Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 To the readers of this book
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Twelve o'clock land; or, here and...
 One o'clock land; or, things old...
 Two o'clock land; or, heroes and...
 Three and four o'clock land; or,...
 Five o'clock land; or, Indian...
 Six o'clock land; or, among strange...
 Seven o'clock land; or, a chat...
 Nine o'clock land; or, peeps at...
 Ten o'clock land; or, mother and...
 Midnight land; or, an ocean...
 Day-dawn land; or, the red man's...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: What's o'clock? : a missionary book for boys and girls
Title: What's o'clock?
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082320/00001
 Material Information
Title: What's o'clock? a missionary book for boys and girls
Physical Description: vi, 104 p. : ill., map. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gollock, G. A ( Georgina Anne ), 1861-1940
Church Missionary Society ( Publisher )
Jas. Truscott & Son ( Printer )
Publisher: Church Missionary Society
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Jas. Truscott & Son
Publication Date: 1893
Subject: Missions, British -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Missions -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Missionaries -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
National characteristics -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1893
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: by Georgina A. Gollock ; with preface by the Bishop of Ossory.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082320
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223595
notis - ALG3846
oclc - 03988500

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    To the readers of this book
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
    List of Illustrations
        Page viii
    Twelve o'clock land; or, here and elsewhere
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    One o'clock land; or, things old and new
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Two o'clock land; or, heroes and heroism
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Three and four o'clock land; or, peril and persecution
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Five o'clock land; or, Indian jewels
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Six o'clock land; or, among strange peoples
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Seven o'clock land; or, a chat about China
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Nine o'clock land; or, peeps at Japan
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Ten o'clock land; or, mother and daughter
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Midnight land; or, an ocean story
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Day-dawn land; or, the red man's rest
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text



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T HE pleasure of writing this little book has been unexpectedly thrust into some
four or five weeks already filled with other literary work. This must be the
apology for many evident short-comings both in matter and in st)le. If the simple
chapters make the great Heathen and Mohammedan Wolid, and God's workers in it,
more real to boys and girls, our end will have been gained. Warmest acknowledg-
ments are due to the friends whose help in. the preparation of the matter and the
revision of the proofs has been so cordial and so extensive that I almost hesitate to
call myself


Y DEAR YOUNG FRIENDS,--This book is specially intended for

the young, and I have been asked to introduce it to you. But I
really think it does not need any introduction; for it can introduce
itself, and you will soon find out that it is a very interesting com-
S panion. Boys and girls like to meet people who can tell them
about distant lands, and strange countries and curious customs, and
this book is just like such pleasant folk, and it will be able, more-
over, to show you pictures of the things that it describes.
I confess that the first title of the book somewhat puzzled me-
" 'What's o'Clock ?" What could it mean? and the children on the stairs seemed to
be puzzled too, and the children who were looking over the screen were evidently
trying to find out." But when I saw the second title of the book-"A Missionary
Book for Boys and Girls," then I began to guess how it could become a Missionary
Book; and I remembered that there was once a schoolmaster called Mr. Carey, and
that one day, as he was teaching geography from a big map of the world, he began
to think about the heathen who lived in the far-off regions of the earth, and of the
millions and millions who worshipped idols, and never heard of the true God, or of
the dear Saviour who died for them ; and then the thought came into his mind that
he would like to be a missionary, and go out to tell them the glad tidings of great
joy." It was God who put that thought into his heart, and in due time he went out
to India, and became one of the greatest missionaries that the world ever saw.
So you see that the map became a kind of Missionary Book to Carey; and
who can tell but that some boys and girls who read this book may be set thinking
about the heathen too, and even if they are not led in future days to be mission-
aries themselves, they may learn to help those noble men and women who go
forth in God's name to fulfil Christ's last command-' Go ye into all the world, and
preach the Gospel to every creature." I have heard of a little boy who went to a
missionary meeting, and when it was over he went up to the clergyman who had
been telling about the heathen, and handed him a penny to put into the collection.
The boys and girls on the cover are not seen in the cloth edition of What's o'Clock ? '

" Children of the Kingdom."

"Is that all you have to give, my boy?" said the clergyman. "That is all, Sir,"
replied the boy. Would you not like to give yourself to be a missionary when
you grow big?" inquired the clergyman. And the boy replied very thoughtfully-
" Yes, Sir, I would." The good clergyman placed his hands on the lad's head, and
said, Well, my dear boy, I pray that if it be God's Will, He will make you one in
His own good time." God heard that prayer, and the little boy, who had only the
one penny to give, devoted himself in after days to the work of Missions, and carried
the riches of the Gospel to the poor benighted heathen.
But even if God does not call you to that blessed work, He can enable you to
help it in many other ways. But you must first deepen your interest in it by
increasing your information concerning it, and this will draw out your prayers
and efforts on its behalf. We trust that this little book may in this way be a real
missionary book to you. And I know that this was what the author of it had in mind
when she wrote it. But let me remind you of something that is of primary importance
if you would effectually help the missionary cause. There is a saying of the Lord
Jesus which is often overlooked, and it is this: The good seed are the children of
the kingdom." We are all ready to remember the other saying of the Lord Jesus
that The seed is the Word of God," for we know that His Holy Word, whether it
be by the preaching of the Gospel, or by the circulation of the Holy Scriptures, is
the chief and precious seed with which the field of the world is to be sown in order
to produce the glorious harvest of the Church of God. But we sometimes forget
that Christians are not only to sow this seed, but that they are to be seed them-
selves; that their presence and influence in the world are meant to be a means of
life and blessing to all around them. 0 what a help and furtherance it would be
to the missionary cause if all who profess and call themselves Christians were them-
selves a seed, whose life "was in itself after its kind," tending to produce fruit in
others to the glory of the Great Husbandman, and the benefit of mankind.
My dear young friends, let me impress upon you that the best and surest way
to help the cause of Missions is, first of all, to give your own selves to God; to
receive the Lord Jesus into your hearts as your Saviour and your Friend, and thus
by the grace of His Holy Spirit to become "the Children of the Kingdom." Then
by your lives, as well as by your words, you may win others to the Lord; and
thus, wherever your lot is cast in life, whether at home or abroad, whether amongst
the heathen in dark and benighted lands, or here amidst the full blaze of Gospel
privileges, you will be preparing the world for the blessed day when the Son of
man shall come in power and great glory, with His golden crown upon His head,
and His bright sickle in His hand, to gather in His own abundant harvest.
The Palace, Kilkenny. WILLIAM P. OSSORY.





















S 38

S 46




. 96




Time Chart of the World. Frontispiece Travelling in Thibet 58
St. Bride's Church as seen from the A Street in China 6
Editor's Window 3 The Perfectly Dutiful Boy" 63
Village on the Upper Niger 4 Chinamen Persecuting Christians 64
Natives of the Niger .5 Chinese Boats. 65, 67
The Brass and Bonny Missions 6, 7 Opium Smokers 66
Lokoja from the River. 8 Buddhist Worship .. 69
N.-W. Marina, Lagos o A Merchant in a Jinricksha 71
Faji Market, Lagos Good Night!-Japanese in bed 72
Annie Walsh School, Sierra Leone. 13 Mount Fusiyama 73
A Turkish Lady .. 16 Taking Home a Blossom Branch. 74
Street Scene in Constantinople 17 A Japanese Artist 75
An Arab Dinner 20 An Artistic Japanese 76
A Dealer in Poultry. 21 Japanese Peasants coming to Town 77
Crossing an African River--oat-building 22 A Pleasure Boat in Japan 78
African Idols 24, 25 An Ainu Girl 79
An Arab Shop. 28 Japanese Mother and Child. 8
Coffee and Tea Plants. 29, 60 Natives of Australia. 81, 83
A Witch-Doctor 30 Portraits of Mr. Eugene Stock and Rev.
Washing the hands after meals 31 R. W. Stewart 82
Mwanga; King of Uganda 32 New Zealander at Prayer 86
Types of African Races 33 Maori Chiefs 87, 88
The Mission Station at Usambiro 36 Fortified Pah, New Zealand 89
God's Acre at Usambiro .37 Bishop Selwyn of New Zealand 90
Persian Ladies in Indoor Dress 40 Heathen Maori Girls 91
Persian Orphan Boys 41 Landing of Missionaries 92
Travelling in Persia 44 South Sea Islanders' Canoe 94
The Traveller's Tree .45 Last Resting-Places of the Red Man 97
Mohammedan Warriors of North India 47 Among the Eskimo 98
Indian Girls in School. 48 Dog Train on the Ice 99
School at Palamcottah 49 Indians in a Canoe 100oo
Mehri and her Father 50 An Indian Medicine-Man 1o
Medical Mission, Kashmir 51 C.M.S. Station, Kincolith, Naas River 102
Buddhist Priests 53, 56 View on the Skeena 102
A Praying Wheel 54 C.M.S. Mission, Aiyansh, Naas River 103
A Thibetan at Prayer 55 Miscellaneous I, 14, 23, 26, 33, 38, 46, 59, 62,
Thibetans with their Flocks 57 71, 78, 96, 104


V Listen One, two, three-the dear old
stair-case clock has begun to strike-four, five,
six-slowly and clearly the chimes ring out-
S seven, eight, nine-count carefully each solemn
stroke-ten, eleven, TWELVE! Now the echoes
die away, and the steady tick, stock, tick, goes on
again, as second after second hastens by. It is
noon, or mid-day here.
But suppose that at this moment you could
ask a missionary in East Africa What's
O'clock ?" his answer would not be the same
as ours. He would have to say, Two o'clock,"
or if he was in the coast district, "About half-
past two." If you asked the question still further
east, in India, the answer would be, About five

W11 9\X





:;: *JLl~k~*

2 Very Puzzling !

o'clock," and in China you would find it was seven o'clock in the evening
when it is noon v'ith us. In Australia at this moment boys and girls
would be too sleepy to answer your question; and in New Zealand you
would be scarcely able to ask it, for it is mid-night there when it is
mid-day here, and all sensible folk would be in bed.
If you want to know how this strange thing comes -to pass you must
ask father or mother, or some kind wise friend to explain it to you. They
will tell you that the world rolls round from west to east on its axis in
twenty-four hours, and that it is always twelve o'clock (noon) where the sun
is right overhead. Japan, for instance, is directly under the sun each day
long before England is rolled round to him, so it has come to be quite
late (about nine o'clock in the evening) in Japan when it is mid-day here.
Does this seem very puzzling? I thought it would Just run off and ask
some one to explain it to you, and then come back to read all the
missionary stories in our book. I can promise you will understand them!
This first chapter, as you see, is called "Twelve o'Clock Land "; what
does that mean? Look at our frontispiece; it is an outline map of the
world, and if you want to know what o'clock it is in any part of the world
when it is twelve o'clock here you have only to look at the lines marked
on the map. You see the line running down through England, marked at
the top with a large XII ? Follow it from top to bottom of the map; all
that strip is Twelve o'Clock Land. Now can you find One o'Clock Land ?
And Two o'Clock Land, and all the others ? We are going to talk about
these great strips of land in our chapters, and perhaps many of you will
remember the names of missionary friends in the different countries as we
go along. I have found it such a help in praying for God's dear servants
far away to know just what o'clock it was with them, and what they were
likely to be doing.
But now about Twelve o'Clock Land. It is twelve o'clock exactly on
that one long line; it is a little after twelve in the places on the right-hand
side, and a little before twelve in the places on the left-hand side. But it
does not do to be too particular, so you and I will consider England,
Ireland, and Scotland, to be in Twelve o'Clock Land, though they really
spread a little on either side of it; and also we must include all those parts
of West Africa where the C.M.S. is at work.

Behind the Scenes.


First, you must peep with me into a large room
in the Church Missionary House in London. Crimson
hangings brighten the walls, and portraits of well-known
missionary workers look gravely at us. Here we find a
number of earnest men, most of them past middle life,
listening to some one who is speaking, or reading a
letter from the Mission Field. By-and-by they all go
down on their knees, and one of them lays the matter in
prayer before God. That is a missionary committee.
S A peep into another room would show us a wise
and kind-hearted clergyman talking to a young man or
young woman who wants to be a missionary. In other
rooms we should see men (and women, too!) busy over
piles of papers, and letters, or else counting carefully
the money given to help God's work abroad ; and here,
in the Editor's room, if you step for one moment
to the window, you will see through the telephone
and telegraph wires a view of St. Bride's Church,
where the C.M.S. Anniversary Ser-
mons a'e preached; and, farther off,
the beautiful
S. dome of St.

Hard att IWork.

Paul's. There is no idleness in this part of Twelve o'Clock Land. It is
all real hard work. I think you will quite believe this when I tell you
that all the central work of the C.M.S. is done in these busy rooms. This
great missionary society is ninety-three years old. It has 327 Mission
stations in different parts of the world. It has 613 ordained missionaries,
European or Native, and 71 unordained European missionaries. It has
349 European lady missionaries, married and unmarried, and 4,207 Native
Christian teachers. That is to say, it is more or less responsible for the
work of 5,240 people in the Mission Field Besides all these workers
abroad there is the great army of workers at home-I could not possibly


" Sleep MonLey."



number them!-and these all, directly or indirectly, mean something in
the form of work for those at the C.M. House, though they mean, too, a
great deal of welcome help.
You must remember that this house we have been visiting is only one
among many. In other places, too, earnest workers are trying to set
forward the Kingdom of Jesus Christ in foreign lands. Not only in
London, but all over England, and ill Scotland and Ireland as well, are
wise hearts toiling gladly for the cause they love. Even boys and girls
are helping-in gifts, in work, in prayer. I have read a lovely story of
a little girl-quite poor, and with no money of her own-who gave a
gentleman I7s. 6d. for foreign Missions. He asked her how s'le could
give so much, and then she told him she had earned it all, a halfpenny
at a time, by getting up to wake her neighbours, who had to be very
very early at work. She had gone round, shivering with cold, in the dark
winter mornings, that she might earn this money for God's work. She
called it her "sleep money," and gave it quite simply, as if she had done
an ordinary thing. The gentleman's heart was so touched that he added
1oo to her little gift before he sent it on for the missionaries.
Thank God there is even one such child as that little loving girl!

