Citation
The out-door world, or, Young collector's handbook

Material Information

Title:
The out-door world, or, Young collector's handbook
Portion of title:
Young collector's handbook
Creator:
Furneaux, William S
Longmans, Green, and Co ( Publisher )
Spottiswoode & Co ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London ;
New York
Publisher:
Longmans, Green, and Co.
Manufacturer:
Spottiswoode and Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xxviii, 411 p., [18] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Plants -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Minerals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Fossils -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Outdoor books -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Technique -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1893
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Includes index.
Statement of Responsibility:
by W. Furneaux ; with 16 coloured plates and over 500 illustrations in the text.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026777967 ( ALEPH )
ALH0433 ( NOTIS )
03354957 ( OCLC )

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Full Text




The Baldwin Library











&

THE OUT

-DOOR WORLD

ae ere sea



FRONTISPIECE. :



HANHART LIT H



THE OUT-DOOK WORLD

OR

YOUNG. COLLECTOR’S HANDBOOK

BY

W. FURNEAUX, F.R.G.S.



WITH 16 COLOURED PLATES
AND OVER 500 ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT

- LONDON
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
AND NEW YORK: 15 EAST 16% STREET
1893

All rights reserved



PREFACE

—+

‘Boys witL BE Boys!’ How often has this expression been
used in extenuation of their mischievous propensities! Boys
are naturally active, and if they have not the inclination or
the opportunity to expend their store of mental and physical
energy in some interesting and profitable employment, we
shall be sure to find them busily occupied in working out some
little scheme by which they hope to derive satisfaction at the
expense of their playmates, their neighbours, or some dumb
animal. You may almost as well talk to an oak log as tell a
boy that he should abstain from such practical jokes as those
which give him pleasure at the cost of his victimised school-
mates, that it is wrong to annoy his neighbour by damaging
his property, or that it is cruel to tie a bundle of ignited crackers
to the tail of a cat. If a boy is to relinquish such occupations,
we must direct his energies into another channel by giving
him a taste for something better. Teach him to play a game
of cricket, or to swim ; let him have a camera, and show him
how to take a photograph ; give him a sketch-book, and culti-
vate a taste for the reproduction of the beautiful in nature
and art; or make him a present of a book of scientific recrea-
tions. Among such works probably none will be found so
fascinating to a boy as those which treat of natural history.
Let him once acquire a taste for collecting, preserving, and
studying natural history objects, and he has a hobby that will
keep him out of mischief, give him healthy employment for
mind and body, and occupation for all seasons of the year,
both at home and in the field.



vi PREFACE

It is with a desire to cultivate such a taste, and to assist
our boys (and our girls too for that matter) in the varied em-
ployments which constitute the ‘labour of love’ of the true
naturalist that these pages are written. Iwas once a boy
myself, and well do I remember the many difficulties and
disappointments I experienced while endeavouring to make a
useful collection of natural objects— difficulties and disappoint-
ments which might have been to a great extent obviated by
the perusal of a popular yet scientific guide to the various
departments of natural history.

in presenting the following pages to my readers, I do not
hope, nor shall I attempt, to convert them into full-blown
naturalists. Many years of the most careful observation, com-
bined with much patient work on the part of the student,
would be necessary to produce such a result. My only aim
is to induce my readers to make a start, and to give them
such a general outline of natural history as may form a safe
foundation for the future study of any branch of the science
that they may desire to follow.

The scope of this volume is large compared with its size.
It includes a brief survey of the animal kingdom, with numerous
hints on the collection, preservation, and classification of
specimens.. Many objects which are not generally studied by
young collectors are here considered as worthy of a drawer
in the young naturalist’s cabinet. Thus the reader is made
acquainted with the fact that the seaside is not merely a
collecting ground for shells and weeds, but that almost every
overturned stone between the tide-marks reveals a host of living
beings which, although less conspicuous, will repay the time
spent in their study. The vegetable kingdom is dealt with in
a similar manner. Then follows a short chapter on the
collection and arrangement of minerals and fossils.

{tis hoped that the detailed descriptions given for the
construction of the necessary apparatus and the methods of
using it, and the abundance of illustrations, will render this
work a thoroughly practical guide to the young collector.



CHAP.

il.
Ii.
Iv.

‘VI.
vil.
VIII.

Ix.

XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
xy.

XVI.

CONTENTS



PART I
ANIMAL LIFE

PONDS AND STREAMS .

INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING

THE SEA-SHORE '

SNAILS AND SLUGS .
SPIDERS, CENTIPEDES, AND MILLEPEDES
REPTILES AND REPTILE HUNTING
BRITISH BIRDS

BRITISH MAMMALS

PART II
THE VEGETABLE WORLD

SEA-WEEDS
FUNGI

*‘ MOSSES

FERNS

WILD FLOWERS
GRASSES .

OUR FOREST TREES

PART III
THE MINERAL WORLD

MINERALS AND FOSSILS

PAGE

56
167
220
225
235
249
298

321
332
342
350
359
379
385







we

m
SEP ORrNaoankwnwe

eS
eB

12,
13.
14.

bo
bo

bt bt bt tb bp vo
SARA St

ce no
es

JENCSE OND) JOGOS AME MOINS

NET FOR COLLECTING SPECIMENS .

A DREDGING-HOOK . % aToear
Borrnye For connecting Low ones OF oun Lire i 2
Tue Mepictnan Leecu . " : , 3 5
THE TEETH oF A Monzusc '
Tue CRAYFISH Fi : Fl ‘ ; ; a

Dp ® (under-surface) ; : : :
A WarrER-rLEA, magnified ; ; ; : oReys

. A CycLops CARRYING ITs EaG-sacs

WATER SPIDERS . ‘ " ‘

Warer Mire, highly magnified 5 ‘ . ,

GrassHorrEn, SHOWING THE STRUCTURE AND Conosrmon OF AN
Insrct’s Bopy . : : i a‘ ; tae

Water Boarman (Glauca)

Corixa, slightly enlarged .

. Tae Water Scorpion

. Ranatra . :

. A WATER GNAT (Hi ydrometra argentata), anetteds
. Water Gnar (H. gibbifera), enlarged . ; ;

Larva or Dracon-rty, sHowinc THE Mask, AND THE Eareeee
INSECT EMERGING FROM THE PUPA-CASE .

Tue May-riy 4 4

Larva or rue May-riy

Pups or tHe May-rny . 1 ; 4 i Betis

CADDIS-FLIES. .

. CADDIS CASES 7 ; . 4
. Eacs or tHe Gat, magnified , : 7

Tun Sracus or THE GNAT, SHOWING THE L ARVA, Pup, eee ECT
INSECT EMERGING, AND Mate AND FEMALE rca aoe
Dyticus marginalis. Male. :
os ay Female . ‘ :

bo
eo

PAGE

He CO

17

He
©

to bt bo bw bw pw
mB RH CO Co LOR

ra



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIG.
31. Larva or Dyticus
82. Pupa or Dyticus .
83. Agabus biguttatus, mained
34. Pelobius Hermanni, magnified
35. Tue WHIRLIGIG
36. LARVA OF THE WHIRLIGIG
87. Piceus. Male .
38. Larva or Piceus, not fully oe
39. Pupa or Picéus
40. SKELETON oF A Fisu (Puncx)
41. OrGANS or 4 Fis (Carp)
42. THe Carp .
43. THe MInNow .
44. THE GUDGEON
45. Toe Roacw
46. THe Dace .
47. Toe Burak ? ;
48. Tue Loacu . ' D
49. THe THREE-SPINED SarcKrepAcK AND Naan
50. THe BULLHEAD. .
51. THE BLoop-ceLLs oF THE rece hicks magnified
52. Toe Heart or tue F'roc : ¢
53. THe Great Warty Newt
54. Tor SmootH Newr
55. STAGES IN THE Lire or A Froe ’
56. Tue Common FrocG
57. Tue Toncur or THE FRoaG
58. Tae Common Toap
59. SKELETON OF THE FROG
60. ScaLES FROM THE WINGS oF Burrsnruies
61. Heap or a Morn
62. Mor just EMERGED
63. Tue CyanripE Borris.
64. THe Lauren Box .
65. SECTIONS OF THREE KINDS OF Gnorine cBowene
66. A Burrerriy on THE SrerriInc Boarp.
67. Tue Scarce SwALLow-Tam . ; ; F ;
68. Tue Lance Wuire. Eee (magnified), Larva, Pura, anp Iaco
69. Tue Smaut Wuire. Male. : i F '
Osos, Ay Female i
71. THe GREEN-VEINED WHITE. Under side ;
72. Toe Baru WHITE . : A :
73. Tue BuACcK-VEINED WHITE . . 0
74. Tue Woop Wutrr ‘ ‘5 * ; eesti
75. Tus CLoupED YELLow. Female and Larva. (Male shown on
Plate II.) . :
76. Tue LarcE ToRTOISESHELL i "i

PAGE

35

74



FIG.

77.

78.

79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92
93.
94.
95.

97.

98.

99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
Ls
11y.
113,
114,
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

CHRYSALIS OF THE LARGE ToRTOISESHELL; AND A Larva sus-
PENDED JUST PREVIOUS TO UNDERGOING ITS CHANGE

THe ComMMA BurrEerriy, wirH Wines Fouprp. (See also Plate
ETE) ee :

THe Waite ADMIRAL

THe PurPLE EMPEROR AND eee ,

Tur Dark GREEN FRITILLARY

Larva AnD Pupa or THE Dark GREEN creer ARY

Tur HicH Brown FRrrim.ary

THE QUEEN oF SPAIN FRITILLARY. under sido

Te PEARL-BORDERED Friviuary. Upper and Under Hie,

Tue SMALL PEARL-BORDERED F'RITILLARY

THE GLANVILLE FRITILLARY

MarsLep WHITE BUTTERFLY :

THE SPECKLED Woop or Woop Arcus

THe WaLL BurrEeRrLy

Tur GRaytinc. Female .

2. THs Mrapow Brown. Male

H a a Female .
THE Lance Heatru. Male
5 5) ey Female
3. Tus Rincitet. Under side

Tur Marsa RINGLET
Tur NoRTHERN Brown oR Seancr Apes
Tur Smart Heat : d
Tur Brown Harrsrreak. Under surface
Tue Buack Harrsrreak. Under side
THe Watt LETTER HarmsTREAK
Tue PurrLe Harrsrreax. Under side
Tur GREEN Harrsrreak. Under side
Tur Larce Copper Burrerrty—Larva, Pupa, AND Taco a
Tus AzuRE on Houty Biur. Under side .
Tue Breprorp BLUE .
Tur Mazarins Buur. Under side
THE Common Buur. Male
as vs Female
Tur Common Buur. Under side
THE Brown ARGUS
Tue New SMALL SKIPPER
Tue Diney SxKrprer
THE GRIZZLED SKIPPER .
Tur CHEQUERED SKIPPER ; "i
Tur Drarn’s-uEaD Hawk Morn (A¢ropos)
Tue Larva or tHe DEatn’s-HEAD Hawk
Tur Eyep Hawk (Ocellatus) : . : :
Larva or THE SpuRGE Hawk. (Perfeet Inseot shown on Plate V.)
Tur Humrne-sirp Hawk (Stellaturwm)

85

86
86
86
86
87
87
87
87
98
99
100
101
101



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIG. PAGE
122. Tue Hornet CLEarwine (S. Apiformis) . : : . 102
123. THe Leopard Morn (Afscult) anp Larva ; 103
124. Toe Goat Morn (Ligniperda) anv Larva (the lever Tanti one-

third grown) . : : , , - 108
125. THE Common Swirr (Gnipulinus) . . : pee ee NY
126. THe Guost Swrrr (Hwmuli) ; ; . 104
127. Larva AND Cocoon OF THE SIx-SPoT 7: Burner ; nays LOS
128, Larva oF THE Cinnabar Mora (Jacobeée) é , - 105
129. THe Cream-spor TicEr (Villica) 5 i ; Sane LOD
130. Toe Burr Eruine (Lubricipeda) . : , " » 105
131. Tue Warrm Erwne (Menthastri) ; Sanle sekeLOD,
132. THE VapourzR Morn (Antiqua)—Male, Beals: and fey . 106
133. THe Brown Tan (Chrysorrh@a) , . : eausraet OG
134. THe Buack ArcHEs (Monacha) . , ; 5 . 107
ASD anaRS De (Dark variety) si 5 . Pee eal OFF;
136. THE Smare EaGar (Lanestris) : : : i puelOY.
137. Tum Lackny (Neustria) . : : Si amel 08
138. THe Lapprr Mors (Quen Befoleay AND Tanva. (See also Plate V.) 108
139. THe SwatLow-rar, More (Sambucata) 109
140. Larva or THE Broistonr Morn. (Perfect eee on Plate Vv) 109
141. Toe BrinpLep Buau'ry (Hirtaria) ano Larva 110
142. Toe Perpprrep Morn (Betularia). Male . : 7 ert O,
143. Tae Grey Scantopep Bar (Belgiwria) . : pieeplLO)
1f4. Tre Macprm (Grossulariata) . ; P 3 2 LO
145. Toe Morriep Umber ah Male, Wingless Female, and

Larva . i 3 zi Saude DILL
146. THE WINTER Mora (Br umata) . , . : spell
147. Tue BrauriruL Carpet (Albicillata) . : : Wael SL
148. THe ARGENT AND SABLE (Hastata) . p : 5 eel
149. Tue SrnverR-GRounD Carpet (Montana) : : ae LS
150. Tur Marsa Carper (Sagittata) ‘ : s : . 112
151. Tue Common Carper (Subtristata) 4 ; F Sh ecstaesel LD
152. Tue Cuimney Sweep (Cherophyllata) , , : . 112
153. Tue SauLtow Kirren (Furcula) . f : : Sou ALLO)
154. THz Lossrer Motu (agi) anp Larva. 4 : ws
155. Tue Bure Tre Morn (Bucephala) ann Larva. (Seealso Plate V.) 118
156. Puss Moru (Vinuwla) anp Larva. : : : poe Ti!
157. Tur Pracu-BLossom Morn (Batis) anp Larva. (See also Plate

sISVe2) te 2 ; : : : : : . 115
158. Tux Grey Daccer (Psi). : 4 : 5 seamed’,
159. Tue Caspacy Morn (Brassice) 3 é é ; 116
160. Tux Turnip Morn (Segetwm) . : : fi Wee LO.
161. THe Lance YELLOw UNnDERWwING (Fronuba) anv Larva. (See

also Plate V.) . - ' ceiey act ES)
162. Tus Lesser Broap Bonne (lanthainy : 5 i S116
163. Tus Dor (Persicarie) . i : valet sats G
164. THe ANGLE SHADES (Meticulosa) AND Larva, (See also Plate V.) 117



FIG.

166.

170.
171.
172.
178.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
17
180.
181.
182.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

5. Tue Strver Y (Gamma)

Tue BurnisHeD Brass (Chrysitis)

. Toe Heratp Mora (Libatria) anp Larva
. MorHEer Surpron (Mz)
. Toe Rep UnpEerwine (Nupta)

Tue Cuirpen Nonparein (Frain?)

THE Snour (Rostralis)

THe Meat Mors (Farinalis)

THe Tapsy (Pinguinalis)

THe Moruer or Prarn (Urticalis) .
THe Rust VENEER (Hybridalis)

Tue BeautiruL Cutna Marx (Stagnalis)
THe PEARL-STREAK VENEER (Hamellus)
Tur Honrycoms Morn (Cerella)

9. THe Straw OsBLiquE Bar (Costana)

Tue Hazen Torrrix (2. Sorbiana) .
Leaves, RonLteD and. MINED
THe WoouLen Mors .

. LARVA OF THE WooLLEN Mors .
. Toe Harr More

. THe Prume Mora (Pentadaciy lus)
. Prume Morr Vatstaes Ce

. Larva BorrLe

. Larva CaGE

. Larva Guass 5
. BLowPIrpgE FoR BLowIne Tier FITTED WITH A parva Gms 5

. Kantinc Borris ror BEETLES .

2, A BrETLE ON THE SETTING BoarpD .

. THE GREEN TIGER BEETLE . : : ;
4. Tor Woop Tichr BrEerLe (Cicindela sylvatica) anp Larva
5. Tue SHorE TicgER Berrie (C. maritima) anpD Larva

3. Toe VioLET GROUND BEETLE 0 ;

7. THE SuN BEETLE (Anchomenus dorsalis), magnified .

. NEBRIA BRrEVICOLLIS, magnified

. THE SUNSHINE, magnified . : ;

. THE BoMBARDIER BEETLE, PURSUED BY A CALosomMa

. Tae Devit’s Coach Horse

. A Rove Brerie (Staphylinus) FOLDING ITS wage

. Tor Rep-NEcKED Rove BEETLE, magnified

. Toe Four-HoRNED Rove Berrie, magnified

5. ATEMELES EMARGINATUS, magnified

. QUEDIUS DILATATUS, magnified

. BuryInc BEETLES INTERRING THE Bopy-or A Rar

. Tar BanpEp Pint BrerLe (Byrrhus fasciatus), enlarged

. Mate Stac BEETLE

. Fematr Stac Brerie

. THE CockcHAFER

xiii

-AGIE

117
117
117
118
118
118
119
119
119
119
120
120
120
120
120

139
140
140
140
140
142
143
144
144
145



xiv

viG.

212.
213.
214.
215. .
3, Oru BEETLE. Male and Female

217.
218.
219.
220.
221, ‘i
. SOLDIER BrEerie (Lelephorus ee) AND Larva .
223.
224,
225.
226.
227,
228.
229.
. Toe APPLE WEEVIL, magnified
231.
232.
233.
234.
235.
236.
237.
238.
239.
240.
241,
242.
243.
244.
245.
246,
247.
248,
249,
250.
251.
252.
253.
254.
255.
256.
257.
258.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

THE Rost BreEtTLe
THe Dor BEETLE .
THE ANTELOPE BEETLE
Tur Common TypHmus

Tur CHURCHYARD BEETLE

THE JUMPER BEETLE, magnified
THE CARDINAL BEETLE

THE BuisteR BEETLE

THe Guow-worm. Male and emalel

Tae Hive Brerrie

THe Spmer BEETLE, mneniied

THe Dearne Warcn anp Larva, magnified

Tur Musk Berrie

Strangalia armata

THe TmorBERMAN

RED-FOOTED WEEVIL (Bruchus rufi ee AND Larva, maaeariedl

THe Nur WreEvin, magnified

Tur Pine WreEvin, magnified

THe Oak Wrryin, magnified

THe Woop-EaTInG WEEVIL, magnified

Tue Turnip Berrie, magnified

Tur Buoopy-NosED BEETLE, magnified

THE Tortotsr BEetLe, wirh Larva anp Pupa
THE RaM-HORNED BEETLE, magnified

Tue SEvEN-spot Lapy-BrIRD AND Larva

A Wasps’ Nest

THe Fremate Wasp

THe Fremate Horner . i
Tue Tree Wasp (Vespa ar bored) AnD Nest
Sorrrary Wasp (Humenes) anp Nest

THE Burrowine Ber, enlarged to twice natural size .
THe Lear-currer Ber, enlarged

Tue Saver Bex, about twice natural size

Tur Moss Humpte Ber anp Nest

Tue Stonr Humpie Ber. Female
” ” ” ” Worker .
” ” ” ” Male

Tue Hoop Suaver Ber, enlarged

CrLLs Fkom THE Nest or tHE Common HumBie ‘Ben
Tue Hive Ber. Female

5 _ e Male

_ cH Worker
THe Woop er Male

- Rs a Female

PAGE

145
145
145

158
158
159
159
160
160.
161
161
161
161
162
162
162
162
164
164



WIG.
259.
260.
261.
262.
263.
264.
265.
266.
267.

268.

269.
270.

271.

272.

273.
274.

275.

276.
277.

278.

279.

280.

281.

282
283.
284.

285.

286.
287.

288.

289.

290.
291,

292,
293.
294.
295.
296.
297.
298.
299,
3800.
801.
802.
308.
804,

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Tur Woop Ant. Worker
Portion oF THE NEST OF THE RED in ;
Tur Buack ANT . 6 , : 5

Souirary An'r (Mutilla leben Male

Mutinita Evropma. Female , . ° :

Nrr FOR COLLECTING AT THE SEASIDE Z i
Tur DREDGE : . : 3 : , .
RHIZOSTOMA M . Hl : ‘ , .
CHRYSAORA . . f : ‘ .

MEDUSA AURITA IN ITS DIFFERENT STAGES .

Anremone (Mesembryanthemum) 5 :

LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH A Sra ener
TRANSVERSE SECTION

Tur Common MADREPORE

Tur CoMMON STARFISH . 5 : : f
Tur Rosy FEATHER STARFISH : . ; ,
Barty STAGES OF THE FEATHER STARFISH

THe Sun STARFISH

Tur BrittLe STAR

SEA URCHIN, VIEWED FROM ABOVE. (Most oF THE SPINES RE-

MOVED)
INTERIOR OF THE renee OF A Sra Uncut
Masticatinc APPARATUS OF THE SEA URCHIN
Sra CUCUMBER . F j . 3

2. THE Lua Worm

TUBE-BUILDING WoRMS: Terebella, Serpula, aml Sabella
THe Sea Mouse . :

SEA Squirt

THE SHIPWORM

Puouas Dacryius

Thracia papyracea

Tellina crassa. Tur Biunt TRLLEN

Tue Rapiarep TroucH SHELL (Mactra stultor a)
VENUS CASINA

VENUS EXOLETA . A

Ark SHELu (Arca lactea)

Nour Suet (Nucula nucleus)

Pinna Rupis

Tur SappLE OysTER Crores SPN

Tur Grooven Tusk SHELL (Dentalium entalis) .

THE Curron on Mam SHELL , 6 :
Tur Grey Top (Trochus cinereus). (See also Plate VIL.)
Towser Suey (Turritella) : i 5 4
SEction oF A TOWER SHELL . A i

Tur Lapper SHELL (Scalaria communis) .

Eees or THE WHELK . . . f ; : .
Tum Common OcToPUS . - ' ; : mete

PAGE

164
165
166
166
166
169
170
176
176
176
178
179
179
180
182
183
183
184
184

185
185
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
194
194
194
195
195
196
196
197
198
199
199
199
199
199
200



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

VIG. ; PAGH
305. Tue Sepra on CurrnErisH 7 : , ; eed
306. ‘Bonn’ or 'rHE CUTTLEFISH . : ‘ ; , . 201
307. Eacs or THE CUTTLEFISH ‘ seen OL
308. THe Common Squip (Loligo Dinara AND ITS pee , . 202
809. BanaNus . : ; 5 ‘ ; , oul mete 20S:
810. Tur BarNacie . : fs ; 4 : : . 204
811. THe Sanp Hopper 3 ; z : samen es 04.
312. Toe Mantis Surmip (Squilla ananbia) : : . » 204
313. THe Opossum Surimp (Mysis chameleon) y ’ erry a05;
314. THe Common Surimp (Crangon vulgaris) . . ar cniom\ e205,
315. Tuer Prawn (Palemon serratus) i : : Salata AG!
316. Tue Norway Lossrer (Nephrops Norvegicus) — . : - 207
317. Tue Common Snore Cras (Carcinus Menas) . p ava a0S
318. Earny STacres or tHe SHorE Crap r } . 208
319. Toe Herurr Crap In THE SHELL oF A WHELK : . 209
320. Tun Herwrr Cras (Pagurus Bernhardus) our or 1s Semin . 209
321. THe Pra Cran (Pinnotheres pisum) 4 : : . 210
822. Porcellana platycheles . . i ; i Santee 0)
323. Portunus variegatus . : ; Pa eLO,
324. Henstow’s Swmmine Crap (Polybius Honslowsn). , neh aru OTE
325. Tur Lonc-arMED Crap (Corystes). Female : , eee!
326. THE Sprer Crap (Maia squinado) : 3 ; Mee OLD
327. Tue SmooTH BLENNY . ; : ; : 5 . 216
328. Tor Cornish SUCKER : : ; ; ie 2 Lf)
829. Tur FIFTEEN-SPINED Srroxtmnack AND NEsT ; ; ~ 217
330. THE FarHer LASHER : : s : i Eee LS
331. THE Goby - b ‘ ; : : : 4 veal.
332. THe LessER WEEVER ; ; , : ALS
333. Tor Lesser Sanp Eri : ; , : a eno
334. Eaa Casr or Doa Fisx . 219
335. Helix aspersa 220
336. Helia pomatia 221
337. DIAGRAM OF THE HEAD OF A Ser ; 999,
338. Succinea putris 222
339. Arion ater 223
340. Testacella 224
341. SpecimMEN BorrLe 227
342. THe GARDEN SPIDER 228
343. Segestria senoculata—A Six-EYED Spipe Ro. 230
344. Crap Sprer (Lhomisus lanio) . 230
345. THe Sronr Sprer (Drassus Lacdheoin 230

346. A Try



ALE WoLr Spiper (Dolomedes) wirn Eaa pias enlacred eH

to
Ss

347. Toe Rarr Sper ; : OBL
348. Salticus scenicus, magnified z : ; , Nora 84)
349. A MILLepEDE (Julus terrestris) : ' : : . 288
850. A CENTIPEDE r 6 6 : : i semen BOS

351. Tar Common Lizarp . : : ; h A . 287



FIG.

B52.
353.
B54.
355.
356.
357.
358.
359.
360.
361.
362.
363.
364.
365.
366.
367.
368.
369.
370.
871.
372.
373.
374.
375.
376.
377.
378.
379.
380.
381.
382.
383.
384.
885.
386.
387.
388.
389.
390.
391.
392.
398.
B94.
B95.
396.
397.
898.

LIST OF ILLUS? RATIONS

Tae Snow Worm or Buinp Worm (Anguis re)
Tur ComMon SNAKE . .
HEAD OF THE CoMMON SNAKE

Eaes or THE COMMON SNAKE

Heap or THE VIPER

A Contour FEATHER . :
D1AGRAM OF THE HEART OF A . Brep

Tur DicEstrvE ORGANS OF A Bip .
Tur SKELETON oF A BIRD

Eaa Drinis i :
BLOWPIPE FOR Browne AND WASHING Eaas .
SHOWING HOW TO MAKE THE CarD TRays
THE GOLDEN EAGLE

Tue Fancon

THE SPARROW-HAWK

THE KESTREL

Tur MERLIN

Tur Honry BuzzarpD .

Tue Barn Own : 5

Heap oF THE LONG-BARED OWL :
THE SHRIKE

Tur Roox

THE JACKDAW

Tue NurHatcH

Tue WooDPECKER .

THE WRYNECK .

THE KINGFISHER

Tue WRrEN

Tue Great TIT

Toe Lark

THE GOLDFINCH

Tae BULLFINCH

Tas Linnet

Tue Cuckoo

Tue NIGHTINGALE .

THE SwaLLow 5
THe SAND Martin AND THE Haw

Tue Stock Dove

THe PHEASANT

Tur PARTRIDGE

THE QUAIL .

THE OYSTER-CATCHER .

THe Hrron

Tur Lapwine

THE SNIPE .

THE SHELDRAKE ;

THe TERN, oR SEA SwaLLOw

xvii

PAGE



xviii ’ LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. PAGE
599. Tue Buack-Backnp GuuL ' . 288
400. Tor Wuire Guin : ; . 283
401. Toe Gress 5 ' i 2 ; . . 284
402. Toe GumLEMoT . r 7 . ‘ . PO shen 4.
403. THe Perren . : f 7 i. i : . 284
404. Pant or tue Upper Jaw (HUMAN), SHOWING THE KINDS oF
TrErrH 5 : f fi . : . 298
405. SkuLL or A Carnivorous MammMan—Tun: Doc a eae 2O9,
406. SkULL oF THE SHEEP . ‘ 6 . ' » 299
407. THe Porpotsy a f ° ° : F ce S02
408. Tor Orrern : f ° ° F f 5 . 804
409. SKULL or THE OTTER . ae d 9 6 oreo:
410. Toe WEASEL , . ° ° 3 ‘ is - B04
411. Toe Sroar . , : . ; ee iss OUD!
412. THe Potecar . ; 3 ° 2 5 4 . 805
413. SKULL oF THE Harr " . ‘ . «. 806
414, Tur Inctsor Toorn or 4 Ropent . 4 6 . . 807
415. Toe SQuirreL i f 5 : fs 5 ew 308
416. Toe Harvest Mouse anp irs Nusr . . ‘ . 809
417. Tue Lone-rarep Frenp Mousn ° ; q ee SLO:
418. Toe Warrer Rar ‘ : "| : : . . 810
419. THe Common SurEew ¢ ¢ c e . TaN one OAL
420. Toe Water Surew . ‘ ° ° . . aoe
421. Tue HepcrnoGg . - : 7 : . eG EOL
422. Toe Fortress anp GALLERIES or THE Moun f A . 818
423. Tue Moun . : A : : . cmetee a BL.
424. SKELETON oF THE Bar . . . ‘ . -. 816
425. Bar on tHE, WinG 3 : : | - . 816
426. Toe Bar ar Resr ; ° f d : . - 3817
£27. Ceramium diaphanum, with portions magnified : «15-826
428. Hetocarpus siliculosus, with Spore-cases enlarged . . - 829
429. Hetocarpus granulosus, with a portion magnified : - . 829
430. Sporonchus pedunculatus — . : . : ‘ . 330
431. Tux Common Musuroom . ; ‘ . ° riko eo
432. CoLLECTING THE SPpoRES : 5 3 3 ° . 583
433. Tun Fry Acarric (Amanita MUSCAT) « 6 . 7 . 888
434, OystrER MusHroom (Agaricus ostreatus) — . ° r . 888
435. Agaricus vernus. Size much reduced . ° ° >. BBA
436. Agaricus odorus 4 ‘ : o . » 88£
437, Parason Musuroom (Agaricus procerus) 2 ‘ 6 0884
438. Tor Gigantic Potyporus (P. giganteus) . . ¢ » B84
439. Armillaria malleus : ‘ A : 5 c MSTNCS SD,
440. Pholiota squarrosa : . ‘ Belge on a0 » 835
441, Tun Hepcenog Hypnum (H. erinaceum) : : eye B85

442. Tue Common Purr-sann (Lycoperdon pyriforma)
443. Clavaria fusiformis : 3 : “
444, Toe Lurmw Bouerus (B. luridus). Section : ‘ 2 836



FIG.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xix

PAGE
445, THE STINK-HORN oR StTrinkInG Moreen . : 836
446. Aficidium berberidis—A Dust Funaus, on A LEAF AND A Hower

ALSO ITs Cups, magnified 7 * ; , eemaGOST
447. Common Duna Movuip ‘ t i F . 837
448, COLLECTING THE SPORES OF A HuNaus : 5 Pe ee BOO,
449. Sphagnum acutifolium F 7 : : ; . 842
450. Encalypta vulgaris ‘; : : F Reena nO 4D
451. Grimmia pulvinata . ; : A : i . 842
452. Grimmia apocarpa 5 : : 5 3 BaD
453. Dicranwm squarroswm 2 : i " , . 848
454. Orthotrichum affine : : : 3 j TEER 4D
455. Orthotrichum Lyellit . % : $ : . 844
456. Zygodon . Seat: : 3 : . . B44
457. Bartr amie pomifor mits , . 5 5 : . B44
458, -Bartramia fontana , , 5 : i STO Ld
459. Bryum capillare : 3 : ; : ; . B44
460. Polytrichum piliferum . 3 i SC Oa eeeno4 5
461. Fissidens bryoides : . : 5 : 5 . 846
462. Fissidens taxifolius ; s : ; a aod
468. Leucodon sciuroides . : NORE : ; . 846
464. Anomodon viticulosum . ss " . i . . 846
465. Leskea polycarpa . ; , : : ; . 847
466. Hypnum purum . . : : : é oH OAT. 4
467. Hypnum piliferum . : ; : , , . 848
468. Hypnum triquetrum . : : : ; - . 848
469. Hypnum cupressiforme : Canes . 849
.470. Tar Mountarn Ponypopy (Polypodium phegonteria) i (aeRO DU.
471. Tue THREE-BRANCHED Poniypopy (P. dryopteris) . i . 850
472. Tor Buack SPLEENWoRT FERN (Asplenium nigrum). Portion of

the Plant, showing the Rhizome, and a Frond with Spores 351
473. Tur NortHern Harp Fern (Blechnwm boreale) f 352
474. THe ALTERNATE SPLEENWORT (Aspleniwm alternifolium) 352
475. THE GREEN SPLEENWoRT (Aspleniwm viride) . 353
476. TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE STEM OF A FERN 853
477. Tue SmootH Rock SPLEENWoRT (Aspleniwm fontanwm) 854
478. Tor Watt Rup (Aspleniwm ruta-muraria) 354
479. AN ARRANGEMENT FOR THE PROPAGATION OF FERNS Su eee,
480. A YounG FERN SPRINGING FROM THE PRoTHALLIUM. Natural size 355
481. Toe Common MameEn-nair (Adiantwm capillus-veneris) 356
482. Tue Honiy Fern (Aspidium lonchitis) 356
483. Toe Harry Woopstia (Woodsia alpina) 357
484, Tus OsmunD Royan (Osmunda regalis) ; 357
485. SEcTION oF THE Burrercur (Ranwneulus acris) . . 860
486. Pistm or tHe Liny . 3 , e ; : . 860
487. RuizoME oF SoLomon’s SEAL. . : ; ppb csi}
488. SimpLE LEAF OF THE OAK. . : , f . 3863
489. CompounD Lear or Acacia : 863

‘



xXx

FIG.
490.
491.
492.
493.

496.

. SAMARA OF MAPLE :
. Box ror HERBARIUM SHEETS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

CapPsuLE oF Poppy
CaPsuLE OF PRIMULA
Pop oF THE PEA
SILIQUA OF WALLFLOWER

A Youne Bran Piantr

. Marsa Maricoup .
. TRAVELLER’s Joy

. THe WALLFLOWER

. COMMON CHICKWEED

MovuseE-EAR CHICKWEED
Common STONECROP

. Common HousELErk
. Common Hrmiock

Wiip Carrot

. Foow’s Parsnny
. CoMMON Sow-THISTLE

508, Deap NETTLE . :

509. Waite HoreHounr ‘

510. ScorPIon GRASS :

511. Common BoracE . f

512. Common Loose-sTRIFE ‘

513. Prickty SaALTWortT 3 ‘

514. GLASSWoRT ; : ‘ :

515. Curtep Dock 6 6 . ‘ .

516. Man OrcuIs. ° ¢

517. Stan oF BETHLEHEM é ¢

518. Burcurr’s Broom . : F K :

519. EXPANDED SPIKELET OF THE Oar, WITH A FERTILE AND A
Barren FLOWER — - . :

520. FrrvinE FLowrer oF THE OAT, SHOWING THE Tees Porras
AND THE FEATHERY STIGMAS : f .

521. SECTION OF THE OAT-SEED : . :

522. Toe Sprit LEAr-SHEATH OF A GRASS

523. Jue Common Oak (Quercus pedwnculata)

524. THE SESSILE-FRUITED Oak (Q. sesstliflora)

525. LEAVES, FLOWER, AND F'RuIT oF THE BEECH (Bagiaie, sylvatica).

526. Tus Sweet CuEestNnut (Castenea vesca) . 7

527. Tur Hazen (Corylus avellana) :

528. Tor HornBEam (Ostrya vulgaris) : .

529. Tur Common Exum (Ulmus campestris) . .

530. Tus Warr Popnar (Populus alba). Leaf and Blowers :

581. Luar anp FLowers or THE Buack Popuar (P. nigra) .

532. Toe Wurrr Witiow (Salix alba) . 5 . : :

533. Tor BroaD-LEAVED SALLow (S. caprea)

584. Tue Osrer (S. viminalis) . ‘ : .

PAGE
865

co co co Co CO CO CO
Nanas
ST So SD ST Ot TT

877

ee
a
a

379



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

. THE Common Bircx (Betula alba)

. THe ALDER (Alnus glutinosa)

. Toe Asn (Fraxinus excelsior)

. THe Yew (Zaxus baccata)

. THe Larcu (Laria communis)

. Tae Scorce Fire (Pinus sylvestris) .

. Tur Common Mapie (Acer campestre) .
. Tue Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus)
543.
544,
545.
546,
547.
548.
549.

Tur HorsE-cHEestnut (Asculus hippocastanum)
Tur SPINDLE-TREE (Luonymus Europea) .
Tur SLoF or BLAckTHORN (Prunus spinosa) .
Tur Box (Buxus sempervirens)

GroLoeist’s HAMMER

Ducx’s-HEAD HAMMER .

Geotoaist’s Pick .

PAGE
388
388
389
389
389
389
390
390
390
390
391
391
394
394
394







we wo

SAN DOE

wrore

He Oo bo FH

AION

REFERENCES. TO PLATES

Puare I (frontispiece)—BUTTERIFLIES

. SwauLow-ram (Papilio machaon).

. Common Brux (Polyommatus alexis). Male.

. Brown Arcus (Polyommatus agestis).

. Avoyis Buux (Polyonumatus adonis).

. CroupeD SunpHuR (Colias hyale).

. Briustone (Gonepteryx rhani).

. Chouprp YELLow (Colias edusa).

. Orancu-tie (Huchloe cardamines). Under side of male.

” ” ” Upper side of male.

. SILVER-WASHED Friritnary (Argyninis paphia).
11.
12.

Greasy or Marsu Frrrmusry (Melitea artemis).
Doxe or Bureunpy Frrrimiary (Nemeobius lucina).

Pratt II—DRAGON-FLIES

. Aishna grandis. 4, Libellula depressa. Male.
. Cordulegaster annulatus. 5. Calopteryx virgo.
. Agrion minwum. j 6. Agrion puella. Male.

Prats ITI—BUTTERFLIES

. Rep Apmrrat (Vanessa atalanta).

. Large Sxrprer (Pamplila sylvanus).

. Smann Sxrveer (Pamphila linea).

. Comma (Grapta C. album).

- Smaty TorvoisesHenn (Vanessa urtica).

. Parnren Lapy (Cynthia cardut).

. CHank-HILL Buur (Polyommatus corydon),



xxiv

H
FOO ONDA WD He

e

DNADAE WD HE

.
HR
roof

NADoPpwNwrH

REFERENCES TO PLATES

. CHALK-HILL BuoE (Polyommatus corydon). Male.
. Smatn Coprer (Chrysophanus phleas).

10.
11.

Pracock (Vanessa Io).
CaMBERWELL Brauty (Vanessa Antiopa).

Pratt IV—MOTHS

. Crimson UnpDERWING (Catocala sponsa).

. OaK-EGGAR (Bombyx quercus). Male.

. Exprror Mora (Saturnia carpint). Male.
. Common TicER (Chelonia caja).

. Stx-spor Burner (Anthrocera filipendule).
. CrynaBaR Mora (Callimorpha Jacobee).

. Brimstone Morn (Runvia crategata).

. Morrnep Umper (Hibernia defoliaria).

. PEacu-Biossom (Thyatira batis).

. Exepnant Hawk (Cherocampa elpenor).

. Porrar Hawk (Smerinthus populi).

Pratt V—MOTHS

. Scartet Trcer (Callimorpha dominula).
. ANGLE-sHADES (Phlogophora meticulosa).

. Borr-tre (Pygera bucephala).

. Borperep Warre (idonia piniaria).

- Woop Ticer (Chelonia plantaginis).

. Lapeer Morn (Lasiocampa quercifolia).

. CANARY-SHOULDERED T'HorN (Ennomos tiliaria).
. ScanLopeD Osx (Crocallis elinguaria).

. Yettow Unprerwine (Tryphena pronuba).
. Love Hawk (Smerinthaus tilie).

. Spurce Hawk (Deilephila euphorbie).

Prate VI—-MARINE SHELLS

- VARIABLE Scatnop (Pecten varius).

- Tetnen (TLellina balthica).

. TeLten (Tellina teniis).

. Astarte conpressa.

. Ticrr Scatnop (Pecten tigrinus).

. Common Scantor (Pecten opercularis).
. Ceratisolen legumen.



REFERENCES TO PLATES XXV

8. Pop Razor.(Solen siliqua).
- 9. Tapes pullastra.
10. Sabre Razor (Solen ensis).

PuarE VII—MARINE SHELLS

1. Donaw.

2. Tapes Virgineus.

3. Tapes aureus.

4, Evreux Mussen (Mytilus edulis).

5. Torroisusnunn Limenr (Acmea testudinalis). Under side.
a a x ae . Upper side.
7. Horse Mussen (Modiola modiolus).

8. Smoorn Limperr (Patella pellucida).

9. Cowry (Cyprea Europea).

10. Common Garer or Oty Marp (Mya arenaria).

11. Sunser Suunn (Psammobia Ferroensis).

12. Common Limrnr (Patella vulgata). Under side of shell.
13. Common Tor (Lrochus zizyphinus).

14.

15. Three figures of the variable Dog Periwinkle (Purpura lapillus).
16.

Puare VITI—LAND AND -FRESH-WATER SHELLS

1. Epvisrz = Snam = (Helix 10. Planorbis corneus.
pomatia). ll. Helix lapicida.

2. | Thr ania 5 12. Bulimus montanus.
3. eee figures of Helix 13. Limnea peregra.
4,| "emoralis. 14. Helix virgata.
5, \ Two figures of Helix hor- 15. Helix cantiana.
6. tensis. 16. Limnea stagnalis.
7. Helix pisana. 17. Paludina vivipara.
8. Swan Mussen (Anodonta 18. Helix abustorum.

cygnea).
9. Garpen Snat (Helia as-

‘persa).

Pratt IX—BIRDS’ EGGS

1. Sporrep FrycarcHer. 3. NIGHTINGALE.
2. Woopcuar. 4. Ropin.



xxvi

DNID

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

mwDore

Or

aQoarwnre

- Polytrichum formosum.

REFERENCES TO PLATES

. Missen Truss. 17.
. Sona Turusx. ‘18.
. BLACKBIRD. 19.
. EIELDFARE. 20.
. WHEATEAR. 21.

ReEpDstTarv. 22.

Reep WARBLER. 23.

10.

Great Trr.

Buvz Trr.
Lone-taruep Trr.
Waite Wacratn.
Crestep Lark.
SHort-rorp Lark.
GREENFINCH.

SepGr WARBLER. 24, Reep Bunrine.
Lesser WHItEerHroar. 25. Yertow Bunrine.
Buackcap. 26. GoLDFINCH.
CHIFF-CHAFF. 27. CHAFFINCE.
Wren.
Pirate X—BIRDS’ HGGS
. SwALLow. 7. Sparrow Hawr.
. Cuckoo. 8. Kestrez.
Roox. 9. Rineep Prover.
. Crow. 10. Sniper.
. JACKDAW. 11. Buack Tern.
. JAY. 12. Common Tern.
Pirate XI—SHAWEEDS
. CHANNELLED Fucus (Fucus 5. Padina pavonia.
canaliculatus). | 6. Wormskioldia sanguinea.
- SERRATED Fucus (Fucus | 7. Gracillaria compressa.
serratus). ! 8. Plocamium coccinewm.
. ‘Dunce’ (Rhodomenia pal- | 9. Corallina officinalis.
mata). | 10. Ulva latissima.
. ‘Irish Moss’. (Chondrus | 11. Enteromorpha compressa.
crispus). (12. Callithamnion.
Puarr XII—MOSSES
- Hypnunr rutabulum. | 6. Dicranum scoparium.
- Hypnum tamariscinum. 7. Funaria hygrometrica.
- Mniwm undulatum. 8. Bartramia fontana.
- Mnium subglobosum. 9. Sphagnum cymbifolium.

Atrichum undulatun.



e

oe ww oR wt

aQonPr wor

REFERENCES TO PLATES XXVii

Puatt XITI—FHRNS

- Common Hart’s-roncuxr (Scolopendrium vulgare).
. Common Potypopy (Polypodiuwm vulgare).
. Buapper Fern (Cystopteris).

Common Bracken (Pteris aquilina).

Mate Fern (Lastrea filix-mas).

Lavy Fern (Athyrium filia-femina).

Marwen-nar SpLEENWworT (Aspleniwm trichomanes).

. Sea SprEENworr (Aspleninum marinum).
. Avprr’s TonevE (Ophioglosswm vulgatum).
- Moonworr (Botrychiwm lunaria).

Pirate XIV—GRASSES

. Mravow Foxrarn. 6. Finz Bent-crass.
Dogsram. 7. QuaKING Grass.
. CATSTATL. 8. Darneu.
Harr Grass. 9. Rye Grass.
. Meapow Ferscor. 10. Cock’s-roor.

PLatE XV—GRASSES

. Mrapow Sort. 6. Watt Barry.
. Canary Grass. 7. Brome Grass.
. Mrcter Grass. 8. CoucH Grass.

. Winup Oar. 9. Common SEDGE.
. WHEAT Grass. 10. WatER-swEET.

Puate XVI-—WILD FLOWERS

» Prmrrose (Primula vulgaris).

» Scented Vioner (Viola odorata).

« Woop Anemone (Anemone nemorosa).

. Puree Orcuts (Orchis mascula).

- Winp Hyactnra (Hyacinthus nonscriptus).
» Purrte Crover (Trifolium pratense).



xxviii REFERENCES TO. PLATES

7. Deapty NicursnapE (Atropa belladonna).
8. Water Crowroor (Ranunculus aquatilis).
9. Broom (Sarothamnus scoparius).

10. Arum (Arum maculatum).

Piarr XVII—WILD FLOWERS

. Dog Rosz (Rosa canina). |

- Honnysuckie (Lonicera).

. Foxciove (Digitalis purpurea)

» Brrrer Vurcen (Lathyrum macrorhizus).
Corn Poppy (Papaver reas).

. Forcrr-me-nor (Myosotis palustris).

. Stonecror (Sedum Anglicum).

. Seasrous (Scabiosa colwinbaria).

. Corn Buvgporrne (Centaurea cyanus).

» Brrruerswuer (Solanum dulcamara).

He
SHEDBABMAP.wWwoe

Puare XVIII—WILD FLOWERS

. Corn Manriconp (Chrysanthemum segetunr).
. Lussen Bixpwexp (Convolvulus arvensis).
. SundEW (Drosera rotundifolia).

- Brrv’s Foor (Ornithopus perpusillus).°
Buiur Sprepweny (Veronica chamedrys).

- Prueernun (Anagailis arvensis).

» Matrow (Malva sylvestris).

» Yevtow Toapruax (Linaria vulgaris).

. Irs (Iris pseudacorus).

» Sea Horny (Eryngium maritinuun).

Seoaneonurwnr



Errata

Plates XVI. XVII. XVIII. should be numbered XIV.
XV. XVI. to be in accordance with the references in the text.

Plates XIV. and XV. should be numbered XVII. and
XVIII.



PART I
ANIMAL LIFE

CHAPTER I
PONDS AND STREAMS

I witu begin by giving my readers a few hints on the collection of
the various forms of animal life to be met with in ponds and streams.
Young collectors often neglect the study of pond life. Perhaps this
may be accounted for by the fact that most of the inhabitants of the
water are not to be seen before they are caught. A butterfly on the
wing will always arouse their interest ; and, even if it appears to be
only a ‘ White,’ yet the probabilities that it may be a ‘ Hawthorn’ or
a ‘Bath’ will often result in the insect being netted for a cursory
inspection. But when we stand on the edge of a pond, nothing in
particular attracts our attention, unless it may be that the brilliant
wings of a dragon-fly fix our gaze. We look at a dense mass of
duckweed—a screen so thick that we scarcely hope to find a living
creature in the water from which it shuts off the sun’srays. A little
careful observation will, however, show us our mistake. A small
black and shining body suddenly appears on the surface, displacing
some of the little green fronds; and after a few seconds’ repose
as suddenly disappears again. Soon other signs of life become
apparent, and then probably we wish some means were at hand by
which we could search the new hunting ground.

I can strongly recommend pond hunting to a young naturalist.
There is an immense variety of living forms in fresh water. Nearly
all these are easily obtained, and generally require but little attention
in the aquarium. One single hour spent in pond hunting will
supply you with material for interesting occupation at home for
many weeks. This form of recreation has the additional advantage

B



PART I
ANIMAL LIFE

CHAPTER I
PONDS AND STREAMS

I witu begin by giving my readers a few hints on the collection of
the various forms of animal life to be met with in ponds and streams.
Young collectors often neglect the study of pond life. Perhaps this
may be accounted for by the fact that most of the inhabitants of the
water are not to be seen before they are caught. A butterfly on the
wing will always arouse their interest ; and, even if it appears to be
only a ‘ White,’ yet the probabilities that it may be a ‘ Hawthorn’ or
a ‘Bath’ will often result in the insect being netted for a cursory
inspection. But when we stand on the edge of a pond, nothing in
particular attracts our attention, unless it may be that the brilliant
wings of a dragon-fly fix our gaze. We look at a dense mass of
duckweed—a screen so thick that we scarcely hope to find a living
creature in the water from which it shuts off the sun’srays. A little
careful observation will, however, show us our mistake. A small
black and shining body suddenly appears on the surface, displacing
some of the little green fronds; and after a few seconds’ repose
as suddenly disappears again. Soon other signs of life become
apparent, and then probably we wish some means were at hand by
which we could search the new hunting ground.

I can strongly recommend pond hunting to a young naturalist.
There is an immense variety of living forms in fresh water. Nearly
all these are easily obtained, and generally require but little attention
in the aquarium. One single hour spent in pond hunting will
supply you with material for interesting occupation at home for
many weeks. This form of recreation has the additional advantage

B



2 ; ANIMAL LIFE

that it may be carried on, if desired, throughout the year. Even in
the month of February, when nearly all life is apparently dormant,
a ‘dip’ in a stagnant pool will generally be rewarded with more or
less success; but during the warmer months every haul will bring
to view a crowd of living creatures.

APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING IN FRESH WATER

Many and varied are the appliances recommended by different
writers for the capture, conveyance, and preservation of the speci-
mens, many being of a somewhat complicated character. But the
best of results may be obtained by the use of the most simple appli-
ances, such as may be fitted up by the most inexperienced and
unskilled. . :

The collector’s outfit will consist of a net, a dredging-hook, a
dipping-bottle, a can, some wide-mouthed bottles, and a few tin or
zine boxes.

As regards the net, this may be home-made or purchased.
Where the means are not very limited, a most convenient form of
folding net may be bought. This may be carried in the pocket, and
readily screwed on to the end of a stick when required for active
service. But it is possible that many of my readers may, either for
pleasure or from necessity, desire to make their own. I will there-
fore give a few hints based on my own experience.

For years I have used a net made as follows: Bend a piece of
stout iron wire into the form here represented. Push the two
straight ends into a piece of strong brass tubing, about three-eighths



Fia. 1. Fic. 2.

of an inch in internal diameter, and three inches long. Then, by
hammering the end of the tube, the wire is held in a firm grip.
The other end of the tube receives a tough stick about three or



PONDS AND STREAMS 3

four feet long. A strip of stout calico is now sewn round the iron
ring, and to this is attached a net of gauze or book muslin, about
eighteen inches deep, conical in form, but with a rounded end.

A metal Y (fig. 3) may be obtained at the dealer’s
for a few pence, and with this a net frame may be fitted
up in a very short time. All that is necessary is to
bend a piece of cane of suitable diameter, and push
it well into. the two narrow arms of the y. Or a
strong y-shaped twig may be cut, and the ends of a
strong cane or piece of wire firmly bound to two of Fi. 3.
its arms by fine copper wire; the other arm being
provided with a ferrule by which it is attached, when required, to
a walking-stick.

A areas net is often very useful, especially when the ponds
or streams to be searched are rather large. This may be simply an
ordinary net, the metal frame of which is thicker than usual—say
about three-sixteenths of an inch—and flattened on the off side.
The net is tied toa strong string four or five yards long. The
other end of the string being tied to the wrist, the net is skil-
fully thrown out into the water so that it falls flat on the surface, and
then pulled in along the bottom. I have often made the same net
serve both purposes, changing string for stick, or vice versd, as cir-
cunsiances required.

When the pond is crowded with weeds it may often be an
advantage to weight the off side of the net with a piece of lead.

During several summers I have paid many visits to a certain
favourite pond about eight yards in diameter. Here I have always
commenced operations by scraping the banks by
means of the stick andnet. Then, exchanging stick
for string, I have searched the less accessible parts,
by which means I have undoubtedly secured many
a victim driven from the borders by my previous
attacks.

The dredging- Took is very ‘useful for collecting
the plants which thrive in our ponds, and which
add so much to the beauty of our aquaria. It
may, I believe, be purchased, but is easily made. Regen
Mine consists of three butcher’s galvanised meat- Drrpoine-1ook.
hooks soldered together ; but they may be bound
together by means of copper wire. Soldering is such a useful art
that even the naturalist should learn it. Sometimes the ferrule of

BQ



4



4 ANIMAL LIFE

his net splits, his bait can springs a leak, or the joint of his y gives
way ; and the repairing occupies only a few minutes.

A dipping-bottle is exceedingly useful, especially when the
collector is the fortunate possessor of a good microscope. It con-
sists of a wide-mouthed bottle of medium size, with a spreading
rim. A stout wire ring is fastened securely round the neck, and the
twisted ends of this serve to fix the arrangement to a stick.
Stagnant. water usually teems with the lower forms of life, both
animal and vegetable; and with the aid of the dipping-bottle
samples of water may be collected from different parts of a pond.
When it is intended to search for microscopic objects, a hand mag-
nifying lens should always form part of the equipment. Each
sample of water removed from the pond is held up to the light and
examined with the lens. If abundant signs of life are visible, the
greater portion is gently poured back into the pond, and the lower
richer part, with all its sediment, put into a collecting-bottle for
further examination at home.

Many interesting low forms of life may be secured by gently
scraping the submerged surfaces of piles
and other objects. Of course, this may
be done by means of the simple dipping-
bottle and stick. My own plan, however,
which seems to be in every way satisfac-
tory, is this: A small tin funnel with
a wide tube fits firmly in the cork of a
wide-mouthed bottle. Two other holes
in the cork are covered with fine muslin .
Ania anda ferrule soldered to a metal band
round the neck of the bottle serves to fix
the whole to a stick.

As the funnel moves upwards in the
water, gently scraping the surface to
which it is applied, a current of water sets
downwards into the bottle, afterwards
escaping through the muslin covering the
Tee Bien woe ors holes in the cork. In this way a large

rectine Low Forms or dUantity of water may be strained through
Ponp Lirr. the apparatus, while the little living beings
passing down the funnel are continually

adding to the density of the population.

After a time the cork is removed, and the contents poured into



















PONDS AND STREAMS 5

the collecting-bottle. The little animals and microscopic plants thus
collected will afford no end of amusement and instruction for many
months. They require no further attention beyond the occasional
addition of a little water to replace the loss by evaporation, and
they will often be found to increase prodigiously in their new
home. '

The can previously mentioned may be the ordinary angler’s bait
can, or, as a substitute, a few smaller tin boxes with perforated
covers. The perforations need not be many or large, and are easily
made by knocking the point of an awl through the metal. These
are used for the larger aquatic animals, such as*the newts and
tritons. It is quite a mistake to suppose that these require a large
supply of water during their transmission. Fach box should con-
tain a little of some kind of water weed to keep the specimens
damp, the weeds themselves being useful for study, and also for
stocking the aquaria. Smaller boxes should also be taken for
water beetles, larvie, water spiders, &c.; and great care must be
taken to isolate the voracious kinds. The carnivorous beetles and
larvee should not only be separated from the harmless creatures
which they so readily attack, but they themselves should not be
crowded together ; otherwise the collector may find, on his return, a
number of dead insects, some having been even reduced to fragments
by the powerful jaws of their fellow-captives.

When all the above requisites have been properly prepared, only
one thing remains to be done: see that you have provided ample
accommodation for the expected enormous and sudden increase of
your family. The new abodes may consist of glass jars, tumblers,
bell jars, pans, or anything that will hold water. My plan is to
keep a large bell jar for the newts and tritons, another for the
water beetles and carnivorous larvee, a third for the less voracious
insects and water spiders, and a fourth and smaller one for the
microscopic specimens. As arule, small fishes may inhabit the same
water as the newts, and aquatic snails may be distributed in all.

Pond hunting is not by any means a drawing-room sport, and
one must not be too careful about his outward appearance in its
pursuit. Most ponds and many streams are surrounded by low,
marshy banks; so that it is often impossible to keep oneself free
from mire during the search. It is therefore absolutely necessary
that the collector be provided with a thick and sound pair of boots,
not polished, but well greased. Starched cuffs become an abomina-
tion, and even the coat-sleeves will generally acquire a consider-



6 ANIMAL LIFE

able accumulation of bottom mud, often black and highly odorous.
The young naturalist, therefore, if wise, will leave his ‘Sunday
clothes’ at home, and he will take care to wear a good pair of
leather leggings.

Tur AQuaRIUM

Perhaps it will be advisable at this stage to give some hints on
the selection and management of aquaria. Where the main object
cf the collector is to become acquainted with aquatic life in all its
phases—to obtain as great a variety as possible for purposes of
observation and study—the large single aquarium is a great mistake.
A number of vessels will have to be provided, in order that the
various kinds of animals may be effectually protected from their
enémies. But it is not necessary that the vessels be of any parti-
cular or fashionable form. Of course, a large aquarium is very
serviceable for fishes and newts, but many of the lower forms are
much more easily managed in small vessels. For purposes of study
one can do nothing better than fix a shelf across a window that is
not exposed to the full blaze of the sun, and arrange on this one or
two good-sized vessels for the larger specimens, and several smaller
ones to contain the others.

We can quite understand, however, that a strong desire to possess
a larger and really ornamental affair may exist, and then the design
and general appearance becomes a most important consideration,
especially if the proposed aquarium is to occupy a place in the
drawing or dining room. The shape of the vessel is, to a certain
extent, a matter of taste ; but as success will be in proportion to the
maintenance of natural conditions, we should make it our aim, as
far as is consistent with appearance and other circumstances, to
imitate the natural pond or stream.

All natural waters receive their supply of light from the top only ;
hence the animals which are kept in the inverted bell-jar aquarium
are at once placed in an unnatural condition, for they receive the
light from all sides. Yet my own experience shows that this form
is not by any means unsatisfactory if properly managed.

The rectangular form of aquarium is far preferable to the bell,
for it does not magnify and distort the specimens. Such aquaria
are rather expensive, but are easily made by those who possess a
little mechanical ingenuity. A framework is made by soldering
together some pieces of ‘angle zinc.’ This may then be soldered to
a bottom of sheet zine, supported on a slab of wood, and the sides



PONDS AND STREAMS 7

and ends fixed with a good cement. The ends may be of slate, the
front of thick glass, and the back either of glass or slate.

The selection and application of the cement, however, requires
considerable care, since a very small leakage may prove a great
inconvenience, particularly with an indoor aquarium. TI have seen
scores of recipes for stopping and fixing the glass, and have tried
several of them, but still feel doubtful as to which is the best. The
following is a good one: Mix two parts each of litharge, plaster of
Paris, and very fine sand, and one part of powdered resin. Then
make this into a putty with boiled linseed oil and a little driers.
This cement will take a few weeks to harden.

Some writers recommend an aquarium which widens out at the
top; the object being to expose a larger surface of water to the air.
I cannot regard this form as a very sightly one, and the necessity
for the widened top disappears when the aquarium is properly
‘stocked. It may be observed, however, that all aquaria, of what-
ever form, should be wide in proportion to their depth.

Now, supposing that the vessel is chosen and procured, how shall
we proceed to make the necessary preparations ? First obtain from
a neighbouring pond or stream a sufficiency of bottom mud to form
a layer about two inches deep. I have seen ordinary garden soil
recommended for this purpose, but it is more likely that the mud
taken from the pond or stream whence we are to obtain our stock
of animal and vegetable life will satisfy the requirements of the in-
habitants than soil obtained from any other source.

We are now ready for the aquatic plants; and here again we
must study the requirements of Nature. Some thrive best in swift
waters, and others in sluggish streams and pools. The same remark
applies also to the animal life, and especially to fishes. Therefore,
specimens that have been caught in running water should be kept
under the same conditions; and creatures obtained from ponds
should not have frequent changes of water.

Some aquatic plants have well-developed roots, and require the
presence of either a muddy or a sandy soil; others, like the duck-
weeds, require no soil, but float on the surface of the water, deriving
all their nourishment direct from the air and the water. The former
should be properly set in the soil of the aquarium, which is then, if
at all muddy, covered with a moderately thick layer of well-washed
sand or shingle. The water is now allowed to run in gently till it
reaches within an inch or two of the rim.

If the side of the aquarium which is tuned to a window is of



8 ANIMAL LIFE

glass, it may be advisable to cut off much of the light entering at
that side.

A few rather large stones, loosely piled one on the other, are also
useful in providing hiding-places for such animals as require more
or less seclusion. =

It will sometimes be necessary to cover the top of the aquarium
with gauze to prevent the escape of some of the captives. Minnows,
for example, will often take a vigorous suicidal leap into the air,
and developing frogs, leeches, and the pupx of the dragon-fly
crawl up the glass above the water. But the watchful aquarium-
keeper will soon learn for himself when the gauze covering is
necessary.

We have now a very important matter to decide. Supposing
our aquarium to be stocked with pond life, how often will it be
necessary to change the water? Such a question is not to be
answered satisfactorily in a few words. We are all acquainted with
the ordinary ‘fish-globe,’ with its contracted top, stocked with a
few gold-fish, and placed on a table or suspended in front of a
window by way of ornament. And who has not seen the poor fish
skimming the surface of the water and gasping for want of air ?
The form of the vessel is such as to prevent the free aération of the
water, and no means have been arranged for a renewal of air.
Fishes and all gill-breathing animals are dependent entirely on the
supply of air dissolved in the water ; and without air they die as we
should. This being the case, we should always keep up a sufficiency
of dissolved air in an aquarium which contains gill-breathers.
Now, this may be done in two or three different ways. There
may be frequent changes of water, or the same water may be
aérated by some mechanical contrivance; or, thirdly, an appro-
priate amount of vegetable life may be introduced to maintain
what is called the balance of life.

The first of these methods is exceedingly troublesome, especially
when the aquarium is small and the demand on the air large ; for,
in this case, a change may be necessary every day; and, once for-
gotten, we are sadly reminded of our neglect by the sight of our
lifeless pets floating on the surface.

The second method is more satisfactory, but a little ingenuity
is required in fitting up the necessary apparatus. Either a current
of air is to be forced into the water, or a fine jet of the latter
is sent into the air. The better plan is to supply a very fine
fountain jet from a small cistern placed high enough to give the



PONDS AND STREAMS 9

required pressure. A waste pipe is not necessary, for the little
cistern may be refilled with water from the aquarium.

Personally, I have no delight in either of the above methods; for,
where the lack of vegetable life renders one or the other necessary,
the aquarium cannot be a very attractive object. The chief interest
doubtless lies in the varied movements and habits of the animated
creatures, but the general appearance is due principally to the beau-
tiful verdure and the graceful form of the plant life.

I will now point out a better way of aérating the water. Pro-
bably you know that plants as well as animals require air. But
there is this difference: Animals inhale the oxygen that is in the air,
and breathe out carbonic acid gas, while green plants take in carbonic
acid gas and give out oxygen. If, then, care be taken in regulating
the supply of aquatic plants, the animals will provide these plants
with carbonic acid gas, and in return will receive from the plants
the oxygen that they need; and the water of the aquarium need
seldom be changed. I have at the present time three vessels which
have had no change of water for over four months, and yet the
health of the animal inmates leaves nothing to be desired.

An aquarium should be put in a good light, but should never be
exposed to the direct rays of the sun for any length of time. Low
forms of vegetable life (Conferva) will make their appearance as a
green growth on the glass, especially if the light is strong. A little
of this does not mar the beauty of the scene at all; but it sometimes
becomes so dense as to be almost opaque. This growth may be re-
tarded considerably by reducing the intensity of the light. A sheet
of white or blue tissue paper pasted on the side of the glass which
receives the stronger light will prove very effective.

One word more about aquaria: let me recommend you to
depart from the old-fashioned plan of stocking your aquarium with
a few fish only, as if fishes were the sole inhabitants of the water.
Fishes are very interesting, some of them particularly so; but,
strange to say, those which eatbi the greatest variety of interesting
habits are seldom to be seen in aquaria. The eternal gold-fish is a
little overdone. Its colour is too bright when not relieved by a
blending of less gaudy tints, to be constantly before one’s eyes ; and
its movements are monotonous compared with the lively and
variable antics of many of our little finny friends. An aquarium
should be always a changing scene; and every outing should be the
means of providing new items in the entertainment,



10 ANIMAL LIFE

Maxine A START

We are now on our way, and we naturally inquire, ‘ Which are
the best kinds of ponds in which to search?’ My advice is: ‘Try
all” It frequently happens that a most unpromising pond or ditch
is full of interesting beings. Sometimes the black mud and brown
frothy scum are very uninviting, and the odour evolved on disturbing
the water repels us; yet a few dips may be rewarded by many a
beautiful specimen. On the other hand, a pond of clear water,
adorned with the lovely flowers and leaves of the water-lily and
crowfoot, may be comparatively barren. Frequently we can see the
objects we require, and aim straight at them with the net; at other
times we dip indiscriminately, and wonder what the result will be.
It is not wise, as a rule, to spend much time in walking round a
pond merely looking for moving forms at which to strike. Your
chances of success are much greater if you are constantly dipping
as you go. On reaching the bank of a pond, put out your net as
far as you can, and strike the surface of the water perpendicularly
with your net. Then drag it in along the bottom, being careful to
bring it well home on the vegetation, if any, bordering the banks.
Always make for tufts of weeds and submerged grasses, for many
animals seek shelter under these, especially after the water has been
disturbed bya few strokes of the net. After a few dips, turn out the
whole contents of the net—mud, weeds, snails, worms, beetles,
larvee, spiders, and a host of other things—on a piece of bare ground ;
and, after turning up a few inches of your coat-sleeves, proceed to

examine the mass most carefully, and put in boxes the specimens
selected.

| LEECHES

It is probable that most of my readers do not possess such a
‘luxury as a compound microscope, and for this reason I have thought
it advisable to pass over all the interesting microscopic inhabitants
of our ponds and streams. This I do with very great reluctance,
since these minute creatures are quite as beautiful and just as enter-
‘taining as the more conspicuous aquatic animals. Let those who
have a microscope make a free use of the dipping-bottle I have de-
scribed, and they will find innumerable treasures in the stagnant
pool; and even those who have no better magnifier than an ordinary
pocket lens may derive much pleasure and profit in watching the
movements of these low forms of life,



PONDS AND STREAMS . il

We shall start, then, with the leeches, and pass from these to
the higher aquatic animals.

Several varieties of leeches inhabit our ponds and streams.
They are all soft-bodied animals, divided into a number of ring-like
segments like the common earthworm. They are parasites, deriving
all their nourishment by sucking the juices from the bodies of living
animals.

The Horse Leech is very common in our country. Many are
the fabulous stories which have been told about this harmless
creature, many ignorant persons considering it to be so poisonous
that nothing would induce them to handle one. It certainly has
teeth, but these are made of gristle only, and could not penetrate
the thinnest human skin. Nevertheless, these weapons can easily
wound the desh of the soft-bodied animals on which the leech feeds.
It lives principally on worms and grubs; but, failing these, it does
not hesitate to suck the blood of its own species. One of my cap-
tive leeches was bold enough to enter the shell of a large fresh-
water mussel; but it was a fatal venture. The mussel snapped its
shells together with a powerful gvip that almost severed the leech’s
body in twain. When the horse leech wishes to swim, it flattens
its body into a tape by means of a series of muscles which pass
from the upper to the lower surface. It then moves onward with
graceful undulating motions. ;

The Medicinal Leech, once common with us, but now rare, is
larger than the horse leech, and may be known by the broken





Fic. 6.—Tur Mepicrnan Lrecn.

yellow bands along its back. Its teeth are hard and sawlike, and are
worked with a rasping motion by a set of powerful muscles. It has
ten eyes, arranged in one curved line.



12 ANIMAL LIFE

FRESH-WATER MoLuuscs

The term ‘shell-fish’ is so unscientific that perhaps we had
better discard it altogether. The various animals included in this
category are not fish at all, nor are they even near relatives of the
finny tribe. The class name ‘ Mollusca’ is applied to an extensive
group of animals, all of which are characterised by a soft body,
usually inclosed in one or two shells. Most of them have not the
faintest trace of an internal skeleton.

The body of a mollusc is covered with a loose, thick, and slimy
envelope called the mantle, and this secretes the hard layer of limy
substance that forms the shell. A kind
of membrane on the floor of the mouth





Rvp Sten)
8 . a 5
NR vivivi| = bears, in many species, a large number of






i
hiellwhy : ,
RARARRASERARRRRIN — little teeth, arranged in recular rows; and

these constitute the rasp by which the
Fic 7.—Tue Trrru or f
A Motuvsc. creature grinds the vegetable matter on
which it feeds. Nearly all the molluscs
are aquatic, the majority of them inhabiting salt water; but some
inhabit fresh water, and must now be briefly considered.



The Fresh-wa ter Mussel

The fresh-water mussel (Anodon), shown on Plate VIII, is com-
mon in some of our ponds and rivers. It is one of the bivalves or
two-shelled molluscs, very similar to the common edible mussel in
form and appearance, but much superior in size.

This creature is easily kept in the aquarium, and is perfectly
harmless. Let us watch its movements and habits, after having
placed it on a bed of fine sand. At first its shells remain firmly
closed, but when it feels itself out of danger it thrusts out from

" between its valves a fleshy part called its foot. By means of this it
slowly turns itself over, and half buries its shells in the sand. As
it lies here with its valves gaping, we observe two open tubes slightly
protruding, and a very small quantity of carmine or other suitable
colouring matter placed gently near the Anodon will prove the
existence of two currents of water—one entering and the other leaving
its body through these tubes. By this méans the gills with which
it breathes are being continually bathed with fresh water.



