OF PARIS IN GENERAL ...... .. . .112
LES HALLES CENTRALES, THE GREAT MARKET OF PARIS; ITS EXTENT AND CHARACTER; HOW IT IS
MANAGED; WHAT THE VISITORS SAW.-DAILY CONSUMPTION OF FOOD.-THE OCTROI; ITS ORI-
GIN AND USES.-THE COMEDIE FRANCAISE.-BUYING TICKETS.--ANTIQUITY OF THE THEATRE.--
A REMINISCENCE OF LOUIS XIV.-ORGANIZATION OF THE COMPANY.-CURIOUS CUSTOMS.-" THE
TRIPLE KNOCK."-A VIEW OF THE GREENROOM AND FOYER.-THE GOVERNMENT SUBSIDY.--
"HERNANI."-AN AMERICAN'S MISTAKE.--GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF THE THEATRE.-FAMOUS
FRENCH COMEDIANS.-THE NEW OPERA-HOUSE; MARY'S ACCOUNT OF WHAT THEY SAW THERE.
-A WATER CIRCUS. ... .. .. ... ... . 181
A VISIT TO THE SALON.-SOMETHING ABOUT FRENCH ART.-COLLECTIONS OF THE LOUVRE AND THE
LUXEMBOURG.--ART STUDENTS IN PARIS.--SCHOOLS OF ART.--MINISTER OF FINE ARTS AND
HIS DUTIES.--PICTURES BOUGHT BY GOVERNMENT.-DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF FRENCH
ART.-NOTED FRENCH ARTISTS OF TO-DAY.-A VISIT TO A FAMOUS STUDIO.-ECOUEN, AND THE
ARTISTS THERE.--DOUARD FRERE.-SCHOOL OF THE LEGION OF HONOR.-MARY'S ACCOUNT OF
THEIR VISIT TO ECOUEN.--PEASANT LIFE.--EXCURSIONS IN THE COUNTRY.--EDUCATION IN
FRANCE.--How THE SCHOOLS ARE CONDUCTED. RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS AND THEIR AL-
LOWANCES FROM GOVERNMENT.-CHANGES AMONG THE PEASANTRY . Page 150
ONE OF THE "IMMORTALS;" MRS. BASSETT'S DOUBTS CONCERNING HIM.-THE FRENCH ACADEMY, AND
THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE; ATTENDING A MEETING OF THE ACADEMY.- DESCRIPTION OF THE
"IMMORTALS."--THE ILLUSTRIOUS FORTY; ADVANTAGES OF MEMBERSHIP AND DIFFICULTY OF
OBTAINING IT; HOW ELECTIONS ARE CONDUCTED.-THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES.-THE FAMOUS
DICTIONARY; TWELVE HUNDRED YEARS FOR ITS COMPLETION.-A GATHERING OF DISTINGUISHED
FRENCHMEN.--PROCEEDINGS AT A MEETING.--PLACE AND ARCH OF THE CARROUSEL.-THE
FORTE SAINT-DENIS AND PORTE SAINT-MARTIN.--A DISSERTATION ON TRIUMPHAL ARCHES.--
VISIT TO THE ARC DE TRIOMPHE DE L'eTOILE.-REMINISCENCES OF THE SIEGE OF 1871 167
THE GREATEST AUCTION-ROOM IN THE WORLD.-VISIT TO THE HOTEL DROUOT.-THE "MAZAS.--
REQUIREMENTS OF THE LAW CONCERNING BANKRUPT SALES.-COURT-YARD OF THE HOTEL.-THE
AUCTIONEERS AND THEIR ASSISTANTS.-THE CRIEUR AND HIS DUTIES.--EXPERTS, AND SOME OF
THEIR BLUNDERS.-A BIT OF ACTING.-PERCENTAGES UPON SALES.-GREAT TRANSACTIONS IN
VALUABLE ARTICLES.-FAMOUS AUCTIONS.-AMOUNTS REALIZED AT THE DEMIDOFF AND OTHER
SALES.--HOTEL FIGARO.-A CHAT ABOUT PARISIAN NEWSPAPERS.-TREATMENT OF THE PRESS
BY DIFFERENT GOVERNMENTS.-WHAT THE PAPERS CONTAIN.--EDITORIAL DUELLISTS.-DUELS
IN GENERAL.--FRENCH VIEWS OF PERSONAL COMBAT ... ... .184
THE EIFFEL TOWER; ITS HEIGHT AND DIMENSIONS; COMPARISON WITH THE WASHINGTON MONU-
MENT; PLANS FOR ITS CONSTRUCTION; HOW THE COST WAS DEFRAYED; TRIUMPH OF THE RIVET
IN BUILDING; HOW THE ASCENT IS MADE.-ELEVATORS OF AMERICAN AND FRENCH CONSTRUC-
TION.-TIIE TRAVELLER WHO WANTED TO GO TO COMPLET."-A MIXED ASSEMBLAGE.-SCENES
ON THE DIFFERENT PLATFORMS.-DINNER IN A HIGH PLACE.-VIEW FROM THE UPPER STORY.
-EFFECT OF WIND AND RAIN.-PARIS AT NIGIT FROM THE TOWER.-AN EXPERIENCE IN SO-
CIETY.-THE SALONS OF PARIS AND THEIR PECULIARITIES.-MADAME EDMOND ADAM AND HER
RECEPTIONS.-ANECDOTE OF GAMBETTA.--JULIETTE LAMBERT . .... .203
AN EVENING RECEPTION.-JULES SIMON AND OTHER MEN OF NOTE.-CONVERSATION AT THE SALON.
-SOME FAMOUS SALONS.-DR. EVANS AND HIS HOUSE.-REMINISCENCES OF THE EMPRESS EU-
GENIE; HER ESCAPE FROM PARIS.-A CHAT ABOUT THE EMPIRE AND THE NAPOLEONIC FAMILY.
-A SHORT HISTORY OF THE COUP-D'ETAT; HOW THE PLANS WERE LAID AND CARRIED OUT.
-VICTOR HUGO AND OTHER EXILES.-IN THE GREAT SHOPS.-MARY'S ACCOUNT OF SHOPPING.
-A DISSERTATION ON FANs.-How A FRAUD WAS DETECTED.-EVOLUTION OF THE BONNET.-
FASHIONS IN DIFFERENT YEARS.-BIRDS IN THE GARDENS.-THE "BIRD CHARMER" Page 222
FROM PARIS TO DIJON.-A MISUNDERSTANDING.-RAILWAY TRAVEL IN FRANCE.-ARRANGEMENTS FOR
DINING.-DINNER ON THE TRAIN.-DIJON; ITS INTERESTING FEATURES.-THE BURGUNDY DIS-
TRICT.-ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.-A KITCHEN OF THE MIDDLE AGES.-LYONS.-THE SILK-WEAVING
INDUSTRY.-JACQUARD AND HIS INVENTION.-HEIGHTS OF FOURVIERES.-VIEW OF THE RHONE
AND SAONE.-CHILDREN'S SAVINGS-BANKS. -SIGHTS OF LYONS.--VISIT TO A SILK ESTABLISH-
MENT.-CASTLES OF THE RHONE.--STEAMER VERSUS RAILWAY.--AIX-LES-BAINS; WHAT OUR
FRIENDS SAW THERE.-GORGE OF THE RHONE, AND MARY'S THOUGHTS THEREON.-ARRIVAL AT
GENEVA. .... ............. . . .241
THE LAND OF WILLIAM TELL.-IS THE STORY OF TELL A MYTH ?-JOHN CALVIN AND HIS WORK;
SHORT SKETCH OF HIS LIFE.-VIEW OF MONT BLANC; HEIGHT OF THE FAMOUS MOUNTAIN.-ST.
PETER'S CHURCH.-PULPIT WHERE CALVIN AND KNOX PREACHED.-CALVIN'S CHAIR.-SERVETUS
BURNED AT THE STAKE.-THE EAGLES OF GENEVA.-THE RHONE LAUNDRY.-FOUNTAIN OF THE Es-
CALADE AND ITS ORIGIN.-HOW THE DUKE OF SAVOY WAS DEFEATED.-SWISS THRIFT AND ECONO-
MIES.-NEW WAY OF MAKING A HOTEL BILL.--ROUSSEAU'S ISLAND.--JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU.
-FEEDING THE SWANS.-WATCH-MAKING AT GENEVA.-MACHINE VERSUS HAND LABOR 258
THE CANTON OF GENEVA; SKETCH OF ITS HISTORY; NOTED PERSONS WHO HAVE FOUND REFUGE
AT GENEVA; POPULATION, RELIGION, AND GOVERNMENT.-GOVERNMENT OF THE SWISS REPUBLIC.
-THE ARMY AND NAVY.--A SwISS ADMIRAL.-HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, AND THEIR RELA-
TIONS TO EACH OTHER.-NEUTRALITY OF SWITZERLAND.-RUSSIAN NIHILISTS.-DRIVES AROUND
GENEVA.-FERNEY AND VOLTAIRE.-RELICS OF THE GREAT PHILOSOPHER.-ANECDOTES OF VOL-
TAIRE'S LIFE.-LAKE LEMAN.-THE STEAMER BONNIVARD.-THE PRISONER OF CHILLON.-VOY-
AGE ALONG THE LAKE.-REMINISCENCES OF BYRON AND GIBBON.-OUCHY AND LAUSANNE 276
VEVAY.-GRAVES OF THE REGICIDES.-SCENES IN THE MARKET.-MARY'S NEW HAT.-WINE-MAKING
IN CANTON VAUD.- GATHERING THE GRAPES.-WINE-PRESSING.--THE GREAT TUN.--CEREMO.
NIAL FESTIVAL IN GOOD SEASONS.--SELECTION OF BACCHUS. -HAUTEVILLE AND BLONAY.-
CASTLES FOR RENT.-GHOSTS FREE OF CHARGE.-LEGENDS OF THE CASTLE.--HOW A LOVER
WON A BRIDE. -HISTORY OF CANTON VAUD. -LOUIS AGASSIZ.-E EXCURSION TO CHILLON.--.
POETICAL RECITATIONS.-THE POET'S LICENSE.-CLARENS AND MONTREUX.-FACTS CONCERNING
BONNIVARD AND HIS FAMILY.-THE DUNGEON OF SEVEN PILLARS . ... .294
THE CASTLE OF CHILLON; ITS ANTIQUITY.-THE LAKE-DWELLERS OF SWITZERLAND; WHO THEY
WERE AND HOW THEY LIVED.-LOUIS LE DEBONAIR.-THE COUNTS OF SAVOY.-SIEGE OF THE
CASTLE. -ILLUSTRIOUS PRISONERS OF DIFFERENT TIMES.-HALL OF THE KNIGHTS.- WILLIAM
BOLOMIER.-BONNIVARD.-INSTRUMENTS OF TORTURE.-THE PATH WORN BY BONNIVARD'S FEET;
INSPECTION OF HIS DUNGEON.-THE LITTLE ISLE.-VILLENEUVE; SIGHTS TO BE SEEN THERE.-
SHEEP, GOATS, AND COWS.-MOUNTAIN PASTURES.--ROUNTAINS OF VILLENEUVE.-WASHING IN
THE LAKE.-A RIDE BY RAILWAY.--VALLEY O THE RHONE.-MARTIONY.--THE LANDLORD'S
PHILOSOPHY .. . . . ... .... Page 313
FROM MARTIGNY TO CHAMOUNI.--How THEY "CHANGE HORSES" IN SWITZERLAND.--PASS OF THE
GREAT SAINT-BERNARD.--WHO WAS ST. BERNARD?--LIFE AT THE HOSPICE IN THE PASS.-
DOGS OF THE SAINT-BERNARD.-ORIGIN OF THE STOCK.-HOW THE HOSPICE IS MAINTAINED.-
A MEAN STREAK OF HUMAN- NATURE.--How OUR FRIENDS TRAVELLED BY WAGON.--THE
DRIVER'S TRICK.--TTE NOIR HOTEL.--CHAMOUNI.--STUDYING MONT BLANC. -MONUMENT TO
JACQUES BALMAT.-DIFFICULTIES AND DANGERS OF THE ASCENT OF MONT BLANC.-CA-
TASTROPHE TO A PARTY CAUGHT IN A STORM.-DR. BEANE'S NOTE-BOOK.--GUIDES THROWN
INTO A CREVASSE. MONTANVERT AND THE MER DE GLACE.-MARY'S ACCOUNT OF THE EX-
CURSION THITHER ....... .. . . . 333
SOUVENIRS OF SWITZERLAND.-WOOD-CARVINGS AND ALPENSTOCKS.-INTERESTING SOUVENIR OF TRAV-
ELS THAT WERE NOT MADE.--EXCURSION TO THE FLEGERE.-C-HAMOUNI TO GENEVA AND
BERNE.-THE SWISS CAPITAL.-HAUNT OF THE BEARS.-THE CATHEDRAL AND ITS TERRACE.-
VIEW OF THE MOUNTAINS OF THE BERNESE OBERLAND.-THE "AFTER-GLOW."-CURIOUS FOUNT-
AINS.-PROCESSION OF THE BEARS.-VISIT TO THE BEAR-PITS; HOW THE ANIMALS ARE FED.-
THE CHAMOIS, AND HOW HE IS HUNTED.-BURGDORF AND PESTALOZZI.-BALE.-ON THE BANKS
OF THE RHINE.-CATHEDRAL AND MUSEUM.-HANS HOLBEIN .... .. .. .51
MEETING OLD FRIENDS.--THE CHAPMAN FAMILY. EXCURSION TO THE FALLS OF THE RHINE.--
A DIVISION INTO Two PARTIES.-WHAT FRANK AND FRED SAW.-LAKE CONSTANCE.--SUM-
MER HOMES OF NOTED PERSONS.-QUEEN HORTENSE.-AN UNHAPPY LIFE.--MARTYRDOM OF
JOHN HUSS.-THE GREAT COUNCIL AND ITS HALL.-RAGATZ AND PFXFFERS.-IN A HOT CAV-
ERN.-THE WALLENSEE.-ZURICH.-SIGHT-SEEING AND DRESS-MAKING.-UP THE RIGI.-MARY'S
ACCOUNT OF WHAT THEY SAW THERE.-THE RIGI RAILWAY.-ASCENT BY COG-WHEELS.-
SUNRISE ON THE RIGI.-THE ALPINE HORN.-GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT.-LAKE OF
THE FOUR CANTONS.-LUCERNE ... .. . . . 369
SCENERY OF LAKE LUCERNE.-WILLIAM TELL.-SPRINGS OF THE RUTLI.-TELL'S CHAPEL.-DOUBTS
CONCERNING THE TELL TRADITIONS.-THE AXENSTRASSE.-SAINT GOTHARD RAILWAY AND TUN-
NEL.-A SPIRAL RAILWAY.-HOW THE SAINT GOTHARD TUNNEL WAS BUILT.-MACHINE-DRILLS
AND THEIR WORK.-EXACTNESS OF ENGINEERING.-HOW THE TWO ENDS OF THE TUNNEL MET
IN THE MOUNTAIN.-CERTAIN TERMS EXPLAINED.-INSPECTING THE TUNNEL.-AIR-LOCOMOTIVES,
AND HOW THEY ARE MADE.-'LONGEST TUNNELS IN THE WORLD.-A TELEGRAM FROM DOCTOR
BRONSON.-THE ARLBERG TUNNEL.-FROM LUCERNE TO INNSBRUCK.-THE ENGADINE VALLEY.-
ARRIVAL AT INNSBRUCK . . . . 3 886
INNSBRUCK AND ITS SITUATION.-THE MOUNTAINS AND THE VALLEY OF THE INN.-GOLDENES DACHL.
-COUNT FREDERICK OF TYROL; HIS EMPTY POCKETS.-MAXIMILIAN I., AND THE REMARKABLE
MONUMENT TO HIS MEMORY.--BRONZE STATUES.--A SCRAP OF HISTORY.--ANDREAS HOFER,
AND WHAT HE DID.-TYROLESE PATRIOTS.--FERDINAND II.-THE CASTLE OF AMRAS.-TYROL-
ESE PAINTINGS.-DEFREGGER AND HIS WORK.--WRESTLING AND FINGER-HACKING.-NATIVE COS-
TUMES.-BRIDE FROM THE GRODNER THAL.-GRODNER THAL AND ITS INDUSTRIES.-DIFFICULTIES OF
FARMING.-WOOD-CARVING.-ZITHER-PLAYING.-THE BRENNER PASS AND RAILWAY Page 404
FROM INNSBRUCK TO BOTZEN.-THE INN AND THE SILL.-THE VALLEY THAT LEADS TO THE SUMMIT.-
"THE TWO STREAMS."-ALPINE RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION.-TUNNELS ALONG THE ROUTE.-NOVEL
SUGGESTION FOR UTILIZING TUNNELS.-FRANK'S LITTLE STORY.-MRS. BASSETT'S DOUBTS.-BOT-
ZEN AND ITS PECULIARITIES.--A REGION OF CASTLES.-SCHLOSS TYROL.-MERAN.-FROM BOTZEN
TO MUNICH.-A CHAT ABOUT AUSTRIA.-THE GOVERNMENT AND PEOPLE.-COMPOSITION OF THE
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY.-EMPEROR AND KING.-HOW THE UNION WAS BROUGHT ABOUT.
-PARLIAMENTS, ARMY AND NAVY, AND OTHER MATTERS.-A LITTLE WAR OF WORDS 423
ART TREASURES OF MUNICH.-PUBLIC BUILDINGS DEVOTED TO ART.-" THE DESTRUCTION OF JERU-
SALEM," AND OTHER FAMOUS PICTURES.-KAULBACH, PILOT, AND OTHER ARTISTS OF THE MU-
NICH SCHOOL.--PILOTY AND THE KING.-THE ROYAL BLUNDER, AND WHAT CAME OF IT.-
GABRIEL MAX, AND THE LION'S BRIDE."-HANS MAKART; HIS STYLE OF WORK.-ACADEMY
OF FINE ARTS.-ART STUDENTS IN MUNICH; THEIR NUMBER, AND HOW THEY LIVE.-THE CAR-
NIVAL BALL.-STUDENTS WITH FORTUNES.-STATUE OF BAVARIA," AND THE HALL OF FAME.-
THE FRAUENKIRCHE AND ITS MONUMENTS.-THE NATIONAL MUSEUM AND ITS CONTENTS.-BA-
VARIA, AND ITS RELATIONS TO THE GERMAN EMPIRE.-ARMY, RELIGION, SCHOOLS, ETC.-INDUS-
TRIES OF MUNICH.-A BEER-CELLAR WITH A HISTORY . . .441
FROM MUNICH TO SALZBURG.-SHORT HISTORICAL NOTE.-THE BIRTHPLACE OF MOZART; ANECDOTES
OF THE GREAT COMPOSER; THE MOZART MUSEUM; THE MUSICIAN'S FIRST PERFORMANCES; HIS
REQUIEM MASS.--THE MONCHSBERG AND KAPUZINERBERG.-FORTRESS OF HOHEN-SALZBURG.-
EXCURSION TO BERCHTESGADEN AND THE KONIGS-SEE.-A RIDE ON THE LAKE.--THE FAMOUS
ECHO.-A BREAKFAST UPON TROUT FROM THE LAKE.-FISH STORIES.-VISIT TO THE SALT-MINES.