*But oh before we
Slave this part

we must look
into home
after home
Siwhere nothing

!,q the men and
buf women, and the
S/.. boys and girls, who
4, -seldom give to God's
missionary work, or
labour for it, or pray for
e -I- it. I want the boys and
e of girls who read this book to
Y STOP when they get as far as
this, and to ask, What am I
doing? Am I giving, and work-
(See p. 9.) ing, and praying? or am I only
living to please myself ? "
But we must hasten on, or this first chapter will fill up our book. North
of England, our Twelve o'Clock line passes right up into the Arctic Ocean
without ever touching'land. But when we follow it southward we find
ourselves in France, where the brave Huguenots were massacred long ago,
and where many men and women are doing true missionary work to-day,
leading souls out of the darkness of atheism, or Roman Catholicism, into
the pure Gospel of Jesus Christ. Next, our line takes us through proud,
beautiful Spain, just waking from the spiritual slumber of ages, and
stretching out her hand for the Word of Life. Oh, what missionary
stories I could tell you about work in France and Spain! Why, this is
like one of those provoking railway journeys, in which every place looks so

More than Sand in the Soudan.

nice that you long to get out at the nearest station, and yet you have to go
on to the place for which your ticket is taken! Just at present our ticket
is for'West Africa, so we must follow our line, not only past France and
Spain, but across the blue Mediterranean, .through the fertile belt of
country on the African coast, and right across the dread Sahara desert
until we come to the broad Niger River, flowing eastward and southward
to the sea.
The Niger is 2,000 miles in length, and was first discovered in 1797 by
a traveller named Mungo Park. It flows through the southern part of the
great Soudan. Here, though many of the people are black, others are a
light brown. They are not naked, like savages, but wear graceful, flowing
robes. They are not idolaters, worshipping hideous idols or fetishes, but
Mohammedans, who worship the False Prophet, and hate both Christians
and heathen alike. Some of these people are very fierce and warlike,
others are more peaceful, and keep flocks and herds. There are large,
strong towns on the river banks, and merchants from many places come to
buy and sell. And all this is in the place where you and I used to think
only sand could be found !
Has no one tried to take the Gospel of Jesus Christ to all these people
far up the Niger River? Yes, indeed. Ever since 1841 the C.M.S. has
wanted to reach these" regions beyond." Bishop Crowther, who died in
1891, was, with others, sent up the Niger more than once when he was a
young man, but though Native teachers were placed here and there; the
Mohammedans of the interior were never really
reached. Then in the spring of 1890 the C.M.S. .I
sent out a party of brave, earnest men and women
to the Soudan. They were stationed at Lokoja, a ,..
town marked on the
map, where the Niger 14
and the Binu6 rivers .
meet. Some of them ^ A
quickly learned the __
languages needed, I -
and people from --""'.*'
further up the river,

8 Sorrow at Lokoja.


~ ..,..

the very Moham-
medans -whom
~- ^. -j -- --- they wanted to
reach, began to
-- come in and ask
questions, and
listen to what the missionaries had to say. But soon difficulties arose
in Lokoja. Illness came; from one cause or another various members
of the party had to come home; the Rev. J. A. Robinson, who had worked
with ceaseless energy, died, and at last Mr. Graham Wilmot Brooke was
the only white missionary left at Lokoja. Then he, too, was taken ill of
'fever,, and died with no European near him, only a few faithful Native
Christians to nurse him and lay him to rest. Thus the Upper Niger was
once more left.without a single European missionary to tell of the love of
Jesus for the millions of the Soudan. But those two lonely graves are
proof that we have not seen the end as yet. Life always comes out of
death, and God's victory after seeming defeat. The great Soudan is part
of the world" which He "so loved," and in it, as elsewhere, the Gospel
must be "preached as a witness before the Lord Jesus comes.
Now we must voyage down te dow e Niger to the sea, leaving Lokoja
behind. The people are not well-clad, haughty Mohammedans, but regular
African savages, with, in some places, a savage magnificence" of their own.
There are just myriads of them ; we meet them in their great canoes, we
see their towns and villages on the river banks. Notwithstanding all their


A Dismal Dclta.

savage ways and cruel practices, they have immortal souls, and the Lord
Jesus loves them. Why do not more missionaries go out to tell them of
His love ?
Perhaps you know that 140 miles from the sea the Niger forms a
delta-that is, instead of being one great river it divides up into a number
of streams, each one of which finds its own way to the sea. This Niger
Delta is an awful place. The sluggish streams creep along through black,
dismal mud, out of which matigrove trees spring up; fever haunts the
anxious traveller; the people are most degraded savages-cannibals until
just of late; and all is gloomy, noisome, and still. Yet in and near this
delta missionaries are at work. True, they go there with their lives in their
hands, but is not that worth while if even one soul can be won ? There are
many true Native Christians in the Niger Delta to-day, and places where
hideous human sacrifices were offered have now neat and simple churches,
filled with men and women who have learned to worship God.
As we come out of the Niger Delta, and see the Mission stations of
Brass and Bonny (see pictures on pages 6 and 7), where the C.M.S. has
long been at work, we find ourselves on the Atlantic Ocean, quite a long way
to the east of our Twelve o'Clock line. As we hasten towards it, passing
all the many mouths of the delta streams, we come to Lagos, a large town
of some 80,ooo inhabitants, built on a sandbank, with a lagoon between it
and the mainland. Lagos is the port of the Yoruba country, where the
C.M.S. has had a Mission since 1843. The missionaries in the inland
districts have often been in great danger, for the native tribes are very
quarrelsome, and sometimes it has not been possible to get from Ibadan,
an inland town, to the coast, because some warlike tribe blocked the way.
This happened last in the spring of 1892, and our missionaries there were
only able to write to us because a Native Christian made his way through
the disturbed district with their letters at the risk of his life.
Lagos used to be a great centre of the slave-trade, but that ceased
when it was annexed by England in I86r. It has now got an English
Governor appointed by the Crown. There are very few Europeans in
Lagos, only .the missionaries, and some business men and traders, but
there are many rich natives who wear European dress, and live in large
houses, and are well educated. Nearly all these are Christians in name,

Life at- Lagos.

and some are so in heart. Besides these there are several thousand
Mohammedans, and numbers of heathen, very poor and ignorant, who live
in sin and misery, and worship idols.
I .don't think you would care to live in Lagos. It is very very hot,
and I am afraid the town is very very dirty. Then the poorer natives eat
a great deal of palm oil, and that has what we consider a most unpleasant
smell. They delight in palm oil chop," that is, a kind of oily stew, into
which they put any kind of meat they can get-rats do nicely! When the
tide is low, the mud in the lagoon smells strongly, and the missionaries get
out of health and have to go for a little change. It is much too far to
come home to England, except when they are seriously ill, or when it is
their proper holiday time, so they have a little house or hut, down on the
beach a few miles away, to which they sometimes go. It is not quite a
seaside lodging such as you or I would like. It is very bare, and very;
lonely, and though the big ocean waves break in, the air is not fresh and
bracing as it would be here at home.' And as to the sand-flies and other
torments, they simply devour a white visitor when they can get one, and
the rats-oh, at night the rats just run riot, and they are not nice neigh-
bours in the dark. People cannot keep well in a hot climate without
exercise, and as they are often not strong enough for much walking, riding
is very good for them. The natives in West Africa are much alarmed if
they see a white lady riding, and often say, "Pe'le! ple'!" (softly! softly!)
as she goes
S-- along. In
Lagos horses
are very
.- _... cheap, but I
n scarcely won-
/ der at it, for
they are cer-
J L1 / tainly very
s. ill-mannered.
N.4 Two of them
SdZ ol.o w, will rush at
P \ --. -. one another

Love endures. ji \'Go6

in the street, riders ,
and all, and begin ____ I
to fight as dogs
might. When they --
do this, the Native
riders cleverly slide
off, and get out of
the way. There is
no grass or
green food in
Lagos, so
those who
keep a horse
have to send
a man' in a eyf
boat to the mainland, and he climbs up a hill and cuts some grass, and
brings it back in his boat, and so the horse gets his dinner.
Do you wonder why missionaries ever go to a place like this ? I think
if you asked them, they would say, "The love of Christ constraineth us."
No one forces or even begs them to go to West Africa; if they made the
tiniest objection to go there they would be sent somewhere else. But they
know the Lord Jesus loves the people in Lagos, and in all the Yoruba
district, and so the missionaries go there for His sake.
Besides this, they learn to love the people themselves and the work.
I have had an almost heart-broken letter from a missionary at Lagos who
was afraid of being obliged to come home to England altogether, from ill-
health, and I have heard that same missionary tell story after story of the
Lagos Christians until I have learned to love them myself. The C.M.S.
has six European clergymen and five European lady missionaries in the
Yoruba Mission, of whom two clergymen and three ladies are at Lagos.
There are schools both for boys and girls, and training institutions for
teachers as well.
One more C.M.S. Mission in West Africa, and then we have done
with Twelve o'Clock Land. Though we name the Sierra Leone Mission
last, it was really the first of the three, as it began in 1816. Sierra Leone

" The White flan's Grave."

itself is a fertile peninsula about twenty-six miles long by twelve wide, but
the Mission includes other districts round it. When the English men-of-
war rescued poor slaves who were being carried out of Africa they used to
land them at Sierra Leone. It would have been much nicer to send them
home, but as they came from many distant places that would have been
difficult, and besides, all their homes had been destroyed. So they were
settled at Sierra Leone, and after a time missionary work began among
them. You can imagine it was not easy at first. About one hundred
languages were spoken in the little peninsula, the people were terribly
ignorant, and so unwilling to be civilised, that when clothing was given to
them they would tear it up or throw it away. Besides this, the climate
proved so deadly that the place was known as the white man's grave."
But through toil and suffering God's work went on. Many poor dark hearts
were lit- up with heavenly light; boys and girls flocked in to be taught;
and the little colony began to grow rich and prosperous in earthly things,
had many churches, and real worshippers, too.
Now the Africans in Sierra Leone are no longer poor and needy and
ignorant, but well-to-do men and women, able to support Native churches
of their own. They have an English Bishop and many Native clergymen,
and regular parishes; the people, too, are trying to reach out to others
round them who have not yet heard of God's great gift.
The C.M.S., however, has still a Mission to Mohammedans in Sierra
Leone, a very important college for training natives for the ministry known
as Fourah Bay College, and a large girls' school called the Annie Walsh'
Memorial Institution. Many of the girls educated at the "Annie Walsh,"
as we generally call it, go out to be teachers afterwards, so you may be
sure the lady missionaries long to see them true followers of Jesus Christ.
Some of the black girls are very naughty; others are loving and good.. In
fact, in this and many other ways they are very like the white girls whom
you and I know at home. The missionaries do all. they can; but there is
another Worker in the school to Whom they look for aid. The Holy Spirit
of God is working among these dear dark sisters of ours just as much as He
is in any English school, and it is such joy to hear sometimes that He has
been specially stirring the girls to long for the forgiveness of sin, and the
power to lead a new life.

Bishop Crow/ther.


I think the easiest way to remember our three Missions in Twelve
o'Clock Land is by grouping them round the life of one African who had
to do with them all. Samuel Crowther was by birth a Yoruban; he was
educated at Fourah Bay College, after being landed at Sierra Leone as a
rescued slave; and finally, after long years of loving, faithful service, he
became Bishop of the Niger, and only died, as I have already told you,
in 1891.
He is only one among many, many Africans who have served God in
His earthly Kingdom, and then gone home to the presence of the King.
Let us pray, before our thoughts go on to other lands, that hundreds, nay
thousands, of African men and women may follow in Bishop Crowther's
steps, seeking by lip and life to glorify God, and win souls to Him.



O-- -DAY we are going to talk about One
o'Clock Land, that is, the long strip which
S comes right under the sun each day an hour
before we do.
Now I can fancy a very wise boy or girl
turning back to our frontispiece, looking down
the One o'Clock line, and then saying, "Why,
Sthe C.M.S. has no Missions at all in One
o'Clock Land !"
That is perfectly true, as far as the present
day is concerned, but who said we were going
to talk only about C.M.S. Missions? They
1 are not the only Missions the Lord Jesus
-- -j loves; there are many other societies just as
dear to Him, and the Holy Spirit is just as much with other missionaries
as He is with those of the C.M.S. If we want to be like the Lord Jesus, we
must be full of love for all who go forth in His name.
I said the C.M.S. had -no stations now in One o'Clock Land, but they
were very busy there some seventy-five years ago. It is an old story, but
I want you to know it aH the same.
If you find the Island of Malta, you will see it is pretty well in the
middle of the Mediterranean Sea. Looking towards the East from Malta,
you see on the map the countries of Turkey and Greece, the islands of the
Archipelago, and the coast of Asia Minor and Palestine.

Under Turkish control.

In these lands the Gospel of Jesus Christ had its earliest home, and
the seven Churches spoken of in the Book of Revelation were situated
there. All these countries-except the Island of Cyprus, which has lately
become part of the British Empire, and Greece, which is an independent
kingdom-are under Turkish control. That means a great deal where
missionary work is concerned. The Turks are hard and often unjust
masters to the people over whom they rule., They are very bigoted
Mohammedans, and though religious liberty" is supposed to be given
the people are not really free. There are still many Christians-members
of the ancient Eastern Churches-living in these lands; but instead of
having a good influence upon their Mohammedan neighbours, I fear they
have taught them to despise the very name of Christianity. These Eastern
Churches have grown cold and dead and superstitious, and have lost the
true Light. They do not read the Bible, and they mix up much super-
stition with their worship of God. Early in this century the C.M.S. looked
longingly at the Mohammedans in the countries on the eastern Mediter-
ranean shores. It was felt that while the Eastern Christians ought to be
missionaries among them, they really made missionary work almost impos-
sible, by degrading the religion of Jesus Christ into a worship which the
Mohammedans felt to be much worse than their own. So, in order to get
at the Mohammedans it seemed as if the first thing was to try to help the
poor, dark Eastern Churches back into the light they -had lost. The
C.M.S. therefore made Malta their head-quarters, and sent out wise and
patient workers to make friends with the leaders of the Eastern Churches.
For a time this fascinating work went on, many visits were paid all round
the coasts, many books were issued from the printing-press in Malta, many
children were taught. But presently it became quite clear that the Eastern
Churches did not desire to be reformed, and shrank from the light of God's
Word, and finally the attempt wvas given up.
Some years later, the C.M.S. started a Mission in Constantinople (see
picture on page 17) among the Mohammedans. But the converts were
exposed to terrible persecution ; they were imprisoned and even beheaded.
Things grew brighter once or twice, but one day, when the Mission seemed
most prosperous, the Turkish police suddenly attacked the premises of the
C.M.S. and closed them by force. From that day onward there was steady,

Hidden Bibles.

watchful opposition to all missionary work;
spies were set, and inquirers were persecuted.
A European missionary could not visit in a
Turkish house without rousing suspicion ;
no church for public Christian service had
any chance of being authorised by Govern-
ment; no missionary school for young Mo-
hammedans would be tolerated; and even
Christian books were seized and burnt.
At last, in 1877, when the work still
continued to be beset with difficulty, the
Constantinople Mission 'was given up,
and the C.M.S. has now no work
in One o'Clock Land.
Now I want you to look up our
line until it brings you into Austria;
Sthe little province of Moravia,
S/ though not marked on the map, is
S there. Perhaps you have heard of
St the Moravian Church of the United
Brethren; this province was their
A TURKIH L. early home. There was an ancient
Christian Church in Bohemia and Moravia, true in practice and in doctrine
to the Word of God. The wonderfully thrilling story of the bitter persecu-
tions which beset it and the heroic endurance of its tcachers-and members,
is one you ought to read if you can. At last all outward tokens of its
existence were swept away, but God had still true followers in the land,
and they were able secretly to worship Him. Here and there a precious
Bible was hid in a cellar, or in a hole in the wall, or in a space beneath
a dog-kennel. Sometimes the farmers would bring a Fastor hidden in a
load of hay in a cart, that he might preach to them on the Sunday;
sometimes a man in woodman's dress, with axe in hand, would walk
quietly through the forest, and only the true- Christians knew that he was
a pastor come to hold a service at the risk of his life. How different to our
open worship, and quiet gathering at church !