PONDS AND STREAMS 13

Fresh-water Snails

Fresh-water snails are not only ornamental, but even useful, in
the aquarium. Some of them feed on the Conferve—the green
vegetation which sometimes covers the sides of the vessel so densely—
and consequently help to keep the glass clean.

All the snails belong to the Headed Mollusca, a division charac-
terised by the possession of a distinct head, with eyes and horns, or
feelers. They are all vegetable feeders, and the ‘rasp’ formed by
their numerous small teeth aids them in securing their food. The
front portion of this rasp does the chief work, and is, consequently,
soon worn down ; but the strip of gristle on which the teeth are set
is continually growing towards the front, thus renewing the worn
part.

The shells of snails are coiled into a spiral, due to the unequal
growth of the body, one side growing faster than the other.

The largest British water-snail is the Palwdina (Plate VIII), which
sometimes reaches a length of nearly two inches. It is to be found
in the quiet nooks of many of our southern rivers, and, less abun-
dantly, in other parts. Its eyes are placed on the extremities of
short stalks. This snail brings forth its young alive, for the eggs are
hatched while yet within the body of the parent. When disturbed
it retreats within its shell, and then closes the aperture with a horny
lid (operculwm), similar to that of periwinkles and whelks.

On Plate VIII you will see a figure of another large snail (Limnea
stagnalis), which is very common in stagnant pools and sluggish
streams; and the common Peregra of the same family, found in
similar situations. On the same plate you will also see a repre-
sentative of the flat spiral molluses (Planorbis), of which there are
several species.

Sometimes water-snails lay their eggs on the glass of the
aquarium, in which case the gradual development of the young
may be easily watched with the help of a magnifying lens.

The table of classification given in the chapter on ‘ Snails and
Slugs’ includes both the terrestrial and aquatic molluscs, and will
assist the beginner in the arrangement of his collection of shells.
The few hints given in the same place on the preservation of mol-
luses also apply to the aquatic species.



14° ANIMAL LIFE

FRESH-WATER CRUSTACEANS

Before examining the fresh-water species of this group it will be
well to learn the general characteristics by which we may recog-
nise its members. ‘The bodies of all the Crustacea are composed
of a number of ring-like segments jointed together, all the segments
being constructed more or less on the same general plan. Each
segment bears a pair of limbs. Sometimes two or more of these
rings are fused together so completely that the divisions are no
longer to be seen; bu. in such cases the limbs always remain quite
distinct, and thus reveal the true or original number. The Crus-
taceans have no internal bony skeleton, but are protected by a skin
which has either become horny, or else hardened by limy substance.

Our common aquatic species include the Crayfish, the Fresh-
water Shrimp, Water-fleas, and Cyclops.

The Crayfish

The River Crayfish (Astacus fluviatilis), which closely re-
sembles the common lobster, is plentiful in many of our rivers. Its
skin is hardened by carbonate of lime, which is extracted from the



Fic. 8.—Tur Crayrisu.

water ; and as this condition is absolutely necessary for the preser-
vation of the animal, we find crayfishes abounding most in the
rivers of limestone districts.

During the winter crayfishes spend much of their time in bur-
rows which they excavate, or in natural crevices in the banks of the
streams ; and large numbers may sometimes be dug out of these
hiding-places during the cold weather. In milder weather they



PONDS AND STREAMS 15

watch for their prey at the mouths of their burrows with horns ex-
tended, but dart backward with a rapid flap of their powerful tails
when danger threatens them. In summer they may be seen
walking about in shallow water during the cool hours of the evening,
but they hide themselves during the heat of the day.



Fic. 9.—Tue CrayrisH (UNDER-SURFACE).

Crayfishes are to be caught ina variety of ways. Baskets baited
with frogs or pieces of meat may be let down into the water and
hauled up at intervals. Like moths, they are said to be attracted
by lights during the night, and are then easily caught with a net.
But the most exciting mode of capture is that of wading in the river
and pulling the creatures out of their hiding-places by the horns;
also turning over the stones and chasing the retreating crayfish as



16 ANIMAL LIFE

it smartly flaps its tail with its face to the foe. This is the only
method I have tried myself, and recommend it as being a very
amusing and lively sport, especially as it often affords an opportunity
of testing the power of the creature’s claws.

We frequently meet with crayfishes having a limb much less’
than its proper size. This is generally the result of a fight—a kind
of sport in which crayfishes seem to derive as much pleasure as some
men. Again, if a limb is seriously injured, the animal snaps it off
at one of the joints above the seat of injury ; or, if caught by one of
its limbs, it will often voluntarily amputate that limb, and rapidly
retreat, leaving an inconsiderable portion of its body wriggling in
the hands of its captor. In either case a new limb is developed, and
at last becomes almost, if not quite, as large as the original.

The best way to keep crayfishes alive is to put them in a very
shallow trough with a supply of running water, and some loosely
piled stones to afford them hiding-places. As to diet, they are not
at all fastidious. They will dispose of water plants, carrots, turnips,
cabbage stalks, and other vegetables with a relish. But they are not
strict vegetarians by any means, for they will devour snails (shells
included), fish, meat, or poultry. The old hard and limy skin thrown
off during a ‘moult’ is crushed in the animal’s jaws, and utilised in
the formation of a new coat of armour. The female crayfish will
even devour her own offspring; and, yet more horrible, the male
will kill and eat his own spouse !

Other Crustaceans

Every young collector who has tried his luck in small streams
must have met with the lively little Fresh-water Shrimp. A number
of these: should be put into the aquarium for observation, not only
because their movements are interesting, but also on account of their
usefulness as scavengers. They are not at all particular as to diet,
and greedily devour all kinds of decomposing matter that would tend
to make the water putrid. In structure they rather closely resemble
their salt-water cousins —lobsters, shrimps, and prawns—and, like the
females of these marine relatives, the fresh-water shrimp carries her
eges under her abdomen.

If you examine the water that has been dipped oat of a stagnant
pool by simply holding it up to the light, you are almost sure to see
a number of little creatures, varying in size from a sixth of an inch
downwards, darting about actively in all directions. These are the
Water-fleas and Cyclops, both of which may be kept in an ordinary



PONDS AND STREAMS 17

bottle for a great length of time without the slightest’ attention, and
be examined at leisure with a magnifying glass. It must not be
supposed that the water-flea is in any way related to the obnoxious



Fie. 10.—A Warter-rnna, Fic. 11.—A Cyctors
MAGNIFIED, CARRYING ITs Hua-sacs.

parasite of a similar name, for both it and the cyclops are crustaceans,
while the flea is an insect.

WaTER SPIDERS AND MITES

Spiders and Mites, together with various other small creeping
and flying creatures, are often regarded as belonging to the insect
world, but in reality they form quite a distinct class (the Arachnida),
differing from all insects in several important particulars. If you
examine a spider, you will see that its body is composed of two dis-
tinct parts. The foremost division consists of the head and thorax
(chest) combined, and the large and globular hinder portion—the
abdomen—is joined to this by a very slender waist. Spiders may
also be distinguished by their four pairs of legs. They all breathe
by means of a system of air-tubes, which communicate direct with
the atmosphere. The eyes, which are not compound like those of
insects, are arranged in little clusters on the front of the head. If
the reader will compare these few characteristics with those of
insects (p. 20), he will at once perceive the reason for the separa-
tion of the two creatures into distinct divisions of the animal
kingdom,



18 ANIMAL LIFE

The most interesting of the water spiders is undoubtedly the
Argonaut or Argyroneta, more commonly known as the water spider.
This creature was at one time quite plentiful, but is now compara-
tively scarce, owing, it is said, to the vigorous search made for it by
naturalists and the ‘dealers.’ We can quite understand that the
disclosures of the wonderful instincts of this spider would make it





Fic. 12.—Warer Spiers.

quite a pet with aquarium-keepers, but perhaps a lesson may be
learned from its almost wholesale destruction.

-, The Argyroneta may sometimes be found among the contents
of the net, but it is also to be seen exploring the banks of ponds and
streams in search of food. It constructs a dome-shaped cell of silk’
beneath the surface of the water. This cell is moored to water plants
by means of silk threads, and is fixed with its mouth downwards,



PONDS AND STREAMS 19

just after the fashion of a diving-bell. Having finished the construc-
tion of this little dwelling, it rises to the surface, and thrusts the
tip of its abdomen out of the water. Then, by a sharp snap of its
hindermost legs, it detaches a bubble of air; and, holding this
securely between its limbs and its hairy body, it descends to the
dome, looking like a ball of silver as it goes down, thrusts its abdo-
men under the rim, and sets the bubble free. The air is at once
caught in the cell, and, after about a dozen such journeys, sufficient
has been collected to supply the spider’s wants.

The argonaut feeds on all kinds of aquatic insects, and sometimes
travels considerable distances from home in search of its prey, but
always returns to its dome to suck the juices of its victim. The meal
being over, it rests awhile with its head downwards, thus exposing
the breathing tubes of its abdomen to the air, and at the same time
keeping strict guard over its habitation.

The eggs of the argonaut are laid in a silken cocoon at the top
of the dome ; and here the young, about a hundred in number, remain
till they are strong enough to construct domes for themselves.

Other water spiders frequent
our ponds and sluggish streams,
but none of them construct a
sub-aquatic home like the species
above described.

Mites resemble spiders in
form, and may generally be
known by their four: pairs of
legs; but some of them, during
their earlier stages, are seen
with only two or three pairs of
limbs properly developed. These
little creatures are sometimes
seen swimming freely in the Fie. 13.—Warer Mrre,
water, or creeping along the HIGHLY MAGNIFIED.
leaves and stems of the water
weeds; but some of them, especially when young, are unable to
get about without assistance, so they attach themselves to the bodies
of water beetles and water scorpions, thus obtaining a very con-
venient ride at an extremely low fare.



NY

it i
1} amemay sil
AM ii Hy ini

C2



20 ANIMAL LIFE

FRESH-WATER INSECTS

We now come to the class Insecta, the most numerous and the
most highly developed of all the animals without backbones. These
are so widely distributed that it is almost impossible to find a place
in which they do not live. The summer air is full of their hum;
every little pond harbours its thousands, every crevice in the soil
or the solid rock provides them shelter, every tree and shrub
supplies them with food; and many seek shelter in the habitation
of man.

The term insect is applied by the uninitiated alike to all small
animals. Spiders, mites, centipedes, and woodlice are all popularly
known as insects. But let us see what an insect really is. The
name is derived from two Latin words which signify ‘cut into,’ and
itself marks one of the chief distinguishing characteristics of the
whole class, for the bodies of all insects are distinctly divided into
three parts—the head, the thorax, and the abdomen—and the de-
pression between these parts is often so deep that they appear to be
connected by a mere thread. Look, for instance, at the very slender
neck of the house-fly, and the thin waist of the wasp.

Insects also undergo changes of form (metamorphoses). Thus,
from the egg is hatched the larva or grub. This, when full grown,
changes into the pupa, or chrysalis, from which emerges the imago,
or perfect insect.

The larve, as a rule, are voracious feeders, and grow very
rapidly, undergoing a series of moults or changes of skin. When
fully grown they cease to eat, and, after casting their skins for the
last time, change into the pupal state, usually concealing themselves
underground, or in a cocoon of silk or other material which they
construct for their protection.

The pupa is usually very inactive, and eats nothing ; but a change
is gradually taking place within it, for the organs of the perfect in-
sect are in process of formation. At last the time arrives for the
final metamorphosis. It breaks its loosened skin, struggles out of
its burrow or cocoon, and seeks a place where it can expand and
dry its wings. It is now the perfect insect or imago, endowed
usually with enormous powers of flight, and capable of propagating
its kind.

The perfect insect has always three pairs of legs, one pair being
appended to each of the three segments which form the thorax.



PONDS AND STREAMS 1

Many, like flies and gnats, have but one pair of wings, always jointed
to the middle segment of the thorax. Others, such as butterflies
and moths, possess two pairs, attached to the second and third seg-
ments. Others, again, like fleas and lice, have no well-developed
wings for flying.
Allinsects have one
pair of antenne, with
some, very conspicuous
and exquisitely formed,
but with others, so
small as to escape
general observation.
Insects are further
characterised by the
peculiarity of their
breathing apparatus,
which consists of a set
of air-tubes called tra-
chee, kept open by an
elastic thread coiled
spirally, just like the
wire in an india-rubber
gas-pipe, and communi-
cating with the outside
air by openings. in the
skin called sptracles.
Having now ob-
served the chief marks





Fic. id.— GRASSHOPPER, SHOWING THE StTRUC-
e 5 TURE AND ComposiITION oF AN INSECI’S
by which insects are Bopy.

distinguished from all

other animals, we are ment; e, foremost pair of legs; J, middle segment of
7 ae ‘ thorax ; g, foremost pair of wings ; h, second pair of
in a position to define legs ; i, hindmost segment of thorax’; j, posterior pair

a, head; b, eye; c,antenna; d, thorax, foremost seg-

precisely what an in- of wings; &, third pair of legs ; ab, abdomen.

sect is. It is a jointed

animal, with a body of three divisions, undergoing metamorphoses,
having always three pairs of legs in the perfect state, and breathing
by means of trachew.

Water Bugs

We will start our observations on the aquatic insects with a brief
notice of the Water Bugs (Hydrocorisa). These have very short



22 ANIMAL LIFE

antenne, almost concealed beneath the eyes. The front legs are
not very long, and are capable of being folded in such a manner as
to be useful in seizing and holding their prey.

The family of Water Boatmen (Notonectid@) is very well known,
especially the Common Boatman (Notonecta glauca), which may be
found among the net haulings from ponds
almost everywhere. These insects are
happily named, for they are decidedly
boat-shaped, and the hind legs, which are
about twice as long as the others, stand
out at right angles like the oars of a
boat, and are provided with fringes of
stiff bristles for blades. The Latin name
is also well applied, for Notonecta means
Fic. 15.—Warter Boarman ‘back swimmer,’ and all the members of

(Glaaca). the family swim on their backs. These

insects should be watched in the aqua-

rium, for their movements are extremely interesting. They pad-

dle themselves about with great activity, always nicely ‘ feathering’

their oars by depressing the bristles after every stroke. When

taken out of the water they act very clumsily, sometimes walking

with their four short legs, and dragging their oars behind them,

and often giving a succession of leaps by a sharp motion of the

latter. During the night they often leap out of the water and
take short flights from pond to pond.

The boatman is a carnivorous insect, feeding on any living
thing which it is strong enough to conquer. It holds its prey firmly
with its front legs, and, after stinging it to death with its sharp beak,
proceeds to suck its juices till nothing is left but an empty skin.
The beak is also used as a weapon of defence, as I have proved
many times when holding these creatures in the hand. It will
pierce the skin, producing a sharp pain like the sting of a bee, but
not so intense.

It breathes by means of an air cavity between the wings and the
upper surface of the body, and often reposes on its back with the
tip of the abdomen just above the water, so as to allow this cavity
to.communicate with the atmosphere. Sometimes, however, it will
seek another experience by turning itself over and basking in the hot
sun with its back out of the water.

The boatman spends all its three stages in the water. The larva
and pupa both resemble the perfect insect in general form, but the





PONDS AND STREAMS 23

larva has no wings, and those of the pupa are imperfectly developed.
The eggs may be found in spring on the leaves of water plants, and
the young larve are hatched in April or May.

The Coriva is very similar to the Notonecta in form and habits,
but is not nearly so common.

























































































Fie. 16.— Corizxa, Fic. 17.—Tur Water
SLIGHTLY ENLARGED. Scorpion.

The Water Scorpion (Nepa cinerea) forms a bold contrast to
the pretty and active boatman. It is a very unsightly and sluggish
creature, delighting in stagnant and fcetid waters. The term ‘scor-
pion ’ has been applied to it on account of the scorpion-like appear-
ance of the front pair of legs, which are bent round towards the
mouth to serve as a pair of pincers. Its body is flat and leaf-like,
and of a colour resembling that of the mud in which it lies concealed
when watching for its prey.

When the water scorpion is at rest you will notice that it is
either on the mud in very shallow water, or on water plants near
the. surface, with its long and pointed ‘tail’ thrust upwards so
that the end projects out into the air. This ‘tail’ is really a pair
of grooved rods, which, when placed together, form the creature’s
breathing tube.

The scorpion does not eat its prey, but sucks out all the juices
from its body. I have before me, as I write, a vessel containing
about a dozen water scorpions, and about the same number of the
dead larve of the dragon-fly. The latter have been killed by the
scorpions, and their dead bodies, which have not lost their original
form, have been sucked till they are transparent.

Our next example of the water bugs (Ranatra linearis) is
quite a graceful object compared with the ugly Nepa. It is also



24 ANIMAL LIFE

far more active, and will sometimes boldly defend itself against its
enemies.

All insects have very light bodies, and even in cases where the
build seems bulky and heavy, a great deal of the interior is occupied























































































































































































































































































































































Fia. 18.—Ranatra.

by air-sacs and air-tubes. A certain group of the bugs (Hydro-
metrid@) have bodies so very light that they actually run on the

ta



{
Fic. 19.—A Warer Gyar Fic. 20.—WateEr Gnat
(Hydrometra argentata), MAGNIFIED. (A. gibbifera), ENLARGED.

surface. These are the Water Gnats, which we see during the sum-
mer in almost every pond.

Let us catch one of them, and examine its wonderful feet. The
microscope shows that they are covered with fine velvety hairs,



PlateIl.



Aewngh. mM CAAA

aks ERS
PUY RTD RRND
TTS OEE SONS
BIAS ORS
each) SY WOES

s a



MANMART Lites



PONDS AND STREAMS 25

which, like the feathers of the duck, will not become wet, and are
resisted by the water beneath them with sufficient force to support
the body of the owner. As we watch them on the water we observe
that they run on fwo legs as we do, using for this purpose the
middle pair. The front. legs are always held out in readiness to
seize their prey, and the hind pair, projecting backwards, form the
steering gear.

Some of the water gnats fly well, and when they alight on the
surface of the water they may be seen folding their hind mem-
branous wings, and tucking them snugly under the front horny pair
with their legs.

Aquatic Nerve-winged Insects

This order, the Newroptera or Nerve-winged Insects, is so
named on account of the delicate network of nervwres which sup-
port the transparent membrane of the wings, giving them a beautiful
lace-like appearance.

The group includes the beautiful Dragon-flies (Libellule), with
wings of such delicacy, and colours so brilliant, as to make them in
no wise inferior to the butterflies in beauty.

In many parts they are known as horse-flies or horse-stingers,
on the supposition that they are guilty of annoying horses and
cattle; but this is wrong, for they live entirely on insects, and have
no occasion to attack quadrupeds.

Several species inhabit our country, some of which are shown on
Plate I, but they resemble each other so closely in structure and
habits that the following account applies almost equally to all.

The larve may be dredged out of our ponds, where they lie
concealed in the mud, with their large and prominent eyes on the
look-out for their prey. Their jaws are covered with a peculiar
‘mask,’ which can be thrust out till it is about half the length of the
body. This mask is really an enlarged lower lip, extending back-
wards on the front lower portion of the thorax, and is provided with
a pair of jaws or pincers, with which the larva seizes its prey.
Thus the creature can lie motionless and unseen in the mud, and
seize its unwary victims by simply shooting out its mask.

These larve have a very remarkable breathing apparatus, which
serves also as a means of locomotion. The breathing cavity lies
along the back of the abdomen, and if you watch one at rest you
can see this cavity pulsating regularly. But now disturb it, and it
will make a sudden dart without moving a limb, just as if it had



26 ANIMAL LIFE

been pushed on by some magic force. Now put the larva ina glass
of clear water with very fine sand at the bottom, and you will
notice that each time the creature darts forward a little cloud of
sand is shot backward. Thus the secret is revealed: the larva
suddenly contracts its breathing cavity, forcibly ejecting the water
it contained, and the recoil starts the body in the opposite direction.

The pupa of the dragon-fly is very similar in appearance to the
larva, but may be distinguished at once by the short imperfect wings.



Fig, 21.—Larva or DraGon-Fuy, SHOWING THE MASK, AND THE
Prerrecr INSECT EMERGING FROM THE PUPA-CASE.

Unlike most pup, it retains the voracious habits of the larva.
After the dragon-fly has spent about eleven months in its two
preparatory stages, living all the time in water, it climbs up the
stem of a water-weed to prepare for its final change. Here the
pupal skin splits along the back, and the perfect insect gradually
works itself out of its old coat, and leaves it still attached by the
claws to the plant. The perfect fly now remains suspended on the
weed till its beautiful wings have expanded and dried. This does



PONDS AND STREAMS 27

not take long, and, as soon as the wings are sufficiently stiff, the
dragon-fly begins its short aérial life.

The flight of some of the larger dragon-flies is so rapid that it
is very difficult to catch them on the wing. They dart abaut,
chasing, tearing to pieces, and devouring all kinds of insects. They
have the remarkable power of suddenly reversing the action of their
wings, so that they can stop quickly and dart backward in the air.

The jaws of the dragon-fly are very powerful. It will allow itself
to be fed while held in the hand by the wings, but probably it is
anger rather than hunger that prompts it, for it will savagely chew
up small sticks and straw when brought within its reach.







AAS

a
SS

id



Tic. 22.—Tur May-rry. Fic. 23.—Larva oF Fic. 24.—Pura or
THE May-Fty. THE May-Fiy.

The May-fly (of the family Ephemerid@) has a life-history very
similar to that of the dragon-fly, but there are a few interesting
points of difference which we will briefly note. The eggs of this
insect are allowed to fall into the water, all being united into one
little mass. The larva burrows into the mud at the bottom of the



28 ANIMAL LIFE

pond or stream, and there feeds on decayed vegetable matter. If
you require these larve for the aquarium, you must dredge in some
of the pond mud with your net; or you may stir up the mud with
a stick, and then capture the larve which have been driven out with
the net.

After spending about two years in the larval and pupal states,
the insect leaves the water towards the close of a day. Its skin then
splits along the back, and out comes a rather heavy-flying insect,
which is called the false-imago, and settles at once on the bark of a
neighbouring tree. Here it rests for a time, after which the second
skin splits, and from it escapes the perfect and active little May-fly,
leaving the ‘ false’ skin still attached to the tree. The perfect May-
fly has no mouth, and requires no food, for it is destined to live for a
few hours only! It joins the merry company over the water’s edge,
and dances during the evening twilight with an incessant up-and-
down motion. Before the sun rises in the morning it has finished
its frolicking, deposited its little cluster of eggs, and fallen dead, with
all its playmates of the previous evening, either on the water or near
its edge. It has lived two years in its preparatory stages, but in its
perfect form it has, perhaps, not taken one single peep at the sun.



Fic. 25.—Cappis-Fuigs.

Our last example is the Caddis-fly, known also as the Cad,
Grannum, and Cockspur. This is well known to anglers, for both
the larva and the perfect insect are admirable for bait. The fly
itself is not swift on the wing like the dragon-fly, but it runs quickly,
and it can do this even on the surface of water. The chief interest,
however, lies in the larva, which constructs a home for itself out of
materials found in the water. It cements together pieces of stick,
sand, shells, dead leaves &e. into a little tubular habitation sufii-



PONDS AND STREAMS 29

ciently long to completely cover its body. Then the larva, knowing
that its soft, fat, white body is highly prized as a delicacy by the
fishes and predacious larve, never ventures to expose any portion
save its hard head and its legs; but this is sufficient to enable it to
walk about, while the claspers at its hinder extremity serve to fix it
to its ‘ case.’

Very interesting experiments may be performed to test the
building powers of the caddis larva. If you pull a few of them gently

















































































































































Fic. 26.—Cappis Cases.

out of their homes and place them in aclean glass of water, they will
construct new ones before your eyes, and of any material you may
please to give them. In this way I have obtained pretty little tubes
composed of glass beads, small pins, shells, &e.

Aquatic Two-winged Insects

This order (Diptera) contains a large number of insects, all of
which possess two transparent and veined wings. The hind pair
of wings is not in reality absent, but only imperfectly developed.
If you catch one of these creatures—the common blow-fly or daddy-
long-legs, for example—you will easily make outa pair of rod-like
and knobbed structures just behind the bases of the wings. These
are the halteres or balancers, supposed to be of great assistance in
regulating the flight, and are the representatives of the hind pair of
wings in other insects. The Diptera are further distinguished by
the size of the eyes. These are always very large comparatively, and,
in some instances, certainly make up the greater part of the head.

Most of the two-winged insects are inhabitants of the land and
air only, but a few very interesting species are more or less aquatic
in their habits, and will therefore be best considered now.

The troublesome little gnat (Culex pipiens) is a well-known
example. Let us look briefly into its wonderful structure and



30 ANIMAL LIFE

history. Catch one of these sportive little creatures and place it
under the microscope, and you cannot but regard it with wonder,
Even the instrument with which it wounds us is sure to call forth
our admiration. The exquisitely tinted scales which adorn the
wings and the beautiful feathered antenne of the male are always
favourite objects with microscopists. The male gnat is a perfectly
harmless fellow ; but look at the instrument of torture that arms hig
mate. It is a little case, consisting of two parts, and containing a
bundle of lancets which can not only pierce through our skin, but
also inject an irritating liquid into the wound.

If you want to study the life-history of the gnat you need go no
farther than the open water-butt. Here youmay see Mrs. Gnat with
her fore legs on a floating straw or weed, her middle legs resting on
the water, and her hind legs carefully arrang-
ing her new-laid eggs into the form of a little
boat. One by one she lays the eggs and
glues them together. When she has finished

Fic. 27.—Eacs or ber labours you may examine the little float-

THE GNAT, MAGNIFIED. ing boat. Ruffle the surface of the water

and it will not turn over. Turn it completely

over and it will immediately right itself again. So here it remains

on the surface, probably deriving benefit from its double exposure
to air and water. :

Shortly the young -larvee appear, and you may observe their
transparent bodies at the top of the water, with the breathing tubes
just above the surface. When fully grown the larva changes to the
pupa. It is now avery different creature. Its back is humped, and
the hump is raised slightly out of the water, for it has now discarded
its old breathing tube, and receives its air supply by means of two
appendages on its back. It does not eat, nor could it if it wished,
for its pupal skin completely covers its mouth. Yet it is active,
and may be seen wriggling about in the water, alternately
straightening and bending its body.

Now comes the final transformation scene. The pupa raises its
back out of the water. The portion of the skin thus exposed be-
comes dry and splits. The rent enlarges rapidly, and the dry skin
opens so as to form a little boat. Little by little the perfect gnat
emerges from its torn garment—first the head, then the thorax, and
finally its abdomen. The gnat now raises its body till it looks as if
the boat were supplied with mast and sail. Then it leans over and
rests its front legs on the surface of the water, which is sufficiently





PONDS AND STREAMS 31

firm to support its fragile body. Watch it a little longer and you
can see its wings expand. Soon they are dry and rigid, and ina
moment the gnat is frolicking in the air.

































Fic. 28.—Tur Sracus or tHe Guat, sHowinc THE Larva, Pura,
Perrect INsEcr EMERGING, AND MALE AND FEMALE FLYING.



32 ANIMAL LIFE

Aquatic Beetles

The Coleoptera, or Horny-winged Insects, are well represented
in our ponds and streams. Dip your net into any weedy pool, and
you will almost invariably turn out a few species of ‘ water beetles.’
Put them all in a tin box or can with plenty of wet weed—no water
being necessary for their transmission—and, on arriving-home, throw
the whole into a large vessel of water, and observe them at your
leisure. You will probably find among them species ranging from
about a twelfth of an inch to considerably over an inch in length.
Observe how actively they dart about. Their bodies are smooth
and boat-shaped, so that they are enabled to move through the water
with but little resistance. The hind legs are long and fringed, and
are used exactly after the fashion of a pair of oars. Take one of the
insects in your hand, and gently lift up the horny outer wings (the
elytra), and beneath will be seen the neatly folded transparent wings
used in flying. Notice, too, their powerful horizontal jaws, and you
will not be surprised at their-voracity. You may feed them on
worms, fishes, frogs, insects, or any kind of meat, raw or cooked ;
but, if not well supplied, they will soon take to eating one another.

The water beetles generally remain in the pools and streams
throughout the day, but often make long excursions from one patch
of water to another during the night. In some cases their flight is
somewhat lofty, and when they find themselves vertically over a
favourable piece of water, they seem to_let themselves drop into it.
Many a water beetle has been deceived on a clear night by the re-
flection of the moon’s rays from glass, and has fallen with a crash
on the roof of a greenhouse.

The finest of our carnivorous water beetles is the Great Water
Beetle (Dyticus marginalis), a very interesting object for the
aquarium. It is very common in ponds, and its voracious larva
may be dredged in with the mud and weeds. Those who keep the
Dyticus in captivity must remember its nocturnal habits. If the
aquarium contains much floating weed, the insect can get a foothold
to enable it to start its flight; but this may be prevented by a
covering of gauze. The attitude of Dyticus when at rest is a curious
one. When undisturbed it keeps at the surface, with its head in-
clined towards the bottom, and the tip of its abdomen just a little
out of the water, and thus it remains perfectly still, ‘resting on its
oars.’ It is watching for some dainty morsel with which to satisfy
its keen appetite. But why this curious attitude? When the beetle



PONDS AND STREAMS ag)

dives beneath the surface you will observe a bubble of air entangled
between the tip of the abdomen and the elytra, shining in a strong
light like a globule of quicksilver. This is the supply of air fur its
respiration, and must, of course, be renewed at frequent intervals ;
but as long as the Dyticus remains at rest with its hinder extremity
just out of the water, there is a free communication between the
outer air and the breathing space beneath the elytra.

When you grasp a Dyticus in your hand, you will almost invari-
ably find it endeavouring to slip backward between your fingers,
and, unless your skin is moderately thick, you will probably learn
why. There are a couple of sharp spines underneath the abdomen
close to the hind legs. These are directed backward, and are thus
rendered serviceable by the movement of the beetle just mentioned.



Fia. 29.—Dyticus marginalis, Fic. 30.—Dyticus marginalis,
; Mater. FrMmar.

It has another peculiar means of defence. When irritated it dis-
charges a whitish fluid, of a very disagreeable odour; should any
of this touch the skin, something more than an ordinary wash will
be necessary to remove the objectionable perfume.

The larva attains a length of about two inches, and may be kept
in the same aquarium as the perfect insect. In ponds it often lies
concealed in the mud, and, being of much the same colour as this
mud, it is not easily seen by the unwary beings who live in danger
of its hungry jaws. It breathes by means of a pair of frmges wh’ ch
you will observe at the end of its tail, When it dives beneath the
surface it carries down a small supply of air entangled among the
hairs of this fringe; but it often rests at the surface in an inclined
position like the perfect insect, with the tail-fringe projecting a little
above the water. ‘The larva is as voracious as the perfect form, and

D



84 ANIMAL LIFE

by means of its hollow jaws it will suck the juices of its victims,
leaving little more than an empty skin.

When about to change to the pupa, it creeps up the bank of the
pond, burrows into the damp earth, and constructs a little oval cell



Fra. 81.—Larva or Dyticus. Fia. 32.—Pupa or Dyticus.

in which to conceal itself. Ifthe weather is genial, it emerges as a
perfect Dyticus in about three weeks; but if the winter winds are
near at hand it takes a long nap in the pupal state, postponing its
final change till the warmth of the spring sun penetrates into its
cell.



Fia. 83.—Agabus biguttatus, F1a. 34.—Pelobius Hermanni,
MAGNIFIED. MAGNIFTED.

The Dyticus may be taken as a type of its family (the Dyticida),
two other members of which are figured (figs. 83 and 34); but our
limited space will not admit of even a short description.

There is another family of carnivorous water beetles—the Gyri-
nide—so named from their peculiar habit of whirling round and



PONDS AND STREAMS 85

round on the surface of the water. The best known among these
is the common Whirligig (Gyrinus natator), a little beetle, only a
quarter of an inch long, and of a blue-black colour. The whivligigs
are gregarious, and little com-
panies of them may often be
seen dancing a merry round in
some sheltered corner of a pond.
They feed on smaller insects,
but are themselves the prey of
the birds above and the fishes
below. In order to compensate
for this twofold peril, their eyes
are divided so that they look
like four. With the upper divi- Higsae ote < Ris Re eLanwa
sions they watch for enemies “Wyre. or tHe Warrwscrc.
above, and the lower portions

are submerged to enable them to see distinctly in the water.
Threaten them from above, and they dive rapidly to the bottom ;
but if in danger of some evil-disposed fish below, they jump up





Fie. 38.—Larva Fra. 39.— Pura or
or Piceus, Nov Piceus.
Fic. 37.—Piceus, Maur. FULLY GROWN. |

from their liquid playground and take to their wings. The larva,
shown in fig. 86, may be dredged out of ponds, and the cocoon may

D2



36 ANIMAL LIFE

be seen plentifully towards the end of summer, attached to the
leaves and stems of water plants.

Our last example of the water beetles isthe Black Water Beetle
(Hydrous piceus). This one is even larger than Dyticus ; in fact,
it is the largest of all the British Coleoptera, with the exception of
the beautiful ‘stag.’ It was once very plentiful in ponds and streams
round London ; but, being perfectly harmless to animal life, it has
become quite a pet with aquarium-keepers; and the consequent
demand for it has led to such a vigorous search on the part of the
dealers who call themselves naturalists, that scarcely a specimen is
now to be found. The female Picews is provided with a spinning
apparatus at the tip of her abdomen; with this she constructs a
turnip-shaped cocoon on the stem of a water plant, in which she
deposits about fifty eggs. As soon as the young larve are hatched
they make for the water, where they feed on molluscs and other
aquatic animals till they attain a length of three inches.

FRESH-WATER FISHES

All the species of aquatic animals which we have described
belong to the great division Invertebrata—animals without back-
bones; and, in passing onward from the insects to the fishes, we
leave this division for the Vertebrata, or animals possessing back-
bones. Perhaps, then, at this stage, we cannot do better than
spend a short time in noting the chief characteristics which dis-
tinguish these two primary groups of the animal world. None of
the beings previously mentioned have internal skeletons; but the
Vertebrata, which include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and
mammals or milk-giving animals, all have some kind of internal
framework, the chief part of which is termed the backbone or
vertebral column.

This vertebral column generally consists of a large number of
separate bones (vertebre) placed together end to end, thus forming
a long, flexible axis, extending throughout the length of the trunk of
the body.

The backbone, being hollow, forms a kind of tube, through
which a great nerve (the Lian cord) proceeds from the base of the
brain.

In the Vertebrates, too, we observe a great cavity in front of (or
below) the backbone—the cavity which holds the organs of digestion
and circulation; while in the Invertebrate animals, with no bony



PONDS AND STREAMS 37

column, the nervous system (if any) has no separate tube, but shares
the great cavity with the various internal organs.

Fishes constitute the lowest class of the vertebrates. They are
all aquatic animals, and their structure is, in all cases, peculiarly
adapted for their native element. The round-bodied fishes always
taper at both ends, and the flat-bodied species always present sharp
edges to the water as they move along; and thus the resistance
offered to their movements is but slight.

Beneath the backbone, in the fore part of the body, are a
number of ribs, arranged in pairs, surrounding the internal organs.
The limbs are fanlike fins, usually four in number, and arranged in
pairs, corresponding with the two pairs of limbs in the higher verte-







W/) ™/-9'—¢
KK
VU WY

Fic. 40.—Sxenetoy or A Fisu (Perc).
d, dorsal fins ; v, ventral fin ; a, anal fin; », pectoral fin ; ¢, tail fin.

brates. Besides these there are fin rays extending along the back,
and also on the under-surface; but these are not to be regarded as
limbs, since they are merely extensions of the outer skin.

Fishes are all cold-blooded animals, their bodies being always
approximately of the same temperature as the water in which they
live. The heart consists of two divisions: one, the auricle, receiving
the blood from the veins; and the other, the ventricle, pumping the
blood to all parts of the body. At each circulation a portion of the
blood is forced through the gills for the purpose of being aérated.
Everyone has observed that fishes, while alive and in water, are,
apparently, drinking without intermission; but the water taken in
at the mouth at cach gulp does not pass into the stomach with the





38 ANIMAL LIFE

food: it is discharged through wide slits immediately at the back
of the head. In these slits are placed the gills—fringe-like organs,
ats richly supplied with blood-

vessels, and consequently of a
deep red colour. Here the
blood is separated from the
water by only a very thin and
transparent membrane—so thin,
indeed, that the dissolved air
which the water contains is
readily absorbed into the vital
fluid. Thus all fishes, together
with the gill-breathing inverte-
brates, are provided with an
apparatus by means of which
air is filtered from water, but
which is not capable of effectu-
ally aérating the blood when in
direct contact with the free air.
Some fishes live entirely at
the bottom of their watery ~
home, deriving their food from
smaller animals which conceal
themselves among the stones,
mud, and weeds; but others
are always suspended in the
water, and feed on beings which
swim about as freely as them-
selves. The former are heavier
than water, and could not rise
to the surface without some
effort. The latter, however, are
of the same specific gravity as
the water; and are, moreover,
provided with an air-bladder,
by which they are enabled to
regulate their specific gravity
according to the density of the
water at any particular depth

Fic. 41.—Oneans or a Fis (Carr). af which they desire to swim
br, gills ; c, heart ; J, liver 3 on, swimming or rest.
bladder ; ci, intestine.





PONDS AND STREAMS 39

The young fishes come from eggs, which are laid in enormous
numbers. It has been calculated that the roe of a single fish some-
times contains over a million eggs, and that if all the eggs of the
various species (more than twelve thousand in number) were to
develop into mature animals, our seas and rivers would soon become
so thickly populated that they would have no room to move. But,
thanks to their numerous enemies, the greatest of which are the

. fishes themselves, the majority of the young are devoured, and our
waters are thus prevented from becoming stagnant masses of
writhing and seething beings, struggling for the last share of food
and air.

Fishes for the Aquarium

Some of our fresh-water fishes thrive well in the aquarium, and
become very tame and interesting pets. They should always have
plenty of room, and, if you are to be very successful in their
management, you must keep them in their natural conditions as
near as possible. In all cases give them a liberal supply of
growing weeds. Those you catch in still ponds need seldom have
a change of water; but the captives from rapid streams should
have running water. See, too, that they are provided with their
favourite hiding-places. Some like thick tufts of weeds; others
prefer to hide in rocky holes, while several seek shelter under the
stones of a rugged bottom. All such points as these may be easily
settled by a careful observation of the fishes in their haunts. One
more general observation: Give your pets their natural food
when you can, but never more than is necessary. Flies, grubs, and
worms are favourite dainties with nearly all; but, failing these,
you may try fresh meat chopped very small, and an occasional
sprinkling of flour paste. You must remember, however, that all
excess of food will decompose in the water, rendering it putrid and
poisonous.

Many of our fresh-water fishes belong to the Carp family (Cypri-
nide), and of these the Common Carp may be taken as a type.
This fish (Cyprinus carpio) was once very rare in this country, and
was probably introduced from the Continent. It attains a length of
twelve or fifteen inches, and is exceedingly prolific, the number of
eggs in a single roe numbering over half a million. It inhabits
deep holes in the sluggish parts of our streams, and also thrives well
in ponds. Its food consists of worms and insects, and, with these-as
bait, the carp is easily caught. In winter it lies concealed in the



40 ANIMAL LIFE

mud at the bottom. This fish is very much desired for the aquarium
and smal! ponds, especially as it can be easily tamed.

The Golden Carp, or Gold-fish (Cyprinus awratus), is apparently
a universal favourite with aquarium-keepers. It was originally



Fic. 42.—Tuer Carp. i

introduced from China, and has now become so far acclimatised
that it does well in our ornamental waters.

The Minnow is deservedly a favourite, for it is not only one of
our prettiest river fishes, but is hardy and easily tamed.



Fic. 43.—Tur Mrynow.

Several other members of the carp family do well in captivity ;
but, unless your aquarium is a very large one, you must be satisfied
with young specimens only. The Gudgeon, Roach, Dace, and Bleak



Fic. 44.—Tur Guperon. »

are not difficult to manage, and their bright silvery scales will give
a pleasing contrast to the other fishes.



PONDS AND STREAMS 41

The common Loach (Cobitis barbatula) does not seem to be so
well known, nor have its interesting habits secured for it the popu-
larity it deserves as an aquarium pet. A few years since I caught
a few small loach in astream at the southern end of Epping Forest.



Fic. 48.—Tur Loacu. }

These I placed in my aquarium and was greatly pleased with their
movements. They are very heavy fish, and spend much of their time
at rest on the bottom ; but often would they rise to the surface, and,
after dragging themselves on to the floating leaves of a water-lily,



42 ANIMAL LIFE

somewhat after the manner of a seal when landing, they would bask
in the hot sunshine with their bodies partly out of the water. Ina
very few days they became so tame that they readily took their food
from the hand. The loach is a slimy fish, with six barbules at the
mouth. It may be caught by dragging a strong net along the bottom.

Of all the British fresh-water fishes none is so interesting as the
common Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), known popularly as
the Tittlebat, Tittlebrat, or the Tittler. There are several species of
sticklebacks, readily distinguished from each other by the number
_ of spines in the dorsal fin. The term gasterostews applied to all
signifies bone-bellied, and is given on account of the bony bands
which form a kind of coat of armour beneath. In addition to the
spines of the back, there are the two formidable weapons of the
breast (pectoral) fins, which, like the others, can be raised or de-
pressed at pleasure. The commonest species has three spines on
the back; another—a fresh-water fish—has ten; anda third, which
inhabits salt water, no less than fifteen dorsal spines.

Sticklebacks are easily kept in an aquarium, but they are very
pugnacious creatures, and must have plenty of space, or the
‘survival of the fittest’ will be demonstrated to perfection in a very
short time.

Should you wish to closely observe the habits of these interesting
creatures your best plan will be to secure one or two males, and a
dozen or so females, early in March, and transfer them to a large
glass aquarium, or, which is quite as good, a large tub. Give them
a plentiful supply of gravel or sand, and introduce some pond weeds
of any description.

During the greater part of the year the males and females are
hardly to be distinguished from each other, both being of a dull
greyish brown colour; but, as the breeding season approaches, the
male gradually assumes the brilliant colours which have earned for
him such names as ‘Soldier’ and‘ Fiery.’ His eyes then become
bright green; the back also assumes a brilliant green colour, and
the under-surface becomes bright red.

This change takes place in March or early April, and at this time
the male stickleback sets busily about domestic affairs. His first
work is to prepare a nest for the coming brood. In some cases this
nest is composed entirely of vegetable fibres, which he has collected
and woven into a kind of cylinder or barrel, open at both ends, and
so short that, when occupied by the parent, both head and tail may
be seen exposed. Sometimes, however, the nest is simply a hollow



PONDS AND STREAMS 43

scooped out in sand or mud, and covered over with interlacing
vegetable fibres. Seeing that the stickleback has no building tool
except his mouth, and no cement save the slime from his own body,
we are bound to admit that great credit is due to him for the clever
manner in which he prepares his snug little nursery.

The nest finished, his next business is to seek his mate. Having
met with a suitable bride, he induces her to enter the nest, some-
times, it is said, even resorting to force when his affections meet
with no encouragement. As soon as the female has deposited her
eggs she is turned out of the nest, and the master immediately starts



Fic. 49.—Tur Turen-servep Svicknepack anp Nusrt.

in search of another mate, who is called in to take the place of the
outcast. ‘This is repeated till the male is satisfied that the supply of
eggs is proportionate to the accommodation. He then closes the
ends of the nest, and rigidly guards it till the eggs are hatched, and
the young are strong enough to be allowed to roam into the world.

During the whole of this time the male ‘tittler’ will furiously
charge all the creatures, including even the larger fishes of the pond
or stream, who are so rash as to pass within a foot or so of the nest.
But as soon as the young have gone to shift for themselves, and the
duties of the nursery are thus brought to an end, he gradually loses
much of his pugnacity, and at the same time his brilliant colours
slowly fade away, to reappear in the following spring.

If you want to catch the Bullhead, known in parts as the Miller’s



44 ANIMAL LIFE

Thumb and the Tom Cull, you must look out for a shallow and rapid
stream with a pebbly bed. Raise some of the larger pebbles, one
by one, and at the same moment sweep your net rapidly towards it
against the stream. In this way you may obtain several in a. very



Fic. 50.--Trme Bunnyrap.

few minutes. You may keep these in your aquarium, but you will
not see much of them, for nearly the whole of their time is spent in
their hiding-places, and they seldom come out excepting when they
make a dash at their prey, or shuffle their heavy bodies from one
stone to another. Their food consists chiefly of insects and fresh-
water shrimps.

AMPHIBIANS

We cannot take leave of our ponds and ditches without devoting
a little of our space to the interesting amphibious animals—animals
which, although not strictly aquatic, yet spend more or less of their
existence inthe water. These include the Newts or Efts, Frogs, and
Toads.

Their life-history is as full of romance as is that of some insects.
They begin life as little fish-like creatures, spending the whole of their
infant period in the water, breathing by means of external fringe-
like gills. In this stage they further resemble fishes in the posses-
sion of a two-chambered heart, and they also own a pair of air-sacs
which correspond with the air-bladder of the fish. But as they ad-
vance in life a series of wonderful changes takes place, the fish-like
form gradually developing into a creeping or jumping quadruped.



PONDS AND STREAMS 45

The external gills slowly disappear and give place to an internal
pair hidden in clefts behind the head. But even these have only a
transitory existence, for they soon vanish and pass their function
over to a pair of true lungs which have been gradually evolved from
the air-sacs above mentioned. At the same time other transforma-
tions have been progressing. The two-chambered heart has deve-
loped into a more complicated organ with three cavities; the limbs !
have slowly made their appearance, first one pair, then another;
and the original tail has, in some families, been slowly but entirely
absorbed, while in others it has developed into a large, useful, and
ornamental appendage.

The skeletons of the higher Amphibians are well developed, the
build of the limbs in particular bearing a close resemblance to that
of the highest animals. The ribs, however, are either very short or
entirely absent.

The Amphibians, like fishes, are all cold-blooded animals, and
the blood is remarkable for the comparatively large size of the cells
(corpuscles) which it contains, those of the frog being one eight-



Fre. 51.—Tur Broop- Fie. 52.—Tue Heart or
CELLS OF THE F'Roa, THE Froa.
HIGHLY MAGNIFIED. a, auricles ; v, ventricle,

hundredth part of an inch in diameter. Small as these bodies
really are, yet they are large compared with the corresponding
corpuscles in the blood of other animals. The circulation of the
blood in the Amphibian may easily be traced. The upper portion
of the heart consists of two chambers—the auricles. One of these
receives the purified blood from the lungs, and the other the blood
from all other parts. Both are continually forcing this into the

* Some of the lower amphibians are entirely limbless.



46 ANIMAL LIFE

lower division—the ventricle—by a series of contractions or pulsa-
tions. The ventricle, in a similar manner, forces the blood through
the whole circulatory system, some passing to the lungs for an
additional air-supply, and the rest penetrating and bathing the other
structures. Thus in each circulation only a part of the blood of the
Amphibian is aérated.

We will now examine briefly the commonest of the British
Amphibians—

Newts or Efts

There are but two common species of Newts in our country, and
both these are more or less known by schoolboys, who speak of
them generally as Effers or Effets. I have also frequently heard
them called Lizards, especially when they have been seen wandering
about on dry land. They are certainly much like lizards in general
form, but may always be distinguished from these by the softness
and colour of the skin. I have met with many who suppose that
newts are never to be seen out of the water. But it is a fact that
they spend much more of their existence out of water than they do
in it. When on land, however, they always seek cool and shady
places; while lizards delight to bask in the hot sun, spreading out
their flattened bodies so as to expose a larger surface to his rays.

Strange tales have been and are still being told about the
venomous and fiery character of newts. Some of our country folk
aver that they can spit fire, even immediately on quitting the
water ; others tell horrible tales concerning the victims who have
succumbed from the effects of their poisonous fangs; and, according
to the accounts of others, many are the cattle that have been
poisoned through drinking the water of ponds and troughs which
were inhabited by newts. The country cottager who has lived out
his threescore-and-ten in close proximity to a pond annually fre-
quented by these dreaded Amphibians seems to be as ignorant
about them as anyone; and on more than one occasion have such
individuals looked at me with terror, and most earnestly entreated
me to desist while I have been engaged in collecting newts; and
the fear-stricken countenance has given place to an expression of
wonder when, after careful watching, it was observed that the venom
had had apparently no effect.

But, in spite of all that has been: said, the newts remain, as ever,
perfectly harmless and exceedingly pretty animals. ‘They have no
fangs and will not bite. Even if they did bite, they could not
possibly do the slightest harm.



PONDS AND STREAMS 47

The Great Warty Newt (Triton cristatus) is a beautiful creature,
sometimes attaining a length of over six inches. Its skin is covered
with little wart-like projections, and is marked with a number of
pores. The tail is flattened at the sides. The upper surface is of a
varied dark brown; on the sides are rows of white dots, and silvery
bands usually adorn the tail. But the chief beauty of the warty
newt is the bright yellow under-surface, which is boldly patched
with black. The female is rather larger than her mate, and the





















































































































































































Fic. 58.—Tur Grear Wanrty Newer.

Reduced in size,

latter has a beautiful waved crest along the back to the end of the
tail. It is only during the breeding season, however, that the crest
is to be seen in its fullest development ; for it disappears slowly, but
almost entirely, as this period closes and the summer approaches.

This newt hibernates during the winter months, and for the whole
of this time the lungs are inactive, the creature deriving the small
air-supply necessary for its indolent existence through its skin.

In March it takes to the water, and the best time io secure it for
observation in the aquarium is-towards the end of that month.
Early in April the female Cristatus lays her eggs, depositing them
singly on the leaves of water plants, and carefully covering up each
one by rolling the leaf round it with its paws. The egg is globular,



48 ANIMAL LIFH

and consists of a capsule, in which the white yelk floats in a colour-
less liquid. Outside the capsule is a covering of gelatinous substance,
by which the egg is fixed to the leaf. In three or four weeks the
young newt—known at this period as the tadpole—eats its way out
of its prison, and starts life in perfect independence. In about three
months the legs begin to appear—the fore pair first ; but it is at least
six months before the tadpole has completed all its metamorphoses.

In September all the newts, old and young, leave the water and
seek a safe hiding-place in some snug hole or corner where several
lie huddled together, occasionally straying abroad in suitable weather
in search of food. The yowng newt does not return to the water
till it is just three years old, at which age we may look upon it as
having reached maturity ; but it is not fully grown till the end of
the fourth year.





















































Fic. 54.—Tur Smooru Newt.

These creatures are very interesting in the aquarium, where they
may be fed on worms; and they will not, as a rule, interfere with
other inhabitants. It is necessary that they should be provided with
a landing-place where they can find a shelter quite out of the water.

The common Smooth Newt (Lophinus punctatus) is much
smaller than the last, seldom exceeding four inches in length. Its



PONDS AND STREAMS 49

skin is quite smooth. The colour of the male is light brownish-grey
above, spotted irregularly with black; beneath it is light yellow,
which changes to a brilliant orange, also spotted with black, in the
breeding season. The male is crested at this time, and is then a
beautiful creature. The female is only slightly spotted, and is not
nearly so pretty as the male.

The growth and habits of this newt are very sinilar to those of



Tia.-55.—Sraces In tHE Lire or A F Roa.

the last. Both species cast their skins at apparently irregular
periods. It is very interesting to watch this operation. As a rule,
the whole skin comes off in one piece, and the tiny gloves from
off the feet are quite perfect in form, though as delicate as the
finest gossamer. I have preserved a few of these cast skins in
dilute spirit, and find them in excellent preservation after several
years.
Bg



50 ANIMAL LIFE

Lrogs

Those who desire to watch the development of the Frog (Rana
temporaria), and to observe its habits, should begin by collecting
the eggs, which may be found in abundance in almost every pond.
Early in the spring the frogs quit their winter quarters and make
for the ponds, where they remain at rest during the day with



Fic. 56.—Tur Common Foc. Aw

heads just out of the water. During the night, however, they
are full of activity, and the air resounds with their music.

About the middle of March the female deposits her eggs at the
bottom of the pond. These are little black globular bodies, each
surrounded by a covering of transparent gelatinous substance, the
whole forming one irregular mass. ‘The gelatinous envelopes soon
swell up enormously by absorbing water, and then the mass rises to

the surface, where it remains till the larvee escape. In a few days



PONDS AND STREAMS 51.

the black embryo elongates and gradually assumes a fish-like form,
and may be seen moving about in the middle of its case. A few
days more and the eggs are hatched.

The newly emerged tadpoles are very active little creatures of
gregarious habits. They attach themselves to pond weeds by means
of little suckers just beside their mouths, frequently changing their
positions in the social gathering. At this stage they are vegetarians,
feeding on confervee and other low vegetable forms. As they gra-
dually assume the adult form, they lose their gregarious tendencies,
and swim about freely by means of the undulations of their flattened
and fringed tails. In their subsequent metamorphoses they differ
from newts in that the hind legs are the first to appear, and also in
the gradual absorption and ultimate disappearance of the tail. On
reaching the adult form they leave the water, and spend the

_remainder of the summer in the neighbourhood of the ponds, and
feed entirely on insects, worms, and other small animals.

A few of the structural peculiarities of the frog are worthy of
notice.. A well-developed web extends between the five long and
slender toes of the hind feet ; but the fore feet, which have only four
toes, are not webbed. The drums
of the ears are conspicuous be-
hind the eyes on each side. The
tongue, which is often used to
seize the smaller insects on which
it feeds, is attached to the front of
the mouth with its tip extending
backward. The teeth are very
small, and consist of a single row
in the upper jaw and two small
clusters on the roof of the mouth. = Pyg. 57. Tum ~Toxaur or run

The breathing of the frog is Frog.
performed exactly on the principle
ofa pair of bellows. At the nostrils are placed a pair of valves
which open inward, and the contraction of the muscular floor of the
mouth forces air into the lungs. Thus the frog may be choked by
keeping its mouth open, for the air can no longer be forced into the
lungs.



Toads

Many persons do not seem to know the difference between a
toad and a frog, and thus it is we hear the name of one so commonly
f EQ



52 . ANIMAL LIFE

applied to the other. Yet the distinguishing features of these
amphibians are so obvious that the common error is almost
inexcusable. The build of toads is very bulky and comparatively
clumsy, and the dull-coloured skin, instead of being smooth and
slimy, is drier and thickly covered with warts or pimples. The
toads, moreover, do not leap like frogs, but walk slowly with a very
awkward gait. The hind legs also are much shorter, and the hind
feet only slightly webbed. They have no teeth either in the jaws or
in the palate, and the gape of the mouth is much wider than in frogs.



















































Fic. 58.—Tur Common Toap. x

The imetamorphoses of toads are very similar to those of the
frog, but the eggs are generally laid a few weeks later, and are
fastened together in long double chains, instead of in irregular
masses. The tadpoles are also smaller than those of the frog.

Dreadful aud wonderful tales are told and believed concerning
this unfortunate creature. Its poisoned fangs, its venomous skin,
its fire-spitting propensities, the magic virtue and curative power of
the jewel in its head, and its enormous longevity are all accepted
as indisputable facts, except by those who have kept and closely
observed the toad, and thoroughly investigated into the alarming
and startling reports. There is certainly some small sprinkling of



PONDS AND STREAMS 53

truth in the statements made concerning its venomous character, for
its skin does certainly excrete an irritating fluid which is undoubtedly
harmful to certain animals; but, while the toad is thus protected
from the hungry jaws of animals to whom the frog is a luxurious
morsel, the poison remains perfectly harmless to the human skin.

The Common Toad (Bufo vulgaris) is easily domesticated, and
its habits—especially its mode of capturing and devouring its prey—
are very interesting. Its partiality for all kinds of insects has long
caused it to be regarded with favour by florists.

The Natterjack (Bufo calamita) is not nearly so widely distri-
buted as B. vulgaris, but is rather common in certain localities. It
may be known at once by the olive tint of its skin, and by the pale
yellow stripe running down the middle of the back. It is also more
active than its relative, and does not attain to the same large size.

PRESERVATION oF AQUATIC ANIMALS

Tt will now be desirable to dwell for a short time on the different
methods of preserving our aquatic specimens, and on the arrange-
ment of these into a useful collection for future study.

In many cases the real animal cannot be satisfactorily preserved,
but some non-living portion of its structure, which may in itself be
exceedingly instructive, and in many instances beautiful, can easily
be kept permanently intact.

Soft animals, and soft parts of animals, may generally be pre-
served indefinitely in spirit of wine. But it must be remembered
that this liquid has a great attraction for water ; and, consequently,
if the specimen be very soft and contain much water, the spirit will
extract a quantity of the moisture, thus causing it to shrivel up till
it is hardly recognisable.

Again, pure spirit is never necessary for mere preservation,
being equally effective for this purpose when mixed with its own
volume of water. My own plan is to keep a stock of small wide-
mouthed bottles, fitted with good corks; also a supply of diluted
spirit. It is then no trouble to bottle any specimen that is likely to
prove useful in the future, either for a museum collection or for
dissection. In this way one may soon get a useful collection of
molluses, crustaceans, fishes, amphibians, &c., always in good con-
dition for examination when occasion requires.

All the winged insects caught in and about the water should find
a place in the reader’s collection. Instructions are given for killing



54 ' ANIMAL LIFE

and: ‘setting’ these in the part devoted to Insect Hunting. The
water beetles in particular are well worth the trouble. Some of
these may be ‘set’ with their wings folded as we generally see
them, while others may have their wings expanded as in flying.
Most of their larve are rather soft-bodied, and cannot be dried with-
out losing their natural form. These are best preserved in diluted
spirit, and stored in small bottles or specimen tubes.

See that every specimen is properly and fully labelled, and that
it stands in its correct position with regard to the others. Each
drawer or box should be marked outside with the name of the class
or order to which its contents belong; and beneath each specimen
should be placed a label containing its name, locality, date, and
any other particulars considered sufficiently interesting.

How to prepare the Skeleton of a Frog

Among the various objects in a naturalist’s museum, few, if any,
will be more instructive than the collection of bones illustrating the
comparative build of the various animal frameworks. But whence
is such a collection to be obtained? ‘There are several methods of
preparing the skeletons of small animals, but all of them entail
operations of a more or less tedious and disagreeable character.
This, however, is nothing to the enthusiastic naturalist, who allows
no trifle to stand between himself and his anticipated prize. But
even those who have not sufficient enthusiasm to set them to work
at bone-cleaning may still hope to acquire a moderate collection of
useful specimens, which have already been prepared for them by
the natural decomposition of the softer parts of dead animals,
aided by the industry of nature’s scavengers—the insects.

I have many useful specimens, some of them complete skeletons
in good condition, which have been simply picked up from the spots
where their former owners died.

But the naturalist does not restrict himself to this haphazard
means of collecting his bones. He aims at obtaining a good typical
collection, as far as his means and his leisure allow, and finds it
useful to know how to set to work to obtain a complete skeleton, in
good condition, of any small animal.

We will now see how this is to be done in the case of the frog,
reminding the reader that the instructions given will apply almost
equally well to all the vertebrate animals of our ponds and streams.

First kill the frog, if alive, by shutting it in a vessel with a piece
of blotting-paper that has been moistened with a few drops of



PONDS AND STREAMS 55

chloroform, and then lay it out on a board. With a sharp knife in
the right hand, and a pair of forceps in the left, cut away the skin
and abdominal walls, and remove all the internal organs, being
very careful not to injure any of the bones or cartilages.

After the body-cavity has been cleared of its contents, the
muscles of the trunk and limbs may be attacked in a similar
manner; but the white ligaments that bind the bones together at the
joints must not be cut.

When the skeleton has
been roughly cleaned in
this way it may be put
aside out of doors, in a
dish of water, in some spot
where the unpleasant
odours arising from the
decomposition of the little
animal matter that re-
mains can give no offence.

At intervals of a few
days a gentle stream of
water should be allowed
to play upon it, to remove
any refuse, and loose
pieces of the perishable Fie. 59.—Sxenrton or rue F Roe.



matter should be removed

with the forceps or a soft brush. When, at last, everything has
decomposed with the exception of the bones, the cartilages, and the
ligaments, the skeleton may be gently removed from the water, set
in some natural position, and then allowed to dry. When quite
dry, any of the parts which may have become detached from the
general framework may be fastened in their proper places with a
little glue or cement.



56 ANIMAL LIFE

CHAPTER lI

INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING

Many of our insects have already been alluded to, but up to the
present we have confined our attention to the resident population
and the frequenters of our ponds and streams. We must now see
what can be done in other quarters; so for a time we quit the miry
banks and odorous mud, and wander through lanes and woods, and
try our luck in meadows and waste places. Our work now is
strictly entomological—that is, confined entirely to the insect world.
So we will set to work till we have put together all the necessary
paraphernalia, and then start off delighted with the thought that
we have at last been metamorphosed into real live entomologists.

The entomologist has a happy time of it, for there is no doubt
that he has selected for his study some of the most beautiful of all
animated beings; and he is continually finding something that is
entirely new to him.

Some insects are said to be positively ugly; others we regard as
extremely noxious to our persons; others, again, earn our enmity
for their extensive damages to our crops. But we must put aside
all such prejudices, if we would make ourselves acquainted with
the wonderful habits and marvellous structures and metamorphoses
of the chief divisions of the insect world.

A true entomologist finds delight in the study of all insects.
None are too small to attract his attention. If the naked eye fails
to detect any beauty of form or colour, he knows that his leng will
at once change the appearance. He is not content to study the
creatures of the air, but searches diligently for the creeping inhabi-
tants of the earth, turning them out of all kinds of chinks and
crannies, and digging them out from their homes in the soil.

We will now proceed to study a few of the most popular orders.



INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 57

ScALy-WINGED INsEcTS

We shall first take the Lepidoptera, or scaly-winged insects, by
far the most beautiful of all the insect world, and the favourites of
all entomologists. The four wings which constitute the chief beauty
of the perfect insects of this group are more or less covered with
little scales of exquisite form, and generally exhibit a wonderful
variety of colour. Everyone has observed the mealy dust which is
so easily removed from the wings of Butterflies and Moths when
these creatures are handled. These dust particles are the scales

won OOYVY Wy



Fic. 60.—Scanes rrom tHE Wrncs or Burrerriies.

which form the characteristic feature of the Lepidoptera, and it is
only necessary to collect a little of this on a slip of glass, and examine
it under a microscope, to satisfy oneself as to the extreme beauty of
the wings. The head is furnished with a-pair of antenne, which
- are undoubtedly connected with one or more of the senses of the
insect. There is also a very delicate proboscis, or sucker, by means
of which the sweet juices of flowers are imbibed. This can be rolled
up into a spiral when not in use. The structure of this organ is
really a wonder, for, although it is about as fine as a hair, yet it
consists of two separate pieces, each one finely grooved, and the
two are locked together from end to end by means of a fringe of



58 ANIMAL LIFE

minute hairs so as to form an air-tight tube. The eyes are large
and rounded, and looking almost all ways at the same time; and
the number of lenses sometimes amounts to nearly two thousand in
a single eye. In addition to these
compound eyes there are two simple
eyes or ocelli situated on the top of
the head, but these are generally so
thickly covered with down that they
probably have but little to do with
vision.

The sole work of the perfect
butterfly and moth is the repro-
duction of their kind. The females
always lay their eggs on the food-
plants of the larve, and it is
astonishing with what precision the
proper vegetation is selected in pre-
ference to all others. We could

: : understand this habit of the mater-
oslo ee nal parent if she herself derived any
eye. direct benefit from the’same plant as

that which sustains her offspring ;
but it generally happens that none of the sweets of her life are to
be obtained from the food-plants she so carefully selects, and she
camnot possibly settle on them except for the one special purpose
of providing for her progeny. Very soon after this work is accom-
plished the parent dies, and this generally before the eggs are
hatched.

The eggs of butterflies and moths are beautiful objects for the
microscope ; and, as they require no special preparation of any kind,
the least expert microscopist is not denied the opportunity of witness-
ing their beautifully sculptured forms and delicate tints, During the
summer months a great variety of eggs may be obtained by search-
ing the leaves in our gardens, and these may be examined in situ
as opaque objects, throwing a good light on them from above. The
time which elapses before the appearance of the larvie varies accord-
ing to the time of the year. Iggs laid in spring take longer to hatch
than those laid during the summer months, and those laid in the
fall of the year do not hatch till the following spring.

When the time arrives for the appearance of the young larve,
they gnaw their way out of the shell, and sometimes even devour



Fic. 61.—H&ap or a Morn.



INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 59

entirely the little case from which they emerge. They are now sur-
rounded by abundance of food, and right well do they make use of
it, for they often eat as much as three times their own weight of food
during the first twenty-four hours of their existence, and continue
to live after this riotous fashion during the weeks or months of the
larval life. In this state they undergo several moultings, for they
grow so fast that their old coats become tight and uncomfortable.
When about to cast its skin, a larva will cease eating for a time,
and seek out some secluded spot until its little trouble is over. At
last the tightened skin splits and begins to peel off, and the larva,
after many twitchings and twirlings of its uncomfortable body,
manages to creep out of its old garment, and to show itself in its
new and often differently coloured suit. The body of the larva or
caterpillar consists of thirteen segments, including the head. Three
pairs of legs are appended to the second, third, and fourth segments,
and a variable number of claspers to the hinder joints, usually
making up a total of sixteen limbs. Many of them are furnished
with a silk-spinning apparatus which is attached to the lower lip.

The period during which the Lepidoptera remain in the pupal
condition varies considerably. In some cases this is a few days only,
but in others the time extends over several months, including per-
haps the whole of the winter and spring. The pupa is sometimes
naked and hidden in the earth ; sometimes concealed in a cocoon of
earth, silk, moss, chipped bark, or fragments of mortar from an old
wall; some are suspended by the tail, and secured by a silk cord
round the middle ; and others are rolled up in leaves and well secured
from their enemies by numerous silk bands or fibres. In the pupal
state life sometimes seems quite dormant, and the length of time
thus spent seems to depend entirely on thé temperature. Thus the
emergence of the perfect insect may be delayed for months or even
years by prolonged exposure to cold, or may be hastened by placing
the pupa in a warm situation.

One of the most interesting sights ever witnessed by a naturalist
is the gradual unfolding and developing of the wings of a newly
emerged butterfly or moth. Shortly before this event takes place
the tint of the chrysalis is seen to change, the colour of the wings
and body often showing itself through the half-transparent case. At
last the thin shell breaks, and the perfected insect returns to the
world in which it spent its early life as a crawling grub. It is soon
free from its prison cell, and immediately seeks some rising surface,
up which it creeps. Here, if possible, it selects the under-side of



60 ANIMAL LIFE

some branch or ledge, and fixes itself with its back downwards to
dry its body and expand its wings. At first it is a queer-looking
creature, its wings short and dumpy, more like a pair of useless ex-
crescences than the richly ornamented pinions into which they are
soon to develop. As we watch the insect closely we observe the
wings expand irregularly till they present quite a crumpled appear-
ance. At last they straighten themselves out till they have reached
their full size. The insect, however, remains
stationary, for the newly developed wings,
the nervures of which are just filled with
currents of fluid from the body, are very
moist, and so soft and flexible that they bend
back on the body if the insect turns over.
But after a few hours the wings are dry and
rigid, and after sundry flutterings, as if to test
the mechanism of the new flying apparatus,
the insect starts its aérial life.

Very few persons, excepting those who
delight in the appellation ‘ Entomologist,’
know the difference between a butterfly and

Fig. 62.—Morn a moth. Some appear to base their distine-

Spe ee tion on the brilliancy of the plumage of the

wings; but, since many of the moths are
adorned with gaudy colours while some of the butterflies are posi-
tively dingy, we must consider them quite wrong in their nomen-
clature. Others have the idea that the nocturnal habits of the moths
are sufficient as a distinguishing characteristic, not knowing that
several species of these insects delight in the midday sun. It is true
that the butterflies are generally more brightly coloured than moths;
also that add the butterflies are day flyers, while most of the moths
are nocturnal; but there is one distinguishing mark which can never
lead us astray: the antennw of all butterflies terminate in little
knobs or ‘clubs,’ while those of the other Lepidoptera taper to a
point. There are yet other differences which, although not to be
taken as absolute, are of sufficient interest to note. Butterflies,
when at rest, usually raise their wings perpendicularly, pressing them
‘together over their backs ; but moths either spread out their wings
horizontally, or bring them close over their bodies, often folding the
hinder pair quite out of sight beneath the fore wings. Again, moths
generally curve their antenne backward under the head and thorax
—a feat which is impossible with the rigid horns of butterflies.





INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 61

Catching Butterflies

The apparatus required for this part of the entomologist’s
work is simple and small in amount. A net, a killing bottle, a col-
lecting box, and a supply of pins of various sizes are all that are
required.

The net should be of gauze, preferably of a green colour, about
twelve or fifteen inches in diameter, with a light but strong frame.

Asa general rule the entomologist does not require to keep many
of his insects alive, and consequently finds it convenient to take with
him some arrangement with which he can perform the ‘ happy de-
spatch.’ This is, to my mind, the only unpleasant part of his work.
And even though some authorities give it as their opinion that
insects cannot feel pain, yet we should always act as if we were sure
they could, and kill the insects required, and no more, in the most
humane manner possible.

There are many methods of killing insects, each method having
its devoted advocates; so I cannot do better than mention a few
of those most commonly used, leaving the reader to try any or all
of them, and so be in a position to decide on a plan that suits
himself. At the same time, having given all
the methods here mentioned a very fair trial
myself, I will give my own experiences, and
my opinions as to their relative value in my
hands.