-OUR FRIENDS IN MINING COSTUME.--DOWN "THE SLIDES."- POOLS IN TIE MOUNTAIN.-A
WALK THROUGH THE GALLERIES.--RIDING ON THE TRAMWAY.-A SUBTERRANEAN ILLUMINATION.
-REICHENHALL AND ITS CURES."-THE GAISBERG AND HELLBRUNN . 459
FROM SALZBURG TO LINZ.-DOWN THE DANUBE.-NAVIGATION ON THE "BEAUTIFUL BLUE" RIVER.
-POETIC LICENSE.-CASTLES, AND TRADITIONS ABOUT THEM.-THE ABBEY OF MELK.-A GER-
MAN JOKE.-ARRIVAL AT VIENNA; FIRST VIEW OF THE CITY.-THE RINGSTRASSE; HOW IT
ORIGINATED.-THE RINGS OF VIENNA.-ST. STEPHEN'S CHURCH.-ANTIQUITY OF VIENNA.-THE
VINDOBONA OF THE ROMANS. HOUSE OF HAPSBURG-LORRAINE. -AN UNBROKEN LINE OF SIX
CENTURIES.--IN A CAFE-RESTAURANT.-VIENNESE CUSTOMS. -PERPLEXITIES FOR STRANGERS.-
DOCTOR BRONSON'S STORY OF 1873.-THE ZAHL-KELLNER AND HIS DUTIES.-HONESTY OF THE
VIENNESE.-SHOPPING ON THE GRABEN.-RUSSIA-LEATHER GOODS . .. Page 476
IN THE KOHLMARKT.--HOFBURG.--AMALIENHOF.- RITTERSAAL.--THE IMPERIAL LIBRARY, AND
WHAT WAS SEEN THERE.-THE TREASURY. THE FLORENTINE DIAMOND AND ITS HISTORY.-
CHARLEMAGNE'S IMPERIAL REGALIA.-THE GOLDEN FLEECE.-BURG THEATRE.-TERRIBLE DIS-
ASTER AT THE RING THEATRE.-- DRIVE TO THE PRATER.-IN THE GREAT PARK OF VIENNA.
-ANTIQUITY OF THE PRATER; ITS HISTORY FOR 800 YEARS.--HAUPT-ALLEE AND NOBEL-
PRATER.-AN ARISTOCRATIC RESORT.-CONSTANTINE HILL.-A VIEW OF THE EMPEROR.-CHAT
ABOUT THE IMPERIAL FAMILY. THE WURSTEL-PRATER.-- POPULAR AMUSEMENTS. VOTIVE
CHURCH.-THE EMPRESS ... . . . . 493
THE IMPERIAL OPERA-HOUSE, VIENNA; EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR OF THE BUILDING; THE AUDIENCE AND
THE PERFORMANCE; STATUARY AND DECORATIONS; MADAME MATERNAL; RULES OF THE MANAGE-
MENT; FEMININE ORCHESTRAS; MRS. BASSETT'S VIEWS CONCERNING THEM.-THE UNIVERSITY OF
VIENNA.-" THE LINES."-SIEGE OF VIENNA BY THE TURKS.--SCRAPS OF HISTORY.-EXTENSION
OF MODERN VIENNA.-A BAKER'S DISCOVERY.-THE KAHLENBERG.-FROM VIENNA TO BUDA-
PESTH BY RIVER.-PRESBURG AND KOMORN.-BUDA-PESTH.-THE TWIN CITIES, AND HOW THEY
WERE UNITED.-ROYAL PALACE, AND OTHER BUILDINGS.-HOT SPRINGS AND BATHS.-MARGARET
ISLAND.-THE OPERA.-HUNGARIAN DISHES, DANCES, AND NOBILITY.-THE END . 512
Norman Fishing and Market Boat ......
On the Normandy Coast.................
Yachting in the Channel................
The Captain's Post on the Bridge..........
The Entrance-port of Havre..............
Along the Rocks and Sands..............
An Economical Arrangement ............
On the Beach at Frascati's..............
A Hard Road to Travel .................
In the Hands of a Baigneur .............
In the Caf6 ...........................
A Twilight Effect .......................
Votive Offering at the Church............
Light-houses Near Havre................
In the Fields Near the City..............
W waiting for the Tide ...................
Return of the Mussel-gatherers...........
A Shrimper ...........................
Watching for the Boat .................
A Norman Interior ....................
In the Harbor ........................
A Captain of the C. G. T."...............
A Passenger for Fifty Francs.............
Men and Women Unloading a Steamer ....
Travel by Water-Old Ways and New ....
Caricature of John Law-Amsterdam, 1720
Mending Nets at Low Tide...............
Landing of a French Expedition in the New
World. (From an old print.) ..........
On the Lookout at Trouville .............
The Bathing Hour .....................
Sunday Morning in Normandy ...........
The W indlass .................. ......
Table of the Courriers "................ 60
At the Races of Trouville ............... 62
Costumes of the Natives................. 64
Ready for the Race..................... 65
Ships of the Time of William the Conqueror 67
A Fisherman of Cobourg ............... 69
The Castle of Rouen in the Fifteenth Cen-
tury.................... .... ....... 71
Effigy of Richard the Lion-hearted......... 72
A Funeral in Normandy................. 73
Credence of Jeanne Dare's Time.......... 75
Jeanne Darc Hearing "the Voices "....... 77
Jeanne Dare. (Statue by M. Chapu.)...... 78
Joan of Arc in Battle................... 79
ChAteau Gaillard....................... 80
Castle Chamber of Fifteenth Century...... 81
Medal of the Duke of Sully.............. 82
ChAteau of Henry IV.................. 83
Caf6 Tortoni, Paris..................... 85
An Old Customer....................... 86
Cabaret Du Chat Noir.................. 89
Riding for His Health .................. 91
Part of Ancient Church Window, Paris.... 93
Key of the Bastile.................... 94
The Bastile. (From an old print.)........... 95
Destruction of the Bastile. (From an old
print.)........... ..... ............. 97
The Louvre of the Time of Charles V...... 99
Marquis de Lafayette ................. 100
Meeting-place of the Chamber of Deputies.. 102
M. Gambetta Presiding Over the Chamber of
Deputies....................... ...... 104
The Palace of Luxembourg............. 105 -
Vendome Column in 1840. (From an old
print.) .............................. 107
Medal Commemorating Alliance of France
and the United States ............... 109
Napoleon as First Consul .................. 110
Medal of Napoleon, as King of Italy....... 111
The Bugle Call .................. ..... 112
Marching in the Rain .................. 114
The Company Kitchen.................. 115
The Scout ............................ 117
The "Billet de Logement" .............. 119
The Patrol............................ 120
The Attack............................ 121
The "Devastation." (French armored ship
of the first class.)................... 123
French Iron-clad Ship in-Dock....... .... 125
Funeral Procession in Paris.............. 127
Eugene Scribe ........................ 128
The Temple. (From an old print.)........... 130
Ticket-office of the Comedie Francaise. .... 131
Exterior of the Com4die Fran9aise......... 133
Vestibule of the Theatre ................ 135
Waiting for Her Cue................... 137
Dressing-room of an Actress............. 138
The Greenroom....................... 139
Stage-manager Making the "Three Knocks" 141
Hat and Cloak Room ................... 142
Mounet-Sully as Hernani ............... 143
F. Lemaitre as Robert Macaire ........... 144
Staircase of the New Opera-house ......... 146
Ceiling of Auditorium-New OpBra-house .. 148
Jean Louis Meissonier .................. 150
The Advance Guard." (A. de Neuville.).. 151
"Expectation." (Toulmouche.) ........... 153
"Return of the Flock." (Jacques.)....... 155
"The Vedette." (Meissonier.)........... 157
Rosa Bonheur ......................... 158
"Ploughing in Nivernais." (RosaBonheur.) 159
Chtteau of Ecouen..................... 160
Chialiva's Studio, Ecouen................ 161
Street in Ecouen...................... 163
Gleaners in the Fields................... 164
Gossip on the Road................... 166
Voting at the Institute of France......... 167
Hats of the French Academy........... 169
Dr. Charcot ........................... 170
A Lecture at the Academy of Sciences.... 171
Arrival of Vice-admiral Paris ............ 173
A Distinguished Member ................ 174
M. Faye, Astronomer ................... 176
Are du Carrousel...................... 178
On the Boulevard ...................... 180
Are de l'Etoile.......................
"The Retreat." (Edouard Dltaille.) ......
M. Chevalier, Auctioneer ...............
An Expert in Old Coins .................
A Sale in the Court-yard ................
A Private View.......... ...........
Daire, the Master Crier ................
A Regular Visitor......................
A Sale in the "Mazas"................
An Amateur..... .. .. .. ..
Waiting for Business...................
Editorial Breakfast at the Restaurant Du
A Buyer of Old Books ................
A Serious Duel ......... .. ......
Souvenirs of the Tower..................
Taking the Elevator...................
On the Summit.......................
W writing Letters............. ...........
Chief of the Guards ....................
A Full Window .......................
Paris from the Fourth Floor.............
The Tower by Night ...................
The Salon of the Countess d'Agoult.......
Gambetta's First Appearance at Madame
Adam's Salon ....................
Madame Edmond Adam (Juliette Lamber)..
Jules Simon. ......... ..........
A Corner in a Salon ....................
Eugenic, ex-Empress of France...........
Police Clearing the Boulevards at Night ...
The Late Prince Imperial, Napoleon IV....
Victor Hugo and His Grandchildren ......
Fan in Time of Louis XIV...............
Fan of Louis XV. Period ...............
Bridal Fan by Watteau. (1709.).........
An Autograph Fan.............. .....
Bonnet of 1787 ........................
1864. .............. ..........
A Pair of French Sparrows ............
Statue of Moses, Dijon..................
Statue of Jeremiah.....................
Our Motive Power...................... 244
Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy....... 245
Ancient Lace in the Museum............. 246
A Narrow Street....................... 247
Lyons..................... .... ....... 248
Moonlight Scene Near Lyons................ 249
Castle on the RhOne, near Valence......... 251
Amphitheatre at Nimes ................. 253
Roman Baths at Nimes ................. 255
Woman of Aries ...................... 256
Colosseum at Arles ..................... 257
John Calvin........................... 258
Old Geneva, Rousseau's Isle, and Mont
Blanc Bridge....................... 260
Interior of St. Peter's Cathedral.......... 262
Geneva-New City and Bridge of Mont Blanc 264
Eagles of Geneva ..................... 266
Fountain of the Escalade............... 267
A Street Porter ...................... 268
Trying for a Fee...................... 269
Jean Jacques Rousseau ................. 271
Tower of Cesar, and the Laundresses...... 273
Skull Watch of Mary Stuart............. 275
Lateen Rig............................ 276
View in Old Geneva .................. 278
Open-air Parliament in Switzerland........ 279
A Nihilist Family at Home............... 281
V oltaire .............................. 283
Voltaire's House at Ferney .............. 285
Church Built by Voltaire .............. 287
Steamboat on Lake Leman............. 288
Bonnivard ......................... 289
Byron's Villa, Deodati.................. 290
Madame de Stall ...................... 291
Lausanne ............................. 292
Villa of the Empress Josephine............ 293
Swiss Railway Servant ................ 294
Market-place at Vevay ................ 296
Gathering Grapes near Vevay........... 297
The Wine-press........................ 299
Eating Grapes........................ 301
Summer Visitors at Montreux............ 303
A Group of Vaudois.................. 305
Louis Agassiz .................. ... 307
A Field Near Clarens ................. 309
The Castle of Chillon ................... 310
Bonnivard's Dungeon.................. 311
Castle of Chillon, Land Side.............. 312
Moat Tower of Chillon .................. 313
Vernex and Montreux.................. 315
A Fountain at Villeneuve................... 316
The Prisoner of Chillon................ 319
Washing Clothes in the Lake ........... 322
Cattle at the Fountain .................. 324
Post-office, Villeneuve ................. 325
Flirtation by the Water ............... 327
Outside of Villeneuve ... .............. 328
Archway and Sheep .................... 329
Valley Scene........................ ... 330
Church Terrace, Montreux ............... 332
"Alpenstock"...................... .. 333
Mountain and Valley .................. 334
Saint-Bernard Dog ................... 336
Swiss Mountain Road .................. 338
Rock of the Grands Mulets .............. 340
Mountains of Europe .................. 341
Mont Blanc from the Mer de Glace ....... 343
Mont Blanc and Its Neighbors........... 345
Falling into a Crevasse ................ 347
A Difficult Road....................... 348
Alpine Roses.......................... 350
A Mountain Climber ................... 351
The Edelweiss ......................... 353
A Swiss Village........................ 354
An Arcade in Berne................... 56
Fountain of the Ogre ................. 357
Bear-pits at Berne ................ ..... 360
Scene in a Bernese Caf. ................ 361
Animals of the Alps ................... 362
The Chamois......................... 363
Swiss Farm-house ...................... 365
Crossing the Rhine by Moonlight......... 366
"Nathan Rebuking David." (Holbein.)... 368
Carving in Cathedral, Ble ................ 369
Arenenberg ........................... 372
Castle of Mainau, Lake Constance ........ 374
Summer Residence of German Emperor.... 375
Village of Pfiffers, near Ragatz .......... 376
The Wallen-See ...................... 378
Cloister of Zurich Cathedral........... 380
Mount Washington Railway-Parent of the
Rigi Line ........................... 383
Mountain and Valley .................. 384
Drilling Machine...... ................ 386
Village Scene ........................ 388
The Axenstrasse...................... 389
Missal of Henry II...
Saint Gothard Pass .................... 391 Antique Chest and Pottery ............. 456
A Street in Airolo....................... 393
Cross-section of Gallery........... ..... 396
Longitudinal Section of Gallery........... 397
Section of Tunnel....................... 398
Bellinzona, on the Saint Gothard Route.... 399
Tyrolese Peasant Girl ................. 401
A Valley in the Tyrol .................. 403
Goldenes Dachl ....................... 404
Maria Theresa Strasse, Inusbruck......... 405
King Arthur......................... 407
Andreas Hofer ........................ 409
Franz Defregger ...................... 410
Philippine Weiser, Countess of Tyrol...... 411
"Wrestling." (From apaintingbyDefregger.) 412
"Finger-hacking." (From a paintingby De-
A Grbdner Thal Bride ................. 414
A Wood-carver ....................... 415
A Mountain Porter .................... 417
Tyrolese Zither-players .................. 418
Saint Ulrich, Grodner Thal.............. 420
Profile of the Brenner Railway........... 421
The Lang Kofel, Tyrolean Alps........... 422
Vineyard Watch, South Tyrol............ 423
A Glacier in the Tyrol ................. 425
Village in the Mountains................. 427
Parish Church, Botzen ................. 429
Meran .......................... ... 431
Schloss Tyrol........................... 433
Costume of Sarn Thal, Tyrol............. 435
Tyrolese Girl Spinning .................. 436
Mountain Pasture, Tyrol................ 437
Farm-house, South Tyrol ................ 438
Mountain and Lake, South Tyrol. ........ 440
Wilhelm von Kaulbach .................. 441
The "Bush-ranger." (F. Dietz.) ......... 443
Karl Theodor Piloty .................... 444
"The Lion's Bride." (By Max.).......... 446
Gabriel Max........................... 447
Hans Makart........................... 448
"Fellah Women at the Fountain." (Makart.) 449
Part of Tomb of Louis the Bavarian ...... 451
Ancient Wood-carving'in Munich Museum 452
Brooch of the Eighth Century............ 453
A Fermenting Cellar .................. 457
Costumes of the Salt-mine............... 459
Cloister of the Nonnberg ................ 461
Johannes Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart...... 463
Antique German Stove .................... 464
The Watzmann, Overlooking Berchtesgaden 466
Boat-landing, KInigs-See................ 468
Kinigs-See ........................... 470
Lake in Salt-mine, Bercltesgaden......... 472
Costumes of the Ziller Thal, Tyrol......... 474
Dining-room in the Castle................ 475
Cursalon in the Stadtpark, Vienna........ 476
Plan of the Ringstrasse................. 478
Schwarzenbergplitz, Vienna............. 480
A Party at Table ....................... 482
Viennese W aiters ............... ...... 484
In the Stadtpark ....................... 485
Rathhaus (Town-hall) ................... 487
Caf6 Concert, Vienna .................. 489
Radetzky Bridge and Franz Josef Barracks. 491
The Imperial Museums ................. 493
Elizabeth Bridge and KIrnthnerstrasse .... 495
The Florentine Diamond ................ 496
The "Argo" ................ '.......... 498
Hofburg Theatre........... .......... 499
Viennese Fiacre........................ 501
Promenade in the Prater................ 503
Francis Joseph IL, Emperor of Austria.... 605
Shows in the Wurstel-Prater............ 507
The Vienna Stock-exchange.............. 508
The Votive Church .................... 509
Type of Viennoise .................... 5.11
A Lady Orchestra ..................... 512
The Imperial Opera-house ............... 513
Elizabeth, Empress of Austria............ 515
Madame Friedrich Materna .............. 517
The New University .................... 519
The Parliament House .................. 521
The Kahlenberg....................... 523
Budapest. (View from left bank of the
Danube.) ........................ 525
Gypsy Violinists ....................... 526
Type of Hongroise .................. .. 527
A Hungarian Magnate.................. 528
Promenade on Margaret Island........... 529
Dancing the Czardas "................. 531
THE BOY TRAVELLERS
FROM ENGLAND TO FRANCE. NORMANDY BOATS OF AN ANCIENT TYPE.--AP-
PROACHING HAVRE.-THE FRENCH COAST NEAR THE MOUTH OF THE SEINE.-
LIGHT-HOUSE AT SAINTE-ADRESSE.-MEETING AN OCEAN STEAMER.-HIGH TIDE
AT HAVRE.-ENTERING THE PORT.-THE SEMAPHORE AND SIGNAL STATION.-
FULL NAME OF THE CITY.-IN THE CUSTOM-HOUSE.-THE ECONOMICAL AMERI-
CAN, AND HOW HE AVOIDED THE DUTY ON CIGARS.-CLEANSING POWER OF
TIDES ILLUSTRATED.-A COACHMAN'S ATTEMPT AT FRAUD.--FRASCATI'S.-
SCENES AT THE BATHING-PLACE.-MARY TELLS HER EXPERIENCE.-AN AMUS-
" THAT an old-fashioned )
"Yes," was the reply; "old
enough to deserve our respect." ,
"It's a fishing and market I
boat from Normandy," said Doc-
tor Bronson. "The form of this
vessel is very much what it
was in the twelfth century, and 'LiII i i 111
the rig has changed very little.