A Potter and a

But in the year 1722 a great wakening came, so deep and so real that
it could not be hid. It was impossible to serve God openly where they
were, so the brethren who had been stirred by the Holy Spirit resolved to
leave home and friends and go to a place called Herrnhut, about fifty miles
from Dresden, where Count Zinzendorf was ready to welcome them, and
found a little colony there. Party after party followed these first pilgrims
to Herrnhut, and finally they settled down into an organized Church.
Ten years later, when their little company only numbered 600 souls,
they began foreign missionary work. That was in 1732, sixty-seven years
before the Church Missionary Society was founded. A potter and a


"His partikler Hymns."

carpenter set out from Herrnhut, with a bundle apiece as their luggage,
and about a pound in money, to make their way to the Island of St.
Thomas, in the West Indies, in order to begin work amongst the slaves.
In the next year, 1733, the Moravians sent out missionaries to the
Eskimos; in 1734 to the North American Indians; in 1735 to the South
American Indians; in 1736 to the Hottentots in South Africa; and within
twenty-four years of the time when the potter and carpenter went out,
eighteen different Missions had been started.
"Will you go to-morrow to Greenland as a missionary ?" said Count
Zinzendorf to a Moravian brother who-had had-no previous-idea that so
startling a question was about to be asked him. He hesitated for just a
moment, and then answered, "If the shoemaker can finish the boots that
I have ordered of him by to-morrow, I will go." This was the spirit in
which these men faced missionary work.
Here are two stories about the first Moravian Mission in the West
Indies, which will show you what the converts were like.
An aged slave woman, one of the Moravian converts, had been ill, and
was, threatened with punishment by the.'overseer for absence from work.
"Master," she said, "the earth on which I mpst stretch myself to. receive
blows is the Lord's;and, if you have me killed;,my body will be all the
sooner at rest. My soul, which you cannot slay, will go to the enjoyment
of blessedness with my Lord Jesus." 'Like most coloured people, the West
Indian converts are very fond of,hymns. One dear old Native helper used
to keep his hymn-book crammed with slips of paper, blades of grass, dried
leaves, cane-tops, and bits of rag as book-markers. One day the missionary
suggested that it would be better to take them out or the back of the book
would burst, but Jacob would not hear of such a thing, exclaiming, Oh,
massa! dem mepartikler hymns !"
The Moravian Church has never been rich or great, but it has always
held the foremost place in foreign missionary work. More than 2,coo
missionaries were sent out by the Moravians in 150 years. You have
often heard it said that out of every 5,000 Protestant communicants only
one goes to the Mission Field; but the Moravian Church sends one out of
about every fifty of her communicants. I have read of one little Moravian
community, settled in the Black Forest, and numbering only 418 souls,

Bewitching Children. 19

who, in 1882, had twenty-one of its sons and daughters in the Mission Field.
Most of our city churches have congregations as large as that whole com-
munity, but is there one among them which has yet sent out twenty-one
missionaries ?
Now we come to One o'Clock Land in Africa. Again we cross the
Mediterranean Sea, but this time we cannot pass down through North
Africa without a word about the workers there. All along this northern
coast numbers of Arabs live, only a few days' journey from London. Our
pictures on pages 20 and 2 1 show you a little what they are like. They are
all Mohammedans, and great patience is required for the work among them,
for they are afraid to listen, and very slow to own that they believe in the
Lord Jesus, because they know it means persecution if they take an open
stand. Much work is done by visiting the women in their homes, and trying
to teach them, and the children too. The Arab children are most bewitching
little things The missionaries lose their hearts to them, and write home
descriptions of their pretty ways and beautiful dark eyes. One missionary
friend of mine used to carry some "sweeties" with her, and when she saw
a little Arab girl peeping through a doorway she would pop a bon-bon
into her hand. Of course the little girl's mother liked this, and the
missionary was sometimes asked to come in and have a talk, which was
just what she wanted, in return for her sweeties. The missionaries working
all along this African coast, most of them sent out by the North Africa
Mission, have many trials and difficulties; I think we ought often to pray
for them, don't you ?
Next we come to the River Congo and the Congo Free State, and all
the wonderful Central African things that come into One o'Clock Land.
This Congo is the second largest river in all the world. It has-if
you include the rivers that flow into it-no less than 22,000 miles of river-
bank, more or less peopled with Native villages. The Congo has not got
a delta like the Niger; the lower part of the river is a broad estuary, but
some distance up from the sea there are tremendous cataracts. The river
rushes through narrow gorges, forming grand foaming rapids, and prevent-
ing any boat from going up or down. A railway is now being made beside
these cataracts, which will do a great deal to open up the Congo to the
outer world. At present everything has to be carried from Yellala to

I OF 7 1111h 10 I Ai!I

AN ARAB DINNER. (Seep. 19.)
Stanley Pool (a distance of many miles) by African porters, which is an
expensive and unsatisfactory proceeding, especially if one's luggage happens
to be a boat! as in our picture on page 22. A ton of luggage can be sent
from England to the lower river for about 2, but it used to cost about 70
to get it to Stanley Pool, above the rapids.
You must surely have heard of Mr. Henry Stanley, the great traveller,
and of all his explorations on the Congo. Perhaps you know, too, some-
thing about the Congo Free State which he helped to form, and over which
Leopold II. of Belgium rules. A great deal is being done to encourage
trade, and to pacify and govern the natives. They are greatly impressed
when the neat little Free State steamer glides up the river and anchors
near a town. They think the engineer is a cook, and the boiler of the
steamer a big pot, and when they see all the wood (there is no coal avail-
able at present) being put into the fire they imagine some very wonderful
medicine is being prepared, which takes a long time to make. As to
how the wheels go round they are completely puzzled !
Travellers on the Upper Congo tell us terrible things of the Arab
slave-raiders whom they meet there. Although the cxport slave-trade has
been stopped on the West Coast and greatly checked on the East Coast,
the slavery of Africans in Africa is still going on. The people enslave

Arab Slave-raiders.

one another, but bad as that is, it is as nothing compared with the terrible
cruelties of the.Arab slave-raiders;who ravage the whole heart of Africa,
leaving ruin in their track. A passion for gain possesses them. They will
do anything to be rich. They come inland to hunt for ivory, but when
they have got it, the great elephant tusks cannot walk to the coast; there
are no .trains, no waggbns;.they must be carried on the shoulders of men
and women if they are to bring money to the men who care for money
most. of all. Now it would be costly work to pay porters to carry the ivory
to the'coast, so the Arabs attack the Native villages, burn the houses, kill
the men who resist them, and carry off all the inhabitants who survive to
bear their treasures to the coast. The weak and sickly die ; many, cruelly
ill-treated, are killed on the journey ; and finally the wretched survivors
are sold, like the ivory, when they reach the coast.
Perhaps you think the Arabs attack a few villages, and only steal
a fef natives for this work. Listen When Mr. Stanley was on the

i. i
.- .. -
.. 5 .- W .l -~ t ,.
.. ,. jf(.., /r- ,r lIXt lQ'll!


22 An Awful Tale.

Upper Congo something floated past the little steamer one day. They
touched the mass with a boat-hook, and saw two Native women, dead,
tightly tied together with rope. Round the next turn in the river the
Arab slave-raiders' encampment came in sight. This one party had been
out for eleven months, they had been through a district much larger than
Ireland, spreading fire and death wherever they went; Mr. Stanley found
they had destroyed 118 villages along the river banks, and they had
2,300 natives chained together in cruel captivity. Oh, boys and girls!
you and I have got to finish the fight our forefathers so nobly began. We

(See o.)


" Very, VERY long, ago.".

must not cease to toil and watch and
pray until this bleeding sore of poor,

There are about 130 missionaries
on this great River Congo. Some of
them come from Sweden, some of them
from America; the largest number come
from England, but none of them belong
to the C.M.S. They began work on the Lower Congo (be-
tween the rapids and the sea) in 1878, but now they are push-
ing fast inland, planting station after station on the upper river
and its tributaries.
The climate on the lower river is deadly to Europeans in
many parts. A goodly number of the "noble army of martyrs"
have laid down their lives there. On land, too, there are scorpions and
serpents, and in the water crocodiles and alligators abound. A small
canoe crossing the river near one of the Mission stations was attacked by
alligators, the side of the canoe smashed in, and one of the three natives in
it carried off by an alligator to make a feast for himself and his friends.
The people are very ignorant; they live in terror of various superstitions
and they worship hideous idols, like those in our pictures on pages 24 and 25.
It is most difficult to teach them, they are so degraded and dull. For
instance, they have no idea of time. A missionary began to teach them
about Adam and Eve, who, he said, had lived very, very, VERY long ago.
They thought over this, and then pointing to their old chief (since dead)
said inquiringly, "V hen Makokilo was a little boy ?" Their minds
could go no further back than that! But now the Native Christians
in that same place have a new way of measuring time. They often
say things happened before, or after, "the Holy Spirit came." This
does not refer to the Day of Pentecost, of which we read in the Second
Chapter of Acts, but to a wonderful work of the Holy Spirit which was
done among these poor Congo savages in 1885. For about six years a
missionary had been at work among them, and ha'd not seen a single one
really seeking Jesus Christ. But at last results began to come. The
missionary's own heart was filled with the Spirit of God, who also worked

A VWonmdeful Change.

upon the people. One came, and then another came, and then twos and
threes, and then little groups, and finally companies of people, convinced of
their own sin, and longing for a Saviour who could cleanse them and set
them free. Many, many from among them really gave their hearts to the
Lord Jesus, as was proved by their changed lives and their steadfast witness
to His grace. The poor women, who before were treated like beasts, and
were always miserable and downcast, were lit up with new joy, and went
out with their husbands to tell their neighbours what God had done. The
dreadful idol songs were heard no longer, Gospel hymns echoed along the
roads, thieves became honest, liars spoke the truth, and the poor naked
women, ashamed for the first time of their condition, began to long to be
clothed. One, who had just become a Christian, said piteously to the lady
missionary who had taught her," Now I want some clothes; I don't like having
my skin outside." The husbands do all the sewing in Congo land, and as
soon as they become Christians they make their wives a dress Every
day at one o'clock-that is just when it is twelve o'clock here !-they used
to stop their field work and have their mid-day meal, and then gather
eagerly to be taught. And they took a great deal of teaching, because, you
see, they had grown up without ever trying to learn, and so their minds were
very slow and helpless. But the Spirit of God had wonderfully quickened
them, and day by day He opened their understandings to take in the
things of God. Now do you wonder that the natives date everything from
the time the Holy Spirit came "?
Far up the Congo river men still eat
their fellow-men. Sometimes they regu-
larly fit/cn their victims before they have
a feast. Yet even on this upper river brave
S men-and women, too-are to be found
living and labouring for Jesus Christ, and
already in far Balolo land there have been
4 true converts baptized.
As we follow our line further south-
Swards our own Cape Colony brings us to
AN AFRICAN IDOL the end of One o'Clock Land. There is a
COVERED WITH HUMAN SKIN. great deal to tell you about the Kaffirs, and

One Sto.y.

Hottentots, and Bushmen, and about the past
and present state of South Africa. But we
must hasten on. One story only you shall
have, and that is about the first Christian
missionary to South Africa, a Moravian
named George Schmidt.
He was only twenty-seven years old when
he started for South Africa, but he had already
spent six years in a Bohemian prison because
he was true to Jesus Christ. He arrived in
Cape Town in 1737, that is, sixty-two years
before the C.M.S. was founded. He was re-
ceived with scorn by the Dutch, who were then
in possession, but the Hottentots gathered
round him, and by degrees many of them
became true children of God. With opposition
and coldness round him, George Schmidt
laboured on, quite alone, the only Christian
missionary in the' whole continent of Africa.
Then the Dutch colonists themselves, Christian
though they were in name, took alarm at
seeing the Hottentots taught, and raised to
the level of men. So George Schmidt was
forbidden to baptize any more converts, he
was compelled to leave South Africa, and he
was never able to obtain leave to return there
again. He worked as a home evangelist for
some time, in Silesia, then he became a day-
labourer, and finally a sexton and grave-
digger. One day, when lie was seventy-six
years df age, after working in his garden a
little in the morning, he went to his room to
pray in private, as usual, for South Africa.
There, a little later, he was found, still upon
his knees, but his spirit had gone home to God.



I, JL Palestine, and Arabia, and Egypt, OF

9I | inland seas !.
i First for a word about Palestine. You REV.2,10
i,_ know what a little country it is, yet it has
-.- -r, --'--- been the spiritual centre of the whole wide world. It was
the home of God's chosen people; it was the scene of
our Lord's life and death; it was the place where the Holy Spirit was
poured out upon the infant Church; and from there the first Christian
missionaries went out. In our roll of missionary heroes we place first and
foremost men like the Apostle Paul, who, called and separated by the
Holy Ghost and then by the Church, went forth to preach the Gospel of
Jesus Christ to the Gentiles. Who has had more adventures or braved
more dangers than he ? Is there any scene in which a modern missionary
faces a heathen king which is more stirring than that of St. Paul before
Agrippa ? Is there any bold yet wise exposure of heathen error more ring-
ing than that given by the Apostle on the Hill of Mars ?
But all the missionary interest in this little land of Palestine is not
connected with the past. Since 1851 the C.M.S. has had a Mission there,
round which a great deal of loving, longing prayer has centred. This
Holy Land, where God was once the King, is now under Mohammedan
power, and, as elsewhere in the Eastern Mediterranean, this means great
hindrance to all missionary work. Then again, the Christians, who form a

Learning and Listening. 27

large part of the population in Palestine, are members of a Church which
has lost her light, and mixes up dark superstitions with' the worship of
God. The Mohammedans scarcely dare listen to the Gospel, and those
who. come to Mission schools or even to talk to the missionaries are
suspected and watched. The lady missionaries have seen the little Moslem
scholars rush to hide themselves in cupboards when they have seen a
Turkish spy come into the courtyard. But through all the difficulties
God's blessed work is going on. Moslems do come to learn and listen,
homes long shut to the lady missionaries are now opening their doors, and
many men and women in Palestine have learned to love and follow the
Lord Jesus Christ. Beautiful stories of encouragement come to us month
by month, and if only we who have the true light shine on bravely and
push forward into the darkness, many, many souls, both among the Moham-
medans and the Greek Christians in Palestine, will be won for Christ. The
C.M.S. has thirty European missionaries in Palestine, of whom sixteen are
ladies ;but other societies have missionaries there as well. A great deal
is being done by schools for the dear winsome children, over 1,700 of whom
come to C.M.S. schools; and Medical Missions are also most useful in
reaching the people. I want you often to pray for the work and the
workers in Palestine, asking God, for the Lord Jesus' sake, to make it a
Holy Land once more.
South of Palestine lies Arabia. Half of it is really in Three o'Clock
Land, but as we cannot make two bites of it, we shall just finish what
there is room to say about it here.
Arabia is .the very centre of Mohammedanism. A great part of it is
desert, but it is said to have a population of sixty millions. It is the only
large country in the world besides Thibet into which missionaries have
not yet penetrated. Mecca is the capital of Arabia, and the holy city of the
Mohammedans. Each Mohammedan who can do so makes a pilgrimage
to it, and wherever he is, he turns towards Mecca when he prays. The
Arabs are great merchants, and large caravans bring dates and coffee and
other merchandise to the coast. In our picture on page 28 you see an
Arab shop, and on page 29 a "coffee picture." In the southern part of
Arabia is the town of Aden, which belongs to England. It is used as a
coaling station for Indian ships, and is an important possession. It is

Please to Buy!

L I un

gr 111

i I

r P .I


(See p. 27.)

T' a:


-.. ~.