The first I will mention is the ‘ cyanide
bottle. This is simply an ordinary wide-
mouthed bottle, such as is used to contain
pomades and other similar luxuries, not less
than four or five inches in height, into which
is put some potassium cyanide with an absor-
bent material. The cyanide bottle may be
purchased of the ‘ naturalist ’ ready for use, or
it may be easily fitted up by anyone. The
potassium cyanide may be bought at the
chemist’s, providing he knows you and is satis- Fie. 63.—Tue
fied as to your intentions; but it is a deadly CyaNIDE poe
poison, and must be used with considerable
caution. Dissolve a few drams of the ‘cyanide’ in a little water,
and add slowly, with constant stirring, sufficient plaster of Paris
to convert it into a thin paste. Pour this at once into the bottle







62 ANIMAL LIFE

and leave it to ‘set.’ Close the bottle with a good cork, and it is
then ready for use. A cyanide bottle prepared in this manner will
retain its power for a great length of time if kept tightly corked.
Some entomologists dispense with the plaster, and put a few pieces
of the cyanide into the bottle, keeping them in place with a few
thicknesses of blotting-paper cut to the proper size. This, I think,
is not nearly so good a plan, for the paper and cyanide are easily
shaken out of their position, and may then seriously damage the
insects.

Chloroform, benzole, and ammonia are often used for killing
insects. In either case a few drops of the liquid should be thrown
on to some absorbent material in the bottom of the bottle just before
it is required for use; but it should not be used in such quantity as
to wet the insects, especially if ammonia is chosen, for this liquid
will injure the colour of many specimens and completely spoil them.
Both chloroform and benzole, and especially the latter, render the
insects very rigid, so that there may be some difficulty in ‘ setting’
them after. The fumes of burning sulphur have also been employed,
but I denounce this at once as troublesome and inconvenient, and
because it so often results in damaged specimens.

The ‘ laurel bottle ’ or ‘laurel box’ has many decided advantages.
Some young laurel leaves are well beaten with
a hammer, wrapped up and tied in a piece of
calico or strong muslin, and then pressed firmly
into the bottom of a wide-mouthed bottle or a
cylindrical tin box. It should be pressed in so
firmly that there is no chance of its falling out of
its place; and should fit close round the sides of
the bottle to prevent insects from being jammed
between it and the glass. I have made a very
useful laurel box as follows: Procure two cylindrical
tin boxes of exactly the same size—four or five inches
high and about two in width answers admirably.
One is required only for its lid. Knock or eut out

tet the bottom of one box. Make a false bottom of
sects; , perfo- perforated wood, and fix it in this, about one-third
Pea are from one end, and then put the two lids, one on
leaves, each end. The smaller division is to contain the
bruised laurel leaves, and the larger is for the

insects. ‘The laurel is very quick in its action, but should always
be used fresh. It will keep the insects in a moist or ‘relaxed’ con-



Fic. 64.—Tu
Lauren Box.





INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 63

dition, so that they are easily set, either on the same day or a few
days after the capture.

The box just described may be used for the other stupefying
agents as well as the laurel. Thus the smaller division may contain
some cyanide wrapped up in blotting-paper or linen rag, or it may
be filled loosely with cotton-wool or any absorbent to which either
of the liquid agents may be applied.. In fact, this is altogether a
very convenient arrangement, for the ‘charge’ can be renewed at
any time, even when the insects are in the other division, and with-
out disturbing them much. It must be remembered that the liquid
poisons-—chloroform, benzole, and ammonia—are volatile 3 and, as
a consequence, some is lost in the form of vapour each time the box
is opened. Hence it is advisable, when using either of these, to
take a small bottle of it in the waistcoat pocket for recharging.

Care must always be taken to leave the insects in the killing
bottle or box until quite dead. We cannot easily tell when that is,
for they are stupefied and rendered quite motionless before death
takes place ; and if removed too soon they will often revive.

Butterflies are so delicate that it is not safe to allow them to
remain in the killing box very long, to be trampled on and turned
over by their new arrivals; nor is it well to leave them loose in
boxes of any kind, for their wings are easily damaged if they are
shaken about. They should be pinned as soon as dead. For this
purpose the collector will require a ‘collecting box’ and some
entomological pins of various sizes.

The former should be as large as can be conveniently carried in
the pocket. It should be either oval in form, or oblong with rounded
corners. As most of the insects, and possibly all of them, will be
taken home in this, it will be advisable to have the box so con-
structed that they cannot become dry in it. For this reason it
should be of tin or zine, the cover fitting closely, but opening easily
by a hinge or hinges. The box should be so deep as to allow the
butterflies to be pinned to both the top and the bottom, which should
be lined with cork. Just before starting on the collecting expedition
the cork should be saturated with warm water, or a piece of damp
sponge pinned firmly in one end, as a further precaution against
rigidity.

The pins used by entomologists are very fine, with small heads.
They are sold at the ‘naturalists’ shops,’ and may always be obtained
through the post.

A great deal depends on the choice of the day for a butterfly



64 ANIMAL LIFE

hunt. A bright warm day is essential; and it should be known
that these insects will never expose themselves to an east or north-
east wind. The best time of day for actual work is between the
hours of eleven and four; and the best localities are flowery meadows
—especially the borders, lanes, chalky districts, flowery railway-
banks exposed to the full sun, clover fields, borders of woods, and
flowery wastes. It must be observed that many butterflies are very
‘local.’ Hence if we are in search of any of these, it is necessary to
make ourselves acquainted with their haunts. It would not be ad-
visable to dwell on this subject now, but some of the chief pecu-
liarities of many species will be mentioned presently.

Having at last reached our hunting-ground, how are we to pro-
ceed? We all remember the time when a butterfly, white or
purple it mattered not, was a certain stimulus resulting in the
violent action of the muscles of every limb. It was the signal for a
chase, and the contest between ourselves and the insect was always
one of speed and endurance. And then, if successful in bringing
down the winged creature with the cap, or, it may be, the coat, with
what pride did we pin the insect to adorn the very weapon by which
it was laid low! But now our captives are to form a permanent
and useful collection. They must necessarily be caught without
injury to their appearance, handled with the greatest of care, and
killed in the most humane manner possible. We therefore relin-
quish the cap for the net ; and learning by experience that the but-
terfly on the wing is sometimes more than a match for our legs, we
resort to stratagem. As a rule it is not advisable to start off at full
speed immediately on seeing the insect, but follow it up gently,
keeping some distance behind, giving the creature every opportunity
of alighting on its favourite plant or flower, and then a few cautious
steps and a sharp stroke of the net will generally settle the business.
Sometimes, however, a butterfly shows at once by its almost straight
and unhesitating movement to be intent on a long flight. In such
a case, should you desire it, you must make up your mind for a good
run, with one eye on the insect, and the other on the look-out for
ditches, mole-hills, and furze clusters.

The insect is sure to fiutter a great deal in the net, and no
attempt should ever be made to handle it until it is quiet. If
a killing bottle is to be used, this might be passed at once into the
net by the left hand, and the bottle covered quickly by the right as
soon as the insect is secured. If this plan is adopted, we soon find
a number of captures in the bottle; and, as we are still actively on



INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 65

the chase for more, we are liable to injure these by causing them to
rub together as we run. To avoid any damage in this way the
butterflies should be pinned in the collecting box as soon as we are
satisfied that they are quite dead. Some collectors dispense with
the killing bottle for butterflies altogether. They wait till the insect
can be secured in the net, with its wings closed over its body, and,
gently pressing the folds of the net against it from the outside, kill
it instantly by nippmg the thorax between the finger and thumb.
Of course this must be done with the greatest of care, or the insect
may be so damaged as to be perfectly useless. One objection fo this
mode of procedure is that the insect may only be temporarily
quieted ; so that, when we open the collecting box for a future speci-
men, we are horrified at the sight of our pinned butterfly struggling
to escape.

Setting and arranging the Butterflies

Our butterflies must now be ‘set’ for the cabinet. This need
not be done at once—in fact, it may be postponed for many days or
weeks—but it is always advisable to set them as soon as possible.
If they are in a metal collecting box, their limbs will remain soft and
pliable for some days ; but they should not be kept in a moist con-
dition for a great length of time, or you will find them completely
covered with a forest of mildew.

It is of no use attempting to set an insect after its limbs have
become dry and brittle, for under these cireumstances the slightest
pressure will cause a part to snap off. The insect must first be
‘relaxed.’ To do this it is simply necessary to pin it for a day
or two in a metal box containing a damp sponge or moistened
blotting paper, or to keep it for a corresponding time under a tumbler
or other vessel with some means for keeping the inclosed air moist.
A very:simple plan is to fix the pinned insect to a cork, float it
on a little water in a saucer, and then cover it with an inverted
tumbler.

The dealers sell ‘relaxing boxes’ for bringing about the same
result. These are zinc boxes lined with cork and covered with a
well-fitting lid. The cork is kept in position by means of small
projecting pieces of metal in preference to any kind of glue or
cement, as the latter would not stand the perennial dampness.
The cork may be moistened with a little water, or a piece of damp
sponge may be pinned inside, and the box is then ready for the

FE



66 ANIMAL LIFE

insects. The specimens brought home in a wood collecting box are
often so dry that they cannot be set even on the same day; but if
a metal box be used there will be no need for the relaxer, for they
will keep in a good pliable condition for several days.

If an insect, when set, does not give satisfaction, it may at any
future time be relaxed and reset; and collectors often find it con-
venient, when away from home for some time, to keep all their
captures in the collecting boxes till they return, and then set them
at their leisure, relaxing them in batches as required. This avoids
the necessity of taking away the ‘setting boards’ and _ store
boxes. Space, too, is a matter of great consideration, and insects
usually pack away in a much smaller compass before than after
setting.

When engaged in setting our specimens we must always avoid
the direct use of the fingers. The best way to get the various parts
into their proper positions is by the use of a needle mounted in a
small wood handle. A few of these ‘ setting needles ’ should always
be kept handy. They are easily made by cutting little pieces of
twigs, and then pushing the heads of ordinary sewing-needles into
them. They may be of different sizes to suit the various degrees of
delicacy required in the manipulation.

‘Setting boards’ are now required. These are usually con-
structed as shown in section in fig. 65. A piece of soft deal, free
from knots, and about a quarter
or an eighth of an inch thick, is
cut into strips about eight or ten
inches long, and varying in width
from one and a half to five inches.
These slips are covered with
cork, glued on, and then grooved
down the centre to receive the
bodies of the insects. Lastly, the
surface of the cork on which the
wings are to be laid is covered
with clean white paper. Such
boards may be obtained at the



Fic. 65.—Srcrions oF THREE : .
KINDS oF Serrinac Boarps. dealers’ ; but, if expense is a con-

sideration, seeing that several
will be required, they may be made in a very economical manner.
The cork bed may consist entirely of sliced wine-corks, cut clean
with a sharp knife, and then glued to the wood quite close together.



INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 67

Or cork may be dispensed with altogether if good wood, uniformly
soft, is procured. In this case it is simply necessary to cut a
groove with a gouge, and bevel off the edges with a plane, if neces-
sary; or, I might say, if it suits the fancy of the collector. There
is a great difference of opinion with regard to this. Some prefer
a rounded board, some a plain bevel on each side, and others a
perfectly flat surface. For my part I reject the round board, since
I have never yet seen a live butterfly with wings bent into a curve.
Whatever form be adopted, all the boards should be of the same
pattern, so that there may be a degree of uniformity in the
cabinet.

The setting is done as follows: First see that the pin is passed
centrally through the thorax. If not satisfactory, it should be re-
moved and reinserted, passing
‘it through till the point is pro-
jecting quite one-eighth of an
inch on the under side. Now
fix the pin in the centre of the
groove of the setting-board per-
pendicularly. Spread out the
wings with a_ setting needle,
being careful not to touch the
upper surfaces, and then secure
them by means of little strips of
rather stiff paper as shown in the
accompanying cuts. Some of Fic. 66.—A Burrerriy on THE
the butterflies, at least one of Sertine Boanp.
each species, should be set on
their backs, so as to show the under surfaces of the wings and other
distinguishing characters of the under surface of the body as they
lie in the cabinet.

As a rule four of each kind is sufficient for all purposes: two of
the male and two of the female, one of each exhibiting the upper,
and one the lower, surface. In some cases, however, the species is
so variable that it will be interesting to introduce a few others
simply to illustrate the varieties. q

And now we come to one of the chief difficulties which the young
collector has to experience. Where shall we keep all our specimens ?
The boy who is clever with his tools does not hesitate long over
this matter, but sets to work at his cabinet or his boxes 3; and I can
personally declare what a pleasure is to be derived from putting

F2



a



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mods:title The out-door world, or, Young collector's handbook
type alternative
Young collector's handbook
mods:name personal
mods:namePart Furneaux, William S.
mods:role
mods:roleTerm authority marcrelator Creator
Spottiswoode & Co.
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Longmans, Green, and Co.
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mods:publisher Longmans, Green, and Co.
mods:dateIssued 1893
mods:language
mods:languageTerm English
mods:identifier ALEPH 002230090
NOTIS ALH0433
OCLC 03354957
mods:note Includes index.
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mods:topic Natural history -- Juvenile literature.
Animals -- Juvenile literature.
Plants -- Juvenile literature.
Minerals -- Juvenile literature.
Fossils -- Juvenile literature.
Natural history -- Outdoor books -- Juvenile literature.
Natural history -- Juvenile literature. -- Technique
Bldn -- 1893.
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UF00082157_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 mixed
METS:div DMDID The out-door world, or, Young collector's handbook ORDER 0 main
D1 1 Front Cover
P1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
P2 2
D2 Matter
P4 i
D3 Half Title
P5 ii
D4 4 Frontispiece
P8 iii
D5 5
P9 iv
D6 6 Preface
P11 v
P12 vi
D7 7 Table of Contents
P13 vii
P14 viii
D8 8 List Illustrations
P15 ix
P16 x
P17 xi
P18 xii
P19 xiii
P20 xiv
P21 xv
P22 xvi
P23 xvii 9
P24 xviii 10
P25 xix 11
P26 xx
P27 xxi 13
P28 xxii 14
D9 References to plates Section
P29 xxiii
P30 xxiv
P31 xxv
P32 xxvi
P33 xxvii
P34 xxviii
D10 Errata
P35 xxix
D11 Part I: Animal life Chapter
P36
D12 Ponds and streams Subdivision Level
P36_repeat
P37
P38
P39
P40
P41
P42
P43
P44
P45
P46
P47
P48
P49
P50 15
P51 16
P52 17
P53 18
P54 19
P55 20
P56 21
P57 22
P58 23
P59
P61 24a 25
P62
P63 27
P64 28
P65 29
P66 30
P67 31
P68 32
P69 33
P70 34
P71 35
P72 36
P73 37
P74 38
P75 39
P76 40
P77
P78 42
P79 43
P80 44
P81 45
P82 46
P83 47
P84
P85 49
P86 50
P87 51
P88 52
P89
P90 54
P91 55
P92 56
D13 Insects insect hunting
P93
P94 57
P95 58
P96 59
P97 60
P98 61
P99 62
P100 63
P101 64
P102
P103
P104 67
P105
P106 69
P107 70
P108 71
P109 72
P110 73
P111 74
P112 75
P113 76
P114 77
P115 78
P116 78a
P118 79
P119 80
P120 81
P121
P122 83
P123 84
P124 85
P125 86
P126 87
P127
P128 89
P129 90
P130 91
P131 92
P132 93
P133 94
P134 95
P135 96
P137 96a
P138 97
P139 98
P140
P141
P142 101
P143 102
P144 103
P145 104
P146 105
P147 106
P148 107
P149 108
P150
P151 110
P152 111
P153 112
P155 112a
P156 113
P157 114
P158
P159
P160 117
P161 118
P162 119
P163 120
P164 121
P165 122
P166 123
P167 124
P168 125
P169 126
P170 127
P171 128
P172 129
P173 130
P174 131
P175 132
P176 133
P177
P178 135
P179 136
P180 137
P181 138
P182 139
P183
P184 141
P185 142
P186 143
P187 144
P188 145
P189 146
P190 147
P191 148
P192 149
P193 150
P194 151
P195 152
P196 153
P197 154
P198 155
P199 156
P200 157
P201 158
P202 159
P203 160
P204 161
P205 162
P206 163
P207 164
P208 165
P209 166
D14 sea-shore
P210 167
P211 168
P212 169
P213 170
P214 171
P215 172
P216
P217 174
P218 175
P219 176
P220
P221 178
P222 179
P223 180
P224 181
P225 182
P226 183
P227 184
P228 185
P229 186
P230 187
P231 188
P232 189
P233 190
P234 191
P235
P237 192a
P238 193
P239 194
P241 194a
P242 195
P243 196
P244 197
P245 198
P246 199
P247 200
P248 201
P249 202
P250 203
P251 204
P252 205
P253 206
P254 207
P255 208
P256 209
P257 210
P258 211
P259 212
P260 213
P261 214
P262
P263 216
P264 217
P265 218
P266 219
D15 Snails slugs
P267 220
P269 220a
P270
P271
P272 223
P273 224
D16 Spiders, centipedes, millepedes
P274 225
P275 226
P276 227
P277 228
P278 229
P279 230
P280 231
P281 232
P282 233
P283 234
D17 Reptiles reptile
P284 235
P285 236
P286 237
P287 238
P288 239
P289 240
P290 241
P291 242
P292 243
P293 244
P294 245
P295 246
P296 247
P297 248
P299 248a
D18 British birds
P300 249
P301 250
P302 251
P303 252
P304 253
P305 254
P306 255
P307 256
P308 257
P309 258
P310 259
P311 260
P312 261
P313 262
P314 263
P315 264
P316 265
P317 266
P318 267
P319 268
P320 269
P321 270
P323 270a
P324 271
P325 272
P326 273
P327
P328 275
P329 276
P330 277
P331 278
P332 279
P333 280
P334 281
P335 282
P336 283
P337 284
P338 285
P339 286
P340 287
P341 288
P342 289
P343
P344 291
P345 292
P346 293
P347 294
P348 295
P349 296
P350 297
D19 mammals
P351 298
P352 299
P353 300
P354 301
P355 302
P356 303
P357 304
P358 305
P359 306
P360 307
P361 308
P362 309
P363 310
P364 311
P365 312
P366 313
P367 314
P368 315
P369 316
P370 317
P371 318
P372 319
P375 320
D20 II: vegetable world
P376 321
D21 Sea-weeds
P376_repeat
P377 322
P378 323
P379 324
P380 325
P381 326
P382
P383 328
P384 329
P385 330
P386 331
D22 Fungi
P387 332
P388 333
P389 334
P390 335
P391 336
P392 337
P393 338
P394 339
P395 340
P396 341
D23 Mosses
P397 342
P399 342a
P400 343
P401 344
P402 345
P403 346
P404 347
P405 348
P406 349
D24 Ferns
P407 350
P408 350a
P410 351
P411 352
P412 353
P413 354
P414 355
P415 356
P416 357
P417 358
P419 358a
D25 Wild flowers
P420 359
P421 360
P422 361
P423 362
P424 363
P425 364
P426 365
P427 366
P428 367
P429 368
P430 369
P431 370
P432 370a
P434 371
P435 372
P436 372a
P438 373
P439 374
P440 375
P441 376
P442 377
P443 378
P445 378a
D26 Grasses
P446
P447 380
P448 381
P449 382
P450 382a
P452 383
P453 384
D27 Our forest trees
P454
P455 386
P456 387
P457 388
P458 389
P459 390
P460 391
P461 392
D28 III: mineral
P462 393
D29 Minerals fossils
P462_repeat
P463 394
P464 395
P465 396
P466 397
P467 398
P468 399
P469 400
D30 Index
P470 401
P471 402
P472 403
P473 404
P474 405
P475 406
P476 407
P477 408
P478 409
P479 410
P480 411
P481 412
D31 Back
P482
P3
D32 Spine
P6





The Baldwin Library





&

THE OUT

-DOOR WORLD

ae ere sea
FRONTISPIECE. :



HANHART LIT H
THE OUT-DOOK WORLD

OR

YOUNG. COLLECTOR’S HANDBOOK

BY

W. FURNEAUX, F.R.G.S.



WITH 16 COLOURED PLATES
AND OVER 500 ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT

- LONDON
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
AND NEW YORK: 15 EAST 16% STREET
1893

All rights reserved
PREFACE

—+

‘Boys witL BE Boys!’ How often has this expression been
used in extenuation of their mischievous propensities! Boys
are naturally active, and if they have not the inclination or
the opportunity to expend their store of mental and physical
energy in some interesting and profitable employment, we
shall be sure to find them busily occupied in working out some
little scheme by which they hope to derive satisfaction at the
expense of their playmates, their neighbours, or some dumb
animal. You may almost as well talk to an oak log as tell a
boy that he should abstain from such practical jokes as those
which give him pleasure at the cost of his victimised school-
mates, that it is wrong to annoy his neighbour by damaging
his property, or that it is cruel to tie a bundle of ignited crackers
to the tail of a cat. If a boy is to relinquish such occupations,
we must direct his energies into another channel by giving
him a taste for something better. Teach him to play a game
of cricket, or to swim ; let him have a camera, and show him
how to take a photograph ; give him a sketch-book, and culti-
vate a taste for the reproduction of the beautiful in nature
and art; or make him a present of a book of scientific recrea-
tions. Among such works probably none will be found so
fascinating to a boy as those which treat of natural history.
Let him once acquire a taste for collecting, preserving, and
studying natural history objects, and he has a hobby that will
keep him out of mischief, give him healthy employment for
mind and body, and occupation for all seasons of the year,
both at home and in the field.
vi PREFACE

It is with a desire to cultivate such a taste, and to assist
our boys (and our girls too for that matter) in the varied em-
ployments which constitute the ‘labour of love’ of the true
naturalist that these pages are written. Iwas once a boy
myself, and well do I remember the many difficulties and
disappointments I experienced while endeavouring to make a
useful collection of natural objects— difficulties and disappoint-
ments which might have been to a great extent obviated by
the perusal of a popular yet scientific guide to the various
departments of natural history.

in presenting the following pages to my readers, I do not
hope, nor shall I attempt, to convert them into full-blown
naturalists. Many years of the most careful observation, com-
bined with much patient work on the part of the student,
would be necessary to produce such a result. My only aim
is to induce my readers to make a start, and to give them
such a general outline of natural history as may form a safe
foundation for the future study of any branch of the science
that they may desire to follow.

The scope of this volume is large compared with its size.
It includes a brief survey of the animal kingdom, with numerous
hints on the collection, preservation, and classification of
specimens.. Many objects which are not generally studied by
young collectors are here considered as worthy of a drawer
in the young naturalist’s cabinet. Thus the reader is made
acquainted with the fact that the seaside is not merely a
collecting ground for shells and weeds, but that almost every
overturned stone between the tide-marks reveals a host of living
beings which, although less conspicuous, will repay the time
spent in their study. The vegetable kingdom is dealt with in
a similar manner. Then follows a short chapter on the
collection and arrangement of minerals and fossils.

{tis hoped that the detailed descriptions given for the
construction of the necessary apparatus and the methods of
using it, and the abundance of illustrations, will render this
work a thoroughly practical guide to the young collector.
CHAP.

il.
Ii.
Iv.

‘VI.
vil.
VIII.

Ix.

XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
xy.

XVI.

CONTENTS



PART I
ANIMAL LIFE

PONDS AND STREAMS .

INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING

THE SEA-SHORE '

SNAILS AND SLUGS .
SPIDERS, CENTIPEDES, AND MILLEPEDES
REPTILES AND REPTILE HUNTING
BRITISH BIRDS

BRITISH MAMMALS

PART II
THE VEGETABLE WORLD

SEA-WEEDS
FUNGI

*‘ MOSSES

FERNS

WILD FLOWERS
GRASSES .

OUR FOREST TREES

PART III
THE MINERAL WORLD

MINERALS AND FOSSILS

PAGE

56
167
220
225
235
249
298

321
332
342
350
359
379
385

we

m
SEP ORrNaoankwnwe

eS
eB

12,
13.
14.

bo
bo

bt bt bt tb bp vo
SARA St

ce no
es

JENCSE OND) JOGOS AME MOINS

NET FOR COLLECTING SPECIMENS .

A DREDGING-HOOK . % aToear
Borrnye For connecting Low ones OF oun Lire i 2
Tue Mepictnan Leecu . " : , 3 5
THE TEETH oF A Monzusc '
Tue CRAYFISH Fi : Fl ‘ ; ; a

Dp ® (under-surface) ; : : :
A WarrER-rLEA, magnified ; ; ; : oReys

. A CycLops CARRYING ITs EaG-sacs

WATER SPIDERS . ‘ " ‘

Warer Mire, highly magnified 5 ‘ . ,

GrassHorrEn, SHOWING THE STRUCTURE AND Conosrmon OF AN
Insrct’s Bopy . : : i a‘ ; tae

Water Boarman (Glauca)

Corixa, slightly enlarged .

. Tae Water Scorpion

. Ranatra . :

. A WATER GNAT (Hi ydrometra argentata), anetteds
. Water Gnar (H. gibbifera), enlarged . ; ;

Larva or Dracon-rty, sHowinc THE Mask, AND THE Eareeee
INSECT EMERGING FROM THE PUPA-CASE .

Tue May-riy 4 4

Larva or rue May-riy

Pups or tHe May-rny . 1 ; 4 i Betis

CADDIS-FLIES. .

. CADDIS CASES 7 ; . 4
. Eacs or tHe Gat, magnified , : 7

Tun Sracus or THE GNAT, SHOWING THE L ARVA, Pup, eee ECT
INSECT EMERGING, AND Mate AND FEMALE rca aoe
Dyticus marginalis. Male. :
os ay Female . ‘ :

bo
eo

PAGE

He CO

17

He
©

to bt bo bw bw pw
mB RH CO Co LOR

ra
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIG.
31. Larva or Dyticus
82. Pupa or Dyticus .
83. Agabus biguttatus, mained
34. Pelobius Hermanni, magnified
35. Tue WHIRLIGIG
36. LARVA OF THE WHIRLIGIG
87. Piceus. Male .
38. Larva or Piceus, not fully oe
39. Pupa or Picéus
40. SKELETON oF A Fisu (Puncx)
41. OrGANS or 4 Fis (Carp)
42. THe Carp .
43. THe MInNow .
44. THE GUDGEON
45. Toe Roacw
46. THe Dace .
47. Toe Burak ? ;
48. Tue Loacu . ' D
49. THe THREE-SPINED SarcKrepAcK AND Naan
50. THe BULLHEAD. .
51. THE BLoop-ceLLs oF THE rece hicks magnified
52. Toe Heart or tue F'roc : ¢
53. THe Great Warty Newt
54. Tor SmootH Newr
55. STAGES IN THE Lire or A Froe ’
56. Tue Common FrocG
57. Tue Toncur or THE FRoaG
58. Tae Common Toap
59. SKELETON OF THE FROG
60. ScaLES FROM THE WINGS oF Burrsnruies
61. Heap or a Morn
62. Mor just EMERGED
63. Tue CyanripE Borris.
64. THe Lauren Box .
65. SECTIONS OF THREE KINDS OF Gnorine cBowene
66. A Burrerriy on THE SrerriInc Boarp.
67. Tue Scarce SwALLow-Tam . ; ; F ;
68. Tue Lance Wuire. Eee (magnified), Larva, Pura, anp Iaco
69. Tue Smaut Wuire. Male. : i F '
Osos, Ay Female i
71. THe GREEN-VEINED WHITE. Under side ;
72. Toe Baru WHITE . : A :
73. Tue BuACcK-VEINED WHITE . . 0
74. Tue Woop Wutrr ‘ ‘5 * ; eesti
75. Tus CLoupED YELLow. Female and Larva. (Male shown on
Plate II.) . :
76. Tue LarcE ToRTOISESHELL i "i

PAGE

35

74
FIG.

77.

78.

79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92
93.
94.
95.

97.

98.

99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
Ls
11y.
113,
114,
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

CHRYSALIS OF THE LARGE ToRTOISESHELL; AND A Larva sus-
PENDED JUST PREVIOUS TO UNDERGOING ITS CHANGE

THe ComMMA BurrEerriy, wirH Wines Fouprp. (See also Plate
ETE) ee :

THe Waite ADMIRAL

THe PurPLE EMPEROR AND eee ,

Tur Dark GREEN FRITILLARY

Larva AnD Pupa or THE Dark GREEN creer ARY

Tur HicH Brown FRrrim.ary

THE QUEEN oF SPAIN FRITILLARY. under sido

Te PEARL-BORDERED Friviuary. Upper and Under Hie,

Tue SMALL PEARL-BORDERED F'RITILLARY

THE GLANVILLE FRITILLARY

MarsLep WHITE BUTTERFLY :

THE SPECKLED Woop or Woop Arcus

THe WaLL BurrEeRrLy

Tur GRaytinc. Female .

2. THs Mrapow Brown. Male

H a a Female .
THE Lance Heatru. Male
5 5) ey Female
3. Tus Rincitet. Under side

Tur Marsa RINGLET
Tur NoRTHERN Brown oR Seancr Apes
Tur Smart Heat : d
Tur Brown Harrsrreak. Under surface
Tue Buack Harrsrreak. Under side
THe Watt LETTER HarmsTREAK
Tue PurrLe Harrsrreax. Under side
Tur GREEN Harrsrreak. Under side
Tur Larce Copper Burrerrty—Larva, Pupa, AND Taco a
Tus AzuRE on Houty Biur. Under side .
Tue Breprorp BLUE .
Tur Mazarins Buur. Under side
THE Common Buur. Male
as vs Female
Tur Common Buur. Under side
THE Brown ARGUS
Tue New SMALL SKIPPER
Tue Diney SxKrprer
THE GRIZZLED SKIPPER .
Tur CHEQUERED SKIPPER ; "i
Tur Drarn’s-uEaD Hawk Morn (A¢ropos)
Tue Larva or tHe DEatn’s-HEAD Hawk
Tur Eyep Hawk (Ocellatus) : . : :
Larva or THE SpuRGE Hawk. (Perfeet Inseot shown on Plate V.)
Tur Humrne-sirp Hawk (Stellaturwm)

85

86
86
86
86
87
87
87
87
98
99
100
101
101
xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FIG. PAGE
122. Tue Hornet CLEarwine (S. Apiformis) . : : . 102
123. THe Leopard Morn (Afscult) anp Larva ; 103
124. Toe Goat Morn (Ligniperda) anv Larva (the lever Tanti one-

third grown) . : : , , - 108
125. THE Common Swirr (Gnipulinus) . . : pee ee NY
126. THe Guost Swrrr (Hwmuli) ; ; . 104
127. Larva AND Cocoon OF THE SIx-SPoT 7: Burner ; nays LOS
128, Larva oF THE Cinnabar Mora (Jacobeée) é , - 105
129. THe Cream-spor TicEr (Villica) 5 i ; Sane LOD
130. Toe Burr Eruine (Lubricipeda) . : , " » 105
131. Tue Warrm Erwne (Menthastri) ; Sanle sekeLOD,
132. THE VapourzR Morn (Antiqua)—Male, Beals: and fey . 106
133. THe Brown Tan (Chrysorrh@a) , . : eausraet OG
134. THe Buack ArcHEs (Monacha) . , ; 5 . 107
ASD anaRS De (Dark variety) si 5 . Pee eal OFF;
136. THE Smare EaGar (Lanestris) : : : i puelOY.
137. Tum Lackny (Neustria) . : : Si amel 08
138. THe Lapprr Mors (Quen Befoleay AND Tanva. (See also Plate V.) 108
139. THe SwatLow-rar, More (Sambucata) 109
140. Larva or THE Broistonr Morn. (Perfect eee on Plate Vv) 109
141. Toe BrinpLep Buau'ry (Hirtaria) ano Larva 110
142. Toe Perpprrep Morn (Betularia). Male . : 7 ert O,
143. Tae Grey Scantopep Bar (Belgiwria) . : pieeplLO)
1f4. Tre Macprm (Grossulariata) . ; P 3 2 LO
145. Toe Morriep Umber ah Male, Wingless Female, and

Larva . i 3 zi Saude DILL
146. THE WINTER Mora (Br umata) . , . : spell
147. Tue BrauriruL Carpet (Albicillata) . : : Wael SL
148. THe ARGENT AND SABLE (Hastata) . p : 5 eel
149. Tue SrnverR-GRounD Carpet (Montana) : : ae LS
150. Tur Marsa Carper (Sagittata) ‘ : s : . 112
151. Tue Common Carper (Subtristata) 4 ; F Sh ecstaesel LD
152. Tue Cuimney Sweep (Cherophyllata) , , : . 112
153. Tue SauLtow Kirren (Furcula) . f : : Sou ALLO)
154. THz Lossrer Motu (agi) anp Larva. 4 : ws
155. Tue Bure Tre Morn (Bucephala) ann Larva. (Seealso Plate V.) 118
156. Puss Moru (Vinuwla) anp Larva. : : : poe Ti!
157. Tur Pracu-BLossom Morn (Batis) anp Larva. (See also Plate

sISVe2) te 2 ; : : : : : . 115
158. Tux Grey Daccer (Psi). : 4 : 5 seamed’,
159. Tue Caspacy Morn (Brassice) 3 é é ; 116
160. Tux Turnip Morn (Segetwm) . : : fi Wee LO.
161. THe Lance YELLOw UNnDERWwING (Fronuba) anv Larva. (See

also Plate V.) . - ' ceiey act ES)
162. Tus Lesser Broap Bonne (lanthainy : 5 i S116
163. Tus Dor (Persicarie) . i : valet sats G
164. THe ANGLE SHADES (Meticulosa) AND Larva, (See also Plate V.) 117
FIG.

166.

170.
171.
172.
178.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
17
180.
181.
182.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

5. Tue Strver Y (Gamma)

Tue BurnisHeD Brass (Chrysitis)

. Toe Heratp Mora (Libatria) anp Larva
. MorHEer Surpron (Mz)
. Toe Rep UnpEerwine (Nupta)

Tue Cuirpen Nonparein (Frain?)

THE Snour (Rostralis)

THe Meat Mors (Farinalis)

THe Tapsy (Pinguinalis)

THe Moruer or Prarn (Urticalis) .
THe Rust VENEER (Hybridalis)

Tue BeautiruL Cutna Marx (Stagnalis)
THe PEARL-STREAK VENEER (Hamellus)
Tur Honrycoms Morn (Cerella)

9. THe Straw OsBLiquE Bar (Costana)

Tue Hazen Torrrix (2. Sorbiana) .
Leaves, RonLteD and. MINED
THe WoouLen Mors .

. LARVA OF THE WooLLEN Mors .
. Toe Harr More

. THe Prume Mora (Pentadaciy lus)
. Prume Morr Vatstaes Ce

. Larva BorrLe

. Larva CaGE

. Larva Guass 5
. BLowPIrpgE FoR BLowIne Tier FITTED WITH A parva Gms 5

. Kantinc Borris ror BEETLES .

2, A BrETLE ON THE SETTING BoarpD .

. THE GREEN TIGER BEETLE . : : ;
4. Tor Woop Tichr BrEerLe (Cicindela sylvatica) anp Larva
5. Tue SHorE TicgER Berrie (C. maritima) anpD Larva

3. Toe VioLET GROUND BEETLE 0 ;

7. THE SuN BEETLE (Anchomenus dorsalis), magnified .

. NEBRIA BRrEVICOLLIS, magnified

. THE SUNSHINE, magnified . : ;

. THE BoMBARDIER BEETLE, PURSUED BY A CALosomMa

. Tae Devit’s Coach Horse

. A Rove Brerie (Staphylinus) FOLDING ITS wage

. Tor Rep-NEcKED Rove BEETLE, magnified

. Toe Four-HoRNED Rove Berrie, magnified

5. ATEMELES EMARGINATUS, magnified

. QUEDIUS DILATATUS, magnified

. BuryInc BEETLES INTERRING THE Bopy-or A Rar

. Tar BanpEp Pint BrerLe (Byrrhus fasciatus), enlarged

. Mate Stac BEETLE

. Fematr Stac Brerie

. THE CockcHAFER

xiii

-AGIE

117
117
117
118
118
118
119
119
119
119
120
120
120
120
120

139
140
140
140
140
142
143
144
144
145
xiv

viG.

212.
213.
214.
215. .
3, Oru BEETLE. Male and Female

217.
218.
219.
220.
221, ‘i
. SOLDIER BrEerie (Lelephorus ee) AND Larva .
223.
224,
225.
226.
227,
228.
229.
. Toe APPLE WEEVIL, magnified
231.
232.
233.
234.
235.
236.
237.
238.
239.
240.
241,
242.
243.
244.
245.
246,
247.
248,
249,
250.
251.
252.
253.
254.
255.
256.
257.
258.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

THE Rost BreEtTLe
THe Dor BEETLE .
THE ANTELOPE BEETLE
Tur Common TypHmus

Tur CHURCHYARD BEETLE

THE JUMPER BEETLE, magnified
THE CARDINAL BEETLE

THE BuisteR BEETLE

THe Guow-worm. Male and emalel

Tae Hive Brerrie

THe Spmer BEETLE, mneniied

THe Dearne Warcn anp Larva, magnified

Tur Musk Berrie

Strangalia armata

THe TmorBERMAN

RED-FOOTED WEEVIL (Bruchus rufi ee AND Larva, maaeariedl

THe Nur WreEvin, magnified

Tur Pine WreEvin, magnified

THe Oak Wrryin, magnified

THe Woop-EaTInG WEEVIL, magnified

Tue Turnip Berrie, magnified

Tur Buoopy-NosED BEETLE, magnified

THE Tortotsr BEetLe, wirh Larva anp Pupa
THE RaM-HORNED BEETLE, magnified

Tue SEvEN-spot Lapy-BrIRD AND Larva

A Wasps’ Nest

THe Fremate Wasp

THe Fremate Horner . i
Tue Tree Wasp (Vespa ar bored) AnD Nest
Sorrrary Wasp (Humenes) anp Nest

THE Burrowine Ber, enlarged to twice natural size .
THe Lear-currer Ber, enlarged

Tue Saver Bex, about twice natural size

Tur Moss Humpte Ber anp Nest

Tue Stonr Humpie Ber. Female
” ” ” ” Worker .
” ” ” ” Male

Tue Hoop Suaver Ber, enlarged

CrLLs Fkom THE Nest or tHE Common HumBie ‘Ben
Tue Hive Ber. Female

5 _ e Male

_ cH Worker
THe Woop er Male

- Rs a Female

PAGE

145
145
145

158
158
159
159
160
160.
161
161
161
161
162
162
162
162
164
164
WIG.
259.
260.
261.
262.
263.
264.
265.
266.
267.

268.

269.
270.

271.

272.

273.
274.

275.

276.
277.

278.

279.

280.

281.

282
283.
284.

285.

286.
287.

288.

289.

290.
291,

292,
293.
294.
295.
296.
297.
298.
299,
3800.
801.
802.
308.
804,

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Tur Woop Ant. Worker
Portion oF THE NEST OF THE RED in ;
Tur Buack ANT . 6 , : 5

Souirary An'r (Mutilla leben Male

Mutinita Evropma. Female , . ° :

Nrr FOR COLLECTING AT THE SEASIDE Z i
Tur DREDGE : . : 3 : , .
RHIZOSTOMA M . Hl : ‘ , .
CHRYSAORA . . f : ‘ .

MEDUSA AURITA IN ITS DIFFERENT STAGES .

Anremone (Mesembryanthemum) 5 :

LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH A Sra ener
TRANSVERSE SECTION

Tur Common MADREPORE

Tur CoMMON STARFISH . 5 : : f
Tur Rosy FEATHER STARFISH : . ; ,
Barty STAGES OF THE FEATHER STARFISH

THe Sun STARFISH

Tur BrittLe STAR

SEA URCHIN, VIEWED FROM ABOVE. (Most oF THE SPINES RE-

MOVED)
INTERIOR OF THE renee OF A Sra Uncut
Masticatinc APPARATUS OF THE SEA URCHIN
Sra CUCUMBER . F j . 3

2. THE Lua Worm

TUBE-BUILDING WoRMS: Terebella, Serpula, aml Sabella
THe Sea Mouse . :

SEA Squirt

THE SHIPWORM

Puouas Dacryius

Thracia papyracea

Tellina crassa. Tur Biunt TRLLEN

Tue Rapiarep TroucH SHELL (Mactra stultor a)
VENUS CASINA

VENUS EXOLETA . A

Ark SHELu (Arca lactea)

Nour Suet (Nucula nucleus)

Pinna Rupis

Tur SappLE OysTER Crores SPN

Tur Grooven Tusk SHELL (Dentalium entalis) .

THE Curron on Mam SHELL , 6 :
Tur Grey Top (Trochus cinereus). (See also Plate VIL.)
Towser Suey (Turritella) : i 5 4
SEction oF A TOWER SHELL . A i

Tur Lapper SHELL (Scalaria communis) .

Eees or THE WHELK . . . f ; : .
Tum Common OcToPUS . - ' ; : mete

PAGE

164
165
166
166
166
169
170
176
176
176
178
179
179
180
182
183
183
184
184

185
185
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
194
194
194
195
195
196
196
197
198
199
199
199
199
199
200
xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

VIG. ; PAGH
305. Tue Sepra on CurrnErisH 7 : , ; eed
306. ‘Bonn’ or 'rHE CUTTLEFISH . : ‘ ; , . 201
307. Eacs or THE CUTTLEFISH ‘ seen OL
308. THe Common Squip (Loligo Dinara AND ITS pee , . 202
809. BanaNus . : ; 5 ‘ ; , oul mete 20S:
810. Tur BarNacie . : fs ; 4 : : . 204
811. THe Sanp Hopper 3 ; z : samen es 04.
312. Toe Mantis Surmip (Squilla ananbia) : : . » 204
313. THe Opossum Surimp (Mysis chameleon) y ’ erry a05;
314. THe Common Surimp (Crangon vulgaris) . . ar cniom\ e205,
315. Tuer Prawn (Palemon serratus) i : : Salata AG!
316. Tue Norway Lossrer (Nephrops Norvegicus) — . : - 207
317. Tue Common Snore Cras (Carcinus Menas) . p ava a0S
318. Earny STacres or tHe SHorE Crap r } . 208
319. Toe Herurr Crap In THE SHELL oF A WHELK : . 209
320. Tun Herwrr Cras (Pagurus Bernhardus) our or 1s Semin . 209
321. THe Pra Cran (Pinnotheres pisum) 4 : : . 210
822. Porcellana platycheles . . i ; i Santee 0)
323. Portunus variegatus . : ; Pa eLO,
324. Henstow’s Swmmine Crap (Polybius Honslowsn). , neh aru OTE
325. Tur Lonc-arMED Crap (Corystes). Female : , eee!
326. THE Sprer Crap (Maia squinado) : 3 ; Mee OLD
327. Tue SmooTH BLENNY . ; : ; : 5 . 216
328. Tor Cornish SUCKER : : ; ; ie 2 Lf)
829. Tur FIFTEEN-SPINED Srroxtmnack AND NEsT ; ; ~ 217
330. THE FarHer LASHER : : s : i Eee LS
331. THE Goby - b ‘ ; : : : 4 veal.
332. THe LessER WEEVER ; ; , : ALS
333. Tor Lesser Sanp Eri : ; , : a eno
334. Eaa Casr or Doa Fisx . 219
335. Helix aspersa 220
336. Helia pomatia 221
337. DIAGRAM OF THE HEAD OF A Ser ; 999,
338. Succinea putris 222
339. Arion ater 223
340. Testacella 224
341. SpecimMEN BorrLe 227
342. THe GARDEN SPIDER 228
343. Segestria senoculata—A Six-EYED Spipe Ro. 230
344. Crap Sprer (Lhomisus lanio) . 230
345. THe Sronr Sprer (Drassus Lacdheoin 230

346. A Try



ALE WoLr Spiper (Dolomedes) wirn Eaa pias enlacred eH

to
Ss

347. Toe Rarr Sper ; : OBL
348. Salticus scenicus, magnified z : ; , Nora 84)
349. A MILLepEDE (Julus terrestris) : ' : : . 288
850. A CENTIPEDE r 6 6 : : i semen BOS

351. Tar Common Lizarp . : : ; h A . 287
FIG.

B52.
353.
B54.
355.
356.
357.
358.
359.
360.
361.
362.
363.
364.
365.
366.
367.
368.
369.
370.
871.
372.
373.
374.
375.
376.
377.
378.
379.
380.
381.
382.
383.
384.
885.
386.
387.
388.
389.
390.
391.
392.
398.
B94.
B95.
396.
397.
898.

LIST OF ILLUS? RATIONS

Tae Snow Worm or Buinp Worm (Anguis re)
Tur ComMon SNAKE . .
HEAD OF THE CoMMON SNAKE

Eaes or THE COMMON SNAKE

Heap or THE VIPER

A Contour FEATHER . :
D1AGRAM OF THE HEART OF A . Brep

Tur DicEstrvE ORGANS OF A Bip .
Tur SKELETON oF A BIRD

Eaa Drinis i :
BLOWPIPE FOR Browne AND WASHING Eaas .
SHOWING HOW TO MAKE THE CarD TRays
THE GOLDEN EAGLE

Tue Fancon

THE SPARROW-HAWK

THE KESTREL

Tur MERLIN

Tur Honry BuzzarpD .

Tue Barn Own : 5

Heap oF THE LONG-BARED OWL :
THE SHRIKE

Tur Roox

THE JACKDAW

Tue NurHatcH

Tue WooDPECKER .

THE WRYNECK .

THE KINGFISHER

Tue WRrEN

Tue Great TIT

Toe Lark

THE GOLDFINCH

Tae BULLFINCH

Tas Linnet

Tue Cuckoo

Tue NIGHTINGALE .

THE SwaLLow 5
THe SAND Martin AND THE Haw

Tue Stock Dove

THe PHEASANT

Tur PARTRIDGE

THE QUAIL .

THE OYSTER-CATCHER .

THe Hrron

Tur Lapwine

THE SNIPE .

THE SHELDRAKE ;

THe TERN, oR SEA SwaLLOw

xvii

PAGE
xviii ’ LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. PAGE
599. Tue Buack-Backnp GuuL ' . 288
400. Tor Wuire Guin : ; . 283
401. Toe Gress 5 ' i 2 ; . . 284
402. Toe GumLEMoT . r 7 . ‘ . PO shen 4.
403. THe Perren . : f 7 i. i : . 284
404. Pant or tue Upper Jaw (HUMAN), SHOWING THE KINDS oF
TrErrH 5 : f fi . : . 298
405. SkuLL or A Carnivorous MammMan—Tun: Doc a eae 2O9,
406. SkULL oF THE SHEEP . ‘ 6 . ' » 299
407. THe Porpotsy a f ° ° : F ce S02
408. Tor Orrern : f ° ° F f 5 . 804
409. SKULL or THE OTTER . ae d 9 6 oreo:
410. Toe WEASEL , . ° ° 3 ‘ is - B04
411. Toe Sroar . , : . ; ee iss OUD!
412. THe Potecar . ; 3 ° 2 5 4 . 805
413. SKULL oF THE Harr " . ‘ . «. 806
414, Tur Inctsor Toorn or 4 Ropent . 4 6 . . 807
415. Toe SQuirreL i f 5 : fs 5 ew 308
416. Toe Harvest Mouse anp irs Nusr . . ‘ . 809
417. Tue Lone-rarep Frenp Mousn ° ; q ee SLO:
418. Toe Warrer Rar ‘ : "| : : . . 810
419. THe Common SurEew ¢ ¢ c e . TaN one OAL
420. Toe Water Surew . ‘ ° ° . . aoe
421. Tue HepcrnoGg . - : 7 : . eG EOL
422. Toe Fortress anp GALLERIES or THE Moun f A . 818
423. Tue Moun . : A : : . cmetee a BL.
424. SKELETON oF THE Bar . . . ‘ . -. 816
425. Bar on tHE, WinG 3 : : | - . 816
426. Toe Bar ar Resr ; ° f d : . - 3817
£27. Ceramium diaphanum, with portions magnified : «15-826
428. Hetocarpus siliculosus, with Spore-cases enlarged . . - 829
429. Hetocarpus granulosus, with a portion magnified : - . 829
430. Sporonchus pedunculatus — . : . : ‘ . 330
431. Tux Common Musuroom . ; ‘ . ° riko eo
432. CoLLECTING THE SPpoRES : 5 3 3 ° . 583
433. Tun Fry Acarric (Amanita MUSCAT) « 6 . 7 . 888
434, OystrER MusHroom (Agaricus ostreatus) — . ° r . 888
435. Agaricus vernus. Size much reduced . ° ° >. BBA
436. Agaricus odorus 4 ‘ : o . » 88£
437, Parason Musuroom (Agaricus procerus) 2 ‘ 6 0884
438. Tor Gigantic Potyporus (P. giganteus) . . ¢ » B84
439. Armillaria malleus : ‘ A : 5 c MSTNCS SD,
440. Pholiota squarrosa : . ‘ Belge on a0 » 835
441, Tun Hepcenog Hypnum (H. erinaceum) : : eye B85

442. Tue Common Purr-sann (Lycoperdon pyriforma)
443. Clavaria fusiformis : 3 : “
444, Toe Lurmw Bouerus (B. luridus). Section : ‘ 2 836
FIG.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xix

PAGE
445, THE STINK-HORN oR StTrinkInG Moreen . : 836
446. Aficidium berberidis—A Dust Funaus, on A LEAF AND A Hower

ALSO ITs Cups, magnified 7 * ; , eemaGOST
447. Common Duna Movuip ‘ t i F . 837
448, COLLECTING THE SPORES OF A HuNaus : 5 Pe ee BOO,
449. Sphagnum acutifolium F 7 : : ; . 842
450. Encalypta vulgaris ‘; : : F Reena nO 4D
451. Grimmia pulvinata . ; : A : i . 842
452. Grimmia apocarpa 5 : : 5 3 BaD
453. Dicranwm squarroswm 2 : i " , . 848
454. Orthotrichum affine : : : 3 j TEER 4D
455. Orthotrichum Lyellit . % : $ : . 844
456. Zygodon . Seat: : 3 : . . B44
457. Bartr amie pomifor mits , . 5 5 : . B44
458, -Bartramia fontana , , 5 : i STO Ld
459. Bryum capillare : 3 : ; : ; . B44
460. Polytrichum piliferum . 3 i SC Oa eeeno4 5
461. Fissidens bryoides : . : 5 : 5 . 846
462. Fissidens taxifolius ; s : ; a aod
468. Leucodon sciuroides . : NORE : ; . 846
464. Anomodon viticulosum . ss " . i . . 846
465. Leskea polycarpa . ; , : : ; . 847
466. Hypnum purum . . : : : é oH OAT. 4
467. Hypnum piliferum . : ; : , , . 848
468. Hypnum triquetrum . : : : ; - . 848
469. Hypnum cupressiforme : Canes . 849
.470. Tar Mountarn Ponypopy (Polypodium phegonteria) i (aeRO DU.
471. Tue THREE-BRANCHED Poniypopy (P. dryopteris) . i . 850
472. Tor Buack SPLEENWoRT FERN (Asplenium nigrum). Portion of

the Plant, showing the Rhizome, and a Frond with Spores 351
473. Tur NortHern Harp Fern (Blechnwm boreale) f 352
474. THe ALTERNATE SPLEENWORT (Aspleniwm alternifolium) 352
475. THE GREEN SPLEENWoRT (Aspleniwm viride) . 353
476. TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE STEM OF A FERN 853
477. Tue SmootH Rock SPLEENWoRT (Aspleniwm fontanwm) 854
478. Tor Watt Rup (Aspleniwm ruta-muraria) 354
479. AN ARRANGEMENT FOR THE PROPAGATION OF FERNS Su eee,
480. A YounG FERN SPRINGING FROM THE PRoTHALLIUM. Natural size 355
481. Toe Common MameEn-nair (Adiantwm capillus-veneris) 356
482. Tue Honiy Fern (Aspidium lonchitis) 356
483. Toe Harry Woopstia (Woodsia alpina) 357
484, Tus OsmunD Royan (Osmunda regalis) ; 357
485. SEcTION oF THE Burrercur (Ranwneulus acris) . . 860
486. Pistm or tHe Liny . 3 , e ; : . 860
487. RuizoME oF SoLomon’s SEAL. . : ; ppb csi}
488. SimpLE LEAF OF THE OAK. . : , f . 3863
489. CompounD Lear or Acacia : 863

‘
xXx

FIG.
490.
491.
492.
493.

496.

. SAMARA OF MAPLE :
. Box ror HERBARIUM SHEETS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

CapPsuLE oF Poppy
CaPsuLE OF PRIMULA
Pop oF THE PEA
SILIQUA OF WALLFLOWER

A Youne Bran Piantr

. Marsa Maricoup .
. TRAVELLER’s Joy

. THe WALLFLOWER

. COMMON CHICKWEED

MovuseE-EAR CHICKWEED
Common STONECROP

. Common HousELErk
. Common Hrmiock

Wiip Carrot

. Foow’s Parsnny
. CoMMON Sow-THISTLE

508, Deap NETTLE . :

509. Waite HoreHounr ‘

510. ScorPIon GRASS :

511. Common BoracE . f

512. Common Loose-sTRIFE ‘

513. Prickty SaALTWortT 3 ‘

514. GLASSWoRT ; : ‘ :

515. Curtep Dock 6 6 . ‘ .

516. Man OrcuIs. ° ¢

517. Stan oF BETHLEHEM é ¢

518. Burcurr’s Broom . : F K :

519. EXPANDED SPIKELET OF THE Oar, WITH A FERTILE AND A
Barren FLOWER — - . :

520. FrrvinE FLowrer oF THE OAT, SHOWING THE Tees Porras
AND THE FEATHERY STIGMAS : f .

521. SECTION OF THE OAT-SEED : . :

522. Toe Sprit LEAr-SHEATH OF A GRASS

523. Jue Common Oak (Quercus pedwnculata)

524. THE SESSILE-FRUITED Oak (Q. sesstliflora)

525. LEAVES, FLOWER, AND F'RuIT oF THE BEECH (Bagiaie, sylvatica).

526. Tus Sweet CuEestNnut (Castenea vesca) . 7

527. Tur Hazen (Corylus avellana) :

528. Tor HornBEam (Ostrya vulgaris) : .

529. Tur Common Exum (Ulmus campestris) . .

530. Tus Warr Popnar (Populus alba). Leaf and Blowers :

581. Luar anp FLowers or THE Buack Popuar (P. nigra) .

532. Toe Wurrr Witiow (Salix alba) . 5 . : :

533. Tor BroaD-LEAVED SALLow (S. caprea)

584. Tue Osrer (S. viminalis) . ‘ : .

PAGE
865

co co co Co CO CO CO
Nanas
ST So SD ST Ot TT

877

ee
a
a

379
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

. THE Common Bircx (Betula alba)

. THe ALDER (Alnus glutinosa)

. Toe Asn (Fraxinus excelsior)

. THe Yew (Zaxus baccata)

. THe Larcu (Laria communis)

. Tae Scorce Fire (Pinus sylvestris) .

. Tur Common Mapie (Acer campestre) .
. Tue Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus)
543.
544,
545.
546,
547.
548.
549.

Tur HorsE-cHEestnut (Asculus hippocastanum)
Tur SPINDLE-TREE (Luonymus Europea) .
Tur SLoF or BLAckTHORN (Prunus spinosa) .
Tur Box (Buxus sempervirens)

GroLoeist’s HAMMER

Ducx’s-HEAD HAMMER .

Geotoaist’s Pick .

PAGE
388
388
389
389
389
389
390
390
390
390
391
391
394
394
394

we wo

SAN DOE

wrore

He Oo bo FH

AION

REFERENCES. TO PLATES

Puare I (frontispiece)—BUTTERIFLIES

. SwauLow-ram (Papilio machaon).

. Common Brux (Polyommatus alexis). Male.

. Brown Arcus (Polyommatus agestis).

. Avoyis Buux (Polyonumatus adonis).

. CroupeD SunpHuR (Colias hyale).

. Briustone (Gonepteryx rhani).

. Chouprp YELLow (Colias edusa).

. Orancu-tie (Huchloe cardamines). Under side of male.

” ” ” Upper side of male.

. SILVER-WASHED Friritnary (Argyninis paphia).
11.
12.

Greasy or Marsu Frrrmusry (Melitea artemis).
Doxe or Bureunpy Frrrimiary (Nemeobius lucina).

Pratt II—DRAGON-FLIES

. Aishna grandis. 4, Libellula depressa. Male.
. Cordulegaster annulatus. 5. Calopteryx virgo.
. Agrion minwum. j 6. Agrion puella. Male.

Prats ITI—BUTTERFLIES

. Rep Apmrrat (Vanessa atalanta).

. Large Sxrprer (Pamplila sylvanus).

. Smann Sxrveer (Pamphila linea).

. Comma (Grapta C. album).

- Smaty TorvoisesHenn (Vanessa urtica).

. Parnren Lapy (Cynthia cardut).

. CHank-HILL Buur (Polyommatus corydon),
xxiv

H
FOO ONDA WD He

e

DNADAE WD HE

.
HR
roof

NADoPpwNwrH

REFERENCES TO PLATES

. CHALK-HILL BuoE (Polyommatus corydon). Male.
. Smatn Coprer (Chrysophanus phleas).

10.
11.

Pracock (Vanessa Io).
CaMBERWELL Brauty (Vanessa Antiopa).

Pratt IV—MOTHS

. Crimson UnpDERWING (Catocala sponsa).

. OaK-EGGAR (Bombyx quercus). Male.

. Exprror Mora (Saturnia carpint). Male.
. Common TicER (Chelonia caja).

. Stx-spor Burner (Anthrocera filipendule).
. CrynaBaR Mora (Callimorpha Jacobee).

. Brimstone Morn (Runvia crategata).

. Morrnep Umper (Hibernia defoliaria).

. PEacu-Biossom (Thyatira batis).

. Exepnant Hawk (Cherocampa elpenor).

. Porrar Hawk (Smerinthus populi).

Pratt V—MOTHS

. Scartet Trcer (Callimorpha dominula).
. ANGLE-sHADES (Phlogophora meticulosa).

. Borr-tre (Pygera bucephala).

. Borperep Warre (idonia piniaria).

- Woop Ticer (Chelonia plantaginis).

. Lapeer Morn (Lasiocampa quercifolia).

. CANARY-SHOULDERED T'HorN (Ennomos tiliaria).
. ScanLopeD Osx (Crocallis elinguaria).

. Yettow Unprerwine (Tryphena pronuba).
. Love Hawk (Smerinthaus tilie).

. Spurce Hawk (Deilephila euphorbie).

Prate VI—-MARINE SHELLS

- VARIABLE Scatnop (Pecten varius).

- Tetnen (TLellina balthica).

. TeLten (Tellina teniis).

. Astarte conpressa.

. Ticrr Scatnop (Pecten tigrinus).

. Common Scantor (Pecten opercularis).
. Ceratisolen legumen.
REFERENCES TO PLATES XXV

8. Pop Razor.(Solen siliqua).
- 9. Tapes pullastra.
10. Sabre Razor (Solen ensis).

PuarE VII—MARINE SHELLS

1. Donaw.

2. Tapes Virgineus.

3. Tapes aureus.

4, Evreux Mussen (Mytilus edulis).

5. Torroisusnunn Limenr (Acmea testudinalis). Under side.
a a x ae . Upper side.
7. Horse Mussen (Modiola modiolus).

8. Smoorn Limperr (Patella pellucida).

9. Cowry (Cyprea Europea).

10. Common Garer or Oty Marp (Mya arenaria).

11. Sunser Suunn (Psammobia Ferroensis).

12. Common Limrnr (Patella vulgata). Under side of shell.
13. Common Tor (Lrochus zizyphinus).

14.

15. Three figures of the variable Dog Periwinkle (Purpura lapillus).
16.

Puare VITI—LAND AND -FRESH-WATER SHELLS

1. Epvisrz = Snam = (Helix 10. Planorbis corneus.
pomatia). ll. Helix lapicida.

2. | Thr ania 5 12. Bulimus montanus.
3. eee figures of Helix 13. Limnea peregra.
4,| "emoralis. 14. Helix virgata.
5, \ Two figures of Helix hor- 15. Helix cantiana.
6. tensis. 16. Limnea stagnalis.
7. Helix pisana. 17. Paludina vivipara.
8. Swan Mussen (Anodonta 18. Helix abustorum.

cygnea).
9. Garpen Snat (Helia as-

‘persa).

Pratt IX—BIRDS’ EGGS

1. Sporrep FrycarcHer. 3. NIGHTINGALE.
2. Woopcuar. 4. Ropin.
xxvi

DNID

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

mwDore

Or

aQoarwnre

- Polytrichum formosum.

REFERENCES TO PLATES

. Missen Truss. 17.
. Sona Turusx. ‘18.
. BLACKBIRD. 19.
. EIELDFARE. 20.
. WHEATEAR. 21.

ReEpDstTarv. 22.

Reep WARBLER. 23.

10.

Great Trr.

Buvz Trr.
Lone-taruep Trr.
Waite Wacratn.
Crestep Lark.
SHort-rorp Lark.
GREENFINCH.

SepGr WARBLER. 24, Reep Bunrine.
Lesser WHItEerHroar. 25. Yertow Bunrine.
Buackcap. 26. GoLDFINCH.
CHIFF-CHAFF. 27. CHAFFINCE.
Wren.
Pirate X—BIRDS’ HGGS
. SwALLow. 7. Sparrow Hawr.
. Cuckoo. 8. Kestrez.
Roox. 9. Rineep Prover.
. Crow. 10. Sniper.
. JACKDAW. 11. Buack Tern.
. JAY. 12. Common Tern.
Pirate XI—SHAWEEDS
. CHANNELLED Fucus (Fucus 5. Padina pavonia.
canaliculatus). | 6. Wormskioldia sanguinea.
- SERRATED Fucus (Fucus | 7. Gracillaria compressa.
serratus). ! 8. Plocamium coccinewm.
. ‘Dunce’ (Rhodomenia pal- | 9. Corallina officinalis.
mata). | 10. Ulva latissima.
. ‘Irish Moss’. (Chondrus | 11. Enteromorpha compressa.
crispus). (12. Callithamnion.
Puarr XII—MOSSES
- Hypnunr rutabulum. | 6. Dicranum scoparium.
- Hypnum tamariscinum. 7. Funaria hygrometrica.
- Mniwm undulatum. 8. Bartramia fontana.
- Mnium subglobosum. 9. Sphagnum cymbifolium.

Atrichum undulatun.
e

oe ww oR wt

aQonPr wor

REFERENCES TO PLATES XXVii

Puatt XITI—FHRNS

- Common Hart’s-roncuxr (Scolopendrium vulgare).
. Common Potypopy (Polypodiuwm vulgare).
. Buapper Fern (Cystopteris).

Common Bracken (Pteris aquilina).

Mate Fern (Lastrea filix-mas).

Lavy Fern (Athyrium filia-femina).

Marwen-nar SpLEENWworT (Aspleniwm trichomanes).

. Sea SprEENworr (Aspleninum marinum).
. Avprr’s TonevE (Ophioglosswm vulgatum).
- Moonworr (Botrychiwm lunaria).

Pirate XIV—GRASSES

. Mravow Foxrarn. 6. Finz Bent-crass.
Dogsram. 7. QuaKING Grass.
. CATSTATL. 8. Darneu.
Harr Grass. 9. Rye Grass.
. Meapow Ferscor. 10. Cock’s-roor.

PLatE XV—GRASSES

. Mrapow Sort. 6. Watt Barry.
. Canary Grass. 7. Brome Grass.
. Mrcter Grass. 8. CoucH Grass.

. Winup Oar. 9. Common SEDGE.
. WHEAT Grass. 10. WatER-swEET.

Puate XVI-—WILD FLOWERS

» Prmrrose (Primula vulgaris).

» Scented Vioner (Viola odorata).

« Woop Anemone (Anemone nemorosa).

. Puree Orcuts (Orchis mascula).

- Winp Hyactnra (Hyacinthus nonscriptus).
» Purrte Crover (Trifolium pratense).
xxviii REFERENCES TO. PLATES

7. Deapty NicursnapE (Atropa belladonna).
8. Water Crowroor (Ranunculus aquatilis).
9. Broom (Sarothamnus scoparius).

10. Arum (Arum maculatum).

Piarr XVII—WILD FLOWERS

. Dog Rosz (Rosa canina). |

- Honnysuckie (Lonicera).

. Foxciove (Digitalis purpurea)

» Brrrer Vurcen (Lathyrum macrorhizus).
Corn Poppy (Papaver reas).

. Forcrr-me-nor (Myosotis palustris).

. Stonecror (Sedum Anglicum).

. Seasrous (Scabiosa colwinbaria).

. Corn Buvgporrne (Centaurea cyanus).

» Brrruerswuer (Solanum dulcamara).

He
SHEDBABMAP.wWwoe

Puare XVIII—WILD FLOWERS

. Corn Manriconp (Chrysanthemum segetunr).
. Lussen Bixpwexp (Convolvulus arvensis).
. SundEW (Drosera rotundifolia).

- Brrv’s Foor (Ornithopus perpusillus).°
Buiur Sprepweny (Veronica chamedrys).

- Prueernun (Anagailis arvensis).

» Matrow (Malva sylvestris).

» Yevtow Toapruax (Linaria vulgaris).

. Irs (Iris pseudacorus).

» Sea Horny (Eryngium maritinuun).

Seoaneonurwnr
Errata

Plates XVI. XVII. XVIII. should be numbered XIV.
XV. XVI. to be in accordance with the references in the text.

Plates XIV. and XV. should be numbered XVII. and
XVIII.
PART I
ANIMAL LIFE

CHAPTER I
PONDS AND STREAMS

I witu begin by giving my readers a few hints on the collection of
the various forms of animal life to be met with in ponds and streams.
Young collectors often neglect the study of pond life. Perhaps this
may be accounted for by the fact that most of the inhabitants of the
water are not to be seen before they are caught. A butterfly on the
wing will always arouse their interest ; and, even if it appears to be
only a ‘ White,’ yet the probabilities that it may be a ‘ Hawthorn’ or
a ‘Bath’ will often result in the insect being netted for a cursory
inspection. But when we stand on the edge of a pond, nothing in
particular attracts our attention, unless it may be that the brilliant
wings of a dragon-fly fix our gaze. We look at a dense mass of
duckweed—a screen so thick that we scarcely hope to find a living
creature in the water from which it shuts off the sun’srays. A little
careful observation will, however, show us our mistake. A small
black and shining body suddenly appears on the surface, displacing
some of the little green fronds; and after a few seconds’ repose
as suddenly disappears again. Soon other signs of life become
apparent, and then probably we wish some means were at hand by
which we could search the new hunting ground.

I can strongly recommend pond hunting to a young naturalist.
There is an immense variety of living forms in fresh water. Nearly
all these are easily obtained, and generally require but little attention
in the aquarium. One single hour spent in pond hunting will
supply you with material for interesting occupation at home for
many weeks. This form of recreation has the additional advantage

B
2 ; ANIMAL LIFE

that it may be carried on, if desired, throughout the year. Even in
the month of February, when nearly all life is apparently dormant,
a ‘dip’ in a stagnant pool will generally be rewarded with more or
less success; but during the warmer months every haul will bring
to view a crowd of living creatures.

APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING IN FRESH WATER

Many and varied are the appliances recommended by different
writers for the capture, conveyance, and preservation of the speci-
mens, many being of a somewhat complicated character. But the
best of results may be obtained by the use of the most simple appli-
ances, such as may be fitted up by the most inexperienced and
unskilled. . :

The collector’s outfit will consist of a net, a dredging-hook, a
dipping-bottle, a can, some wide-mouthed bottles, and a few tin or
zine boxes.

As regards the net, this may be home-made or purchased.
Where the means are not very limited, a most convenient form of
folding net may be bought. This may be carried in the pocket, and
readily screwed on to the end of a stick when required for active
service. But it is possible that many of my readers may, either for
pleasure or from necessity, desire to make their own. I will there-
fore give a few hints based on my own experience.

For years I have used a net made as follows: Bend a piece of
stout iron wire into the form here represented. Push the two
straight ends into a piece of strong brass tubing, about three-eighths



Fia. 1. Fic. 2.

of an inch in internal diameter, and three inches long. Then, by
hammering the end of the tube, the wire is held in a firm grip.
The other end of the tube receives a tough stick about three or
PONDS AND STREAMS 3

four feet long. A strip of stout calico is now sewn round the iron
ring, and to this is attached a net of gauze or book muslin, about
eighteen inches deep, conical in form, but with a rounded end.

A metal Y (fig. 3) may be obtained at the dealer’s
for a few pence, and with this a net frame may be fitted
up in a very short time. All that is necessary is to
bend a piece of cane of suitable diameter, and push
it well into. the two narrow arms of the y. Or a
strong y-shaped twig may be cut, and the ends of a
strong cane or piece of wire firmly bound to two of Fi. 3.
its arms by fine copper wire; the other arm being
provided with a ferrule by which it is attached, when required, to
a walking-stick.

A areas net is often very useful, especially when the ponds
or streams to be searched are rather large. This may be simply an
ordinary net, the metal frame of which is thicker than usual—say
about three-sixteenths of an inch—and flattened on the off side.
The net is tied toa strong string four or five yards long. The
other end of the string being tied to the wrist, the net is skil-
fully thrown out into the water so that it falls flat on the surface, and
then pulled in along the bottom. I have often made the same net
serve both purposes, changing string for stick, or vice versd, as cir-
cunsiances required.

When the pond is crowded with weeds it may often be an
advantage to weight the off side of the net with a piece of lead.

During several summers I have paid many visits to a certain
favourite pond about eight yards in diameter. Here I have always
commenced operations by scraping the banks by
means of the stick andnet. Then, exchanging stick
for string, I have searched the less accessible parts,
by which means I have undoubtedly secured many
a victim driven from the borders by my previous
attacks.

The dredging- Took is very ‘useful for collecting
the plants which thrive in our ponds, and which
add so much to the beauty of our aquaria. It
may, I believe, be purchased, but is easily made. Regen
Mine consists of three butcher’s galvanised meat- Drrpoine-1ook.
hooks soldered together ; but they may be bound
together by means of copper wire. Soldering is such a useful art
that even the naturalist should learn it. Sometimes the ferrule of

BQ



4
4 ANIMAL LIFE

his net splits, his bait can springs a leak, or the joint of his y gives
way ; and the repairing occupies only a few minutes.