These boats -are built for rough -- -
weather rather than for light NORMAN FISHING AND MARKKT BOAT.
breezes; a modern yacht would
sail away from her very rapidly, but the sailors on this clumsy-looking
craft would not hesitate to go out in a high wind when the ordinary
yachtsman would prefer to stay in port."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
"I think I saw two or three of these boats at Southampton, but sup-
posed they were English," Frank remarked.
"They probably came from Dieppe, or some other port of Nor-
mandy," the Doctor answered. "These boats bring vegetables and
other produce from the French coast for the English market. Some of
them are engaged in fishing, but it is proper to say that the number of
these craft is steadily diminishing year by year."
"Why is that ?"
"Because of the large number of men required to handle them in
proportion to the size of the vessel. That boat you are looking at is
about a hundred tons in measurement, and requires ten or twelve men
to handle her properly; six or eight men can manage a craft of the
same tonnage with a more modern rig; and slow as these people are to
change their customs, they are forced to do so in order to save money."
This conversation occurred on the deck of a steamer which was
crossing the English Channel from Southampton to Havre. Many of
our readers will recognize the names of Doctor Bronson, and that of his
nephew, Frank Bassett, whose adventures have been recorded in pre-
vious volumes of the "Boy Travellers Series."
Fred Bronson joined his uncle and cousin while they were discussing
the peculiarities of the boats that navigate the channel, and a few min-
utes later Mrs. Bassett and Mary made their appearance. There were
the usual morning greetings, and then all eyes were turned to the scene
that was presented before them.
The French coast was in full view, Havre being not more than fif-
teen miles away, and distinguishable through a glass by the forest of
masts that rose from its harbor, and also by the cloud of smoke about
the city. All around were boats of various kinds, the nearest of them
being the one just under consideration. Mary undertook to count the
sails in sight, but soon gave up the effort, as she was more interested in
the picturesqueness of the coast than in knowing the exact number of
craft in the range of her vision. A dozen or more steamers were vis-
ible, though some of them were so far away that their character was
discernible only by the columns of smoke pouring from their funnels
and stretching out behind them. There was only a light breeze blow-
The Boy Travellers in the Far East (five volumes), and The Boy Travellers in South
America, The Boy Travellers in the Russian Empire, The Boy Travellers on the Congo, The
Boy Travellers in Australasia, The Boy Travellers in Mexico, The Boy Travellers in Great
Britain and Ireland, and The Boy Travellers in Northern Europe (seven volumes). See
complete list at the end of this book.
OFF THE FRENCH COAST.
ing, and every sailing craft on the waters had all its canvas spread to
catch it. Mrs. Bassett called attention to the colors of the sails, which
were not as universally white as those which one sees in the harbor of
New York; there were two or three varieties of browns among them,
and a few were of a reddish tint that seemed to vie with the beams of
the rising sun, just visible in the East.
Doctor Bronson explained that the browns and reds were not attrib-
utable to the age of the sails, but to the color of the material out of
ON THE NORMANDY COAST.
which they were made. "You know," said he, that many house-
keepers prefer unbleached linen to that which has been bleached, on
account of its superior strength; for the same reason, the mariners on
this part of the coast of the French republic are less partial to snow-
white sails than those of our own land."
"Look! look!" exclaimed Mary, who had been directing her glass
towards Havre. "There's a great steamer coming out from the port;
it must be one of the big ships that run to New York."
She handed the glass to her mother, who gave it to Doctor Bron-
son, with the remark that he had the best eyesight for steamers. A
moment's glance satisfied him, and he returned the glass to the girl.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
"Yes, you are right," he said, addressing Mary. "That is one of
the steamers of the 'Compagnie Gn6erale Transatlantique,' which is best
known in New York as the French Mail. They run weekly each way,
and have a large subsidy from the French Government for their service."
"The steamer that's coming out towards us," said Mary, "looks like
a very large one; seems to me it's like the City of Paris that we came
on from New York to Liverpool."
It is probably one of the company's newest vessels," was the reply,
"and if so, it is in every way equal to any of its English or German
competitors. The French line is popular with a great many Americans,
and especially with those who do not care to pass through England in
their journeys between New York and the Continent."
As the Doctor paused, Mary asked what were the hills to the left of
Havre and nearly behind it.
"Behind the city," said Doctor Bronson, "are the heights of Ingou-
ville, while the hills to the left are in the suburb of Sainte-Adresse. Do
you see the light-house which stands on the edge of the cliff at Sainte-
Adresse as if ready to fall over ?"
"Oh yes, I can see it distinctly," Mary answered; "and there are
some pretty villas not far from it and all along the range of hills."
It is a very pretty view which is presented to the traveller who ap-
proaches Havre from the sea. So charming is it that a poet and drama-
tist, Casimir Delavigne, said that, after Constantinople, he had never seen
anything so beautiful. Havre nestles in a cleft in the hills on the northern
bank of the Seine, which widens into a bay as it nears the sea. Looking
across the mouth of the famous river, as Doctor Bronson directed her
attention, Mary could make out the positions of Honfleur and Trouville,
the latter a well-known summer resort frequented by numerous people
of fashion from the French capital, as well as by many who do not enter
into fashionable life. On the northern bank of the river there is a fine
panorama of coast from Honfleur to Cape de la Heve, and the attentive
observer finds it dotted with houses and gardens in great number.
"If you could look behind the hills you would find the villas and
gardens just as numerous," said the Doctor. "All the residents of Havre
who can afford it have their suburban villas. The Frenchman is by
nature a gardener, and consequently no villa in the suburbs of this sea-
port is considered complete unless it has a garden of greater or less ex-
tent attached to it. We shall see some of those gardens, and you will
all agree with me that they are very pretty."
"And we ought to see some interesting old houses," said Frank. "I
MEETING A GREAT STEAMER.
,~A j, y ~ :
YACHTING IN THE CHANNEL.
have been reading that Havre was founded in 1509, and was a prosper-
ous city soon after that year. So there ought to be some old buildings
there as well as modern ones."
"The city is mostly of modern character," was the reply, "but there
is a fair number of historic buildings and places in and around it. Here
comes the great steamer, and we will take a glance at her."
As he spoke they were abreast of the huge vessel, which towered
above them and made their own boat appear very small. The captain
was at his post on the bridge, and did not deign to notice the little
steamer that kept at a respectful distance. There was a slight inter-
change of courtesies on the part of the passengers of the two vessels, a
few handkerchiefs being waved as they passed. In a few moments the
steamers were too far apart for any further observance of marine polite-
ness, and every one on the boat which bore our friends was looking once
more in the direction of Havre.
What does Havre' mean ?" queried Mrs. Bassett.
"The word means harbor,'" replied the Doctor, "and is only a part
of the name of the city to which we are bound."
"What is the rest of it ?"
"Its full name is Le Havre de Notre Dame de Grace,' which was first
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
abbreviated to Havre de Grace, and afterwards to the single word as we
know it to-day. Sometimes the French call it 'Le Havre,' but the practice
is steadily going out of fashion. The old and full name may be seen
on official documents, but you rarely find it elsewhere."
Mary called attention to a flag-staff at the entrance of the harbor,
where several flags were extended to the breeze.
THE CAPTAIN'S POST ON TIE BRIDGE.
"That's the signal station," said Doctor Bronson, "and quite pos-
sibly they are announcing our arrival. We shall go close to it as we
enter the harbor and come to a stop."
"Can we go in at any state of the tide ?" Frank asked.
"Yes, this boat can do so," was the reply; but large ships, whether
steam or sail, must wait for high tide before entering. Even the small
steamers stir up the mud considerably at low tide, and it is necessary
for the authorities to dredge the harbor occasionally to prevent its filling
up. The entrance-harbor is called the (vant-port by the French, and we
ARRIVAL IN PORT.
shall find it filled with coasting vessels and other small craft in consider-
able numbers. Beyond the avant-port are the docks, which are similar
to the docks that you saw at Liverpool and London, and have cost a
great deal of money to make."
On and on went the little steamer, and in due time the entrance-
harbor was reached. As they passed the signal station Frank made a
hasty sketch of the semaphore and light-house. There was a large crowd
of people at the end of the jetty, and Mrs. Bassett wondered why so
many had come there just for the sake of witnessing the arrival of Doc-
tor Bronson and his party. The Doctor explained that the probabilities
were that the people had assembled on account of the departure of the
great steamer which they met outside, and also that of a smaller one
which was just leaving port as they entered.
When the steamer stopped and the gang-plank was put out, there
was the usual rush of passengers for the shore: Our friends retired to a
corner of the deck and studied the scene. They were intending to spend
"":: i=7 -- -
a few days at Havre, and therefore were in no immediate hurry to land.
They realized that the great majority of their fellow-passengers were
anxious to go to Paris by the first train, and therefore had good reason
for getting on shore as speedily as possible.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
The boats between Southampton and Havre do not connect with
special trains, as do some of the short routes over the Channel. Pas-
sengers take the first train that they can get; and as trains are numer-
ous, they never have long to wait. The Southampton-Havre route is by
no means the most expeditious of the ways between the French and
English capitals, but it has the advantage of cheapness to travellers
whose purses are light, and that of comfort to those who are good sailors
and not in a hurry. The sea passage occupies a little more than six
hours, with two hours more in the river below Southampton and the
Channel between the Isle of Wight and the main-land. The voyage is
made in the night in both directions, so that on rising in the morning
the traveller is in sight of the shore to which he is destined, or, quite
likely, safely anchored in port.
It was a little after the time of high tide when our friends reached
Havre, and the avant-port was well filled with water. The youths ob-
served that the ebb-tide was making, and, as there is a difference of
twenty feet between low and high water, it was evident that the decline
was by no means slow. Havre has an advantage over other ports on the
French coast in the peculiarity that at the time of high tide the water
remains stationary for nearly two hours, while at other points it begins
to fall almost at the moment it touches the highest point.
Doctor Bronson said he once had a practical experience growing out
of the necessity of the immediate departure of a vessel from one of the
Channel ports of France the instant the tide Was at its maximum. He
came by train from Paris, expecting to connect with the steamer; in
consequence of a slight accident the train lost half an hour on its way,
and so reached the port just that much behind time.
"As we rolled into the station on the pier where the boat lay," said
the Doctor, "the passengers saw to their dismay that the wheels of the
boat were in motion, and she was off for her voyage over the Channel.
Every passenger by that train was left behind, and his only recourse was
to wait for the next boat. Many of the delayed travellers lost their
temper, and said hard things about the steamboat company. It was ex-
plained that the boat could not wait even a fraction of a minute longer
without being left in the harbor until the next period of high tide.
"Most of the harbors along the western coast of France are the
mouths of small rivers, little better than brooks, and are dry, or very
nearly so, at low tide. When the tide is out vessels of all kinds lie in
the mud or in water that is too shallow to permit their movement.
When the tide comes in the harbor fills rapidly, and what was before an
THE VALUE OF TIDES. 9
expanse of mud assumes quite a different appearance. One by one the
vessels are afloat, and those which are outward bound are set in motion
the moment their captains find their craft free from their muddy beds."
ALONG THE ROCKS AND SANDS.
These harbors get a good washing at every turn of the tide," re-
marked Frank as the Doctor paused.
Yes," was the reply; and few persons who have not seen it
for themselves realize what great purifiers the tides are. Compare
these ports with those along the Mediterranean, and note the very
What is the difference, please ?" Mrs. Bassett asked.
"Why," responded her brother, the Mediterranean is practically
tideless, the variation being only a few inches in some parts, while its
greatest rise and fall anywhere is not above three feet. The variation
is not sufficient to give the cleansing at ever turn of the tide that you see
marked Frank as the Doctor paused.
"Yes," was the reply; "and few persons who have not seen it
for themselves realize what great purifiers the United States. The Comparbo
these ports with those along the Mediterranean are full of filth of al, and note the veryaccumu-
"What is the difference, please ?" Mrs. Bassett asked.
"Why," responded her brother, "the Mediterranean is practically
tideless, the variation being only a few inches in some parts, while its
greatest rise and fall anywhere is not above three feet. The variation
is not sufficient to give the cleansing power to the tide that you see
here on most parts of the coast of the United States. The harbors
along the Mediterranean are full of filth of all kinds, which accumu-
lates there in spite of all precaution by the authorities; the sediment
settles to the bottom and may be dredged away at intervals, but the
water in the harbor looks like that of a mud-puddle in the middle of
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
a much-frequented road or the outpouring of a sewer. Never till I
saw the dirty condition of the harbors of Marseilles, Genoa, Bona, and
other places along the Mediterranean, did I realize the benefit that a
seaport receives in being thoroughly washed twice every twenty-four
hours by a powerful tide."
"That may be the reason why the places you speak of are so much
more unhealthy than the ports along the Channel," Fred remarked.
"I believe so," the Doctor answered. "But of course the residents
of those places would resent the insinuation, and very emphatically,
too. The people of Marseilles will never admit that the cholera, which
frequently afflicts them, is developed and encouraged by the condition
of their harbor, or at least the older part of it, which appears to con-
tain the same water that was let into it in the time of the Roman
emperors. But the crowd at the gangway has thinned out, and we'll
go on shore and see the city."
Before they were free to wander about Havre it was necessary to
observe the custom-house formalities, which include the inspection of
one's baggage in search of dutiable articles. Doctor Bronson de-
clared that there was nothing liable to duty in the trunks of himself
and companions; he had no cigars or tobacco--articles which are
specially sought by the custom-house officials-and, so far as he knew,
nothing else that would come within the restrictions. The douanier
was polite, and evidently a good judge of character; he examined only
one trunk out of the entire lot, and even to this he gave but a hasty
glance. It did not take long for him to ascertain that the party before
him were travellers in search of pleasure only, and not bent upon de-
frauding the revenues of the French republic. Furthermore, Doctor
Bronson had facilitated the work of the official by opening the trunks
at once before he was asked to do so.
The tourist who smokes may enter France with a broken package
of fewer than one hundred cigars; no objection will be made to fifty,
seventy, or even ninety-nine cigars; but if he has an even hundred or
more, he must pay duty upon them; and thereby hangs a tale which
was told by the Doctor while they were waiting their turn for exami-
nation by the officials.
"Some years ago," said the Doctor, I came to Havre in a steamer
from New York, and of course had to pass through the custom-house
on my arrival. Among the passengers was a family from the neigh-
borhood of Boston-a shrewd New Englander with his wife and three
daughters. The young women were of ages varying between eighteen
A YANKEE'S TRICK.
and twenty-two, and very sweet girls they were. The head of the
family was a smoker, but I never suspected that his wife or daughters
were addicted to tobacco till I saw them in the French custom-house."
"Were they smoking there queried Mrs. Bassett, in a tone of
/i i i "'"'" "IIII ISOi li
Ti ~ No." rephed the Doe-
t' -,: "but each :f them was
fft 1 0 'xhibitin ii buiinall. dle of cigars
s'' N .-- ... -whii-ih the o:'ld ,: giitleman
l'^, had put in their hands to
avoid paying duty upon his
excess of one hundred. He
AN ECONOMICAL ARRANGEMENT. argued that as any individ-
ual has a right to bring a
certain number of cigars into France free of duty, it was perfectly
proper for him to press his wife and daughters into service."
"Did he succeed ?" Mary asked.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
"Yes; the custom-house official was evidently puzzled over the sit-
uation. He certainly appeared quite as surprised as I was at the idea
of those young women being smokers, and after a little hesitation he
allowed them to pass without objection. Their father whispered to
me that his daughters had never smoked a single whiff in all their
lives, but he thought he could 'fool' the Frenchman. His argument
was that many Frenchwomen were smokers of cigarettes, and it was
easy enough to make a Frenchman believe that American girls smoke
cigars instead of cigarettes. And he added that as American girls
have more liberty than French ones, it was quite natural to believe
that they took their tobacco in the strongest form."
There was a laugh all around at the shrewdness of the American
traveller and his zeal in defrauding the French revenue. When it sub-
sided, Mrs. Bassett propounded the following question:
"Why is it that people who are otherwise honest do not hesitate
to cheat the custom-house, not only in foreign countries, but in their
native lands ? I know men and women who would not on any account
steal the value of a penny, but are always ready to smuggle goods
through the custom-house, and boast about it if they succeed."
The reason is not difficult to find. In every country where there
are tariffs you will find many men and newspapers who argue that
tariffs are wrong in principle and practice, that they rob the people in
a variety of ways, and ought to be abolished altogether. Revenue
laws are not like the laws against murder, robbery, and other acts
which we call crimes; the whole civilized world has criminal laws,
which are practically alike, but revenue laws are very much at vari-
ance, and do not prevail everywhere, as you readily understand. The
lawyers would say to you that smuggling is malum prohibitzum (wrong
because the law says it is), while robbery, murder, and the like are
malum per se (wrong in themselves). Most countries show very little
respect for those whose revenue laws are unlike their own. England,
for example, does not hesitate to encourage smuggling into other coun-
tries where tariffs exist, as any one who has spent a short time at
Hong-Kong, Gibraltar, or other British posts and frontiers can testify,
though she punishes with severity any frauds upon her own revenue."
"Thank you very much for the explanation," said Mrs. Bassett.
Just as she said this the officer addressed the Doctor on the subject of
his baggage, and in a few minutes they were at liberty to depart.