-, ^... '
,: :-' jr;'^ -''* '





terribly hot and rainless, neverthe-
sionary heroes chose Aden, or
for his home, as you
Ion Keith-
son of the Earl
He was tall
and buoyant,
just such a

less, one of our mis-
rather a village near it,
shall hear.
Falconer was a
S- of Kintore.
and manly

young mall as
boys love to make
into a hero. He was
a great scholar, and
became Professor of Arabic ,
at Cambridge; he was a
splendid "stenographer," or
shorthand writer, and could
take down every word a
rapid speaker said ; more-
over, he was a first-rate
bicyclist, and devoted to
his "iron horse." Best of all, he was
an earnest outspoken Christian, ever
ready to help in His Master's work.
His heart was touched with the needs of
Arabia. After much prayer and thought,
he decided to go there with his young wife.
I know of few things more touching than
the record of the brief missionary service of
this noble young servant of God. First, there COFFEE PLANT.
is the scene in Scotland, where the Assembly (Half natural size.)
of the Free Church bid the young missionary farewell; then comes the start
from Cambridge, directly after one of his able lectures had been delivered;
and the bright, almost boyish letters home, telling of talks with the Moham-
medans, and of droll little incidents with bargaining natives. Then begins
the record of persistent fever, contracted in the draughty shanty which

Heroes of Arabia.

was his only home while the proper Mission
House was being built; a few pages further
on in his Memoir, his own letters cease, to be
replaced by those of the watchers round his
bed, and at last we read the simple touching
story of his passing away in sleep to be with
SGod. His devotion of himself and all his
gifts to missionary work set an example
which many a lad, just fresh and glowing
with zeal to "do and dare," will long to
follow out. There is still a small Mission
Near Aden, carried on under the Free
Church of Scotland, in memory of Ion
Keith-Falconer's endeavour.
There is another missionary hero linked
with Arabia-Thomas Valpy French. He
was known in India as the seven-tongued
S man because he could preach in seven lan-
guages. After years of service under the
A WITCH-DOCGOR. (Seep. 3.) C.M.S., he was made first Bishop of Lahore
in 1877. Finally, resigning his bishopric, he went alone and unaided, at
sixty-six years of age, as a missionary to the Mohammedans at Muscat.
But in a few months his health gave way, and after a short illness he
followed Ion Keith-Falconer into the presence of his Lord. So the young
hero and the old one together call us to Arabia, challenging each soldier of
the Cross to storm the strongholds, and to claim the land for Christ.
Now for the African portion of Two o'Clock Land. Egypt comes
first. There is not very much to tell you about the Mission there. The
C.M.S. has been sending out more workers of late. The Medical Mission
work is specially interesting, and the work among the women. In Egypt,
too, the Mohammedan power holds the natives back from confessing
Christ. One man, a servant at the dispensary in Cairo, was believed to be
a Christian at heart, but he said to one of the missionaries, If I were
baptized to-day, I should be dead to-morrow! "
Next come with me to the Switzerland of Africa-the beautiful king-

The African Switzerland.

dom of Abyssinia, with its fertile valleys and snowy mountain peaks. It
is the only savage Christian state in the world. The people are brave and
athletic, clever and polite as a rule, yet liable to sudden outbursts of savage
cruelty. Into this African Switzerland the C.M.S. sent missionaries in
1830. At first things went well, but then difficulties arose, and the
Protestant missionaries and other foreigners were expelled. Presently
some of them cautiously returned, and then came a most thrilling time.
Suspicions were excited in the heart of King Theodore, who suddenly threw
the missionaries of the Jews' Society and other foreigners into prison, and
they were utterly at his mercy, in hourly danger of cruel death. A British
force was sent to rescue them, and to, reduce King Theodore to a better
state of mind. God marvellously restrained the vengeance of the cruel
king, and, when at last his body was seized-he having shot himself rather
than fall alive into English hands-every one of those whom he had held
in prison was rescued in safety.
Passing southward through Abyssinia, we come to the wonderful land
of East Africa, round which so much missionary interest is gathered. The
C.M.S. missionaries are at work on the coast, inland to the
Victoi-ia Nyanza, and beyond it, in Uganda. Then, on the
other great lakes, the Scottish missionaries and those of the
London Missionary Society are at work, and the Universi-
ties' Mission is busy there as well. I am sure you want to
know a great deal about this hero-land, far more than I can
tell you here. You must get other books, and read in them
about David Livingstone, and Bishop Hannington, and 'l. A
Alexander Mackay, and many others who lived and died
for God. Then, too, you will want to know what the
country and the people are like. Well, our pictures must
tell you that, while I talk about one East African hero
whose story you ought to know. On page 30 you see a
picture of a witch-doctor, who has terrible power over the
people in several districts ; on this page you see a native of
the Giriama country washing his hands; he has the water
in a hollow gourd, which he holds in his mouth by the E m&N
handle, and lets the precious water trickle over his hands..


Then here as you see, you have a picture of Mwanga, King of Uganda,
the man who caused Bishop Hannington to be murdered, and on the
opposite page you see some natives called Wanyamwezi ; please to admire
their head-dresses and ornaments! Thus our pictures help to tell you
what I must leave unsaid.
The name of our hero is John Ludwig Krapf.
In a little German village, quite early in this century, we sec a farmer's
son, busily engaged in learning French and Greek and Latin and Italian,

:~ -J~
,!,a-. a


.,I d'I
L~' ~i~Lia""~ ~,

S Strange Races.

and poring over a map of
Africa,' especially -the blanks
left for unexplored districts
south of the Red Sea.- Boy-
like, he wonders if there are
any hyenas there. Two years
later the lad hearsfor the first n, aocs
time of the heathen, and in-
stantly longs to become a missionary. But
in his own -heart he knows he is pot fit,
because he has not yet given himself to the
Lord Jesus. However, the desire grows, and
at last, when he is

the director of the
nary at Basle honestly
heart must first be re-
later there is no doubt.
heart" has been given
comes a missionary
We pass over
several years, and .
many incidents, until
we come to February, a .
1837(just four months
before Queen Victoria
ascended the throne), when John
Ludwig Krapf set out as a C.M.S.
missionary to Abyssinia. Journey-
ing in remote parts of the world
was very different then from now;
sailing ships bore the traveller to
Egypt, and a camel took him across
the Suez isthmus, where there now


fifteen years of age,
great missionary semi-
tells him that his own
newed. Two years
but that the new
him, and Krapf be-

ii i


A Voice from the Grave.

is, as you know, a canal. Then we find Krapf in an Arab vessel, which
takes twenty-two days to voyage from Suez half-way down the Red Sea.
We cannot follow him on into Abyssinia, back to Egypt, round again by
sea to the province of Shoa, then up to Egypt, then off again with his wife
in another attempt to get into Abyssinia, back to Aden when repulsed,
and at last down the African coast to Zanzibar.
Presently we find the "good man who wishes to convert the world to
God," as the Sultan of Zanzibar called him, settled on the Island of
Mombasa. Here a furnace of trial awaits him. Fever lays hold first of
him, then of his wife. As he lies close beside her, weak and prostrate him-
self, her spirit passes away to be with God, and he is hardly able to raise
himself to see whether she is really dead. A few days later, his motherless
infant dies of fever too. Does he now think of coming home, of giving up
the work? Nay He writes to the Committee :-
Tell our friends that there is on the East African coast a lonely grave of a member
of the Mission cause connected with your Society. This is a sign that you have com-
menced the struggle with this part of the world; and as the victories of the Church are
gained by stepping over the graves of many of her members, you may be the more
convinced that the hour is at hand when you are summoned to the conversion of Africa
from its eastern shore."
As he lies there, slowly recovering from his illness, we find him
planning, not retreat, but a great forward movement into Africa, until a
chain of stations" should reach from East to West. Presently a helper,
Rebmann, is sent to him, and the two noble men, both ill of fever, set off
to found a station on the mainland at Rabai. From this station they make
many remarkable journeys, some of them to places where no European has
ever been before; they send home tidings of a wonderful inland sea, and
Rebmann discovers the great snow-clad mountains in the heart of Africa.
Next, we must picture Krapf, who had come home for rest and con-
ference, laying his great plans for Africa before the Committee of the
C.M.S. Do they tell him it is impossible? Do they laugh at him as a
man who dreams ? No; for God has given the workers at home the same
faith as the workers in the Field. They discuss his projects, face every
difficulty, and finally, with words of counsel and confidence, send him back
with a little band of helpers to begin the chain. In 185 Krapf finds, on


his return to Rabai, that there has-been-progress in-the work. But soon
the fair prospect clouds over. One of the little band, only a few weeks
after their arrival, is carried off by fever. Three others of the party-
mechanics-lie ill of fever for two months, and Krapf patiently nurses them,
but at last he is free to set forward into the longed-for interior.
Only a few weeks later;-and who is this solitary man, hastening
through the depths of the African forest, footsore, hungry, lost ? He has
been feeding on ants and on tree-shoots, and has gladly shared the scanty
water in a pit which some.monkeys have dug in the sand. It is Krapf,
driven back by robbers, and compelled to settle down at Rabai once more.
But not one whit is he shaken in his conviction that the chain of Missions
will yet be completed when the Lord's own hour is come."
By-and-by-and we can scarcely wonder at it-Krapf's health can
stand the strain no longer, and he returns to England. He goes back to
his German home, not to rest, but to toil hard on behalf of Missions, and
ere his life closes he sees "the chain of Mission stations" well begun.
We have touched on many scenes in the life of Krapf, but none is
more beautiful than the last scene of all. He went to his bedroom one
night as well as usual; in the morning he was found still kneeling at his
bedside-dead. George Schmidt, Krapf, and Livingstone, were thus found
praying when God called them to the land of praise.
Come with me now to a lonely graveyard (seep. 37) in the heart of the
Dark Continent. It is that at Usambiro, where some of God's Mission
heroes are at rest. Simple wooden monuments surmount the stony cairn
raised to keep hyenas from the graves. In the distance the blue expanse
of the Victoria Nyanza is seen-that lake round which has centred the
thrilling story of Uganda, and the men who went there in the name of
Christ. The troubled questions which distract the land-are working slowly
to their answer; but here, in peaceful slumber, lie God's blessed dead, past
the strife and conflict, waiting in His presence for the resurrection day.
Heroes' graves they are, indeed :-Blackburn, Bishop Parker, Mackay, Hunt,
and Dunn. One a veteran missionary, who had done noble service in other
lands before he took the head of this vast African diocese; one-Mackay-
a man of noble character and striking mental power, who for fourteen long
years stuck to his post, toiling often face to face with death; the others,

The Wiorker and His Tools.

E MISSION ST ION T USA BIRO. (F a Sketch b Bishop ker.)
THE MISSION STATION AT USAMIBIRO. (Front a Sketch by Bishop Tucker.)

men cut down almost on the threshold of service, having given promise of
useful service in the field ; and all-truc heroes of the Cross.
You must not be discouraged because God so often calls away His
workers before they seem to have begun their work. Have you ever
watched a carver working on a piece of wood ? He takes up one tool,
uses it for a moment or two, and then lays it down. The work is not
finished-oh, no. But the special touch that tool could give has been
given, and another tool is better for the next bit of the work. Thus God, the
Great Master-Worker, does to-day with the men and-the women who give
themselves for His use. As long as He needs them He keeps them at
work ; then He lays them down. His great work has never really stopped
because a missionary died. Sooner or later the next tool was taken up,

Lengthening the Chain."

and the beautiful, patient carving carried on. Look at what has been
done in East Africa by the C.M.S. alone since Krapf began his work at
Rabai. There are now several district Missions, with forty-seven mission-
aries, nine of whom are ladies ; in the coast district the C.M.S. has stations
at Frere Town, Mombasa, Jilore, and Rabai; and further inland, near
the great white mountains discovered by Rebmann and Krapf, and at
Mamboia and Mpwapwa (there is a real African name, with real African
spelling!) and Kisokwe the Gospel is being preached. Then Nassa, not
far from the south end of the Victoria Nyanza, is certainly a link in the
"chain," and on the other side of the great Nyanza is Uganda, where
Bishop Tucker found a thousand worshippers gathered one Sunday in
church. Yes !-" God buries His workmen, but carries on His work."

GRAVEYARD AT USAMBIRO. (From a Sketch by Bishop Tucker.)



-- --. T HE world is such a large place, and there is
I- so very much to say about some parts of
o! it, that it is quite a good thing to find we can
manage two hours in one chapter to-day. You

/ "Russia, where there is little missionary work, and
the lower part, except the Island of Madagascar,
r is nearly all in the Indian Ocean, so we can
S manage to fit in Four o'Clock Land as well. That
I gives us Persia, Madagascar, and Mauritius to,
think about; Arabia, as you remember, we included in
Two o'Clock Land.
Persia is about three times the size of France ; great
part of the country is desert, but there are many wonder-
ful valleys among the high mountains, where rare and
S luscious fruits grow, and beautiful trees abound. The climate
varies greatly; in some parts summer and winter are equally
mild; but in the desert region the inhabitants are scorched in summer and
frozen in winter. Travelling is very difficult, as there is only twenty-six
miles of railway in the whole of Persia, and most of the journeying has to be
done by riding, often over dangerous mountain paths (see picture on p. 44).
The Persians, as a whole, are very poor, and the Government is most
oppressive. The houses of the people are wretched. You never find a
chimney; a hole is made in the roof, and a fire is lit under it in the centre
of the room. As there is no coal a kind of dried fuel is used, and this
makes a blinding smoke, The houses are built of mud, with flat mud roofs.

On the House-top.