A dipping-bottle is exceedingly useful, especially when the
collector is the fortunate possessor of a good microscope. It con-
sists of a wide-mouthed bottle of medium size, with a spreading
rim. A stout wire ring is fastened securely round the neck, and the
twisted ends of this serve to fix the arrangement to a stick.
Stagnant. water usually teems with the lower forms of life, both
animal and vegetable; and with the aid of the dipping-bottle
samples of water may be collected from different parts of a pond.
When it is intended to search for microscopic objects, a hand mag-
nifying lens should always form part of the equipment. Each
sample of water removed from the pond is held up to the light and
examined with the lens. If abundant signs of life are visible, the
greater portion is gently poured back into the pond, and the lower
richer part, with all its sediment, put into a collecting-bottle for
further examination at home.

Many interesting low forms of life may be secured by gently
scraping the submerged surfaces of piles
and other objects. Of course, this may
be done by means of the simple dipping-
bottle and stick. My own plan, however,
which seems to be in every way satisfac-
tory, is this: A small tin funnel with
a wide tube fits firmly in the cork of a
wide-mouthed bottle. Two other holes
in the cork are covered with fine muslin .
Ania anda ferrule soldered to a metal band
round the neck of the bottle serves to fix
the whole to a stick.

As the funnel moves upwards in the
water, gently scraping the surface to
which it is applied, a current of water sets
downwards into the bottle, afterwards
escaping through the muslin covering the
Tee Bien woe ors holes in the cork. In this way a large

rectine Low Forms or dUantity of water may be strained through
Ponp Lirr. the apparatus, while the little living beings
passing down the funnel are continually

adding to the density of the population.

After a time the cork is removed, and the contents poured into
















PONDS AND STREAMS 5

the collecting-bottle. The little animals and microscopic plants thus
collected will afford no end of amusement and instruction for many
months. They require no further attention beyond the occasional
addition of a little water to replace the loss by evaporation, and
they will often be found to increase prodigiously in their new
home. '

The can previously mentioned may be the ordinary angler’s bait
can, or, as a substitute, a few smaller tin boxes with perforated
covers. The perforations need not be many or large, and are easily
made by knocking the point of an awl through the metal. These
are used for the larger aquatic animals, such as*the newts and
tritons. It is quite a mistake to suppose that these require a large
supply of water during their transmission. Fach box should con-
tain a little of some kind of water weed to keep the specimens
damp, the weeds themselves being useful for study, and also for
stocking the aquaria. Smaller boxes should also be taken for
water beetles, larvie, water spiders, &c.; and great care must be
taken to isolate the voracious kinds. The carnivorous beetles and
larvee should not only be separated from the harmless creatures
which they so readily attack, but they themselves should not be
crowded together ; otherwise the collector may find, on his return, a
number of dead insects, some having been even reduced to fragments
by the powerful jaws of their fellow-captives.

When all the above requisites have been properly prepared, only
one thing remains to be done: see that you have provided ample
accommodation for the expected enormous and sudden increase of
your family. The new abodes may consist of glass jars, tumblers,
bell jars, pans, or anything that will hold water. My plan is to
keep a large bell jar for the newts and tritons, another for the
water beetles and carnivorous larvee, a third for the less voracious
insects and water spiders, and a fourth and smaller one for the
microscopic specimens. As arule, small fishes may inhabit the same
water as the newts, and aquatic snails may be distributed in all.

Pond hunting is not by any means a drawing-room sport, and
one must not be too careful about his outward appearance in its
pursuit. Most ponds and many streams are surrounded by low,
marshy banks; so that it is often impossible to keep oneself free
from mire during the search. It is therefore absolutely necessary
that the collector be provided with a thick and sound pair of boots,
not polished, but well greased. Starched cuffs become an abomina-
tion, and even the coat-sleeves will generally acquire a consider-
6 ANIMAL LIFE

able accumulation of bottom mud, often black and highly odorous.
The young naturalist, therefore, if wise, will leave his ‘Sunday
clothes’ at home, and he will take care to wear a good pair of
leather leggings.

Tur AQuaRIUM

Perhaps it will be advisable at this stage to give some hints on
the selection and management of aquaria. Where the main object
cf the collector is to become acquainted with aquatic life in all its
phases—to obtain as great a variety as possible for purposes of
observation and study—the large single aquarium is a great mistake.
A number of vessels will have to be provided, in order that the
various kinds of animals may be effectually protected from their
enémies. But it is not necessary that the vessels be of any parti-
cular or fashionable form. Of course, a large aquarium is very
serviceable for fishes and newts, but many of the lower forms are
much more easily managed in small vessels. For purposes of study
one can do nothing better than fix a shelf across a window that is
not exposed to the full blaze of the sun, and arrange on this one or
two good-sized vessels for the larger specimens, and several smaller
ones to contain the others.

We can quite understand, however, that a strong desire to possess
a larger and really ornamental affair may exist, and then the design
and general appearance becomes a most important consideration,
especially if the proposed aquarium is to occupy a place in the
drawing or dining room. The shape of the vessel is, to a certain
extent, a matter of taste ; but as success will be in proportion to the
maintenance of natural conditions, we should make it our aim, as
far as is consistent with appearance and other circumstances, to
imitate the natural pond or stream.

All natural waters receive their supply of light from the top only ;
hence the animals which are kept in the inverted bell-jar aquarium
are at once placed in an unnatural condition, for they receive the
light from all sides. Yet my own experience shows that this form
is not by any means unsatisfactory if properly managed.

The rectangular form of aquarium is far preferable to the bell,
for it does not magnify and distort the specimens. Such aquaria
are rather expensive, but are easily made by those who possess a
little mechanical ingenuity. A framework is made by soldering
together some pieces of ‘angle zinc.’ This may then be soldered to
a bottom of sheet zine, supported on a slab of wood, and the sides
PONDS AND STREAMS 7

and ends fixed with a good cement. The ends may be of slate, the
front of thick glass, and the back either of glass or slate.

The selection and application of the cement, however, requires
considerable care, since a very small leakage may prove a great
inconvenience, particularly with an indoor aquarium. TI have seen
scores of recipes for stopping and fixing the glass, and have tried
several of them, but still feel doubtful as to which is the best. The
following is a good one: Mix two parts each of litharge, plaster of
Paris, and very fine sand, and one part of powdered resin. Then
make this into a putty with boiled linseed oil and a little driers.
This cement will take a few weeks to harden.

Some writers recommend an aquarium which widens out at the
top; the object being to expose a larger surface of water to the air.
I cannot regard this form as a very sightly one, and the necessity
for the widened top disappears when the aquarium is properly
‘stocked. It may be observed, however, that all aquaria, of what-
ever form, should be wide in proportion to their depth.

Now, supposing that the vessel is chosen and procured, how shall
we proceed to make the necessary preparations ? First obtain from
a neighbouring pond or stream a sufficiency of bottom mud to form
a layer about two inches deep. I have seen ordinary garden soil
recommended for this purpose, but it is more likely that the mud
taken from the pond or stream whence we are to obtain our stock
of animal and vegetable life will satisfy the requirements of the in-
habitants than soil obtained from any other source.

We are now ready for the aquatic plants; and here again we
must study the requirements of Nature. Some thrive best in swift
waters, and others in sluggish streams and pools. The same remark
applies also to the animal life, and especially to fishes. Therefore,
specimens that have been caught in running water should be kept
under the same conditions; and creatures obtained from ponds
should not have frequent changes of water.

Some aquatic plants have well-developed roots, and require the
presence of either a muddy or a sandy soil; others, like the duck-
weeds, require no soil, but float on the surface of the water, deriving
all their nourishment direct from the air and the water. The former
should be properly set in the soil of the aquarium, which is then, if
at all muddy, covered with a moderately thick layer of well-washed
sand or shingle. The water is now allowed to run in gently till it
reaches within an inch or two of the rim.

If the side of the aquarium which is tuned to a window is of
8 ANIMAL LIFE

glass, it may be advisable to cut off much of the light entering at
that side.

A few rather large stones, loosely piled one on the other, are also
useful in providing hiding-places for such animals as require more
or less seclusion. =

It will sometimes be necessary to cover the top of the aquarium
with gauze to prevent the escape of some of the captives. Minnows,
for example, will often take a vigorous suicidal leap into the air,
and developing frogs, leeches, and the pupx of the dragon-fly
crawl up the glass above the water. But the watchful aquarium-
keeper will soon learn for himself when the gauze covering is
necessary.

We have now a very important matter to decide. Supposing
our aquarium to be stocked with pond life, how often will it be
necessary to change the water? Such a question is not to be
answered satisfactorily in a few words. We are all acquainted with
the ordinary ‘fish-globe,’ with its contracted top, stocked with a
few gold-fish, and placed on a table or suspended in front of a
window by way of ornament. And who has not seen the poor fish
skimming the surface of the water and gasping for want of air ?
The form of the vessel is such as to prevent the free aération of the
water, and no means have been arranged for a renewal of air.
Fishes and all gill-breathing animals are dependent entirely on the
supply of air dissolved in the water ; and without air they die as we
should. This being the case, we should always keep up a sufficiency
of dissolved air in an aquarium which contains gill-breathers.
Now, this may be done in two or three different ways. There
may be frequent changes of water, or the same water may be
aérated by some mechanical contrivance; or, thirdly, an appro-
priate amount of vegetable life may be introduced to maintain
what is called the balance of life.

The first of these methods is exceedingly troublesome, especially
when the aquarium is small and the demand on the air large ; for,
in this case, a change may be necessary every day; and, once for-
gotten, we are sadly reminded of our neglect by the sight of our
lifeless pets floating on the surface.

The second method is more satisfactory, but a little ingenuity
is required in fitting up the necessary apparatus. Either a current
of air is to be forced into the water, or a fine jet of the latter
is sent into the air. The better plan is to supply a very fine
fountain jet from a small cistern placed high enough to give the
PONDS AND STREAMS 9

required pressure. A waste pipe is not necessary, for the little
cistern may be refilled with water from the aquarium.

Personally, I have no delight in either of the above methods; for,
where the lack of vegetable life renders one or the other necessary,
the aquarium cannot be a very attractive object. The chief interest
doubtless lies in the varied movements and habits of the animated
creatures, but the general appearance is due principally to the beau-
tiful verdure and the graceful form of the plant life.

I will now point out a better way of aérating the water. Pro-
bably you know that plants as well as animals require air. But
there is this difference: Animals inhale the oxygen that is in the air,
and breathe out carbonic acid gas, while green plants take in carbonic
acid gas and give out oxygen. If, then, care be taken in regulating
the supply of aquatic plants, the animals will provide these plants
with carbonic acid gas, and in return will receive from the plants
the oxygen that they need; and the water of the aquarium need
seldom be changed. I have at the present time three vessels which
have had no change of water for over four months, and yet the
health of the animal inmates leaves nothing to be desired.

An aquarium should be put in a good light, but should never be
exposed to the direct rays of the sun for any length of time. Low
forms of vegetable life (Conferva) will make their appearance as a
green growth on the glass, especially if the light is strong. A little
of this does not mar the beauty of the scene at all; but it sometimes
becomes so dense as to be almost opaque. This growth may be re-
tarded considerably by reducing the intensity of the light. A sheet
of white or blue tissue paper pasted on the side of the glass which
receives the stronger light will prove very effective.

One word more about aquaria: let me recommend you to
depart from the old-fashioned plan of stocking your aquarium with
a few fish only, as if fishes were the sole inhabitants of the water.
Fishes are very interesting, some of them particularly so; but,
strange to say, those which eatbi the greatest variety of interesting
habits are seldom to be seen in aquaria. The eternal gold-fish is a
little overdone. Its colour is too bright when not relieved by a
blending of less gaudy tints, to be constantly before one’s eyes ; and
its movements are monotonous compared with the lively and
variable antics of many of our little finny friends. An aquarium
should be always a changing scene; and every outing should be the
means of providing new items in the entertainment,
10 ANIMAL LIFE

Maxine A START

We are now on our way, and we naturally inquire, ‘ Which are
the best kinds of ponds in which to search?’ My advice is: ‘Try
all” It frequently happens that a most unpromising pond or ditch
is full of interesting beings. Sometimes the black mud and brown
frothy scum are very uninviting, and the odour evolved on disturbing
the water repels us; yet a few dips may be rewarded by many a
beautiful specimen. On the other hand, a pond of clear water,
adorned with the lovely flowers and leaves of the water-lily and
crowfoot, may be comparatively barren. Frequently we can see the
objects we require, and aim straight at them with the net; at other
times we dip indiscriminately, and wonder what the result will be.
It is not wise, as a rule, to spend much time in walking round a
pond merely looking for moving forms at which to strike. Your
chances of success are much greater if you are constantly dipping
as you go. On reaching the bank of a pond, put out your net as
far as you can, and strike the surface of the water perpendicularly
with your net. Then drag it in along the bottom, being careful to
bring it well home on the vegetation, if any, bordering the banks.
Always make for tufts of weeds and submerged grasses, for many
animals seek shelter under these, especially after the water has been
disturbed bya few strokes of the net. After a few dips, turn out the
whole contents of the net—mud, weeds, snails, worms, beetles,
larvee, spiders, and a host of other things—on a piece of bare ground ;
and, after turning up a few inches of your coat-sleeves, proceed to

examine the mass most carefully, and put in boxes the specimens
selected.

| LEECHES

It is probable that most of my readers do not possess such a
‘luxury as a compound microscope, and for this reason I have thought
it advisable to pass over all the interesting microscopic inhabitants
of our ponds and streams. This I do with very great reluctance,
since these minute creatures are quite as beautiful and just as enter-
‘taining as the more conspicuous aquatic animals. Let those who
have a microscope make a free use of the dipping-bottle I have de-
scribed, and they will find innumerable treasures in the stagnant
pool; and even those who have no better magnifier than an ordinary
pocket lens may derive much pleasure and profit in watching the
movements of these low forms of life,
PONDS AND STREAMS . il

We shall start, then, with the leeches, and pass from these to
the higher aquatic animals.

Several varieties of leeches inhabit our ponds and streams.
They are all soft-bodied animals, divided into a number of ring-like
segments like the common earthworm. They are parasites, deriving
all their nourishment by sucking the juices from the bodies of living
animals.

The Horse Leech is very common in our country. Many are
the fabulous stories which have been told about this harmless
creature, many ignorant persons considering it to be so poisonous
that nothing would induce them to handle one. It certainly has
teeth, but these are made of gristle only, and could not penetrate
the thinnest human skin. Nevertheless, these weapons can easily
wound the desh of the soft-bodied animals on which the leech feeds.
It lives principally on worms and grubs; but, failing these, it does
not hesitate to suck the blood of its own species. One of my cap-
tive leeches was bold enough to enter the shell of a large fresh-
water mussel; but it was a fatal venture. The mussel snapped its
shells together with a powerful gvip that almost severed the leech’s
body in twain. When the horse leech wishes to swim, it flattens
its body into a tape by means of a series of muscles which pass
from the upper to the lower surface. It then moves onward with
graceful undulating motions. ;

The Medicinal Leech, once common with us, but now rare, is
larger than the horse leech, and may be known by the broken





Fic. 6.—Tur Mepicrnan Lrecn.

yellow bands along its back. Its teeth are hard and sawlike, and are
worked with a rasping motion by a set of powerful muscles. It has
ten eyes, arranged in one curved line.
12 ANIMAL LIFE

FRESH-WATER MoLuuscs

The term ‘shell-fish’ is so unscientific that perhaps we had
better discard it altogether. The various animals included in this
category are not fish at all, nor are they even near relatives of the
finny tribe. The class name ‘ Mollusca’ is applied to an extensive
group of animals, all of which are characterised by a soft body,
usually inclosed in one or two shells. Most of them have not the
faintest trace of an internal skeleton.

The body of a mollusc is covered with a loose, thick, and slimy
envelope called the mantle, and this secretes the hard layer of limy
substance that forms the shell. A kind
of membrane on the floor of the mouth





Rvp Sten)
8 . a 5
NR vivivi| = bears, in many species, a large number of






i
hiellwhy : ,
RARARRASERARRRRIN — little teeth, arranged in recular rows; and

these constitute the rasp by which the
Fic 7.—Tue Trrru or f
A Motuvsc. creature grinds the vegetable matter on
which it feeds. Nearly all the molluscs
are aquatic, the majority of them inhabiting salt water; but some
inhabit fresh water, and must now be briefly considered.



The Fresh-wa ter Mussel

The fresh-water mussel (Anodon), shown on Plate VIII, is com-
mon in some of our ponds and rivers. It is one of the bivalves or
two-shelled molluscs, very similar to the common edible mussel in
form and appearance, but much superior in size.

This creature is easily kept in the aquarium, and is perfectly
harmless. Let us watch its movements and habits, after having
placed it on a bed of fine sand. At first its shells remain firmly
closed, but when it feels itself out of danger it thrusts out from

" between its valves a fleshy part called its foot. By means of this it
slowly turns itself over, and half buries its shells in the sand. As
it lies here with its valves gaping, we observe two open tubes slightly
protruding, and a very small quantity of carmine or other suitable
colouring matter placed gently near the Anodon will prove the
existence of two currents of water—one entering and the other leaving
its body through these tubes. By this méans the gills with which
it breathes are being continually bathed with fresh water.
PONDS AND STREAMS 13

Fresh-water Snails

Fresh-water snails are not only ornamental, but even useful, in
the aquarium. Some of them feed on the Conferve—the green
vegetation which sometimes covers the sides of the vessel so densely—
and consequently help to keep the glass clean.

All the snails belong to the Headed Mollusca, a division charac-
terised by the possession of a distinct head, with eyes and horns, or
feelers. They are all vegetable feeders, and the ‘rasp’ formed by
their numerous small teeth aids them in securing their food. The
front portion of this rasp does the chief work, and is, consequently,
soon worn down ; but the strip of gristle on which the teeth are set
is continually growing towards the front, thus renewing the worn
part.

The shells of snails are coiled into a spiral, due to the unequal
growth of the body, one side growing faster than the other.

The largest British water-snail is the Palwdina (Plate VIII), which
sometimes reaches a length of nearly two inches. It is to be found
in the quiet nooks of many of our southern rivers, and, less abun-
dantly, in other parts. Its eyes are placed on the extremities of
short stalks. This snail brings forth its young alive, for the eggs are
hatched while yet within the body of the parent. When disturbed
it retreats within its shell, and then closes the aperture with a horny
lid (operculwm), similar to that of periwinkles and whelks.

On Plate VIII you will see a figure of another large snail (Limnea
stagnalis), which is very common in stagnant pools and sluggish
streams; and the common Peregra of the same family, found in
similar situations. On the same plate you will also see a repre-
sentative of the flat spiral molluses (Planorbis), of which there are
several species.

Sometimes water-snails lay their eggs on the glass of the
aquarium, in which case the gradual development of the young
may be easily watched with the help of a magnifying lens.

The table of classification given in the chapter on ‘ Snails and
Slugs’ includes both the terrestrial and aquatic molluscs, and will
assist the beginner in the arrangement of his collection of shells.
The few hints given in the same place on the preservation of mol-
luses also apply to the aquatic species.
14° ANIMAL LIFE

FRESH-WATER CRUSTACEANS

Before examining the fresh-water species of this group it will be
well to learn the general characteristics by which we may recog-
nise its members. ‘The bodies of all the Crustacea are composed
of a number of ring-like segments jointed together, all the segments
being constructed more or less on the same general plan. Each
segment bears a pair of limbs. Sometimes two or more of these
rings are fused together so completely that the divisions are no
longer to be seen; bu. in such cases the limbs always remain quite
distinct, and thus reveal the true or original number. The Crus-
taceans have no internal bony skeleton, but are protected by a skin
which has either become horny, or else hardened by limy substance.

Our common aquatic species include the Crayfish, the Fresh-
water Shrimp, Water-fleas, and Cyclops.

The Crayfish

The River Crayfish (Astacus fluviatilis), which closely re-
sembles the common lobster, is plentiful in many of our rivers. Its
skin is hardened by carbonate of lime, which is extracted from the



Fic. 8.—Tur Crayrisu.

water ; and as this condition is absolutely necessary for the preser-
vation of the animal, we find crayfishes abounding most in the
rivers of limestone districts.

During the winter crayfishes spend much of their time in bur-
rows which they excavate, or in natural crevices in the banks of the
streams ; and large numbers may sometimes be dug out of these
hiding-places during the cold weather. In milder weather they
PONDS AND STREAMS 15

watch for their prey at the mouths of their burrows with horns ex-
tended, but dart backward with a rapid flap of their powerful tails
when danger threatens them. In summer they may be seen
walking about in shallow water during the cool hours of the evening,
but they hide themselves during the heat of the day.



Fic. 9.—Tue CrayrisH (UNDER-SURFACE).

Crayfishes are to be caught ina variety of ways. Baskets baited
with frogs or pieces of meat may be let down into the water and
hauled up at intervals. Like moths, they are said to be attracted
by lights during the night, and are then easily caught with a net.
But the most exciting mode of capture is that of wading in the river
and pulling the creatures out of their hiding-places by the horns;
also turning over the stones and chasing the retreating crayfish as
16 ANIMAL LIFE

it smartly flaps its tail with its face to the foe. This is the only
method I have tried myself, and recommend it as being a very
amusing and lively sport, especially as it often affords an opportunity
of testing the power of the creature’s claws.

We frequently meet with crayfishes having a limb much less’
than its proper size. This is generally the result of a fight—a kind
of sport in which crayfishes seem to derive as much pleasure as some
men. Again, if a limb is seriously injured, the animal snaps it off
at one of the joints above the seat of injury ; or, if caught by one of
its limbs, it will often voluntarily amputate that limb, and rapidly
retreat, leaving an inconsiderable portion of its body wriggling in
the hands of its captor. In either case a new limb is developed, and
at last becomes almost, if not quite, as large as the original.

The best way to keep crayfishes alive is to put them in a very
shallow trough with a supply of running water, and some loosely
piled stones to afford them hiding-places. As to diet, they are not
at all fastidious. They will dispose of water plants, carrots, turnips,
cabbage stalks, and other vegetables with a relish. But they are not
strict vegetarians by any means, for they will devour snails (shells
included), fish, meat, or poultry. The old hard and limy skin thrown
off during a ‘moult’ is crushed in the animal’s jaws, and utilised in
the formation of a new coat of armour. The female crayfish will
even devour her own offspring; and, yet more horrible, the male
will kill and eat his own spouse !

Other Crustaceans

Every young collector who has tried his luck in small streams
must have met with the lively little Fresh-water Shrimp. A number
of these: should be put into the aquarium for observation, not only
because their movements are interesting, but also on account of their
usefulness as scavengers. They are not at all particular as to diet,
and greedily devour all kinds of decomposing matter that would tend
to make the water putrid. In structure they rather closely resemble
their salt-water cousins —lobsters, shrimps, and prawns—and, like the
females of these marine relatives, the fresh-water shrimp carries her
eges under her abdomen.

If you examine the water that has been dipped oat of a stagnant
pool by simply holding it up to the light, you are almost sure to see
a number of little creatures, varying in size from a sixth of an inch
downwards, darting about actively in all directions. These are the
Water-fleas and Cyclops, both of which may be kept in an ordinary
PONDS AND STREAMS 17

bottle for a great length of time without the slightest’ attention, and
be examined at leisure with a magnifying glass. It must not be
supposed that the water-flea is in any way related to the obnoxious



Fie. 10.—A Warter-rnna, Fic. 11.—A Cyctors
MAGNIFIED, CARRYING ITs Hua-sacs.

parasite of a similar name, for both it and the cyclops are crustaceans,
while the flea is an insect.

WaTER SPIDERS AND MITES

Spiders and Mites, together with various other small creeping
and flying creatures, are often regarded as belonging to the insect
world, but in reality they form quite a distinct class (the Arachnida),
differing from all insects in several important particulars. If you
examine a spider, you will see that its body is composed of two dis-
tinct parts. The foremost division consists of the head and thorax
(chest) combined, and the large and globular hinder portion—the
abdomen—is joined to this by a very slender waist. Spiders may
also be distinguished by their four pairs of legs. They all breathe
by means of a system of air-tubes, which communicate direct with
the atmosphere. The eyes, which are not compound like those of
insects, are arranged in little clusters on the front of the head. If
the reader will compare these few characteristics with those of
insects (p. 20), he will at once perceive the reason for the separa-
tion of the two creatures into distinct divisions of the animal
kingdom,
18 ANIMAL LIFE

The most interesting of the water spiders is undoubtedly the
Argonaut or Argyroneta, more commonly known as the water spider.
This creature was at one time quite plentiful, but is now compara-
tively scarce, owing, it is said, to the vigorous search made for it by
naturalists and the ‘dealers.’ We can quite understand that the
disclosures of the wonderful instincts of this spider would make it





Fic. 12.—Warer Spiers.

quite a pet with aquarium-keepers, but perhaps a lesson may be
learned from its almost wholesale destruction.

-, The Argyroneta may sometimes be found among the contents
of the net, but it is also to be seen exploring the banks of ponds and
streams in search of food. It constructs a dome-shaped cell of silk’
beneath the surface of the water. This cell is moored to water plants
by means of silk threads, and is fixed with its mouth downwards,
PONDS AND STREAMS 19

just after the fashion of a diving-bell. Having finished the construc-
tion of this little dwelling, it rises to the surface, and thrusts the
tip of its abdomen out of the water. Then, by a sharp snap of its
hindermost legs, it detaches a bubble of air; and, holding this
securely between its limbs and its hairy body, it descends to the
dome, looking like a ball of silver as it goes down, thrusts its abdo-
men under the rim, and sets the bubble free. The air is at once
caught in the cell, and, after about a dozen such journeys, sufficient
has been collected to supply the spider’s wants.

The argonaut feeds on all kinds of aquatic insects, and sometimes
travels considerable distances from home in search of its prey, but
always returns to its dome to suck the juices of its victim. The meal
being over, it rests awhile with its head downwards, thus exposing
the breathing tubes of its abdomen to the air, and at the same time
keeping strict guard over its habitation.

The eggs of the argonaut are laid in a silken cocoon at the top
of the dome ; and here the young, about a hundred in number, remain
till they are strong enough to construct domes for themselves.

Other water spiders frequent
our ponds and sluggish streams,
but none of them construct a
sub-aquatic home like the species
above described.

Mites resemble spiders in
form, and may generally be
known by their four: pairs of
legs; but some of them, during
their earlier stages, are seen
with only two or three pairs of
limbs properly developed. These
little creatures are sometimes
seen swimming freely in the Fie. 13.—Warer Mrre,
water, or creeping along the HIGHLY MAGNIFIED.
leaves and stems of the water
weeds; but some of them, especially when young, are unable to
get about without assistance, so they attach themselves to the bodies
of water beetles and water scorpions, thus obtaining a very con-
venient ride at an extremely low fare.



NY

it i
1} amemay sil
AM ii Hy ini

C2
20 ANIMAL LIFE

FRESH-WATER INSECTS

We now come to the class Insecta, the most numerous and the
most highly developed of all the animals without backbones. These
are so widely distributed that it is almost impossible to find a place
in which they do not live. The summer air is full of their hum;
every little pond harbours its thousands, every crevice in the soil
or the solid rock provides them shelter, every tree and shrub
supplies them with food; and many seek shelter in the habitation
of man.

The term insect is applied by the uninitiated alike to all small
animals. Spiders, mites, centipedes, and woodlice are all popularly
known as insects. But let us see what an insect really is. The
name is derived from two Latin words which signify ‘cut into,’ and
itself marks one of the chief distinguishing characteristics of the
whole class, for the bodies of all insects are distinctly divided into
three parts—the head, the thorax, and the abdomen—and the de-
pression between these parts is often so deep that they appear to be
connected by a mere thread. Look, for instance, at the very slender
neck of the house-fly, and the thin waist of the wasp.

Insects also undergo changes of form (metamorphoses). Thus,
from the egg is hatched the larva or grub. This, when full grown,
changes into the pupa, or chrysalis, from which emerges the imago,
or perfect insect.

The larve, as a rule, are voracious feeders, and grow very
rapidly, undergoing a series of moults or changes of skin. When
fully grown they cease to eat, and, after casting their skins for the
last time, change into the pupal state, usually concealing themselves
underground, or in a cocoon of silk or other material which they
construct for their protection.

The pupa is usually very inactive, and eats nothing ; but a change
is gradually taking place within it, for the organs of the perfect in-
sect are in process of formation. At last the time arrives for the
final metamorphosis. It breaks its loosened skin, struggles out of
its burrow or cocoon, and seeks a place where it can expand and
dry its wings. It is now the perfect insect or imago, endowed
usually with enormous powers of flight, and capable of propagating
its kind.

The perfect insect has always three pairs of legs, one pair being
appended to each of the three segments which form the thorax.
PONDS AND STREAMS 1

Many, like flies and gnats, have but one pair of wings, always jointed
to the middle segment of the thorax. Others, such as butterflies
and moths, possess two pairs, attached to the second and third seg-
ments. Others, again, like fleas and lice, have no well-developed
wings for flying.
Allinsects have one
pair of antenne, with
some, very conspicuous
and exquisitely formed,
but with others, so
small as to escape
general observation.
Insects are further
characterised by the
peculiarity of their
breathing apparatus,
which consists of a set
of air-tubes called tra-
chee, kept open by an
elastic thread coiled
spirally, just like the
wire in an india-rubber
gas-pipe, and communi-
cating with the outside
air by openings. in the
skin called sptracles.
Having now ob-
served the chief marks





Fic. id.— GRASSHOPPER, SHOWING THE StTRUC-
e 5 TURE AND ComposiITION oF AN INSECI’S
by which insects are Bopy.

distinguished from all

other animals, we are ment; e, foremost pair of legs; J, middle segment of
7 ae ‘ thorax ; g, foremost pair of wings ; h, second pair of
in a position to define legs ; i, hindmost segment of thorax’; j, posterior pair

a, head; b, eye; c,antenna; d, thorax, foremost seg-

precisely what an in- of wings; &, third pair of legs ; ab, abdomen.

sect is. It is a jointed

animal, with a body of three divisions, undergoing metamorphoses,
having always three pairs of legs in the perfect state, and breathing
by means of trachew.

Water Bugs

We will start our observations on the aquatic insects with a brief
notice of the Water Bugs (Hydrocorisa). These have very short
22 ANIMAL LIFE

antenne, almost concealed beneath the eyes. The front legs are
not very long, and are capable of being folded in such a manner as
to be useful in seizing and holding their prey.

The family of Water Boatmen (Notonectid@) is very well known,
especially the Common Boatman (Notonecta glauca), which may be
found among the net haulings from ponds
almost everywhere. These insects are
happily named, for they are decidedly
boat-shaped, and the hind legs, which are
about twice as long as the others, stand
out at right angles like the oars of a
boat, and are provided with fringes of
stiff bristles for blades. The Latin name
is also well applied, for Notonecta means
Fic. 15.—Warter Boarman ‘back swimmer,’ and all the members of

(Glaaca). the family swim on their backs. These

insects should be watched in the aqua-

rium, for their movements are extremely interesting. They pad-

dle themselves about with great activity, always nicely ‘ feathering’

their oars by depressing the bristles after every stroke. When

taken out of the water they act very clumsily, sometimes walking

with their four short legs, and dragging their oars behind them,

and often giving a succession of leaps by a sharp motion of the

latter. During the night they often leap out of the water and
take short flights from pond to pond.

The boatman is a carnivorous insect, feeding on any living
thing which it is strong enough to conquer. It holds its prey firmly
with its front legs, and, after stinging it to death with its sharp beak,
proceeds to suck its juices till nothing is left but an empty skin.
The beak is also used as a weapon of defence, as I have proved
many times when holding these creatures in the hand. It will
pierce the skin, producing a sharp pain like the sting of a bee, but
not so intense.

It breathes by means of an air cavity between the wings and the
upper surface of the body, and often reposes on its back with the
tip of the abdomen just above the water, so as to allow this cavity
to.communicate with the atmosphere. Sometimes, however, it will
seek another experience by turning itself over and basking in the hot
sun with its back out of the water.

The boatman spends all its three stages in the water. The larva
and pupa both resemble the perfect insect in general form, but the


PONDS AND STREAMS 23

larva has no wings, and those of the pupa are imperfectly developed.
The eggs may be found in spring on the leaves of water plants, and
the young larve are hatched in April or May.

The Coriva is very similar to the Notonecta in form and habits,
but is not nearly so common.

























































































Fie. 16.— Corizxa, Fic. 17.—Tur Water
SLIGHTLY ENLARGED. Scorpion.

The Water Scorpion (Nepa cinerea) forms a bold contrast to
the pretty and active boatman. It is a very unsightly and sluggish
creature, delighting in stagnant and fcetid waters. The term ‘scor-
pion ’ has been applied to it on account of the scorpion-like appear-
ance of the front pair of legs, which are bent round towards the
mouth to serve as a pair of pincers. Its body is flat and leaf-like,
and of a colour resembling that of the mud in which it lies concealed
when watching for its prey.

When the water scorpion is at rest you will notice that it is
either on the mud in very shallow water, or on water plants near
the. surface, with its long and pointed ‘tail’ thrust upwards so
that the end projects out into the air. This ‘tail’ is really a pair
of grooved rods, which, when placed together, form the creature’s
breathing tube.

The scorpion does not eat its prey, but sucks out all the juices
from its body. I have before me, as I write, a vessel containing
about a dozen water scorpions, and about the same number of the
dead larve of the dragon-fly. The latter have been killed by the
scorpions, and their dead bodies, which have not lost their original
form, have been sucked till they are transparent.

Our next example of the water bugs (Ranatra linearis) is
quite a graceful object compared with the ugly Nepa. It is also
24 ANIMAL LIFE

far more active, and will sometimes boldly defend itself against its
enemies.

All insects have very light bodies, and even in cases where the
build seems bulky and heavy, a great deal of the interior is occupied























































































































































































































































































































































Fia. 18.—Ranatra.

by air-sacs and air-tubes. A certain group of the bugs (Hydro-
metrid@) have bodies so very light that they actually run on the

ta



{
Fic. 19.—A Warer Gyar Fic. 20.—WateEr Gnat
(Hydrometra argentata), MAGNIFIED. (A. gibbifera), ENLARGED.

surface. These are the Water Gnats, which we see during the sum-
mer in almost every pond.

Let us catch one of them, and examine its wonderful feet. The
microscope shows that they are covered with fine velvety hairs,
PlateIl.



Aewngh. mM CAAA

aks ERS
PUY RTD RRND
TTS OEE SONS
BIAS ORS
each) SY WOES

s a



MANMART Lites
PONDS AND STREAMS 25

which, like the feathers of the duck, will not become wet, and are
resisted by the water beneath them with sufficient force to support
the body of the owner. As we watch them on the water we observe
that they run on fwo legs as we do, using for this purpose the
middle pair. The front. legs are always held out in readiness to
seize their prey, and the hind pair, projecting backwards, form the
steering gear.

Some of the water gnats fly well, and when they alight on the
surface of the water they may be seen folding their hind mem-
branous wings, and tucking them snugly under the front horny pair
with their legs.

Aquatic Nerve-winged Insects

This order, the Newroptera or Nerve-winged Insects, is so
named on account of the delicate network of nervwres which sup-
port the transparent membrane of the wings, giving them a beautiful
lace-like appearance.

The group includes the beautiful Dragon-flies (Libellule), with
wings of such delicacy, and colours so brilliant, as to make them in
no wise inferior to the butterflies in beauty.

In many parts they are known as horse-flies or horse-stingers,
on the supposition that they are guilty of annoying horses and
cattle; but this is wrong, for they live entirely on insects, and have
no occasion to attack quadrupeds.

Several species inhabit our country, some of which are shown on
Plate I, but they resemble each other so closely in structure and
habits that the following account applies almost equally to all.

The larve may be dredged out of our ponds, where they lie
concealed in the mud, with their large and prominent eyes on the
look-out for their prey. Their jaws are covered with a peculiar
‘mask,’ which can be thrust out till it is about half the length of the
body. This mask is really an enlarged lower lip, extending back-
wards on the front lower portion of the thorax, and is provided with
a pair of jaws or pincers, with which the larva seizes its prey.
Thus the creature can lie motionless and unseen in the mud, and
seize its unwary victims by simply shooting out its mask.

These larve have a very remarkable breathing apparatus, which
serves also as a means of locomotion. The breathing cavity lies
along the back of the abdomen, and if you watch one at rest you
can see this cavity pulsating regularly. But now disturb it, and it
will make a sudden dart without moving a limb, just as if it had
26 ANIMAL LIFE

been pushed on by some magic force. Now put the larva ina glass
of clear water with very fine sand at the bottom, and you will
notice that each time the creature darts forward a little cloud of
sand is shot backward. Thus the secret is revealed: the larva
suddenly contracts its breathing cavity, forcibly ejecting the water
it contained, and the recoil starts the body in the opposite direction.

The pupa of the dragon-fly is very similar in appearance to the
larva, but may be distinguished at once by the short imperfect wings.



Fig, 21.—Larva or DraGon-Fuy, SHOWING THE MASK, AND THE
Prerrecr INSECT EMERGING FROM THE PUPA-CASE.

Unlike most pup, it retains the voracious habits of the larva.
After the dragon-fly has spent about eleven months in its two
preparatory stages, living all the time in water, it climbs up the
stem of a water-weed to prepare for its final change. Here the
pupal skin splits along the back, and the perfect insect gradually
works itself out of its old coat, and leaves it still attached by the
claws to the plant. The perfect fly now remains suspended on the
weed till its beautiful wings have expanded and dried. This does
PONDS AND STREAMS 27

not take long, and, as soon as the wings are sufficiently stiff, the
dragon-fly begins its short aérial life.

The flight of some of the larger dragon-flies is so rapid that it
is very difficult to catch them on the wing. They dart abaut,
chasing, tearing to pieces, and devouring all kinds of insects. They
have the remarkable power of suddenly reversing the action of their
wings, so that they can stop quickly and dart backward in the air.

The jaws of the dragon-fly are very powerful. It will allow itself
to be fed while held in the hand by the wings, but probably it is
anger rather than hunger that prompts it, for it will savagely chew
up small sticks and straw when brought within its reach.







AAS

a
SS

id



Tic. 22.—Tur May-rry. Fic. 23.—Larva oF Fic. 24.—Pura or
THE May-Fty. THE May-Fiy.

The May-fly (of the family Ephemerid@) has a life-history very
similar to that of the dragon-fly, but there are a few interesting
points of difference which we will briefly note. The eggs of this
insect are allowed to fall into the water, all being united into one
little mass. The larva burrows into the mud at the bottom of the
28 ANIMAL LIFE

pond or stream, and there feeds on decayed vegetable matter. If
you require these larve for the aquarium, you must dredge in some
of the pond mud with your net; or you may stir up the mud with
a stick, and then capture the larve which have been driven out with
the net.

After spending about two years in the larval and pupal states,
the insect leaves the water towards the close of a day. Its skin then
splits along the back, and out comes a rather heavy-flying insect,
which is called the false-imago, and settles at once on the bark of a
neighbouring tree. Here it rests for a time, after which the second
skin splits, and from it escapes the perfect and active little May-fly,
leaving the ‘ false’ skin still attached to the tree. The perfect May-
fly has no mouth, and requires no food, for it is destined to live for a
few hours only! It joins the merry company over the water’s edge,
and dances during the evening twilight with an incessant up-and-
down motion. Before the sun rises in the morning it has finished
its frolicking, deposited its little cluster of eggs, and fallen dead, with
all its playmates of the previous evening, either on the water or near
its edge. It has lived two years in its preparatory stages, but in its
perfect form it has, perhaps, not taken one single peep at the sun.



Fic. 25.—Cappis-Fuigs.

Our last example is the Caddis-fly, known also as the Cad,
Grannum, and Cockspur. This is well known to anglers, for both
the larva and the perfect insect are admirable for bait. The fly
itself is not swift on the wing like the dragon-fly, but it runs quickly,
and it can do this even on the surface of water. The chief interest,
however, lies in the larva, which constructs a home for itself out of
materials found in the water. It cements together pieces of stick,
sand, shells, dead leaves &e. into a little tubular habitation sufii-
PONDS AND STREAMS 29

ciently long to completely cover its body. Then the larva, knowing
that its soft, fat, white body is highly prized as a delicacy by the
fishes and predacious larve, never ventures to expose any portion
save its hard head and its legs; but this is sufficient to enable it to
walk about, while the claspers at its hinder extremity serve to fix it
to its ‘ case.’

Very interesting experiments may be performed to test the
building powers of the caddis larva. If you pull a few of them gently

















































































































































Fic. 26.—Cappis Cases.

out of their homes and place them in aclean glass of water, they will
construct new ones before your eyes, and of any material you may
please to give them. In this way I have obtained pretty little tubes
composed of glass beads, small pins, shells, &e.

Aquatic Two-winged Insects

This order (Diptera) contains a large number of insects, all of
which possess two transparent and veined wings. The hind pair
of wings is not in reality absent, but only imperfectly developed.
If you catch one of these creatures—the common blow-fly or daddy-
long-legs, for example—you will easily make outa pair of rod-like
and knobbed structures just behind the bases of the wings. These
are the halteres or balancers, supposed to be of great assistance in
regulating the flight, and are the representatives of the hind pair of
wings in other insects. The Diptera are further distinguished by
the size of the eyes. These are always very large comparatively, and,
in some instances, certainly make up the greater part of the head.

Most of the two-winged insects are inhabitants of the land and
air only, but a few very interesting species are more or less aquatic
in their habits, and will therefore be best considered now.

The troublesome little gnat (Culex pipiens) is a well-known
example. Let us look briefly into its wonderful structure and
30 ANIMAL LIFE

history. Catch one of these sportive little creatures and place it
under the microscope, and you cannot but regard it with wonder,
Even the instrument with which it wounds us is sure to call forth
our admiration. The exquisitely tinted scales which adorn the
wings and the beautiful feathered antenne of the male are always
favourite objects with microscopists. The male gnat is a perfectly
harmless fellow ; but look at the instrument of torture that arms hig
mate. It is a little case, consisting of two parts, and containing a
bundle of lancets which can not only pierce through our skin, but
also inject an irritating liquid into the wound.

If you want to study the life-history of the gnat you need go no
farther than the open water-butt. Here youmay see Mrs. Gnat with
her fore legs on a floating straw or weed, her middle legs resting on
the water, and her hind legs carefully arrang-
ing her new-laid eggs into the form of a little
boat. One by one she lays the eggs and
glues them together. When she has finished

Fic. 27.—Eacs or ber labours you may examine the little float-

THE GNAT, MAGNIFIED. ing boat. Ruffle the surface of the water

and it will not turn over. Turn it completely

over and it will immediately right itself again. So here it remains

on the surface, probably deriving benefit from its double exposure
to air and water. :

Shortly the young -larvee appear, and you may observe their
transparent bodies at the top of the water, with the breathing tubes
just above the surface. When fully grown the larva changes to the
pupa. It is now avery different creature. Its back is humped, and
the hump is raised slightly out of the water, for it has now discarded
its old breathing tube, and receives its air supply by means of two
appendages on its back. It does not eat, nor could it if it wished,
for its pupal skin completely covers its mouth. Yet it is active,
and may be seen wriggling about in the water, alternately
straightening and bending its body.

Now comes the final transformation scene. The pupa raises its
back out of the water. The portion of the skin thus exposed be-
comes dry and splits. The rent enlarges rapidly, and the dry skin
opens so as to form a little boat. Little by little the perfect gnat
emerges from its torn garment—first the head, then the thorax, and
finally its abdomen. The gnat now raises its body till it looks as if
the boat were supplied with mast and sail. Then it leans over and
rests its front legs on the surface of the water, which is sufficiently


PONDS AND STREAMS 31

firm to support its fragile body. Watch it a little longer and you
can see its wings expand. Soon they are dry and rigid, and ina
moment the gnat is frolicking in the air.

































Fic. 28.—Tur Sracus or tHe Guat, sHowinc THE Larva, Pura,
Perrect INsEcr EMERGING, AND MALE AND FEMALE FLYING.
32 ANIMAL LIFE

Aquatic Beetles

The Coleoptera, or Horny-winged Insects, are well represented
in our ponds and streams. Dip your net into any weedy pool, and
you will almost invariably turn out a few species of ‘ water beetles.’
Put them all in a tin box or can with plenty of wet weed—no water
being necessary for their transmission—and, on arriving-home, throw
the whole into a large vessel of water, and observe them at your
leisure. You will probably find among them species ranging from
about a twelfth of an inch to considerably over an inch in length.
Observe how actively they dart about. Their bodies are smooth
and boat-shaped, so that they are enabled to move through the water
with but little resistance. The hind legs are long and fringed, and
are used exactly after the fashion of a pair of oars. Take one of the
insects in your hand, and gently lift up the horny outer wings (the
elytra), and beneath will be seen the neatly folded transparent wings
used in flying. Notice, too, their powerful horizontal jaws, and you
will not be surprised at their-voracity. You may feed them on
worms, fishes, frogs, insects, or any kind of meat, raw or cooked ;
but, if not well supplied, they will soon take to eating one another.

The water beetles generally remain in the pools and streams
throughout the day, but often make long excursions from one patch
of water to another during the night. In some cases their flight is
somewhat lofty, and when they find themselves vertically over a
favourable piece of water, they seem to_let themselves drop into it.
Many a water beetle has been deceived on a clear night by the re-
flection of the moon’s rays from glass, and has fallen with a crash
on the roof of a greenhouse.

The finest of our carnivorous water beetles is the Great Water
Beetle (Dyticus marginalis), a very interesting object for the
aquarium. It is very common in ponds, and its voracious larva
may be dredged in with the mud and weeds. Those who keep the
Dyticus in captivity must remember its nocturnal habits. If the
aquarium contains much floating weed, the insect can get a foothold
to enable it to start its flight; but this may be prevented by a
covering of gauze. The attitude of Dyticus when at rest is a curious
one. When undisturbed it keeps at the surface, with its head in-
clined towards the bottom, and the tip of its abdomen just a little
out of the water, and thus it remains perfectly still, ‘resting on its
oars.’ It is watching for some dainty morsel with which to satisfy
its keen appetite. But why this curious attitude? When the beetle
PONDS AND STREAMS ag)

dives beneath the surface you will observe a bubble of air entangled
between the tip of the abdomen and the elytra, shining in a strong
light like a globule of quicksilver. This is the supply of air fur its
respiration, and must, of course, be renewed at frequent intervals ;
but as long as the Dyticus remains at rest with its hinder extremity
just out of the water, there is a free communication between the
outer air and the breathing space beneath the elytra.

When you grasp a Dyticus in your hand, you will almost invari-
ably find it endeavouring to slip backward between your fingers,
and, unless your skin is moderately thick, you will probably learn
why. There are a couple of sharp spines underneath the abdomen
close to the hind legs. These are directed backward, and are thus
rendered serviceable by the movement of the beetle just mentioned.



Fia. 29.—Dyticus marginalis, Fic. 30.—Dyticus marginalis,
; Mater. FrMmar.

It has another peculiar means of defence. When irritated it dis-
charges a whitish fluid, of a very disagreeable odour; should any
of this touch the skin, something more than an ordinary wash will
be necessary to remove the objectionable perfume.

The larva attains a length of about two inches, and may be kept
in the same aquarium as the perfect insect. In ponds it often lies
concealed in the mud, and, being of much the same colour as this
mud, it is not easily seen by the unwary beings who live in danger
of its hungry jaws. It breathes by means of a pair of frmges wh’ ch
you will observe at the end of its tail, When it dives beneath the
surface it carries down a small supply of air entangled among the
hairs of this fringe; but it often rests at the surface in an inclined
position like the perfect insect, with the tail-fringe projecting a little
above the water. ‘The larva is as voracious as the perfect form, and

D
84 ANIMAL LIFE

by means of its hollow jaws it will suck the juices of its victims,
leaving little more than an empty skin.

When about to change to the pupa, it creeps up the bank of the
pond, burrows into the damp earth, and constructs a little oval cell



Fra. 81.—Larva or Dyticus. Fia. 32.—Pupa or Dyticus.

in which to conceal itself. Ifthe weather is genial, it emerges as a
perfect Dyticus in about three weeks; but if the winter winds are
near at hand it takes a long nap in the pupal state, postponing its
final change till the warmth of the spring sun penetrates into its
cell.



Fia. 83.—Agabus biguttatus, F1a. 34.—Pelobius Hermanni,
MAGNIFIED. MAGNIFTED.

The Dyticus may be taken as a type of its family (the Dyticida),
two other members of which are figured (figs. 83 and 34); but our
limited space will not admit of even a short description.

There is another family of carnivorous water beetles—the Gyri-
nide—so named from their peculiar habit of whirling round and
PONDS AND STREAMS 85

round on the surface of the water. The best known among these
is the common Whirligig (Gyrinus natator), a little beetle, only a
quarter of an inch long, and of a blue-black colour. The whivligigs
are gregarious, and little com-
panies of them may often be
seen dancing a merry round in
some sheltered corner of a pond.
They feed on smaller insects,
but are themselves the prey of
the birds above and the fishes
below. In order to compensate
for this twofold peril, their eyes
are divided so that they look
like four. With the upper divi- Higsae ote < Ris Re eLanwa
sions they watch for enemies “Wyre. or tHe Warrwscrc.
above, and the lower portions

are submerged to enable them to see distinctly in the water.
Threaten them from above, and they dive rapidly to the bottom ;
but if in danger of some evil-disposed fish below, they jump up





Fie. 38.—Larva Fra. 39.— Pura or
or Piceus, Nov Piceus.
Fic. 37.—Piceus, Maur. FULLY GROWN. |

from their liquid playground and take to their wings. The larva,
shown in fig. 86, may be dredged out of ponds, and the cocoon may

D2
36 ANIMAL LIFE

be seen plentifully towards the end of summer, attached to the
leaves and stems of water plants.

Our last example of the water beetles isthe Black Water Beetle
(Hydrous piceus). This one is even larger than Dyticus ; in fact,
it is the largest of all the British Coleoptera, with the exception of
the beautiful ‘stag.’ It was once very plentiful in ponds and streams
round London ; but, being perfectly harmless to animal life, it has
become quite a pet with aquarium-keepers; and the consequent
demand for it has led to such a vigorous search on the part of the
dealers who call themselves naturalists, that scarcely a specimen is
now to be found. The female Picews is provided with a spinning
apparatus at the tip of her abdomen; with this she constructs a
turnip-shaped cocoon on the stem of a water plant, in which she
deposits about fifty eggs. As soon as the young larve are hatched
they make for the water, where they feed on molluscs and other
aquatic animals till they attain a length of three inches.

FRESH-WATER FISHES

All the species of aquatic animals which we have described
belong to the great division Invertebrata—animals without back-
bones; and, in passing onward from the insects to the fishes, we
leave this division for the Vertebrata, or animals possessing back-
bones. Perhaps, then, at this stage, we cannot do better than
spend a short time in noting the chief characteristics which dis-
tinguish these two primary groups of the animal world. None of
the beings previously mentioned have internal skeletons; but the
Vertebrata, which include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and
mammals or milk-giving animals, all have some kind of internal
framework, the chief part of which is termed the backbone or
vertebral column.

This vertebral column generally consists of a large number of
separate bones (vertebre) placed together end to end, thus forming
a long, flexible axis, extending throughout the length of the trunk of
the body.

The backbone, being hollow, forms a kind of tube, through
which a great nerve (the Lian cord) proceeds from the base of the
brain.

In the Vertebrates, too, we observe a great cavity in front of (or
below) the backbone—the cavity which holds the organs of digestion
and circulation; while in the Invertebrate animals, with no bony
PONDS AND STREAMS 37

column, the nervous system (if any) has no separate tube, but shares
the great cavity with the various internal organs.

Fishes constitute the lowest class of the vertebrates. They are
all aquatic animals, and their structure is, in all cases, peculiarly
adapted for their native element. The round-bodied fishes always
taper at both ends, and the flat-bodied species always present sharp
edges to the water as they move along; and thus the resistance
offered to their movements is but slight.

Beneath the backbone, in the fore part of the body, are a
number of ribs, arranged in pairs, surrounding the internal organs.
The limbs are fanlike fins, usually four in number, and arranged in
pairs, corresponding with the two pairs of limbs in the higher verte-







W/) ™/-9'—¢
KK
VU WY

Fic. 40.—Sxenetoy or A Fisu (Perc).
d, dorsal fins ; v, ventral fin ; a, anal fin; », pectoral fin ; ¢, tail fin.

brates. Besides these there are fin rays extending along the back,
and also on the under-surface; but these are not to be regarded as
limbs, since they are merely extensions of the outer skin.

Fishes are all cold-blooded animals, their bodies being always
approximately of the same temperature as the water in which they
live. The heart consists of two divisions: one, the auricle, receiving
the blood from the veins; and the other, the ventricle, pumping the
blood to all parts of the body. At each circulation a portion of the
blood is forced through the gills for the purpose of being aérated.
Everyone has observed that fishes, while alive and in water, are,
apparently, drinking without intermission; but the water taken in
at the mouth at cach gulp does not pass into the stomach with the


38 ANIMAL LIFE

food: it is discharged through wide slits immediately at the back
of the head. In these slits are placed the gills—fringe-like organs,
ats richly supplied with blood-

vessels, and consequently of a
deep red colour. Here the
blood is separated from the
water by only a very thin and
transparent membrane—so thin,
indeed, that the dissolved air
which the water contains is
readily absorbed into the vital
fluid. Thus all fishes, together
with the gill-breathing inverte-
brates, are provided with an
apparatus by means of which
air is filtered from water, but
which is not capable of effectu-
ally aérating the blood when in
direct contact with the free air.
Some fishes live entirely at
the bottom of their watery ~
home, deriving their food from
smaller animals which conceal
themselves among the stones,
mud, and weeds; but others
are always suspended in the
water, and feed on beings which
swim about as freely as them-
selves. The former are heavier
than water, and could not rise
to the surface without some
effort. The latter, however, are
of the same specific gravity as
the water; and are, moreover,
provided with an air-bladder,
by which they are enabled to
regulate their specific gravity
according to the density of the
water at any particular depth

Fic. 41.—Oneans or a Fis (Carr). af which they desire to swim
br, gills ; c, heart ; J, liver 3 on, swimming or rest.
bladder ; ci, intestine.


PONDS AND STREAMS 39

The young fishes come from eggs, which are laid in enormous
numbers. It has been calculated that the roe of a single fish some-
times contains over a million eggs, and that if all the eggs of the
various species (more than twelve thousand in number) were to
develop into mature animals, our seas and rivers would soon become
so thickly populated that they would have no room to move. But,
thanks to their numerous enemies, the greatest of which are the

. fishes themselves, the majority of the young are devoured, and our
waters are thus prevented from becoming stagnant masses of
writhing and seething beings, struggling for the last share of food
and air.

Fishes for the Aquarium

Some of our fresh-water fishes thrive well in the aquarium, and
become very tame and interesting pets. They should always have
plenty of room, and, if you are to be very successful in their
management, you must keep them in their natural conditions as
near as possible. In all cases give them a liberal supply of
growing weeds. Those you catch in still ponds need seldom have
a change of water; but the captives from rapid streams should
have running water. See, too, that they are provided with their
favourite hiding-places. Some like thick tufts of weeds; others
prefer to hide in rocky holes, while several seek shelter under the
stones of a rugged bottom. All such points as these may be easily
settled by a careful observation of the fishes in their haunts. One
more general observation: Give your pets their natural food
when you can, but never more than is necessary. Flies, grubs, and
worms are favourite dainties with nearly all; but, failing these,
you may try fresh meat chopped very small, and an occasional
sprinkling of flour paste. You must remember, however, that all
excess of food will decompose in the water, rendering it putrid and
poisonous.

Many of our fresh-water fishes belong to the Carp family (Cypri-
nide), and of these the Common Carp may be taken as a type.
This fish (Cyprinus carpio) was once very rare in this country, and
was probably introduced from the Continent. It attains a length of
twelve or fifteen inches, and is exceedingly prolific, the number of
eggs in a single roe numbering over half a million. It inhabits
deep holes in the sluggish parts of our streams, and also thrives well
in ponds. Its food consists of worms and insects, and, with these-as
bait, the carp is easily caught. In winter it lies concealed in the
40 ANIMAL LIFE

mud at the bottom. This fish is very much desired for the aquarium
and smal! ponds, especially as it can be easily tamed.

The Golden Carp, or Gold-fish (Cyprinus awratus), is apparently
a universal favourite with aquarium-keepers. It was originally



Fic. 42.—Tuer Carp. i

introduced from China, and has now become so far acclimatised
that it does well in our ornamental waters.

The Minnow is deservedly a favourite, for it is not only one of
our prettiest river fishes, but is hardy and easily tamed.



Fic. 43.—Tur Mrynow.

Several other members of the carp family do well in captivity ;
but, unless your aquarium is a very large one, you must be satisfied
with young specimens only. The Gudgeon, Roach, Dace, and Bleak



Fic. 44.—Tur Guperon. »

are not difficult to manage, and their bright silvery scales will give
a pleasing contrast to the other fishes.
PONDS AND STREAMS 41

The common Loach (Cobitis barbatula) does not seem to be so
well known, nor have its interesting habits secured for it the popu-
larity it deserves as an aquarium pet. A few years since I caught
a few small loach in astream at the southern end of Epping Forest.



Fic. 48.—Tur Loacu. }

These I placed in my aquarium and was greatly pleased with their
movements. They are very heavy fish, and spend much of their time
at rest on the bottom ; but often would they rise to the surface, and,
after dragging themselves on to the floating leaves of a water-lily,
42 ANIMAL LIFE

somewhat after the manner of a seal when landing, they would bask
in the hot sunshine with their bodies partly out of the water. Ina
very few days they became so tame that they readily took their food
from the hand. The loach is a slimy fish, with six barbules at the
mouth. It may be caught by dragging a strong net along the bottom.

Of all the British fresh-water fishes none is so interesting as the
common Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), known popularly as
the Tittlebat, Tittlebrat, or the Tittler. There are several species of
sticklebacks, readily distinguished from each other by the number
_ of spines in the dorsal fin. The term gasterostews applied to all
signifies bone-bellied, and is given on account of the bony bands
which form a kind of coat of armour beneath. In addition to the
spines of the back, there are the two formidable weapons of the
breast (pectoral) fins, which, like the others, can be raised or de-
pressed at pleasure. The commonest species has three spines on
the back; another—a fresh-water fish—has ten; anda third, which
inhabits salt water, no less than fifteen dorsal spines.

Sticklebacks are easily kept in an aquarium, but they are very
pugnacious creatures, and must have plenty of space, or the
‘survival of the fittest’ will be demonstrated to perfection in a very
short time.

Should you wish to closely observe the habits of these interesting
creatures your best plan will be to secure one or two males, and a
dozen or so females, early in March, and transfer them to a large
glass aquarium, or, which is quite as good, a large tub. Give them
a plentiful supply of gravel or sand, and introduce some pond weeds
of any description.

During the greater part of the year the males and females are
hardly to be distinguished from each other, both being of a dull
greyish brown colour; but, as the breeding season approaches, the
male gradually assumes the brilliant colours which have earned for
him such names as ‘Soldier’ and‘ Fiery.’ His eyes then become
bright green; the back also assumes a brilliant green colour, and
the under-surface becomes bright red.

This change takes place in March or early April, and at this time
the male stickleback sets busily about domestic affairs. His first
work is to prepare a nest for the coming brood. In some cases this
nest is composed entirely of vegetable fibres, which he has collected
and woven into a kind of cylinder or barrel, open at both ends, and
so short that, when occupied by the parent, both head and tail may
be seen exposed. Sometimes, however, the nest is simply a hollow
PONDS AND STREAMS 43

scooped out in sand or mud, and covered over with interlacing
vegetable fibres. Seeing that the stickleback has no building tool
except his mouth, and no cement save the slime from his own body,
we are bound to admit that great credit is due to him for the clever
manner in which he prepares his snug little nursery.

The nest finished, his next business is to seek his mate. Having
met with a suitable bride, he induces her to enter the nest, some-
times, it is said, even resorting to force when his affections meet
with no encouragement. As soon as the female has deposited her
eggs she is turned out of the nest, and the master immediately starts



Fic. 49.—Tur Turen-servep Svicknepack anp Nusrt.

in search of another mate, who is called in to take the place of the
outcast. ‘This is repeated till the male is satisfied that the supply of
eggs is proportionate to the accommodation. He then closes the
ends of the nest, and rigidly guards it till the eggs are hatched, and
the young are strong enough to be allowed to roam into the world.

During the whole of this time the male ‘tittler’ will furiously
charge all the creatures, including even the larger fishes of the pond
or stream, who are so rash as to pass within a foot or so of the nest.
But as soon as the young have gone to shift for themselves, and the
duties of the nursery are thus brought to an end, he gradually loses
much of his pugnacity, and at the same time his brilliant colours
slowly fade away, to reappear in the following spring.

If you want to catch the Bullhead, known in parts as the Miller’s
44 ANIMAL LIFE

Thumb and the Tom Cull, you must look out for a shallow and rapid
stream with a pebbly bed. Raise some of the larger pebbles, one
by one, and at the same moment sweep your net rapidly towards it
against the stream. In this way you may obtain several in a. very



Fic. 50.--Trme Bunnyrap.

few minutes. You may keep these in your aquarium, but you will
not see much of them, for nearly the whole of their time is spent in
their hiding-places, and they seldom come out excepting when they
make a dash at their prey, or shuffle their heavy bodies from one
stone to another. Their food consists chiefly of insects and fresh-
water shrimps.

AMPHIBIANS

We cannot take leave of our ponds and ditches without devoting
a little of our space to the interesting amphibious animals—animals
which, although not strictly aquatic, yet spend more or less of their
existence inthe water. These include the Newts or Efts, Frogs, and
Toads.

Their life-history is as full of romance as is that of some insects.
They begin life as little fish-like creatures, spending the whole of their
infant period in the water, breathing by means of external fringe-
like gills. In this stage they further resemble fishes in the posses-
sion of a two-chambered heart, and they also own a pair of air-sacs
which correspond with the air-bladder of the fish. But as they ad-
vance in life a series of wonderful changes takes place, the fish-like
form gradually developing into a creeping or jumping quadruped.
PONDS AND STREAMS 45

The external gills slowly disappear and give place to an internal
pair hidden in clefts behind the head. But even these have only a
transitory existence, for they soon vanish and pass their function
over to a pair of true lungs which have been gradually evolved from
the air-sacs above mentioned. At the same time other transforma-
tions have been progressing. The two-chambered heart has deve-
loped into a more complicated organ with three cavities; the limbs !
have slowly made their appearance, first one pair, then another;
and the original tail has, in some families, been slowly but entirely
absorbed, while in others it has developed into a large, useful, and
ornamental appendage.

The skeletons of the higher Amphibians are well developed, the
build of the limbs in particular bearing a close resemblance to that
of the highest animals. The ribs, however, are either very short or
entirely absent.

The Amphibians, like fishes, are all cold-blooded animals, and
the blood is remarkable for the comparatively large size of the cells
(corpuscles) which it contains, those of the frog being one eight-



Fre. 51.—Tur Broop- Fie. 52.—Tue Heart or
CELLS OF THE F'Roa, THE Froa.
HIGHLY MAGNIFIED. a, auricles ; v, ventricle,

hundredth part of an inch in diameter. Small as these bodies
really are, yet they are large compared with the corresponding
corpuscles in the blood of other animals. The circulation of the
blood in the Amphibian may easily be traced. The upper portion
of the heart consists of two chambers—the auricles. One of these
receives the purified blood from the lungs, and the other the blood
from all other parts. Both are continually forcing this into the

* Some of the lower amphibians are entirely limbless.
46 ANIMAL LIFE

lower division—the ventricle—by a series of contractions or pulsa-
tions. The ventricle, in a similar manner, forces the blood through
the whole circulatory system, some passing to the lungs for an
additional air-supply, and the rest penetrating and bathing the other
structures. Thus in each circulation only a part of the blood of the
Amphibian is aérated.

We will now examine briefly the commonest of the British
Amphibians—

Newts or Efts

There are but two common species of Newts in our country, and
both these are more or less known by schoolboys, who speak of
them generally as Effers or Effets. I have also frequently heard
them called Lizards, especially when they have been seen wandering
about on dry land. They are certainly much like lizards in general
form, but may always be distinguished from these by the softness
and colour of the skin. I have met with many who suppose that
newts are never to be seen out of the water. But it is a fact that
they spend much more of their existence out of water than they do
in it. When on land, however, they always seek cool and shady
places; while lizards delight to bask in the hot sun, spreading out
their flattened bodies so as to expose a larger surface to his rays.

Strange tales have been and are still being told about the
venomous and fiery character of newts. Some of our country folk
aver that they can spit fire, even immediately on quitting the
water ; others tell horrible tales concerning the victims who have
succumbed from the effects of their poisonous fangs; and, according
to the accounts of others, many are the cattle that have been
poisoned through drinking the water of ponds and troughs which
were inhabited by newts. The country cottager who has lived out
his threescore-and-ten in close proximity to a pond annually fre-
quented by these dreaded Amphibians seems to be as ignorant
about them as anyone; and on more than one occasion have such
individuals looked at me with terror, and most earnestly entreated
me to desist while I have been engaged in collecting newts; and
the fear-stricken countenance has given place to an expression of
wonder when, after careful watching, it was observed that the venom
had had apparently no effect.

But, in spite of all that has been: said, the newts remain, as ever,
perfectly harmless and exceedingly pretty animals. ‘They have no
fangs and will not bite. Even if they did bite, they could not
possibly do the slightest harm.
PONDS AND STREAMS 47

The Great Warty Newt (Triton cristatus) is a beautiful creature,
sometimes attaining a length of over six inches. Its skin is covered
with little wart-like projections, and is marked with a number of
pores. The tail is flattened at the sides. The upper surface is of a
varied dark brown; on the sides are rows of white dots, and silvery
bands usually adorn the tail. But the chief beauty of the warty
newt is the bright yellow under-surface, which is boldly patched
with black. The female is rather larger than her mate, and the





















































































































































































Fic. 58.—Tur Grear Wanrty Newer.

Reduced in size,

latter has a beautiful waved crest along the back to the end of the
tail. It is only during the breeding season, however, that the crest
is to be seen in its fullest development ; for it disappears slowly, but
almost entirely, as this period closes and the summer approaches.

This newt hibernates during the winter months, and for the whole
of this time the lungs are inactive, the creature deriving the small
air-supply necessary for its indolent existence through its skin.

In March it takes to the water, and the best time io secure it for
observation in the aquarium is-towards the end of that month.
Early in April the female Cristatus lays her eggs, depositing them
singly on the leaves of water plants, and carefully covering up each
one by rolling the leaf round it with its paws. The egg is globular,
48 ANIMAL LIFH

and consists of a capsule, in which the white yelk floats in a colour-
less liquid. Outside the capsule is a covering of gelatinous substance,
by which the egg is fixed to the leaf. In three or four weeks the
young newt—known at this period as the tadpole—eats its way out
of its prison, and starts life in perfect independence. In about three
months the legs begin to appear—the fore pair first ; but it is at least
six months before the tadpole has completed all its metamorphoses.

In September all the newts, old and young, leave the water and
seek a safe hiding-place in some snug hole or corner where several
lie huddled together, occasionally straying abroad in suitable weather
in search of food. The yowng newt does not return to the water
till it is just three years old, at which age we may look upon it as
having reached maturity ; but it is not fully grown till the end of
the fourth year.





















































Fic. 54.—Tur Smooru Newt.

These creatures are very interesting in the aquarium, where they
may be fed on worms; and they will not, as a rule, interfere with
other inhabitants. It is necessary that they should be provided with
a landing-place where they can find a shelter quite out of the water.

The common Smooth Newt (Lophinus punctatus) is much
smaller than the last, seldom exceeding four inches in length. Its
PONDS AND STREAMS 49

skin is quite smooth. The colour of the male is light brownish-grey
above, spotted irregularly with black; beneath it is light yellow,
which changes to a brilliant orange, also spotted with black, in the
breeding season. The male is crested at this time, and is then a
beautiful creature. The female is only slightly spotted, and is not
nearly so pretty as the male.

The growth and habits of this newt are very sinilar to those of



Tia.-55.—Sraces In tHE Lire or A F Roa.

the last. Both species cast their skins at apparently irregular
periods. It is very interesting to watch this operation. As a rule,
the whole skin comes off in one piece, and the tiny gloves from
off the feet are quite perfect in form, though as delicate as the
finest gossamer. I have preserved a few of these cast skins in
dilute spirit, and find them in excellent preservation after several
years.
Bg
50 ANIMAL LIFE

Lrogs

Those who desire to watch the development of the Frog (Rana
temporaria), and to observe its habits, should begin by collecting
the eggs, which may be found in abundance in almost every pond.
Early in the spring the frogs quit their winter quarters and make
for the ponds, where they remain at rest during the day with



Fic. 56.—Tur Common Foc. Aw

heads just out of the water. During the night, however, they
are full of activity, and the air resounds with their music.

About the middle of March the female deposits her eggs at the
bottom of the pond. These are little black globular bodies, each
surrounded by a covering of transparent gelatinous substance, the
whole forming one irregular mass. ‘The gelatinous envelopes soon
swell up enormously by absorbing water, and then the mass rises to

the surface, where it remains till the larvee escape. In a few days
PONDS AND STREAMS 51.

the black embryo elongates and gradually assumes a fish-like form,
and may be seen moving about in the middle of its case. A few
days more and the eggs are hatched.

The newly emerged tadpoles are very active little creatures of
gregarious habits. They attach themselves to pond weeds by means
of little suckers just beside their mouths, frequently changing their
positions in the social gathering. At this stage they are vegetarians,
feeding on confervee and other low vegetable forms. As they gra-
dually assume the adult form, they lose their gregarious tendencies,
and swim about freely by means of the undulations of their flattened
and fringed tails. In their subsequent metamorphoses they differ
from newts in that the hind legs are the first to appear, and also in
the gradual absorption and ultimate disappearance of the tail. On
reaching the adult form they leave the water, and spend the

_remainder of the summer in the neighbourhood of the ponds, and
feed entirely on insects, worms, and other small animals.