They had decided to go to the H6tel Frascati, and a commission-
naire from that establishment was placed in charge of their baggage,
PLEASURE AT THE SEA-SIDE.
M, .lL1 10
i~~~ ~~ -/ri t..r-.^/'^ ^^'-'. --;
iIY I'/, '.'
^^^-^.:^^. --M ^ ^i- 17,
--- ,0 '
ON THE BEACH AT FRASCATI'S.
while they entered a carriage which was standing on the quay. The
driver of the vehicle assumed that they were strangers, and in order
to make as much as possible out of his customers he took them by a
roundabout way. The Doctor observed it and smiled, and then whis-
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
pered to the rest: "The way he is driving is very much as though
a cabman in New York should go from Union Square to Madison Square
by way of the pier at the foot of West Eighteenth Street; but as you
are interested in seeing as much as possible of the city we will let him
go as he likes in taking us to the hotel."
In due time they reached the hotel, and when Doctor Bronson paid
the bill for the carriage he dismayed the driver by saying he had been
in Havre before, and knew the proper route from the quay to Fra-
scati's. The driver promptly accepted the regulation fare which the
Doctor tendered, and begged him not to mention the matter to the
manager of the establishment.
Frascati's is a little out of the city of Havre, and at the edge of the
sea. Our friends had chosen it because it would give them a glimpse
-of the sea-bathing ways of the French, as the hotel is quite a resort for
summer visitors and has a large bathing establishment connected with
it. In the bathing season the hotel is generally crowded, but when this
patronage falls off at the beginning of autumn, the house reduces its staff
of servants and settles down to a condition of stagnation until summer
comes again and brings the rush of visitors.
Here is what Mary wrote concerning her first experience at a sea-
side resort in France:
"As soon as we were settled at the hotel we went out to see the
bathers, as the tide was up and it was the proper hour to go into the
water. One can bathe at all
..--.---- .---_ -- -- hours, but the best time is at
-high tide. When the water is
.low there is a wide stretch of
-. beach which is anything but nice
S .. to walk on, as it is covered with
;- stones. And they are not smooth,
flat stones by any means, but reg-
ular 'cobbles,' such as we pave
A HARD ROAD TO TVATEL. streets with at home. Most of
the bathers have shoes or slippers
made of straw, and can get along over the stones very well when their
feet are thus protected. But they are apt to lose their slippers while in
the water, and when they do they have a very penitential walk back to
the bathing-houses. One of our first sights was of a bather who had
lost his slippers, and found the stones very disagreeable when he placed
his whole weight on his feet; so he got down, baby-fashion, and crept
RULES OF THE BATHING PLACE. 15
on all-fours. It was a funny sight, and we laughed quietly to ourselves
as we looked on and witnessed his antics.
Doctor Bronson says that if it was not for the cobble-stones on the
beach this place would be a formidable rival to Trouville, which is the
". /' -"
IN THE HANDS OF A BAIGNEUR.
most fashionable resort on the coast. Trouville and its neighbor, Deau-
ville, have beaches of sand; I'll tell you about them when we go there.
I wanted to go into the water, and so did Frank and Fred. We
arranged with the keeper of the bathing-houses to supply us with bath-
ing-dresses, and were then shown to the little boxes where we made our
toilets for a swim. I expected we would go into the water together and
have a nice frolic, just as we would at home, but found when we came
out on the beach that it was contrary to the rules. There is a high
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
fence separating the bathing place for women from that of the men,
and those of the different sexes must keep on their own side of this
fence if they wish to bathe in peace.
There is an exception to every rule, so the old adage says, and there
is an exception here. My brother and cousin could not come into the
water where I was, but there were several baigneurs, or men whose pro-
fession it is to accompany women into the water and assist them in their
bath. Very few Frenchwomen can swim, and so the duties of a bai-
gneur consist in holding his fair charge by the shoulders while he dips
her under the water a few times and takes care that she does not drown.
These men are sailors or fishermen, and expect fees for their services.
Frank says that the rules of the French bathing places are devised so
that the assistants can earn a living, as they are allowed to go where
husbands, fathers, or brothers are excluded.
"I astonished and doubtless chagrined the baigneurs by declining
their help and going into the water alone. One of them told me I was
not allowed to do so; but I said I could swim, and did not wait to see
if he was telling the truth or only trying to frighten me into employ-
ing him for half an hour or so.
I swam out a good distance from the shore, till they shouted to me
to come back. Whether they thought I was in danger or not I can't say,
but I turned around and went leisurely towards the shore. The slippers
were something of a hinderance in swimming, but I had them fastened
very firmly, as I didn't want to cut my feet on the stones. Finding he
could not be employed to assist me in swimming, one of the baigneurs
offered to support me in going from the beach to the bathing-houses,
but I declined his offer and walked back by myself. Frank and Fred
came out soon afterwards, and as soon as we were dressed we hurried to
the pavilion in front of the hotel, where mamma and Doctor Bronson
had ordered breakfast for the party.
Do not suppose that all the people who visit Frascati's go there to
bathe. Those who go into the water are a minority; the most of the
visitors sit on the shore or under the pavilion, or promenade wherever
the walking is good enough for that amusement. There are some who
put on bathing-suits but don't bathe; they are like the 'gallery riders'
at Durland's and other riding-schools in New York-women who go
every afternoon to the schools, dressed in their riding-habits and with
whips in their hands, but are never known to do anything else than sit
in the gallery and see other people ride in the ring.
We were ready for breakfast, you may be sure, as it was eleven in
A FRENCH BREAKFAST.
t hl forenoon, and all we had taken since getting up in the morning was
i1 little coffee and some rolls on board the boat that brought us from
8,:,,thampton. Don't be surprised that we are breakfasting at this
ihour. We are in France, and are doing as the French do; they take
'(.Ily their cafc au lait in the morning (which means coffee with milk),
and perhaps a roll or a crust of dry bread. Breakfast is from 11 A.M.
to 1 P.M., and is the first serious meal of the day. Then comes dinner
at six or seven in the evening, and that ends the day's feeding. I like
our home ways the best, but of course don't propose to ask the French
people to change their customs to oblige me.
Near the table Where we were at breakfast there was an American
IN THE CAFi.
party of four, who were evidently of one family. Their conversation
was carried on in a tone so loud that we could hear nearly all they said,
and the chief topic was the difficulty of finding things here such as they
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
had at home. One wanted buckwheat cakes, another desired pie, and a
third was hungering for corned beef and cabbage. After a long denunci-
ation of the benighted French, who knew nothing about those American
luxuries, one of the party remarked, philosophically, 'I suppose if we
should say anything to a Frenchman about it, he would tell us to go
back and stay in our country, and we could have things our own way-
and that's just what he ought to say.'
None of the others made any response to this remark; evidently
they thought it was too near the truth to be seriously opposed.
"When they had gone, Doctor Bronson said he once travelled for a
time on the Continent with an American, whose great annoyance was the
impossibility of having all the courses of his dinner served at once. He
had been accustomed at home to having his entire.dinner placed on the
table before he sat down, and could not understand why the same prac-
tice does not prevail here. After vainly endeavoring for several months
to reform the dinner practices of Europeans, he went back to America,
vowing that he would never again cross the Atlantic until the Europeans
knew how to serve a dinner properly.
"But I am getting away from Frascati's and the baths of Havre.
Do not suppose this is the only bathing-place here; there are several
establishments, belonging to different proprietors-in fact, the shore for
a mile or more is lined with bathing houses, and we can see them directly
beneath the heights of Sainte-Adresse. It's a great pity that the shore
is so rocky, as its condition seriously interferes with the comfort of mak-
ing a plunge in the sea."
THE SUBURBS OF HAVE.
A DRIVE IN THE SUBURBS OF HAVRE.-SAINTE-ADRESSE AND THE LIGHT-HOUSE.
-VILLAS, GARDENS, AND OTHER SUBURBAN ATTRACTIONS. OUSES OF AL-
PHONSE KARR AND SARA BERNHARDT.-MONUMENT TO GENERAL DESNOU-
ETTES AND ITS PRACTICAL USES.-AN AMUSING INCIDENT.-AN EVENING
WALK ALONG THE STREETS AND QUAYS.-THE RUE DE PARIS.-IN THE FISH-
MARKET.-THE FISHING FOLKS OF NORMANDY; THEIR ORIGIN, OCCUPATION,
AND PECULIARITIES.-VISIT TO A FISHING VILLAGE.-INTERIOR OF FISHERS'
IOUSES.-MUSSELING AND SHRIMPING.-A FISH AUCTION.-HAULING BOATS
ON SHORE.-HARFLEUR AND HAVE CONTRASTED.-THE DOCKS OF HAVRE.-
THEIR EXTENT AND COST.-DEPARTURE OF AN OCEAN STEAMSHIP.-"C. G. T."
T N the afternoon Doctor Bronson went to call on his old friend, the
Consul of the United States, while the others of the party engaged
a carriage, and drove about the city and into the suburbs. Mrs. Bassett
A TWII.IHILT EFFECT.
said she wanted to see some of the villas and gardens which had been
mentioned, and so the drive was made to include Ingouville and Sainte-
Adresse and the country behind them.
All agreed that the suburbs of Havre were very attractive, the villas
and gardens di-.11 ligw' excellent taste on the part of their owners.
The visit to Sainte-Adresse was timed so as to include the sunset view,
and they were fortunate in having a clear sky and plenty of color on
the horizon. From the edge of the cliff our friends watched the sun
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
sinking into the western sea, tingeing the waves with golden and purple
beams, and lighting with its glow the many sails that were stippled on
the waters. Mrs. Bassett declared that she had never seen anything
half as pretty in sunset effects, and Mary wished that the scene might
be placed on canvas by some of the American painters whose names
are famous in landscape work.
They visited the light-house which they had seen as they approached
Havre in the ij, ,.ni_, and Mary discovered what she had not noticed
in her hurried glance from the steamboat: that there are two light-houses
about fifty feet apart, and standing on a cliff more than three hundred
feet above the sea. The second structure is intended for use in case the
other should be disabled, and it has a complete apparatus for electric
lighting independent of the other. The custodian showed them through
the establishment, and said that the light was placed on Sainte-Adresse
more than a hundred years ago, and had been burning every night
since long before he could remember.
We may remark, by the way, that the light-house of Sainte-Adresse
has no superior on the French coast, and the light is said to be dis-
tinctly visible for more than thirty marine miles. The official claim for
it is that it can be seen for twenty-eight miles, and the greatest care is
exercised in its management. It was one of the first light-houses to
use the electric light, which was not adopted by the Government until
after the most careful experiments.
On the way to the top of the cliff the driver of the carriage pointed
out the house of Alphonse Karr, a French author of celebrity. An
elderly gentleman was walking in the garden, and Mrs. Bassett at once
inquired if he was Mr. Karr.
"No, madame," the driver answered; Mr. Karr sold the house sev-
eral years ago, and has no more interest in it now than you have; but
nobody knows it by any other name than Alphonse Karr's house. A
merchant of Havre bought it, but I can't remember his name."
Elsewhere the driver pointed out a summer-house which, he said,
belonged to the famous actress, Sara Bernhardt. The eccentric Sara
was born at Havre, and is very fond of her birthplace; and she has
manifested her fondness by building this summer home, so that she can
come here in the season of baths. Then there is a large house that was
built by Queen ('Chr .tn,: of Spain, and gives a delightful view of the
port and city of Havre, with much of the surrounding panorama.
There was a bewildering succession of summer-houses, gardens, and
villas along the road, and our friends found it impossible to remember
THE SUGAR-LOAF MONUMENT.
VOTIVE OFFERING AT THE CHURCH.
a tenth of the names that were repeated by the communicative driver.
They reached a church, which the driver said was built by the contribu-
tions of the sailors and fishermen of IHavre and its vicinity, and was
called Notre Dame des Flots. At Mrs. Bassett's suggestion, they visited
the interior, but found nothing remarkable in the way of architecture
or paintings; but they saw a great number of votive offerings, which
had been deposited in the church by pious mariners, either in return for
perils they had escaped, or as a preliminary to possible perils that might
come. In leaving the church they met a party of pilgrims bringing an
II, !ig in the shape of a miniature boat-the model, probably, of a
vessel that had escaped destruction in a storm at sea,.
Not f'ar from the church is a monument which excited the curiosity
of the visitors, and they promptly asked the driver what it was.
The people of Ilavre call it ptain fe sncre, (sugar-loaf), said the
driver, with a smile.
It certainly resembles a sugar-loaf," said Frank, or possibly an
egg in an egg-cup."
I saw it when I was looking through the glass," said Mary, and
wondered what it was."
Then the driver explained that it was a monument to the memory
s2 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
of General Desnouettes, who perished in a shipwreck in the early part
of this century. His widow caused it to be put here, and she left a sum
of money to the city of Havre, on condition that the monument should
always be kept in perfect repair and as snowy-white as the traveller
sees it to-day. She intended it not only as a monument to the memory
of her husband, but as a beacon to sailors approaching Havre. Its
whiteness and peculiar shape make it visible at a great distance, and
many blessings have been invoked upon the thoughtful widow not only
by the mariners for whom it was intended, but by sea-sick passengers
arriving from the English coast. Mrs. Bassett remarked that it was a
pity that all monuments in memory of husbands could not be as prac-
tical as the one they were considering, and her opinion was most em-
phatically echoed by the others.
Frank made note of an amusing incident of their excursion. At a
--- ---. -- -- -
"~~ ~~~ h"
._ .I. .
';' l ,"I'
i ', "' ,,
LIGHTII-IOUSES NIKAR IIAVRE.
"BEGGING IS FORBIDDEN."
turn in the road between Havre and Sainte Adresse attention was
drawn to a post on which was 1;-pl.,. .1 in large letters, "La Mendicit6
est Interdite" (1,,.._.i i..- is forbidden). Throughout all parts of France
this notice may be seen; but the traveller might infer by the frequent
appeals for charity to
the lame, halt, blind,
and otherwise unfortu-
nate that the law in
regard to '."--- iiv is
not very closely ob-
served. Frank called
attention to the cir-
cumstance that a men-
dicant was seated at
the foot of the post,
and resting his back
against the stick of
timber that supported
the prohibitory sign.
Iis hat rested between
his knees, and it was
open for the reception -
of whatever small coins
could be obtained from -__--
passers-by. As the car- -:
riage neared the spot,
the beggar whined
an appeal for help -
to a poor man whose
family was starving. -
Moved by thile humor
ol the situation, Frank IN T i FIELDS NEi'1 'THEi CITY.
bestowed a gratuity to
the sup1)licant, who, doubtless, did not realize to what he owed the gift
from one whom he had never before seen.
In the evening our friends strolled out to the end of the pier that
marks the entrance of the harbor, and enjoyed the twilight effects which
were presented. Then they wandered along the Rue de Paris, the prin-
cipal street of the city, and regarded by the inhabitants as a sort of
miniature of the boulevards of the capital of the republic. Unfortu-
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
nately, it was laid out when narrow sidewalks were in fashion, and
therefore there is not sufficient room for a large number of pedestrians.
It extends from the quay to the garden of the I1tel de Ville (City
lall), and contains the best shops of the city. Fred observed that
there were several shops devoted to the sale of marine curiosities in the
shape of shells more or less rare, and miniature houses and other orna-
ments constructed of shells and sea-products of various kinds. The oth-
er shops were stocked with goods similar to those found along the bou-
levards of Paris, but. the quantities were not large. Mrs. Bassett and
Mary devoted an hour or two to shopping, but found that the goods
they sought were in limited variety, and not at all low in price. Con-
sequently, they postponed making any purchases until reaching Paris.
After the shopping excursion Mary -,i.-. -:,l a visit to the fish-
market, as her attention had been attracted to the picturesque costumes
of the fisher men and women. The girl's suggestion was adopted at
once, and the fish-market was visited. Here is Fred's account of what
was seen there by the visitors:
The market is in a building specially adapted to the sale of fish and
close to the water, so that the finny merchandise can be transferred to
it directly from the boats without the necessity of carrying it in wagons.
On low benches were the fish that had been brought in for sale; they
included mackerel, sole, and other well-known fishes, as well as some
with which we were unfamiliar.
"One thing that amused us and seemed very funny was the amount
of dog-fish and skate that were offered for sale, and were purchased, too.
You know that we make no account of these fishes around New York;
in Great South Bay (on Long Island), all along the Sound, and on the
Jersey coast both these fishes are thrown away, and all fishermen con-
sider them a nuisance. But they eat them here, and are evidently fond
of them, especially of the skate. The French call him raie, or ray.
We have eaten raie a6 leujrre noir (skate with black butter), and con-
sidered it very good. Doctor Bronson says that on parts of the coast ol
England the skate is considered an excellent food fish, while on other
parts of the same coast it is thrown away.
"By questioning the fisher men and women in the market, we found
that both the ray and dog-fish were abundant and cheap, and were eaten
more by poor people than by the upper classes. One of our informants
said that if dog-fish was two francs a pound all the fashionable people
would want it, and only on account of its cheapness did they leave it to
those who couldn't afford anything dearer. It made me think of our
IN THE FISH-MARKET.
own American fish, the porgy. Everybody who has eaten it knows
what a delicious fish it is; but it is abundant and cheap in New York,
and consequently the fashionable people of Manhattan Island never think
of having it on their tables.
"Mrs. Bassett wanted us to find out the best ways for cooking dog-
fish and skate, and so we asked one of the women in the market. She
said the dog-fish is cut into steaks and fried or broiled, just as we cook
halibut, which, by the way, it closely resembles in taste and appearance.
The skate may be fried or boiled, and a favorite way of eating boiled
skate is to serve it up
cold with some kind of
piquant sauce, or with
no sauce at all. In the
best restaurants it is
cooked with 'black but-
ter.' You must ask the
cook how to make
black butter, as I am ':..
just now unable to tell '
you. When I've learn-
ed how I'll let you
"Quite as interest-
ing as anything we saw
in the fish-market were .m --
the men and women
who gain their living u
from the produce of
the sea. The men that
we saw were clad ini
canvas trousers anld
knitted shirts; their
caps were of wool
and fitted close to the -
head, with a tassel wVAI ING FOR 'iE TIDE.
hanging down from
the peak, and on their feet they had high stockings with wooden shoes.