A roller is often kept on the roof in order to roll it after rain. In hot
weather the roofs-round which there is very often no parapet-are turned
into bedrooms by the natives, who come up and sleep there. Indeed, the
missionaries themselves sometimes do this-not exactly in Persia, but in
Baghdad, which counts in as part of the same Mission. The heat at
Baghdad is so great that the roof is the best place to spend the night for
four months in the year. But sleep is almost impossible. The dogs bark
all over the city, the jackals howl by the river, the frogs croak so loudly
that it is scarcely credible that they are only frogs, the donkeys bray,
sometimes two or three together, the cocks in the city (and they can be
numbered by the thousand) suddenly begin to crow, cats come and fight on
the roof and even under the bed, and the mosquitoes and sand-flies are
almost maddening at times. The light of the moon is so scorching and
glaring that curtains have to be used as a protection, so that what with the
firing of guns by the watchmen, the quarrellings and the monotonous
prayers and chantings of neighbours, the howlings of babies, and the
tingling of bells on animals belonging to the passing caravans, you will
not be surprised," writes one of the missionaries, that after four months
on the roof, one is glad to get back to a quiet bedroom."
The Persians love gardens, and the wealthy, like the ladies in our picture
(p. 40), keep very beautiful ones. Orange trees, tulips, narcissus, and irises
are favourites. Though the people are so poor and ignorant, the. Shah, as
their king is called, lives in great magnificence. His palace is in Teheran,
which is quite an Eastern city, except that tramcars run along its streets !
The Persian soldiery, who are in rags elsewhere, are here resplendent in
gorgeous uniforms, and the royal footmen go about on horses whose tails
have been dyed magenta, like the tail of the Shah's horse when he was in
England some years ago. The Shah has a marvellous treasure house, for
instead of putting his money into a bank, as we should do in England, he
buys splendid jewels with it. He has numbers of glass cases over two feet
high, into which rubies, diamonds, sapphires, pearls, and other jewels are
poured, just as we would fill a jar with rice or tea. Amongst other
treasures he has a golden globe, on a solid gold stand: The equator is
made of large diamonds, the countries are outlined in rubies, except Persia,
which is done in diamonds, and the ocean is made of emeralds. I think

this would be a good
missionary globe, for
the world-wide jewels
would remind us of the
precious souls scattered
everywhere, whom the
Saviour longs to gather
to Himself.
Persia, and the dis-
trict of Mesopotamia,
were the early home of
God's people. Here
men first began to call
upon the name of the
Lord. Here we find
Bible links with Adam
-and Abraham ; here
was the scene of the
story of Esther and of
Daniel ; from hence
came probably the wise
men who visited the
Infant Christ, and some
of those mentioned as
in Jerusalem at the
Day of Pentecost must
have been from Persia.
There were Christians
long centuries ago in
PERS!AN LADIES IN INDOOR DRESS. (Seep. 39.) Persia, but they were
terribly persecuted by
the Parsecs, and thousands were martyred. Some time later, the Moham-
medans invaded Persia, and the Parsees, or fire-worshippers, were in their
turn driven out. There are only now about 8,ooo of them in Persia;
all the rest of the people, except the very poor and ignorant Christians, are

Feeding the Famishing.

now either Mohammedans or Jews, both alike being very slow to receive
the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
The first modern missionary to Persia was the great Henry Martyn,
who died when he was only thirty-one years of age, having done more in
his lifetime than most men twice his age. .He translated the New Testa-
ment and Psalms into Persian, and thus laid the foundation of all missionary
work. In 1869 Dr. Bruce of the C.M.S., on his way to India, went through
Persia, and finding the people ready to listen to him began to work among
them. Shortly after, the terrible famine came, and he and his wife flung
themselves into the work of saving the starving people, especially the
orphan children of those who had died. In 1875 the C.M.S. opened
a Mission in Persia, making their headquarters at Julfa, near Ispahan,
and ever since a small Mission has been carried on among this most


Three Ways. to Work.

interesting people. It is most difficult work; for though the Shah has
proclaimed religious liberty, the law punishing a Moslem who embraces
Christianity with death is still in the statute book, and converts are sorely
persecuted. An officer in the Persian army became a Christian, and was
condemned to be executed if he was ever again found in the country. His
house was burnt, and his widowed mother and younger brothers were
turned out to starve. Work is carried on in Persia in different ways. The
ladies of the Mission visit in the houses of the women and teach them
about the Lord Jesus, and schools have been opened where the Bible is
taught. But there are three ways here, as in all Mohammedan lands, by
which the people can best be reached. One is by long patient talks with
individual inquirers, meeting them day by day, and boldly proving to them
that their faith is false and ours is true. Another way is by the quiet
regular distribution of Christian books, and specially of the Bible, all over
the land. There are in Persia and the other Mohammedan lands of the
East many colporteurs, supported by the British and Foreign Bible Society,
who carry about Bibles in the language of the people for sale. This is not
always easy work. Sometimes the colporteurs are beaten and insulted,
and have their lives in danger, yet they bravely keep on.
The third great way of working in Mohammedan lands is by means of
Medical Missions. The Persians are liable to many sicknesses, and there
are scarcely any doctors. The poor people flock gladly to any one who
will bring ease to their suffering bodies, and then they listen to the message
which the Christian doctors bring. Many a poor Moslem, both in Baghdad
and in Julfa, has heard the blessed Gospel from a doctor's lips.
And now for Madagascar, the great island lying off the south-east
coast of Africa. It is larger than the British Islands, and has a population
of about five millions. There are many different tribes in the island, but
the people as a whole are known as Malagasy. I have a picture of the
chief town before me as I write. It is called Antananarivo-how many of
you can manage to pronounce that very long name ? This town stands on
a hill, and as you look at it you see all the houses of the ordinary people
clustered round the base of the hill, then come the houses of the Queen's
relatives and officers, and on the very top is the royal palace, about sixty
feet high, with a great gilt eagle on the summit, its wings outspread.

Island. Martyrs.

The C.M.S. once had a Mission in Madagascar, but it was given up.
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and other societies, are
now at work there, but the first to begin was the London Missionary
Society. Ten years after it began work a cruel queen named Ranava-
lona came to the throne. The Native Christians were at once oppressed
by her command, and though for a few years longer the missionaries
were allowed to remain among them, in 1837 they were sent away,
and all the Bibles and Christian books that could be found were seized.
Then the Christians were fined, and taken as slaves, and some were
put to death. The poor people tried to hide in caves, or to get out of
the country, but they were captured and killed. One day a party of
them trying to get to the sea in order to escape in a ship, were caught
by their enemies, taken back to the queen's city, and nine of them
were cruelly put to death. In 1849 a horrible massacre took place;
eighteen Christians were killed. Four of them were burnt to death ; the
other fourteen were, one by one, hung by a rope round their bodies over a
fearful precipice. As they hung there, they were asked once more if they
would give up the Lord Jesus? If they said "yes" they would have been
drawn up again to life and safety; if they said no" the rope was to be
cut, and they were to be dropped down over the terrible rock. What was
the answer, boys ? Did they choose life without the Lord Jesus, or death
rather than deny His name ? I think you know. Not one out of the
whole fourteen denied Him ; each chose rather to die for His sake. And so
they did. Even weak women gained the martyrs' crown in-those years of
bitter persecution. In 1861 the cruel queen died, and the missionaries were
allowed to go back to Madagascar. Did they find the Christians weak and
discouraged, almost lost to sight ? No, indeed Through all the persecu-
tion God's blessed Word had been in their hearts, their faith burned clearer
and brighter, and notwithstanding twenty-five years of cruel suffering,
without a single missionary to encourage them, the Malagasy Christians
had grown in number and in grace. There are to-day in Madagascar some
hundreds of churches and schools, and many thousands of Christians. God
give you and me grace to be as true and faithful as those island martyrs
who laid down their lives for Christ!
In the woods of Madagascar there are many strange and beautiful

44 A Secret Supply.

trees and plants. One of these is called the "Traveller's Tree." The people
thatch their houses with its leaves. / The stems of the leaves often form
the partitions and sides of houses, and the hard outside bark is used
for the floors. The leaves are /used as tablecloths, plates and
dishes. It is called the Travel I ler's Tree," because when a hot,
tired, and thirsty traveller comes up, if he knows the
secret, he pierces a hole in /the thick firm part of one of
the leaves, and out flows a stream of clear, sweet water.


P/ PERSIA. (Seep. 38.)

When the Native Christians\,- want to tell how precious the
Lord Jesus is to their souls, they T I/sometimes say-each one for
himself-" Jesus is the Traveller's Tree to me."
Our last peep in this chapter must be at Mauritius, a little island
about the size of Hertfordshire. It I belongs to England, and the C.M.S.
have had some Mission work there since 1854. There are great sugar
plantations on the island, principally worked by Indian coolies. Some of these

A Little Lighthouse.

men speak Tamil, a language used in
South India and Ceylon, others speak
Bengali, and there are also a good
many people from China, who, of
course,- speak Chinese. Mauritius is
like a little lighthouse in the sea. True,
there is plenty of darkness still, but
there are bright beams of light, too,
thank God. There are over 2,000
Christians attached to the C.M.S. Mis-
sions, and more than 1,6oo children in
the schools. Sometimes a coolie who
has become a Christian goes back to
his own land, and so a ray of light
is sent out to his distant home.
In Mauritius there is no perilous
journeying and no danger for those
who become Christians as in Persia,
nor has there ever been persecution
as in Madagascar. But a terrible
cyclone or hurricane visited the little
island in 1892, destroyed many of the
Mission buildings, and brought ruin-
to numbers of the inhabitants. Trees
were uprooted, sugar plantations de-
stroyed, and numbers of houses blown
down. Hundreds of poor people were
left homeless and helpless-many of
them wounded, some of them dead.
The cathedral in St. Louis was turned
into a hospital, and the missionaries
did what they could to help the suf-
ferers. In God's great mercy not one
of the C.M.S. workers in.the island
was hurt.

'I RAVELLER'S TREE. (See p. 44.)



T HERE are other countries in Five o'Clock
IV Land about which we might talk, but I
shall shut my eyes to them "on purpose" just
now. Oh, that I could gather you all up this
moment into a balloon, or hurry you off by tele-
graph, and then set you down in India-our own
great India-and let your busy eyes see all that I
want to talk of now!
SI wonder if you know at all how vast our India
So^ is ? It is thirty times the size of England and Wales,
and might be called a continent rather than a country,
so varied is it in climate, and race, and language. The inhabitants of the
north are about the colour of Spaniards or Italians; those of the south are
much darker, more the colour of Africans. About fifty different languages
are spoken. The three great religions of the country are Hinduism, Bud-
dhism, and Mohammedanism, but there are several smaller bodies of other
creeds, and, thank God! a growing number of Native Christians. Though
there are many large towns, the greater part of the population live in
villages, and the people on the whole are poor. As you see from the
"happy mother" in our picture, the grown-up people wear very little
clothing, and the babies none at all. In the north, towards Afghanistan,

where the great Himalayan =- -
mountains tower over the
plains, the men are fierce
and hardy; they crouch, in
time of war, with their
quaint old guns behind the
rocks on the hill-side, and

deal about Indian
life (perhaps some
of you have been
in India your- V1J/,
selves?) and have
heard of the zena-
nas, in which the -
women are shut
up, and the terrible child mar- __ -
riages, and the system of caste,"
which in some places is a great MOHAMMEDAN WARRIORS OF NORTH INDIA.
barrier to the Gospel, so instead
of telling you more about the manners and customs of the people I will
turn at once to missionary work.
If you could glance over my shoulder you would see a coloured map
of India, on which all the C.M.S. Missions are marked with a small red
cross. Here, up in the very north, in beautiful romantic Kashmir, we
find the most northerly-mark at Srinagar the capital; and then down in
the furthest south, where Cape Comorin reaches out towards Ceylon, we
see a C.M.S. station with such a long name (please don't ask me to pro-
nounce it !)-Suviseshapuram. Then far to the west, where the burning

plains of Sindh run
down to the ocean,
Karachee has the
wee red sign ; and GIRLS' SCHOOL IN INDIA.
here, in the very east of India, we find Calcutta surrounded by a little group
of stations. You see the C.M.S. has gone all over India, but oh, how far

Mines and Miners.

apart the stations are Even if our map showed you all the stations of all
the other Missions in India, you would see spaces-great empty spaces-
between which there is still no one to tell the people that the Saviour who
died for them lives now, and loves them, and is coming back again.
I might tell you the history of Missions in India, or write the lives of
some of the heroes who lived-and died-there. But instead, I want you
to come and see the different kind of mines out of which God's Indian
jewels are dug up. The missionaries are the miners, and the different
kinds of Mission work are like the mines.
First, there are the Indian colleges and schools. I don't put them
first only because I am writing for boys and girls, but because I truly do
think they come first in real missionary importance. Unless the young
people in India are taught about the Lord Jesus and His salvation there is
little hope of winning India for Christ. And when God gave India to
England that was what He meant us
to do. The C.M.S. has nine or
ten establishments in India,
where young natives can
get a very high-class
education. The mis-
sionaries in charge
are all men who
worked hard in
school and at a
university after-
wards, and now
they use their
learning for
their Lord.
How patiently
and lovingly
they prepare their
Indian pupils for
difficult "exams."
and all the while teach

N^B~sy--'^ ^4 SS^'

Boys and Girls in School.

...... .... them the Bible, and seek to show
: them their need of Christ. Then,
of course, there are legions of other
. '' schools, some for advanced pupils,
: some. for beginners; but in all of
them, first and foremost, God's Holy
.' Word is taught. The boys are just

.L 0" 'i things about them would strike you
l -* I, ~ as strange. They stay a good many
years at school, and as all boys are
married when about sixteen, most of
those in the upper classes have wives.
It sounds rather odd to hear a school-
boy excuse himself for being late
"- for lessons because his son was ill!
S Sometimes an Indian schoolboy has
great influence at home. One little
S-Tamil lad, eight years old, loved the
service in the church so much that
S-when the bell rang he used to leave
his rice and run off at once. He
persuaded his parents to leave off work on Sunday and come with him
to church ; and as they were leading people, others followed their example.
See what one boy's influence can do! Some of the boys from Indian
schools have grown up to be splendid missionaries themselves, and have
come home to England to ask us to do more and more to teach the people
in India about the true God.
The work of teaching the girls and women is very important too.
There are two missionary societies formed for the purpose of sending out
ladies to India, and they work beside the C.M.S. missionaries and their
wives. These ladies go into the dark, desolate zenanas, to the Indian ladies
who are shut up there, and many of God's brightest jewels have been
brought from these mines. And the girls' schools, like those you see in
our pictures on pages 48 and 49-what an endless talk we might have

A Doctor's Difficulties. 51

about them They are so charming to teach, these little Indian lassies, yet
they often have such sad, sad lives.
Medical Missions are also a splendid mine for God's Indian jewels.
But there are so few miners, that is the worst of it. Only eight doctors
belonging to the C.M.S. are attached to our Indian Missions. We do
hope some more will soon go out. A medical missionary generally has a
Mission hospital, where the sick people can be taken in, but he also goes
with his medicines and his Native helpers into the villages round about.
Sometimes it is very touching to see the delight of the parents if a suffering
child is helped. Our picture on page 50 shows a dear little girl named
Mehri, a patient from the Kashmir hospital; it is the first time she has
been able to stand since her illness, and her father is holding her to be
photographed. On this page you see a group of people gathering round a
doctor, eagerly hoping for cure. If you knew how ignorant the natives are
about illness.you would not wonder that a skilful doctor is welcomed. A
missionary had a poor sick Native woman brought to her one day. Her
husband did not know what ailed her, but he had branded her with a hot iron
on her head and down her spine by way of effecting a cure. Even when
they do get to a proper doctor, it is almost impossible to get instructions
carried out. One poor woman kept on crying when any question was put
to her, Do not ask me; I know nothing; I am just a cow."
Over and over again the doctor has to say that the ointment and
plasters are not to ___ ..... ,*. -. --.
be eaten; and if a '
stethoscope is pro-
duced (you know
that brown harm- /,
less tube which -
the doctor holds
to your chest that (",
he may listen to
your breathing ?) -
the patient runs
away crying, "Oh, ....
I am killed A N

Many precious Yewels.

Both 'men and women are needed as medical missionaries in India.
Thousands and thousands of the women shut up in zenanas can have no
medical help at all unless lady doctors go to them. Of course the medical
missionaries, by caring for people's bodies, get openings to speak to them
about their souls.
There are many other ways in which this "Missionary Mining" in
India is carried on. There are missionaries who live in the hot dusty
towns, preaching day after day in the streets and Mission rooms, or in the
crowded Native bazaars, and talking to any one who will listen to their
message. These "miners" have brought up many costly gems for Jesus
Christ. Other missionaries travel to and fro through the villages, gathering
the simple country people round them to hear, and some, who are more
like jewellers than miners, have busy work amongst the Native Christians,
teaching them, and helping them to shine as bright jewels for the Saviour's
Now you know if a great deal of gold or a great many jewels were
found in a real mine, hundreds of men would rush off at once to make
their fortune, and give up everything to get a share in the spoil. But here
is India-great needy India-set from north to south with jewels rich and
rare, yet men and women are going slowly-oh, so slowly !-to gather
these jewels for the Lord. Boys and girls, perhaps God wants you one
day to help to gather in His jewels in Five o'Clock Land.
Stay; ere we leave we must just give one loving,- longing glance at
beautiful Ceylon, with great Adam's Peak rising into the clear blue sky.
Since 1817 the C.M.S. has been "mining" there, and many precious
jewels have been won amongst the Tamils and the Singhalese. There are
over twenty C.M.S. missionaries belonging to the Mission, several of them
being ladies. Do they love the people among whom they work ? I think
so! Not long since a little Native boy fell into a deep well, and without a
moment's delay a young missionary jumped in after him at the risk of his
life, held the lad up until help came, and while still in the water he preached
the Gospel to the astonished natives who were peering down the well. But
many books have been written to tell you stories of Ceylon, so I will only
advise you to read them whenever you can, and to pray that the Native
Christians on the island may be kept true to God.