A few of the structural peculiarities of the frog are worthy of
notice.. A well-developed web extends between the five long and
slender toes of the hind feet ; but the fore feet, which have only four
toes, are not webbed. The drums
of the ears are conspicuous be-
hind the eyes on each side. The
tongue, which is often used to
seize the smaller insects on which
it feeds, is attached to the front of
the mouth with its tip extending
backward. The teeth are very
small, and consist of a single row
in the upper jaw and two small
clusters on the roof of the mouth. = Pyg. 57. Tum ~Toxaur or run

The breathing of the frog is Frog.
performed exactly on the principle
ofa pair of bellows. At the nostrils are placed a pair of valves
which open inward, and the contraction of the muscular floor of the
mouth forces air into the lungs. Thus the frog may be choked by
keeping its mouth open, for the air can no longer be forced into the
lungs.



Toads

Many persons do not seem to know the difference between a
toad and a frog, and thus it is we hear the name of one so commonly
f EQ
52 . ANIMAL LIFE

applied to the other. Yet the distinguishing features of these
amphibians are so obvious that the common error is almost
inexcusable. The build of toads is very bulky and comparatively
clumsy, and the dull-coloured skin, instead of being smooth and
slimy, is drier and thickly covered with warts or pimples. The
toads, moreover, do not leap like frogs, but walk slowly with a very
awkward gait. The hind legs also are much shorter, and the hind
feet only slightly webbed. They have no teeth either in the jaws or
in the palate, and the gape of the mouth is much wider than in frogs.



















































Fic. 58.—Tur Common Toap. x

The imetamorphoses of toads are very similar to those of the
frog, but the eggs are generally laid a few weeks later, and are
fastened together in long double chains, instead of in irregular
masses. The tadpoles are also smaller than those of the frog.

Dreadful aud wonderful tales are told and believed concerning
this unfortunate creature. Its poisoned fangs, its venomous skin,
its fire-spitting propensities, the magic virtue and curative power of
the jewel in its head, and its enormous longevity are all accepted
as indisputable facts, except by those who have kept and closely
observed the toad, and thoroughly investigated into the alarming
and startling reports. There is certainly some small sprinkling of
PONDS AND STREAMS 53

truth in the statements made concerning its venomous character, for
its skin does certainly excrete an irritating fluid which is undoubtedly
harmful to certain animals; but, while the toad is thus protected
from the hungry jaws of animals to whom the frog is a luxurious
morsel, the poison remains perfectly harmless to the human skin.

The Common Toad (Bufo vulgaris) is easily domesticated, and
its habits—especially its mode of capturing and devouring its prey—
are very interesting. Its partiality for all kinds of insects has long
caused it to be regarded with favour by florists.

The Natterjack (Bufo calamita) is not nearly so widely distri-
buted as B. vulgaris, but is rather common in certain localities. It
may be known at once by the olive tint of its skin, and by the pale
yellow stripe running down the middle of the back. It is also more
active than its relative, and does not attain to the same large size.

PRESERVATION oF AQUATIC ANIMALS

Tt will now be desirable to dwell for a short time on the different
methods of preserving our aquatic specimens, and on the arrange-
ment of these into a useful collection for future study.

In many cases the real animal cannot be satisfactorily preserved,
but some non-living portion of its structure, which may in itself be
exceedingly instructive, and in many instances beautiful, can easily
be kept permanently intact.

Soft animals, and soft parts of animals, may generally be pre-
served indefinitely in spirit of wine. But it must be remembered
that this liquid has a great attraction for water ; and, consequently,
if the specimen be very soft and contain much water, the spirit will
extract a quantity of the moisture, thus causing it to shrivel up till
it is hardly recognisable.

Again, pure spirit is never necessary for mere preservation,
being equally effective for this purpose when mixed with its own
volume of water. My own plan is to keep a stock of small wide-
mouthed bottles, fitted with good corks; also a supply of diluted
spirit. It is then no trouble to bottle any specimen that is likely to
prove useful in the future, either for a museum collection or for
dissection. In this way one may soon get a useful collection of
molluses, crustaceans, fishes, amphibians, &c., always in good con-
dition for examination when occasion requires.

All the winged insects caught in and about the water should find
a place in the reader’s collection. Instructions are given for killing
54 ' ANIMAL LIFE

and: ‘setting’ these in the part devoted to Insect Hunting. The
water beetles in particular are well worth the trouble. Some of
these may be ‘set’ with their wings folded as we generally see
them, while others may have their wings expanded as in flying.
Most of their larve are rather soft-bodied, and cannot be dried with-
out losing their natural form. These are best preserved in diluted
spirit, and stored in small bottles or specimen tubes.

See that every specimen is properly and fully labelled, and that
it stands in its correct position with regard to the others. Each
drawer or box should be marked outside with the name of the class
or order to which its contents belong; and beneath each specimen
should be placed a label containing its name, locality, date, and
any other particulars considered sufficiently interesting.

How to prepare the Skeleton of a Frog

Among the various objects in a naturalist’s museum, few, if any,
will be more instructive than the collection of bones illustrating the
comparative build of the various animal frameworks. But whence
is such a collection to be obtained? ‘There are several methods of
preparing the skeletons of small animals, but all of them entail
operations of a more or less tedious and disagreeable character.
This, however, is nothing to the enthusiastic naturalist, who allows
no trifle to stand between himself and his anticipated prize. But
even those who have not sufficient enthusiasm to set them to work
at bone-cleaning may still hope to acquire a moderate collection of
useful specimens, which have already been prepared for them by
the natural decomposition of the softer parts of dead animals,
aided by the industry of nature’s scavengers—the insects.

I have many useful specimens, some of them complete skeletons
in good condition, which have been simply picked up from the spots
where their former owners died.

But the naturalist does not restrict himself to this haphazard
means of collecting his bones. He aims at obtaining a good typical
collection, as far as his means and his leisure allow, and finds it
useful to know how to set to work to obtain a complete skeleton, in
good condition, of any small animal.

We will now see how this is to be done in the case of the frog,
reminding the reader that the instructions given will apply almost
equally well to all the vertebrate animals of our ponds and streams.

First kill the frog, if alive, by shutting it in a vessel with a piece
of blotting-paper that has been moistened with a few drops of
PONDS AND STREAMS 55

chloroform, and then lay it out on a board. With a sharp knife in
the right hand, and a pair of forceps in the left, cut away the skin
and abdominal walls, and remove all the internal organs, being
very careful not to injure any of the bones or cartilages.

After the body-cavity has been cleared of its contents, the
muscles of the trunk and limbs may be attacked in a similar
manner; but the white ligaments that bind the bones together at the
joints must not be cut.

When the skeleton has
been roughly cleaned in
this way it may be put
aside out of doors, in a
dish of water, in some spot
where the unpleasant
odours arising from the
decomposition of the little
animal matter that re-
mains can give no offence.

At intervals of a few
days a gentle stream of
water should be allowed
to play upon it, to remove
any refuse, and loose
pieces of the perishable Fie. 59.—Sxenrton or rue F Roe.



matter should be removed

with the forceps or a soft brush. When, at last, everything has
decomposed with the exception of the bones, the cartilages, and the
ligaments, the skeleton may be gently removed from the water, set
in some natural position, and then allowed to dry. When quite
dry, any of the parts which may have become detached from the
general framework may be fastened in their proper places with a
little glue or cement.
56 ANIMAL LIFE

CHAPTER lI

INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING

Many of our insects have already been alluded to, but up to the
present we have confined our attention to the resident population
and the frequenters of our ponds and streams. We must now see
what can be done in other quarters; so for a time we quit the miry
banks and odorous mud, and wander through lanes and woods, and
try our luck in meadows and waste places. Our work now is
strictly entomological—that is, confined entirely to the insect world.
So we will set to work till we have put together all the necessary
paraphernalia, and then start off delighted with the thought that
we have at last been metamorphosed into real live entomologists.

The entomologist has a happy time of it, for there is no doubt
that he has selected for his study some of the most beautiful of all
animated beings; and he is continually finding something that is
entirely new to him.

Some insects are said to be positively ugly; others we regard as
extremely noxious to our persons; others, again, earn our enmity
for their extensive damages to our crops. But we must put aside
all such prejudices, if we would make ourselves acquainted with
the wonderful habits and marvellous structures and metamorphoses
of the chief divisions of the insect world.

A true entomologist finds delight in the study of all insects.
None are too small to attract his attention. If the naked eye fails
to detect any beauty of form or colour, he knows that his leng will
at once change the appearance. He is not content to study the
creatures of the air, but searches diligently for the creeping inhabi-
tants of the earth, turning them out of all kinds of chinks and
crannies, and digging them out from their homes in the soil.

We will now proceed to study a few of the most popular orders.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 57

ScALy-WINGED INsEcTS

We shall first take the Lepidoptera, or scaly-winged insects, by
far the most beautiful of all the insect world, and the favourites of
all entomologists. The four wings which constitute the chief beauty
of the perfect insects of this group are more or less covered with
little scales of exquisite form, and generally exhibit a wonderful
variety of colour. Everyone has observed the mealy dust which is
so easily removed from the wings of Butterflies and Moths when
these creatures are handled. These dust particles are the scales

won OOYVY Wy



Fic. 60.—Scanes rrom tHE Wrncs or Burrerriies.

which form the characteristic feature of the Lepidoptera, and it is
only necessary to collect a little of this on a slip of glass, and examine
it under a microscope, to satisfy oneself as to the extreme beauty of
the wings. The head is furnished with a-pair of antenne, which
- are undoubtedly connected with one or more of the senses of the
insect. There is also a very delicate proboscis, or sucker, by means
of which the sweet juices of flowers are imbibed. This can be rolled
up into a spiral when not in use. The structure of this organ is
really a wonder, for, although it is about as fine as a hair, yet it
consists of two separate pieces, each one finely grooved, and the
two are locked together from end to end by means of a fringe of
58 ANIMAL LIFE

minute hairs so as to form an air-tight tube. The eyes are large
and rounded, and looking almost all ways at the same time; and
the number of lenses sometimes amounts to nearly two thousand in
a single eye. In addition to these
compound eyes there are two simple
eyes or ocelli situated on the top of
the head, but these are generally so
thickly covered with down that they
probably have but little to do with
vision.

The sole work of the perfect
butterfly and moth is the repro-
duction of their kind. The females
always lay their eggs on the food-
plants of the larve, and it is
astonishing with what precision the
proper vegetation is selected in pre-
ference to all others. We could

: : understand this habit of the mater-
oslo ee nal parent if she herself derived any
eye. direct benefit from the’same plant as

that which sustains her offspring ;
but it generally happens that none of the sweets of her life are to
be obtained from the food-plants she so carefully selects, and she
camnot possibly settle on them except for the one special purpose
of providing for her progeny. Very soon after this work is accom-
plished the parent dies, and this generally before the eggs are
hatched.

The eggs of butterflies and moths are beautiful objects for the
microscope ; and, as they require no special preparation of any kind,
the least expert microscopist is not denied the opportunity of witness-
ing their beautifully sculptured forms and delicate tints, During the
summer months a great variety of eggs may be obtained by search-
ing the leaves in our gardens, and these may be examined in situ
as opaque objects, throwing a good light on them from above. The
time which elapses before the appearance of the larvie varies accord-
ing to the time of the year. Iggs laid in spring take longer to hatch
than those laid during the summer months, and those laid in the
fall of the year do not hatch till the following spring.

When the time arrives for the appearance of the young larve,
they gnaw their way out of the shell, and sometimes even devour



Fic. 61.—H&ap or a Morn.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 59

entirely the little case from which they emerge. They are now sur-
rounded by abundance of food, and right well do they make use of
it, for they often eat as much as three times their own weight of food
during the first twenty-four hours of their existence, and continue
to live after this riotous fashion during the weeks or months of the
larval life. In this state they undergo several moultings, for they
grow so fast that their old coats become tight and uncomfortable.
When about to cast its skin, a larva will cease eating for a time,
and seek out some secluded spot until its little trouble is over. At
last the tightened skin splits and begins to peel off, and the larva,
after many twitchings and twirlings of its uncomfortable body,
manages to creep out of its old garment, and to show itself in its
new and often differently coloured suit. The body of the larva or
caterpillar consists of thirteen segments, including the head. Three
pairs of legs are appended to the second, third, and fourth segments,
and a variable number of claspers to the hinder joints, usually
making up a total of sixteen limbs. Many of them are furnished
with a silk-spinning apparatus which is attached to the lower lip.

The period during which the Lepidoptera remain in the pupal
condition varies considerably. In some cases this is a few days only,
but in others the time extends over several months, including per-
haps the whole of the winter and spring. The pupa is sometimes
naked and hidden in the earth ; sometimes concealed in a cocoon of
earth, silk, moss, chipped bark, or fragments of mortar from an old
wall; some are suspended by the tail, and secured by a silk cord
round the middle ; and others are rolled up in leaves and well secured
from their enemies by numerous silk bands or fibres. In the pupal
state life sometimes seems quite dormant, and the length of time
thus spent seems to depend entirely on thé temperature. Thus the
emergence of the perfect insect may be delayed for months or even
years by prolonged exposure to cold, or may be hastened by placing
the pupa in a warm situation.

One of the most interesting sights ever witnessed by a naturalist
is the gradual unfolding and developing of the wings of a newly
emerged butterfly or moth. Shortly before this event takes place
the tint of the chrysalis is seen to change, the colour of the wings
and body often showing itself through the half-transparent case. At
last the thin shell breaks, and the perfected insect returns to the
world in which it spent its early life as a crawling grub. It is soon
free from its prison cell, and immediately seeks some rising surface,
up which it creeps. Here, if possible, it selects the under-side of
60 ANIMAL LIFE

some branch or ledge, and fixes itself with its back downwards to
dry its body and expand its wings. At first it is a queer-looking
creature, its wings short and dumpy, more like a pair of useless ex-
crescences than the richly ornamented pinions into which they are
soon to develop. As we watch the insect closely we observe the
wings expand irregularly till they present quite a crumpled appear-
ance. At last they straighten themselves out till they have reached
their full size. The insect, however, remains
stationary, for the newly developed wings,
the nervures of which are just filled with
currents of fluid from the body, are very
moist, and so soft and flexible that they bend
back on the body if the insect turns over.
But after a few hours the wings are dry and
rigid, and after sundry flutterings, as if to test
the mechanism of the new flying apparatus,
the insect starts its aérial life.

Very few persons, excepting those who
delight in the appellation ‘ Entomologist,’
know the difference between a butterfly and

Fig. 62.—Morn a moth. Some appear to base their distine-

Spe ee tion on the brilliancy of the plumage of the

wings; but, since many of the moths are
adorned with gaudy colours while some of the butterflies are posi-
tively dingy, we must consider them quite wrong in their nomen-
clature. Others have the idea that the nocturnal habits of the moths
are sufficient as a distinguishing characteristic, not knowing that
several species of these insects delight in the midday sun. It is true
that the butterflies are generally more brightly coloured than moths;
also that add the butterflies are day flyers, while most of the moths
are nocturnal; but there is one distinguishing mark which can never
lead us astray: the antennw of all butterflies terminate in little
knobs or ‘clubs,’ while those of the other Lepidoptera taper to a
point. There are yet other differences which, although not to be
taken as absolute, are of sufficient interest to note. Butterflies,
when at rest, usually raise their wings perpendicularly, pressing them
‘together over their backs ; but moths either spread out their wings
horizontally, or bring them close over their bodies, often folding the
hinder pair quite out of sight beneath the fore wings. Again, moths
generally curve their antenne backward under the head and thorax
—a feat which is impossible with the rigid horns of butterflies.


INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 61

Catching Butterflies

The apparatus required for this part of the entomologist’s
work is simple and small in amount. A net, a killing bottle, a col-
lecting box, and a supply of pins of various sizes are all that are
required.

The net should be of gauze, preferably of a green colour, about
twelve or fifteen inches in diameter, with a light but strong frame.

Asa general rule the entomologist does not require to keep many
of his insects alive, and consequently finds it convenient to take with
him some arrangement with which he can perform the ‘ happy de-
spatch.’ This is, to my mind, the only unpleasant part of his work.
And even though some authorities give it as their opinion that
insects cannot feel pain, yet we should always act as if we were sure
they could, and kill the insects required, and no more, in the most
humane manner possible.

There are many methods of killing insects, each method having
its devoted advocates; so I cannot do better than mention a few
of those most commonly used, leaving the reader to try any or all
of them, and so be in a position to decide on a plan that suits
himself. At the same time, having given all
the methods here mentioned a very fair trial
myself, I will give my own experiences, and
my opinions as to their relative value in my
hands.

The first I will mention is the ‘ cyanide
bottle. This is simply an ordinary wide-
mouthed bottle, such as is used to contain
pomades and other similar luxuries, not less
than four or five inches in height, into which
is put some potassium cyanide with an absor-
bent material. The cyanide bottle may be
purchased of the ‘ naturalist ’ ready for use, or
it may be easily fitted up by anyone. The
potassium cyanide may be bought at the
chemist’s, providing he knows you and is satis- Fie. 63.—Tue
fied as to your intentions; but it is a deadly CyaNIDE poe
poison, and must be used with considerable
caution. Dissolve a few drams of the ‘cyanide’ in a little water,
and add slowly, with constant stirring, sufficient plaster of Paris
to convert it into a thin paste. Pour this at once into the bottle




62 ANIMAL LIFE

and leave it to ‘set.’ Close the bottle with a good cork, and it is
then ready for use. A cyanide bottle prepared in this manner will
retain its power for a great length of time if kept tightly corked.
Some entomologists dispense with the plaster, and put a few pieces
of the cyanide into the bottle, keeping them in place with a few
thicknesses of blotting-paper cut to the proper size. This, I think,
is not nearly so good a plan, for the paper and cyanide are easily
shaken out of their position, and may then seriously damage the
insects.

Chloroform, benzole, and ammonia are often used for killing
insects. In either case a few drops of the liquid should be thrown
on to some absorbent material in the bottom of the bottle just before
it is required for use; but it should not be used in such quantity as
to wet the insects, especially if ammonia is chosen, for this liquid
will injure the colour of many specimens and completely spoil them.
Both chloroform and benzole, and especially the latter, render the
insects very rigid, so that there may be some difficulty in ‘ setting’
them after. The fumes of burning sulphur have also been employed,
but I denounce this at once as troublesome and inconvenient, and
because it so often results in damaged specimens.

The ‘ laurel bottle ’ or ‘laurel box’ has many decided advantages.
Some young laurel leaves are well beaten with
a hammer, wrapped up and tied in a piece of
calico or strong muslin, and then pressed firmly
into the bottom of a wide-mouthed bottle or a
cylindrical tin box. It should be pressed in so
firmly that there is no chance of its falling out of
its place; and should fit close round the sides of
the bottle to prevent insects from being jammed
between it and the glass. I have made a very
useful laurel box as follows: Procure two cylindrical
tin boxes of exactly the same size—four or five inches
high and about two in width answers admirably.
One is required only for its lid. Knock or eut out

tet the bottom of one box. Make a false bottom of
sects; , perfo- perforated wood, and fix it in this, about one-third
Pea are from one end, and then put the two lids, one on
leaves, each end. The smaller division is to contain the
bruised laurel leaves, and the larger is for the

insects. ‘The laurel is very quick in its action, but should always
be used fresh. It will keep the insects in a moist or ‘relaxed’ con-



Fic. 64.—Tu
Lauren Box.


INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 63

dition, so that they are easily set, either on the same day or a few
days after the capture.

The box just described may be used for the other stupefying
agents as well as the laurel. Thus the smaller division may contain
some cyanide wrapped up in blotting-paper or linen rag, or it may
be filled loosely with cotton-wool or any absorbent to which either
of the liquid agents may be applied.. In fact, this is altogether a
very convenient arrangement, for the ‘charge’ can be renewed at
any time, even when the insects are in the other division, and with-
out disturbing them much. It must be remembered that the liquid
poisons-—chloroform, benzole, and ammonia—are volatile 3 and, as
a consequence, some is lost in the form of vapour each time the box
is opened. Hence it is advisable, when using either of these, to
take a small bottle of it in the waistcoat pocket for recharging.

Care must always be taken to leave the insects in the killing
bottle or box until quite dead. We cannot easily tell when that is,
for they are stupefied and rendered quite motionless before death
takes place ; and if removed too soon they will often revive.

Butterflies are so delicate that it is not safe to allow them to
remain in the killing box very long, to be trampled on and turned
over by their new arrivals; nor is it well to leave them loose in
boxes of any kind, for their wings are easily damaged if they are
shaken about. They should be pinned as soon as dead. For this
purpose the collector will require a ‘collecting box’ and some
entomological pins of various sizes.

The former should be as large as can be conveniently carried in
the pocket. It should be either oval in form, or oblong with rounded
corners. As most of the insects, and possibly all of them, will be
taken home in this, it will be advisable to have the box so con-
structed that they cannot become dry in it. For this reason it
should be of tin or zine, the cover fitting closely, but opening easily
by a hinge or hinges. The box should be so deep as to allow the
butterflies to be pinned to both the top and the bottom, which should
be lined with cork. Just before starting on the collecting expedition
the cork should be saturated with warm water, or a piece of damp
sponge pinned firmly in one end, as a further precaution against
rigidity.

The pins used by entomologists are very fine, with small heads.
They are sold at the ‘naturalists’ shops,’ and may always be obtained
through the post.

A great deal depends on the choice of the day for a butterfly
64 ANIMAL LIFE

hunt. A bright warm day is essential; and it should be known
that these insects will never expose themselves to an east or north-
east wind. The best time of day for actual work is between the
hours of eleven and four; and the best localities are flowery meadows
—especially the borders, lanes, chalky districts, flowery railway-
banks exposed to the full sun, clover fields, borders of woods, and
flowery wastes. It must be observed that many butterflies are very
‘local.’ Hence if we are in search of any of these, it is necessary to
make ourselves acquainted with their haunts. It would not be ad-
visable to dwell on this subject now, but some of the chief pecu-
liarities of many species will be mentioned presently.

Having at last reached our hunting-ground, how are we to pro-
ceed? We all remember the time when a butterfly, white or
purple it mattered not, was a certain stimulus resulting in the
violent action of the muscles of every limb. It was the signal for a
chase, and the contest between ourselves and the insect was always
one of speed and endurance. And then, if successful in bringing
down the winged creature with the cap, or, it may be, the coat, with
what pride did we pin the insect to adorn the very weapon by which
it was laid low! But now our captives are to form a permanent
and useful collection. They must necessarily be caught without
injury to their appearance, handled with the greatest of care, and
killed in the most humane manner possible. We therefore relin-
quish the cap for the net ; and learning by experience that the but-
terfly on the wing is sometimes more than a match for our legs, we
resort to stratagem. As a rule it is not advisable to start off at full
speed immediately on seeing the insect, but follow it up gently,
keeping some distance behind, giving the creature every opportunity
of alighting on its favourite plant or flower, and then a few cautious
steps and a sharp stroke of the net will generally settle the business.
Sometimes, however, a butterfly shows at once by its almost straight
and unhesitating movement to be intent on a long flight. In such
a case, should you desire it, you must make up your mind for a good
run, with one eye on the insect, and the other on the look-out for
ditches, mole-hills, and furze clusters.

The insect is sure to fiutter a great deal in the net, and no
attempt should ever be made to handle it until it is quiet. If
a killing bottle is to be used, this might be passed at once into the
net by the left hand, and the bottle covered quickly by the right as
soon as the insect is secured. If this plan is adopted, we soon find
a number of captures in the bottle; and, as we are still actively on
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 65

the chase for more, we are liable to injure these by causing them to
rub together as we run. To avoid any damage in this way the
butterflies should be pinned in the collecting box as soon as we are
satisfied that they are quite dead. Some collectors dispense with
the killing bottle for butterflies altogether. They wait till the insect
can be secured in the net, with its wings closed over its body, and,
gently pressing the folds of the net against it from the outside, kill
it instantly by nippmg the thorax between the finger and thumb.
Of course this must be done with the greatest of care, or the insect
may be so damaged as to be perfectly useless. One objection fo this
mode of procedure is that the insect may only be temporarily
quieted ; so that, when we open the collecting box for a future speci-
men, we are horrified at the sight of our pinned butterfly struggling
to escape.

Setting and arranging the Butterflies

Our butterflies must now be ‘set’ for the cabinet. This need
not be done at once—in fact, it may be postponed for many days or
weeks—but it is always advisable to set them as soon as possible.
If they are in a metal collecting box, their limbs will remain soft and
pliable for some days ; but they should not be kept in a moist con-
dition for a great length of time, or you will find them completely
covered with a forest of mildew.

It is of no use attempting to set an insect after its limbs have
become dry and brittle, for under these cireumstances the slightest
pressure will cause a part to snap off. The insect must first be
‘relaxed.’ To do this it is simply necessary to pin it for a day
or two in a metal box containing a damp sponge or moistened
blotting paper, or to keep it for a corresponding time under a tumbler
or other vessel with some means for keeping the inclosed air moist.
A very:simple plan is to fix the pinned insect to a cork, float it
on a little water in a saucer, and then cover it with an inverted
tumbler.

The dealers sell ‘relaxing boxes’ for bringing about the same
result. These are zinc boxes lined with cork and covered with a
well-fitting lid. The cork is kept in position by means of small
projecting pieces of metal in preference to any kind of glue or
cement, as the latter would not stand the perennial dampness.
The cork may be moistened with a little water, or a piece of damp
sponge may be pinned inside, and the box is then ready for the

FE
66 ANIMAL LIFE

insects. The specimens brought home in a wood collecting box are
often so dry that they cannot be set even on the same day; but if
a metal box be used there will be no need for the relaxer, for they
will keep in a good pliable condition for several days.

If an insect, when set, does not give satisfaction, it may at any
future time be relaxed and reset; and collectors often find it con-
venient, when away from home for some time, to keep all their
captures in the collecting boxes till they return, and then set them
at their leisure, relaxing them in batches as required. This avoids
the necessity of taking away the ‘setting boards’ and _ store
boxes. Space, too, is a matter of great consideration, and insects
usually pack away in a much smaller compass before than after
setting.

When engaged in setting our specimens we must always avoid
the direct use of the fingers. The best way to get the various parts
into their proper positions is by the use of a needle mounted in a
small wood handle. A few of these ‘ setting needles ’ should always
be kept handy. They are easily made by cutting little pieces of
twigs, and then pushing the heads of ordinary sewing-needles into
them. They may be of different sizes to suit the various degrees of
delicacy required in the manipulation.

‘Setting boards’ are now required. These are usually con-
structed as shown in section in fig. 65. A piece of soft deal, free
from knots, and about a quarter
or an eighth of an inch thick, is
cut into strips about eight or ten
inches long, and varying in width
from one and a half to five inches.
These slips are covered with
cork, glued on, and then grooved
down the centre to receive the
bodies of the insects. Lastly, the
surface of the cork on which the
wings are to be laid is covered
with clean white paper. Such
boards may be obtained at the



Fic. 65.—Srcrions oF THREE : .
KINDS oF Serrinac Boarps. dealers’ ; but, if expense is a con-

sideration, seeing that several
will be required, they may be made in a very economical manner.
The cork bed may consist entirely of sliced wine-corks, cut clean
with a sharp knife, and then glued to the wood quite close together.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 67

Or cork may be dispensed with altogether if good wood, uniformly
soft, is procured. In this case it is simply necessary to cut a
groove with a gouge, and bevel off the edges with a plane, if neces-
sary; or, I might say, if it suits the fancy of the collector. There
is a great difference of opinion with regard to this. Some prefer
a rounded board, some a plain bevel on each side, and others a
perfectly flat surface. For my part I reject the round board, since
I have never yet seen a live butterfly with wings bent into a curve.
Whatever form be adopted, all the boards should be of the same
pattern, so that there may be a degree of uniformity in the
cabinet.

The setting is done as follows: First see that the pin is passed
centrally through the thorax. If not satisfactory, it should be re-
moved and reinserted, passing
‘it through till the point is pro-
jecting quite one-eighth of an
inch on the under side. Now
fix the pin in the centre of the
groove of the setting-board per-
pendicularly. Spread out the
wings with a_ setting needle,
being careful not to touch the
upper surfaces, and then secure
them by means of little strips of
rather stiff paper as shown in the
accompanying cuts. Some of Fic. 66.—A Burrerriy on THE
the butterflies, at least one of Sertine Boanp.
each species, should be set on
their backs, so as to show the under surfaces of the wings and other
distinguishing characters of the under surface of the body as they
lie in the cabinet.

As a rule four of each kind is sufficient for all purposes: two of
the male and two of the female, one of each exhibiting the upper,
and one the lower, surface. In some cases, however, the species is
so variable that it will be interesting to introduce a few others
simply to illustrate the varieties. q

And now we come to one of the chief difficulties which the young
collector has to experience. Where shall we keep all our specimens ?
The boy who is clever with his tools does not hesitate long over
this matter, but sets to work at his cabinet or his boxes 3; and I can
personally declare what a pleasure is to be derived from putting

F2



a
68 ANIMAL LIPE

together a storehouse to be adorned with some of the most beautiful
of Nature’s works. And what a delight to behold it when it is
finished and occupied! How often does he make an excuse to
cast another eager glance at his prize! First he admires the out-
side. Then the compartments are opened in turn, each creating
fresh delights, And this routine is gone over and over again with
undiminished interest, for the work is never complete. New spe-
cimens are continually being added to the collection, each one
bringing with it fresh beauties, and another item to the small
knowledge gained of Nature’s works.

Now as to the form which the storehouse shall take. Some
prefer the cabinet because it forms a sightly article of furniture ; but,
when one has to purchase it at the cost of a guinea per drawer,
another question has to be considered. If you are fortunately able
to make one for yourself, then pay attention to the following points :
Use well-seasoned wood, avoiding cedar on account of its resinous
character. Let the drawers be as nearly as possible air-tight, and each
covered with a well-fitting glass. Cover the bottom of the drawers
with cork, and on this fix some pure white paper with thin paste.

Some entomologists prefer store boxes to cabinets. They are
certainly far more portable; and if placed on shelves, standing on
end like books, they do not collect much dust. They are preferably
made in book form, and lined with cork on both sides.

It is absolutely necessary to take some precaution to prevent the
intrusion of mites, otherwise the insects will be devoured. For this
purpose some camphor or naphthaline must be placed in every
drawer or box, and renewed as occasion requires.

In conclusion I may say that well-made cabinets and store boxes
are not by any means a necessity to the young collector. Any well-
fitting drawers or boxes may be used to contain insects ; and if cork
lining proves to be a too expensive article, they may be covered in-
side with sliced wine corks, or with a piece of good soft ‘ cork carpet,’
remnants.of which may be sometimes obtained at a low cost from
the furnishing warehouses. Always arrange the insects in perpen-
dicular rows, and in scientific order; placing the name of the order
at the top of each row, and the name of the insect under each
species. The names of the families and sub-families also, where
known, should be fixed at the head of the groups. Complete label
lists are to be obtained at the various dealers’, or the names may be
neatly written on very small pieces of thin card, and then pinned
in their proper positions.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 69

British Species

Our British butterflies number only about sixty species; and
since these insects have always proved such an attraction to
naturalists generally, and to yowng collectors in particular, I have
thought it desirable to introduce them ail to my readers. Many of
them, however, are either very rare, or are to be found only in
certain localities ; so that one cannot possibly have the pleasure of
seeing all these beautiful insects on the wing without spending a great
deal of time and money in visiting their various habitats at the
proper seasons. And yet every collector is proud to possess a com-
plete cabinet of our British butterflies, especially if all the specimens
have been caught by himself. If the collection cannot be completed
by captures in the field, the blanks in the cabinet should be filled
up as far as possible by the rearing of species at home. The eggs
and the larvie may be obtained from the dealers ; and much pleasure
may be gained in watching the development and metamorphoses of
the home-bred pets. But sometimes there is much difficulty in
securing the proper food-plants, so that successful breeding becomes
almost an impossibility. In this case, rather than have a permanent
blank, purchase the pupa in preference to the perfect insect; for it
is certainly better to become acquainted with two stages of the life-
history than to see the lifeless imago only.

The following is a classified list of British butterflies, useful as
showing how they may be scientifically arranged in the cabinet or
in the store boxes :

Family PAFILIONIDA:
Papilio Machaon
» Podalirius

The Swallow-tail.
Scarce Swallow-tail.

Family PIERIDE:

Pieris Brassica Large Garden White.

» Rape Small Garden White.
s» Napi Green-veined White.
» Daplidice Bath White.
Gonepteryx Rhamni Brimstone.
Colias Edusa Clouded Yellow.

» Hyale
Aporia Crategi
Euchloe Cardamines
Leucophasia Sinapis

Clouded Sulphur.
Black-veined White.
Orange Tip.

Wood White.
70 ANIMAL LIFH

Family VANESSIDE :
Vanessa Cardui
A Atalanta

49s LO

» Antiopa

» Polychloros
» Urtice

» ©. Album
Limenitis Sybilla
Apatura Iris
Argynnis Paphia

% Aglaia

a Adippe

es Lathonia

‘ Euphrosyne
3 Selene

Melitza Cinxia
» Athalia

» Artemis
Nemeobius Lucina

Family SATYRIDE :
Arge Galathea
Lasiommata Egeria

es Megeera
Hipparchia Semele

a Janira

ie Tithonus

s Hyperanthus

Erebia Blandina
», | Cassiope (Epiphron)
Cenonymphi Davus
7 Pamphilus

Family LYCHENIDE:
Thecla Betule
oe Pruni
» W. Album
+» Quercus
» Rubi
Chrysophanus Phlwas
, Dispar

Painted Lady.

Red Admiral.

Peacock.

Camberwell Beauty.

Large Tortoiseshell.

Small Tortoiseshell.

Comma.

White Admiral.

Purple Emperor.

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Dark Green Fritillary.

High Brown Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary.

Pearl-bordered Fritillary.

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary.

Glanville Fritillary.

Pearl-bordered Likeness Fritil-
lary.

Greasy Fritillary.

Duke of Burgundy Fritillary.

Marbled White.
Speckled Wood.
Wall.

Grayling.
Meadow Brown.
Large Heath or Small Brown.
Ringlet.

Scotch Argus.
Mountain Rinelet.
Marsh Ringlet.
Small Heath.

Brown Hair-streak.
Black Hair-streak.

White Letter Hair-streak.
Purple Hair-streak.
Green Hair-streak.

Small Copper.

Large Copper.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 71

Polyommatus Argiolus

5 Alsus

3 Acis

4 Arion

5 Corydon |
os Adonis

4 Alexis

5 Aigon

3 Agestis

a Artaxerxes

Family HESPERIDE :

Pamphila Actzon
3 Linea
Pe Lineola
i Sylvanus
* Comma

Pyrgus Alveolus
Nisionades Tages
Steropes Paniscus

Azure Blue.
Bedford Blue.
Mazarine Blue.
Large Blue.

Chalk Hill Blue.
Clifden Blue.
Common Blue.
Silver-studded Blue.
Brown Argus.
Artaxerxes.

Lulworth Skipper.
Small Skipper.

The New Small Skipper.
Large Skipper.
Silver-spotted Skipper.
Grizzled Skipper.
Dingy Skipper.
Chequered Skipper.

The above list contains sixty-seven species; but one of them—the
Scarce Swallow-tail—has been so seldom seen in this country that
we can hardly regard it as ourown, And another—the Large Copper
Butterfly—has not been seen for many years, and is probably now
quite extinct. It will be noticed that each butterfly possesses two
Latin names in addition to its popular English title. The first of
these, printed in heavier type, is the name of the genus (a subdivision
of the family) to which it belongs. Entomologists usually prefer
the Latin to the English names ; and there is one decided advantage
in this, for, as the insects are known by these names to all natural-
ists, both at home and abroad, it enables one to converse freely on
butterfly topics with all entomologists whom we may meet. It is
common, however, to make use of the latter or specific name only ;
this being quite sufficient to distinguish the particular species. Thus,
we should speak of the Large Garden White as Brassice ; and the
Common Blue as Alewis; and so on. If, then, the collector has no
special repugnance to the Latin tongue, he is advised to make. him-
self acquainted with these names.

We must now examine the British butterflies, observing briefly
their appearance, their habitats, and a few other points of interest.
72 ANIMAL LIFE

The Swallow-tails

The Swallow-tail Butterfly (Plate II) may be distinguished from
all the other British species by the ‘ tails’ of the hind wings which
give to the fly its popular name. Its wings are of a rich and deep
cream colour, marked boldly with patches of velvety black; and a
reddish-brown spot marks the inner angle of the hind pair. It is
unfortunate that the range of this beautiful insect is so limited.
Those who want to see it onthe wing must needs go to the fenny



Fic. 67.—Tue Scarce SwaLLow-Tarn.

districts of Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and Huntingdonshire, for it is
seldom met with elsewhere; and I would strongly recommend
those who are unable to visit its habitat to purchase the insect in
one of its earlier stages, and so have an opportunity of watching its
development.

We cannot now claim the Scarce Swallow-tail as one of our own
butterflies; but since it has been caught on ‘our island, and is too
fine an insect to be entirely forgotten, I figure it here. It is still
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 73

common on the other side of the Channel, and specimens are con-
sequently easily obtained at a low cost.

The ‘ Whites?

We shall include under this head all the members of the family
Pieridae. Three of them—the Large, the Small, and the Green-veined
—are very abundant, and they are also so similar in appearance
that they are one and the same insect to the young urchins who
may be seen everywhere, cap in hand, doing their level best to wipe
them off the face of the globe. To these ‘insect hunters’ a Small
White is a young Large White, and the green veins on the under
surface of the ‘ Green-veined’ entirely escape their imperfect obser-
vation. The larve of these three ‘whites’ are to be found in









SS

ST
TI

ss

P--ceaaall

| eee
aire

=a









nwa



Fic. 68.—Tur Lance Wurre. Eaea (macnirmp), Larva,
Pupa, anp Imago.
abundance in all kitchen gardens, sometimes eating their way into
the very hearts of cabbages ; and were it not for the ravages of the
ichneumon flies and small birds we should soon be butterflied out of
existence. Even as it is, there is some excuse, perhaps, for the cook
who unwittingly treats us to the larve ‘served up hot’ in the
dining-room. i ,

A collector who has been ‘ doing’ the butterflies for only a very
short time has already obtained all the common whites he requires,
and so neglects these for the more highly coloured species; but a
very young beginner will sometimes continue for a whole season to
net indiscriminately all the butterflies he can catch. It thus often

‘happens that a rarer species, such as a Bath White or a Black-veined,
becomes the captive of the novice, when it would be neglected by a
74 ANIMAL LIFE

more experienced collector under the supposition that it was only a
common kind; for it is impossible to distinguish between some



\
Fic. 69.—Tun Swart Warre (Maur). \



Fig. 71.—Tue Green-vernep Warts. Unper Sie.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING

species while on the wing.

75

Those in search of these rarer whites
should be careful to choose the right time of the year, and then net
all the doubtful specimens they see.



Fic. 72.—Tur Barn Waite.

The fragile little Wood White, which frequents the open spaces
in woods, is not so easily mistaken when flying.

Some butterflies are very capricious in their visits, sometimes



Fic. 73.—Tur Buack-vEINED WHITE.

scarcely showing themselves for several seasons in succession, and
then suddenly turning up in such numbers that they may be
described as abundant. Of this character is the Clouded Yellow,
76 ANIMAL LIFE

which in 1892 visited us in multitudes after about fifteen years
of comparative scarcity. The Clouded Sulphur (Plate IT) is very
similar in its markings to the Clouded Yellow, but the ground
colour of the wings is much paler.



Fic. 74.—Tur Woop Wuite.

The other yellow ‘whites’ are the Orange Tip (Plate I), the
female of which is not tipped with orange; and the Brimstone
(Plate II). This last-named fly is unique for the particularly
graceful outline of the wings, and also for the beautiful silky hair of
the thorax, which looks as if it had been carefully brushed upwards



Fie. 75.—Tne Croupep Yernow. Frmane anp Larva. a
(Mane suown on Prare IL.)

from the sides. The female Brimstone is much paler than the male,
and has a decidedly greenish tinge. .
INSHCTS AND INSHCT HUNTING 77

The Vanessas

This group includes some very handsome butterflies, of which a
few, such as the Peacock (Plate III), the Tortoiseshell (Plate ITT),



Fic. 76.—Tue Larce TorroisrsHELn.

and the Red Admiral (Plate IIT), are as common as they are
beautiful. In all this family the front pair of legs in the perfect

i ai a

ror

St ARenaa

CC








Fic, 77.—Curysauis or tHe Larar ToRTOISESHELL; AND A LARVA
SUSPENDED JUST PREVIOUS TO UNDERGOING ITS CHANGE.

insect is not fully developed, and is not used for w alking. Many of
the larvae are covered with spines ; and some are gregarious, feeding
78 ANIMAL LIFE

so close together and in such numbers that the food-plant is
almost covered with them.

As a rule, the Vanessas are in their prime during the middle and
end of summer ; but in some cases we have two distinct broods in a
year. Again, we meet with many very early in the season; but
these are specimens which have hibernated during the winter in
the perfect form, and are too much worn to be of use in the cabinet ;
but the captive females will often supply you with plenty of eggs
from which you can rear the insects to perfection.

Some of the Vanessas are exceedingly bold, and even impudent.
They will frequently return immediately after having evaded the
first stroke of the net, and then pitch on the ground before you,
defiantly raising and depressing their beautiful wings. ;



Fic. 78.—Tur Comma Bourrer- Fic. 79.—Tur Waitr Apmira.
FLY, WirH Wines Fonprp.
(Srp auso Prare III.)

The rarest of the family is the Camberwell Beauty (Plate III),
so called because a few specimens were taken in Camberwell more
than a century since. It has been seen occasionally since, but its
appearance and disappearance have been so mysterious, and the
favoured localities so numerous and so widely distributed, that it is
impossible to say when or where one is likely to meet with it.
However, it is a common butterfly on the Continent, and specimens
can always be obtained for a few pence. Butif the young collector
is anxious to become the happy possessor of a really British speci-
men, let him apply to a dealer, who will supply him with a genuine
article, together with written and signed ‘ data,’ for the modest sum
of about forty shillings !

The Purple Emperor is well worthy of its title. Its superior

INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 79

size, its majestic and elevated flight, and the grand imperial
purple reflected at certain angles from the wings of the male are all
unmistakable proofs of its sovereignty. The female is larger than
her royal husband, and does not wear the imperial colour which
gives the popular name to the species. At one time the capture of
a Purple Emperor was reckoned a grand event, and a net mounted
on a pole about twenty feet long was considered necessary for his
remoyal from his lofty throne on the oak. But it has since been



Fic. 80.—Tur Purrne Ewprror ANd Larva.

discovered that his majesty is particularly partial to high game, and
that the odour arising from a decomposing corpse will entice him
from his elevated seat. The modern mode of capture is to bait
oak woods with dead animals or bullock’s liver, and to return in a
few days with an ordinary net, and capture him while he is absorbed
in his luxurious repast. The female Emperor is seldom seen, since
she remains at rest on the higher branches, attending to family
matters; so that nearly all the Emperors captured are Purple.

The Fritillaries
These pretty butterflies, though numbering nearly a dozen kinds,
are remarkably uniform in colour, all being marked with black or
deep brown on a ground of light orange brown. Most of them are
also characterised by spots or patches of glistening silver on the
80 ANIMAL LIFE

under side. They vary considerably in size, the largest—the Silver-
washed Fritillary (Plate I11)—measuring more than two and a half
inches across, while the little Duke of Burgundy is not much more



Fic. 81.-—Trw Dark Green Frrripnary. Fia. 82.—Larva anp Pupa
or THE Dark GREEN
FRITILLARY.

than an inch from tip totip. This latter insect, by the way, although
usually grouped with the Fritillaries, differs in many important
respects from the others. J’or instance, while the larve of all the



Fic. 83.—Tun Hic Brown Fic. 84.—Tur Qurrn or Spain
FRrrinuary. Fririnuary. .UnpEr Sipe.

true ‘ Frits’ are long and spiny, that of the Duke is short, thick,
and smooth—very much like a woodlouse in form. It is for this
reason that we often find the Duke of Burgundy separated from the
other butterflies which it so closely resembles, and placed entirely
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 81

by itself as the only British member of a family called Hrycinide
—a royal personage with no near relatives. In distinguishing
between the different species of Fritillaries we are guided chiefly
by the arrangement of the silver patches and other markings on the



Fie. 85.—-Tue Prsru-BoRDERED Fririnuary. Upper AND UNDER SIDES.

under surface. Here we find great variation. Thus, in the largest
species just mentioned, the ‘ silver’ looks as if it had been washed
over the hind wings. In others we have well-defined spots definitely
arranged. But in others—the Glanville, the Pearl-bordered Like-



Fic. 86.—Tue Smaun Prar- Fic. 87.—THE GLANVILLE
BORDERED FRITILLARY. FRITILLARY.

ness, the Greasy (Plate II), and the Duke of Burgundy (Plate II) —
the ‘silver’ is represented by non-metallic white spots. The Greasy
Fritillary derives its popular name from the greasy appearance of
the under surface of the fore wings.

Lhe‘ Browns’ and ‘ Heaths’

We now come to a family in which the prevailing colour is a
tawny orange or brown, and of which all the species are characterised
G
82 ANIMAL LIFE

by eye-like spots on the under side. In most cases these ‘ eyes ’ are
visible, though less distinctly, on the upper surface also.



Fic. 88.—Marsirp Wuatre Burrer- Fic. 89.—TuE SpeckteD Woop
FLY. or Woop Arcus.



Fie. 92.—Tut Mrapnow Brown Tia. 93.—-Tut Mrapow Brown
(Maur). _ (Femane).

Like the Vanessas, all the Browns and Heaths have only four
walking legs ; but their larve, which are all grass-feeders, have no
spines; and their pup have no angular projections, as is the case
with the Vanessas.
INSECTS AND INSHCT HUNTING 83

This group of butterflies includes a few of our commonest and
least gaudy speciéé ; but a few stand out prominently among them



Fie. 94.—Tur Larcr Heatra Fic. 95.—Tsae Lance Heat
(Mae). (FEMaue).



Fie. 96.—Tur Rincrer. Fie: 97.—Tur Marsn RINcuer.
UnprErR SIDE.



Fic. 98.--Tur Norrurry Brown or ’ Fic. 99.—Tue SMALL
Scorcnu Arcus. Hrann.

for boldness of markings; and, though none of them are really rare,

yet many are confined to certain very restricted localities. ‘
G2
84 ANIMAL LIFE

The Hairstreaks

These butterflies possess very marked characteristics by which
they may be readily distinguished from all others. They are not
by any means gaily adorned, and their upper surfaces are especially
dull and sombre with one exception. They derive their popular



Fic. 100.—Tur Brown Harrstreax. Fre. 101.—THr Brack Hatr-
UnpER SURFACE. STREAK. UNbDER SIDE.

title from the more or Jess distinct hair-like streaks that cross the
wings on the under side. The exception just alluded to is that of
the Purple Hairstreak, in which species fhe beautiful purple reflected
at certain angles from the wings of the male reminds one very
forcibly of the Purple Emperor.



Fic. 102.—Tur Wutre Fre. 103.—Tue Purene Fic. 104.—'Tuu Grenn
Lerrer Harrsrreax. Hatrstreak. Unbdrer Harrsrreaxk. UNnver
SIDE. SIDE.

$

Another distinguishing mark of the Hairstreaks is the tail-like
projection on the lower edge of the hind wings; but this is only
slightly developed in the case of the Green Hairstreak—the only
British butterfly that can boast of a bright green tint.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 85

The ‘ Coppers’ and ‘ Blues’

At one time we could boast of two Coppers, but it is feared that
the finest of these beautiful insects—the Large Copper—has become
extinct. It was once very ccmmon in the fen districts, and it is



Fie. 105.—Tue Lance Correr Burrenrny——Larva, Pura, anp Imago.

still possible that it may make its appearance again. Let those
who haye the opportunity search the fens diligently, and should
any of my readers be so fortunate as to meet with this long-lost



Fira. 106.—THe Azur or Hotty Fic. 107.—Tue Beprorp Bruun.
Buur. Unprr Sipe.

gem, our illustration will serve for identification. The Small Copper
is common everywhere, and I need hardly mention that it derives
its name from the burnished coppery tint of its wings.

As regards the lively Blues, everybody is familiar with their gay
tints and frolicsome habits; but the ability to distinguish between
86 ANIMAL LIFE

certain similar species is attained only after very careful observation.
First we have to notice the different shades of blue; then the com-
plicated and variable markings of the under surfaces must be closely



Tia. 108.—THe Mazanine Buur. Fria. 109.—Tur Common
Unper Sipe. Buon (Maur).
examined. We have also to remember that female Blues are
generally brown, with perhaps only a sprinkling of the colour that
characterises the corresponding males; and, further, that two of the
Blues, both the males and females, are not blue at all.



Fie. 110.—Tur Common Buur Fira. 111.—Tur Common Buur.
(FEMALE). Unver Srpr.

I will just mention a few of the distinguishing marks that are
likely to prove most useful :

1. Azure Blwe.—Bright lilac colour; under side, light silvery blue.
KX Black border narrow in
male, broader in female.

2. Bedford Blwe.—The
smallest British butterfly.
Colour dark brown; male
powdered with blue.

3. Mazarine Blue.—
Deep purple-blue, with
black border. Female
dark brown. Under surface of both sexes drab, with black-centred
white spots.




ey

SS
Fic. 112.—Tur Brown Anraus.


INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 87

4. Chalk Hill Blue (Plate III)—Light silvery greenish-blue.
Female brown, and powdered with the colour of the male.

5. Adonis Blue (Plate II).--Bright sky-blue. Fringe barred
with black. Female dark brown, powdered with blue near the body.

6. Silver-studded Blwe.—Metallic bluish spots on under surface.

7. Brown Argus and Artawerxes.—No blue at all.

These are just a few aids to identification; and, with the assist-
ance of our illustrations, will probably prove sufficient. It should
also be known that the larvee of the Blues all resemble the woodlouse
in form.

The Skippers

This, our last group of butterflies, receives its name from the
peculiar manner in which the insects included flit about. They
never keep on the wing for any length of time without resting, but



LAYS
Fie. 113.—Tar New Smann Fie. 114.—Tur Diner
Sxrpper.! SKIPPER, ©
seem to skip rapidly from flower to flower. In some of their habits
they resemble moths rather than butterflies. Thus, their caterpillars
protect themselves by rolling up leaves round them; and they also
spin silken cocoons when about to change to the chrysalis state.
The butterflies are also thick-bodied, like most of the moths; and



CHEQUERED
SKIPPER.

their chrysalides resemble those of the nocturnal Lepidoptera. The *

Skippers are further characterised by the more or less hooked tips
of the antenne.
All the Skippers are small insects ; and, although generally very

1 Discovered in 1888. Distinguished from the Small Skipper (Plate ITI)
by the tips of the antenne being black beneath.
88 ANIMAL LIFE

prettily marked, yet their colours are not at all brilliant, the pre-
vailing tints being various shades of brown.

The space devoted to butterflies has, of necessity, been very
limited, and much information of real value to a young collector
has, up to the present, been withheld. But this omission is inten-
tional. The reader will probably have noticed that the habitats and
seasons of the various butterflies are not given, and that little has
been said concerning the food-plants of the caterpillars. Now, it
has seemed to me thatea twofold advantage would be derived by
placing such information as this in the form of a table; for, by so
doing, we not only succeed in saving much space, and thus find an
opportunity of wedging in a little useful matter which must other-
wise have been entirely excluded, but we also present the particulars
above mentioned in a form that is likely to be the most convenient

for reference.

British BUTTERFLIES.













Names Chief Locatities Seasons Chief Food-plants
Swallow-tail : | Fens of Cam- | May to August | Wild Carrot,
(Machaon) bridgeshire, Fennel, Marsh
Norfolk, Hun- Parsley
tingdonshire
Large White . Everywhere April to August | Cabbages and
(Brassica) Cresses
Small White Abundant eyery- 5 .
(Rape) where
Green-veined 7 Throughout the oD
White summer,
(Napi) Chiefly May
and July
Bath White South-east. Rare | May and August | Wild Mignonette
(Daplidice)
Brimstone . Southern August to Buckthorn
(Rhamni) counties October
Clouded Yellow . South coast July and Clover and
} (Edusa) August Trefoils
Clouded Sulphur South coast May and August Lucerne
(Hyale)
Black-veined Very local, chiefly | June and July | Sloe, Hawthorn
White in the South
(Crategi)
Orange Tip. Common in all May and June | Cuckoo-flower
(Cardamines) parts
‘Wood White . In various locali- | May and August Trefoils
(Sinapis) ties throughout
: England
Painted Lady . Generally abun-| Spring (H.)! Thistle and
(Cardui) dant. Uncertain August and Nettle
September


INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING

British Burrerriins—continued.

&9



Names

Chief Localities

Seasons

Chief Food-plants





Red Admiral .
(Atalanta)

Peacock .
(Zo)

Camberwell
Beauty

(Antiopa)
Large Tortoise-
shell

(Polychloros)
Small Tortoise-
shell

(Urtice)
Comma...

(C. Album)

White Admiral
(Sybilla)

Purple Emperor .
(Iris)
Silver-washed
Fritillary
(Paphia)
Dark-Green Fri-
tillary
(Aglaia)

High-brown Fri-
tillary
(Adippe)
Queen of Spain
Fritillary
(Lathonia)
Pearl-bordered
Fritillary
(Huphrosyne)

Small
bordered
(Selene)
Glanville Fritil-
lary
(Cinwia)

Pearl-

Pearl-bordered
Likeness
(Athalia)
Greasy Fritillary
(Artemis)





Common every-
where

Taunt.

Very rare. Un-

certain

Chiefly in South.
Uncertain

Common every-
where

Chiefly in Mid-
land and Wes-
tern counties
Oak woods of

South

”

Woods of South
and Midland
counties

In widely scat-
tered localities
throughout
England

‘Woods of South

re

Rare. cniefty in
South

Woods, through-
out England
andS. Scotland.
Chiefly in the
South

”

South and East
coasts. Also
in 8. Scotland

In woods. Chiefly
in South

Chiefly in South.
Very local



Spring (H.)?
August and
September

”

August and
September

July and August

Spring (H.)t
July and August

”

June and July

July

July and August

July

June and
September

May and August

May and June

June



Nettle

|
gief |
WMECE Le |
Willow
Eln

Nettle

Elm, Willow,
Sloe, Nettle,
&e.
Honeysuckle



Broad-leaved
Sallow
Violet and
Nettle

Dog-violet

Violet

Wild Heartsease

Violet

Narrow-leaved
Plantain

Plantains


90

ANIMAL LIFE

British BuTrrerFLlirs—continued.



Names

Duke of Bur-
gundy
(Lucina)
Marbled White
(Galathea)
Speckled Wood .
(Egeria)
VV culate
(Megera)
Grayling :
(Semele)

Meadow Brown .
(Janira)
Large Heath .
(Lithonus)

Ringlet. . . .
(Hyperanthus)
Scotch Argus .
(Blandina)
Mountain Ringlet
(Cassiope)

Marsh Ringlet
(Davus)

Small Heath .
(Pamphilus)

Brown Hair-
streak
(Betula)

Black Hairstrealk
(Pruni)
White Letter

Hairstreak

(W. Album)

Purple Hair-
streak
(Quercus)

Green Hairstreak

(Rubi)



Small Copper.
(Phleas)



Chief Localities

In woods. Chiefly
in South

”

Common through-
out England
Common evyery-
where
Rocky places.
Chiefly in chalk
districts. Found

in N. England ©

and 8. Scotland
Common every-
where
Common through-
out England
and S. Scotland

Generally common }

N. England and
Scotland
Mountainous dis-
tricts of N. Eng-
land and Scot-

land

Wild moors of N.
England = and
Scotland

Generally common

Notabundant, but
widely — distri-
buted. Chiefly
in South

Rare. Chiefly in

South

Various widely
distributed lo-
calities

In oak woods
throughout
England

Throughout Eng-

land and 8.
Scotland

Common eyery-
where





Seasons

June and
August

July Saas
August
April to August

May and August
|

July to
September

June to August |

|

July and August

June and July

August and
September
June and July

June to
September

August

July

”
July and August

May and August

April, June, and
August



Chief Food-plants |

Primrose

Grasses

”

Birch and Sloe

Sloe
Elm

Oak

Bramble

Sorrel

|
|



fy,
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING

British BurrerrLurrs—continued.

|

91





Names | Chief Localities Seasons | Chief Food-plants
| ES jest ee
Azure Blue . | Inwoodsthrough- | Apriland August Flowers of Holly
(Argiolus) | out England. | and Ivy
| _ Chieflyin South | |
| Bedford Blue. In limestone dis- | May and June | Flowers of the
(Alsus) tricts through- | Kidney Vetch

Mazarine Blue
(Acis)

| Large Blue

Arion)

Chalk Hill Blue .
(Corydon)
Clifden Blue .
(Adonis)
Common Blue
(Alewis)
Silver-studded
Blue
(Afgon)

Brown Argus .
(Agestis)
Artaxerxes

Lulworth Skipper
(Act@on)
Small Skipper
(Linea)
New Small Skip-
per
(Lineola)
Large Skipper
(Sylvanus)
Silver-spotted
Skipper
(Comma)
Grizzled Skipper
(Alveolus)

Dingy Skipper
(Zages)
Chequered Skip-

per
(Paniscus)





out Great Bri-
tain
Now very rare

Rare. Very local.
Various — lime-
stone and chalk
districts of the
South

Chalk downs of
South

”

In meadows. Com-

mon everywhere

Common in vyari-
ous localities
throughout
England
S. Scotland

and

Chalk downs of

South

N. England and

Scotland
S. coast of Devon
and Dorset

Common in most
parts

8.E. of England

Common in most
parts
Various localities
in the South

' Common in Eng-

land and §.

Scotland

”

Very local. Chiefly
in Southern
counties

July

”

July and August |
May and August
|
May to

September
July and August

May and June
July and August
July

July and August

| May and August

| July and August
|
| May and August |

”

June



1 H. signifies hibernated specimens,

|

| Flowers of Thrift

Thyme

Clovers and
Vetches

>
Trefoils

Broom

Hemlock
Stork’s-bill
Rock Cistus

Grasses

”

Trefoils
Wild Raspberry

Bird’s-foot

Plantain




92 ANIMAL LIFE

Moth Catching

The collecting of butterflies is the favourite pursuit of the ento-
nologist during the hottest and brightest hours of the summer ; but
now we have to learn that there is much interesting and profitable
work to be done during the dark hours of the summer nights.
Moths are, generally speaking, lovers of darkness; but there are a
few which are seen at large in broad daylight—some, such as the
Foresters, the Clearwings, and the Humming Bird Moth, even
delighting in the full blaze of the midday sun. Specimens of these
are consequently included occasionally among the ‘takings’ of a
butterfly day; and, in addition to this, a great many moths may be
secured during the daytime by searching out their hiding-places,
and also by rousing them out of their midday slumbers, thus com-
pelling them to take to the wing at untimely hours. The collecting
of both butterflies and moths might well be combined for the same
day’s outing, giving the sunny hours, up to about four o’clock,
almost exclusively to the former, and then, on the way homeward,
gently beating the low branches of trees, the underwood, and the
low herbage, catching the moths required, by means of the net, as
they are driven from their haunts. As a rule, the moths secured
in this way are neither the rarest nor the most beautiful; but a
great variety of species may be thus obtained, and occasionally a
valuable specimen may be included in the catch. The most suc-
cessful beating may be carried on along the borders of woods, and
in hedges surrounding flowery meadows and overgrown waste lands.

Having secured a moth in the net, what is to be done with it ?
The treatment suggested for butterflies—the pinching of the thorax
—might certainly be tried in the case of the Geometers and other
small-bodied moths ; but with the large-bodied species this is not
practicable. And some of the latter are so vigorous, and so liable
to flutter furiously in the net, damaging their wings almost imme-
diately, that they must be removed with the greatest care and dex-
terity. Perhaps nothing is so convenient and safe as to pass the
open cyanide bottle or laurel box quickly into the net, and coax the
captive into it by the assistance of the other hand outside the net.
Then, keeping the mouth of the box or bottle covered by the hand
for a few seconds, the insect is quieted, and the cork or lid may be
replaced. Never allow many moths to accumulate in the killing

apparatus ; but, after each few captures, pin the specimens in the
collecting box.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 93

During any part of the day or evening, when the collector is not
directly engaged in his pursuit, he should examine the barks of trees
and all wood fences along his path; and he will probably be re-
warded with a few uncommon varieties. With regard to the barks
of trees, however, he must understand that a very careful examina-
tion is sometimes necessary, since a great many moths are coloured
with tints very closely resembling those of the particular bark on
which they are in the habit of settling by day; and by this ‘ pro-
tective mimicry’ they often elude their enemies. In addition to
trees and fences, all isolated posts, and walls, and other surfaces,
more or less sheltered, should receive a passing glance. In ail cases
the north and north-east sides are likely to give the best results, as
most moths select these as a protection against the sun.

Taking a moth from a tree, wall, or fence, by day, is generally a
very simple matter. The usual method is what is termed ‘pill-
boxing :’——An open pill box is placed beside the insect with one
hand, and the cover made to approach it by the other. Pill boxes
with glass bottoms are sold for this purpose, and are very convenient
since they enable one to see the best opportunity for popping on
the cover without injuring the moth. As a rule the moths are
sleepy by day, and take to their new lodgings quietly ; but some are
very frisky, and flutter about in the box till their wings are almost
stripped of scales. For this reason I seldom use pill boxes for moths,
except in the case of females from which I am desirous of obtaining
eggs for rearing. I have found nothing more convenient and more
safe than a wide-mouthed cyanide bottle or a laurel box used in the
same way as the pill boxes; or, in the case of the sluggish species,
the killing bottle may be held just under the insect, which is then
tipped into it with a small piece of twig. On one occasion, while
walking through a street in a London suburb, I coveted a pair of
Lime Hawks which I had seen on the trunk of a tree, at a height
of about twelve feet ; but could see no chance of getting them. A
few hours later, while at home, I found that I should have to pass
through the same road again; so I made a small net, only about
four inches in diameter and six inches deep, that could be readily
fixed on the top of a three-joint bamboo fishing rod. Armed with
net and rod, I secured my two Hawks and a few other moths,
and have since made many similar captures with this same appa-
ratus, which, although made hastily on the spur of the moment, I
how regard as a useful accessory.

Now for the night work. A great deal of this may be done as
94 aa: ANIMAL LIFE

home, especially when there is a garden attached. It is a well-
known fact that moths are attracted by lights, and if the collector
is not disposed to ramble in search of them, let him sit at home
before an open window, with a light to attract the insects, and his
net and killing bottle at hand. While writing these lines (July) my
gas bracket, with the light shielded by means of wire gauze, is
turned close to the open window. One by one the moths approach
—some rush with great force against the glass and fall stunned
on the window sill; some make straight for the flame, but are
saved from an untimely scorching by the gauze, round which they
flutter, or on which they settle; others alight quietly on the glass,
and there remain stationary, enjoying the light till they are bottled ;
others, again, make straight for the white ceiling, and there buzz
actively round till a fortunate stroke of the net secures them. But
a good number of the insects merely approach the window, take a
brief glance at the light, and then move on about their business.
To catch such as these it is necessary to stand at the window with
net in hand, ready at any moment to strike. My own experience
seems to show that the best specimens are generally to be obtained
in this way; the majority of those which allow themselves to be so
easily caught being the common species of the Noctu@ and the
Geometers. Occasionally I treat myself to the luxury of a lime
light in the window. ‘This enables me to see most distinctly even
the smallest of the moths that fly in the garden, and, of course, will
also attract numbers to the room,

For out-of-door work a lantern is essential. Almost any kind
of lantern will do, but preference is to be given to one with a bent
glass front, since is throws its light to the sides of, as well as before the
operator, and also because no shadows break the field. The lantern
should hang round the neck, and be strapped closely to the chest,
thus leaving both hands free to manipulate the net and the bottle.
A great deal depends on the choice of the night, and also on the
time. Windy nights as a rule are bad, especially if the wind blows
from the north or the north-east. Moonlight nights also give very
unsatisfactory results. The greatest success may generally be ex-
pected on a dark and drizzly night, or on a dark night just after
rain. The search should commence soon after sunset, and may
continue for about an hour, say up to about 9.80. Then for an hour
or more the moths are—for some reason or other not properly under-
stood, I believe—rather quict. But they renew their activity at
about an hour before midnight, and continue to appear from that
te,
*.
â„¢

INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 3 95
time up to about 2 A.m., when eyen the most enthusiasti¢‘of entomo-
logists may as well retire to. rest. Of course there are early and
late species among the moths as well as among the butterflies. Some
often appear before the winter snows have all gone; and others
linger on till the cold December winds cut short their career. But
the lantern season—that is, the period during which projitable moth-
hunting can be carried on—is comparatively short, extending only
from the end of June to the beginning of September.

Moths are very fond of sweets, and abound in places where
certain nectar-producing flowers are in bloom. The favourite flowers
include the ivy, the sallow, honeysuckle, privet, nettles, the common
pink, and verbenas. These and other blooms should be carefully
examined with the Jantern, bottle in hand. Some of the insects
will be found so intensely absorbed in the repast that they may be
bottled or pill-boxed with ease ; but others are either less gluttonous
or far more wary, and require some amount of dexterity on the part
of the collector. The ivy and the sallow are particular favourites
with the moths, and, while examining these blooms, the entomo-
logist is often sorely tantalised by the sight of ‘sour grapes’ beyond
his reach. Some collectors make use of a lantern and a small net,
both mounted on the end of a stick. This is held aloft in the left
hand; and the moths are toppled from the blossoms into the net
by means of another stick in the right hand.

If the hunting-ground does not abound in such flowers as pro-
vide the moths with natural sweets, we can allure them with artifi-
cial bait. This plan is commonly known as ‘sugaring,’ and is
conducted as follows: Boiling water is thrown on some very dark
and strongly smelling sugar, and the mixture is well stirred. In
this way a very strong syrup is made, and this is kept as ‘ stock.’
When the sugaring is to be tried, take as much of this syrup as may
be required, mix it with scme rum, and apply the mixture with a
paint brush to the barks of trees or to palings. This should be
done just at the time when moths are likely to appear. Attracted
by the odour, they will settle, one by one, beside the luscious spread,
some taking only a hasty sip and then moving on, and others gor-
ging themselves till they drop intoxicated on the ground beneath.
At intervals a very cautious approach should be made towards the
painted surfaces with a lantern, securing first those insects which
exhibit a restless disposition by the vibration of their wings, and
then leisurely bottling the lazy and the gluttonous. It must not be
supposed, however, that cvery night at sugaring will ‘prove equally
96 ANIMAL LIFE

suecessful. Sometimes hardly a moth will come to the feast, but
at other times numbers are attracted. As a rule the majority are
among the common species—chiefly Noctwe—but fine specimens
of rarer moths are frequently captured by this method. The above
mixture is one commonly used; but some entomologists mix their
sugar with beer instead of water, and others use molasses instead
of sugar. Whatever be the mixture, it must be remembered that it
is the odour that attracts the moths, and not the quality of the
viands ; so that the nose is to be the sole judge in the selection of
the sugar or the molasses to be employed. Again, some collectors,
instead of using the sugar as paint, applying it with a brush, take
out with them some pieces of rag which have been steeped in the
mixture, and simply pin these to the barks of trees.

Setting and Preserving Moths

Moths are to be set in exactly the same manner as butterflies ;
but there are a few little matters of detail to which we must attend
if we aim at perfect appearance and good preservation. In the first
place, many of the moths are so very small and fragile that the
thinnest pins must be used ; otherwise the specimens will not only
look very clumsy, but the limbs will be disarranged or broken as
we pierce them. Again, a large number of the moths have very
long and slender antenne, which have a tendency to cwl very
irregularly as they dry; and it will be necessary to look at these
occasionally while on the setting board, and adjust the antenne when
required.

But the greatest troubles will occur in our dealings with the
larger and thick-bodied species. The large bodies of the Hawk
moths, for example, will shrivel up in drying till they have entirely
lost their graceful outline and plump figure. To prevent this, these
moths must be stuffed. This may be done by slitting open the
abdomen beneath with a sharp knife, removing ail its contents, and
then packing it rather tightly with cotton wool. A better plan is to
cut the abdomen completely off at the waist, remove its contents
carefully with a little hooked wire, and stuff it at the cut end.
Then, when both parts of the insect are perfectly dry, the abdomen
may be again attached with a little coaguline. If this last opera-
tion be performed skilfully, the junction will not be seen, and the
insect is apparently so perfect that it may be pinned to exhibit
either the upper or lower surface. As a further precaution some
entomologists introduce into the stuffed abdomen a small quantity
Plate IV


INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 97

of some poisonous substance to prevent the intrusion of mites. I
have seen benzole recommended for this purpose; but this, being
a very volatile liquid, soon evaporates, leaving the body of the in-
sect just as harmless to the mites as it was previously. Nothing,
perhaps, is so effectual as a little powdered corrosive sublimate ; but
as this is a powerful poison, it should always be handled with
caution.