As they walked about the market their shoes clattered rather loudly
upon the concrete ft.. IE,. They are accustomed all their lives to
these wooden shoes, and wear them with that perfect ease which is
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
the result of long practice. Some of them had sashes or belts to hold
their trousers in place, as they were guiltless of suspenders, and we saw
one man who had substituted a piece of rope for the sash. The men
were rough and uncouth in appearance, but their manners were civil,
and they courteously answered all our questions, although it was ap-
parent from the first that we had not come to purchase fish, but only
out of curiosity.
One of the women seemed to take a liking to Mary when she found
they could converse intelligibly, although her French was a good deal
unlike that of the girl's. The peasant dialect of Normandy contains a
great many words that are not found in Parisian French, but the differ-
ence is not so great as that between the English tongue of London and
that of Yorkshire. The Norman fishing women wear the same sort of
shoes as the men wear, and the white caps that cover their heads are
only a little different from those of their husbands and brothers. The
skirts of their dresses reach a little below the knee, and sometimes half-
way to the ankle; some dresses are longer than others, but you never
see one of them long enough to sweep the ground, or even touch it. The
upper part of the dress is a coat or jacket gathered in at the waist, where
it is often held by a sash, or, maybe, a cord or belt. For Sundays or
festive occasions they have capes over their jackets, and the Sunday
dress is so carefully kept that it lasts a good many years.
"We found that here, as in Holland and Germany, the women do a
great deal of work out-of-doors, and many of them seem quite as robust
as the men and as little afraid of exercising their muscles. They help
in handling the boats, hauling the nets, sorting and carrying fish, and
doing other work that requires strength and experience. Very often
the hardest of the work falls to them; but you are not likely to see on
the Normandy coast a repetition of the scene in Holland, where a woman
and a dog were towing a boat, and a man was sitting at the helm and
comfortably smoking a pipe while he steered the boat along the canal.
Mary's new friend called her attention to some mussels, those de-
licious shell-fish which are sold in great quantities both in England and
France. Mary asked where they came from and how they were caught,
and the woman endeavored to enlighten her.
"'We find them on the rocks all along the coast,' was the explana-
tion, which I'll put into plain English, 'or, rather, on a good many of the
rocks. We go out at low tide with baskets on our shoulders and knives
in our hands, and find the mussels clinging to the rocks among the sea-
weed. They seem to grow there between the tides. It takes a sharp
.- *-; --'
eye to find them, and I could fill my basket before you (if you've never
gone musseling) could gather a dozen.'
Mary acknowledged that she wasn't familiar with mussel-catching,
and then the woman went on to tell her that she liked it better than
any other work. 'You see,' she said,' we go out together, old women
and middle-aged and y..ii _. and we talk and laugh and have a good
time, when all the while we are filling our baskets. We follow the tide
as it goes out, and then when it turns and comes in we work along be-
fore it till it drives us away. By the time we get to the mark of high-
water our baskets are full if we have worked diligently, and sometimes
ve go two or three, or, perhaps, half a dozen, times in a single tide. At
the beach we find the carts that are waiting for our loads, or perhaps
we empty the mussels into a boat if they are to come to market by
water, as many of them do.'
"Mary suggested that it must be very wet work among the rocks.
To this suggestion the woman tossed her head with a laugh, and replied
that nobody minded a wetting; if she did, she wasn't fit to be a fisher-
man's wife or sister. Then she called attention to a quantity of shrimps
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
on one of the tables, and asked Mary if she would like to go out and
catch those creeping things.
Mary was in doubt, and said she would have to think over the ques-
tion before giving an answer. Her friend told her that the shrimp is
caught in the water as the tide recedes; the shrimper follows closely
after the tide, armed with basket and net, and she dips her net in the
pools among the rocks. When she casts her net,' was the explanation,
'she does not know whether she will catch anything or not; she takes
the chance upon it, and may bring up nothing, perhaps a shrimp or two,
or perhaps a great many. She must wade about in the water, which is
often up to her knees, but of course that's nothing to her if she can only
fill her basket with shrimps.'"
The visit to the fish-market and the talk with the good-natured woman
there was the natural prelude to a visit, a few days later, to the fishing
village of Etretat (A-tree-tar), a few miles up the coast. We call it a
fishing village, though it is also a fashionable, or semi-fashionable, resort,
and has a considerable number of hotels and boarding-houses that are
filled in summer with people who go to enjoy themselves at the sea-side.
But as our friends went there solely to look at the fishing people, we
will not concern ourselves with the summer visitors, of whom, by-the-
way, they saw very little.
Half the beach has been given up to the demands of recreation, and
the other half is exclusively held by the fisher folks. There is a scene
of almost constant activity there, but it is greatest in the morning, as at
most fishing places the world over. Whenever a boat arrives there is
more or less excitement; formerly nearly all the fish that were taken
were sent to the markets of Paris or Havre, but the many mouths to be
fed at the summer hotels make a local demand that often is of material
advantage to the fishers.
When a boat arrives a group is sure to gather to welcome it. It is
composed of many idlers and strangers, drawn there for curiosity or to
pass the time; but it also includes those who are on the alert to purchase
the harvest of the sea, and, surest and best of all, the wives and children
of the men in the boat.
Our friends saw the arrival of a fishing-boat at the beach of Rltretat,
and it is thus described by Frank :
"While we were on the cliff above the village we saw two women
watching intently with a glass, and evidently on the lookout for a boat.
Presently the one who held the telescope uttered a joyful cry, which
was echoed by another, who held a child in her arms ; then the glass was
- -.a- .-~
RETURN OF THE MUSSEL-GATHERERS.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
closed, and the two women started for the beach, whither we followed
them a little while afterwards.
We saw the boat, a speck on the horizon; but very soon it grew into
the well-defined figure of a boat speeding straight for the beach at Etre-
tat. When it touched the beach one of the men sprang to the shore,
seized the baby in his arms and kissed it, and then kissed the woman,
who seemed to regard it as all right that the child should have the
first attention. As soon as the greetings were over the boat was hauled
up by means of a capstan and strong rope.
The boats must be built very strongly to enable them to withstand
the strain of being dragged over the sand and pebbles every time they
come to land. Boards and billets of wood covered with grease are
placed beneath the keel to lessen or prevent damage; but even with
these preventatives it seems to us that the boats must suffer a good
deal. They are hauled up so that when the tide is at its full they will
float and be all ready for sailing away on another voyage.
"When the boat had been brought to where it was wanted the fish
were taken out of it and thrown on the beach. Then they were sold at
auction, and anybody who was present had a right to bid. Women
from the fish-market of ttretat were among the bidders; so were the
proprietors of hotels and boarding-houses, and also the citizens who
dwelt in their own homes and were trying to supply their tables at the
lowest possible price. Then, too, there were agents of the dealers in
Paris and Havre; and, furthermore, the owner of the boat had the right
of refusing all bids if he thought he could do better at private sale. But
this, we are told, is rarely the case, as some of the bidders are sure to go
to the very smallest limit that will leave any profit at all on the sale of
the fish to the consumer.
The fish for which there seemed to be greatest demand was the sole.
The boat that we saw had only a dozen or so of these fish, and there
was sharp competition for them among the hotel-keepers and other con-
sumers. So sharp was it that the fishermen probably obtained more for
their prizes than they would have brought in the market of Paris, mak-
ing no allowance for the expense of transportation and the profits of the
middlemen. This country is no exception to the rule that articles are
often dearer at the place of production than in the great cities.
We asked about the management of the fishing business, and were
told that the fishermen had rules of their own which had been in force
for centuries, and had all the strength of law-in fact, they were stronger
than any laws of the land, as they were never disputed, and no one
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
thought of calling them unjust. The men attend to the work of the sea,
while the women care for the houses, sell the fish, and manage all that
pertains to the land. The owner of a fishing-boat commands it, or,
rather, the largest owner, as very often several persons have an interest
in the craft. Sometimes the captain owns only the hull of the boar,
while another owns the sails and i.-ii ... and another the nets, while
perhaps a fourth owns the capstan and the rope by which the boat is
hauled upon the beach. Sometimes the boats are owned by patrons--
men who do not go on the water themselves, but supply the craft for
those who do. In any case, all those interested either in the owner-
ship or management of the boat are paid by a proportionate share of the
profits, if any there are. In good seasons they receive a fair return,
while in bad seasons the summer's toil will amount to but little.
We had an opportunity to see the interior of a fisherman's dl..:1ll1;-.
and you may be sure we embraced it. It was a rude hut externally and
not very spacious, but never was there a cleaner or more tidy house in
all New England, or, at any rate, none that any of us ever saw. The
floor was of brick, but so well was it scoured that we thought it was laid
in polished tiles until we examined it more closely than at the first
glance. At one side of the kitchen, the first room we entered, there was
a series of shelves, on which were plates, cups, saucers, and other table
ornaments; and ornaments they really were, as they were very old and
of a pattern that is now very rarely found. The woman who showed us
the house said the plates had belonged to her grandmother, and she
didn't know but they might have been the property of 'grandmother's
grandmother,' too, and perhaps of her grandmother.
"There was a great fireplace at one side of the room, and above it
were several stewpans and other kitchen utensils of copper, all of them
scoured so perfectly that you might have wiped them with a cambric
handkerchief without soiling it. Everything about the place was as
clean as it could possibly be made.
"The woman invited mamma and Mary to the upper rooms of the
house, and they disappeared up a very narrow and crooked stair-wa'y.
Mary says there were two sleeping-rooms in the upper story, and. tlie
linen was as spotless in its whiteness as any that they saw in the houses
of Holland or Vierlande, or any other house they visited in the North
of Europe. At the top of the staircase there was a great armoire, which
the woman unlocked, and showed piles upon piles of sheets and towels
and other linen for household use. Evidently the family was not a poor
one, and from all we can see there is little real poverty among these
THE FISHERS' RETURN.
fisher folks. They work hard for their living, and all take a hand in the
work, and their honesty and industry are rewarded.
"A gentleman who is familiar with these people tells us that the
Normandy fishermen are the descendants of the ancient Norsemen.
^ *'-*^ i '" -
"''A '' '' y 'T
lli.tl^ *W tl= ..;* ,1. i'V.
--- -'J --, = = "2 .. ? .. -1' i.,v.-
l /^ / v "
L:1 :,. ., l "
,,,".., ; ,11 1 ." '" v 1
.\ ,, ,,* ,
,,r : ll","-^l^ ,
'. 'i \ (',
They live on the coast, and de-
S'\\ vote their whole lives to the
/' sea. They never intermarry
with the farmer peasants in the
WATCHING FOR THE BOAT. country just back of them, but
remain a distinct people, with
little change among them, in spite of the temptations to go elsewhere
and the demoralizing presence of crowds of strangers during the summer
~-. r 5
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
months. They preserve their primitive customs to a remarkable degree
when their surroundings are considered, and altogether are a very pict-
uresque and interesting portion of the inhabitants of France."
We will now return to Havre, the greatest seaport of the Atlantic
seaboard of the French republic, and the one that has the most intimate
relations with America.
Frank and Fred took the first opportunity that presented itself to
visit the docks that have been constructed at great expense, and with-
out which the commerce of the city would be comparatively insignifi-
cant. The first of these docks, the Bassin du Roi, and sometimes called
Vieux Bassin, was made in 1669, a hundred and fifty years after the
founding of the city by Francois I. That enterprising ruler ordered a
wall of protection to be built here, and a port established on the site of
what was then a fishing village tributary to Iarfleur, the sovereign
port, four miles away. All the commerce of this part of the coast was
centered at Harfleur previous to that time, and so important was the
place that it was stubbornly fought for in the wars between France and
England. How times have changed! Havre has grown to an impor-
tance of which all the world knows in a general way, while Iarfleur
has diminished to a population of barely two thousand, its harbor is
filled with sand, and its only fleet consists of a few fishing-boats.
Nearly all that remains to show the former greatness of Harfleur is
a Gothic church, one of the finest in Normandy, and the chateau which
was once the royal palace. Our friends had a delightful drive to Iar-
fleur, and extended their excursion so as to include Rouelles and the
forest of Mont Geon. The drive was taken in the forenoon, when the
ground was moist and the trees and grasses were glistening with the
effect of a heavy shower during the night. On their return Mrs. Bas-
sett declared that she did not in all her experience remember a drive
that was more interesting or presented more points for admiration.
When the Bassin du Roi (King's Dock) was built it was thought to be
ample for the needs of the port for a long time; but before many years
other docks were needed, and then others, and so from time to time the
system of docks has been extended, and is not yet complete. There are
nine docks in all, and as we write a new one is in process of construc-
tion, and in course of time will be followed by others.
The largest of the docks," said Frank, "is that of the Eure, which
has a surface of fifty-three acres and a mile and a quarter of quays.
The water in this dock has a depth of thirty feet, and there is a dry-
dock connected with it which is capable of holding the largest of the
L5~r ~L~i41; ;f
I~-~C~ ~ ~-~--~-~-
A NOIMAN INTERIOR.
36 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
ships that visit the port of Havre. Just think what an amount of work
was necessary to dig away the earth and build the walls of this one
dock, and then remember that there are eight other docks, though none
of them are as large as this one. The old accounts have been lost, and
so it is impossible to say what has been the cost of these docks; but it is
said that more than fifty millions of dollars have been expended upon
them in the last twenty-five years. Two thousand ships can be accom-
modated in the docks of Havre without crowding.
"eain itld-w ., eci'-h s-n
means confined to it. We found steamers in. other docks and mixed ui
with sailing-ships, with the exception of the Bassin cldu Commerce (Comn-
merce Dock), which was full of sailing craft without a single steamer.
The Bassin du Commerce is the oldest, with the exception of the Bassin
du Roi, and has recently been enlarged and deepened to accommodate
it to the increased tonnage of modern ships. At one end of this dock
is the square named after Louis XVI., and a very pretty square it is.
DEPARTURE OF AN OCEAN STEAMER.
We went there in the evening to listen to the music, and found the place
well filled with people, who sat in front of the cafes or lounged beneath
the trees. The principal theatre of Havre is at one side of the square,
and at the edge of the dock is some ponderous machinery for inserting
or removing the masts of ships.
"We were fortunate enough to be present at the departure of a great
steamship from the Eure Basin. It is hardly necessary to say that the
time of leaving is fixed for the highest point of the tide, and everything
must be ready for the hour named. Then the gates at the entrance of
the dock are opened, the engines of the steamer are put in motion, the
lines that held her to the quay are cast off, and with two or three pow-
erful tug-boats to aid her in turning, the unwieldy vessel gets under way.
An ocean steamer may walk the water like a thing of life' when she
is away from land and has all the room she desires, but when in port
she is as clumsy as a rheumatic hippopotamus. In the docks here at
Havre she cannot move without the aid of the noisy little tugs that bus-
tle about with an appearance of being fully sensible of their importance.
"In the instance I describe, the tugs pulled at the bow and stern of
the great steamer, now in one direction and now in another; and though
she came very close to other vessels in the dock, she did not harm any
of them, nor did she scrape her sides against the walls at the gate-ways,
though she didn't seem to be more than a foot or two from them on
either side. Sometimes she shut off steam altogether, and depended
entirely on the tugs, and sometimes her engines were going, but never
at higher than half-speed. By-and-by she got outside, amid the cheer-
ing of the people at the semaphore, and when well at sea she dropped
the tugs, quickened her speed, and was off for her port of destination on
the other side of the Atlantic."
How funny it looks," said Mary, "to see those great ships going
along among the warehouses as though they were on land instead of
"Yes," said Fred; "it's a good deal like starting in a steamer from
the City Hall of New York, going down Broadway to Wall Street, and
then turning off towards the East River, to come out at the ferry."
"What is the meaning of' C. G. T.' on the flag of the great steamer?"
Mrs. Bassett asked.
"That is the flag of the Compagnie G6ndrale Transatlantique,"
Frank replied, "the great steamship company that we talked about
when we were coming here from Southampton. The people of Havre
are very proud of it, and with good reason."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
"Because a great deal of the prosperity of the port is due to the
steamship company. It has spent a large amount of money in improv-
ing the harbor and docks and the facilities for receiving and sending
away freight. It has a fleet of sixty or seventy ships, and many of
them are of very heavy ton-
nage; and when you remember
that the line between Havre
'; .and New York occupies only
AJ six of the ships, you can imag-
'" mine what an extensive business
.-; -:-"'- it has. It has a line between
Havre and Colon on the Istli-
S -mus of Panama, another be-
S tween Saint-Nazaire and Colon,
(-'-' another from Saint-Nazaire to
71 ". -- Vera Cruz, and one from Mar-
seilles to Vera Cruz. Then it
S.. has lines to South America, and
S. several branch lines, and I don't
know exactly how many lines it
S'" .has in the Mediterranean, which
Share not transatlantic at all."
i.' Is all the business directed
from here ?" Mary asked.
No ; the seat of the admin-
A CAPTAIN OF THE "C. G. T. *
istration is at Paris, where all
questions of importance are de-
cided, and sometimes trivial matters that arise at sea are referred there."
As he said this Frank looked significantly towards Doctor Bronson,
who proceeded to give an example of Frank's assertion.
"Once when I was on board one of the company's vessels in the
middle of the Atlantic, I asked the first officer to allow me to open the
window of my cabin. It was during the evening, the weather was very
hot, the sea was smooth as a pond, and the cabin was like an oven. The
officer said it could not be allowed unless I first obtained the permission
of the administration at Paris! Then I asked if he would kindly send
a telegram at once saying what I wanted. He replied, in the most ap-
parent innocence, that they had no telegraph line from the ship, and
therefore it would be impossible to send the inquiry I suggested."
PASSENGERS OF ALL SORTS.
COMPLEX RULES OF THE C. G. T."-TARIFF FOR DOGS, MONKEYS, AND PARROTS.-
COMMERCE OF HAVRE.-WOMEN UNLOADING SHIPS.-" PAUL AND VIRGINIA."
-MONUMENT TO ITS AUTHOR.-ANCIENT HOUSES IN HAVRE.-JOHN LAW
AND THE SOUTH SEA BUBBLE.-NEW USE FOR LOGWOOD.-WHY AMERICAN
CIDER IS SENT TO FRANCE.-FRENCH EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD.-
JACQUES CARTIER AND OTHER NAVIGATORS.-FROM HAVRE TO TROUVILLE.-
THE MOST FASHIONABLE OF SEA-SIDE RESORTS.-THE BEACH AND THE RULES
FOR BATHING.-SCENES AT THE BATHING HOUR.-MISHAP TO BATHERS AND
THE RESULT.-THE BEACH AT LOW TIDE.-THE CASINO IN THE EVENING.-
DANCING AND GAMING.