T HE first stopping-place on our
Journey to-day is Mongolia.
A large place to stop in, you will
say, for it contains over 1,250,000
square miles, and over Io,oco,ooo
people. However, we shall not
S stay there long, for you will be
glad to leave its snowy north, which
borders on dreary Siberia, and push
rapidly across its great, central
sandy desert of Gobi, hastening on
to a balmier southern clime. If
you lived in Mongolia, you would
find your neighbours strange
people indeed. You have read
about them more often than
you think; in Roman history
they are called the Huns, and




m 4


~CQ~ZL~ '




Among the Tartars.

in Grecian history the Scythians. Perhaps you would rather
not be very close friends with them, for from times immemorial
people have been brought up to think it very unpleasant to
"catch a Tartar"!
The Mongols, or Tartars, are spread almost all over Central
Asia, and are a very ancient people. They keep to such strange
and ancient customs that you scarcely know whether to laugh or
to be sorry when you read of them. One thing is specially marked
about them, and that is, they do not want any Europeans to enter
their land, they like to keep quite to themselves and resent all
intrusions. But of course we Europeans couldn't leave this race of
short, tawny men, with their flat faces, their straight eyes, their
large flabby ears and long, lank hair, quite alone. The mission-
aries must get at them somehow. Accordingly, ever since the year
1764 the Moravians have been trying to do this.- Perhaps before
A PRAYING going further I had better tell you that in the whole of Six o'Clock
WHEEL. Land the C.M.S. has no Mission station Never mind, other
societies have, and you and I agreed long ago to learn what we could
about all who had gone into the world with the Gospel news.
Well, these brave missionaries tried to enter Mongolia first from the
western or Russian side, and the Empress Catherine II. of Russia gave
them leave to do so. They succeeded in making friends with some of the
Kalmuc Tartar tribes, and used to wander about with them. You must
remember that in Central Asia camels have always two humps, and in this
respect are unlike their African and Arabian first cousins, who have only
one. Granted that people must ride on camels, it is to my mind safer to
ride between two humps than on the top of one. But perhaps I don't
know much about it.
For years and years missionaries tried to win the Mongols to Jesus
Christ, but, alas! with little effect. This was, no doubt, partly because the
Mongols had such a strange religion of their own. It was an easy religion,
too, for it depended altogether on what they were able to do in order to
secure happiness in the life to come. Each man was concerned with the
happiness of his own soul, and by sundry good deeds and divers religious
performances tried to add to what he called his own stock of "merit."

Prayer Machines,

Indeed, this idea about "merit" was a great hindrance fo the missionaries,
for when they stood by the wayside "and read aloud out of their Bibles and
preached, the Tartars only thought these strange Europeans were adding
to their own private stock of "merit" by preaching aloud, and it never
occurred to them that they wanted Tartars to listen Afterwards the
missionaries found out that the best way to get at the people was to climb
up by the notched tree-trunk to the flat roofs in the villages, where the
people were sitting in the sun, and then they listened, and their neighbours
flocked from the other roofs also to hear.
It is no wonder that the Mongolians do not understand having their
souls cared for by strangers, for half the men in Mongolia are priests But,
sad to say, in almost all cases the red vestments which they wear are about
the most impressive part of them. These lamas, as they are called, are
supported by the people, to whom generosity is second.nature, and they
live lazy and miserable lives. In the picture on page 56 you see one of
these Buddhist priests, and at the beginning of our chapter you see some
of them dressed up. for a great religious festival, and blowing trumpets
made from human thigh-bones. What would happen if our missionaries
were like the lamas ?
The poor Mongols believe in prayer, but -
such a different prayer from ours. Do you%
think you could find in the Gospels our Lord'cl
mention of vain repetitions ? If so, it i,uld
exactly describe Mongolian prayers. On all ,
occasions, in every available interval, they keep ,
repeating words which mean, "Oh, I V,
the precious lotus, amen." These
words convey to them a mystic .
meaning; so sacred are they that
they are written on garments and
written round houses. But they .'It -
cannot repeat them often enough -
with their lips, so they have prayer -
machines, which are sometimes so
large that they are turned by two

__ ,----- men. Thousands of
-_- slipss of paper with
-.- these sacred words
written on them are
put into the ma-
chines (see pages 54
i'7 and 55), then when these are
being turned and turned through
S I the whole day, the Mongol be-
lieves that it counts as if he had
said thousands of prayers.
You must not think that
everybody in Mongolia lives in
tents and rides about on camels;
s there are villages and towns as well. If
you were ever to live amongst the people,
as brave Mr. James Gilmour, the best-
known of Mongolian missionaries, did, you
would see gleaming across the sandy
plains gorgeous temple domes, brilliant
with colour, ornamenting large towns.
But we have stayed long enough in Mon-
golia, fascinating as it is. Before we do
leave it, however, please remember one
Sthing-I suppose it applies chiefly to
'- the boys !-the Mongolians are very
=- kind to insects, and never destroy
them if they can help it. In a country
----_- as dirty as Mongolia, this must be very
-- trying sometimes. Nevertheless, it is
worth remembering. Butterfly, and
beetle, and moth collectors, please do
-- your best not to destroy more speci-
mens than are needed to fill up the
blanks in your case !
------- ---

Travelling in Thibet.

Crossing the great Khinghan Mountains we journey down to Thibet.
You "see in our picture a party of Thibetans journeying down a great
snow-slope, with their flocks of goats, and their useful beasts of burden,
the yaks. On page 58, too, you see some travellers on horseback. If
Mongolia is secluded, still more so is Thibet, for not one missionary is
allowed to enter, and only one Englishman has ever reached the capital,
L'hassa. Here the Grand Lama lives-the Mongolian Pope-in his gilded
palace, which is said to contain 10,000 rooms. The religion is almost the
same as in Mongolia, so are the people's habits, and their hearts are equally


dark, and absolutely

of the Gospel. So fierce
has the opposition to
me t t missionaries been, that
Attempts to enter Thibet
Itself have for the pre-
.. sent been given up,
Ah! but in Lesser Thi-
bet-and our hearts
always warm when we
Think of that-there are
brave men (and women
too !) perched up on the
Himalayan Mountains,
ready to swoop down
from their heights like
eagles the moment Thi-
bet is open to them.
Several missionaries
have laid down their
-lives in the high places
of the Field. Those
who have replaced them
carry on the noble work, and send across the borders of Thibet by the
merchants the precious Bible, which those who went before them translated
into the Thibetan tongue.
But still we are bound southward for Burmah. White elephants! "
you will say at once. Yes, exactly; among the many black elephants, like
our friend on the opposite page, there are some white ones here, only they
are not white, but a sort of brownish yellow, not even as white as a white
(?) pig. Still, this is their home. But it is not the elephants, nor the water-
buffaloes, nor the cobras, nor the wonderful trees and great rivers now that
concern us. We think of the first great missionaries who went to Burmah
in i8o8; of the others who followed them in later years; of brave Mr. and

A Tale of an Eclipe.

Mrs. Judson; and of the bitter persecution under cruel King Theebaw,
when Mr. Judson was put in prison and heavily loaded with irons. Once
he and ioo other prisoners were crowded into a windowless room, with the
temperature outside at o160.
Under the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel most successful
Missions were started and are flourishing to-day. Schools were founded,
and at Mandalay nine of the king's sons-came daily to school, attended by
forty followers, who carried the books and slippers, and held two golden
umbrellas over each prince's head !
Now we must slip down into Siam; at this rate of speed, a regular
glissade, we shall soon come to the end of Six o'Clock Land Siam ;-
instead of "White Elephants" you will say, "Siamese Twins" at once.
Quite right again, the well-known Siamese Twins" have something to do
with our story. At least'they were taken to America on board the trading
vessel that took an appeal from two missionaries in Siam for more helpers.
These helpers came from America and established a Mission at the
capital, Bangkok. Missions in Siam have developed rapidly. Not without
persecution, however, especially in the northern parts. The first man who
was converted to God among the Laos tribes, a fine race occupying the
north of Siam, was named Man Inta', and he was converted because the
missionaries foretold an eclipse of the moon which took place on August
I8th, 1868. I wonder whether your father remembers that eclipse ? Man
Inta' thought if any one could foretell that they must know the true God.
This was the loving way in which God led this poor dark soul to
Himself. Now a few giant strides down the Malay
Peninsula to Singa- pore, a bound across the straits, and we find
ourselves in the Island of Sumatra. Here again we find God's
servants at work, teaching the Battas
about Christ; but we dare not stay
longer ; we must just turn round so,
and look up the long strip of Six
o'Clock Land, and ask God to send
out more and still braver hearts to
care for all these lands.



J AM glad that
China comes to
-be Seven o'Clock
Land. Seven o'clock
is tea-time with a
great many of our
elder readers, and you
can think of China
When you are drink-
w ing tea. And seven
o'clock is bed-time
with many of our
younger readers, and
S I do want you always to re-
member China when you say
S. your prayers just before going to bed.
I expect you have learned by
this time that we really can't keep
very close to our "line on the frontis-
piece map, but must talk about the countries it goes through
instead of only the places it exactly touches. The "Eight o'Clock
line is just on the coast of China, but all the same I am going to call the
whole of China Seven o'Clock Land.
Don't you want to see China, with its great rivers and rice-fields; its
crowded cities, with the long, quaint sign-boards hanging in the narrow

streets, and its great country
plains, where the stupid, busy
people toil and toil and toil,
and gaze with wonder and
dismay at any foreigner who
comes among them? And
don't you want to see the
Chinese ? The men, with
their yellow faces and small
eyes, and great long plaits of
hair; the women, with their
poor crippled feet, scarcely
able to totter along; the little
busy boys, trotting about in
their funny wadded clothing,
learning long lessons out loud,
and hoping to be very wise
by-and-by; and the poor
little unloved neglected girl
babies, sometimes thrown out
of doors to die, and often
despised and ill-treated be-
cause they are "only girls."
Yes; I am sure you would
like to see them all. Perhaps
you may, if you are a mis-
sionary in years to come.
Though this .chapter is
not a sermon, it must have a
" text," and a text with three
heads." It is not a Bible text,
but just a sentence out of a
missionary's letter. And the
text has got a story, which
you shall hear.

What you would see.
Li \ .


" Great, dark, hungry China."

In 1890, a C.M.S. missionary, the Rev.-T. H. Harvey, wrote to a
friend in England a plea for more work and more workers among the
Chinese. In that letter he spoke of "great, dark, hungry China." -Before
that letter was printed in England a telegram came to say that Mr. Harvey,
who had only just been married, had fallen suddenly ill and had died. So
his appeal for China came to us as a voice from the grave. The words in
it which I have taken for "a text went right home to the heart of a' lady
who read the letter, and she longed to do something for "great, dark,
hungry China." So she prayed about it, and then she wrote an article for
our C.M.S. Magazine Awake! taking those very words for her text.
Amongst the readers of Awake! was a Christian bricklayer, whose heart
had not before been stirred about the needs of the heathen world. But the
little sermon on the dead missionary's text touched him, and he resolved
to do what he could. So one day he walked into the Church Missionary
House, and rolled out on a table in one of the rooms forty golden sovereigns.
It was a sum of money that had just been repaid to him, and he felt he
must give it all to send the Gospel message to the Chinese. He was a poor
man, earning small weekly wages, yet he gladly gave what was a great
sum in his eyes-and in God's eyes too. The story of our bricklayer
friend has been used by the Spirit of God to stir many others to deeds of
sacrifice, and thus the words written by Mr. Harvey have rolled on like a
stream of blessing, and I believe they will be used again to be a blessing to
the boys and girls who read this book. Perhaps few of us can give forty
pounds, but we could easily gather forty pennies!
China is "great." The. empire is larger than the whole of Europe, a
rope stretched round its outer rim would have to be 12,ooo miles long.
There are so many people in China that every
fourth baby born into the world is Chinese. With
every breath we draw a Chinaman dies. A million
a month are dying who have never heard of God.
--- How can I help you to understand
/ ,j--- the enormous number of the Chinese ?
It would take you some time to count
P/ F~.- lo all the chapters in your Bible, and
c\ very very long to count all the words,

and as to counting the letters- ,Y
I think you would never get it
done. Yet you would have to
count all the letters in one hun- :
dred Bibles before you would
reach the number of the heather
Chinese. As to the Native Pro-
testant Christians in China, you
need only count once the letters
in the Epistle to the Romans to
get at the total number of them.
Is it not an awful difference?
So many heathen, so few Native
Christians to shine like Chinese
lanterns in the darkness of the
land. Should we not do all we
can to get more Chinese hearts
lit up with heavenly light, that
they may shine on all around ?
China is "great," too, in
:many other ways. It is not a
new kingdom like. England, but
very very old. When our an-
cestors were savages wearing
skin clothing the Chinese wore
flowing robes, and were just as
civilised as they are at present-;
weave-silk, and had -a great deal (Seep. 64.)
-of strange learning among them. But .they have made one very serious
mistake for hundreds of years. They think they know enough and are
much wiser than any other nation, and object to change their own ways
for those which are better. Are there no boys or girls who are like the
Chinese in this?
I must tell you about one thing in China which is really great. The

A Good Son.


boys-and the girls too-are taught to reverence their parents very much.
Here is a quaint Chinese story, with a quaint Chinese picture on page 63,
which illustrates it. It will show you what Chinese sons feel if their fathers
are in trouble of any kind. It is called The Perfectly Dutiful Boy :-
"About thirteen hundred years ago an officer was unjustly accused of
treason by a brother officer, and was condemned to death. His son, who
was only fifteen years of age, went in boldly and beat the drum to claim
an audience, entreating to be allowed to die for his father.