We have now to tackle the greatest enemy of the moth collector
—‘grease.’ Let the reader set a moth—a ‘Ghost,’ for example—
put it away in the store box, and examine it closely at intervals.
After a few weeks, or perhaps months, he will notice that a fatty
substance has oozed out of the abdomen. This gradually creeps
over the surface of the body, and at last spreads all over the wings,
making the insect look as if it had been plunged bodily into oil.
But nil desperandwm; our specimen is not spoilt beyond recovery.
Plunge it into a vessel of benzoline, benzole, or ether, and let it
remain there for a day or two. When you take it out again it looks
worse than before. But now pin it under a window that is
slightly open, or in some other spot where it may dry in a current
of air. The volatile liquid will soon evaporate, leaving the insect
in all its original beauty. The above is the cwre for ‘ grease ;’ but
the old maxim “says ‘ prevention is better than cure,’ and the pro-
verb certainly applies in this case. Therefore, if you have a moth*
that you know is of a greasy disposition, cut off its abdomen before
you put it in the store box, and treat the troublesome portion only
in the manner described above, without waiting till the fatty sub-
stance shows itself on the surface. Also, when you are about to
stuff a darge specimen, soak the abdomen in one of the liquids
named, immediately after the contents have been removed, and
you will then have no further trouble and disappointment: Finally,
there is yet another method of disposing of the superfluous fat—a
method especially suitable to the smaller moths that require no
stuffing. It is this: Remove the abdomen, and put it in a bottle
of magnesia or other absorbent powder; and, after the grease has
all been absorbed, brush it lightly and fix it on again as before
described.

The Hawk Mothe

About two thousand species of moths are known in the British
Isles, and it is probable that there are still many to be discovered.
Our limited space will not allow us to examine more than a few of

H
98 ANIMAL LIFE

the commoner and more conspicuous species. And the descriptions
of the samples selected must necessarily be short ; in fact, in some
cases little more than the figure will be given.

We will first take the Sphingide, or Sphinx Moths or Hawk
Moths. The term Sphinx is applied to the members of this family
on account of the fancied resemblance of the caterpillars (or, as



Fira. 117.—Tue Dearn’s-nuap Hawk Morn (Atropos).

some say, the chrysalis) to the Egyptian Sphinx; and they are
called Hawk Moths from the peculiarity of their flight. All these
moths are heavily built; their bodies are thick, and their wings
strong and powerful. Their mode of feeding is peculiar. They
remain poised in the air by means of a very rapid motion of
the wings—so rapid, indeed, that nothing is seen except the
motionless body surrounded by a mist. While thus balanced,
INSECTS AND INSHCT HUNTING 99

their very long sucking tubes are thrust into the nectar-bearing
flowers; and, the feast being over, they dart away with amazing
rapidity. Most of the ‘ Hawks’ fly only at night, and consequently
are seldom seen; but if one will remain perfectly still near a
bed of petunias or verbenas, on which fall the rays of a lantern,
he will almost certainly have the pleasure of witnessing the



























































































































































































































































































































































Fie. 118.—Tue Larva or tHe Draru’s-neap Hawk.

wonderful movements, and of hearing the hum of some of these
beautiful insects.

The Death’s-head Hawk Moth (Acherontia atropos) is a very
powerful insect, measuring about five inches from tip to tip. Its
fore wings are beautifully mottled with different shades of brown,
and the hind wings are yellow with black bands. The body also is
banded with yellow and black, and the thorax has a very conspi-
cuous mark which reminds us at once of the human skull. The

: H 2
100. ANIMAL LIFE

caterpillars, like those of all the Sphingid@, are smooth and with-
out hairs; and, like most of these larve, have a horn above the
tail. They feed at night, during July and-August, on the potato
and the deadly nightshade; and are known to potato growers as
the ‘locust.’ The chrysalis is often dug up by the labourers in
potato fields in September, and commonly goes by the name of
‘oround grub.’

The best way to secure perfect specimens of the Death’s-head
Moth is to obtain the assistance of a potato-grower in collecting
either the fully grown caterpillars in August, or the pupe in Sep-













































NSS

Fie. 119.—Tur Even Hawx (Ocellatus). ~~



tember. If the former, they must be supplied daily with fresh
potato leaves till about to change; and the pupe should be kept in
moist earth till the perfect insects emerge. This insect is unique
on account of its remarkable power of producing a sharp sound
when irritated; and this strange propensity is common, more or
less, to all three stages.

The caterpillars of most of the Hawk Moths are easily bred in
confinement, and this is most certainly the best method of obtain-
ing the perfect insects, not only because we thus secure the most
perfect specimens, but also because it affords an opportunity of
becoming acquainted with the insects in all their stages. As a
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 101

rule the larve are easily obtained by beating the branches of the
food plants.

The Humming-bird Hawk, though not by any means a brilliant
insect, is very interesting on account of its peculiar habits. Unlike
most moths, it delights in the hottest sunshine, and may often be



Fic..120.-—Larva or THE Fie. 121.—Tur Humuine-pirp Hawk
Spurer Hawk. (PEer- (Steilatarum).
rect Insecr SHOWN ON
Puare Y.)

observed on bright days hovering over flowers, its wings being
almost invisible on account of their rapid motion. The slightest
movement on the part of the spectator will cause the insect to dart
off with lightning-like velocity, but it will often return again to the
very same flower if the intruder does not approach too near.

The Wood-borers

The members of this group vary so much in size and appearance
that those who are unacquainted with their histories will naturally be
surprised on finding them placed together. It is in the larval state,
however, that. they show their relationship; for all their caterpillars
live inside the stems or trunks of plants and trees, and feed entirely
on the solid wood or the pith. Some of their larvee look much like
large white maggots; but others are fine, large, and well-formed
caterpillars, which live four years or more in the solid wood of large
102 ANIMAL LIFE

trees. Nearly every old willow tree is riddled completely through
and through with the borings of these voracious wood-eaters ; and
elms, poplars, and other trees are often similarly attacked. These
destructive caterpillars always avoid the light, and so it generally
happens that the infested tree shows no outward signs of its actual
condition ; but when a portion of the bark has been removed, the
perforations in the wood are exposed, and a small heap of the
chipped wood, resembling sawdust, may often be found at the base
of the trunk.

They change to the chrysalis inside their borings, some of them
previously constructing a tough cocoon composed of the gnawed
wood spun together with silk, but others remaining quite uncovered
save by the substance of the stem itself. Some of these latter
chrysalides are provided with little hooks at each segment, and by
means of these they can work themselves along their galleries
almost as rapidly as they could walk when in the larval state.

The Seside or Clearwings
form an interesting division of
this group. At first sight it
would appear that the term
‘scaly-winged’ does not apply
to them, for their wings are
almost entirely scaleless. In
fact, so beautifully transparent
are they, that the Clearwings
may easily be mistaken for
gnats, bees, or wasps.

The fore wings of these
beautiful insects are banded with either white, yellow, orange, or
red; but the hind pair are free from such markings. Most of them,
too, have tufts of hair at the tip of the abdomen.

Those in search of Clearwings should examine the stems and
twigs of their food plants, the chief of which are the pear, apple,
birch, osier, elm, currant, alder, ash, and poplar.

The next family of Wood-borers (Zeuzerid@) includes the Reed
Moth, the Wood Leopard, and the Goat Moth. The larva of the
first of these feeds on the interior of reed stems, and that of the
second on the wood of elm and fruit trees. The Goat Moth is one
of our largest British insects, and is so called from the disagreeable
odour emitted by the larva—an odour which is said to resemble
that of the he-goat. This fine caterpillar spends four years in the



Fie. 122.—Tur Horner Cirarwina
(S. Apiformis).
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 103

wood of the willow or elm. For some time I was under the
impression that this larva could thrive only on the wood of living



Fic. 124.—Tur Goar Morn (Ligniperda) anp Larva (THE LATTER
ABOUT ONE-THIRD GROWN).
104 ANIMAL LIFE

trees, but I have recently obtained some fine specimens from rotting
wood that had been lying on the ground for years; and these are
still feeding in confinement on the same material.



5 : ny i RT! .

oe x

Fic. 125.—Tue Common Fic. 126.—Tue Guosr Swirr
Swirr (Lupulinus). (Humuli).

Our last examples of the wood-eaters are the Swifts (Hepialide),
the larvie of which feed on the roots of various plants.

The Burnets

These are beautiful little moths, fond of flying about in bright
sunshine. When on the wing they
make rapid progress, and may then
be mistaken for bright-coloured
bees. Towards evening, and du-
ring the day in dull weather, they
rest on the stems of plants, and
are then easily taken with a box.
The fore wings, except in the
case of the Transparent Burnet,
are of a beautiful metallic blackish
green, boldly marked with bright
red spots; and the hind wings
are bright crimson, bordered with
black. Their caterpillars feed on
trefoils and vetches, and spin
silky cocoons on the upper parts
of tall stems.
Fic. 127.—Larva anp Cocoon The commonest of our Burnets
or tHE Srx-sror Burner. —the Six-spot—-is shown on

Plate LV.


â„¢

“y,

INSECTS AND INSHOT HUNTING 105

The Hucheliide

This small family includes the
Cinnabar Moth (Plate IV) and the
Scarlet Tiger. The former is so called
from the cinnabar crimson of the hind
wings. This insect sometimes appears
in multitudes in spots where its food
plant (the ragwort) flourishes; but in
some localities it is very scarce, even
though the ragwort grows in profusion.
Its yellow and black banded larva is
generally well known. The Scarlet
Tiger (Plate V) is also plentiful locally,
and is most certainly one of the loveliest
of British insects.



Fie. 128.—Larva or tHE
Crynazar Morn (Jacobee).

The Tiger Moths

The Tiger Moths (Cheloniida) are very well known, and are
ever popular on account of their gay appearance. All the males of







Fic. 130.—Tur Burr Ermine
(Lubricipeda).



f
LX

Fie. 131.—Tue Waite Erne

(Menthastrt).

this family may be distinguished from their mates by the fringed
oe 4
ae
eo

106 . ANieear pipe

or feathered antenne. Their caterpillars are all very haity, and
roll themselves up in a ring when disturbed. Of these the ‘ Woolly”
Bear ’—the larva of the Common Tiger (Plate IV)—is one of the
commonest objects of the country. When the caterpillars of the
Tigers are full fed they all spin loose silken cocoons in which their
hairs are intermingled with the silk fibres. We cannot find space to
describe these insects individually, but the illustrations of some of the
commoner species on Plates IV and V willserve for identification. The
less gaudy Ermines— Buff and White—are included in this family.

The Liparide

The chief characteristics of this family are the peculiar brush-
like tufts of stiff hair which ornament the caterpillars, and, what -is

IF



2s

1S | es \

Fira. 132.—Tue Varourer Mora (Antiqua)—Matr, Femane, anp Larva.

still more remarkable, the chrysalides are also hairy. A glance at
our illustration of the larva of the Vapourer Moth will probably re-
mind the reader of an object he has seen scores of times. Even in
the streets of densely populated towns
we invariably come across this cater-
pillar; and during the autumn the
chestnut-brown moth may be seen
gaily flitting about in the smoky
thoroughfares of our cities. The
Vapourer has yet another peculiarity, —
for the female is quite wingless. She
never leaves the silken web which
she constructed while a caterpillar. On this web she deposits her
eggs; and, having performed this, her only duty, on this same



Vis. 133.—Tur Brown Tain
(Chrysorrhea).
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 107

web she ends her existence. Among the other members of this
family we introduce figures of the Brown Tail and the Black Arches.



Fie. 135. Tum Brack Arcues. (Dark variety.)

The last-named moth is noticeable for the very variable proportion
of black and white in the markings of its wings.

The Bombycide
This is a family of full-bodied moths, 1 in which the prevailing

colours are brown and grey. Most
of their caterpillars are very hairy,
but all the chrysalides are smooth.
Perhaps the best known among
these is the Oak Eggar (Plate IV),
so called on account of the egg-
like shape of the tough cocoon spun
by the caterpillar. This caterpillar
is a most beautiful creature. Its
body is a rich’ velvet-black colour,
but it is so thickly covered with



Fie. 1386.—Tan Smart Eaaar

(Lanestris).

brown hair that the ground colour is entirely hidden when the body
is straight. But when the insect curves its body in walking, or
108 ANIMAL LIFE

when it curls its body into a ring as is its habit on being alarmed,
the rich black colour is exposed in the form of bands between the



Fic. 138.—Tuz Larrrry Morn (Quercifolia) any Larva.
(Sze auso Prarn Y.)

segments. The male of the perfect insect is much smaller than
the female, and darker in colour, but otherwise similar. I have
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING ‘ 109

seen large numbers of Eggars flying about in bright sunshine along
the rugged cliffs of Cornwall. These were all males, and not one
of them was seen to settle. However, I succeeded in netting a
few by standing ready, with uplifted net, intercepting them as they
passed, for chase was quite hopeless.

The Bombycide include also the Small Eggar, Pale Eggar, the
Lackey, the Drinker, the Lappet, and the Emperor (Plate IV).

With regard to the Drinker, it is but fair to the perfect insect
that I should mention the fact that it is the larva only which in-
dulges in the habit which has given rise to the popular name.

In the case of the Lappet we have another good example of ‘ pro-
tective imitation.’ The creature closes its wings in sucha manner
that it looks much like a decayed leaf; and with this deceptive
resemblance it is secure from its enemies while at rest on the trees
during the daytime

The Geometers

We now come to a very extensive group of moths known as the
Geometers or Loopers. Both these terms, however, really apply to
the caterpillars, and not to the perfect insects. Let us see how.
If you examine one of these creatures you will observe that its body
is long, slender, and cylindrical ; its surface is also smooth and



Fic. 140.—Larva or TnE
©139.—Tur Swannow-Tar, Mori Brimstone Morn. (PEr-
(Sambucata). rect Insrcr on Prater LV.)



quite free from hairs. At its hinder extremity will be seen only
two pairs of claspers, thus leaving a very large proportion of its
length without limbs. Now put it down, and watch its peculiar
mode of progression. First it bends its long body into a loop,
bringing its claspers close up to the legs in front; and then, keeping
its claspers still fixed, it throws its head forward till the body is
0 ANIMAL LIFE

again perfectly straight, Thus, by a series of long strides, it moves
itself along, measuring the ground over which it travels, and con-



Fia. 143.—Tur Grey Scat- Fria. 144.—Tue Macrir (Grossulariata).
LopED Bar (Belgiaria).

verting its body into a kind of land-surveyor’s chain. You will now
see that the word Geometer, which signifies ‘ earth-measurer,’ is
very appropriate.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 111

In these interesting caterpillars we meet with many remarkable
instances of protective resemblance. When at rest they remain
quite motionless on the food-plant, commonly selecting a stem or
twig as the place of repose. Some of them lie close against the
stem, but many hold on firmly with their claspers, stretching their



Fic. 145.—Tur Morruen Umber (Defolaria)—Mate, Wincunss Fumann,
AND Larva.

bodies rigidly out at an angle. In this latter position they so closely
resemble the stems to which they attach themselves, that even the
most practised eye may be deceived ; and the imitation is rendered
still more complete by the colouring and other characteristics of
the caterpillars. The green species rest on green stems, and others



Ita. 146.—Tae Winter Morn Fic. 147.—THe Bravrirun
(Brumata). Carper (Albicillata).

of dull brownish tints on twigs covered with bark of similar colour.
We even find bumps and markings on their bodies almost exactly
corresponding with the projections and variations on the twigs of
their respective food-plants.

The British moths included in the Geometre number nearly
three hundred species.
112 ANIMAL LIFE

We have scen that it is a very casy matter to distinguish a
Looper caterpillar from that of any other family ; but it is impossible
to give any such reliable marks by which we may always recognise



Fic. 148.—Tur Arcent AND SABLE Fie. 149.—Tur Siiver-cRounD
(Hastata). Carper (Montana).

a Geometer Moth. It may, however, generally be known by its
slender body and comparatively large wings. And yet another
feature is worthy of notice. In a large number of the Geometers



Pra. 150.—Tue Marsh Fie. 151.—Tur Com- Fra. 152.—T um Cui-
Carrer (Sagitiata). mon Carper (iS2b- ney Swerr (Che-
tristata). rophyllata).



il

we find the hind pair of wings marked much after the same pattern
as the fore pair; but in the other moths we usually find the hind
wings very unlike the others.

The Cuspidates

The caterpillars of this division are generally very curious objects.
The bodies of many of them taper to a point behind, and some of



Fic. 153.—Tne Satnow Krrren (Furcula).

them terminate in one or two slender ‘tails.’ In many cases, too,
their backs have one or more humps, and these add to their strange
Plate V


.

INSHCTS AND INSECT HUNTING 113

appearance. ‘These caterpillars never roll themselves into a ring
when alarmed, nor do they allow themselves to fall from their food-



Fic. 155.—Tur Burr Trp Morn (Bucephala) AnD Larva,
s (Suz atso Prarz V.)
114 ANIMAL LIFE

plants when disturbed—their only protection from their enemies
seems to lie in their colouring, the prevailing tint being a beautiful
leafy green. :

Some of them—the Puss and the Kittens, for example—adopt a
novel method of protecting themselves when about to change to the





\
Fie. 156.—Puss Morn (Vinwla) anp Larva. ie

pupal state. They descend to the trunk of the tree on which they
have fed, and there construct a very hard cocoon of fragments of bark
glued together by a sticky substance from their own bodies; and
this is so cleverly made that it is almost impossible to detect it.
Others spin for themselves a light silken cocoon between the leaves ;
but, as winter approaches, the leaves fall to the ground, and there
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 115

the insects remain till the time comes for their final change. Others,
again, construct no kind of habitation, but change to the chrysalis
on the surface of the ground or in a burrow which they make in the

soil.
The Noctuas

The three hundred British moths belonging to this division are,
generally speaking, remarkably uniform in size and colour. In
nearly all cases the colouring consists of shades of brown and grey,
and the general appearance may be described as dingy rather than



Fie. 157.--Tur Pracu-niossom Morn (Batis) anp Larva.
(See auso Prarr IY.)

pretty or brilliant. Still there are some grand exceptions to this
rule. Take, for instance, the pretty Peach-blossom Moth, with its
rich olive brown spotted with pink, reminding us at once of the
petals of the flower from which it derives its name ; also the beauti-



Fie. 158.—Tur Grey Daccrr (Psi).

ful ‘ Underwings,’ rendered conspicuous by the bright vellows, reds,

and crimson of the hind pair of wings, and also, in some cases, by

their superior size. But, omitting these and the few other Noctua

which stand out boldly among their allies either for brilliancy of

colouring or for superiority of size, the monotony is so Stee
I
116 ANIMAL LIFE

that much difficulty will be experienced when the young collector
attempts to classify and name his specimens.



Fig. 159.--Tue Casnace Moru Fic. 160.—Tue Turnip Mora
(Brassice). (Segetwa).



Fie. 161. -Tue Large YeLitow Unperwine (Promuba) anp Larva.
(Sez auso Prater V.)



Fic. 162.—Tur Lesser Broap Fig. 163.—Tur Dor (Persicaria).
Borver (Lanthina).

The Noctwas, as their name implies, are all night fliers. They
are also termed Owl Moths, and are sometimes spoken of as the
Full-bodied Moths, on account of their comparatively thick bodies.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 117

Their antenne are long and very slender ; and, when at rest, these
are snugly tucked in beneath the thorax. At the same time the



Fic. 164.—Tur Ancor Suapes (Meticulosa) anp Larva.
(Suz atso PrarE V.)

wings are closed in such a manner that the body is completely

hidden from view; and the hind wings, which are generally of a
2 oO

pale dingy colour and qvite plain, are covered by the front pair.



Fic. 165.— Tue SILVER BY Fic. 166.—Tur Burnispep Brass
(Gamma). (Chrysitis)

All the different modes of capture mentioned in the hints on
‘Moth Collecting ’ may be successfully practised when searching for
Noctuwe; but, above all things, you must remember the greedy appe-



Fria. 167.—Tur Heratp Morn (Libatriv) anp Larva.

tite of these insects for all kinds of sweets. Throw the light of your
lantern on the nectariferous blooms of the sallow, honeysuckle, or ivy,
on acalm and damp night, and you are sure to see scores of pairs of
118 ANIMAL LIFE



Fic. 169.—Tur Rep Unprrwine (Nupta).
(SrE atso Sponsa on Prater IV.)



Fic. 170.—Tue Crirpen Nonranem (Frawini).
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 119

eyes, glistening like balls of fire. Equally attractive is the natu-
ralist’s ‘sugar ;’ and a well-chosen night at ‘sugaring’ will fill your
boxes as rapidly as you could wish.

The caterpillars of the Noctwas, unlike the moths, exhibit a great
variety of form and colour. Some are smooth and feed by day ;
others hide all day between leaves spun together, or in some other
retreat, and feed only by night. Many are covered with long hair ;
and a few species crawl with arched backs somewhat after the
manner of the Loopers. :

The pupe of the Noctwe are smooth and shining, and generally
of a reddish-brown or blackish colour. They are dug up in large
numbers in all cultivated soils during the winter, and many are to be
found during this season among the roots of trees or among the de-
cayed leaves under the plants on which the caterpillars had been
previously feeding. :
Deltoides and Pyralides

The Deltoides are a group of small moths that have received
the above name from the fact that their folded wings take the form

(ey



Fic. 171.—Tue Snovr (Rostralis). Fic. 172.—Tur Mran Morn
(Farinalis).

of the Greek letter Delta (A). The group contains many kinds, but
we can find room for one only—the Snout.





Fig. 173.—Tur Tappy Fie. 174.—Tur Moruer or
(Pinguinalis). Peart (Urticalis).

Another group of small moths—the Pyralides—includes the
Meal Moth, the larva of which feeds on various kinds of meal and
flour; the Tabby, which, in the larval state, devours greasy cloths
120 ANIMAL LIFE

and rugs; the Pearl Moths, the Rust Veneer, and the Beautiful
China Mark. The last-named moth is common in the ne‘ghbour-
hood of ponds, and its caterpillar is remarkable for the fact that
it lives under water, feeding on the under side of the floating



Fic. 175.—Tue Rust VENEER Fic. 176.—T um’ Breavrirun
(Hybridalis). Cuina Marx (Stagnalis).

duckweed. Instead of breathing by trachez after the manner of
other caterpillars, it is supplied with hair-like filaments which

serve to extract oxygen from the water. It conceals itself in a case
constructed of the epidermis of the weeds.

The Crambites and Tortrices e

The first of these groups includes several small moths known
popularly as the Veneers, and also the Honeycomb Moth so



Fic. 177.—Tue Praru-sTreak Fic. 178.—T arn Honrycomp Morn
Veneer (Hamellus). (Cerella).

destructive to the hives of bees. The larvee of the latter are annoying
pests to bee-keepers, for they eat away the comb and its contents,
sometimes almost filling the hive with their silken cocoons. The



Fic. 179.—Tur Srraw Onrrqur Fic. 180.—Tur Hazen Torrrrx
Bar (Costana). (2. Sorbiana).

first four segments of the larva are so hard and horny that the bee’s
sting cannot penetrate it, and the softer hinder part of the body is
always protected by a tough silken case.
INSECTS AND INSHCT HUNTING 121

a

The Tortrices or Twisters (figs. 179 and 180) are chiefly small
moths, the caterpillars of which generally roll up the leaves of the
food-plant to form themselves a home. Many of them spend their
larval state in the interior of apples and other fruits, often doing
great damage to our crops. The perfect insects may be known from
other moths by the bell-like form of the wings when folded.

The Tinee and Plume Moths

The term Tinee is derived from a Latin word which means
‘Clothes Moths;’ and the group so named contains, among many



Fira, 181.—Lraves, Rottep anp MrIvep.

others, those few species whose larv# are so destructive to our furs
and other clothing. These moths are so very numerous that
the study of them is quite a formidable task.
Some are so small that it is impossible to set
them even with the finest pins procurable, and
a magnifying glass is absolutely necessary to
make out the markings of their wings. The
best, and, in fact, the only satisfactory, way of ae 182. Tue
Z : 2 ooLLEN Morn.
setting these is to lay out the legs and wings
with a fine needle on a card lightly covered with very thin gum.


122 ANIMAL LIFE

The common Woollen and Hair Moths lay their eggs in our
clothing and furniture, and the larve construct for themselves
cylindrical cases in which they reside, never exposing more than







Fic. 183.—Larva or tHe Woornen Mora.

the first few segments of their bodies. As they move about in
search of food they drag their cases behind them just like the larvee
of caddis flies.

The Tinee@ also include the ‘ Leaf-miners,’ the larve of which
burrow through the soft cellular structure of leaves. These insects
are easily reared. It is simply necessary to cut off a twig on which
are burrowed leaves, and, after satisfying yourself that the cater-
pillars are at home by holding the leayes up to the light and looking

=

Fic. 184.—Tnor Harr Fria. 185.—Tur Prome Tia. 186.—Proyyy ‘jygrn
Morn. Morn, (Pentadactylus). (Heaadacti..



through them, put the stem in a bottle of water. In afte days
the larvee are full fed, and require no further attention save watch-
ing now and again till the perfect insects emerge.
“

e

INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 128

The beautiful little Plume Moths (Pterophori) or ‘feather-
bearers’ may be known at a glance by their satin plumes, which
display such splendour when expanded in the sunlight. They are
rather sluggish insects, and are generally easily captured with a
pill box.

Collecting Ova and Larve

A large number of the butterflies and moths caught by means
of the net or otherwise will be found to be more or less damaged
and worn; and only those which have recently emerged exhibit the
full beauty of their plumage. Then, again, there are many varieties
which are seldom seen on the wing, but of which the larva, or per-
haps even the eggs, may be obtained by searching the food-plants.
It often happens, too, that we capture the female of a certain
species we covet, but in such a worn condition as to be useless for
the cabinet. In such a case we may often procure a hundred or
more fertile eggs. ‘These are arguments sufficient to prove the ad-
vantage to the collector of rearing his own insects; but far and away
ahead of all these reasons stands the fact that the true entomologist
is desirous of becoming acquainted with insect life in allits phases,
and this can be done effectually only by breeding various species at
home. Another great advantage of rearing from the ova is the
perfect freedom from the havyoe of the ichneumon flies—a scourge
that cuts off a very large proportion of the caterpillars that feed in
the open.

liggs are generally best obtained from females caught at large,
or from insects previously bred. Searching for eggs is, as a rule,
not_a very lucrative employment; but occasionally a number of
valuable ova may be found by examining the leaves or flowers of
the proper food-plants. With low-growing plants the searching is
rather tedious, for, the eggs being generally on the under surfaces
of leaves, each leaf must be turned over and examined separately.
The best results are obtained by searching shrubs and the saplings
of large trees, especially those which are on the borders of woods,
or quite isolated on open ground. You should get under the
branches and look wpward on the lower surfaces of the leaves. A
few of the Lepidoptera lay their eggs on the wpper surfaces, and
among these may be mentioned the Puss Moth, and the Poplar and
Sallow Kittens.

Searching for larve is a far more productive and interesting
occupation. Every plant harbours one or more species. yen the
124 ANIMAL LIFE

most poisonous herbs, and the toughest and most prickly of leaves,
provide them with sustenance. The under surfaces are generally
chosen as a place of repose, and some species remain thus per-
manently under cover, biting holes as they feed; but the majority
feed at the edges of the leaves, changing their position when, about to
rest. Some lie motionless along the midrib of the leaf. Many of the |
Loopers fix themselves by their claspers on a stem or twig of the same
colour as their own body, and stand off at an angle so as to exactly re-
semble the stalks which support them. Some caterpillars feed only
by night, and many of these descend to the soil, where they hide
throughout the day. When searching for tree-feeding larve it will
be better, as in the case of ova, to examine saplings rather than the
branches of large trees, and to select those which are isolated or else
on the borders of woods. Partially eaten leaves should always be
examined, and branches completely stripped of their leaves will
often lead to the discovery of a whole colony of gregarious larvee.
Sometimes it happens that the presence of caterpillars on a tree is
far more easily discovered by examining the ground than by looking
up at the tree itself, for beneath we may often see the pellets of
their excrement thickly strewn about.

Never rely entirely on searching for larvee, for this alone will
fill the boxes very slowly. Where they are suspected to be feeding
spread a white cloth of some kind on the ground, and tap the
branches above it very smartly with a stick, and generally a variety
of species—to say nothing of sticks, petals, leaves, earwigs, beetles,
spiders, &c.—will at once make their appearance. Instead of the
cloth an inverted umbrella with a white lining may be used as
recommended for beetle collecting. After beating allow the fallen
larvee to get a foothold on your cloth or umbrella, and then hold it
up to let all the miscellaneous material drop off. A selection can
now be made at your leisure.

Sweeping is another method of collecting larve as well as other
forms of life. For this purpose a very strong but light net—or
rather bag—is made of holland or book muslin; and this is vigorously
swept through low-growing herbage by means of a short and strong
stick.

Great care must be taken in handling the smaller larvee, and the
various captures should be brought home in boxes with perforated
covers, each containing a little moss to give them a foothold. They
should not be overcrowded ; and, although pill boxes and chip boxes
may do for most species, a few tin or zine larve boxes should be
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 125

taken for the wood-eating caterpillars, and others which possess
powerful biting apparatus.

Larve Rearing

Having collected either the ova or the larve of any desired
species, the next thing to be considered is how to rear them till the
perfect form is attained. Eggs may be placed in a wide-mouthed
bottle, covered with a piece of muslin or leno,
which may be secured by an elastic band round
the neck. Here they should be watched daily
till the young larvee are hatched. They must now
be supplied with fresh leaves from the proper
food-plant about twice a day, each time re-
moving them from the stale leaves with a soft
camel-hair brush. Very small species may be
kept in such bottles till they change, in which
case a little sifted mould or a layer of cocoanut
fibre should be put in the bottom for them to
spin in. It is also advisable in most cases to
place the stem of the food-plant in a very small
bottle of water, by which means it may be kept
fresh for a much longer time, thus rendering it unnecessary to
disturb the young caterpillars so frequently; but in this case the
neck of the small bottle must be packed with cotton-wool to prevent
them from getting into the water, and a piece of rag or other sub-
stance should be so placed that those which fall from the food-plant
may crawl up again. These and the following remarks of course
apply also to the larve which have been collected.

When the larger species have reached an inch or so in length
they should be transferred to a cage of some kind, care being taken
not to overcrowd them. The larva cages sold by the dealers are
usually square boxes with glass fronts, and pieces of perforated
zine fastened over holes in the sides for ventilation. These, how-
ever, need not be bought, for they can be easily made by anyone.
A very convenient home for larvee may also be arranged in an ordi-
nary bell glass. A tin box containing fine mould is first placed in the
glass. In this is a small bottle of water for the food-plant, packed
as before described with cotton-wool. A little moss is now placed
on the mould, and more is heaped round the tin to enable the fallen
larve to return to their food.

When the larvee are fully fed they will prepare for their pupal





Fig. 187.—Lanrva
Borris.
126 ANIMAL LIFE

state, either attaching themselves to the plant, or spinning a cocoon
among the moss, or burrowing into the mould. After a short time



Fig. 188.—Larva CacE.

—usually about ten days—the change is complete, and the pupe
may then be carefully removed and dealt with in the manner to be
presently described.

Sometimes it happens that the food-plant is close at hand—it
may be in the collector’s own garden. In such case it is often con-
venient to rear the larve on the growing plant or tree. After
placing the larve on the leaves, tie up the plant, or a branch of it,
in a muslin bag. This method, which is termed sleeving, not only
prevents the insects from straying away, but also secures them
against the fatal attacks of the ichneumons.

Some larvie have very powerful jaws, and every precaution must
be used to prevent their escape from the cage. With such species
the ordinary wood larva cage is useless; and, if the bell glass is
used, it should be covered with a piece of perforated zine instead of
muslin or leno.

Of course the collector must be prepared to meet with many
disappointments during the rearing of his pets. Many will often
die dtving moulting. Sometimes a whole brood will be swept
off by the ravages of some infectious disease. A large propor-
tion of the caterpillars brought home will have been ‘stung’ by
the hated ichneumon. But, in spite of all these drawbacks,
larva-reariig pays the entomologist well, and the study of the
various stages of the Lepidoptera is found to be a very fascinating
pastime.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 127

A large number of species hibernate throughout the winter in
the larval state, and others feed all through the cold months. As
a rule the rearing of these from the early stages is rather tedious,
and it is better to look out for the more matured forms in the
spring.

During the late summer, and still-more in the autumn, numbers
of full-fed larvee may be seen creeping down the trunks of trees, or
searching round the roots for a suitable spot in which to burrow for
their winter quarters. These should always be taken home and
placed in a box of mould, where they will immediately conceal
themselves to undergo their final changes. They require no atten-
tion whatever, and will, in due time, display themselves in all their
beauty.

Pupa Hunting

At times when but few larvie are to be found, and when most of
the perfect insects have completed their short term of existence,
the entomologist may start out with his trowel and pupa box, and
spend a few hours at pupa hunting.

This occupation may be carried on with more or less success all
the year round; but it isin the late summer and the autumn that
most of the larvae undergo metamorphosis. If search is to be made
for any particular species, it will be necessary to make oneseif
familiar with its periods; and, after allowing it a week or two to
complete its change from the larval to the pupal state, examine the
trunk or roots of the tree on which it fed. Most of the larve
descend during July, August, and September; and, consequently,
the most productive season for pupa hunting extends from August
to October. Of course the pupe referred to spend the whole of the
winter in their retreats ; but they are subject to many dangers, such
as floods and heavy rains, and the attacks of field mice and other
animals; hence they should be sought as soon as possible after the
change is complete.

The only apparatus required by the pupa hunter, besides his
trowel, consists of a box similar to that used for larve, partially
filled with slightly damped moss. If he is heedful concerning his
comfort he may also provide himself with a small piece of some
waterproof substance on which to kneel while at work.

All kinds of trees and shrubs afford food to a greater or less
number of species; so all trees yield more or less pup to the
collector; but there are certain trees which far surpass many of the
others in the number and variety of their residents. The best kinds
128 ANIMAL LIFE

are poplars, willow, oak, birch, hawthorn, and elm. Preference
should always be given to isolated trees in meadows and parks,
and those situated on the banks of streams; and, while the
dense portions of woods will probably yield little or nothing to
the hunter, the trees on the borders and outskirts are frequently
productive.

On reaching a tree, first search the crevices of the bark, especially
on the north side. Ifthe bark is loose at any part, insert the trowel
and tear off the loose portions, carefully examining both the bark
and the wood it covered. Galleries in the wood often reveul the
presence of wood-boring species, the pupe of which may often be
seen projecting slightly from a burrow, or lying between the bark
and the wood. Mosses and lichens should also be carefully
searched.

When you are satisfied with the examination of the trunk,
attention may be given tothe roots. Jixamine cautiously any moss,
leaves, or any kind of rubbish lying round the roots ; for many larve
spin among such materials. Then remove all this and examine the
surface of the ground. Look well into the angles (if any) between
the roots, feeling gently with the fingers for cocoons in the cavities
which cannot be otherwise examined. All cavities in decayed
trunks should be similarly treated, and all the rotten wood lying in
the bottom must be taken out and searched.

This having been done, the soil itself must be dealt with. If
this is very hard and clayey, you may expect to find nothing; but,
if you are likely to go the same round again on some future occasion,
you may, by breaking up the ground, prepare a bed which may be
appreciated by the larve of a later species.

If, however, the soil is dry and friable, the trowel should be
inserted a few inches from the roots to a depth of about four inches,
and the sod gently lifted up. Great care and patience must now be
exercised. The sod should be gently tapped and shaken. It must
then be carefully torn asunder. The place from which the sod was
removed must also be searched by eye and hand. As a rule the
larger number of pup will be found in the angles between the roots ;
but some species—the Poplar Hawk for example—choose the edges
rather than the angles.

In nearly all cases the greatest number of finds will occur on
the north side of the tree, the natural instinct of the larva leading
it to the side on which it is sheltered from rain and sun, both of

which are injurious to it.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 129

The Management of Pupe

Much difference of opinion exists among entomologists as to the
management of pup, and the advice given by different. authorities
consequently contains many conflicting statements. The chief
difficulty seems to lie in the puzzling problem as to whether the
chrysalides should be kept more or less damp, or whether they
are best stored in a perfectly dry bed. Of course there is always a
certain amount of humidity in the natural soil, and even those pupa
which are concealed in cocoons above the surface of the ground are
subject to fluctuations in the amount of moisture in the atmo-
sphere. Many healthy pupe are to be found in situations which
are decidedly damp, if not even wet; and it appears certain that
some species actually require to be kept in a moist condition, whether
in their natural home or in captivity. Some argue that all should
be kept moist, but other successful rearers aver that they never
damp their pupe. All things being considered, perhaps the safest
plan is to avoid all damping excepting in the few cases where
moisture has proved to be absolutely necessary. I have myself
tried various experiments in this direction, but cannot claim to have
arrived at any satisfactory or conclusiveresult. I would recommend
all beginners who are puzzled by the varying advice offered by those
who have each found his own plan to be the best, to divide their
pupe into batches, and experiment for themselves, and then stick to
the plan which in their hands gives the best results.

If you wish to try the effects of moisture, proceed as follows:
Procure a box of any convenient size. Bore a few large holes in
the bottom, and nail over each a piece of wire gauze or perforated
zine. Then put ina layer of gravel, and on this a few inches of sifted
mould or cocoa-nut fibre. Let the pups lie in the latter, about an
inch or so below the surface, and then cover with a layer of moss.
Lastly, cover the box with any kind of gauze or perforated material.
Stand the box on a few stones or blocks so as to allow free drainage
and ventilation, and then apply as much moisture as you think
proper. With such an arrangement there is no fear of any accumu-
lation of stagnant water; and, we are told, you may ‘damp your
pupe with impunity.’

The dry method is much simpler and far less troublesome. All
you have to do is to lay the pupe (perhaps advantageously with
their faces downward) on the surface of a thin layer of mould or
fibre, and then leave them alone.

*k
130 ANIMAL LIFE

The inside of the box should be unplaned and quite rough, so
that the perfect insects, when they emerge, may easily crawl up to
suspend themselves during the drying of their wings.

Those pupie which are found suspended to parts of plants should
be placed in a-similar position in the box. This may be done by
pinning the part to which they are attached to the side of the
box. :

Some collectors resort to ‘forcing’ in order to obtain the perfect
insects before their natural time. This may sometimes be a con-
venience ; but, unless the temperature be moderately uniform, this
plan gives rise to a number of ‘crippled’ specimens. Those who
are anxious to try the experiment may place the pupa box in a hot-
house, or stand it on the chimney shelf of a room where a fire is
kept; but in the latter instance it is not necessary that the fire be
burning throughout the night. Some even venture to place the
pupz on the top of a cooking stove, but, of course, as far as possible
from the fire. This will necessitate a careful watching lest the
temperature should rise too high.

Ifit is intended to rear larvee from the eggs of any of your
forced insects, it is highly probable that in some cases the young
caterpillars will be hatched before the food-plant has commenced to
bud, and thus the whole brood will be lost.

Preserving Ova, Larvae, and Pupe

Many collectors seem to be quite satisfied with possessing the
perfect form of butterflies and moths, and make no attempt to
preserve specimens illustrative of the earlier stages. The great
charm of insect life is the wonderful changes which these creatures
undergo; and a cabinet which illustrates their metamorphoses is
infinitely more valuable than one which contains the perfect insects
only.

Of course the collector can hardly expect to get anything like a
complete collection of ova, but such as he can secure may be pre-
served. Ova to be kept in the cabinet may be killed by a momen-
tary immersion in very hot water, or each one may be pierced
with a very fine needle. I have also tried shutting them up in
a bottle for a long time with some camphor, and find that, treated
in this way, they retain their natural form and colour admirably.
Where the collector has only a few of a valuable species, he will
probably desire to obtain larve from the whole. In this case the
empty shells may be preserved.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 131

The preservation of larve is not nearly so simple a matter, but
a little skill, combined with more patience, will soon produce some
fine specimens. Proceed as follows: Put the larva in the cyanide
bottle, where it must remain till quite dead. Now enlarge the anal
aperture by thrusting into it a needle, which may be a coarse one
for a large larva. Place the larva between two sheets of blotting-
paper, and, with a small round ruler or a wide glass tube used after
the manner of a rolling-pin, press the contents of the body from
head to tail till all have been discharged, and nothing remains but
the skin. A blowpipe is now required. This is simply a piece of
glass tubing which has been heated in a gas flame and drawn out
till the hole is very small. A piece of watch spring is tied on
the blowpipe, as shown in our illustration, and a spring clip may be
used to prevent the air from flowing back after the inflation of the
larval skin. Thrust the point of the blowpipe into the anal orifice,
and secure the skin by means of the spring. Now inflate the
skin till it just reaches its natural dimensions, but no more, and dry



Fie. 190.--Biowpipr ror Browne LARvm, FITTED WITH A SPRING C1IP.

it by holding it some considerable distance above a gas flame. The
drying takes only a minute or two in most cases. A small drying
oven may be made if preferred. This is simply a metal box, pierced
with holes at the sides and top for ventilation, and heated by means
of a gas burner beneath.

When dry, the larval skin is carefully removed from the blow-
pipe, and may then be mounted on a piece of twig, or on an arti-
ficial representation of the food-plant.

Many of the larve, preserved in this way, retain their colours
well, and, when carefully mounted, look as natural as when alive;
but others, particularly some of the smooth green caterpillars, lose
their natural tints so much that they are scarcely recognisable.
Of course these might be painted; but it is hopeless to restore the
delicacy of the natural colours by this means. I have found stain-
ing to be far preferable to painting in some such cases.

Before inflating the skin of a caterpillar, you should make your-
self acquainted with its habits, and especially with the position it

Kk 2
132 ANIMAL LIFE

assumes when at rest. You will then be enabled to put your speci-
men in one of its favourite or characteristic attitudes. If the cater-
pillar is to be mounted with its body bent in any particular way,
the skin should be inclosed in a fine wire spiral of the required
form while being inflated.

A number of dead pupe are sure, sooner or later, to become the
property of the collector. The larvz of the ichneumon fly will fre-
quently clear out the contents of a pupal skin, and finally quit its
home without leaving any sign of its destructive work, save a small
round hole. These empty cases are very useful to illustrate the
pupal forms in the cabinet; but, should it be necessary to kill a
pupa for this purpose, simply immerse it for a moment in boiling
water.

Sufficient has now been said to enable the reader to prepare
complete sets—ova, larva, pupa, and imago—for his cabinet; and
he may further enrich his collection by the addition of the cocoons
constructed by the various larve.

Huntine FoR BEETLES

The general characteristics of the Coleoptera or Horny-winged
insects have already been given, and the common aquatic species
have been briefly mentioned ; but we have yet to become acquainted
with the various kinds of terrestrial beetles, the different modes of
capturing them, and also the methods of setting them for the cabinet.
As, according to the well-known maxim, we must catch our hare
before we cook it, so must we get hold of our beetles before we set
them.

But where are we to find them? Experienced collectors tell us
‘Everywhere ;’ and a little careful searching will soon convince us
that they are not far wrong. We may start at home, first collecting
the species which inhabit our cellars and larders, and then, proceed-
ing to the garden, examine the leaves, the flowers, the barks of
trees, and rotten wood. ‘The outhouses may next be searched; and,
finally, the heap of decaying leaves and other matter which is being
prepared as a dressing to enrich the soil. Straying only a little
way from our domicile, we may next, with the kindly assistance of
our baker and our provision merchant, secure a few species which
have been attracted by the stores of meal and other provisions.
Then, extending the field of our labours, let us examine roots,
mosses, fungi, gravel pits, and—may we mention it ?--dunghills,
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 133

the excrement of horses and cattle, and decomposing carcases.
Even this is not all, for valuable specimens are sometimes the in-
habitants of dark caves; and very rare species have been taken
from the stomach of a recently killed toad !

Before starting on the collecting expedition it will be necessary
to get together a few pieces of apparatus of a simple character.
These should consist of a strong walking stick, to which is fixed a
ferrule for the net. This latter must be a strong sweeping net of
holland or book muslin, with which to sweep the insects from
flowers and herbage. The stick is also used for ‘beating’ herbs
and trees, in which case it will, of course, be necessary to spread a
white cloth on the ground beneath. Some entomologists use for
this purpose an ordinary umbrella, lined with holland or other light
material; but perhaps nothing is better than a yard or so of holland,
which will occupy but little space when folded
in the pocket or the satchel. An old chisel
is very useful for tearing off the loose barks
of trees, under which a large variety of beetles
seek food and find a home. and a cyanide bottle complete the outfit. The
last-named article may be of the ordinary
pattern as used for the Lepidoptera and other
insects, but many prefer a wide-mouthed
bottle, half filled with sawdust, among which
are one or two pieces of ‘cyanide’ about the
size of a pea. The accompanying figure
illustrates a modification of the cyanide bottle
which is very convenient. A wide glass tube,
ground off obliquely at one end, passes
through the cork, and is itself corked. With y,,. 191.—Krnzane
this. arrangement small beetles may be Borrry ror BeErues.
scooped up without allowing those inside to
escape; and the large cork is removed only to admit the largest
specimens. Some beetles are not easily killed, and have been
known to revive after an hour or more in the cyanide bottle. On
this account many collectors recommend a momentary immersion
in boiling water.

Many hints have already been given on the modus operandi of
the beetle collector in our brief enumeration of his implements ; a
few more remarks, therefore, inust suffice. Rotten wood, whether
tree stumps or old posts, should always be examined carefully, tear-


134 ANIMAL LIFE

ing it to fragments over the spread cloth. Moss, tufts of grass,
roots &c. may be similarly treated. If you are so fortunate as to
meet with the carcase of a crow, rabbit, or other animal, examine
it well. First place it on the white cloth, and immediately inspect
its last resting-place, digging into the ground if there are any signs
of burrows. Then shake and beat the carcase over the cloth, and
you will surely be rewarded for your trouble by the capture of
several species of Nature’s scavengers. If you see a mass of excre-
ment full of holes, remove it with your trowel, and dig deeply
underneath it for the beetles which make their abode directly under
their food supply. The excrement itself may be placed in a pond
of water, in which case numerous bubbles of air will rise to the
surface, often bringing with them beetles of various sizes.

Enough has been said to show that the beetle lover has strange
work to do—in fact, we can quite understand the application of such
adjectives as ‘ horrid,’ ‘ disgusting,’ ‘ filthy’ &c. in the place of our
milder expression. But the entomologist who loves his work—and
he who does not is no entomologist at all—thinks nothing of all
this. He loves the study of insect life in all its phases, and allows
no such trifles to stop his work. Let those who are inclined to
bestow on him their pity, rather commend him for his pluck.

Setting the Beetles

The beetles should be set as soon as
possible after capture, or they may ‘go
bad.’ If, however, this is impossible,
they may be kept for any length of time
in a bottle with a small’ quantity of
spirit.

The setting is performed on a flat
sheet of cork, or a flat soft board. The
pin is not thrust through the thorax, as
with other insects, but through either of
the elytra, close to the shoulder. The legs
and antenne are then put in some natural
position, and secured by pins till quite
dry.

Many of the small beetles are so deli-



3 AB %
vie ert ae cate that even the finest pins would do

them serious injury. These should be
mounted on card with a very little gum.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 135

In all cases where you possess more than one of any particular
species, one should be pinned or gummed on its back so as to
display the under surface.

Common British BEETLES
Ground Beetles

This, our first group, contains a variety of beetles which burrow
into the ground, or hide themselves in cre-
vices in the rocks or the soil. They are
known collectively to entomologists as the
Geodephaga. This word means earth-eaters,
but the insects included in the group do not
actually eat the soil; they much prefer the
dainty morsels which the ground contains.

In dry sandy places we frequently mee.
with a beautiful golden-green beetle, boldly Fie. 193.—TuE
marked with yellowish spots. Its limbs are GeEN TiceR Bretin.































































































a

Fie. 194.—Tur Woop Ticer BEetiE Fie. 195..-Tue SHore Tiger

(Cicindela sylvatica) any Larva. BEETLE (C. maritima) and
Larva.

*4
136 ANIMAL LIFE

slender and graceful, and its eyes stand out prominently on its
rather large head. This is the Green Tiger Beetle (Cicindela cam-
pestris) ; and well does it earn its title, for it is as rapacious among
its fellow-insects as is the tiger in the jungle. Its jaws are strongly
hooked and deeply toothed, so that it takes firm hold of the flesh of
its unfortunate victims. When the Green Tiger takes to the wing
in bright sunshine, as it frequently does, a brilliant sparkling blue
reflection is observed. ‘This has gained for it the name of ‘ Sparkler,’
and is due to light reflected from the bright upper surface of the
abdomen when the wings are expanded. The upper surface of the



Fie. 196.—Tue Vioner Groonp Fie. 197.—Tue Son Bertie
Bretie. (Anchomenas dorsalis), MAGNIVIED.

elytra are comparatively dull when examined with the naked eye ;
but put the beetle in a strong light, and examine it through a magni-
fier, and the eye is almost dazzled by the brilliancy of what appears
to be a heap of the most gorgeous gems.

There are a few other beetles of the Tiger family, some of which
are illustrated, but all are very similar in their structure and habits.

When searching for pup at the roots of trees, under stones, or
in decayed trunks, you will often meet with the Violet Ground
Beetle (Carabus violaceus). This is a fine large beetle, to be
readily distinguished by the beautiful coppery violet which tinges
the edges of the elytra. This insect does not fly. Its elytra are
fastened together, and the under wings are not developed. Al-
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 137

though it is one of those insects which would be generally included
by the ignorant under the disrespectful title ‘black beetles,’ yet the



Fic. 198.—Nesria Brevicontis, Fic. 199.—Tur Sunsuine,
MAGNIFIED. MAGNIFIED.



Violaceus is not black ; for a close examination in a good light will
reveal a very deep and rich violet tint covering its whole surface.

Z WY
Zi

































































































































































Tic. 200.—'nr Bomparpier BEETLE, PURSUED BY A CALOSOMA,

When disturbed, this beetle, like many others of its family, attempts
to defend itself by discharging a disagreeable fluid of a dak
colour.
138 ANIMAL LIFE

The beautiful little glittering Sun Beetle, so common in wet
places, and the short-necked beetle (Brevicollis) of the rocky shore,
are both near relations of Vzolaceus.

Among the ground beetles we may also mention the Bombar-
dier (Brachinus crepitans), and the beautiful Sunshine (Amara
obsoleta), the destruction of which is said to be a sure cause of
stormy weather !

The Bombardier is really an amusing little fellow. When pur-
sued by an enemy, he discharges from the tip of his abdomen a
small quantity of a fluid so exceedingly volatile that it immediately
vaporises with a slight explosion. The effect on the enemy is
ludicrous. He retreats hastily in astonishment; and if, after a
second or two, he is bold enough to resume the chase, the Bombardier
treats him to a series of his discharges as he makes rapidly for his
burrow ; but, as the supply of ammunition fails, the force and fre-
quency of the explosions rapidly grow less.

Rove Beetles or Cocktails

During the autumn months, as we are walking along gravel
footpaths, we often meet witha curious beetle of a dull black colour,
with elevated tail and very short elytra capable of covering only a
small portion of its elongated body. This is the interesting (and
some would say very ugly) Devil’s Coach Horse (Ocypus gies);
one of the commonest of the Rove Beetles.

It belongs to a family known as the Brachelytra, so called on
account of the shortness of the elytra of its members.

Although these are so short, yet the wings beneath are large in
proportion to the size of the insects-—so large that you would
think it impossible that they could be so neatly folded into
such a small space. You must have noticed that some beetles
cannot open their elytra, expand their wings, and start flying with
much readiness; but the Rove Beetles take to the wing very
yapidly, and, while flying, may easily be mistaken for flies. On
alighting, they take considerable pains in neatly folding their wings
under the short elytra, which they do with the assistance of the
tail bent over the back.

Some of the Cocktails are very predacious and exceedingly fierce ;
but others are of a quieter disposition, and feed on decaying matter.
Some are so very small that their slender bodies seem no thicker
than a hair, and a microscope is therefore necessary to enable us to
make out the details of their structure.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 139

They all have the peculiar habit before mentioned of elevating
their tails when threatened with danger; and some, like Olens, are

CaM

HAI
(y i i



Fie. 201.—Tur Devit’s Coacn Horsr.

so courageous that they will assume a defiant attitude in the face of
their greatest foes. Present the toe of your boot to Mr. Olens, and
immediately he will open wide his jaws, bend his tail forward over

his body, thus exposing the two little
vesicles which are ready to discharge
a horrid fluid, and challenge you toa
combat on the spot. If you take him
in your hand he will not be long in
convincing you of the power of his
curved jaws, and he will also probably
treat you to a small quantity—but
sufficient though small—of the de-
fensive fluid which has earned for him
the name of Olens, or ‘ stinking.’



Fic. 202.—A Rove Bertin
(Staphylinus) ¥Foupine
irs WinGs.

This interesting Cocktail sometimes ventures into our cellars.
Its larva is almost as voracious as the perfect insect, but has no
wings. It may be dug out of its hole throughout the summer.

The Rove Beetles may be caught almost everywhere. Some live
140 ANIMAL LIFE

in holes in the ground; and many are to be met with under leaves
and bark. A. large number feed on decaying animal and vegetable
matter, and these may be easily procured hy baiting any spot with



Fic. 203.—Tur Rep-nrcxep Rove Fic. 204.—Tur Four-nornep
BrETLE, MAGNIFIED. Rove BEErLEe, MAGNIFIED.

the suitable viands. The larger species may be caught on the wing
in a butterfly net ; smaller kinds are easily taken in a sweep net;
but the best way to capture the very small species is to suspend a



Fic, 205.—ATEMELES EMARGINATUS, Fic. 206.—Qurprus pmararus,
MAGNIFIED. MAGNIFIED.

sheet of paper, which has been brushed over with gum, in any
favourable locality. Fungi should also be examined; for some
species are provided with both food and shelter in these plants.
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 141

One of the Rove Beetles (Atemeles emarginatus) lives in the
nests of ants. The ants seem fond of them, and it is probable that
these highly intelligent insects derive a nutritious secretion from
the Rove Beetles as they do from some Aphides. Another of the
beetles of this family—a species of Quedius—lives in the nest of the
hornet ; and since the taking of a hornet’s nest is no easy task,
these Roves are necessarily rarely captured.

Carrion Beetles

The beetles of this group (Necrophaga) are so named from their
partiality for decomposing animal substances. They are the
scavengers of the ground; and the part they play is a very important
one. The carcase of a dead animal, if left untouched on the surface
of the ground, soon begins to decompose or: decay, charging the
surrounding atmosphere with the horrid odours of various poisonous
gases. But if any of the Carrion Beetles once get within the range
of the attractive vapours, they immediately settle upon the dead
animal and do their utmost to convert the putrid mass into a harm-
less and even useful condition. They commence operations by
eating greedily into the rotting carcase, thrusting their heads and
even their whole bodies into the crevices as if to enjoy the odour
of the luscious feast. Then the females lay their eggs in the
remainder, which constitutes a provision store for the coming larve.

Carrion Beetles may readily be distinguished from others by the
knob at the end of each antenna—they are ‘ club-horned’ beetles.
Some of them have short elytra—almost as short as in some of the
Rove Beetles, in which case they terminate very abruptly, looking as
if they had been cut off square.

One family of the Carrion Beetles—the Silphide—bury the
smaller carcases on which they feed; and are, on this account,
commonly known as Burying Beetles or Sextons. One of them, the
common Burying Beetle (Necrophorus humator), is very plentiful
in this country. The best way to secure this and the other Sextons
is to bait one or two favourable spots with dead animals, such as
frogs, mice, moles, or birds, and visit them at intervals after a few
days. But, before catching the insects, let us watch them at their
work.

We find that they generally fly about in pairs; and as soon as
a couple approach near enough to learn that a dainty meal is not
far distant, the female, guided apparently entirely by her sense of
smell, makes straight for the feast, and immediately begins to gorge
142 ANIMAL LIFE

herself with the appetising repast ; but the male hovers round and
round in the tainted air before joining his mate, as if to show his
delight at the prospect of a glorious feed. When both have had
their fill, the male makes preparation for the burial of the remain-
ing store, while the female remains on, or rather in, the partly eaten
carcase, occasionally appearing on the surface as if to watch the
progress of the work. If the spot is a favourable one, the task of











Fic. 207.—Buryine Berrnes mrerrtnc tHe Bopy or a Rar.

burying commences at once; but if not, the males (for it is not
often that the dead body remains the sole property of a single pair)
proceed to drag the booty to a suitable place.

This being done, they dig a trench all round, scooping away the
soil with their powerful heads, and throwing the débris all on the
outer side of the ring. Another furrow is then made in the same
way inside the first, and the process repeated till the level is reduced
beneath the whole carcase, which then sinks by its own weight,
aided by the pulling and tugging of the workmen beneath, Then
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 143

comes the filling in of the grave. The males proceed to the sur-
rounding heap of. earth, and push it gradually inwards till at last
the dead body and the living wives are completely hidden from
view. In this subterranean storehouse the females lay their eggs,
and leave the coming broods of larve to clean the flesh completely
from the bones.

Some of the Carrion Beetles (Histerid@) have the habit of feign-
ing death as soon as they are touched or in any way disturbed.
They fold their legs and their antenne close to their bodies, an
will allow themselves to suffer serious 4 ; “J:
injury rather than give any evidence of j
life. On this account they have received
the popular name of Mimic Beetles.

The Pill Beetles (Byrrhid@), which de-
rive their popular title from the rounded
or pill-like form of their bodies, indulge
in the same form of mimicry. Some of
these possess another remarkable feature,
which also assists them in evading their Fic. 208.—Tue Banprp
enemies: they often rest on stones oron PU Berrnr (Byrrhus

; : fasciatus), ENLARGED.
the ground in dusty places; and, as their
bodies are covered with a fine downy hair of the same tint as road
dust, they are not easily seen. ,

A passing hint may here be given to the beginner: Some of the
Carrion Beetles, especially the Histerid@, have elytra so very hard
that the points of the pins used in setting them are almost invariably
bent into a hook if we attempt to penetrate them. It is, therefore,
advisable to pierce the elytra with a steel point previous to pinning,



Leaf-Horned Beetles or Chafers

The beetles of this group (Lamellicornes) have short antenne,
the ‘clubs’ of which are split up into a number of little leaf-like
plates. Their larvee are soft, white, and fat grubs; so fat, indeed,
in proportion to their strength, that they can hardly walk, but drag
and roll about in a clumsy manner. These grubs feed chiefly on
decaying wood and roots; and when full-grown they construct a
cocoon of chips of the same material.

The finest of the chafers is the beautiful ‘ Stag,’ the largest of the
British beetles, and known in some parts as the Horn Bug. The
Stag seems to be a very common insect in some parts, but very
scarce in others. Wimbledon Common is a fine hunting-ground
144 ANIMAL LIFE

for them. They may be caught on the wing in the evening, but
the net used will require a very long stick. Hunting them out of
their hiding-places by day is a quicker method of filling your boxes,
providing you know something of their whereabouts.

Our cuts will show that the jaws of the female are much smaller
than those of the male; but, if you will try the experiment, I think
you will find that the female Stag is the better biter.



Fie. 209.—Mate Stag Beerre. Fic. 210.—Femate Stac BEetie.

The larva lives four or five years, and perhaps more, in rotten
wood, giving a decided preference to decaying oak. The perfect
insect flies about among the branches of trees, and sucks the juices
of the young twigs and fruits. In captivity it will feed on sugar,
laying its body flat on the surface over which the sugar is spread, so
that it may reach it with its tongue.

The common Cockchafer (Melolontha vulgaris) is a pretty but
destructive insect. The larva feeds on the roots of grasses, and
sometimes attacks our potato crops; the perfect insect is a greedy
devourer of the leaves of certain trees.

One of the most beautiful of all our beetles is the common Rose
Beetle (Cetonia awrata), the golden green and burnished coppery
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 145

tints of which are hardly to be surpassed. Search should be made
for this insect on the blossoms of wild roses, strawberries, and the
privet. Its wood-eating larva often finds both home and food



Fie. 211.—Txe Fie. 212.—Tur Rose Fic. 213.—TuHe Dor
CocKcHAFER. BEETLE. BEETLE.

among the chips and stems of an ants’ nest, and has consequently.
been termed the ‘ King of the Ants.’

The Dor. Beetle (Geotrupes stercorarius), also known as the
Watchman and the Dumble Dor, is another very common member
of this group. The female of this species burrows through a mass
of dung, and then perpendicularly into the soil for several inches.
She then carries down a store of this nutritious material to support
her coming brood through their early days, and completes her
labours by depositing her eggs therein.

Among the numerous other Chafers'we find space to eancn only
the Antelope Beetle (Dorcws), the common Typhzeus which burrows



Tic. 214.—THr AnrELopE BEETLE. Fic. 215.—Tur Common
TypHmus.

into sand, and the Brachen Clock (Phyllopertha). The last-named
insect is called the June Bug in some parts; and its larva is prized
by anglers, who use it for bait. They call it the Cockerbundy.

*
146 ANIMAL LIFE

Heteromera

It is a pity that we have no popular name for this group of
beetles. The word Heteromera means unequal jointed, and is applied
to the insects which are just now to be described because the
number of joints is not the same in all the six legs.

Perhaps the best known among them is the Oil Beetle, which
receives its popular name from its habit of ejecting an oily yellow
fluid when handled. It is a wingless and lazy beetle, and its soft
body is of a dark blue colour. Let us look into its life-history. The
female lays some thousands of tiny eggs in a crevice of the soil on
which wild flowers grow abundantly. As soon as the little larva is
free it creeps up the stem of some flowering plant, finally settling



SS ee
See
SLE SSS

———S==

Fic. 216.—Om Brerir, MALE AND FEMALE.

in the centre of a flower; and makes a meal of the nectar. But
shortly a bee alights on the bloom, and elbows its way between the
petals and stamens to reach the same attractive fluid ; and while
the bee is busily engaged, the little larva clings to it, and thus
secures a free and rapid passage to the distant hive. Here it looses
its hold, and remains in the new home till it is full fed on the food
collected for the larve of the hive.

The setting of the Oil Beetle is likely to be somewhat troublesome
to a novice, for the soft body shrinks as it dries, entirely losing its
natural appearance. This is best remedied by cutting the abdomen
completely off, pressing out its contents, and then stuffing it rather
tightly with cotton-wool. When this and the other parts of the
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 147

beetle are both quite dry, they may be united again with a little gum
or coaguline.
This same group includes the lazy and clumsy Churchyard



Fic. 217.—Tue Cuurcuyarp Fie. 218.—Tue Jumper Fie. 219.—Tue
BrEeEre. BEETLE, MAGNIFIED. CARDINAL BEETLE.

Beetle (Blaps mortisaga), which inhabits cellars, churchyards, and
other dark and dismal places; the Jumper Beetle (Archesia undu-
lata), peculiar on account of the long spines of
its legs; the Cardinal Beetle (Pyrochroa coc-
cinea), frequently to be found in the sweeping
net after striking in flowery herbage; and the
Blister Beetle or Spanish Fly (Lytta vesicatorta).
The last-named insect is a well-known medicinal
agent. It contains an irritant fluid, from which
a powerful crystalline substance is prepared. Fre. 220.—T ak
This, when applied to the skin, is capable of Brrsrer BErEre.
raising painful blisters. Thin-skinned collec-

tors should not handle these beetles, but move them by means of a
pair of forceps.



Soft-skinned Beetles

One of the remarkable features of tropical insect-life is the abun-
dance of luminous species that fill the atmosphere at night with
their meteor-like lamps. Conspicuous among these are the shining-
tailed beetles (Lampyrid@), of which we have only one representa-
tive—the Glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca), represented in fig. 221.
The female ‘worm ’ is quite wingless, and has no elytra; and she
gives a much brighter light than the male. If we examine this.
interesting insect we find that the phosphorescent light proceeds from
the last three segments of the abdomen. It also seems that the
lamp is under the control of the insect, for, when disturbed, its
luminosity is generally increased. Sometimes, however, the Glow-

n2
148 ANIMAL LIFE

worm will put out its lamp when handled. The larva has a retrac-
tile and brush-like tail, by means of which it helps itself along. It
feeds on snails and slugs, and is said to use its brush for the purpose
of clearing these creatures of the slime which covers their skin.



v
Fic. 221.—Tur Guiow-worm, Mate Fic. 222.—Sonprer BEErLe
AND FEMALE. (Telephorus fuscus) AND Larva.

During the summer months we see clusters of pretty little soft-
winged beetles on the flowers of umbelliferous plants. Some of
these are red, others are blue; and they are commonly known as
Soldiers and Sailors. Their right to these titles is shown not alone
by the colour of their uniform, for they are indeed terrific fighters ;
and boys who are acquainted with their pugnacious habits often
amuse themselves by setting them to fight each other. Put a dozen
or two of these quarrelsome fellows in a box together, and you will
soon find the few survivors surrounded by the fragments of their
slaughtered and half-eaten victims. When they are engaged in
combat, no respect is paid by either to the colour of the coat, nor is
any distinction to be seen in the two sexes; but blues and reds,
males and females, all fight indiscriminately, and with no other
object than to satisfy their bloodthirsty propensities. One species
of this family (Telephorida) is illustrated, as well as the Hive Beetle
(Clerus apiarius), whose larva is a parasite on the larva of the hive
bee, and the big-bodied Spider Beetle (Meziwm sulcatwm), which are
also members of the family of Soft-skinned Beetles.

Before leaving the Soft-skinned Beetles a few words must be
said about the dreaded’Death Watch (Anobiwm)., Inoldhousesthe .
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 149

ticking sound produced by this insect may often be heard during
the dead of the night, and the belief still exists in some parts that
the approach of a death is invariably signalled by this mysterious

—



Fic. 223.—Tur Hive Fria. 224.—Tue Spmer Fic. 225.—Tur Drata

BEETLE. BEETLE, MAGNIFIED. Watcu anp Larva,

MAGNIFIED.
sound. But in reality it is nothing more than the call of a small
beetle for its mate. The larva of the Death Watch lives on the
wood of old houses and old furniture, which, after its ravages, is
said to be worm-eaten.
Long-horned Beetles

Our next group of beetles (Longicornes) is characterised by very



Fic. 226.—Tur Musk Brerun. Fia. 227.—Strangalia armata.

long and slender antenne. Most of them are beautiful insects, and
their larve are all wood-borers. Sometimes we meet with trees
150 ANIMAL LIFE

which have been compuetely riddled with the galleries of these de-
structive grubs.

The beautiful Musk Beetle (Aromia moschata) is a well-known
example. This insect derives its name from the powerful and
pleasing odour which it emits; and it is also known as the Squeaker
in some parts, for it produces a rather shrill sound by the friction
of one part of its body against another. It is not a very active
insect, and may often be seen at rest on the barks of willows,
especially the old trees, in the wood of which its larva feeds.

The longest of the ‘long horns’ exhibited by the British beetles
of this group are those of the Timberman Beetle (Astinomus edilis),



Fic. 228.—Tur Timprerman.

a most remarkable insect inhabiting the northern part of our island.
Its larva burrows into pine trees. -
The other example figured is Strangalia armata.

The Weevils

On opening a pod of peas or beans we often find a small circular
hole in one or more of the seeds; and if we open the seeds in ques-
tion we find within each a little white grub. This is almost sure to
be a larva of one of the Weevils or Snout-bearing Beetles (Rhynco-
phora) known as the Red-footed Weevil. This little black-headed
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 151

grub remains within its excavated seed till it has undergone all its
changes.

All the Weevils are more or less destructive in the larval state ;



Fic. 229.—Rep-roorep Wrrvin (Bruchus Fic. 230.—Tur Appie
rufimanus) AND LARVA, MAGNIVIED. WEEVIL, MAGNIFIED.

some, as we have just observed, burrowing into and devouring our
pod-seeds ; some eating into the very cores of our fruits ; and others,
again, feeding on rice and other grains.



Fie. 231.—Tsar Nour Weevin, Fic. 232.—Tue Pint WEEVIL,
MAGNIFIED. MAGNIFIED.

It will be noticed, from the examples figured, that the head of
the perfect insect is prolonged into a kind of beak. or snout, in the
very front of which the mouth is situated.
152 ANIMAL LIFE

Some of the Weevils are covered with a delicate layer of scales,
which present a most beautiful appearance when viewed through



Fie. 238.—Tue Oak Weevin, Fic. 234.—Tur Woop-ratine
MAGNIFIED. WEEVIL, MAGNIFIED.

the microscope ; and care should be taken that these are not rubbed
at all, or their appearance will be spoiled.

Vegetarian Beetles

Perhaps we should have headed this division with the word
Phytophaga, which means ‘plant-eater ;’ but it is probable that
the simple English expression will answer all purposes just as well.
The group includes many pretty little beetles with short and slender
antenne. They are generally to be easily found, for they all rest by
day on their respective food-plants.

Of the commoner species may be mentioned the Asparagus



Fic. 235.—Tur Turnip BEETLE, Fic. 236.—Tur Broopy-nosep
MAGNIFIED, BEETLE, MAGNIFIED.

Beetle (Crioceris asparagi) and the Turnip ‘ Flea’ (Phyllotreta
brassica). The latter causes great damage to our turnips, and
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 153

sometimes appears in such vast numbers that whole crops are com-
pletely destroyed. The young larve are generally hatched while
the turnip plants are young and tender, and immediately they
burrow into the leaves, eating out galleries in the soft cellular sub-
stance, but leaving the outer skin or epidermis intact; thus it is



Fra. 237.—Tue Tortorsr Brerie, Fic. 238.— Tue Raw-HorNED
witH Larva (a) anp Pupa (0). BEETLE, MAGNIFIED.

‘often necessary to hold the leaf up to the light in order to detect
them.

Illustrations are also given of the Bloody-nosed Beetle (Timarcha
levigata), so called because it ejects a blood-red fluid when irri-
tated; the Tortoise Beetle (Cassida viridis) ; and the Ram-horned
Beetle (Crioceris merdigera).

Ladybirds

These are included in a group called by entomologists the
Pseudotrimera (aterm which
means ‘false three - joints’),
because one of the four joints
of each foot is so very small
that three only are visible
without a microscope.

The lLadybirds (Cocet-
nellid@) are all hemispherical
in form, being flat underneath,
and very convex above. The
only means of defence pos-

sessed by these pretty little
creatures is the discharge of a fiuid which has a very disagreeable



Fie. 239.—Tur Srven-spor Lapy-Brrp
AND LARVA.
154 ANIMAL LIFE

odour. The larve are very useful in our gardens, for they feed on
the Aphides or ‘ plant lice,’ making use of their fore legs to convey
the prey to their mouths.