N further conversation about the "C. G. T.," Mrs. Bassett and Mary
learned that the regulations of the company were very numerous and
minute, in the
effort to cover
all possible con-
is stated in the Z .i
cular that chil-
dren under three
years of age,
are carried free;
those from three
to eight years
fare; from eight
to twelve years, A PASSENGER FOR FIFTY FRANCS.
half fare; and
above twelve years, full fare. The circular adds that if there be several
children under three years of age in a family, free passage is allowed to
only one of them, the others paying quarter fare. Then follows a long
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
series of rules regarding baggage, servants, and the rights of passengers
in the cabins, and the regulations close with the statement that passen-
gers must pay fifty francs for each dog or monkey, and twenty francs
for each parrot. Mary asked if there was a tariff for snakes, turtles,
elephants, hippopotami, lions, or tigers, but on this point the youths
were unable to afford the desired information.
In his pursuit of knowledge Fred made note of the fact that more
than half a million bales of American cotton entered the port of Iavre
in a single year, two hundred thousand barrels of petroleum, and more
than three million bushels of American grain. The total business of
the port is about two hundred and fifty millions of dollars annually in
imports and exports, and about one-fifth of the whole foreign commerce
of France is carried on through Havre. Year by year the commerce
of the port increases, and Havre is to France what Liverpool is to the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
While they were visiting the docks Mrs. Bassett called attention to
the circumstance that the work of loading and unloading vessels was
not monopolized by the men. Women were carrying boxes and bales
or rolling barrels and hogsheads with a facility that could only be the
result of long experience. Doctor Bronson said that the sight of women
performing heavy work was not at all unusual all through France, and
it was especially to be seen along the seaboard.
You will find as you go through the country," said the Doctor,
"that women have a very prominent place in the daily affairs of life.
The most of the small shops are managed by them to a great extent;
they keep the accounts, attend behind the counters, and in other ways
show themselves both willing and capable. If an American shopkeeper
would consent to allow his wife to assist him in his business, the proba-
bilities are great that she would not think it proper that he should do
anything of the kind. In France, on the contrary, the wife of a shop-
keeper divides the cares of the business with her husband, and not infre-
quently she is the leader in the management of it. Four times out of
five she keeps the accounts and handles the money, and the husband
makes no transaction of consequence without fully and freely consult-
ing her beforehand."
"A very sensible people they are," said Mrs. Bassett; "and perhaps
that is the reason why France is so prosperous. I wonder when the
women fell into the custom you describe ?"
"It is generally said," replied the Doctor, "that the custom arose
during the wars at the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning
FRENCHWOMEN IN BUSINESS.
of the nineteenth, when
forced into the military
every man who was able to bear arms was
service, leaving only the old men, boys, and
MEN AND WOMEN UNLOADING A STEAMER.
women at home. Work with hand and brain fell to the lot of women
by necessity, and hence came the custom which has ever since been
maintained throughout all the country."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
Thank you for the explanation," said Mrs. Bassett.
There was a pause which was broken by Frank, who turned to VMarv
and asked if she had read Paul and Virginia.
"Certainly I have," was the reply; why do you ask ?"
"Because," was the reply, "its author, Bernardin de Saint-Pierre,
was born at Havre, and we will go now and see the statue which the
city has raised to his memory."
The girl was ready on the instant, but Frank checked her impetuos-
ity by asking if she knew how long ago the famous story was written.
"I don't know exactly," was the reply, "but think it was a hundred
years at least."
You have guessed pretty closely," said Frank. "Paul and Vir-
ginia was published in 1789, and attained great popularity at once. It
has been pronounced by many critics the finest literary production in
the French language, and some have gone so far as to call it the finest
in the world. It has been translated and published all through Europe
and America, and in recent years it has been rendered into Japanese and
some other Oriental tongues."
On their way to the statue Frank further said that the author of
Paul and Virginia was of an erratic disposition, that he entered the
army soon after completing his studies at the military college, but was
dismissed in the course of a year or two for insubordination. Then he
lived four years in Russia as a civil engineer. Returning to his own
country, he obtained an appointment to the Isle of France, where the
scene of his famous story is laid. Then he came back to France and
devoted himself to literature until his death in 1814. He named his
two children Paul and Virginia, after the characters in the romance.
Mary wrote the following description of the statue:
"It represents Bernardin de Saint-Pierre seated, with a pen in his
right hand, which rests on his knee. In the other hand is a manuscript
on which we could read the words, 'Paul et Tirginie.' HIe is dressed
in the costume of his time, and his fine head is bent slightly forward.
At his feet are two children with clasped hands, sleeping under a trop-
ical plant. It is hardly necessary to say that they are the hero and
heroine of the narrative."
"I would like to see some of the old buildings of Havre," said Mrs.
Bassett as the party turned away from the inspection of the statue of
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre.
Frank asked the coachman to take them to some of the most vener-
able structures, if any there were.
AN ANCIENT EDIFICE.
The driver nodded assent, and drove to a building which certainly
had a very old appearance. On its front was the date "1520." Rudely
carved on a stone over the door were the figures of a boatman and a
man on horseback.
Mrs. Bassett regarded the figures with a good deal of interest, and
then asked what they meant.
"The house was originally a hotel," the driver explained, his words
being translated by Frank for Mrs. Bassett's benefit. "The boatman
and horseman indicate that there was accommodation for travellers who
came in the only modes of travel known at the time, with the possible
exception of walking."
"If the hotels of Havre at the present time followed the same cus-
toms in their signs," Fred remarked, "they would have the picture of a
TRAVEL BY WATER--OLD WAYS AND NEW.
railway train and a steamer. The railway has taken the place of the
saddle-horse, and the steamer is a great improvement on the rude cara-
vel of the sixteenth century.
"Men come and go by water as they did three or four centuries ago,"
added Frank, "cbut their means of travel are vastly different."
added Frank, "but their means of travel are vastly different."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
The walls of the old city are gone, and there are very few traces of
the work of Francois I. Down to 1.863 the Tower of Francois I. re-
mained, but the march of improvement swept it away during that year.
One of the best preserved of the old buildings is the Marine Arsenal,
which was erected in 1669, and bears on its front the names of Jean
Bart, Duquesne, Tourville, Jacques Cartier, and other famous navigat-
ors of France. The Government Tobacco Factory is a large building,
where John Law, of South Sea Bubble fame, wished to establish a mint
for coining the money to be made in his speculations.
At the mention of the South Sea Bubble, Mary asked Frank to tell
her about it; she had heard it mentioned before, and wished to know
what it was and when the bubble was blown.
"It is a long story," Frank answered, "but I will try to put it in a
few words. John Law was a Scotchman, who was born in 1671. He
went to London about 1694, where he supported himself by gaming,
and after killing a man in a duel he fled to France. About 1715 he per-
suaded the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, to give him a charter for
a bank, and also a monopoly of French trade with America, China, In-
dia, and the rest of the world, wherever trading could be made profita-
ble. The bank was known as Law & Company, and the trading monop-
oly as the Mississippi Company. The shares were eagerly sought by the
public, and rose to twenty times their value. Law was made Prime-
minister of France in 1720, but in the same year his schemes collapsed
and the shares in his companies became worthless. He fled from France,
and died in poverty in Venice a few years later."
"But what had he to do with the South Sea Bubble ?" Mrs. Bassett
asked, as Frank paused.
Law's banking and trading scheme was called a bubble on account
of its brilliancy in the early part of its career and the suddenness with
which it burst into nothing," was the reply. "While his Mississippi
Company was rising to notice in France, the South Sea Company, for
the purpose of trade in the South Seas, was organized in England; both
of these speculations went to pieces about the same time, involving
thousands of stockholders in ruin."
"The wildest speculations of modern times," said Doctor Bronson,
"are of a very tame character compared with the excitement over the
bubble companies of John Law and other schemers. For days and
days together the street where Law had his office was blocked with
people on foot or in carriages, waiting their turns to subscribe for
shares, and pay their money. The excitement spread all over Europe,
JOHN LAW AND THE SOUTH SEA BUBBLE.
and at one time it was estimated that there were five hundred thou-
sand strangers in Paris who had come there for the purpose of specu-
lating. Fortunes were made and lost daily, but the ultimate result of
the speculation was a loss to nearly every one concerned.
While the speculation was going on," the Doctor continued, a
great many caricatures
were published in which
A .2....~,. NTartir.X-WTflf-71-
Law's schemes were -- -
held up to ridicule.
One of them represents
Law seated on the edge
of a blast of wind, hold-
ing a string attached
to several bubbles above "
him, and throwing out ',-
bank-notes that seem to -
come from a cloud near
his hand. On the top
of his hat is a wind-
mill, and below him are
the words: 'The wind
is my treasure, cushion,
and fountain.' Anoth-
er caricature represents
him as a night-crier -
with a magic-lantern on
his back, and calling
out, Shares shares i
shares as he goes CARICATURE OF JOIN LAW-AMSTERDAM, 1720.
along the street."
The talk about Law and the speculations of his times was suddenly
interrupted by Mrs. Bassett calling attention to some queer-looking
wood piled on the quay near the Bassin du Commerce, and asking what
kind of timber it was.
"That is ]ogwood," said the Doctor; "and it is used for dyeing
cloth, leather, and other things."
"I have heard that it is used to give the proper tint to red wine,"
Frank remarked, with a smile.
"I have heard so, too," the Doctor answered; "and though the
statement is denied by the wine-dealers, I am very much inclined to
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
believe it. It has been made to me by gentlemen in whose veracity I
have every confidence, and there was no reason why they should un-
dertake to deceive me. The statement was that about one-third of the
logwood imported into France was used for coloring wines, the other
two-thirds being used for dyeing cloth, leather, and kindred articles.
My informants said that a great quantity of the lowest grades of
French red wine is artificially colored. Red wine of pure manufacture
is dearer than white wine, and so the enterprising dealer makes use of
logwood both for color and flavor."
How do they get the color out of the wood and into the wine ?"
Mrs. Bassett asked.
"The wood is ground in a mill very much like the mill used by
tanners for grinding bark; the dust is then mixed with ordinary white
wine in a vat, and allowed to remain there for a week, the contents
of the vat being stirred every few hours, so that the wine may come
as much as possible in contact with the wood-dust. The coloring-
matter gives the proper tint, while the astringent quality of the wood
gives the 'puckery' taste that is often apparent in cheap wines, and
is not at all disagreeable to a great many drinkers. At the end of a
week the dust is allowed to settle to the bottom of the vat, and then
the wine is drawn off through a fine strainer into casks and is ready
to be bottled and sent to market."
"Isn't it possible that the red noses of many wine-drinkers are
caused by the logwood in the wine?" was the next query of Mrs.
Bassett when the Doctor paused.
"That is a scientific question I will not attempt to answer," was
the reply, "any more than to explain why a great quantity of Ameri-
can cider is imported into Havre and Rouen every year, although Nor-
mandy is famous for the large quantity and fine quality of the cider
it produces. My French friend who told me about the logwood in
wine coloring says the American cider can be made into champagne
better than can the Normandy cider, and the most of the imported
article is sent back to America in the shape of champagne wine."
When our friends had exhausted their curiosity respecting IIavre
and its vicinity, they went to Trouville by the steamboat that runs
twice daily each way, the departures being fixed for the time of high
tide. They had a pleasant run of about two hours, crossing the mouth
of the Seine, which is here enlarged into a bay, and having a view of
IIonfleur, which was once an important port, but is now little better
than a fishing town. It has a few factories and ship-yards, but its
HONFLEUR AND ITS HISTORY. 47
d foreign trade has diminished to the shipment of eggs and other farming
products to the nearest ports of Great Britain. It was for a long time
in the hands of the English, and holds a prominent place in the history
of the wars of England and France in past centuries. Some of the
founders of Quebec in Canada were from -Ionfleur, and at one time its
mariners were to be found on all the oceans and seas of the globe.
MENDlING NETS AT LOW TIDIE
48 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
Mention of Honfleur and its history led to some questions relative
to the French settlement of the New World.
Doctor Bronson recalled the circumstance that in 1493 the Pope
eI;, I- u
~ ~ ':1 I
II : --1-..-.--.
it II- -~
I -..II /
LANDING OF A FRENCH EXPEDITION IN THE NEW WORLD. [From an old print.]
issued an edict under which Spain and Portugal undertook to divide
between them all the unexplored portions of the world. According to
Bernal Diaz, the Spanish historian, "the King of France sent word to
our great Emperor that as he and the King of Portugal had divided
the earth between themselves without giving him a share of it, he
should like them to show him our father Adam's will in order to know
if he had made them his sole heirs." The King of France intimated
that he should feel quite free to possess himself of all he could upon
the ocean in all parts of the globe.
"Not only did the French king claim what he could find on the
water," said Doctor Bronson, "but he proceeded to annex the land to
his dominions without troubling himself about the views of anybody
else. Some of the maps and globes of the sixteenth century contain
the name New France' on a large part of the American Continent,
FRENCH EXPLORERS IN AMERICA.
S* and there is one map (by Ortelius, in 1572) on which New France in-
cludes the whole of North and South America.
One of the earliest explorers of the American Continent," he con-
Stinned, "was Jacques Cartier, who was the first white man to navigate
Sthe St. Lawrence River, which he ascended to where Montreal now
Stands just below the Lachine Rapids."
S "Any one who visits Montreal is sure to be reminded of him," Mrs.
SBassett remarked. "They have street, square, landing-place, and I
Don't know what else named after him; and as if those were not
enough, they call their cabmen 'carters,' probably an abbreviation of
A laugh followed her effort at punning. When it subsided, the
)octor made some further remarks about the colonization of America by
the French, and the subse-
quent loss by France of- -
nearly all her possessions -
on the western shores of ---
the Atlantic. Then, as i
the boat was nearing ---
'rouville, the past was -_ -a
dropped for the present, b1 Q
and the of the Ii
sixteenth century gave -- -
p)lace to the more mod-
Orn voyageuros, whose-
steps ordinarily go no
farther than Trouville --
or to her fashionable re-
sorts along the- French
With a, glass Mary
scanned the slope just
back of Trpouv\ille, and Y I
presently made out a ,
group of people lohunghn-g "
there and contemplat- '
ilng the approaching JACQUES CARTIER.
boat. They were too far
off for personal identification, but she looked closely at the group, think-
ing it possible that the party might be some acquaintances of theirs
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
from Havre, who had gone to Trouville the day before and promised
to meet them there. "They said they would look out for us," said
Mary to her brother, "and they are the only people I can see who
are literally 'looking out.' "
*" 5 1 H "' ': "-( *'
"' ," .',"- -/"^ -, .
'I i .
ON THE LOOKOUT AT TRlOUIILE.
But she was wrong, as there is always a crowd more or less numer-
ous at the landing-place of the steamboat when it arrives from Iavre.
Trouville is not unlike other watering-places the world over, in the
circumstance that many of the visitors have a great deal of idle time
on their hands, and are glad of an excuse to use it up. They go to
meet the boats, although not expecting any friends to arrive by them.
and welcome any distraction, however trivial.
The courier from the hotel our friends had chosen was put in charge
of their '~.... "-', and the Doctor suggested that the distance was so
short and the day so pleasant that it would be more agreeable to walk
than to ride. So our friends strolled along in the direction of the hotel,
no guide being needed, as the Doctor had been there before.
That Trouville is a pleasure resort was apparent at the first glance.
There is an old town with venerable edifices, but it is completely eclipsed
by the new town, which has grown up since the place became a fashion-
able resort. Great hotels, and small ones, too, with numerous boarding-
houses and private residences, have sprung up, and to their number must
be added the Casino, with its varied facilities for amusing the visitors.
SCENES AT TROUVILLE.
Carriages of all grades and kinds roll along the streets and roads, and
for those who prefer the saddle in taking their exercise there are horses
and donkeys. Mrs. Bassett remarked later on that all the donkeys at
Trouville were not quadrupedal, her observation being called out by the
assemblage in the gaming-rooms at the Casino and the manner in which
the money of the visitors went with unfailing certainty into the hands
of the keepers of the game.
To Fred was assigned the duty of keeping the journal of what they
saw and did at Trouville, and we are permitted to make a few extracts
from his notes. It is proper to remark that he was assisted by Frank
and Mary, who called attention to various matters which he might have
omitted without their aid.
Geographically," wrote Fred, Trouville is in the department of
Calvados. I don't know that any one of us has vet made note of the
fact that France is divided into dccpartements which are the equivalent
of counties in England or the United t. I : though considerably larger
than counties are with us. There are 87 departments altogether, and
they are subdivided into 362 arrondisements, 2865 cantons, and 35,989
communes. I'll tell you more on this subject later on. Let us stick to
Trouville for the present and leave other matters alone.
Like a great many other watering-places, Trouville came into notice
rather suddenly, and its prominence was brought about by some French
artists and men of letters who came here to spend the summer, paint the
scenery, and describe it in books. When its attractions became known
other artists and writers came along, and very soon the general public
followed. The story of Trouville has been repeated on our side of the
water by the stories of Bar Harbor, Long Branch, Atlantic City, and
other well-known and popular resorts. Everybody comes to Trouville
because everybody else does.
There are many English people here, and we are told that they come
early in the season and stay late. The season at Trouville begins about
the middle of June and closes soon after October 1st. French people of
fashion would not be seen here before the opening or after the close,
as they would consider their characters ruined by doing anything so
much out of the conumon course of things. A considerable number of
visitors are those who travel with the 6illet-circulaire, or circular ticket,
which enables the traveller to visit several cities and points on the coast
within a certain specified time. As the holder of a circular ticket wants
to see as many places as possible, he can only afford a day or two to each
point where he stops off from the railway train. The circular ticket is
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
by no means unknown in America; neither is the circular tourist and
his ways, as every hotel-keeper can testify.
The scene in general reminds me of much that we saw at Frascati's,
which may be taken as a miniature edition of Trouville. But Frascati
cannot compare with Trouville in its beach, which is of the softest sand
that the bather could wish for to walk upon with his bare feet. There
is no need of bathing-shoes here, but fashion prescribes them. The style
of bathing-shoe worn at Trouville is a linen gaiter with the front cut
away and lacing around the ankle. Every traveller is supposed to carry
them in his '~ -..-.'_-, but any one who comes here without them may
findl an abundance in the shops or at the bathing-houses.