A Chinese Mob. 65

"The emperor thereupon set the man free, and then, expressed his
intention of giving the boy the title Perfectly Dutiful.'
The boy exclaimed, 'It is right and just for a son to die when his
father is disgraced ; but what disgrace can be compared with the idea af
gaining honour at a father's expense ? I respectfully decline your majesty's
proposed distinction.'"
China is dark." I do not mean that the country itself is dark and
dreary ; in many parts, especially far inland, it is very beautiful, and you
know that China is called "The Glorious Land," but the poor
Chinese are very dark indeed. They have many strange super-
stitions which cause the missionaries a great deal of trouble.
They hate foreign- ers, and often break out into terrible
riots against them. One friend of mine had her wrist terribly
cut many years / ago by a cruel Chinese mob who
attacked her, i and you know that quite lately our
dear mission- / aries have been in great danger in
China again and again. On page 64 you see a
picture that was given away by the thousand lately
in China. It had terrible words attached to it, which
I should not like you to see, and it was meant to
encourage \ Chinamen to persecute the Christians,
and to burn their bodies. The people be-
lieve that Christians want
to cut out children's eyes
and hearts, so the
Lapoor little


,mites shake with terror when
S\,\ ,they see a missionary coming,
until they get
-.., -7 r j to know what
T \ the missionaries
S -' I' are like. The
... women are very

S difficult to
teach. You
have to go
over the same
1/\ thing with
Them again
and again, and
then very often

derstand 'in the
S' end. A lady
-- missionary be-
gan to teach the Ten
Commandments to a class
C/ of Chinese women. First
S /she explained how God had given
OPIUM SMOKERS. this holy law, and then said she would
teach them the first Commandment.
"I know it," said a Chinese woman, "you taught us that before."
No, indeed," said the missionary, "it is quite a new lesson to-day."
But the woman persisted. You told us yourself," she said, "and I
have told several people since."
Well," said the puzzled missionary, what is the first Commandment,
if you know it so well ? "
You shall not eat fruit," said the woman promptly.
Then the missionary remembered that with great care she had taught
this woman the story of Adam and. Eve in the Garden of Eden, and their

Opium Smoking.

eating the fruit of the forbidden tree, and the poor dull woman had mis-
understood her, and had actually told several people that the Christians'
God forbids them to eat fruit.
You know, perhaps, that until about fifty years ago, China kept her
doors tight shut against any outside influence. She would not even trade
with any foreign power. But now her ports are open to ships of all
nations, and missionaries are pressing on into great cities where no one has
yet gone with Gospel light. Owing to her resolute dislike to all that is
new and foreign, China has practically no railways, and all journeying has
to be done either in boats on the great rivers and canals, or else in chairs
carried by Chinamen along the roads.
There is another thing which helps to make China "dark," and that is
the terrible habit of opium smoking. This drug, which is made from the
seed-vessels of the poppy, has terrible power over the body and mind of
those who smoke it, and many many thousands of Chinamen are confirmed
opium smokers to-day. In our picture on page 66 you see how miserable
they look. The drug gets such hold of them that they cannot give
it up; a man will spend all his money and sell all he has, even his wife
and children, in order to get opium to satisfy the awful craving which lays
hold of him. I am afraid
England had a great deal
to do with getting opium
into China years ago, and
even still opium is made
under the authority of the
British Government in
India, and sent in great
quantities to China every
year. We ought to be very
sorry for this, and to ask
God to show us what we
can do to wipe out this
dark stain in China.
Now we have seen that
China is great and that


Very Hunry.

China is dark; the third "head" of our "text" says that China is "hungry."
I do not mean bodily hunger, of course, though China knows a good deal
about that as well. The people are so numerous that there is scarcely food
enough for them all, and when there is a bad harvest, even in one district,
it means famine and death. The people are, as a rule, very very poor, only
just able to get enough rice to keep them alive.
Talking of being hungry in China, I must tell you a story of a dear
missionary who was once very hungry there. She was not a C.M.S.
missionary, but was working in a province where another society is at work.
She and some fellow-missionaries were very far inland, living at a station
where supplies were very hard to get. The tinned things they had brought
up with them were nearly exhausted, and though it is possible with great
care to live on native food for a time when you are well and strong, it is
very difficult to do it when you are ill and weak. These missionaries sent
a Chinaman off to get them some fresh supplies, but he had a long way to
go, and he did not think there was any hurry, and on his way back, the
weather being favourable, he stopped to gather in the harvest.
Meantime, the missionaries had fallen ill, the last tin of condensed milk
was used up, all the little comforts so needed in illness were gone, and only
the native food remained. At last the young missionary who had been
nursing the others fell ill also, and had to stay in her own tiny house in the
courtyard, with no one but Chinese women to care for her day by day.
Her house was a two-storied native one. The upper room, reached by a
sort of ladder, was nice enough to sleep in at night, but by day the sun
beat so upon it that it was like a furnace. The lower room had no
windows at all, only a doorway, so it was dismal and dark, but there day
by day the young missionary, little more than a girl in years, used to lie
back weak and helpless in her canvas chair. Long before this, the needed
supplies were due, for those in charge of the Mission had sent them at once.
But they had not come, and it was, oh so difficult to eat the native food.
One day, as the missionary lay in the darkness, she fell asleep and
dreamed. She thought that she saw in the doorway her own dear sister,
dressed in white. As her sister slowly came towards her, the sick girl saw
in her hands a little tray, holding a cup of tea with real milk in it, and a
tiny plate of English bread and butter. Eagerly she sat up and held out

Bowing to IWood and Slone.


English Bread and Butter.

her hands for the tray; the movement woke her and she found it was a
dream. I have heard her say she was so ashamed because she just burst
into tears-" to think of a missionary crying for bread and butter she
said-but I do not think there was anything to be ashamed of in the least.
It nearly made me cry to hear the story of her dream. You will like to
know that all the missionaries got well again, thank God, and that, not long
afterwards, the faithless messenger brought the much-needed supplies.
But the "hunger" I meant to talk about was the hunger of Chinese
souls who do not know God. I have told you already how many of these
there are. The worst of it is this, the Chinese do not know that they are
hungry, they mind earthly things and are busy about their own concerns.
The people are not satisfied. They have several religions, great temples
(some ,of them like that in our picture on page 69), and many gods,
but none of these things bring them peace. They are sinners, and they
all need forgiveness; they are dying, and they need to know what is
beyond the grave. Thousands and thousands of them have-never heard of
Jesus or His love. We cannot bear to let a beggar hunger when we could
spare him a piece of bread. Oh, how can we then bear to think of all the
hungry souls in China dying for want of the Bread of Life ?
The C.M.S. has work in five out of the eighteen provinces of China.
Hong-kong, an island in Kwang-tung province, is a C.M.S. station, and-a
well-known British port, and there is also a C.M.S. Medical Mission at
Pakhoi, with most interesting work among the poor Chinese lepers. Then
in the adjoining province of Fuh-kien there is a large C.M.S. Mission, with
a beautiful story which I hope to tell you one day; and further north, in
Mid-China, the Society has stations in Cheh-kiang province, and also at
Shanghai, which is in Kiang-su. Then far up the great Yangtse river
C.M.S. missionaries are working in Sz-chuen, which borders on Thibet.
But other servants' of God have work in China as well as the
missionaries of the C.M.S. Up in the north the Society for the. Pro-
pagation of the Gospel is at work; in many parts American missionaries
are telling the same glad story; several English Nonconformist societies
are also represented, and everywhere through open doors the China Inland
Missionaries are hastening on. God bless them one and all, and send
many boys and girls who read this book to join the busy band.-



ROM China we naturally want to hasten on to Japan! But you must
be patient for a moment and just glance at some of the countries
in Eight o'Clock Land, though it can only .be a passing glance..
First of all, there is the mountainous peninsula of Korea, jutting
southward into the sea. Since 1882, when a treaty with America was
signed, Korea has been more or less open to the influence of Protestant
missionaries. Medical Mission work is very popular, and a great deal of
Bible translation has been done. The people are nationally religious, and
in many ways most interesting. They have a very low opinion of women,
in fact the women have
no proper names of
their own. All but their
nearest relatives call
them The -daughter
(or the sister) of Mr.
So-and-so." After mar-
riage the woman is
called by the name of
the place she came
from, and when she has
a son she is known as
"the mother of So-and-
so." The nobles and A MERCHANT IN A JINRICKSHA.

Hunting human Heads.

high officials in Korea wear long robes of white, or sky-blue, or pink silk,
and broad-brimmed round hats, something like a Welshwoman's, which
are tied on under their chins. Pigs and dogs abound ; the latter afford
butcher's meat, and are considered most delicate in flavour. Korea is
called The Land of the Morning Calm," and a new English Mission was
started there some years ago, by Bishop Corfe of the S.P.G.
Then, still in Eight o'Clock Land, we come to the Island of Borneo,
part of which is under British protection. In 1846 an Englishman, who
had become a friend of the Sultan of Borneo, applied to England for help
to establish a Mission. This young officer, always known as Rajah Brooke,
finding he had a good influence in Borneo, stayed there, and was allowed
to have much power in the government of the country. His request was
granted; the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel undertook the
work, and Dr. MacDougall was sent out, and became Bishop of Sarawak,
the northern province of Borneo.
The Dyaks, as the natives are called, are naturally very fierce indeed.
Head hunting
was a favourite
pursuit among
them, and no
youth could
attain the rank
of manhood
without pos-
sessing a cer-
tain number of
human heads.
There was a
great deal of
trouble in Bor-
ineo in 1857
between the
Dyaks and the
-Chinese who
GOOD NIGHT !-JAPANESE IN BED. had settled in

Pillows not of Feathers.

the island, but the __ ~_____ ...._ -
Mission House was
not touched, be- -__- ,
cause the Bishop -
and his wife were
so beloved. When
matters were quiet
again, they were MOUNT FUSIYAMA, FROM A JAPANESE DRAWING. (Seep. 74.)
both invited to a
native festival. The table was well furnished with -food, and just as .Mrs.
MacDougall was eating some rice she saw to her horror amongst the other
provisions three human heads in a dish She dare not say anything, nor
would the Dyaks in the least have understood why she should object.
Mission stations have been opened in various places, and though there
are not many Dyak Christians yet, the whole tone of the natives has been
raised 1~y the teaching of God's Word and the example of the missionaries.
We might talk a little about Java, where. Dutch missionaries are at
work, and about other islands in the East Indies, but all this time we are
supposed to be in Nine o'Clock Land, so we must not delay.
When the sun is brightly shining here, straight over our heads, it is
getting dark in Japan. I expect if we were there at that hour we should
find the Japanese hurrying home from the theatres, where they are
so fond of going, to their own wooden houses, and putting their heads down
on their hard little wooden pillows and getting to'sleep. In passing, do
remember you should never say to any one, Chinese or Japanese, that their
pillows seem strange A Chinese lady, who could not speak English, once
showed me her pillow, and I quickly said, Hzow uncomfortable it must
be! "-never thinking she would catch my meaning-but she did, and to
my confusion gave a pitying smile. I felt very ignorant and crushed! If
the Japanese and their neighbours prefer sleeping on such wooden wedges
as you see in our picture, all right; but you and I will keep to feathers.
The islands of Japan lie off the eastern coast of Asia very much as the
British Isles lie -off the western coast of Europe, and indeed in more ways
than one Japan promises to be in the Asiatic world what England has been
in the European. Though this is so, as we go along we shall find how


-------=T ~-~It~



V "-

r *. many contrasts

X "Japanese and Eng-
lish life and ways.
The country
itself is very hilly,
and has several
s volcanoes. Some
of these are very
erratic in their
Th habits, for in 1874
q bt tone of them, which
Sfor ages had been
k e let r/uine quite quiet, and
14..It had had its crater
-- quite covered over,
S--suddenly burst off
its rocky top and
scattered showers
TAKING HOME A BLOSSOM BRANCH. of ashes and stones
of ashes and stones
for miles around. It would be very uncomfortable living in Scotland or
Wales if Ben Nevis or Snowdon did this sort of thing! The prince of
Japanese mountains is a volcano called Mount Fuji or Fusiyama; it is a
great deal higher than all the other mountains, and its .summit is almost
always covered with snow. The Japanese admire this mountain greatly,
apd put paintings of it (the Japanese are great artists, see pictures on
pages 73, 75, and 76) on their fans, their tea-cups and their rice-bowls.
The worst of living near these volcanoes is that there are so many earth-
quakes, but the Japanese take them very cheerfully, and build their houses
of wood so that they fall down very easily and are more quickly re-built
than if they were of stone. Some of you may have read about the terrible
earthquake in 1891, when whole towns were ruined, and hundreds of people
wounded and killed.
If you care to hear our English birdies sing you would be disappointed
in Japan, for all travellers tell us that the birds there sing scarcely at all,

Lily Roots for Dinner. 75

.though they can boast bright feathers. But if you-like flowers Japan is
the country to see them. Plum blossoms, peach blossoms, peonies, chry-
santhemums, and lots of other flowers growing in profusion have given the
Japanese such a love for them that they have a sort of flower picnic often.
As the different flowers come into bloom a whole neighbourhood will turn
out and go to the place where the best blooms are to be seen. I am afraid
that in England flowers are not the part of the picnic we like best! I dare
say you sometimes like to dress the flower vases at home, and you like to
mix green leaves with the flowers, but that is not according to Japanese
ideas, for they have most elaborate rules about flower-dressing, and never
allow more than one kind to be put
in the same vase They have some i
ideas about flowers and vegetables
which are very strange to us. A a.' .,r- '
lady missionary once wrote home "
from Japan in great amusement 3 -
because she had been offered a w
boiled lily roots to eat as a vege- J
table at her dinner, and had seen
a common cabbage grown as an
ornamental plant in a pot.
In many other
ways things done
in Japan are very
unlike what we do
in England. When
.Japanese meet they
shake their own
hands- not each
other's ; the cows -
have bells on their
tails ; the horses
have their tails put
to the manger, and K
wear shoes made -

Thie Gospel in jYqpait.

SI~ of straw, which cover their whole hoof,
so I suppose there are no blacksmiths
in Japan ; and the gardens are watered
t from a wooden pail -with a
wooden spoon Travellers tell
us that the roofs of the. houses
0a i are built first, but how that is
J accomplished is a mystery to
me !
Now into this strange, lonely
and upside-down land the Gos.-
Spel of Jesus Christ has spread.
You might possibly think that
as the Japanese do not eat each
other or make war on their
neighbours, and love flowers and
are kind to their children, they
Sdo not need the Gospel as much
as the Central Africans. But
AN ARTSTrIC JAPANESE. they do need it just as much;
for the Japanese religion is quite
false, and they worship false gods, and their habits and ways are so very
sinful that they must be brought a religion which will teach them what is
true and right; and they must be told about a Saviour who ill pardon and
keep them from sin. Some of the Japanese are very clever, and can easily
learn anything new, but the country villagers, like those in our picture on
the opposite page, are not so quick. In fact, in Japan, as elsewhere, it
needs long and patient work to make the truths of the Gospel understood.
The story of how missionaries got into Japan is very interesting.
Hundreds of years ago, about the year 1519, the great Roman
Catholic missionary, Francis Xavier, visited Japan, and began to teach
the people. He was followed by many priests, and as the years rolled on
numbers of Japanese were baptized. I am sorry to say that the Roman
Catholics are not always particular whom they baptize; and they did not
take away the Japanese idols, they only gave the idols Roman Catholic

Foi'eigners Ezpelleti.

names, and let the people go on worshipping them. But by-and-by these
missionaries began to interfere in the government of the country, and they
and their followers laid plots and plans. Naturally the rulers became very
angry, and in 600o an order was issued obliging all foreigners to leave
Japan. This edict was followed by another in 1614, obliging every one who
had become a Christian to give up the Christian religion. In this and in
following years numbers of Native Christians escaped to China and else-
where; many were cruelly tortured and put to death, and the immediate
effect of the Roman Catholic priests having interfered with politics was
that the doors of Japan were tightly shut to all foreigners except the
Dutch for more than two hundred years,and in addition to this no Japanese
was allowed to leave the country. On all the public notice boards at every

<,,;,,,,,, .. .d~ -
l P ,-t j/


4 -

Fifty Years' Advance.

city gate and in every village was this
hibition written up:-"So long as the
Z0arm the carl/, /'l no Ciris/iai. b'

Several countries tried to
get permission to trade with
S* Japan. but always unsuc-
cessfully, and it w\as not
till the year 1854 ,/
IN THE SNO". that America
was able to /
secure the advantage. for the
Japanese dreaded to let any
more European in ,
amongst them afterall
the disturbances

made by


houses, \,
are studying


terrible pro-
- sun shall
s' bold


the priests.
This treaty,
S with America
a go a, thebeginning
Srf better things, and
Sthe Protestant mission-
aries %e re not slo,\ to
reep into 1apa rin,
though the edict Icrbid-
d ing Chriktian teaching was
still in force. i
How widely different is Japan
7 to-day from what it was fifty years
ago Now there are telegraph offices,
. railways, splendid colleges, an army
dressed and drilled like the French, light-
.and newspapers. And there are numbers of
gentlemen who have left their own country and
g in our English colleges. All this has happened






Growing Work.

quickly. Splendid trade is carried on with Japan (though I do not advise
you to believe that everything called "Japanese" which you buy for a
penny really came from Japan !), and the steamers which sail to Japan
from America and from England, also bear our missionaries to and fro.
Funny things were seen when European ideas suddenly reached Japan!
The railway guards wore a uni-
form like ours, and said in Eng-
lish, "All right," when the train
was to start! A Government
official might be seen going out
to dinner in a swallow-tail coat
and white gloves, with native .
trousers and wooden clogs. But
all this willingness in the people
to take up our western
clothing and habits,
meant also that God
was preparing their "
hearts to receive the I
The growth of Mis-
sion work in Japan has
been wonderful, though .
there is still very much I
to be done, and thou-
sands of natives are
unreached. Many Mis-
sionary societies are try- AN AINU GIRL.
ing to help the dear
Japanese, but I cannot tell you about them all. The C.M.S.. has fifty-nine
missionaries there, of whom thirty-six are ladies, and they have stations in
each island in the group. Some of the missionaries train the clever Japanese,
lads in colleges or divinity schools, that they may be ordained as Native
clergymen or work as teachers and catechists; others preach in the mission-
halls in the Japanese towns, and talk gladly to those who will listen to

The Ainus.