MEMBRANE-WINGED INSECTS

We have now reached a group of insects (Hymenoptera)
which far surpasses all the others in complexity of structure and
intelligence. The position which they occupy in the insect world
is similar to that held by mankind among the mammals. Many of
them are not only gregarious in their habits, but they actually
build cities which are capable of containing mamy hundreds of
inhabitants. These cities are well-governed republics, in which
each individual has his allotted work. In them we find rulers,
soldiers, builders, cowkeepers, nurses, and provision storers, all
working with order and industry for the common good; and many
a useful lesson has been learnt even by man himself from the won-
derful actions of these little creatures.

These insects may readily be distinguished by the four naked
membranous wings. They are also provided with strong mandibles, ‘
and a mouth adapted for suction.

The group includes Gall-flies, Saw-flies, Ichneumon-flies, Ants,
Bees, and Wasps; but we must confine our observations to the last
three divisions.

Taking a Wasps’ Nest

Everyone is acquainted with the Common Wasp (Vespa vul-
garis), which pays us frequent visits during the summer months,
finding admission through our open windows and doors, and imper-
tinently helping itself, without invitation, to the provisions on our
table. Everyone also appears to know that the wasp is armed with
a sting ; but many do not know that it never attempts to use this
weapon unless severely aggravated or in danger. When one of
these insects settles on a dish of sweets or other viand in our midst,
what a turmoil it causes! Some are so terrified that they hastily
retreat, and others more brave than these consider it their duty to
end the creature’s existence. But a naturalist under the circum-
stances would prefer letting the wasp alone, not only because he
would like to watch the creature’s movements—-to see what kind of
food it prefers, and how it eats; but because he knows that the
wasp is very serviceable in reducing the plagues of flies which cause
us such annoyance during the hot weather. The Common Wasps
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 155

are social insects, living in communities of many hundreds; and
we must see them in their common home in order to become fully
acquainted with their nature. Let those of my readers who are
anxious to study their natural history and their politics accompany
me to one of their nests.

We start provided with a trowel, a few squibs containing a good
proportion of sulphur, a packet of flowers of sulphur, a sharp knife,
a bit of string,and a rather
large holland bag. On our
way we each cut some birch
or other fine twigs, strip off
the leaves, and tie them into
asmall bundle. These bundles
are our weapons for both
attack and defence.

We have not gone far
before we see a hole in a
bank or hedge, through which
the worker wasps are hastily
entering with their burdens
and starting off in search of
plunder. Here we stand for
a short time to watch them,
and then search round the
spot to ascertain whether the
hole we have discovered is
the only gateway to the nest.
If we find, as we sometimes do, that there are more passages
than this one leading from the nest, we proceed at once to stop
up the others by throwing on each a handful of wet clayey soil
or some other suitable substance. We now light one of our
squibs and quickly thrust it well into the hole, of course retreating
rapidly as soon as the act is accomplished. One or two of the wasps
will often follow you as you retreat after such an assault, but these
are easily beaten away with the bunch of twigs. ‘The effect of the
sulphur vapour from the squib is to stupefy all the insects that
happen to be within, and it will also prevent many, if not all, of
those outside from gaining admission; and this latter object may
also be assisted by placing some lighted sulphur close to the
hole.

We have now to drive off all new arrivals from the nest; and



Fic, 240.—A Wasps’ Nest.
156 ANIMAL LIFE

this is easily done by a vigorous attack with the twigs. A dozen or
so of the wasps will be seen flying round the hole, trying in vain to
get admission. One ata time we cautiously approach and sweep
them off, and if any of the insects follow our retreat they are beaten
from us by our comrades. About ten or fifteen minutes of this
rather violent exercise will clear the neighbourhood so corapletely
that the work of digging may be commenced; not that the wasps
are all killed, for the majority of them are simply frightened away
by the whizzing of the fine twigs through the air.

The digging must be carried on with great care, for the nest may
be only a few inches beyond the entrance of the passage, and a care-
less plunge of the trowel may seriously damage our specimen.

At last we reach the nest—a globular and greyish edifice, per-
haps much larger than your head, and constructed of a fragile paper
which the workers manufacture by chewing up sticks and other
vegetable substances. As we dig carefully round the nest we find
that it is suspended at several points by little projections of a tougher
material attached to roots. These are cut with our knife, and the
nest thus detached is transferred with all its stupefied inhabitants
to our bag, and carried triumphantly home for further examination
and experiment.

Immediately on our return we set the glue-pot on the fire, and
cut about a dozen pieces of string eight or ten inches long. These
strings are glued to the stronger parts of the nest from which it was
previously suspended, and by means of them we hang the nest in a
box with a small hole at one side and a glass front. We will also
cut away a considerable portion of the outer wall with a pair of
scissors before finally closing the box.

Now we are right for our observations. The box is placed in a
sheltered and convenient spot, and closely watched from time to
time. We find the nest to be composed of several storeys, perhaps
eight or ten, with just sufficient space between them for the wasps
to walk. ach tier or storey is suspended from the one above it by
several connectors of strong paper, and each consists of a number
of cells with their mouths downwards. Some of the cells are still
in course of construction ; some are as yet small, and contain a
single egg each. Others are of full size, with open mouths, and
contain thelarve in different stages ; while others, again, contain the
pup, and have been closed by the full-fed larvee just before they
changed.

In a day or so the stupefied wasps will begin to revive ; numerous
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 157

pupe will also undergo the last change, and the nest will become a
scene of the greatest activity. Some of the workers will busy them-
selves in outdoor excursions in search
of food, and will return to feed the
limbless larvee. You will see many
engaged in the paper manufacture
and the repair and enlargement of
the nest. The stingless males will
be engaged in cleaning the nest,
carefully removing all refuse, and
also throwing out the bodies of the
dead; for they are the scavengers
and the undertakers. These and
numerous other operations may be observed, all of which are very
interesting to the lover of nature.

I once spent some weeks in observing a colony of these
insects at work. The nest! was taken in Cornwall, and brought
to London on the following day. In this case the nest was con-
siderably damaged during the journey by rail, the whole of the
bottom and half the side wall having been shaken off. In about a
week the whole had been renewed, but the paper made in London
was of a dark slate colour, being of necessity manufactured from a
different kind of raw material, and this gave rather a peculiar
appearance to the nest. I also observed that some of the half-dead
larvee which had fallen from their cells were utilised for feeding their
more fortunate brothers.

I have described the taking of a wasps’ nest by day, while the
insects are all active and on the alert; but it may be taken much
more easily during the night when they are inside. For my part
I much prefer such employment in broad daylight. The work is
certainly harder, and perhaps the chances of a sting or two are
greater, but then these are the very circumstances which add to the
enjoyment of the chase. Ihave never had but one sting while thus
employed, and that was during the retaking of a nest in my own
garden under unfavourable circumstances, the nest having become
a slight annoyance to our neighbours. The sting of a wasp is a very
dreadful affair (excepting to those who have tried one), and if the
proposed hunter is really afraid, he can always render himself sting-
proof by putting on leggings, thick gloves, a gauze screen over the
head, and by tying his sleeves round his wrists.



Fie. 241.—THE Frmate Wasp.

2 A photograph of this nest is shown on p. 155.
158 ANIMAL LIFE

There are other species of social wasps, some building in holes
in the ground and others suspending their nests on trees; and the
Hornet (Vespa crabro) is a very formidable member of the family.



The taking of a hornets’ nest is an undertaking of no mean
order. Hornets build in a hollow tree, and much labour with saw



Fie, 243.—Tur Tree Wasp (Vespa Fia. 244.—Sonrrary Wasp
arborea) AND Nusv. (Eumenes) ann Nusv.

and chisel is often required to expose it. If you intend to venture
the task you may generally rely on several howrs’ work. Choose a
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 159

very dark night, otherwise the hornets will be in and out at their
work all the time. Have a friend with you to assist in holding the
light and in other little matters. Don’t begin till near midnight, and
think yourself fortunate if you secure the nest without a sting before
sunrise.

We have also solitary wasps (Hwmenide), consisting of males
and females only. They build small nests of mud or paper, some-
times under the ground, and sometimes attached to plants. One egg
is laid in each cell, a supply of food is introduced for the coming
larvee, and then the nest is deserted for ever by the parent.

Bees

These insects, like the wasps, include both Solitary and Social
species ; the former consisting of males and females only, and the
latter of males, females, and workers.

The Solitary Bee either seeks out a natural home for itself, such
as a crevice in a rock, a hole in a tree, or a space among a heap of
stones or other débris; or it sets to work to scoop out a burrow in
the soil or other soft substance. In each cavity thus selected or



Fic. 245.—Tue Burrowine Bez, Fic. 246.—Tur Lear-currer BEsr,
ENLARGED TO TWICE NATURAL ENLARGED.
SIZE.

made the female lays a single egg, and then proceeds to deposit
' sufficient food to sustain the larva till it is full grown. This food
consists either of pollen or the sweet juices of flowers. When
pollen is chosen, it is sometimes kneaded by the insect into a
compact ball; and, as to the juices, these are not sucked out of the
flowers, but swept up by the brush-like tongue of the bee.
One of the Solitary Bees, known as the Leaf-cutter, lines its
burrows with pieces of leaves; and another, the Shaver Bee, strips
160 ANIMAL LIFE

off the downy covering of certain plants, and binds it together into a
kind of cocoon for the protection of its offspring.

Our wild Social Bees are well
known as Humble or Bumble Bees,
names which they have earned for
themselves by their musical flight.
Some persons are of opinion that
these bees have no sting. This
is certainly true of the males,
which are sometimes seen about
in large numbers, but does not
apply to the other members of the

Ore ean Guaven Bre community.
Te eee eee oa eee The Moss Humble Bee (Bum-
bus muscorum) may be briefly
described as a type of the Bumbles. The female of this species is
larger than the male, but the worker is only about half its size. The
pairing takes place in the autumn, immediately after which the







Fic. 248.—Tue Moss Humpie Ber anp Nest.

male dies; and the female, which is the only one that survives the
winter, soon leaves the old nest, and seeks out some snug little
nook for her long winter nap. Assoon as the spring flowers are well
out she awakes from her slumbers, and you may then see her care-
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 161

fully surveying a certain patch of ground to find a suitable spot for
the establishment of a new colony. As soon as she has chosen the
site, she commences scraping out a slight hollow, and then collects
pieces of moss or other vegetable material for the construction of a
dome. ‘This done, she lines the interior with a kind of wax to



Ye



Fic. 249.—Tur Stone Humsre Ber Fic. 250.—Tur Stone Humsrz
(FEMALE). Bre (WorkER).

render it water-tight, and then proceeds to build her oval cells,
using for the purpose a coarse, sticky, brownish wax. After making
several such cells she starts out for the purpose of collecting honey
and pollen for her future brood. These food materials are kneaded



Fic. 251.—Tur Sronr Humsip Fic. 252.—Tur Hoor Suaver
Ber (Maur). BrE (ENLARGED).

into little balls and placed in the cells, into each of which she after-

wards deposits about six eggs. The larve are soon hatched, and at

once attack the food supplied for them. When full grown they spin

silken cocoons in which they undergo their changes. The first eggs

laid always produce worker bees, and thus the female is supplied
M
162 ANIMAL LIFE

early with builders, nurses, and attendants to look after the wants of
the rapidly increasing colony.

The taking of a Humble Bees’ nest is no difficult task, for the
females and workers do not use their stings as readily as wasps.



Fic. 253.—Crtits rrom THE Nest oF THE Common HumBir Ber.

The common Humble Bee (Bumbus terrestris) generally makes
its nest in the ground, at a depth of a foot or more; and the Stone
Humble Bee (B. lapidaris) derives its name from the fact that it
often selects a heap of stones for the same purpose.

The Hive Bee (Apis mellifica) is so interesting and so important
a creature that whole volumes would be required to do it justice ;
but our present task is so very extensive that we can give but the
barest outline of its wonderful history.



Fic. 254.—Tue Hive Tic. 255.—Tue Hive Fia. 256.—Tur Hive
Br (Femare). Bre (Mate). Ber (WorkeER).

Here, too, we find three kinds—males, workers, and females, or
rather female, for only one of the last is permitted to live in the
same hive. The workers are‘ the people’ of the community. They
it is who build the city, collect and store the food, nurse the young,
and wait on the‘ queen.’ They may be known, if any distinguish-
INSECTS AND INSECT HUNTING 163 .

ing mark is necessary, by their smaller size, and by the ‘ palettes’
and ‘brushes’ of the hind legs, with which they collect and carry
pollen. The males or drones are stingless, and sluggish in their
movements. Their number is only about one-twelfth that of the
workers, and they live only a few months. The queen has one
duty only—the laying of the eggs. In the hive she is always sur-
rounded by attendant workers, who follow her every movement,
but never turn their backs on her. She seldom leaves the hive,
and when she does her attendants are still in her presence.

The wax used by the workers in the construction of the cells is
not collected ready made, but is secreted by the bees, and little
plates of it may sometimes be seen projecting from their ‘ pockets’
—the spaces between the rings of the abdomen. These wax plates
are taken by the bee, and are well kneaded in its jaws to render it
plastic. The cells are similar in form to those constructed by wasps,
but they are arranged in double instead of single layers, two sets of
cells being placed with their bases together; or, more correctly, the
same base serving for two opposed cells. Also, the cells are hori-
zontal, or nearly so; they slope gently towards their bases, so that
they are better adapted to contain the liquid honey.

The honey, too, is not a direct product of the flowers. The bees
collect the sweet juices from the blossoms, and then pass them into
a little round sac under the fore part of the abdomen. In this
‘honey bag’ a change takes place, the result being the formation of
the true honey with which the cells are stocked; and as each cell
becomes filled, it is sealed completely over.

The young bees are fed on compressed pollen, commonly known
as bee bread.

Ants

In these wonderftl little creatures we meet with the highest in-
telligence and greatest industry exhibited by insects. One has only
to stretch himself out near an ‘ant hill’ on a hot summer’s day,
and he will be instructed and amused beyond measure by the varied
occupations of the inhabitants of the busy little republic. Let him
select, for example, the ‘hill’ of the common Wood Ant (/ ormica
rufa), known also as the Hill Ant or the Horse Ant. Here he
will see the busy ‘workers’ running to and from the nest, keeping
well in a certain beaten track. Some are going out in search of
food, and others for material for the repair or enlargement of the
nest. Then there are those on the return journey, mostly heavily

laden with pieces of stick, or with grubs or other insects to feed
M2
164 ANIMAL LIFE

their own larve. Some may be seen climbing a neighbouring tree,
and then returning with aphides which are destined to supply them
with ‘ milk.’



Fic. 257.—Tur Woop = Fic. 258.—Tur Woop Fic. 259.—THe Woop
Anr (Mauer). Ant (Frmatr). Ant (WorKER).

When two ants meet each other on the road, you will often
notice that they stop—not for idle gossip, but to discuss some diffi-
culty, or to tell of an accident to one of their community, or to re-
late good news concerning the discovery of a store of food or a lost
relative. After a number of mutual caressings and signs made by
means of their antenne, they both start off in the same direction ;
and if we watch them we can easily discover the object of their
conversation.

It is simply astonishing to see how exceedingly co-operative are
all their actions. If an ant finds a fat grub that it cannot carry, it
applies for assistance to the first friend it meets, and the appeal
is never refused. Ifa wounded brother is met on the way, one or
two will at once proceed to carry it home. And so with the con:
struction and repair of the nest, and with all their work inside the
home, every duty is performed with the greatest industry and the
sweetest harmony.

Let us now examine the nest closely. We find it to consist of
two parts—one underground, and the other, which constitutes the
hill, composed of a heap of pieces of stick and other substances, all
piled together without cement of any kind. It is on account of
this absence of cement that it is almost impossible to examine the
chambers and passages without causing much of the material to fall
in and fill them up. Still, with great care, the whole arrangement
may be studied. ;

If you damage the upper part of the ‘hill’ you will see the work-
ing ants immediately set about repairing it. Perhaps some of the
grubs have been exposed to light ; if so, they are immediately picked
up and carried to a safer underground chamber. And, if serious
damage has been committed, you will probably smell the vinegar-
like odour of formic acid which characterises these insects.
INSECTS AND INSECT. HUNTING 165

But what about the interior ? Here also every duty is performed
with perfect order and regularity. The female ants, which are
larger than the workers,
are almost incessantly
walking along the various
galleries, depositing eges
as they go. Workers
are in constant attend- tH
ance on these highly fll Me ss
respected inhabitants, aN a
some of them following ff oe
and caressing their lady- A

en (

i
me om Ci

ships, while others carry i ih i
away the eggs to asuitable
compartment... Then there
remains the feeding, clean-
ing, and nursing of the -
young ones, the ‘ milking’ ie
of the aphides, and various
other home industries, all
conducted in an orderly
manner by special detach-
ments.

Now let us look briefly
into the life-history of the
ant. The young larva, as
soon as it is hatched, is
regularly fed and cleansed
by the nurses. It is also
moved carefully from =
place to place as its Fic. 260. Portion or tHe Nest oF THE
comfort demands. Some- Rep Anr.
times it is brought to the
top for a sunning, or it may be moved from one part of the nest
to another when a variation of temperature renders such change
beneficial. When the larva is full fed it spins for itself a cocoon,
and then changes to a pupa which is commonly known as the
‘ant egg.’ Then, when the time arrives for the final change, the
workers assist in the opening of the cocoon.

At about the end of August swarms of male and female ants
may be seen flying out of the nest. They soon couple in the air,





















: . :






































































































































166 ANIMAL LIFE

after which the males immediately perish, and the females either
return to their old nest or found new colonies; but, before com-
mencing their domestic duties, they snap off their wings.

Other social ants are common in our country, and among them
may be mentioned the rather sluggish Black Ant (Formica fuli-



Fie. 261.—Tur Brack Ant.

ginosa), and the Red Ant (Fornvica sangwinea). This last-named
insect is remarkable for its slave-keeping. The workers will invade
the nests of other communities of ants, and carry off some of their
pup. They then care for these just as much as if they were their



Fie. 262.—Sorrrary Ant (Mutilla Fic. 263.—Murinrta Evropaa
Huropea) (Maur). (FEMALE).

g; and, when the perfect insects emerge, they make
them their slaves.
Some ants, instead of living in communities, are solitary insects.
These are not very common in our country, but the one figured is
often met with in the New Forest and other localities.

own offspring ;
167

CHAPTER III
THE SHA-SHORK

Up to the present our attention has been directed mainly to insects,
but now we leave these for a ramble on the sea-shore. Of course
there are insects to be found there—some of them, indeed, showing
a very great preference for the coast, and even venturing far beyond
the ‘ high-water mark’ in search of their food. But the commonest
of these have already been referred to as fully as our space would
permit, and we shall now start out with the object of learning what
we can concerning the various animals that are, in the strictest
sense of the word, marine.

Before we begin collecting these, it will be well to notice one or
two features of the coast generally. Everyone who has spent a few
hours by the sea has observed the gradual approach and retreat of
the water. These motions are spoken of as the Tides, and are the
effects of the attraction of the moon and the sun, but principally the
former, on the water of the ocean. A few days’ observation will
also show us that the advance and retreat of the water differs in
degree at different times, so that the ‘high tide’ is much higher at
one time than at another; and the same remark also popes to the
‘low tide.’

Now, a little consideration will convince you that your chances
of securing the greatest variety of specimens, and especially the
more uncommon kinds, will be greatest at the time when the reced-
ing of the water is at its maximum ; for then you can obtain various
animals that do not frequent the area between the tide marks ex-
cepting where the rocks are only oscasionally exposed. Therefore

every collector of marine life should become thoroughly acquainted
with the nature of the tides.

The usual time occupied by each advance and retreat of the
water is a little over six hours, so that we get four complete changes
168 ANIMAL LIFE

in about twenty-four hours and three-quarters. If, for example, the
water reaches its highest level on a certain day at noon, on the
following day it will be highest at a few minutes before one o’clock.

Again, we commonly hear of Neap Tides and Spring Tides. The
former term is applied when the difference between the high and low
water marks is least, and the latter when this difference ig greatest ;
so that we may describe the Neap Tides as those which do not rise
very high nor fall very low, and the Spring Tides as those which
rise highest and fall lowest.

It is evident from what has been said that a collector should
never start equipped for work on the sea-shore without previously
satisfying himself with regard to the state of the tidal movements
at the time. As a rule he will have no difficulty in obtaining a
local ‘tide table’ from some stationer or news agent in the neigh-
bourhood; and if the table gives no information concerning the
‘spring’ and ‘neap’ periods, he must remember that the former—
most certainly his best time—occurs about three days after full
moon and new moon. Thus we get the spring tides twice in every
twenty-eight days ; and the neap tides also at corresponding intervals,
but about a week later. It should also be known that the change
in the nature of the tides is very gradual; so that, should the
collector be unable to perform his operations on the best day, he
should endeavour to do so as near as possible before or after that
day.

Most of my readers are probably acquainted with the remark-
able variety in the nature of our coasts. Some are so low and
marshy that it is almost impossible to say where, in the disputable
territory, the domain of the sea terminates. In other cases the
coast is well defined, but low and sandy, or muddy. Neither of
these is likely to afford much profit to the naturalist. He requires
a very rocky coast, where numerous pools are left by the receding
tide, and where a number of little caves, crannies, and large de-
tached stones supply the shelter required by the various forms of
marine life.

Let us now see what implements we shall require for our work
on the shore.

THE CoLLEctor’s Ourrir

Perhaps the most essential article of his paraphernalia is the net.
This must be, in every respect, very strong. The frame should be
constructed of a strip of sheet iron, in which holes are drilled for
THH SHA-SHORE 169

fixing the netting. It should not be round, but pointed, and slightly -
raised on the off side, so that it may be thrust well into the angles
of the rocks. The net itself
may be made of cord netting,
with a very small mesh, and
need not be more than a foot
deep. The handle should be
very tough, and if constructed
of two moderately long sticks
that can be joined together
by a ferrule when necessary,
so much the better.

Of course you will require
a satchel, and this should be of a thoroughly waterproof material,
or yow lower garments will soon become saturated with the
drippings from your specimens. The satchel should contain some
tin boxes, including one or two of moderate size for the larger
specimens; and, if you don’t mind the expense, you had better get
these made to order to suit your requirements. Let them be square
rather than round, and of such a size and number that they exactly
fill your satchel. You will not then be bothered with the continual
capsizing of your boxes and the accumulation of sea water in your
satchel. One box at least will be required for crustaceans, one for
shells, and another packed with cotton-wool for the more delicate
specimens.

You will also require a wide-méuthed bottle, about half filled
with spirits of wine, and fitted with a good cork; also asimilar bottle
filled with fresh water. The object of this is to enable you to kill
your specimens as soon as you catch them. Immersion in spirit
would accomplish this speedily in all cases, but some of the crusta-
ceans turn red after this treatment, and look just asif they had been
boiled ; hence it is advisable to kill these by keeping them in fresh
water for a short time. ‘

Some marine animals live attached to the rocks, and often hold
on so firmly that it is impossible to remove them without injury.
For the collection of these you will require a hammer and chisel, so
that you may be able to chip off the little pieces of the rock to which
they are fixed. This plan is particularly useful when you wish to
obtain anemones or other fixed animals alive for your aquarium.

Then, again, you may be desirous of searching for those worms,
crustaceans, molluscs, and fishes that burrow into sand. For this



Fic. 264.—NeEvr FOR COLLECTING AT THE
SEASIDE.
170 ANIMAL LIFE

purpose a very large trowel is useful; but if you are ‘putting up’
very near to your hunting-ground, it will not be much trouble to
carry a spade, which will certainly be much more effectual than
even a large trowel.

The above apparatus, together with the usual ‘knife and bit of
string,’ will be quite sufficient for all your work on the shore; but
a very ambitious collector would require something more than this.
A rod and line will prove very useful when one wishes to become
acquainted with the fishes of our rocky coasts and river mouths;
also a dredging-net if a desire exists to study the inhabitants of











Fie. 265.—Tur Drenar.

‘the deep.’ Dredging, however, is rather hard work, and should
never be attempted unless at least two persons are working together
—one to manage the boat, and the other to look after the dredge.

So much for the outdoor gear. But other materials and pieces
of apparatus will be required for your work at home. First, you
must prepare store boxes qr a cabinet. The latter is not at all
necessary. Shallow cardboard boxes, or wood boxes fitted with
cardboard trays, will serve all purposes. Each box or tray should
be divided into square or oblong cells of different sizes to suit your
specimens, or you may fill it with match boxes or little cardboard

cells of your own manufacture.

Several wide-mouthed bottles of different sizes will be required.
Also some pieces of wire, a few soft boards, pins of various sizes,
cotton wool, alum, a little corrosive sublimate, a bottle of gum, a
supply of spirits of wine, and some large dishes for the living speci-
mens,
THE SHA-SHORE 171

At Work ON THE SHORE

All things being ready, we start off for the shore, arranging our
time so that we arrive at the field of action at about ‘ half-tide,’ with
the water retreating. Thus we have the best hours of the day
before us, and can work continuously for five or six hours should we
require it.

First we examine the high-water mark with the object of seeing
what the last advancing tide washed ashore. Here we finda quan-
tity of sea-weed, fragments of wood and cork, and various other
substances of a very miscellaneous character. As we turn over the
weed we see thousands of little sand-hoppers, a few of which we
drop into our bottle of water. Here we find also some shells,
mostly broken or worn, the egg-case of a skate, the ‘shell’ of a cuttle-
fish, a piece of ‘ worm-eaten ’ timber, ‘ dead men’s fingers,’ the skull
of a gull, a monster jelly-fish, some fragments of beautiful corallines,
and numerous other objects, all more or less interesting.

While we have been thus engaged, the waves have been slowly
retiring, and a wide hunting-ground is now before us. We make
straight for the rocks close to the water’s edge. Here we examine
the surface of every stone, dip our net into every pool, search the
surface of the hanging sea-weeds, and, pushing these aside, care-
fully look at the rock that lay concealed beneath them. As the
water continues to retreat we keep pace with it, searching diligently
as we go. Every ‘likely’ stone is overturned. Its under surface
is well scrutinised, as is also the spot from which it was raised. In
this part of our work we must be prepared to meet cases of ‘ pro-
tective imitation;’ for on these stones we may expect species of
crabs, worms &c. tinted and formed in such a manner that detec-
tion is sometimes by no means easy; also on the sand or mud
beneath there will be various animals whose protective colouring
is marvellously deceptive. At last the tide is at its lowest ebb, and
now we work for a short time in downright earnest. Here is our
opportunity of obtaining the creatures whose zone is strictly beyond
the tide marks—creatures that either can not or will not submit to
exposure unless it be for a very short time only. With our long-
handled net we now reach out between the rocks as far as we can,
making every endeavour to secure some of the ‘rarities’ of the sea-
shore.

At this stage we carefully examine the sheltered surfaces of
172 ANIMAL LIFE

overhanging rocks for sponges and other forms of life, and plunge
the net into the various nooks and crannies of the partly exposed
rocks. This is our best time for starfishes, many small aud fragile
species of which we may find under stones of various sizes. Many
small fishes are now to be caught—some with the net, and others
‘easily taken in the hand as they endeavour to escape among the
stones and weeds.

As the tide flows we are compelled to retrace our steps, but we
work as we go, securing fresh captives which were missed as we
followed the ebbing waters. Holes in rocks are examined for
‘boring shells ;’ and burrows in the sand call for a sudden plunge of
the spade or trowel. In fact, every strange object within our reach
is taken for examination. We may not know whether a certain
specimen is a plant-like animal or a plant resembling an animal ;
but we want to know, so we find room for it in our satchel.

Some of our specimens are to be kept alive for a time so that we
may become familiar with their habits. These we pack carefully
and loosely among some wet weed in one of our largest boxes. As
a rule no water need be added, the moisture and drippings of the
sea-weed being quite sufficient to keep the creatures alive for many
hours. But if live fishes are to be carried any considerable dis-
tance, then a rather large ‘ bait can’ containing some sea water is
essential. .

The animals intended for preservation should be killed on the
spot, either by immersion in fresh water or in spirit. They may
then be wrapped in soft and delicate sea-weed, and carefully packed
in a separate box. In some cases we have to deal with very fragile
creatures ; and for these also we reserve a special compartment in
our satchel, using cotton-wool if necessary as a packing material.

Thus we have finished our day’s work as far as collecting is
concerned, but there remains much to be done at home in the way
of housing our live specimens, and setiing and preserving our dead
objects for the cabinet or store boxes. Before dealing with this
subject, however, there are yet one or two suggestions I should like
to make—-suggestions that may prove of considerable value to an
inexperienced collector. First, then, always avail yourself of any
opportunity that may arise of visiting the sea-shore immediately
after a storm. For at such times you may expect to find specimens
of kinds more or less rare, that have been broken off the rocks or
driven from their haunts beyond the tide marks by the furious sea,
and then washed ashore by the breakers. Secondly, if you are
THE SHA-SHORE 173

staying in or near a fishing village, by all means make friends with
the fishermen. Many a specimen, valueless to the fisherman, but
of great interest to the naturalist, will find its way into their nets.
Take every opportunity of examining their nets as they haul them
in; and, if possible, also give an occasional peep into their crab and
lobster ‘ pots.’

SETTING AND PRESERVING MARINE OBJECTS

I am afraid it will be almost useless to inform anyone who has
spent several hours at the seaside collecting that he should see to
his specimens immediately on arriving home, for the sea air will
have worked such a powerful influence on the collector himself that
his own urgent needs will demand prompt satisfaction in the form of a
‘square meal.’ So I put it this way: Immediately after the potent
effects of the bracing sea-air have been neutralised by the necessary
antidote, turn out all your specimens, and give your first attention
to the captures that are still alive. Put these into one or more large
and shallow dishes, give them a moderate supply of sea water, and
then leave them to themselves while you sort out the dead animals
and miscellaneous objects.

All the soft-bodied animals may be put at once into ‘bottles of
diluted spirit, and labelled at your leisure. But you must not expect
success with all these, and you may consider yourself fortunate if
you succeed in preserving a beautiful anemone with all its natural
colours, and its tentacles fully expanded; or a Medusa with its
umbrella and appendages in its natural form. Starfishes may either
be preserved in spirit, or suspended in an airy place till perfectly
dry.

The empty shells you have collected should be washed in fresh
water to remove all the salt, and they are then ready for the cabinet ;
but care should be taken not to retain any damaged or worn speci-
men unless it be the only one of the kind you possess. There
are cases, however, in which the wearing action of the waves
brings out the beautiful colours of the shells, and, from an artistic
point of view, renders it desirable to retain them: Your most per-
fect shells will be those which were taken while still inhabited, and
these must be very carefully cleared of their contents. The wn-
valve molluscs —molluses with only one shell—should be plunged
in boiling water, and kept. in this for a minute or so. The body of
the animal can then be easily removed with a pin. The horny lid
174 ANIMAL LIFE

(the operculum) with which the live animal closed its shell should
be preserved, and fastened in its proper place by means of a little
gum. The bivalve molluscs may be removed from their shells by
carefully cutting through the muscular pillars that pass from one
side to the other, but the elastic ligament which unites the two
valves at the hinge must be kept intact. If you desire to preserve
the shell with its valves quite closed, it will be necessary to tie it
round with a piece of cotton or fine string, and keep it bound till the
ligament is quite dry. Some authors recommend a thorough washing
of all shells with the idea of removing traces of vegetable growth
from their outer surfaces; but this, I think, is a mistake, for the
deposits of confervee and other low forms of life add much to the
natural appearance of the shells.

After the shells are perfectly dry they are ready for the store
boxes. The larger ones are simply laid on beds of cotton-wool in
the cardboard trays. Small shells had better be gummed on cards,
using little wedges of cork, if necessary, to keep them in position
while the gum dries. The best gum to use isa mixture of about
equal parts of arabic and tragacanth. These materials are dissolved
in water, and then about one-fourth the volume of glycerine is added.
The use of the glycerine is to give elasticity to the dried gum;
without it you will find your shells frequently breaking away from
the cards on which they are mounted.

Some of the crustaceans are rather difficult to manage, and will
require great care in cleaning and setting. All should have a pre-
liminary washing in fresh water to remove the salt. The small
crabs may then be set at once on soft boards or cork, using a liberal
supply of pins to keep all the parts in their natural positions, and are
ready for mounting on cards as soon as they are perfectly dry.

The larger crabs and the lobsters contain so much flesh that,
without thorough clearing, they would soon become cases of putre-
fying matter, creating most unpleasant odours. They should be
carefully opened with a sharp knife, of course without cutting through
any part of the shell.

The whole under shell of crabs, together with the limbs, may
be removed bodily; lobsters should be divided by cutting between
the thorax and the first joint of the abdomen; the large claws also
should be severed. The flesh must now be cleared out with a bent
wire or other convenient implement; and the empty shells, after
thorough washing, set aside to dry. When quite dry, the severed parts
may be fastened together again by means of a little gum or cement.
THE SHA-SHORE 175

The bodies of snrimps and prawns may be treated in the same
way as lobsters, but require much more care ; and after the internal
soft portions have been removed, the skin should be stuffed with
cotton-wool to prevent contraction on drying.

However carefully the crustaceans may be cleared, there is sure
to remain a small amount of animal matter within the hardened
skin; and this small residue will always prove an attraction to mites
and other museum pests unless some steps be taken to prevent their
intrusion. Perhaps the best precaution against such attacks is to
sprinkle the interior of the cleared specimens with finely powdered
alum, with which a very small quantity of corrosive sublimate
has been mixed. The alum will harden the animal matter, and
the sublimate, being a deadly poison, will effectually keep out all
intruders.

JELLY-FISHES

Few objects of our coasts are more common than the large jelly-
fishes (Meduse) which may be seen, sometimes in thousands during
the summer, gently swimming with the tide, and gracefully con-
tracting and expanding their broad wmbrella-like discs. They are
almost colourless with the exception of the few (generally four)
brightly coloured rings, and their bodies are transparent and almost
invisible by day, but some are luminous by night.

The Medusa, at least in their adult stage, are not strictly
inhabitants of our shores, for their home is the open sea; but they
are so often stranded on our beaches that they are familiar objects
to all seaside visitors. :

If you attempt to pick up one of these stranded jelly-fishes, your
fingers penetrate into its body, and the soft structure breaks away
from your grip, falling on the ground in a torn and mangled condi-
tion, leaving perhaps a portion of its jelly adhering to your hands.
Yet with care you may turn one over, and examine its build without
doing it much damage.

In the middle of the under surface is the mouth, surrounded by
a number of tentacles which are armed with stinging cells. Accord-
ing to some accounts these armed tentacles are formidable weapons,
capable of doing grave injury to the unfortunate bathers who get
- entangled within their twining grasp. And when we have actually
seen living specimens measuring two feet and more in diameter, we
naturally feel inclined to accept such dreadful tales. As a matter
of fact, however, although the stinging arms of the Medusa are
176 ANIMAL LIFE

sufficiently powerful to inflict fatal injuries on the smaller animals
on which it feeds, yet the effect on even the most tender-skinned
7S



OS ¥
Fic. eee 3 Fic. 267.--Curysaona. y

bather can searcely be described as anything more than a peculiar
tingling sensation.

The mouth of the
Medusa leads to the cavity
of the stomach, from which
eight or more canals pass
off in all directions to the
margin of the umbrella,
where they all communi-
cate with a circular canal
round the rim.

In the case of the
Medusa we again have a
most marvellous history.
It is not capable of living
in the cold and rough
winter seas; so, in the autumn, a number of eggs are produced in the
creature’s stomach that give rise to smaller animals which can attach



Fira. 268.—MEpvsa AURITA IN ITS
DIFFERENT STAGES.

a, Adult form reduced in size; b to g, earlier stages.
THE SHA-SHORE 177

themselves to the rock in sheltered places during the cold weather.
At first the young are little freely swimming beings; but, after a
time, they settle down on rocks or weeds, and develop into little
elongated creatures which may be found during the winter near low-
water mark. As the season advances we observe a number of
furrows running round the cylindrical body, and these gradually
deepen till the whole resembles a pile of saucers. At last the body
breaks up through the deepening of the furrows, all the little ‘saucers’
are set free, and each one develops into an adult Medusa.

Equally interesting is the process of artificial division which one
may practise on the jelly-fish. If you cut off any part of the body,
the lost part is reproduced; and if the body be cut in pieces, each
piece will develop into a perfect Medusa, providing it contains a
portion of the edge of the umbrella, which seems to be the most
sensitive and the most vital part of the animal.

Sea ANEMONES AND ‘ DEAD MEn’s FINGERS.’

One of the most beautiful sights in the whole sphere of nature
is that afforded by a rocky pool between the tide marks. Stretch
yourself out on the rocks and look closely into its calm waters.
Here are beautiful little weeds which present to the view most
lovely shades of green and purple, and many moving objects dis-
playing a pleasing variety of form and colour. Conspicuous among
the animal life of the pond are the beautiful Sea Anemones (Actini@)
—the Sea-flowers of the older naturalists. Their softly tinted

cylindrical bodies are surmounted by a large number of tentacles
' or feelers, arranged in concentric circles round a central mouth.
Sometimes these tentacles are fully expanded and perfectly still, as
if to increase the resemblance of a flower; but at times they bend
gracefully from and towards the centre, setting up feeble currents of
water that tend to carry floating particles into the mouth. The
tentacles have considerable grasping power—so much so, indeed,
that, if a finger be brought within range, they close round it and
cling so persistently that the Anemone will suffer them to be torn
off rather than loosen its hold.

Would you like to see the Anemone feed? Then hold a shrimp,
crab, or other morsel within reach of its tentacles. Soon the strug-
gling creature is literally surrounded with the twining arms. The
battle may be a fierce one, but the victory will generally be on the
side of the Anemone, even though several of its arms be lost in the
fray. At last its prey is quieted, and the process of digestion soon

N
178 ANIMAL LIFE

begins, the animal being drawn completely into the Anemone’s
stomach if its size permits, but if too large for this, then as far as pos-
sible. When digestion is over, the innutritious portions are ejected
at the mouth—the only opening in the body save the small pores
of the tentacles.

Some of the Anemones, and particularly the Mesembryanthe-
mum, may be easily kept in the aquarium. For this purpose they
should be removed from the rock with a blunt knife without injury,
or, better still, pieces of the rock may be chipped off with the Anemones



























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fia. 269.—Anumone (Mesemodryanthenun).

attached, and conveyed away in wet weed. And very interesting
animals they are in the aquarium. Here you may feed them at your
leisure ; pieces of beef, worms, flies &c. all being accepted greedily.
Then its modes of getting about are very varied. Sometimes it
crawls about on its disc-like foot after the manner of the snail; but at
times it will loosen its hold and float passively away till it reaches a
more suitable spot. It will also invert its body, and crawl mouth
downwards along the surface of the water—a method very common
with water snails.
THE SHA-SHORE 179

If your pet Anemones are kept in too close confinement, they will
absorb enormous quantities of water in their attempt to obtain the
necessary supply of food and oxygen; and if their requirements,
thus made known by their swollen bodies, are not satisfied, they
will soon die.

The multiplication of some of the Anemones may be well studied
in confinement. Occasionally one of them will divide into two,
and an interesting example of this mode of increase once came
under my notice. I had given one of the creatures a rather large
mussel to eat. To my surprise it managed to get the molluse
almost completely into its stomach. But, in a day or two, digestion
being over, and the Anemone being unable to rid itself of the cum-
bersome shell in the ordinary way, it divided its body vertically,
and each part became a complete animal, with the almost empty
shell standing between them. Whether this division was a volun-
tary act, or due to the mechanical action of the sharp-edged shel,
I will not venture to express an opinion.

But the multiplication of the Anemone usually takes place by the
development of eggs which are cast out through the animal’s mouth.
Like others of the lowly organised creatures, Anemones may also



Fia. 270.—Lonerruprnar Section Fic. 271.—TRansverse
THROUGH A Sra ANEMONE. SECTION,

m, mouth ; ¢, tentacle ; 0, eggs ; s, stomach.

be increased artificially. If you cut one vertically through the
middle, each part develops into a whole. But if the incision be
made across the body, the upper part will continue to live, and
will develop a new ‘foot ;’ but the lower end seldom lives.

If Anemones are collected for examination only, they may be
killed by immersion in fresh water; and, after hardening in spirit,
sections may be made with a sharp knife or razor.

The reef-building and other Corals of the tropical seas are closely

nN2
180 ANIMAL LIFE

allied to the Anemones in structure, the chief difference being the
deposit of limy matter in the walls of the former. The common
Madrepore of the Devonshire coasts is a representative of the stony
corals. When expanded, its appearance is such that it might be
mistaken for an Anemone; but, when touched, its animal portion
shrinks away from the stony skeleton, thus exposing a number of



























Fic. 272.—Tur Common Maprepore.

limy plates, all standing on end, and regularly arranged in a radia-
ting manner round the middle of the animal. A strong knife is
required to remove one of these Madrepores, for its limy skeleton
is built directly on the rock, forming, as it were, an actual part of
it, and must therefore be cut through. The Madrepore may be kept
in the aquarium for some time, but it is not nearly so hardy as the
Mesembryanthemum and a few other Anemones.

During our seaside rambles we may come across some ugly
and dirty-looking slimy masses projecting from the rocks like so
many fingers. So repulsive are they in appearance that they are
popularly known as Dead Men’s Fingers, or, when of more stubby
growth, Dead Men’s Toes. ‘ Ugly,’ we have said; but it is doubtful
whether any living being should be so described; and when this
term 7s applied to a living form, it is generally by those who know
THE SEA.SHORE 181

not where to look for the beauties. Put the Dead Men’s Fingers
into your aquarium, or into a clear pool among the rocks, and watch.
Shortly a number of beautiful little polyps shoot out on all sides,
waving their delicate fringed tentacles in the stimulating water.
Each ‘ finger ’ is really a little colony of animals, resembling small
Anemones, all working together for the general good. All their
stomachs communicate with one central cavity, so that the food
captured and digested by any one of the community is shared
equally by every member. They are not really Anemones, but are
so closely allied that we have included them under this head. They
are more nearly related to the beautiful Fan and Organ-pipe Corals,
and the bright Red Coral of the Mediterranean.

STARFISHES AND SEA URcHINS

The Starfishes, Sea Urchins, and a strange-looking creature
known as the Sea Cucumber, all belong to a division of the animal
kingdom called the Echinodermata or Spiny-skinned animals, from
the projections, sometimes short and blunt, and sometimes long and
sharp, on the surface. The skin itself is also hardened by the de-
posit of limy matter, either in the form of a meshwork of delicate
spicules, or of a collection of little thin plates. The parts of these
animals are all arranged symmetrically round a common centre,
just as is the case with the Anemones and Corals; and they possess
a nervous system, consisting of a ring-like nerve round the mouth
and radiating nerve fibres running from this to the different parts of
the body. Another peculiar feature of the Echinoderms is the
system of water machinery by which they move about. Round the
mouth is a ring-like vessel, from which branch several (generally
five) tubes in different directions. Then, each Echinoderm has a
large number of little feet, which are really tubes, connected with
the vessels just mentioned.

Now let us see how this machinery is set in action. First, we
must know that the whole system—the circular vessel, the radiating
vessels, and the tubular feet—is filled with water. Having found a
live Common Star or ‘ Five-finger,’ pué it in a small rock-pool and
watch its movements. Presently you will see one or more of its
arms extended, and its lower surface placed in contact with a rock
or weed. Then the ‘head’ contracts, forcing sufficient water into
the little feet to make them protrude till their suckers are pressed
against the surface over which it is to creep. Now the ‘head’ ex-
182. ANIMAL LIFE



pands again, causing the water to be withdrawn by a kind of suction
from the feet, which*¢onsequently adhere on account of the reduced
pressure within. A muscular action follows, by which the body of
the Starfish is pulled slightly onward. The progress made by such
movements is certainly very slow, but in time the animal will travel
a considerable distance.

While your Starfish is thus engaged, turn him suddenly over on
his back, and you will then see all the feet in action, éach one trying



Fic. 273.—Tur Common Srarrisn. VO

to lay hold of some object. Then you may apply your finger, and
so test their sucking power.

These Starfishes are very voracious feeders, and will attack large
molluscs. Itis said that they inject a poisonous substance between
the gaping shells of the molluscs, and then project their stomachs
as far as possible between the valves to digest the creature thus
killed.

The stomach of the Common Star consists of a pouch within
the head, and five long tubes—one running through each of the five
arms.
THE SEA-SHORE 183

You will often meet with one of these creatures having only four,
or perhaps only three arms, the remainder probably lost in combat
or accident, or possibly cast off voluntarily during an alarm. When
such an event happens, the space left soon closes over, and a new
arm or arms will slowly develop to make good the loss.

The skeleton of a Starfish is a very interesting object, and there
are two or three ways of getting good specimens. Some recommend
giving the job out to the ants. This is certainly very convenient
for those living in the neighbourhood of an ants’ nest ; but the work
will require much supervision, or the busy ants will run off with
portions of the skeleton before the flesh has all been cleared away,



Fic. 274.—Tur Rosy Fraruer Fic. 275,—Earty STacEs oF
STARFISH. THE FEATHER STARFISH.

even if the ‘fish ’ is shut up in a box with perforations only just large
enough to allow an ant to go through. Another plan is to dissolve
away all the soft parts in a hot solution of caustic potash; but then
the skeleton will require very careful handling while wet.

The Sun Starfish is very similar to the Five-finger, but has
twelve short rays. The Brittle Starfishes, however, are different in
many respects. In these the central disc gives rise to slender snake-
like arms, which are jointed, and do not contain branches of the
stomach. They derive their popular name from their peculiar
habit of snapping off their arms when alarmed. The first time I
met with these creatures I collected several, and dropped them into
a bottle of spirit; but, on arriving home, I found I had nothing but
184 ANIMAL LIFE

fragments! Since that time I have experimented in many ways to
get perfect specimens—by no means an easy task, for they often



Fic. 277.—Tur Brivrie Srar,
THE SEA-SHORE 185

break themselves up on the slightest alarm. The most successful
plan I have tried is to raise the Starfishes from the pool or stone as
gently as possible, then place them softly in a box of wet weed, and
gradually add fresh water till they are dead.

Brittle Stars should be searched for under stones at low water,
and in pools close to low-water mark.



Fic. 278.—Sra Uncury, viewep From ABove. (Most or THE SPINES
REMOVED.)



Fic. 279.—Inrerton or THE SHELL OF A Fic. 280.—Masticatine
Sea Urcury, APPARATUS OF THE
Sra URcHIN.

The Sea Urchin or Sea Egg is Certainly very unlike the Starfish
in outward appearance, but bears a close resemblance to it in
internal structure. Its limy shell consists of five segments, each
186 ANIMAL LIFE

perforated with a double row of small holes, through which the
tubular feet protrude. It has a system of water vessels almost
exactly like that of the Starfish, and its surface is armed with a large
number of movable spines. The empty shells that are so frequently
washed up on our shores are cleared of the spines and all soft parts,
and consequently exhibit the beautiful structure of the shell to per-
fection. An interesting feature of the Sea Urchin is the complicated
arrangement of teeth, consisting of five sets of hard structures set
in motion by a complex system of muscles.

Another allied animal—the Sea
Cucumber—is also common on our
shores. It avoids the light, and must
be looked for in dark secluded pools
close to low-water mark. It may
be mistaken at first for a very thick
worm, and its fringed tentacles situated
at one end of the body may suggest
a relationship to the Anemone; but
the five rows of sucker feet remind
us most vividly of the Starfish and the
Urchin, even though it has no spines
or hardened skin. The skin, however,
is very thick and tough, and contains
little limy spicules.

The habits of the Cucumber are very similar to those of Starfishes,
and it feeds in a similar manner, protruding its stomach, when
necessary, to digest its prey; and it has even been said to entirely
dispense with this organ at times, vomiting it completely away,
and then remaining without food till a new one has grown.



Martner Worms

As we walk over the sandy shore we notice little wormlike
objects, twisted up into compact balls or spirals. On touching
them they immediately crumble to pieces, for they are composed of
nothing but sand. They are the ‘casts’ of the Lug Worm or Lob
Worm, so highly prized by fishermen as bait. We have seen
similar ‘ casts’ of earth in our gardens, formed by the common earth-
worm in exactly the same manner as those on the shore. The Lug
Worm burrows by swallowing the sand, and ejecting it at the other
extremity of its body; and lines the burrow with a glutinous sub-
THE SHA-SHORE

187

stance to prevent the walls from giving way. It is not very
pretty at first sight; but, when put into water, the bristles of the
fore segments, and the brightly coloured gills of the middle portion,

give it a gay appearance. It is often said
of this worm that, like the earthworm, if
cut into pieces, each piece will become a
perfect animal. But this is not so. If a
Lug Worm be divided in the middle, both
portions die, but the foremost part will retain
the power of locomotion for a considerable
time.

The most interesting of the Marine Worms
are those that build themselves dwellings,
either of limy substance, or of sand or other
particles bound together into a tube. The
home of the Serpula is one of the commonest
objects of the shore. It consists of limy
concretions, in the form of white irregular
tubes, often found on stones and rocks, and
frequently covering the shells of molluses
and crustaceans. As a rule one has no diffi-
culty in obtaining specimens on shells or
small stones of suitable size for the aquarium.
At first it may be impossible to say whether
the tubes are empty, or whether the living
Serpula is at home ; but the point can always
be settled by putting the specimen in a rock
pool or in the aquarium. It will be some
time, however, before the creature will ven-
ture to show itself after having been dis-
turbed. But after a time it begins to peep
out very slowly, and at last the beautiful red
















Fic. 282.—Tur Lue
Worm.

feathery gills are fully displayed. It is not so slow in retreating
when alarmed, for then it darts back into its tube with such speed

that the eye cannot follow it.

Similar limy tubes are to be met with commonly on the surfaces
of the tangles; but these are much smaller, and more uniform in
structure. They are always built in the form of a spiral of three
turns ; and on account of this feature the worm that inhabits them

is termed the Spirorbis.

Then there are other worms that bind together grains of sand or
188 ANIMAL LIFE

small shells, gluing them with a substance obtained from their own
bodies. Such are the Z'erebella and the Sabella. The tubes con-
structed by them are rather strong, and will stand much rough
handling, for the substance that holds the particles together becomes













































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Fic. 283.-—Tuse-sumpine Worms: Terebella (terr), Serpula (opp);
Sabella (r1cH1).

a tough membrane. Sometimes we see single tubes cast up by the
waves, but at others a large number are seen bound together on the
surface of the rock into such a compact mass that a hammer is
necessary for removing a cluster of them.
THE SHA-SHORE 189

Ifan animal is termed a Worm, the name naturally recalls to
our minds the most familiar of the worms—the common earthworm ;
and we naturally expect that the creature so designated will closely
resemble our familiar friend in general form and habits. But this
is not so, for many of the so-called worms are so constructed that
no one but the naturalist would ever dream of anything like a close
relationship. This is certainly the case with the Sea Mouse, for it
is decidedly more like a mouse than a worm in outward appearance.
But animals are classified according to internal structure rather than
general form. The Sea Mouse is not seen very commonly on the
shore except by those who know where to look for it, as it fre-
quents the sheltered and muddy places close to or beyond the low
spring water-mark; generally hiding under stones, or resting on
mud in rather dark corners between the rocks. Its body is oval,

oA iW Wy LZ
Wee 2





Fic. 284.—Tur Sra Mouse. f

and flattened beneath; and the lower margin is thickly covered with
hairs that exhibit the most beautiful iridescent hues. These exqui-
site colours are not at all impaired by spirit, for specimens that I
have preserved in this fluid for many years are still as beautifully
tinted as when they were captured.

It is very remarkable that a creature like this, capable of show-
ing itself to the greatest advantage only in a strong light, should
seek the darkest crannies of the shore. Hyven when it does expose
itself to light, it generally creeps along the mud with its iridescent
hairs buried, and, at the same time, the fine mud that settles between
the short hairs on its back renders it a very inconspicuous object.
If you place a Sea Mouse in the aquarium, it will generally lie con-
cealed among the stones and weed, sometimes creeping about with
a sluggish motion ; but occasionally it will swim actively for a short
time.
190 ANIMAL LIFE

In our seaside wanderings we sometimes meet with very peculiar
objects resembling little leathery bags or bottles, either attached to
stones in rather muddy places, or resting on the mud itself. At first
sight we can hardly decide whether they belong to the animal or
the vegetable world, and-we inquisitively handle them when the
bags, suddenly contracting.. eject a quantity of water over us. These
strange creatures are Sea Squirts, not very wormlike in appearance,
yet sometimes grouped with the worms; by many, however, they
are considered to be more closely allied to the molluscs.



Fic. 285.—Sra Seurrer.

Numbers of these creatures are often found in the estuaries of
rivers, at times being so abundant that they become an annoyance
to the trawlers by almost filling their nets. If you watch a Squirt
in the aquarium you will notice that its body has openings or
‘syphons;’ and by means of these a constant current of water is
set up for purposes of respiration and food-collecting, the water
entering by one and leaving by another.

SHELLS OF THE SEA-SHORE

A few hints have already been given concerning the collecting of
shells, and also on the preservation and mounting of the specimens ;
but it is essential that the reader should know something of the
THE SHEA-SHORE 191

general characteristics of the inhabitants of those shells, and the
broad features of their classification, so that his collection, instead
of being a confused mass of mixed and wmnamed objects, may con-
sist of a properly classified series of specimens, representing the
natural history of the molluscs, and forniing a permanent museum
for reference and study. With this object in view we shall briefly
notice the principal families of the British molluscs in turn, so that
our young shell gatherers, following the classification used, may
intelligently arrange their specimens.

The terms ‘shell’ and ‘ shell-fish’ are generally used in a very
indefinite manner, the former being applied equally to the shells of
molluscs and the hardened skins of crustaceans, and the latter, as a
consequence, used to designate animals of both these important
divisions of the animal creation. But we shall, for the present, con-
fine our attention to the Mollusca, leaving the crustaceans to be
considered by themselves in our next chapter.

Bivalve Molluses and their Shells

The reader will probably remember the fresh-water bivalve—the
Anodon—which was briefly described in connection with Pond Life.













































































































































































































Fic. 286.—Tur Surpworm.

Now, this creature may be taken as a type of the class of the mol-
luses with which we shall start. This class has been variously
192 ANIMAL LIFE

named, and several of the terms are still retained. Thus, we find
it headed with the formidable name Lamellibranchiata, because all
its species possess gills arranged in layers. It isalso called Acephala,
as the creatures included have no heads; and Conchifera, which
means ‘shell-bearing.’

The chief distinguishing features of these Bivalves, including the























































































































































































Fia. 287.—Pronas Dacrynus. —K

general character of the shell, the arrangement of the two lobes of
the mantle, and the two syphons for the circulation of water, have
already been mentioned in dealing with the Fresh-water Mussel, and
need not be repeated here; so we shall at once deal with the
numerous important families.

First we will take the Boring Molluses—those that bore into
hard substances, thus securing for themselves a greater protection
Plate VI



NHART

nA
THE SHA-SHORE 193

than is afforded by their small or fragile shells. In this family
(Pholadide) we have the ‘ Ship-worm ’—not a worm, of course, but
a wormlike molluse with two small and imperfectly formed shells
at its fore extremity. They burrow into submerged timber, and
often do immense damage. The Pholas or Piddocks have very
fragile shells that gape permanently at both ends, and are sculptured
on the outer surface so that they look like a rasp. These creatures
bore regular holes, two or three inches deep, in hard rocks. If their
shells were strong and hard, we could quite understand how, by a
continual rotatory motion, they could form these burrows; but,
with no other implements than a very fragile shell and a soft foot,
the explanation is not at all simple. Some naturalists have sup-
posed that either chemical or electrical action or both are concerned,
while other observers have suggested that the shell, delicate as it is,
constitutes the boring tool. But it is now generally admitted that
the foot itself, by a perpetual rotation, does the chief part of the work.
The Gapers (Myacid@) are not the
only bivalves that have a right to the
name, for all the shells yet named gape
more or less. The commonest of these is
the Old Maid or Common .Gaper (Plate
VIT), which is used for food in some parts.
Thracia papyracea belongs to the same Fra. 288.
family. Thracia papyracea.
No one could possibly mistake the
‘Razors’ (Solenid@) with their long and narrow shells gaping at
the two extremities. The feet of these bivalves are large and
powerful, and very effectual in burrowing into sand. Many Razor
shells are washed up on our shores but an attempt should always
be made to secure tenanted specimens, both to get a glimpse of
the animal, and also to secure the shells in perfect condition. As
you walk over a sandy beach at low tide you may sce the holes
of the Solens’ burrows. But they are very deep—so deep that
a spade may fail to turn them out without injury. You must
resort to stratagem. Throw a little salt into a burrow. This will
cause the Solen to rise to the surface; and then a sharp plunge
of the spade will secure it. If, however, your plunge is weak
and undecided, Mr. Solen will retreat with the speed of a dart
to the bottom of his sandy home. Fishermen use this mollusc
largely for bait, but they generally obtain it by means of a strong
hooked wire. They suddenly thrust the hook down the burrow, so
*o


194. ANIMAL LIFE

that it enters the gaping end of the Shell. Of course the Solen then
closes its shell as tightly as possible on the intruder, but this
only gives hook a better hold. The implement is then turned
\\ round a bit, and pulled out with
the shell-fish secure. This mode
of capture is all very well for the
fisherman, but for the naturalist
it will not do, since it damages
the animal, and frequently also the
shell. ;
There are several common spe-
cies of Razor shell-fish, and all of
them are good eating; but it is
Fie. 289.—Tellina crassa. Tan %¢ldom that they are found in our
Brunt TELLEN. markets.

The beautiful shells of the Tel-
lens are known to every seaside visitor. They are common every-
where on sandy shores, sometimes being thrown up by the waves
in thousands. Their colours are very rich but variable, and consist
generally of delicate pink and orange tints. The Tellens are bur-
rowers in the sand, and in some cases the shells are very fragile.
The Sunset shells and the Wedge shells belong to the same family
(see Plate VII). ,





=

Tia. 290.—Tat Raprarep Fic. 291.— Venus Fie. 292.—Vrnus
Trovex SHeuu (Mactra Casta. EXOLETA.
stultorwm).



Several interesting families of bivalves we must pass over with
no more than a bare mention of their names, leaving the figures of
representative shells to speak for themselves.

Fig. 290 is one of the Trough shells (Mactrid@) of sandy
shores. The Venus shells (figs. 291 and 292) and the Tapestry
shells (Tapes, Plates VI and VII) are members of the family
Veneride. ;
Plate Vil

SENET






THE SHA-SHORE 195

Both the Heart Cockle and the Astarte shells (Plate VI) are
remarkable for the beautiful structure of the hinge.

There is a family (Arcade) having shells which resemble minia-
ture Noah’s Arks, and
among these are the
Ark shells and the Nut
shells. The former are

found chiefly in warm Fic. 293.—Arx Suenn Fic. 294.—Nor Suen
seas, but those figured (Arca lactea). (Nucula nucleus).
are British — species.

The ‘Noah’s Ark’ is not generally well known, but may be found
under stones and in the dark crevices of rocks just beyond low-
water mark. The Nut shell is not often obtained without the use
of a dredge.

The Mytilide or Mussels (Plate VII) form a very important
group, and include the edible Mussel so largely used as food. Many
of them anchor themselves to rocks and timber work by means of a
silken cable known as the byssws, and some are so plentiful and so
truly gregarious that they entirely cover immense masses of rock.
It has been observed that these social Mussels afford great protec-
tion to structures exposed to the force of the waves and strong tides,
so much’so that they have even been made use of for this purpose,
notably in the case of a bridge over the Taw at Bideford. The
piers of this bridge were constantly under repair before Mussels
were brought to protect them, but afterwards required very little
attention.

The cdible Mussels are really a very important article of food,
but at times they develop poisonous properties that lead to serious
results. And although the subject has received much attention
trom experts, yet the cause and seat of the poison are not known.
Some have stated that the injurious effects of eating these dainties
arise only from those which have been removed from the copper
sheathing of ships, and others have declared that the byssus is the
seat of the poison. But it is more probable that some unknown and
infectious disease to which the molluscs are occasionally subject is
the real cause.

The Horse Mussel (Modiola) has a very strong byssus, and is
common on our shores, where it burrows into the sand or mud. The
Chambered Mussel is an immigrant to our country, having been
brought to our ports attached to the bottoms of ships. After being
scraped off in the docks, these Mussels settle down and multiply in

02


196 ANIMAL LIFE

their new home, spreading rapidly along our shores and up our
river mouths.

The Wing shells are so called from the ‘wings’ that project
from the hinge of the shell. his family includes the interesting
Pinna, very common on our southern shores, and especially the
Cornish coast. The byssus of this molluse is very fine and silky,
and has been woven into gloves and other small articles of dress.
Its shell is the largest of all our British molluses, often measuring
more than a foot in length. :

Everyone is familiar with the common Scallop, so often seen on



Fic. 296.—Tur Sappie Oysrer
Fic. 295.—Pryna Roupts. (Anomia ephippium).

the fishmonger’s stall, and known loeally on the south-west coast
as the Frill and the Queen. It represents an extensive family
(Pectenide) characterised by a fan-shaped shell, boldly marked
with radiating ribs, and often beautifully coloured with various
shades of red and yellow. The young Pectens swim about rapidly
by alternately opening and closing their valves; but the aged are
less active, and settle at the bottom below the tide marks, where
they may be secured by means of the dredge. ‘The bodies of these
molluses are conspicuously coloured with bright orange or scarlet,
and the fringe of the mantle is bordered with numerous black eyes.
The Limas, known also as the File shells, belong to the Pecten family.
THE SHA-SHORE 197

Our last family of the bivalves—the Ostree—includes the
Oysters, of which the common edible species exhibits as much
variation in structure as do the different breeds of dogs. ‘This
highly valued mollusc takes five or six years to reach its prime, and
feeds on the minutest forms of marine life. It cannot exist in
sandy places, for the sand gets between the parts of the hinge,
preventing the oyster from closing its valves, and thus it is even-
tually smothered with sand. It ‘spawns’ in the summer, and
the ‘ spat,’ which resembles slate dust, and is formed of five or six
million eggs, is ejected in clouds. The young Oysters are active
creatures, and are provided with swimming organs which they use
freely.

Univalves, or One-shelled Molluscs

We have now to glance at a higher division of the Mollusca,
known as the Cephalophora or Head-bearers. These have distinct
heads, with eyes and horns or feelers ; but we need not enlarge on
their structure now, for they have been
previously briefly described in connection
with our Fresh-water Snails.

Among the least perfect of these are the
Dentaliada, or Tooth or Tusk shell-fish,
which are named from the resemblance
of the shells to the elephant’s tusk. These
shells are conical, and open at both ends;
but it is interesting to note that, in their
earliest stage, the Dentaliad@ are bivalves.
The creatures are quite inclosed in the j
mantle, and the body is attached to the Fre. 297.—Tum Groovep
shell near the smaller end. Their heads Tusk Suenn (Denta-
are not perfectly formed, and they have lum entalis).
no eyes or feelers.

The largest and most important division of the univalve molluses
is the Gasteropoda, or Belly-footed, of which the Limpets and
Whelks form typical representatives.

The common Limpet is so well known, so easily obtained, and
so hardy in confinement, that it forms a very interesting aquarium
pet. On all our rocky coasts these creatures are seen in thousands
between the tide marks. While they are exposed to air they remain
perfectly still, with their conical shells closely applied to the surface
of the rock, But if you take the Limpet by surprise, suddenly


198 ANIMAL LIFE

thrusting it aside with a stick, or quickly lifting its shell with a
blunt knife, you may detach it with ease ; if the Limpet, however, is
warned of the approaching attack, it is surprising with what force
it will adhere. In order to see how it secures itself so firmly we
will watch one of the Limpets in our aquarium as it crawls over the
glass. Here it is, with shell raised, and ‘horns’ extended, gliding
gracefully along by the wave-like contractions of its muscular foot.
Tap it very gently on the shell, and immediately it tucks in its
head, pulls its horns inside, and brings its shell close to the glass.
Another tap on its back, and the foot contracts still more, closely
adhering by the rim, but arched away from the glass in the centre.
In this way it produces a vacuum under its body, and any attempt
to lift it from its seat is useless unless sufticient force be applied to
overcome the atmospheric pressure outside. If you examine the
inside of an empty Limpet shell you will see the scars which mark
the position of the powerful muscles that so effectually overcome
the pressure of the air.

Limpets are not what we should term active creatures, and
they sometimes remain in one spot so long
that their shells become exactly adapted to
the surface of the rock, and we also often
find the rock hollowed out beneath them,
probably by the almost continuous action of
their feet. As another result of their seden-
tary habits we see green and purple weeds,
corallines, and acorn barnacles flourishing on
their backs, often in such profusion that the
shell of the Limpet is entirely concealed.

The long ribbon or ‘tongue’ is armed
with between one and two thousand teeth,
and is a very interesting object for the micro-



Fic. 298.—Tur Cut-
ton on Mam Sein. Scope.
The Chitons, or Mail shell-fish, are very

near relatives of the Limpet, but the protective covering consists of
eight jointed plates—a veritable coat of mail, with its segments
so arranged that the Chiton can roll itself wp into a ball like a
woodlouse.

The Top shells (Tvochus) are named from their resemblance to
the toy top. Some species are exceedingly plentiful on our shores,
and are often washed up in large numbers ; but the living specimens
may be found on rocks and weeds at low tide. Like the Limpets,
THE SHA-SHORE 199

Tops have well-developed ‘tongues,’ and the little teeth are so
arranged that they form a most perfect file. They are very useful
in the aquarium, as they help to keep the glass free from low vege-
table growth.



Fie. 299.—Tur Grey Tor Fie. 300.—Tower Fic. 301.—Srcrion
(Zrochus cinereus). (SEE Suuun (Turritella). or a Towmr SHELL.
Auso Prare VII.)

The common Periwinkle needs no description. It is by no
means a very ornamental mollusc, but it is interesting in the
aquarium, being very hardy in confinement, and also a useful
scavenger.



Fie. 302.—Tum Lapprr Suenn Fic. 303.—KEaes or THE
(Scalaria communis). WHELK.

The Turret or Tower shells are of a more fragile character, and
consequently the greater number of the specimens washed up by the
waves are more or less damaged.

The Wentletraps or Ladder shells (Scalaride) may be known
200 ANIMAL LIFE

by the bold ribs that run across the whorls. They are white shells,
and the molluses inhabiting them are predacious.

The Whelks form a very extensive group, and they are all
of predacious habits. Some even bore holes through the shells
of other molluscs and then devour them. The Dog Periwinkle
(Plate VII) is remarkable as having supplied the famous purple dye
largely used by the ancients. With a little patience you can easily
succeed in procuring some of this peculiar substance. Your best
plan will be to break the shells and get the animals out entire.
You will then see a vessel containing a small quantity of a yellowish
liquid. Now expose this to a strong light, and it will gradually
turn, first green, then blue, and lastly purple.

‘ Head-footed’ Molluscs

There is yet another division of the Mollusea, known as the
Cephalopoda or Head-footed molluscs. They are so named because



Fic. 304.—Tue Common Ocropus.

they have a number of ‘arms’ or, if you prefer it, ‘feet’ surround-
ing the mouth. Not many of these creatures are to be found on
“our shores, but they include some ‘sea monsters’ with whose
general characteristics gve are all familiar. Take the common
Octopus as a type. Its large staring eyes that never close, and its
eight long and powerful sucker-bearing arms, are calculated to
arouse the strongest interest and excitement.
THE SHA-SHORE : 201

The Cuttlefish is not very often seen on our shores, but its
‘bone’ is a familiar object to all seaside frequenters. It is in



Fic. 305.-THe Serta or Fic. 306.—‘ BonE’ oF THE
CUTTLEFISH. CurrLerisH.

reality not a bone at all, but an oval and very light mass of chalk
arranged in layers on a harder support. The eggs of the Cuttle are
also to be seen at times on the shore. They are dark oval bodies,



Fic. 307.—Eaes or tHe CurrnErisH.

joined together or attached to weed by short stalks, and are
commonly known as Sea Grapes.

The Common Squid is very plentiful on our shores, and is often
used by fishermen as bait. Its ‘bone,’ which is generally less than
202 ps ANIMAL LIFE

two inches long, is not chalky like that of the Cuitle, but composed
of a horny material. Another allied creature is the pretty little



Fic. 808.—Tur Common Seurp (Loligo vulgaris) AND rts ‘ PEN.’

Calamary, to be met with on our southern coasts at low tide. Tts
‘bone’ is shaped somewhat like a spear or pen, and is often called
the Sea Pen.

Marinr Crustaceans

After taking another short peep at the sketches illustrating the
structure of the Crayfish (p. 14), to refresh our memories concern-
ing the general characteristics of the Crustaceans, we will briefly
examine the common marine members of this group.

But although we may well look upon the Crayfish as a type of
the crustaceans, yet we must remember that some of these creatures
are so unlike the Crayfish in external appearance, that their position
in the animal creation has been determined only after a careful
examination. Take, for example, the little conical shells that
almost completely cover some of our rocks between the tide marks :
who would suppose them to be near relatives of our Crayfishes,
Lobsters, and Crabs? Yet such is the case, as a careful observation
of their development and structure will show. The shells to which
we refer are known commonly as the Acorn shells (Balanus), and

protect little creatures that belong to the Curripedia, or Curl-footed
crustaceans.
THE SHA-SHORE 203

Let us first examine the shell itself, and we see that it is com-
posed of several plates united at their edges, forming a cone with
an open top. Then, by
removing one carefully
from the rock, we find
that the cone has a base
-of the same material. The
upper edges of the plates
are so sharp that they cut
our hands as we climb the
steep and rugged rocks,
and the apex of the cone
is closed by a lid (the oper-
culum), that stretches ‘
across it obliquely. But Fic. 309.—BALANus.
how shall we make our
acquaintance with the creature inside? This is easy enough,
Simply place a piece of detached rock, with a few of the shells on
it, in a rock pool and watch. You will not have to wait long
before six pairs of beautifully curled and jointed ‘legs’ make
their appearance through a slit in each operculum. At once
the Balani commence to capture their minute prey. The twelve
legs form an admirable sweep net, which is alternately cast out
and drawn in, thus bringing the small animals on which these
creatures feed into their mouths.