Bathing may take place at any hour, but the proper time for it is at
high tide, provided it does not interfere with dinner or some other en-
tertainment of a practical character. Then everybody goes to the beach,
either to bathe or gaze at the bathers, or upon other people who don't
go into the water. The non-bathers are far more numerous than those
who dip into the sea, and of those who venture upon bathing there is
only a small proportion who can swim. And now a word as to the
bathing-dresses which are the fashion here.
Trousers and jacket, the latter gathered in at the waist, compose
the feminine costume of Trouville, together with an oilskin cap to keep
the hair dry. and Amelias (as the linen slippers, or gaiters, are called) for
protection to the feet. (Mary says I must say 'basque' instead of
jacket, and then it will be better understood by feminine readers. Well,
then, here goes for basque.)
"Some of the bathing-dresses are elaborately ornamented, while
others are plain enough to satisfy a Quaker of the time of Roger Will-
iams. Occasionally you see an American woman with a dress of the
style in vogue at Newport or Bar Harbor, and we are told that a few of
the French visitors have copied it. But the fashion is not likely to
change, as the company that owns the bathing-houses has a large stock
on hand of the old pattern, and you can readily understand that the
views of the managers will be conservative.
Everything is done by rule here, and if you want to do as you
please your only course will be to please to do as the regulations require.
The 'bureau' looks after everything, and when you want a bath you
must begin at the bureau by buying the needed tickets. I say tickets,
because there are several things for which you must pay, and each pay-
ment requires a ticket. There is the simple bath, the bath with a cabin,
and the tain de luxe; then there is the costume (the peignoir), towels,
.131 ~II~J(t~La., r; T tsir ,Iil ,;!i r~~ Ir~ I
i--- ir z
-- ii ~jI ;i .
-~C~a=i ---- ;~,
T1IE I3IATIING HOUR.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
head-dress, slippers, the baigneur (whose occupations were described at
Havre), the master or mistress of the baths, together with a variety of
extras and supplementary things. Doctor Bronson says he is reminded
of the hotel somewhere along the Missouri River which required the
traveller to pay three dollars a day, with meals and lodging extra. The
bathing-cabins are on wheels, so that they can be moved to suit the tide;
and though you pay by ticket for the cabin, the driver of the horse that
moves your cabin expects a gratuity for the service. If the horse had
been educated up to the ability to demand a gratuity, you may be sure
he would have exacted it before we left him.
The part of the beach allotted to bathers is divided into three parts
by means of cables that run far out into the water. The middle
section is for families, and on either side of it are the sections for
women or men exclusively. Out in front of each section is a boat se-
curely anchored, and each boat has steps which hang over the stern a
foot or more into
the water. The
swimmers go out
J-- .to these boats,
._ ,' which are in
,charge of skilful
they MI. './ 'us, andh
'~-_- they may have
. 'I I
instruction in the
art of swimming
if they desire it,
ly the lessons will
We have had
our share of fun,
sitting on the
beach and watch-
ing tlhe bathers.
There are fewer
them than you
will see in the
blages at an
..,~ -- 1-
ON THE BEACH.
American sea-side resort, and many of those who are able to swim do
so very awkwardly. They flounder around like porpoises-no, not
like porpoises, because those denizens of the deep are graceful and know
how to take care of themselves, and such is not the case with the people
we are considering.
Yesterday two women who wanted to display their abilities in bath-
ing created a scene by losing control of themselves, screaming loudly,
swallowing a quantity of salt-water, and running quite a risk of being
strangled. The baigneurs seized them and brought them up to the shore
as soon as possible. One of the women fainted, and the other became
hysterical and kept on screaming after she had been stretched on the
sand. Both were liberally drenched with water from buckets, which
stopped the shrieks of the hysterical one and brought the other to her
senses. Then they were hurried off to their cabins, where the attendants
bathed their feet in hot water and helped them assume their ordinary
apparel. As Byron says, 'Both were young, and one was beautiful.'
Fortunately they were light in weight, or they would have been some.
what difficult for the baigneurs to manage.
SThere is a delightful stretch of beach for walking, and for children
and dogs to play upon when the tide is out. When the beach happens
to be uncovered on a warm afternoon all the visiting population of Trou-
ville seems to be gathered there. The older ones saunter about, young
people and middle-aged ones play at croquet, children romp and have a
thoroughly 'good time,' and the dogs accompany them in their romp-
ings, unless they happen to belong to adult and dignified persons, whom
they are obliged to follow demurely. Some of the young people are in
their bathing-dresses, and wander about in the pools armed with nets
and baskets for the purpose of catching shrimps. We don't get many
shrimps,' said an English girl to Mn v yesterday, 'but there's a great
deal of fun in trying to catch them.'
Mrs. Bassett and Mary were anxious to see the fashionable prome-
nade where people come to see and be seen, especially the latter. Most
of the women are well dressed-better, Mary says, than the men, whose
clothes do not seem to lit well. Many of the costumes are such as the
owners would hardly be likely to wear in Paris on account of their
'loudness,' but there is a freedom of taste here as at the majority of
sea-side resorts the world over. The varieties of color d-pl.id.-;, in the
dresses and hats and ribbons of the women might almost rouse the envy
of a kaleidoscope; but while there is great variety, everything is har-
monious and shows the good taste of the French.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
" ;* ",''I
'* -. ^--
. *1\^: ^Lr
"We have strolled about with the promenaders, and we have sat on
the benches and looked at them as they drifted by. Doctor Bronson
says it is like looking at the throng on the Boulevard des Italiens, in
front of the Cafd de la Paix, on a pleasant afternoon. All Paris seems
to have come here for amusement; and an American whom we met here,
and who has lived in Paris for several years, has pointed out to us a good
many of the people whose names are more or less familiar to us. There
are statesmen, politicians, editors, authors, artists, actresses, men and
women with titles-some with ancestry running back for centuries, and
others whose nobility is very recent--merchants, bankers, and so on
: ; i
A MIXED POPULATION.
through a long list. Then there are people from all parts of France and
from other countries of Europe. As I said at the beginning, there are
many English who spend the summer here, and we are never many min-
utes without hearing the language of the kingdom across the Channel."
SUNDAY MORNING IN NORMANDY.
58 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
TIHE CHILDREN'S BALL AT THE CASINO OF TROUVILLE.-ADVANTAGES OF EARLY
TRAINING IN POLITENESS.-GAMING AT THE CASINO.-COURRIERS AND LES
PETITS CHE, IVA UX-SCENES IN THE GAMING-ROOMS.-DEAUVILLE; ITS ORI-
GIN AND HISTORY.-DUKE DE MORNY.--TROUVILLE RACES.-VIEWS OF THE
RACING-GROUNDS AND INCIDENTS OF THE RACES.-COSTUMES OF THE BELLES.
-ENGLISH VISITORS AND THEIR WAGERS.-POOL-SELLING.-VISIT TO THE CAS-
TLE OF BONNEVILLE.-REMINISCENCES OF WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.-HOW
HE INVADED ENGLAND.-BATTLE OF HASTINGS AND DEATH OF HAROLD.-
DIVES AND CAEN.- A NORMAN FUNERAL.- ROUEN.- THE CATHEDRAL.-MRS.
BASSETT'S MISTAKE.-RICHARD THE LION-HEARTED.-MUSEUM OF ANTIQUI-
TIES AND WHAT WAS SEEN THERE.
"r ROUYILLE does not go to bed early," continued Fred, "as you
would readily understand by visiting the Casino. It is a spa-
cious building, and
.. the Casino would
S .be like Hamlet"
S"One of the
sights of the Ca-
; -- sino is the Bal
l d'Enfants (Chil-
.'- dren's Ball), which
'.takes place be-
tween eight and
AV/ nine o'clock every
.TH: W.INDLASS. evening. Some of
the children are
dressed in all the finery their mothers can place upon them, while others
are in the flannel suits they have worn all day, and which they cannot
injure at all by rolling in the sand or getting an occasional wetting.
nut whether plainly or gayly dressed, they conduct themselves with
GAMBLING AT TROUVILLE.
much more propriety than would the same number of American chil-
dren under similar circumstances. The rules of the ball-room are
carefully observed, and the boys bow to the girls and the girls to the
boys as though they were members of the court of a kingly palace.
Doctor Bronson says that a great deal of the French polish of manner
comes from the early training they receive, and one can realize this very
forcibly as he looks on at the Bal d'Enfants at Trouville."
Mrs. Bassett was delighted with the Children's Ball, and thought it
would be an excellent feature of American watering-places. But her
opinion was quite the reverse as to the scenes in the Salle de Petit Jeux,
where chances were sold on the races which are run by miniature horses
and miniature couriers. She observed, with considerable shock to her
sense of propriety, that the attendance was large, and also that the sport
was very exciting to all concerned.
The game of courriers and petits chevcaux may be thus described:
Little figures representing runners, and mounted on wheels which
follow channels or grooves especially made for them, are set in motion
along a large table, and the figure, or courier, that comes nearest to a
goal near the farther end of the table wins the sum total of the bets,
after deducting a certain amount for the keeper of the game. Of course
every one must make a wager, and the money is handed over to the
keeper before the courr'iers are set in motion. All sorts and conditions
of men and women indulge in the game, and a considerable amount of
money changes hands every evening.
The course des petits chevcau is more exciting, and consequently more
popular than the one just described, and the crowd at the end of the
room devoted to it is much larger and far more noisy than the one
around the table of the courriers. We will let Frank describe the table
and the scene.
"The table is circular," wrote Frank, "and is covered with concen-
tric circles of strips of brass or other material two or three inches apart.
On each of these strips a miniature horse runs with a jockey upon his
back. The coats of the jockeys are in different colors, so as to facilitate
the process of betting. It is a circular race-track in miniature. Before
each race the horses are placed in line in front of the starting-point, and
when all is ready a lever is pulled to set them in motion.
"There are rows of raised benches where the players sit, and there
is standing-room behind them for spectators, who very often become
players and pass their money over the heads of the more fortunate ones
in front. The keepers of the game sell chances for one or two francs
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
each on the horses, and the management always reserves one horse for
itself. When all is ready, the lever is pulled and the horses are started;
round and round they go at high speed, then the speed slackens, one
horse stops, then another and another until all have come to a halt. The
horse that stops nearest the goal wins the race, and as soon as the result
TABLE OF THE COURIERSRS"
is decided the money is distributed. The majority of the people present
are more or less excited, and there is a great deal of shouting and ges-
ticulating. The most exciting time of the race is when the speed of the
horses slackens and a decision of the momentous question is close at
hand. There are quite as many women as men in the crowd, and not
a few of the women are accompanied by children, who are allowed to
wager their money on the game.
DEAUVILLE AND DUKE DE MORNY.
There are races of real horses at Trouville on certain days of the
season, and they attract great numbers of people. To reach the race-
track it is necessary to go to Deauville, which may be regarded as an
extension of Trouville along the sea-shore. Deauville was the result of
a speculation which was started by the Duke de Morny when at the
height of his power, and he had no difficulty in securing the capital
needed for his enterprise. His idea was to create an aristocratic resort,
where those who wished to pass the hot months at the sea-side could
avoid the contagion of the crowd at Trouville, and at the same time
have suitable society around them. Handsome houses were built in
goodly number, streets and avenues were laid out, and for a while Deau-
ville prospered. But the death of the duke in 1865, and the fall of the
empire a few years later, brought grief to the new city, and since then
it has had a struggle for existence.
We saw the pedestal on which once stood the statue of the duke.
The pedestal with nothing upon it is a symbol of the changes of the
times: the republic caused the statue to be removed, and if it has not
been destroyed it is stored away somewhere to await the possible day
when the Napoleonic dynasty shall again take part in the affairs of the
What did the Duke de M[orny have to do with the Napoleons "
Mrs. Bassett asked, when Frank made the above remark.
"lie was the half-brother of Louis Napoleon, the last emperor of
France," Frank replied; and while Napoleon III. occupied the throne
the duke was in high favor. Consequently, it was easy for him to found
a, town like this in the prosperous times of the empire."
"I understand now," said Mrs. Bassett, "and I can understand how
the fall of the empire was pretty certain to ruin the speculation by
ruining the speculators."
When they reached the race-ground Mrs. Bassett was surprised to
find that there was no track at all, and she did not understand the situa-
lion until Frank explained that the running' was done on the turf, which
many horsemen prefer to a dirt road. The racing-ground is a level area,
iluld at one side there is a line grove of trees, where the wra ge or weigh-
ing-stand is placed. The p)(sage contains several handsome buildings,
and evidently the men who designed tle racing-ground were not lacking
in good taste nor in the money necessary to carry out their designs.
Frank secured places for his party in the grand-stand, which is so
situated that the occupants have the sun at their backs in the afternoon,
the time when all the races come off. The stand is on a small elevation
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
of ground, so that the whole sweep of the plain is in full view, together
with the cliffs beyond it and a church, which presents a fine outline
against the sky.
Our friends were on the ground
early, as they wished to study the
crowds of visitors much more than i
to see the horses run. They had
an abundant opportu- i '"
nity, as the assemblage '
seemed to include '
AT THE RACES OF TROUTILLE.
COSTUMES AND POOLS.
everybody in Trouville and all the country around for a considerable
distance. Mrs. Bassett remarked that it was a happy, well-behaved
crowd, and everybody seemed to have a regard for the rights of others
while enjoying himself thoroughly.
Mary had a sharp eye for feminine costume, and she made note of
some that were certainly quite eccentric, both in the material employed
and the manner in which it was cut and made. Some dresses had an
astonishing amount of embroidery upon them, and some were in glaring
colors. One dress which she specially noted had a series of rainbows,
which ran downward diagonally from the right shoulder of the wearer,
and i.i-..- ,1 at a little distance a barber's pole endowed with anima-
tion and locomotion. Another was embroidered all over with figures of
animals of various kinds, and Mrs. Bassett -i..--(_.:I1 that the woman
who wore it might be the perambulating advertisement of a menagerie.
Everybody seemed to bet on the races, and the women were just as
active as the men in placing their money on the different horses and in
demonstrating their knowledge of the animals on the list. Many of
them showed that they knew of what they were tlkin,. and when their
favorites were defeated they vented their anger quite as energetically
;is did the sterner sex, and became just as excited over the events of
the races, especially when not on the winning side.
Some English people who were seated near our friends wagered their
money after the general custom; at the end of each race they speedily
disappeared from their places to go to the pools," as they expressed it.
M!rs. Bassett wondered where these bodies of water were, and she asked
Frank if there were boat-races on the pools between the equine trials of
speed, or if they only went there to quench their thirst.
Frank explained that the name was applied to a system of betting
or wagering money on the races, and that the temporary absence of
their English neighbors was in order to collect their winnings, if any,
and to make wagers on the next race to follow.
The pools are what they call the Paris-mutuals, are they not ?"
Mary asked. I suppose they were invented in Paris; at any rate, that
is what the name indicates."
"That is what a great many people in America believe," said Frank,
" but the name is, in a certain sense, misleading. It is true that the
system was imported into America from Paris, but the real name of it
is panis-mut els (mutual bets). The French word pari means a bet or
wager; mutuel and mutual have the same meaning in the languages to
which they respectively belong."
THIE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
,I I _
z '- ; ',, '-,'i ..
ki:4w,. I i
COSTUMES OF THE 1 NATIVES.
At each of the races there was a shout as the horses started, and a
great deal of excitement all through to the finish. Those who had
money wagered upon the result were in a quiver of anxiety, the demon-
stration of it being in proportion to the amount depending upon the
race. Our friends were probably the least excited individuals in all the
assemblage, and Mrs. Bassett said it was because they were probably the
only visitors who had not bathed in the pools. A gentleman in front
,o1 them lhl placed several napoleons on the horse Moufflon, and as the
A NORMANDY LANDSCAPE. 65
race ended Moufflon appeared to be at the head of the group. The man
danced about with joy; but his joy was changed to sorrow when the
signal from the judges' stand showed that the race was "off," and must
be run over again. When the second run was made Moufflon was left
behind, and the unhappy Frenchman had to bite his lip to prevent its
revealing his grief by drooping to his chin.
The day after the races the party took a drive into the interior to
visit several points and places of interest. The roads are delightful, and
at every step presented the attractions of Normandy, in the shape of
venerated churches, thatched cottages, old chateaux--some in ruins and
others carefully kept and cared for-well-tilled fields, luxuriant pastures,
patches and stretches of forest, sleek cattle and horses, and everywhere
the peasants in the costume which has been unchanged for a very long
time and shows no sign of changing.
The place of greatest historical interest visited on this excursion was
READY FOR THE RACE.
i .).: Ij.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
the Chateau of Bonneville. Learning the evening before that they were
to see it, Mary took pains to acquaint herself with its history; conse-
quently, when Frank asked her about it, she was ready with her answer.
It was the castle of Duke Robert of Normandy, the father of
William the Conqueror," said Mary, and therefore must be at least a
thousand years old."
"It certainly looks it," said Mrs. Bassett, as she regarded the ivy-
grown walls where the history of England under the rule of the Nor-
mans may be said to have begun.
"William the Conqueror was born in the year lI":," continued
Mary, "and succeeded his father in 1035. The historians say that he
gained the favor of his kinsman, Edward the Confessor, King of Eng-
land, and as Edward had no children, he secretly agreed to make Will-
iam his heir. The people of England preferred Harold, a Saxon prince,
and on the death of Edward, in 1066, Harold ascended the throne with-
out opposition on the part of anybody."
A very good account of the situation as it existed before the in-
vasion," said Frank. And now tell us what William did when lie
heard Harold was on the throne."
"William was angry, as he had not only the promise of Edward
that he should succeed him, but it seems that Harold had visited Will-
iam not long before, and promised not to stand in his way, and even to
help him to what he wanted. When he was afterwards reminded of
his promise, he said it was forced from him when he was in William's
power, and he did not therefore regard it as binding."
I think he was right," said Mrs. Bassett. "But he was a simpleton
to venture into William's dominions, and so place himself where he
would be forced to swear to such a promise or lose his liberty and life."
"So I thought," Mary responded, "and probably Harold thought so
when it was too late."
William determined to have his way," she continued. "He assem-
bled a fleet of three thousand vessels, and an army of sixty thousand
men at Dives. Are we going to Dives? I want to see the place where
the army assembled for the invasion of England."
"Yes," replied Frank, we are going there, but you will not find a
great deal to interest you. The harbor has been filled up by the drift-
ing sand, and the business of the place from a marine point of view has
been transferred to Cobourg close by."