,,-.... the story of Jesus; some of the mis-
sionaries go out into the country parts
and try to reach the villagers, and
others are up in the cold northern
Island of Yezo, telling the ignorant
Ainu people the way to the one true
God. These Ainu are very interesting
people; they are the old inhabitants
of Japan, but their power is all gone
now, and they live in dirt and poverty
and ignorance. They are unlike the
Japanese in habits and in appearance
and in language, and are terribly fond
of strong drink. The Ainu girl in our
i picture on page 79 is much prettier
than most of them; the men are short
and thick and very hairy, and the
women have a moustache tattooed on
their upper lip It is very cold in the
place where the Ainu live, and the
S. _Japanese who are in the island take
JAPANESE MOTHER AND CHILD. good care to wrap up when the winter
snows begin. Please to admire their
quaint snow-coats as represented in our small picture on page 78.
What do the lady missionaries do in Japan ? All sorts of things I
scarcely know what the Mission would do without them. They train the
Bible-women, and teach the girls in school, and visit the women, and take
classes and meetings, and nurse the sick, and play the harmoniums ;-in
fact there are not half enough ladies in Japan for all the work that is wait-
ing for them to do. Some of the ladies are missionaries' wives, and then,
besides helping in the Mission work, they can do so much for the Japanese
women by showing them what a Christian home should be.



INTO Ten o'Clock Land come parts of
the two largest islands in the world- -
Papua, or New Guinea, and Australia. a
The Papuans are
most ferocious savages, -
and were long the
terror of shipwrecked
crews. Many of the
tribes are cannibals, -"--..
killing and eating their
fellow-men. The Lon- A WILD NATIVE OF AUSTRALIA.
don Missionary So-
ciety has been at work on a small scale in Papua for some twenty years,
and there are also Missions connected with Continental societies. But
great part of the country is still unexplored. The natives were greatly
puzzled to know why the missionaries came among them-traders they
could understand. One day some of them thought they had found out
the reason at last. They were on board one of the little Mission ships,
peering into everything after their custom, when they came upon the cask
in which the salt beef was kept. It was nearly empty. For a moment the
natives crowded round it, then they fled in terror, scrambling over the sides
of the ship and making off in their boats as fast as they could. They
thought the salt beef was human flesh, they saw the stock of it was low,
and they took it into their heads that the missionaries had invited them on
board in order to replenish their supply !

OLu'r Laug/tter-.sland.

Owing to the work of the missionaries and the Native Christian
teachers, cannibalism is now lessening in New Guinea.
Perhaps you wonder what Australia-that great daughter-island of ours

The Blackfellows."

--has to do with a missionary book. But you will soon see that Australia
had a. good deal to do with missionary work in the past, and has a good
deal to do with it in the present, and I hope. will have in the.future too.
Australia.was discovered by the Dutch, who called it New .Holland, but
the whole of the Eastern shore was first visited in 1770 by the well-known
English sailor Captain Cook, who thought the scenery so like that of the
Welsh coast that he named it New South Wales. Eight years afterwards,
the English Government sent out a fleet with 750 convicts on board, who
made a settlement just where the great.town of Sydney now stands. Year
by year fresh sets of convicts were sent out, and some few brave Christian
men vent to work among them. One of these was the Rev. Samuel
Marsden, who was suggested for the work by the Rev. Charles Simeon, of
Cambridge, a great and good man who helped to found the C.M.S. You.
will read more about Mr. Marsden in our next chapter.
The natives of Australia, the blacks," or "blackfellows," as they are
generally called, are wild and intractable, and very debased and vicious.
You see a picture of a warrior on page 81, and of a boy on this page. Their
customs were very sinful, they were inveterate thieves, and
< scarcely knew what gratitude meant. Contact with the kind
of white men who came to Australia made the blackfellows
.F *worse even than they had been before, and when mission-
S- aries began work among them they used to try to get at
S natives who had not been spoiled by intercourse with
white men. It is so sad when those who call themselves
Christians hinder the poor dark people whom they ought
to help.
In 1836 the C.M.S. began a Mission in the
S Wellington Valley in New South Wales,
and for six years the work was
carried on. Some- of the
stories of the work
among the natives
in the bush are full
C -of interest, the mis-
_' ", sionaries rode along


A Happy Union.

until they were so weary they could hardly keep in the saddle, hoping to
reach a few of Christ's "lost sheep." Other workers, too, besides those of
the C.M.S. did a great deal to help.
After a time Australia grew to be a very different place. The natives
lessened in number, cut off oftentimes by their own evil ways, and British
colonists of another class poured in. Great sheep runs were started, gold
was discovered, and created a regular fever in the country, and though
the country districts in Nine and Eight o'Clock Land were still almost
without any Gospel ministry, the great towns and cultivated regions further
eastward began to be fairly supplied with means of grace.
Thus, little by little this daughter-island of ours grew to be no
longer merely the home of convicts and blackfellows, but a thriving colony,
one of the most valued dependencies of the British crown. In more ways
than one Australia has shown that she loves the "old country," and is ready
to be linked in closer fellowship with us at home.
This union between the old land and the new had missionary expres-.
sion when the Bishop of Sydney, Dr. Saumarez Smith, wrote to ask the
C.M.S. to send out a Deputation to Australia, to help to stir up a greater
missionary spirit in the Colonial Church. After a great deal of thought and
prayer, the C.M.S. Committee resolved to accept this invitation, and they
sent out Mr. Eugene Stock, who had for eighteen years been closely con-
nected with the home work of the Society, and was known to many friends
in Australia as well as in England; and the Rev. Robert Stewart, who
had long been a missionary in China, and, therefore, knew all about matters
in the Mission Field. You will see a picture of them both on page 82.
The Australians gave them such a hearty welcome, and sent them gladly
from place to place, arranging many meetings for them to address.
They found a very different Australia to that of Samuel Marsden's
days. Great cities with huge outlying suburbs were visited, many cultured
Christian homes welcomed the English guests, and thousands of warm
Christian hearts heard and gladly responded to the call to pray and labour
for the evangelisation of God's great world. Other worker. from England
had previously visited Australia on missionary work, and found the Church
in the Colony was doing good service amongst the Chinese who had settled
there, and also amongst the remaining "blackfellows," as well as reaching

A Stirring Call.

out to labour among the Papuans in New Guinea, and the natives in some
of the islands of which you read in the next chapter. Besides all this, an
earnest clergyman had gathered a great deal of money in Australia year
by year, and had sent it to India to help the missionaries there. But the
call Mother England sent to her Australian daughter was a call to care
for the eh'ole world, and a call to take her part in sending the Gospel-
And I think Australia has heard the call, and is bestirring herself to
find men and women-and money to support them-to go out with the
Gospel news into every land. That is why I said Australia had a great
deal to do with Missions in the present, and in the future, as well as in
the past.
Now we must take care, here at home in England, that we are awake
and active ourselves. It would never do for Mother England to grow
sleepy, would it ?-when she has just been urging her great Australian
daughter to awake!
We have been sending a message to Australia, but I think one has
come from Australia to us in a hymn by Dr. Saumarez Smith, Bishop of
Sydney, and Primate of Australia, which was sung at the great Gleaners'
Union Meeting in Exeter Hall, on Tuesday, Nov. Ist, 1892. I hope
England, as well as Australia, will answer to this stirring call.


T ELL it out, the Lord is King: Everywhere the peoples yearn
Tell it out in accents clear, For the mighty healing word;
Message meet for every land, Christians, speed the message forth,
Message meant for every ear, Let it everywhere be heard,
Light, and love, and life to bring; Light, and love, and life to bring;
Tell it out, the Lord is King! Tell it out, the Lord is King!
Tell it out, 'tis God's desire Spread the Gospel of the King,
Written in His Word of grace; Tell it out to all the earth,
Message fit for human need, You who have it in your heart,
Fit for every clime and place, You who know its boundless worth,
Light, and love, and life to bring; Li, and ve, and lio ing;
it ut, the Lrd is King! Tell it out, the Lord is King I
Tell it out, proclaim the Christ,
Tell the message far and wide;
Doors are open, enter them;
Messengers be multiplied,
Light, and love, and life to bring;
Tell it out, the Lord is King


T HE Clock strikes Twelve again! Yes, and if an echo could reach us
right up through this round world, we should hear the New Zealand
clocks strike twelve as well, only it would be midnight there, though it is
mid-day here.
Now in this chapter we cannot really keep to Twelve o'Clock Land.
We must stretch out considerably to either side, for the story of New
:Zealand is an ocean story, and we want to bring in the story of other ocean
lands not so very far off. those lovely South Sea Islands, where coral reefs,
volcanoes, sharks, sandal wood,.bread, fruit trees, and everything else that
makes you want to travel and find adventures, are to be seen.
But now to New Zealand itself first. The summers are as cool as in
England, and the winters as warm as in Italy. Without doubt, the heat
and cold would be more extreme were it not for the lovely ocean that rolls
all round and brings soft springlike air. The shape of New Zealand is not
unlike the shape of Italy, though it is composed of three islands, and its
size is about that of the United Kingdom. There are mountains also to
attract us, some of considerable height. Forests, ferns-great tree-ferns
such as only grow under glass in this country-and grassy plains cover the
fair surface of the land. Shall you want to go there too much when I tell
you that hedges of geraniums and arum lilies have to be cut away as
weeds ? ..
New Zealand has been an English Colony since 1840. The original

A Maori at Prayer.

inhabitants are called Maories, and they are very ancient indeed. 'They
are a splendid people, tall and well made, and not nearly so dark skinned
as other races. Their faces, as.you see in our pictures, are greatly dis-
figured by being "tattooed" with strange devices and marks. They live in
villages built of wood ; on page 89 you see a fortified pah, or village, with
the natives evidently expecting war.
The worship of the Maories is very sad and savage. I could not tell
you much about it here. At the head of this chapter you see a picture of
how some of them have been known to pray. The man has put his hideous
god on a little rod, set upright in the ground, and has tied a string round
it that an occasional jerk may keep the god from forgetting him. Then
he intones a mere string of words by way of a prayer, and sticks a peg
into the ground each time that the god may take notice of the number of
his prayers.
You must hear the story of how the Maories first attracted the mis-
sionaries. You read in our last chapter of the clergyman named Samuel
Marsden, who was chaplain at the Convict Settlement of Paramatta, in
Australia. He sometimes saw some splendid
looking men near Sydney, and he found they '
were New Zealand Maories who had come in
ships from their native land. Immediately
Mr. Marsden loved these men, and became
their friend. This happened about the year
1807. Now Mr. Marsden never did anything
by halves; if he loved people he helped them.
Perhaps one of the things he did you will "
think very very kind, almost dangerously kind,
though it answered well. It was this: Mr.
Marsden used to invite to his Australian par-
sonage as many as thirty New Zealanders at
a time! I wonder what you would feel if
you heard that thirty savage cannibals
were staying at the vicarage Why,
it would empty the Sunday-school!
A daughter of-Mr. Marsden's tells


Cannibals at the Parsonage.

us that once an awkward little incident arose in connexion with their
strange visitors. While Mr. Marsden was away from home, the nephew
of one of their
------- guests-a chief
--died. The bc-
reaved uncle at
__ -- _once purposed
to put to death
a slave who was
in the party, so
that the spirit
might accom-
pany his nephew
to the other
world. With
great difficuIty
the poor young
slave was kept
hidden in one of
the parsonage
rooms till Mr.
Marsden re-
turned and dis-
suaded the chief
from committing
this murder.
About this
time Mr. Mars-
den went to
England, and
while there, he
induced the
I Church Mission-
'' ary Society to
establish a Mis-

A Christmas Sermon.

FORTIFIED PAH. (Seep. 87.)
sion to the Maories in New Zealand itself; but it was not until the year
1814 that the Mission was successfully planted. I must go back a little and
tell you that when coming back to Australia from England, Mr. Marsden
noticed in the forecastle of his ship a man taller and darker in colour than
the rest, who was very ill. Mr. Marsden found out that he was a Maori
named Ruatara; he was very kind to this man, and on reaching land took
him to his own house in Australia until he recovered. Ruatara afterwards
greatly helped Mr. Marsden, but he never declared himself a Christian. After
many difficulties, delays, and defeats, the first Christian service was held on
the shores of New Zealand on Christmas Day, 1814. On that day, after sing-
ing the Old Hundredth Psalm, Mr. Marsden preached on the text, Behold
I bring you good tidings of great joy," and Ruatara interpreted the sermon.

These Maories sadly
Seeded the Gospel of
Christ. Like a great
Many other people whom
you and I know, they
were not quite as fine as
they looked, for their
hearts were often savage
S and cruel, and though
they were kind to rela-
tions, they delighted in
torturing their foes, and
revelled in war and
Sr bloodshed. So fierce
were they, that they
S were the terror of the
sailors in the whaling-
ships which frequented
those Southern Seas.
They were, however,
BISHOP SLYN O NE affectionate, and indeed,
had not Mr. Marsden
been assured of this, his first landing on the North Island might well have
terrified him. A band of naked warriors, armed with spears and clubs, and
wearing necklaces made of the teeth of slaughtered enemies, advanced
towards him with furious yells, brandishing their spears and performing
their war dance. This was simply an affectionate welcome to the friend
of the Maories"! I wonder Mr. Marsden did not run away !
The first eighteen years' work showed very little result as to direct
conversions among the Maories, but after 1832 the people began to listen
gladly, and when, in 1842, the first Bishop of New Zealand, the Rev.
George Augustus Selwyn, whose picture you see on this page, reached the
Islands, he was'asfonished at all he saw. The Maories, as a nation, soon
professed Christianity, though, alas-! there were very many among them
who knew nothing of the grace of God. By-and-by great difficulties

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