We may remark that our friends found Dives a curious old town,
with a hotel bearing the high-sounding name of William the Conqueror,
THE CONQUEST OF ENGLAND. 67
and an old church in which are inscribed the names of the Norman
barons and other noblemen of distinction, who accompanied William
on his voyage to England. There is a monument near the town to com-
memorate the invasion, but it is of modern construction, and therefore
has no great interest to the student of history.
"The voyage of William the Conqueror across the Channel," con-
-- -; ---_ --- __ _7
_--- -- -- _. _ --. -_ -- -----
_. __^ '^" -^ ; "-: _. .. . -.- ..... _: --
SHIPS OF THE, TIME OF WILLIAM TlHE CONQUEROR.
tined Mary, was by no means a pleasant one. When he set out from
D)ives a storm arose, and he was forced to put into Saint-Valery, Vwhich
lie reached with a part of his fleet. Many of his ships were wrecked,
and the coast is said to have been strewn with drowned men. Some of
the soldiers became discouraged, but William managed to keep his army
from breaking up, and set sail once more. His second attempt was suc-
cessful i; he landed on the coast of Sussex, defeated the English at HIast-
ings, killed his rival, Harold, and on Christmas Day of the same year he
was crowned King of England."
Thank you very much," said Mrs. Bassett, as Mary paused at the
end of her story. I don't believe there are many American girls in
.. .., .. -- _-
end of her story. "LI don't believe there are many American girls in
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
school or out of it who can tell as much about the Norman conquest of
England," she added, with a glance of pride at her daughter.
"I couldn't have told as much two days ago," Mary answered, "and
it was only the circumstance that we were to visit the C('li..iii. of
Bonneville that made me look it up. The most interesting way to
study history is at the scene of the events that it records."
No one is likely to dispute the correctness of this assertion, nor did
any one of the party do so on that occasion. Mary added that if any
one wished to read about the effect of the Norman conquest upon Eng-
land and what happened afterwards, she would advise a perusal of The
B. Travellers in Great Britain and Ireland.
From Trouville our friends went in the direction of Paris. At first
it was proposed to ascend the Seine by steamboat, so as to study the
scenery of the river; but it was ascertained on investigation that the
journey was likely to be tedious, owing to the sameness of the sights on
the banks of the Seine, and the long time required for the journey.
Mrs. Bassett heard that William the Conqueror was buried at Caen,
about twenty-five miles from Trouville, and she sir.] ,.-.,1 that it might
be worth their while to visit the place of his sepulture. Frank ex-
plained to her that the grave of the famous warrior was indeed at Caen,
but it had long been empty.
Three hundred and odd years ago," said Frank, "the Huguenots
1,-1 ..-....1 the monument that had been erected by William Rufus, and
then tore open the grave and scattered the bones. Only one of them
was recovered; it was restored to the grave, where it lay two hundred
and fifty years, when the tomb was again violated by the Revolutionists
of 1'i '.:, and the last relic disappeared."
So it was concluded not to visit Caen and its ancient churches, but
to take the train for Rouen from the station at Trouville.
A final drive before saying farewell to the coast was taken along
the Villersville road and back into the country. While our friends
were passing a church they saw a funeral procession coming out of it,
and moving in the direction of the cemetery. Frank ordered the driver
to halt the carriage, in order that they might witness the ceremony of
interment as performed in Normandy.
The Norman peasants are Catholics, and the service witnessed by
the party was that of the Catholic Church. The sobbing of the
mourners was so loud that it almost drowned the voice of the priest as
lie read from the open book before him the ritual for the burial of the
dead. Candles and tapers were carried in accordance with long estab-
A FISHERMAN OF COBOURG.
TIE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
lished custom; and the sexton stood near by leaning on his spade, and
waiting for the departure of the little cortege to allow him to complete
his work by filling the grave he had made.
The railway train whirled them rapidly to Rouen, and came to a
halt in the underground station with which many travellers are familiar.
The line of the railway near Rouen and in the city is a work of great
engineering skill. Rouen is on and among hills, and the railway line is
tunnelled for a considerable distance through these hills. The station
lies between two tunnels, and in a deep cutting which was made at no
small expense. The railway is one of the oldest in France, having been
completed in 1843; it was built by a combination of French and English
capitalists, and the engineers and many of the workmen were English.
"I'm ever so glad you arranged to stop at Rouen," said Mrs. Bassett
just before they reached the station. "I wanted very much to see the
city, but was afraid we might miss it."
And why should we miss it ?" queried Frank. It lies directly on
the route between Havre and Paris, is a convenient stopping-place, and
is one of the oldest and most interesting cities of France. It has been
prominent in history for many centuries, and is certainly one of the last
places in the world to be neglected. Besides being an old city, it is an
active and well-populated one. Nearly all the old cities of the world
have seen their best days, and are now in a state of decline; but no one
can say this of Rouen. It is a great seat of manufactures; in fact, it is
the leading place of France in the cotton industry, and has been called
'The Manchester of the Republic.' It is the head of navigation for
sailing-vessels on the Seine, and you will see a great number of ships
at the quays.
The Romans had a city and fort here," continued Frank, "and they
called it Rotomagus. Traces of the Roman occupation may still be seen,
and are interesting to antiquarians, but to the ordinary traveller they
are of less consequence than the churches and the monument that marks
the spot where Joan of Arc was burned to death."
"Shall we go there before we see anything else ?" Mrs. Bassett asked.
"We will include it in our round of sight-seeing," was the reply;
and when we get to the Place de la Pucelle, where the monument
stands, Mary will tell us something about the girl whose name is famous
in the history of France.
The traveller's steps are usually turned first in the direction of the
cathedral," continued Frank, and it is well worth seeing, as it is one
of the finest in all Europe, though not the largest. Rouen is justly
THE BUTTER TOWER AT ROUEN.
proud of it, partly on account of its grandeur and age, and partly in
consequence of the many historical associations connected with it."
Mrs. Bassett fell into a singular mistake concerning one of the tow-
ers of the cathedral, which the driver pointed out as they approached
it, and said it was La Tour de Beurre, or Butter Tower. She looked
intently at the tower in question, and said it appeared to her to be made
of stone and not of butter. She insisted that butter is not a good mate-
rial for the construction of towers on account of its tendency to soften
in warm weather, of which there must certainly be some in Rouen.
Frank explained that the name did not come from the material used
in the construction of the tower, but from the fact that it was built with
the money obtained from the sale of indulgences to eat butter during
Lent. The tower was begun in A.D. 1485 and completed in 1507, and
has been restored quite recently.
Mrs. Bassett asked how old the cathedral was. Frank answered that
the date of the earliest structure erected on the spot was uncertain, but
the present edifice was begun in the twelfth century. The work was
not completed for three hundred years from the time of its commence-
ment, and some parts of the interior belong to the present century. The
central spire is of iron and quite modern, as it replaces a wooden one
*ih' .*1 ,.
THE CASTLE OF ROUEN IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.
TIHE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
that was destroyed by lightning in 1822. The top of it is 485 feet from
the ground, and the spire forms a conspicuous mark for miles around.
The party spent an hour or more in the cathedral, examining the
monuments and ornamentation, and lamenting the havoc wrought in
the building by the Huguenots in 1562 and
.. : by the Revolutionists in 1793. Mrs. Bassett
paused at the marble tablets in the pavement
.. of the choir which mark the spots where the
S heart of Richard Coeur de Lion (Richard the
S' Lion-hearted) and the body of his brother Hen-
Sry were buried. The monument to Richard's
S i, memory, like most of the other monuments
'.'' in the cathedral, was mutilated by the Hugue-
I nots and afterwards removed. No trace of
them was found until nearly three hundred
S! years later. The heart of Richard was found
quite perfect in shape but shrunk in size, and
1 it is now in the Museum of Antiquities at
R ouen. It was enveloped in a piece of green-
i ish cloth and enclosed in a case of lead.
ish "How did he get the name of 'The Lion-
hearted? queried Mrs. Bassett.
From his bravery in battle and his readi-
Sness to engage in war whenever the occasion
,offered," Frank replied. "He was crowned
i King of England in 1189 ; but from that time
.- until his death, ten years later, the most of his
time was passed in France and in a crusade to
.. t. the Holy Land. He commanded the English
half of the army of 100.000 men in the third
-.-' crusade, the other half being French. He was
absent about four years on this crusade, and
EFFIGY OF RICHIARD TIIE LION-
IEARTED. Ir. I' his return lie was almost constantly en-
gaged in wars upon French soil. He died in
1199 from the effects of a wound received in a siege of the Castle of
Chalus near Limoges. His wife was never in Great Britain, and he left
no legitimate children to succeed him on the throne of England."
Our friends visited several other churches on their way to the mu-
seum, which was founded in 1833 and occupies a building which was
once a convent. It contains many objects of interest, including Roman
A FUNERAL IN NORMANDf
L1 \:i I
I I .
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
relics that have been exhumed in Rouen and its vicinity. There are
fifteen windows in the principal gallery, all made of painted glass from
suppressed convents and churches, and forming a chronological series
from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century, of great interest to the
student and by no means devoid of it for the ordinary traveller. It is
said that there is no collection of glass painting equal to this in France,
England, or anywhere else in Europe.
The eyes of Mrs. Bassett and Mary were specially attracted to the
glazed frames on the walls, which enclosed charters and other official
documents bearing the autographs of celebrated personages. Mrs. Bas-
sett's astonishment was great when she saw a charter granted by Will-
iam the Conqueror and signed with a cross, and learned that the great
invader of England was unable to write! Then there were documents
with the signatures of Richard the Lion-hearted, Henry I., and other
rulers, and in a glass case lay the royal heart which has already been
mentioned in connection with the cathedral.
The sun was setting when the party came out of the museum, and
it was decided to postpone further sight-seeing until the following day.
In the evening Mary refreshed her memory concerning the Maid of Or-
leans, and prepared to tell the story which Frank had assigned to her
concerning that famous and remarkable girl whose life had an impor-
tant bearing upon the France of five centuries ago.
Fred recorded in his note-book that among the curiosities in the mu-
seum was the door of the house in which Corneille, the great dramatist,
was born. The French regard Corneille as the founder of the French
drama and the writer who has done more than any other to make the
French stage what it is to-day. He was a native of Rouen, where he
was born in 1806, and spent the earlier part of his life there. He studied
law and practised it for a few years, but did not succeed, and his failure
in the law led him to literature. One biographer says that the French
call him "the grand Corneille," not only to distinguish him from his broth-
er Thomas, who was also a dramatist, but from the rest of mankind.
Mary wished to see the Castle of Rouen, but found on investigation
that there was very little remaining of the old fortress where Joan of
Arc and other celebrated personages were kept in captivity and in many
cases were subjected to torture. There is not enough of the castle re-
maining to repay a visit. The walls of Rouen that resisted Henry V.
of England and Henri IV. of France have been removed, and the ground
they occupied has been laid out into a boulevard, which extends around
the city in a semicircle and rests on the Seine at its ends.
THE MAID OF ORLEANS.
SOMETHING ABOUT JOAN OF ARC; HER BIRTHPLACE AND EARLY LIFE; THE
SUPERNATURAL VOICES; HER VISIT TO THE GOVERNOR; PRESENTATION TO
TIHE KING; SHE LEADS THE ARMY TO BATTLE; DEFEATS THE ENGLISH; HER
WONDERFUL MILITARY CAREER; PERSONAL INFLUENCE WITH COURT AND
ARMY; CAPTURE, TRIAL FOR SORCERY, CONDEMNATION, AND DEATH; THE
PLACE WHERE SHE WAS BURNED.-FROM ROUEN TO PARIS.-CHATEAU GAIL-
LARD AND ITS HISTORY.-HENRY OF NAVARRE.-ARRIVAL AT PARIS.-REM-
INISCENCE OF THE DOCTOR.-FRANK'S OBSERVATIONS ON THEIR FIRST DAY IN
PARIS.-THE STREETS AND CAFES.-CAFE TORTONI.-CHAMPS-ELYSEES, BOIS DE
BOULOGNE, AND CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME.
NX the morning the party proceeded to the ,;'
-A Place de la Pucelle, to see the spot where the
Maid of Orleans was burned to death, after
being convicted of sorcery.
Mary was ready with her story of the life '' i
of the woman who is generally known as Joan
of Arc to English-speaking people, while by the. ,1
French she is called Jeanne Dare. i,
"The French name is more nearly correct
than the English one," said Mary. "She was |
the daughter of Jacques Dare, or D'Arc, of the I i
- iI i, of Domremy, in Lorraine; on her trial ,
she said that her name was Jehannette, or Jean-
notte, and that in her part of the country girls ''
bore the surname of their mothers. Her moth- [ ,
cr's maiden name was Romm6c, and consequent- ;i
ly her real name, according to the Lorraine cus-
tom, would have been Jehannette rommee. She':
could not read or write; her father was a farm-
CREDENCE OF JEANNE DAIO'S
laborer, and all the education she ever received TIME.
was such as was given by her mother and by the
priests to children of her time, in the repetition of prayers, and the
lessons of the Church. She is said to have been very religious, and
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
when the sexton forgot to ring the bell for prayers she reminded him
of his duty, and sometimes bribed him to its performance by small
gifts of money or other things."
You haven't told us when she was born," Mrs. Bassett remarked,
as Mary paused for a moment in her recital.
The date of her birth is not exactly known," Mary replied, but it
was probably some time in the year 1411. She lived the ordinary life
of a peasant girl, working in the house and out-of-doors, going regularly
and punctually to church, and devoting (so the histories say) a great
deal of her spare time to meditating upon religion and on the state of
the country, which was principally under the rule of the English. King
Henry V. had won the battle of Agincourt; Paris was in the hands
of the English, and so was more than half of the kingdom. The people
of her neighborhood were attached to the cause of the defeated KI.,
and sympathized with him in his misfortunes.
From the time when Jeanne Dare was thirteen years old she fan-
cied that she heard voices in the air and saw visions; she frequently told
her friends about them, and when she was sixteen years old she declared
that the supernatural voices told her she must go and rid France of its
enemies, the hated English."
"Do you suppose she really heard them ?" Mrs. Bassett asked.
"She certainly believed so," Mary answered, diplomatically, and
went to the Governor of the province to ask him to send her to the King.
He refused at first, but afterwards consented, and she went to Chinon,
where the King, Charles VII., was holding his court. Though she had
never seen him, she singled him out in a group of courtiers, where he
was standing dressed like all the others. She told him of the voices she
had heard and what they said, and she impressed every one with her
earnestness and her firm belief that she was destined to free her beloved
France from the enemies that held possession of the country.
"The King consented that she should lead the armies to battle, and
she did so. She wore a suit of armor such as was worn by soldiers at
that time, took command of ten thousand men, attacked the English
who were besieging Orleans, and in a week defeated them and forced
them to retreat to avoid capture."
That is why they call her the Maid of Orleans, is it not ?" queried
Mrs. Bassett, as Mary paused.
"Yes," was the reply. "Again and again she defeated the English
armies, and in less than three months Charles was crowned King at
Rheims, and Jeanne Dare stood at his side during the ceremony, dressed
CAPTURE AND TRIAL OF JEANNE DARC.
JEiANNEi JAIRC IHEARllNG "TLLE' OICLE.''
ilu a man's armor. She declared that her work was done, and she
wished to go back to Domremy; but the King and his ministers per-
sulded her to stay with the army, and she did so."
"D id she hav e any more victories over the English?"
"No; and, according to history, she did not expect any. im was
wounded in an attack upoln Paris, and a short time aflterwards was capt-
uretd Iby the English at (ompiiegnc amnd taken to Iouonc. The French
allis of the English demanded her trial for sorcery; she was tried, con-
demned, and here is the spot where, on the morning of Wednesday, May
30, 1431, she was tied to a stake and burned to death."
"Why, she was only twenty years old at the time of her death!"
.!r Bassett exclaimed, in astonishment. "Only twenty years old !"
TIIE BOY TRAVELLERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE.
"She was not yet twenty," said Mary, according to the account
that has come down to us. She was a prisoner for a year and a few d.. .,
and the time she was with the army was about fifteen months in all."
Mary paused, and Frank took up the narrative in a comment upon
the character of the Maid of Orleans:
The accounts of her life say that she impressed all with whom she
came in contact with her extreme piety. No soldier would swear in
her presence, and she made the army which she commanded one of the
most moral and orderly armies that was ever known, whereas it had
before been one of the most disorderly and dissolute. In the early part
of her career she seemed to have a great deal of military knowledge,
but in the latter part of it she was rash and uncontrollable, and made
many mistakes. To one of these mistakes her capture was due-a capt-
ure which resulted in her
death at the stake."
The monument to the
memory of Jeanne Dare
in the market -place of
Rouen is an insignificant
affair, and is practically a
fountain which supplies a
trough with water. There
!is a rude figure of the maid
upon the top of the monu-
Sment, but the insignifi-
cance of the structure is
such as to greatly disap-
point every visitor who
goes there without know-
ing beforehand its real
character. A fine statue
of her was unveiled in
-Paris in 1873. The house
S- M_ where she was born is still
S standing between two
i-- -buildings which were
-- founded as a monument
1 1M to her memory, and it
contains a statue of Jeanne
JEANNE DAc.--[Statue by M. Chapu.] Dare which was made by
THE VALLEY OF THE SEINE.
the daughter of p- .
once King of
From Rouen to
Paris is a ride of
two hours and a
little more by ex-
press train, the dis- .
tance being eighty-' .
four miles. The
r;il avv follows the g i
general course of -
the Seine, cross- .
ng it two or three
times, and passing
through tunnels be-
neath the hills that
what with the work i
of the engineers
wheAn they laid out
the line. Here and -
there the views .
from the windows
of the railway car-
riages are quite JOAN OF ARC IN BATTLE.
pretty. Mary and
F'ank were constantly exchanging observations and places from the
windows of the compartment in which they were seated, and when the
jouirney was concluded there was a good-natured contention between
them as to which of the twain had been most fortunately situated.
1, )Bassett was charmed with the appearance of the fields and gar-
dens that rolled by them like a swift-moving panoralnb, and she pro-
nounced the Seine one of the prettiest rivers she had seen since she
As the train rolled along Frank pointed out the towers of several
chitteaux that had been the residences of men famous in the history of
France, or the scenes of siege and battle in the days that were more
stormy than the present. One of the most interesting is the Chiteau