Perhaps, however, some of my readers are in London or some
other inland place at the time of reading these pages. Must they,
then, wait perhaps for months before an opportunity comes of wit-
nessing the interesting movements of the Balanus? Not at all.
Go to the nearest fishmonger’s stall, and select an oyster, scallop,
mussel, or other ‘ shell-fish,’ with a few acorn shells on its valves.
Then, all you have to do is to place your specimen in a tumbler of
artificial salt water—one ounce of sea salt to a pint and a half of
water—and watch it in a strong light. Many other interesting
creatures may be obtained and studied in the same way by those
who have no immediate opportunity of visiting the seaside; the
crannies of some of the irregular oyster shells being especially
productive, sometimes harbouring four or five species of living
animals at the same time, without reckoning the very minute
forms.

The Balanus, like all other crustaceans, undergoes metamor-


204 ANIMAL LIFE

phoses ; and the larva, as the earlier stage is called, is very unlike
the adult.








in TG
HK it ti

CC



Fie. 311.—Tue Sanp
Hopper.

Fic. 310.—Tue Barnacuz.

The Barnacle is another common member of the Cirripedia,
but it is not met with very often on our shores. Its home is
generally the under side of floating
timber or ships.

Our next crustacean belongs to
the same group as the Fresh-
water Shrimp and the Woodlouse.
It is the Sand Hopper. Turn over
the weeds and miscellaneous matter
at high-water mark on a sandy



\



N

Fie. 312.—Tam Mantis Sure

(Squilla mantis).

beach, and hundreds of these little
creatures will be seen jumping
about furiously in search of another
hiding-place. Let us catch one and
examine it with a lens. Its eyes
are not mounted on stalks like
those of lobsters and crabs ; and we
observe a peculiar arrangement of
the legs, the three hind pairs having
joints that bend forward, and the
front legs having joints that bend
backward. It breathes by gills, but
these organs cannot perform their
duty unless moist, and hence we find
the Hopper burrowing into moist
sand, or pushing its way under

damp weeds, but it never enters the water, It feeds on decaying

substances, and may be looked upon as th

the sea-shore.

e chief scavenger of

We must now briefly examine two creatures that represent the
THE SEA-SHORE 205

Stomapoda (mouth-footed)—the lowest division of ‘Stalk-eyed’
crustaceans. These are the Mantis Shrimp and the Chameleon or
Opossum Shrimp. Neither of these is very common on our shores,
but the former has-been frequently taken on the Cornish coast,

and the latter has been seen in swarms in the waters off Wey-
mouth.



Fic. 313.—Tue Opossum Suriue (Mysis chameleon).

When we come to the common Brown Shrimp and the Prawn
we observe a wonderfully close resemblance to the Lobsters and
Crayfishes—so close, indeed, that a general description of any one of
them serves almost equally well for all the others. The Prawn, so
abundant on the south coast, is caught in large numbers while
young, and sold as shrimps; the older ones are often considered



Fic. 314.—Tur Common Surimp (Crangon vulgaris).

as belonging to quite a distinct species. It may be observed that
the Prawn is armed in front. with a toothed beak—a feature not
possessed by the Shrimp: also that the Shrimp does not turn red
when boiled. Both Shrimps and Prawns feed on carrion, thus per-
forming the scavenger’s duty in the water as does the Sand Hopper
on the shore.
206 ANIMAL LIFE

Shrimps, Prawns, Lobsters, and Crabs all possess five pairs of
walking feet, including the pair of large claws, and hence we often
find them grouped together under the head Decapoda, which
signifies ‘Ten-footed.’ They all cast their skins at certain in-
tervals, always remaining in a hiding-place until the new coat
is sufticiently hard to protect them from their enemies. Lobsters
are very quarrelsome creatures, and a combat between two of
them is almost sure to result in the loss of one or more limbs.
If a limb is seized by an antagonist, the captive immediately
snaps it off at one of the joints above, and thus escapes appa-



Vic. 315.—Tuu Prawn (Palemon serratus).

rently unconcerned at the loss, which, after all, is not of very
great moment, for in course of time a new limb develops on the
unsightly stump.

Although the bodies of Crabs (Brachyura) are very different in
form from those of Lobsters, yet we find a great similarity in the
arrangement of the parts. ‘The most striking difference is to

be found in the case of the ‘tail. We notice that Lobsters
~ always show a tendency to turn their abdomens downward, and
that they take powerful leaps backward by a sudden bending
of the tail under the body. But in Crabs this portion of the
body is permanently bent underneath, and closely applied to the
under surface.


THE SHA-SHORE 207

The common Shore Crab is another of the scavengers of shallow
waters, and often spends much of its time out of the sea, hiding
under stones and weeds between the tide marks. Its hind legs





a i op
hy

Fic. 316.—-Tur Norway Lorster Spree Norvegicus)



are flattened and fringed with hairs, thus forming the chief swim-
ming organs. This Crab is very hardy, and is easily kept alive in
the aquariun. :

The edible Crab may also be found under stones and in the
208 ANIMAL LIFE

crevices of rocks at low tide, but the finest specimens generally in-
habit deep water, and must be caught in some kind of trap. The
usual snare consists of a wicker basket known as the ‘CrabPot,’ with



Fic. 317.—Tue Common Suorr Crap (Carcinus Menas).

an aperture at the top, and so constructed that the Crabs, once in,
cannot find their way out again. These ‘ pots’ are baited with fish,
and let down by a rope with a cork float at the upper end to mark



Fic. 818.—Hariy Sraces or tHe SHorr Cran.

its whereabouts. The same kind of trap is also used for catching
Lobsters.
The Violet Fiddler or Lady Crab is very similar to the two species
THE SEA-SHORE 209

just named, but may be easily distinguished by the blue ridges on
its legs. I have seen hundreds of these under stones on the Cornish

coast, where they seem to be especially
abundant.

One of the most interesting of British
Crabs is the Hermit or Soldier, called by
the former name from its habit of living
a solitary life, and ‘Soldier’ from its
bloodthirsty propensities. Often, while
looking into a rock pool, we observe a
univalve shell making headway with un-
usual speed. The peculiar movements
of the shell attract our attention, and out
of curiosity we touch it, when suddenly
it stops, and the active lodger shrinks
well into its home. On picking it up and
examining it, we find that it contains
a strange-looking Crab, which has taken



Iie. 319.—Tue Hermit
Crap IN THE SHELL OF
A WHELK.

.
possession of an empty

shell for its home. This creature will live well in the aquarium,



Fic. 820.—Tue Hermit Cras (Pagurus Bernhardus) ovr or 11s SHELL.

P
210 ANIMAL LIFE

so we take it home and observe its habits, and we shall soon
learn why this Crab, unlike its cousins, selects such a strange
dwelling. At first it is very timid, and shrinks into its cell at
the least disturbance; but soon it becomes accustomed to its new



Fie. 321.—TuHe Pra Cras Fra. 322.—Porcellana platycheles.
(Pinnotheres pisum).

quarters, and walks about, drawing its shell after it, just like
a snail.

As it creeps along its body is to a great extent withdrawn from



Fria. 323.—Portunus variegatus.

the shell, and we begin to get a fair idea of the form of our new
friend. Its antenne, stalked eyes, and walking limbs remind us at
once of the Lobster, but its two claws are very unequal in size,
When we alarm our Hermit, we learn the reason for this last-named
THE SHA-SHORE 211

4

peculiarity ; for the smaller claw is then entirely hidden, while the
larger one serves to completely shut the cavity of the shell.



Fie. 324.—-Hensnow’s, Swine Crap (Polybius, Henslowii).



Fie. 325.—Tur Lone-armep Crap (Corystes), Fremaun. (THE Cuaws oF
THE MALE ARE TWICE AS LONG AS THOSE or THE FrMare.)

“Pe?
212 ANIMAL LIFE

There is one great difference between the Hermit Crab and the
molluse that originally inhabited its cell. While the mollusc lived,
its shell increased in size, keeping pace with the development of its
soft body; in fact, we may say that the shell was the molluse’s skin.
But on the death of this creature the shell increased no more. So
our growing Hermit inhabits a cell that will one day be too small
to accommodate it. Knowing this, we drop some empty shells into
our aquarium, and look forward to the day on which the change of
houses is to take place.



Fic. 326.--Tur Sprorr Crap (Maia squinado).

At last the time arrives. The Hermit is uneasy, and takes a tour
round, examining the empty shells. Now.it sees one that seems
to suit its requirements ; so it cautiously withdraws its body, and
quickly thrusts it into a new shell. But this one is not exactly the
thing, and it returns to the old home to have another search.
Another trial, and it is suited, and takes over the premises on a
short lease. It is only on such occasions as these that the Hermit
exposes the hinder portion of its body, and by so doing explains
the reason for its strange mode of living. ‘The posterior part is not
THE SHA-SHORE 213

protected by a hardened skin like the rest of the body, but is soft
and limbless, and is provided with a kind of sucker by Which it can
attach itself to its temporary dwelling. Sometimes a Hermit will
lalla molluse in order to obtain a shell on which it has cast a long-
ing eye; and it is probable that the numerous quarrels and fights
among the Hermits themselves are to an extent caused by attempts
to take possession of a coveted shell.

A few other British Crabs are figured, but we cannot find room
for descriptions. Among them is the little Pea Crab that lives
inside the shells of living mussels and other bivalves.

FIsHInG IN THE Rock Poots

While engaged in collecting marine objects, whatever be the
nature of the specimens we seck, we are sure to meet with several
species of fishes, mostly small, but none the less interesting on that
account. Ifwe approach a rock pool for the purpose of obtaining
anemones, molluscs, sea-weeds, or what not, usually the first living
object that attracts our attention is a little fish that makesa paddere
dart towards a tuft of weeds, or to a secluded crevice in the rock.
We should like to capture that little creature, and set to work with
that end in view, but are surprised at the clever way in which it
eludes our attempts. It darts from one tuft to another, and finally
squeezes its body into a deep and small niche, where it remains
perfectly safe until all danger is over.

If, however, we are to be successful in this matter, we must be
specially provided with a small and fine net—something like our
crab net, but very pointed. This must be dipped to the bottom,
and swept wpward among the tufts of weeds and in all uns small
angles of the pond.

Again, as we turn over the stones at low-water mark, we see
other fishes at rest, awaiting the next return of the tide. These are
often quite out of water, for they are species that are capable of
living for hours in damp holes.

The little fishes caught.in pools or under stones may be taken
home alive in wet weed, and require no water unless the distance
is considerable. They may then be kept alive for some time in any
kind of vessel in which is a fresh supply of sea water; but they
should also be supplied with some tufts of weed and corallines, and
also some loosely piled stones from the shore to serve as hiding-
places.
214 ANIMAL LIFE

A large number of fishes live in the open waters, and very seldom
approach close to our rocks; but some are of an opposite nature,
haunting the recesses between the rugged rocks, and hiding in watch
for their prey between the gently waving tufts of weeds. Many of
the latter are known collectively as ‘Rock Fishes,’ and interesting
creatures some.of them are. As a rule they are not fit for food;
but what is that to a naturalist, whose sole reason for hunting is to
know the structure and habits of his captures? Post yourself on
the summit of a rock and drop your rod-line into a deep and shady
recess between two perpendicular, rugged, and weed-clothed masses,
and you will soon secure some curious specimens. This kind of
fishing is as interesting as any I know, and certainly is not a great
tax on the patience of the fisherman; for, unless the position is not
well chosen, the demand for bait is continuous. There is no par-
ticular art in this kind of fishing, for the rock frequenters are gene-
rally very greedy fish, and will bite at almost anything. Mussels
and other molluses are always acceptable. Marine worms are un-
doubtedly a luxury. But, failing these, many will make a dash at
‘a piece of red worsted, or a small strip of red flannel, especially if it
is kept moving.

Take with you a good supply of hooks, for you are sure to lose a
number before you become acquainted with the nature of the nooks
in the rock and the peculiar habits of tiie rock dwellers. Take the
‘Father Lasher’ for example. As soon as it bites, it darts back into
its hiding-place between the rocks, and there holds on by its spines
so firmly that to pull it out is almost impossible. Some of the
‘Rock Fishes’ are very hardy, and certainly very powerful for their
size. They also seem.to be almost insensible to pain. On one
occasion, having fished for only about twenty minutes on a rocky pro-
montory of the Cornish coast, and having lost in that short time
about five or six hooks, I hauled up a ‘ Bullhead’ about five inches
long, and, to my surprise, found that I had already caught it twice
before, for the three strands of gut projecting from its mouth showed
that it had previously broken two hooks from my line.

We cannot now go into the details of deep-sea fishing, whiffing,
trawling, &c.; for our object is to deal with the coast only. But, if
ever you have the opportunity of gaining the companionship of a
good-natured fisherman, by all means embrace the opportunity of
getting an insight into his art. You will then get something better
than book knowledge concerning the fisherman’s work; but be
careful that you receive his natural history ‘ facts’ with great caution.
THE SHA-SHORE 215

Preserving Fishes

The simplest method of preserving small fishes is to put them
into well-corked bottles, or, if your means permit, into stoppered
specimen jars containing spirit. It is not necessary that the spirit
used be pure, for if diluted with its own volume of water it answers
quite as well.

In many cases you will observe that the layer of slimy substance
covering the skin of a fish becomes white and opaque in spirit, and
that it often peels off, imparting to the liquid a very muddy appear-
ance; in fact, quite spoiling the look of the specimen. Hence I re-
commend the following method of dealing with them: Keep a
large jar of diluted spirit for all the fresh specimens. Put them
into this, and keep them there for a week or so. Then take them
out, remove all the whitish substance from their skins by means of
a brush, and, when quite clean, transfer them to the smaller bottles
or jars in which they are to remain permanently, with a fresh
supply of spirit.

The preparation of the skeleton of a fish requires much care,
especially if the fin rays are to be preserved as well as the skeleton
proper. The skin must first be very carefully removed without
touching any of the harder supporting structures. Then open the
body cavity along the under surface, and remove the internal
organs. Next, by means of a sharp knife, remove the flesh as much
as you can, again being very careful not to disturb the harder
structures. When this dissection has been carried as far as possible,
place the remains in a shallow dish with sufficient water to cover
it. The remainder of the soft parts will gradually break up with
this soaking, and with frequent changes of water, and the occasional
use of a soft brush, you will, in a few days, be rewarded with a
splendid specimen of the framework of the fish. It must now be
removed from the water, and suspended on wires to dry ; and any part
that has become detached may be fixed in its proper place, when dry,
with a little coaguline or by means of fine wires.

Some common Fishes of owr Coasts

Perhaps the commonest of all our shore fishes are the Blennies,
of which we have several species. We meet with them in almost
every rock pool, and often find them under stones. Even a little
pool, containing only a gallon or so of water, is almost sure to
contain a Blenny. The commonest species is the Smooth Blenny or
216 ANIMAL LIFE

Shanny, of which we give an illustration. It is a heavy fish, it has
no swimming bladder, and consequently spends its time either on
the bed of the pool, or resting on the weedy tufts. It is a peculiar
fish. The eyeballs can be moved independently of each other, one
being turned upward, if necessary, on the look-out for formidable
biped monsters, while the other is cast in another direction in
search of food. It will live for some time in fresh water, and may
be frequently found in holes far above the water’s level. It has
even been caught basking in the hot sunshine on ledges of rock,
but always with a safe retreat in the rear; and when alarmed it
darts backward into its little niche with the aid of its spiny fins. I
have often kept Blennies alive for several days in moist weed, and
then transported them by rail for a distance of over two hundred
miles, apparently without causing them any inconvenience.

There are not many small fishes that will attempt to bite their



Fic. 327.—Tur Smootu Bienny.

captors ; but try the Blenny—one of about four or five inches long.
It will hold on to the tip of your finger with such power that it is
not easily shaken off, and its well-developed front teeth will often
make your blood flow. These teeth, by the way, are used by the
Blenny in removing Limpets and other molluses from the rock.

All the Blennies have short snouts, in which respect they re-
semble the Cat or Wolf Fish. This latter is a very ferocious in-
habitant of our seas, armed with powerful teeth and cat-like eyes,
and always ready to fight desperately when caught.

The Cornish Sucker is another curiosity of animal life. It is
provided with sucking dises by which it attaches itself to rocks and
weeds. If you wish to see how it uses this apparatus you have
simply to take one in your hand. It will shake it8 body, probably
to adjust its sucker against the skin, and then you find it so firmly
fixed that you can invert your hand without its falling off. This
THH SHA-SHORE 217

fish is found on most parts of our rocky shores, but derives its
name from the fact that it was first found on the Cornish coast.



Fic. 328,—Tur CornisH SuckEr.

You will probably remember what has been said concerning the
lively ‘Tittler’ of our fresh-water ponds; and of its nest-building
and other domesticated habits. Well, we have another such fish

frequenting our shores, a
cousin of the ‘ Tittler,’ known
as the Fifteen-spined Stickle-
back or Sea Adder. Itis not
very well known to young
collectors, for it generally in-
habits the rock holes beyond
jow-water mark ; but is some-
times found in pools between
the tide marks. Its nest is
made of weeds, bound to-
gether by a silky fibre, and
the eggs are mixed up in the
meshes, being laid at intervals
during the building of the
nest. Both eggs and young
are guarded vigorously by the
parents.

I take this opportunity of
recommending all those of
my readers who are desirous
of becoming acquainted With



Fic. 329.—Tur Firrren-spInep
STICKLEBACK AND NeEsv.

the natural history of our British fishes, to read the admirable work
on this subject’ by Couch, whose close observations and pleasant
writings have added much to our knowledge and increased our
interest in this branch of natural science.

The Father Lasher, known also as the Sea Scorpion and the
Lucky Proach, is a marine Bullhead, allied to the Miller’s Thumb of
our fresh-water streams. It is very prettily marked with black and
218 ANIMAL LIFE

grey mottlings, the colour of the male being especially rich ; still it
is often looked upon as an ugly creature ; and the big head and for-
midable spines have certainly a questionable aspect. This fish is
very common in rock pools, but the finest specimens are to be caught



Fie. 330.—Tue Fararr Lasuenr.

with a rod and line off the rocks at low tide. As soon as it is pulled
out of the water it raises its spines and spreads out its gill covers in
preparation for the attack ; and, unless handled very cautiously, it
will thrust its spines well into your flesh.



\
Fie. 331.—Tur Gopy.

All the rock fishes just mentioned belong to the spiny-rayed
order, as may be judged from the figures shown. To them we may
add the Gobies, which much resemble the Blenny in habits ; and also



Fic. 832.—Tnr Lesser Wrrver.

the Weever Fish that burrows into the sand, and there rests with only

its mouth exposed. ;
Among the soft-rayed fishes we may mention the Bearded Rock-

lings, two species of which are common under stones at low tide,
THE SHA-SHORE 219

and the well-known Sand Kel. Hundreds of the last-named fish
may be seen at a time on sandy coasts, especially in the south-west.





















































































































































































































Fig. 333.—Tur Lesser Sanp Er.

They burrow into the soft and moist
sand; and, as the tide recedes, they
may be seen as far as the eye is capable
of detecting them, popping up their
heads, and wriggling their bodies till
free from the sand. Thousands are
killed by the heat of the sun, being
unable to return into the sand after
it becomes dry and hard. They are
largely used by fishermen as_ bait.
Their eggs are laid in the burrows.
Amongst the varied collection of
substances thrown up by the breakers
we often see strong black leathery
cases, oblong in form, with spines or
tendrils at the four corners. These are
commonly known as Mermaid’s Purses
and Skate Barrows. They are the egg
tt OF eae and Ge oe DOE Fic. 334.—Kee Case or Doa
Tish. The latter have twining tendrils, irene
which are of service for mooring them Yn
to weeds, thus assisting in keeping them in safety till the young have
escaped, ;


220 ANIMAL LIFE

CHAPTER IV
SNAILS AND SLUGS

Sains and Slugs ave land molluses. You will find them very
interesting creatures if you will only overcome the common pre-
judice against them on account of their slimy skins, and you may
form a very pretty and useful collection of their shells.

They all belong to the head-bearing molluses, and breathe by
means of a lung that communicates directly with the outer air. In
the Common Snail (Helix aspersa), and in most of the others, the

















































Via. 335.—Helix aspersa. Pp

breathing aperture may be seen on the right side when. the animal
is fully extended. At such times the ‘collar’ is exposed round the
rim of the shell, and it is here that the aperture is to be seen.

The slimy character of the skin is caused by a thick mucus whieh
the creature is continuously secreting. This secretion is absolutely
necessary to the animal, for it cannot live with a dry skin.

Snails hibernate during the winter; and if you examine one at
this season you will observe that the mucus has hardened over the

SNAILS AND SLUGS ROOT

mouth of the shell, thus forming a protective covering that answers
the same purpose as the operculwm in the Periwinkle and Whelk.
But although the Snail can pass the winter without food, it does not
seem to be able to exist without air, for you will always see a hole
in the dried secretion.

Some of the Slugs make a rather curious use of this same sub-
stance. When one of these creatures wishes to descend from a tree
which it has been exploring during the night, it allows itself to
descend to the ground on the end of a thread of mucus, which
hardens on exposure to air.

Slugs are often regarded as molluses without shells, but a closer





























Fic. 336.—Helivx pomatia.

examination will prove that such is not the case. It is not always,
however, that the shell is external. The so-called Snail-slug
(Testacella) has a small shell on the tail; but the majority of the
Slugs have either a shield-like shell underneath the mantle, as the
thick skin is called, or else a number of little grains of calcareous
substance loosely arranged in a similar position.

The arrangement and mechanism of the eyes and tentacles form
another interesting feature of the land molluscs, and it will repay
anyone to watch them closely as they glide about so gracefully
with these organs extended. Some have four horns, with the eyes
situated at the extremities of the upper pair. Others have their
eyes at the bases of these horns.
222 ANIMAL LIFE

The horns of Snails and Slugs are retractile, and are drawn in
partially or completely whenever they touch any substance that
obstructs their path. If you gently touch one of the mounted eyes

of either of these creatures,
that eye immediately disap-
pears inside the tentacle in
a marvellous manner. The
motion is a very peculiar one,
and not easily understood
without a close examination.
But with care you may see
that the tentacle is pulled
inside out, or, more correctly,
outside in. A muscle passes
from the tip of each tentacle
“into the head ; and when this
contracts the effect is exactly
similar to that produced by
pulling a string fixed inside
to the tip of a finger of a



glove.
Fic. 337.—Dracram or tHe Heap or Let us now see what can
4 SNar. be done in the way of col-
n, nerves; m, muscles ; ¢, tentacles. lecting and preserving these

soft-bodied animals.

They are extremely variable in the selection of their resting
places and feeding grounds—so much so that it is difficult to say
where they are not to be found. Some species are particularly
partial to old walls, especially if there is vegetation in the crevices
or at the base to supply them with food.
Overturned stones will generally reveal a
rich harvest of both Snails and Slugs; and
the moss growing at the roots of trees should
always be examined by the collector. Nettle

Fic. 338.—Succinea beds in damp and shady places are extremely
putris. productive, and if you will only examine the

stems and under surfaces of the leaves of the

nettles you are sure to be rewarded with a variety of species ; but if
you start out with the intention of searching these plants, be sure
that you take your gloves. During the autumn you may find plenty
among the fallen leaves, especially in damp localities; and at all


SNAILS AND SLUGS 223

seasons the herbage that covers the banks of ditches and streains
should be examined.

Put your specimens in chip boxes, preferably with a leaf or a
few blades of grass ; and make any notes you desire either on the
box itself or in your note book.

Now we have to deal with the methods of preserving both the
shells and the soft parts of the land molluscs.

If you desire to preserve the shells only, your process is simple
enough. You have merely to kill the animals by plunging them
into boiling water, and then remove the bodies of Snails with a bent
wire, and extract the shells of Slugs with a sharp penknife, or your
scalpel if you have one. The shells must now be washed and dried,
after which the smallest of the Snail-shells and those obtained from
the Slugs may be mounted on small cards.



Fia. 839.—Arion ater. ee
ce all shells

Some collectors recommend the thorough cleanin
(and especially those of aquatic molluscs) with a tooth brush. But
this, I think, is not a good plan, for it may injure the delicate sur-
faces of many of the specimens; and, in the case of Water-snails,
the growths that cover the shells are often in themselves very
interesting objects of study, besides being a normal feature of the
aquatic molluscs. Where, however, you have a number of shells of
the same species, one at least might be quite cleared of vegetable
growth.

Slugs may be killed by dropping them into spirit or turpentine,
but both of these have the disadvantage of causing the creatures to
die in a more or less contracted state. They should be preserved
with their bodies and their tentacles fully extended, and this may
be accomplished very successfully by means of corrosive sublimate. ss
224 ANIMAL LIFE

Put a saturated solution of this poisonous substance into a wide-
mouthed bottle. Next, place your Slug on a narrow slip of glass,
and wait till it commences to crawl with tentacles well extended.
Now plunge glass and Slug together into the solution, and the
creature will die almost immediately without changing its form.
Snails may be treated in the same way if you desire to preserve
them in liquid.

Before finally storing the molluscs in your specimen tubes or
bottles, the slimy mucus that covers their skins must be entirely
cleaned off.

There are several preservative fluids suitable for these creatures,
but, perhaps, few are simpler and more perfectly adapted to the
purpose than turpentine, or a mixture of equal parts of water and
glycerine. A mixture of spirit and glycerine is also good.



Fie. 340.—Testacella.

Slugs may also be preserved in a dry state; or, rather, their
skins may. The process is as follows: Make an incision in the
skin on the under side, and extract all the internal organs. Then
dry the skin as far as you can by pressing it between sheets of
blotting-paper ; and, after dusting the inside with a very little finely
powdered alum or corrosive sublimate, stuff it with cotton-wool,
work it into its natural form as perfectly as you can, and set it
aside to dry. When dry, you can restore the natural gloss to the
skin by means of a little varnish.

The skins of Slugs may also be preserved in the same way as
recommended for Larve on p. 131.

The woodcuts interspersed with this short chapter, together with
a few coloured illustrations on Plate VIII, will assist the young
collector in identifying some of the common species.
CHAPTER V
SPIDERS, CENTIPEDES, AND MILLEPEDES

Iv is impossible for a naturalist to proceed with any kind of field
work without being continually brought into contact with the
creatures whose names appear at the head of this chapter. Wend-
ing his way through lanes or woods, the delicate silken threads of
Spiders, floating in the breeze, though generally so fine as to escape
observation, incessantly make themselves known by a gentle irrita-
tion of the skin. Large and conspicuous snares constructed by
other kinds are seen among the bushes at almost every step. When
beating the herbage for larvie, he will generally find a nwmber of
Spiders among the dislodged occupants. His sweep net, though
aimed at larve or beetles, will almost always contain a fair sprink-
ling of these eight-legged intruders ; and, whether searching tree
trunks, digging for pup, or overturning stones for any form of
living creature, he is sure to surprise a host of Spiders, Centipedes,
and Millepedes, some of which will scamper away as fast as they
can into the nearest dark corner, while others will feign death to
avoid, if possible, being observed by the monster who so suddenly
brings them to light.

A good many collectors devote nearly all their attention to
certain classes of living heings, almost entirely neglecting those
forms which they have not yet learnt to love. Thus, many an
entomologist knows but little of Spiders and the many-legged
crawlers ; and, although so familiar with their general appearance,
always regards them as the useless refuse of animal life, and throws
them on one side without even a thought. But why should not
these creatures have a claim to be ranked among the objects of
our study ? Is it because they are not beautiful, or that their
habits exhibit no interesting features? Most certainly neither of
these descriptions could be truthfully applied to any of the creatures
we are now speaking about ; and, if the naturalist finds no particular

Q
226 ANIMAL LIFE

desire to become acquainted with them, it is simply because he
does not yet know sufficient of them to cause his interest to be
aroused.

Perhaps the following brief remarks may lead some to take a
little interest in the study of their structure and habits.

SPIDERS

Spiders are so widely distributed that it may be truthfully said
they are to be found everywhere except in the ocean. Consequently,
should you like to try your hand at Spider hunting, you will have
no need of even a moment's consideration as to the most likely
localities; you will meet with them in the most unpromising spots.

The paraphernalia, too, of the collector of Spiders is of the most
simple description. All you need is a number of pill boxes and a
sweep net.

As you walk through a field you can obtain a good many species
by sweeping your net amongst the tall grasses, and the same re-
mark applies to the herbage of hedges and banks. But this method,
although it fills the boxes most satisfactorily, is open to one grave
objection, for it does not enable you to become acquainted with the
habits of the species you collect. One of the most interesting
features of certain Spiders is the wonderful skill and instinct dis-
played in the construction of their snares; but if your specimens
are captured by sweeping or beating the herbage, you entirely lose
the opportunity of noting this.

How, then, shall we set to work? Search carefully among the
herbage, in all kinds of chinks and crannies, and under stones.
Each time you meet with a Spider, and especially if it be a species
with which you are not already familiar, carefully observe its web,
if any, and its habits as far as you are able. After you have thus
satisfied yourself, cautiously box your specimen, and write down all
the facts concerning your captive that you consider to be worth re-
membering. Such notes may be written on the cover of the pill
box; Or you may simply place a number on the box itself, and
write the notes opposite a corresponding number in your pocket-
book. The webs of Spiders should always be accurately described ;
and you should never omit the nature of its haunt—whether among
bushes or grass, on the bark of a tree, or in a hole of a wall, and
whether in a damp or in a dry situation.

You will observe a great difference in the behaviour of the
SPIDERS, CENTIPEDES, AND MILLEPEDES 227

various species when alarmed. Some will make off as fast as their
eight long legs can carry them, while others will immediately drop
from their position, leaving a fine silken cord for the return journey
(should they be fortunate enough to require it), and feign death with
folded limbs till all danger is apparently over.

The latter are easily secured as a rule, for they may be made to
drop directly into the pill box held beneath them when they are
disturbed; but on the ground these mimickers are best manipu-
lated with a small pair of forceps. But why use forceps? Is it
because Spiders bite ? Well, many kinds certainly do so, and pretty
powerfully too in proportion to their size; but none of the British
species are to be feared on that score. The forceps are recommended
for these as for all small and delicate creatures, because with this
instrument they are less liable to injury than when held between
the finger and thumb.

The next question is—What shall we do with our specimens
when we reach home? ‘To this my first advice is: Deal with each
one separately, so that its identity be not lost, and the notes taken
be thus rendered useless. There will be no need to hurry on with
the preserving and labelling, for Spiders will not harm with a few
hours’ confinement in a pill box. Proceed with each one as
follows : :

Tip it out into a wide-mouthed bottle containing either turpen-
tine or undiluted spirit. As soon as it is dead, transfer it to a small
specimen tube of turpentine, cork it securely, and label it at once,
with its name if you know it, but if not, with the
number against the notes taken at the time of its
capture.

The specimen tubes may be obtained at the dealers’
for a few shillings a gross; but if the collector has
had a little experience in the manipulating of glass
tubing, he will be able to make them for himself at
less than half the cost.

When your tubes are ready, they may be stored in
any kind of shallow box or drawer. ‘They may be
laid in compartments of stitable size, and so prevented
from knocking against each other when moved about ;
but another plan is to fasten each bottle to a separate yq. 341,
piece of card by means of two bands of cotton, as
shown in fig. 841. I think the latter method is far superior to the
other, for the writing can be placed on the card instead of on a

Q2


228 ANIMAL LIFE

label, thus placing no obstacle in the way of future observations ;-
and if all the cards be of the same size, they will lie neatly in the
box or drawer without much fear of displacement.

I will now give a short account of a few of our Spiders, and then
conclude with a table of classification that will be found useful to
young collectors who wish to take up this branch of natural
history.

For our first example we will take the well-known Garden
Spider, of the family Hpeiride, whose beautiful webs are to be seen
in almost every square yard of our
gardens in the summer. ‘This
creature is too familiar to need a
description, but its wonderful archi-
tectural powers must not pass un-
noticed.

Here is a Garden Spider, appa-
rently seeking a suitable spot in
which to construct its web. Let
us watch its movements closely.
SPDR Me ae «=: First it applies its spinnerets to a
Fic. 342.—Tur Garpen Sprper. stem, and then walks away, leaving

a fine thread behind it. A few paces
off the tightened fibre is fastened to another object, and then
another line is formed. In this manner the creature continues
to work, apparently in a very irregular and aimless fashion, till it
has stretched a number of threads from one projecting object to
another, covering a wide area, but leaving a central space quite
devoid of threads.

These outer lines, though necessarily irregular on account of the
relative positions of the points connected, are the foundation of the
very regular and beautiful structure that is to fillup the blank
within. The Spider then decides on its central point, and spins a
number of strong radiating lines, all of which are double threads,
from this point to the various parts of the foundation. Now the
whole has something the appearance of the spokes of a very delicate
wheel. The Spider next takes up a position in the centre again,
and, applying its spinnerets to one of the radiating threads close to
the point at which they meet, starts the construction of the spiral.
It passes the tip of its abdomen quickly from thread to thread, at
each movement laying a very elastic line, and gradually increasing
the diameter of its spiral till satisfied with the dimensions of the snare.


SPIDERS, CENTIPEDES, AND MILLEPEDES 229

The building of the whole of this structure occupies less than an
hour; and, the work being over, the Spider retires to a neighbouring
nook, where it can watch for its prey, and where, by means of a
communicating thread, it can feel the vibrations of the web.

If now we take a lens and examine the structure carefully, we
observe that the threads of the spiral differ remarkably from the
others. They are exceedingly fine, and, except those near the centre,
are studded with little globules of a sticky substance. These,
then, are the threads that hold fast the unwary flies, while the
thicker radiating lines are merely a supporting framework.

The spiral thread, too, is constantly renewed, so that a fresh
supply of the gummy substance is continually replacing that which
has lost its holding power through exposure to the air.

Our voracious Spider is now in its parlour, watching with
sharpened appetite the expected approach of a poor innocent fly.
At last a sturdy bluebottle plunges into the almost invisible web.
In a moment the Spider is on the spot; but the fly, after a brief
and desperate struggle, narrowly escapes from its hungry foe,
leaving the snare in a somewhat damaged condition.

The Spider does not find it necessary to repair the rent at once,
but retires to its den with its appetite keener than ever.

Before long another poor victim becomes entangled in the fatal
net, and the vicious monster pounces on its struggling prey, seizing
it with its jointed ‘jaws’ (falces), and at once commences to turn it
round and round with the help of these appendages and the third
pair of legs, at the same time applying its spinnerets, and drawing
out numerous fine threads with its hind limbs, till the poor fly, com-
pletely wrapped in a dense covering of silk, cannot move a single
joint.

The bound captive is now mercilessly dragged into the awful
dungeon, and is soon sucked dry, nothing being left but the limbs
attached to an empty skin.

Thus the Spider enjoys the whole of the sunny summer; and,
on the approach of colder days, when food is not forthcoming, pre-
pares a silken cell in which to pass the winter months.

The female Spider lays a large number of eggs in October, all in
one dense mass, and surrounds them with a cocoon of yellow silk.
Throughout the winter plenty of these cocoons may be seen under
the shelter of our garden walls and fences.

The webs of House Spiders, of which there are two species, form-
a kind of gauzy sheet, with a tubular portion in which the owner
230 ANIMAL LIFE

conceals itself. All the threads are of the same kind—very fine,
and not dotted with a gummy substance like the spiral of the
Garden Spider. When a fly alights on such a web, it is held by the
feet, which become entangled in the fine meshes ; and a number of
threads that run from the snare to the den form a means of com-
munication by which the vibrations are conveyed to the Spider, so
that even in its moments of lethargy it is aroused by its victim’s
struggles.



Fic. 343.—Segestria Fie. 344.—Crap Sprper Fic. 345.—Tur
senoculata—A S1x- (Lhonvisus lanio). Sper (Drassus lapi-
EYED SPIDER. A dicola).



The Crab Spider is so called from its singular habit of sometimes
walking sideways like crabs. The peculiar arrangement of its legs,
which are spread out widely, the first two pairs particularly being
much longer than the others, is especially adapted for this habit.
Like some of the crabs it also feigns death when alarmed, rolling
up its legs, and allowing itself
to be roughly used without
showing the least signs of life.

The Wolf Spiders form
another group. They have
received this name probably
ie on account of their habit of

prowling about in search of

\ their prey; for they spin no
mR fp & kind of snare like many of
th ‘\ their relatives. One of them

\ \ is known as the Raft Spider.
Fra. 346.—A Femanr Wour Spiper rie eee zeal y posal:
(Dolomedes) with Kaa Bae, EN- ful creature, of a rich, choco-
TRO late colour, bordered by a
broad orange band, and

‘adorned with a double row of white spots. It loves damp places,
and often takes to the water, when it either runs briskly on the


SPIDERS, CENTIPEDES, AND MILLEPEDES 2381

surface, or searches out its prey on some floating substance. It will
even construct a raft by binding together fragments with its silken

























































Fic. 347.—Tue Rarr Spier.

threads, and then allow itself to be carried
away by wind or stream. If now it chances
to see an aquatic insect on the water, it runs
from its raft, seizes its prize, and then returns
to the raft to enjoy its meal. It cannot dive
like the Water Spider, but it often takes short
excursions beneath the surface by creeping
down the stems of aquatic plants. This crea-
ture shows a marked affection for its off-
spring. The cocoon, containing more than
two hundred eggs, is carried about by the
female till the young are hatched; and for a
time she is very attentive to her numerous
family.

The Salticus is an active little fellow that





Fic. 348.—Salticus
scenicus, MAGNIFIED,

may be seen almost everywhere, in town and country, creeping over
walls and trees in the hot sunshine. If you disturb it, away it
2382 ANIMAL LIFE

starts with a series of short jumps; but if it considers itself to be
in danger, it drops to the ground on a fine thread. When follow-
ing up its prey its manner is exceedingly cat-like. It makes a very
gradual approach towards the coveted fly, exhibiting a wonderful
degree of caution and slyness till very near ; and then, with a sudden
spring, seizes the prize in its limbs and jaws. The white silken
cocoons of this Spider, containing from a dozen to twenty eggs,
may be seen in the crevices of walls and the bark of trees.

Classification of Spiders
Family 1. Epeiride. Webs with regular radiating and concentric lines.
_ First and second pairs of legs longer than the others.
Feet terminate in three or more claws. Eyes in two rows.
Abdomen large, round or oval.

Family 2. Theridiide. Webs irregular. All legs long and slender;
first and second pairs longest. Feet with three claws.
Eyes in two rows. Abdomen large and angular.

Family 3. Tegenariide or Tubitele. Webs usually sheet-like, with a
tubular den. Intermediate legs shorter than the others.
Generally two claws on each foot. Eyes in two rows.
Abdomen large and rounded. This family includes the
common House Spider.

Family 4. Thomiside. Eyes in two curved rows. First and second
pairs of legs longer and stouter. ‘Two claws on each foot.
Abdomen broad and flattened. ‘his family includes the
Crab Spiders.

Family 5. Lycoside. Eyes in three rows. No webs. Wanderers.
Legs strong and hairy ; first and second pairs longest.
Three pairs of spinnerets. ‘This family includes the

Wolf Spiders.

Family 6. Salticide. Eyes in three rows. No webs. Wanderers.
Legs short, stout, and hairy, terminating each in three
claws. Abdomen egg-shaped. Three pairs of spinnerets.

Family 7. Mygalide. Eyes: four large and four small. Legs short
and strong; first and fourth longest. Abdomen oval.
Two pairs of spinnerets—one pair very small.

CENTIPEDES AND MILLEPEDES

These creatures are known to almost every schoolboy as
‘Hundred-legs’ and ‘ Thousand-legs.’ The names‘ Centipedes’ and
‘ Millepedes’ have exactly the same meanings. They are simply
the schoolboy’s names dressed in the more fashionable Latin garb.
SPIDERS, CHENTIPEDES, AND MILLEPEDES 288

But it must not be assumed that the creatures in question possess
the exact number of legs that these words express; for the actual
numbers are far less in both cases.

I need give no directions for the collecting of Centipedes and
Millepedes, for you are sure to meet with them wherever you go;
and if you spend some little time in hunting for other and more
attractive forms of life that inhabit the soil and sheltered nooks, you
will probably meet with just as many of the ‘many-legged’ as if
you searched especially for them. Still I may mention the fact
that their favourite haunts correspond with those of most of the
beetles. They are lovers of darkness, lurking during the daytime
under stones and bark, and gnaw their way into rotten wood.











































Fie, 849.—A Minterrpr (Julus terrestris).

They are best preserved in tubes of spirit or turpentine, as re-
commended in the case of Spiders.

If you examine any one of the animals of this group (Myriopoda)
you will observe that the body consists of a number of distinct seg-
ments, all, or nearly all, of which bear a pair of short limbs—in
some of the Millepedes we may count many more than a hundred.
They all have distinct heads, with a pair of antenne, and generally
simple eyes arranged in groups.

In many respects they resemble insects. They breathe by
tracher and are reproduced by eggs. At first the young have only
three pairs of legs, and the eyes are few in number; but as they
advance in life new segments are formed between the old ones, and
the number of eyes gradually increases.
234 ANIMAL LIFE

The Millepedes are also known as Galley Worms and Wire
Worms. Their bodies are long and wire-like, not flattened like those
of Centipedes, each segment being a complete ring, bearing a pair



Fic. 350.—A CENTIPEDE.

of very short hair-like legs jointed close together on the under side.
They feed on both animal and vegetable substances, and roll up
into a coil when alarmed.
235

CHAPTER VI
REPTILES AND REPTILE HUNTING

Wuat is a Reptile? Let us see what the dictionary has to say on
the subject: Reptile, a creeping animal (L. repo, to creep). This
definition is beautifully brief, but will it answer our purpose? I
think not. Hundreds of the creeping creatures of this globe are
quite distinct from the Reptile class, and a large number of the true
Reptiles can scarcely be said to creep at all. Anyone who has seen
the beautiful little Lizard of our heaths and banks darting about
in the sunshine after its prey would at once discard the above de-
finition. But, indeed, no definition that is sufficiently brief for
insertion in an ordinary dictionary could possibly answer the
question with which we started, for the answer must be framed
in such a manner that it shall include all Reptiles, and, at the
same time, exclude all those creatures that do not belong to the
class.

I will not attempt to give an abbreviated technical definition,
but will answer the question by giving some of the most striking
features that form the distinguishing marks of the Reptilia, confin-
ing my remarks to Snakes and Lizards—the only divisions of the
class represented in Britain.

We have already observed that the heart of a frog has only one
ventricle, and that, as a result of the incomplete aération of the
blood, the temperature is low. The same is also true of Reptiles,
hence we speak of them as cold-blooded animals. They do not
undergo metamorphoses like frogs, toads, and newts ; but the young
are much like their parents, and they breathe by means of lungs
throughout their term of life.

The skin of Reptiles is very characteristic. The under layer or
dermis is drawn up into a number of regular folds, and the outer
skin or epidermis is of a horny nature, very thin and almost trans-
236 - ANIMAL LIFE

parent, and, lying close on the folds of the dermis, looks as if it were
composed of a number of distinct scales like those that cover the
skins of fishes. This outer layer is shed at intervals, generally
in one piece.

Some Reptiles are ovipar FO nare is, they lay eggs-from which
the young are afterwards hatched, just as is the case with birds and
fishes. But others are said to be ovo-viviparous. These also lay
eges; but the eggs, instead of having a definite shape, consist of a
very delicate soft skin, through which the young, well developed at
the time of laying, can be seen wriggling about in a most active
manner ; before many seconds have passed, each has succeeded in
bursting the thin membrane that inclosed it, and has started its
new life, entirely or almost entirely independent of its parent.

BririsH LIzarpDs

Ask your schoolfellow if he has ever seen a Lizard, and he will
reply, with alook of great surprise at your apparent ignorance, ‘ Why,
yes, of course I have ; thousands of them.’ Now ask him if he can take
you to a place where you are likely to catch some, and he will be
almost certain to lead you to a pond swarming with newts. ‘ But,’
you say, ‘Lizards live on land, and seldom or never enter water.’
Still your companion will pity your ignorance, and assure you that
he has often seen the creatures now in the pond on dry land. In
this last remark he would be correct, for newts spend only a portion
of their lifetime in water; but it is evident that he does not know a
Lizard.

If you want to catch Lizards, you must go to a dry heath, exposed
to the full blaze of the summer’s sun, with numerous tufts of coarse
low herbage or clumps of furze to afford them shelter. Hedges and
banks facing the south are also likely spots, providing they are not
sheltered from the sun, and, as a rule, the drier the better, though
I have at times seen large numbers on damp slopes close to a stream,
and have even had to wade through the mire to catch them among
the reeds and coarse grasses.

No ordinary box will do for imprisoning these active creatures,
for it will often happen that, as soon as you raise the cover to put
one in, two will pop out and jump into the thick herbage, where re-
capture is hopeless. Your box (and one is quite sufficient) should
be of moderate size. The lid should be kept closed till your return,
and all your captures introduced through a small hole in the top,
REPTILES AND REPTILE HUNTING ~- 237

which may be closed by a cork. Make a number of small holes to
admit air, and put a quantity of dry grass inside. K
Lizard catching, or rather Lizard sighting, illustrates the value
of eye-training as much as anything I know. On several occasions
I have been on a hunting expedition with a small group of boys
who bad not done much field work; and, on reaching a suitable
spot, have set them to search for four-legged Reptiles. Lizard after
Lizard would they pass without ever seeing it—not that they did
not know what a Lizard was like, but their eyes could not detect the
form and varied colouring of the creatures amongst the equally
varied tints of the herbage. Now and then one would suddenly
shout, ‘Here’s one!’ but he did not see it till it was in the act of



Fic. 351.—Tur Common Lizarp.

darting away ; and hardly were the words uttered a the Lizard
had disappeared.

When searching a bank or heath you must walk slowly and very
cautiously, so that the creatures may not be frightened away before
you are near enough to grasp them. You may not go far before
youespy the beautiful form of our Common Lizard (Zootoca vivipara),
basking in the sun ona bare stone or a tuft of grass, with its body flat-
tened out so as to expose a larger surface to the sun’s rays. Here it
rests quite motionless, except that the sides ofits neck are alternately
contracting and dilating as they perform the function of a pair of
bellows for the inflating of the lungs. It watches your every move-
ment as you cautiously advance; but raise your hand, and it im-
mediately disappears among the grass. You have missed this time,
but go alittle distance off, and after some minutes return to the
place, and you may see the selfsame Lizard in the same spot as
238 ANIMAL LIFE

before ; but it is more wary this time, so that your chances of success
are eyen smaller.

Another time you are more successful, and manage, by a sharp
movement of the hand, to catch your victim—of course by the tail,
or “it may bite.’ But look! what have you got? Nothing but a
wriggling tail! The owner has vanished! Yes, it is quite true.
These creatures have the strange power of rendering their tails so
brittle as to be snapped off with the greatest ease, and they seem
none the worse afterwards. With them life is dearer than an
ornamental prolongation of the backbone. But the tail is not per-
manently lost; for, after a few seasons, a second tail will have
developed to such perfection that it is scarcely to be detected from
the original one.

Now examine the legacy so kindly left you by your departed
friend. It still shows signs of life, especially when irritated. This
seems very strange to us, who are so very dependent on the brain.
Imagine the amputated leg of a soldier wriggling about on the
battle field! But you must remember that lower animals have
their nervous systems more evenly distributed; so that some
of the functions which, in us, are controlled by the brain, may
be performed in these, at least fora time, without the aid of that
organ.

If you bend the tail in your possession, you will find that it is
tough rather than brittle; and if you pull it, it does not easily break.
Tame Lizards, too, never have brittle tails, and you may lift them
by these hinder appendages as often as you like without ever
breaking one. In fact, the tail of a lizard is brittle only when the
creature finds it convenient to have it so.

Some years ago I caught a Lizard with a smaller tail growing
out of the main one near its base. This was probably the result of
a wound, for cases have been recorded where the tails of tame
Lizards have been split part way across, and a new tail has grown
out of the fracture.

Knowing now the peculiar nature of a Lizard’s ‘tail, you must try
another mode of capture. Nets, as a rule, are useless; for these
lively creatures always make sudden darts down into thick herbage
when surprised, or else they run into a hole, the exact position of
which they know too well. I have found nothing better than the
hand itself, when hollowed into a cup-like form, and quickly brought
down so as to cover the creature.

These Lizards are easily tamed, and may be kept in a glass case,
REPTILES AND REPTILE HUNTING 239

where their graceful movements and lively habits make them very
attractive. You must feed them regularly, They are very fond of
the various insects that infest plants. They will eat flies, and
greedily devour small caterpillars that are not hairy. I have
always found them very partial to spiders, and it is interesting’ to
see them running round the case after a few very active ones that
are thrown in just when they are hungry.

In nearly all instances where I have seen Lizards in confinement
they have been kept in fern cases, but I am very doubtful as to whether
the damp atmosphere and moist soil so essential for the majority of
ferns is not very injurious to these creatures. In nature we almost
invariably find them in elevated and dry spots; and I must say
that I have been far more successful with those kept in a dry case
with an artificial bank at one end, than with the few that I have
kept ina damp atmosphere. Lizards require water to drink, but
this is supplied to them naturally in the form of raindrops and dew,
and if you give your tame ones a sprinkling of water once or twice
a day, you will have the pleasure of seeing them lap up the globules
with their pretty notched tongues.

During the early summer you may catch numbers of females,
with young, for at this time they are less active and more easily
secured. If you put one or two of these in your reptile house, and
closely watch them,you may be able to see the young, about a dozen
innumber, struggling out of their membranous egg cases immediatel y
after these have been laid. The young just hatched are lively
little things, of a brilliant bronzy-black colour, and commence
almost at once to search about for food. Feed them regularly with
plenty of plant lice and you will be able to study their development,
and observe their ‘ moults ’ and changes in colour.

Throughout the winter Lizards are torpid, but if kept in con-
finement in warmed apartments, the period of inactivity is much
shorter than with the wild ones; and occasionally they will venture
out of their hiding-places during mild weather even in mid-
winter.

There is another Lizard that is often mistaken for this species ;
but it is not nearly so abundant, being found only in the South of
England. It is known as the Sand Lizard (Lacerta agilis). It is
larger and stronger than Vivipara, but is not nearly so docile, nor
are its movements so graceful. It will readily bite its assailant,
but, like the other English Lizards, its teeth are too small to pene-
trate the skin.
240 ANIMAL LIFE

The colour of this species is so variable, that it is almost im-
‘possible to give a simple description by which it can be easily
identified. Its chief distinguishing feature is the manner in which
it brings forth its offspring, for it is truly oviparous. The female
lays her eggs in sand, and covers them over lightly. She then
leaves them to be hatched by the heat of the sun.

The beautiful Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis) of Guernsey and
South Europe has been caught in Britain, but its presence here
must be regarded as accidental.

While searching, sunny banks for Vevipara, you will possibly
meet with little snake-like creatwres about a foot long. They are
commonly known as Blind Worms or Slow Worms. So much do
they resemble snakes that a close examination is necessary to prove



Fic. 352.—Tur Stow Worm or Buryp Worm (Anguis fragilis).

that they are not. Watch a Slow Worm as it gracefully glides
between the herbage, and you will see it constantly thrusting out
its long and slender tongue as if this organ were used to enable it
to feelits way. It is not a forked tongue like those of snakes, but
is simply notched at the extremity just like the tongue of the
Common Lizard. Look, too, at its bright little eyes, for it is not
blind, and compare them with the eyes of Lizards. In both cases
you will observe movable eyelids, a feature that true Snakes do not
possess. Now take the creature into your hand, for it is perfectly
harmless, and examine the arrangement of its ‘scales.’ You will
see that they are all of very small size; but, as we shall find, the
‘belly of a Snake is covered with a single row of very large oblong
REPTILES AND REPTILE HUNTING 241

scales. Then, again, if you are sufficiently skilful to prepare the
skeleton of a Slow Worm, you will find that it is not quite limb-
less, for it has a rudimentary shoulder girdle and imperfectly deve-
loped fore legs, which, however, are not long enough to project
beyond the general surface. Here, then, are four of the reasons we
have for refusing the Slow Worm a place among the Snake tribe. It
is a Lizard without visible legs.

The specific name Fragilis is applied to it on account of the
readiness with which it will part with its tail—another feature, by
the way, in which it resembles some of the Lizards and differs from
Snakes.

‘The Slow Worm is very inoffensive, and seldom makes an attempt
to defend itself with its little teeth. It is also easily tamed, and
may be kept in the same case as the other Lizards. It requires no
water, save an occasional sprinkling, so that it may sip the drops;
and feeds readily on small slugs, earthworms, and smooth cater-
pillars.

The young are exceedingly pretty; they look like rather large,
scaly, white worms, and are very active.

BritisH SNAKES

Snakes are absolutely limbless, and possess no trace of a shoulder
girdle. They have also no breastbone; and the backbone, which
extends throughout the whole length of the body, consists of a large
number of vertebra, often several hundreds, each of which bears
two ribs. The teeth are small and pointed, and are curved inwards,
so that they are of no use for masticating food, but are simply em-
ployed in holding the prey, which is always swallowed whole. The
slender forked tongue is often confused with the poisonous fangs,
but is possessed by all Snakes, whether poisonous or not, and is
perfectly harmless.

We often read that Snakes have no eyelids, but this is hardly
correct ; yet they cannot close their eyes, and when dead, or sleep-
ing, or even during torpidity, they seem to gaze on us with a kind
of vacant stare. Their eyelids are really always closed, for they
are transparent, and have grown into one over the eyeballs, thus
forming a permanent protective layer.

There are only two British Snakes, unless the Smooth Snake, a
few of which species have been captured in Britain, can be claimed
as our own. But some regard the presence of this creature as

R
242, ANIMAL LIFE

accidental, leaving us with only the Ring Snake and the Viper.
Neither of these is known in Ireland, for, it is said, they were
banished by St. Patrick out of tender regard for the safety of his
people.

There is no reason, however, why the Ring Snake (T'ropidonotus
natriz) should have been turned out of the island, for it is perfectly
harmless. It will occasionally bite its captor when seized or roughly
handled, but its small teeth cannot do the least damage to an ordi-
nary skin. Though rather large—often measuring three feet and
more in length—it forms an interesting pet, and thrives well in con-
finement if properly managed.

K\

\\)
\

\ Nike A

ip



Fic. 353.—THr Common SNAKE. :

It is impossible to say exactly where you may find Ring Snakes,
but a hint or two may be given as to the nature of their haunts, so
that you may be enabled to select likely spots. They are generally
found in grassy spots near water, where they are not subject to
much disturbance from the intrusion of such monsters as you and
I; but yet they often approach very close to the dwellings of man,
even venturing into cottage gardens, and laying their eggs on dung-
hills close to stables and cattle sheds. However, they seem very
capricious in their habits; at times making their appearance in
the most unlikely places, and at other times you may search most
carefully in what seems to be a very suitable abode for such crea-
REPTILES AND REPTILE HUNTING 243

tures, and find nothing ; or, perhaps, only a cast ‘ skin,’ turned inside
out, as the owner rid itself of the old coat by gliding through thick
and coarse herbage.

The food of the Ring Snake consists ot
frogs, mice, small birds, and birds’ eggs, all
of which are swallowed whole! This seems
impossible when you look at the small head
and narrow neck of the Snake, but the lower
jaw is jointed in such a manner that the
gape is remarkably wide, and the neck ad-
mits of.a wonderful enlargement. Young
frogs disappear down its throat quite rapidly,
and are generally disposed of head first ; but
large frogs are often seized by a hind leg
while in the act of beating a hasty retreat.
In this case the Snake may not trouble about
turning its prey round, but will take it just
as it comes; and although some time is occu- |
pied in conveying such a large morsel into pyg 354 Hrap oF
its stomach, yet the frog is usually alive on He Common SNAKE.
arriving there.

Sometimes the Snake may be seen enjoying a bath, a luxury
that is often indulged in during the hot weather. ‘Its body is coiled
together in the water, perhaps entirely submerged except the head,
which must always be exposed for breathing. In this position it
will watch for newts, and occasionally it swims .on the surface of
the water.

Its eggs are white oval bodies, about the size of a blackbird’s
egg. They are from fifteen to twenty in number, and are laid
separately, but all within a short space of time. They are covered
with a moist sticky substance at first, but this soon dries, thus
cementing the eggs together at all points where they touch each
other. The female Snake is pretty careful in the selection of a
suitable spot in which to deposit her eggs; sometimes choosing a
dunghill or a heap of decomposing vegetable matter, the warmth
of which assists the development of the young; or she will lay
them on a patch of land so situated as to catch the sun’s rays
during the greater part of the day. Having bestowed so much
care on her future offspring, she leaves them to look after them-
selves, and does not seem to distinguish her own young from those
of another parent.



R2
- 244 : ANIMAL LIFE

Our other Snake—the Viper or Adder (Pelias berws)—is quite
common enough, considering that its bite is poisonous and generally

leads to rather unpleasant results.
One who is not thoroughly acquainted with this and the last



Fig. 355.—Eacs or tHE Common SNAKE.

species may find it difficult at first to distinguish one from the other ;
and as a mistaken identification may be the source of much trouble
and pain, we shall do well to note at once the chief distinguishing
marks by which we can know them.

In the first place, there is usually a difference in the nature
of their respective haunts; for, while the Ring Snake delights in
moist situations, the Viper chooses very dry spots, where it can sun
itself among the half-withered vegetation. But when we come to
consider the differences in the form and colour of the creatures them-
selves, we certainly meet with a little difficulty, for both are very
variable in their colouring, and on this account we are very liable
to mistake one for the other, especially as we generally have to
identify them at some little distance and in a short space of time.
It will not do to pick an Adder up to see if itis a Ring Snake, and if
we hesitate in coming to a decision the creature will disappear before
the verdict is given; and, again, if we are to capture it, it is absolutely
necessary that we should know what we are capturing, for that will
determine the way in which we shall set about it.

The chief differences, then, are these: the Ring Snake is usually
mouch larger than its venomous relative, the full-grown specimen
REPTILES AND REPTILE HUNTING 245

being seldorh less than two feet, and often more than three feet in
length, while the Viper is rarely much longer than two feet. The
head of the former, though larger than that of the Viper, is narrower
in the front, and the Viper’s head is marked with dark patches that
are said to resemble the ‘skull and bones’ on the thorax of the
Death’s Head Moth. One of these marks resembles an inverted V
—the initial letter of the creature’s name. But perhaps the most
easily detected distinction lies in the colouring of the back. That
of the Viper presents a broad zigzag black line down the middle
of the back from ‘head to tail, but the upper surface of the Ring
Snake is of a brownish grey or ash tint, with two rows of black
spots. The leaden hue of the single row of large scales along the
belly of the Ring Snake may also be useful as a distinguishing
mark.

Do you desire yet another distinguishing characteristic of the
Viper? Then make yourself acquainted with its venomous fangs—
an eye acquaintance only, of course. If ever
you have an opportunity of examining the mouth
of a dead Viper, you will be able to make out, by
an easy dissection, the nature of its dangerous
weapons of offence and defence. Projecting from
the upper jaw you will discern a pair of long
curved teeth which may be made to lie in
grooves in the gum behind them, or may stand
out at right angles to the jaw. These are the
dreaded fangs. Each fang is perforated from
its base almost to the tip, where there is a little
slit on the outer side. You may also be able
to make out a delicate tube that connects the
hollow tooth with a little gland, some distance yy, 35¢.-—Hrap
behind, in which the venom is Prepared and or THE VIPER.
stored.

When the Viper is about to attack, it elevates its head, and then,
with a blow rather than a bite, plunges its fangs into the flesh of its
victim. It thus makes two small punctures, hardly noticeable at
first; but the poison injected into these little wounds effectually
makes itself known almost immediately.

Agricultural labourers and. others who frequently meet with
Vipers during the course of their daily work will tell you awful and
thrilling tales concerning the deadly effects of the Viper’s bite; but,
like the marvellous stories of toads and newts, they are generally


246 ANIMAL LIFE

without foundation ; and it is very doubtful whether we have even
one well-authenticated instance of a case that terminated fatally.
Of course you will understand that I am speaking of human victims.
The small creatures which form the Viper’s food are very quickly
killed by the powerful venom.

Are there any among my readers who take such interest in this
Reptile, and, at the same time, possess such an amount of courage,
that they would like to search it out in its haunts? If so, be
careful that you are well equipped for the task. If you know how
to set to work, you need never be bitten, even though you bring
home your captives alive. Good boots, high leather leggings,
leather gloves, a tough stick, a deep holland bag, a piece of string,
and a small bottle of strong liquid ammonia are all you require. If
you do not want live specimens for your case, your work is simple
enough. Strike the Viper on its head, lift it on the end of your
stick, drop it into your bag, and tie it up. But when an uninjured
specimen is coveted you must be exceedingly cautious. A surprised
Viper will always retreat unless attacked, and it will allow you to
follow it a great-distance ; but, should you accidentally step on one,
it will go for your shins without mercy; hence the value of good
leggings. I have found no difficulty in securing live Vipers by
the following simple plan. First remove it far from its retreat by
hurling it away on the end of your stick, and, if possible, get iton an
open and bare patch of ground. Now let it attack the stick till both
its store of venom and its physical energy are pretty well exhausted.
Then pick it up on the end of your stick and drop it into your
bag.

Remember that this or any other mode of capturing live Vipers
is somewhat dangerous, and it is always advisable to be prepared
for emergencies. Should you be bitten, however slightly, suck the
wound immediately as powerfully as you can, or get some one to
do it for you; and also rub ammonia well into the place.

The Viper is one of the ovo-viviparous Reptiles. Its young
escape from the egg immediately after, and sometimes even before,
emerging into the world. And now arises a most interesting
question—one that has occupied the minds of many naturalists for
a considerable time, and which has not yet been cleared up to the
satisfaction of all. Does the Viper protect its young by swallowing
them? We have not the space to quote the evidence that has been
given by various observers on both sides of the question. Many
aver that they have seen a whole brood rush hastily down their
REPTILES AND REPTILE HUNTING 247

mother’s throat when threatened with danger ; and some have even
satisfied themselves that their eyes were not deceived, by killing the
affectionate mother and cutting out the lively little creatures. Yet
there are those who doubt the story, and say that the young so
liberated had hatched within the abdomen of the parent, and had
never before seen the light. However, as long as the statements
are regarded as wanting confirmation, we may all help to finally
settle the dispute by our own close observations when opportunities
arise.

Like all other British Reptiles, Vipers hibernate through the
winter months. On the approach of cold weather they seek out a
snug and dry hole, such as the hollow of a tree, and there several

. coil themselves up together, remaining without food of any kind till
the following spring.

PRESERVING REPTILES

The simplest and perhaps the best method of preserving
Reptiles is to keep them in spirit. This does not destroy their
natural colouring to any appreciable extent, and always retains
them in good condition for dissection at any future time if a study
of their internal structure is desired. In some cases I have
observed that. the undiluted spirit extracts water from their bodies,
thus causing them to shrivel up more or less. It will be advisable,
therefore, to use a mixture of spirit and water, about equal quanti-
ties of each; this being quite as good a preservative as the strong
spirit, providing no loss by evaporation is permitted.

If you are desirous of mounting your Reptiles, or of keeping
them in any way as dry specimens, they must be skinned and
stuffed. The skinning is not a difficult matter, but you have to be
very careful not to damage the‘ scales.’ First make a short incision
along the belly from the vent forward. Then loosen the skin all
round the body at this point, and snip the body in two. Next
liberate the hind half by gently pulling the skin inside out over it,
and cut off the extremity of the tail, which is allowed to remain in
the skin.

Now skin the fore part in the same manner till you reach the
head. Here the body is cut off close to the skull, the brains extracted,
and the flesh of the skull dissected away. Dress the whole of the skin
with a preservative, which may be any one of those reeommended
for Birds, and stuff the skull with cotton-wool. Now turn the skin
248 ANIMAL LIFE

right side out, and fill it up with a mixture of sawdust, fine sand,
and a little of the preservative powder.

After sewing up the incision neatly, you can push a sharpened
wire completely through the body. This will enable you to bend
it in any position you may fancy.

The above directions apply more particularly to Snakes ; but the
process is the same for Lizards, except that the limbs have to be
cleared and preserved; and this is done much in the same manner
as directed for Birds on page 261.

249

CHAPTER VII
BRITISH BIRDS

Sometimes, when making mention of a certain class of animals for
the first time, it is necessary that a clear definition should be given
in order that they may not be confused with those of another class.
But this seems hardly necessary now, for we are to deal with Birds
—and everybody knows a bird when he sees it. Still it may not be
superfluous to point out the chief characteristics in which they differ
from the other Vertebrates.

How, then, shall we define a Bird ? Shall we say ‘a vertebrate
animal that flies’? But so do the bat and the flying fish, while
some birds do not fly at all. Try again. A biped vertebrate? So
are you and I. A toothless vertebrate ? So are some of the insect-
eating mammals. Is there any one characteristic by which all
birds may be distinguished from all other animals? Yes, there is;
for they are the only living beings whose bodies are clothed with
feathers.

If you examine any one of our feathered friends, you will find it
possessed of two distinct kinds of feathers. First, there are the
strong contour feathers, consisting of a stiff axis and expanding
vanes, always arranged on certain definite tracts of the body. Then
there are the soft and downy feathers covering the remainder of the
surface. In very young birds the down feathers only are seen ; and
it is interesting to note that, with adult birds, the less they use their
wings the larger the proportion of down in their plumage. In fact,
some of the foreign running birds have no true contour feathers
at all.

Birds and Mammals are the only warm-blooded animals, and
the blood of the former is warmer than that of the latter by about
eight or ten degrees, for the temperature of birds ranges from 106°
to 108° F. This difference may be accounted for partly by the
superiority of the clothing, and partly by the extensive development
250 ANIMAL LIFE
of the breathing apparatus. We, together with the other mammals,

breathe by means of our lungs alone ; but birds possess air cavities
in different parts of their bodies which communicate with the air

FY







Fie. 857.—A Contour Fic. 359.—Tur Dicrsrive ORGANS OF A
FEATHER. Brrp.
a, barrel ; 6, square rachis or a, esophagus ; b, crop; C, stomach ; ¢, gizzard.

axis ; c, vanes.

tubes of the lungs. Even their bones, or rather some of them, are
hollow, containing air instead of marrow; and thus the supply of
oxygen—the great heat producer—is widely distributed.

It will probably occur to the minds of my readers that these air
BRITISH BIRDS 251

cavities serve another purpose, namely, that of rendering the bodies
of birds light, and so better adapted for flying.

The heart of a bird contains four cavities; two of which—the
awricles (fig. 858, 1 and 3)—receive the blcod that has just com-
pleted its circulation; and the other two--the ventricles (fig. 358,
2 and 4)—acting after the manner of force pumps, start the blood on
a new round.

Birds have no teeth, but they have a substitute in the form of a
gizzard or masticating stomach. This consists of two thick and
strong masses of flesh covered with a tough and horny skin. In it
there are always some grains of sand or small stones; and, as the
two parts rub together with an incessant motion, the food substances
are ground up as effectually as if between a couple of millstones.

The skeleton possesses
many points of interest.
Birds have more bones in
their necks than we have,
and that accounts for the
greater freedom and variety
of the movements of the
head. We, with our seven
neck bones, cannot look be-
hind us without turning our
whole bodies to some extent;
but birds, with often more
than twenty bones, can easily
give their heads a complete
half- turn without moving
their bodiesatall. The breast-
bone too, is of peculiar con-
struction. It is provided with
& prominent keel, to give
attachment to the powerful
muscles that move the wings. aT
But those birds that do not AD

fly, such as the ostriches, do yg, 360,—'Tum Sxermton or a Brep.
not require to have these

muscles so strongly developed, and consequently have no keel
to the breastbone. Then, again, we find but few ribs in the skeleton
of a bird; and the formation of the feet is peculiarly adapted to the
habits of the creature, as we shall presently observe. The accom-


252 ANIMAL LIFE

panying sketch of the skeleton will at once reveal other interesting
features which we cannot dwell on.

Now let us see what we can do in the way of collecting and pre-
serving some specimens, and thus obtaining a closer and more
practical acquaintance with our British species.

COLLECTING AND PreseRvinec Eacs

There is only one way of getting thoroughly acquainted with
birds, and that is to search them out in their haunts, examine their
nests and eggs, and watch the progress of the broods of little
ones.

Let us start out with this object in view. Choosing a fine dry
day in spring or early summer, we start off, provided with a pair of
strong leather gloves to assist us in pushing our way through prickly
or thorny bushes, a number of small boxes to contain our eggs, some
wadding to wrap them in, and, if possible, a binocular glass to help
us to watch the movements and to discern the colours of the
birds.

It is rather a difficult matter to decide as to what kind of ground
we shall select for our hunt, since the haunts of the different species
are so very variable; but perhaps we cannot do better than select
a spot of wooded country thickly overgrown with bushes of all sizes
and intersected by a stream—a rugged and wild spot, if possible, with
numerous hollows and banks, and here and there a small grassy
space.

Some birds sit very closely on their nests, and will not fly off
unless we approach very near; so we walk very quietly among the
bushes, tapping them with a stick as we pass. In this way we drive
many from their nests close at hand, and generally find but little
difficulty in discovering their homes. But often we may fail, even
after a very diligent search both in and under the bush. In such a
case we retreat to an adjacent hiding-place, and watch for the return
of the old bird, noticing as far as possible the exact locality of the
resting-place. Then another and very cautious approach may give
us a better clue to the position of the nest.

Often we see a bird carrying some nest-building material in its
beak. Then the binocular is brought into service for the purpose of
finding out, where the home-making is going on. Some nests are
very easily found by simply looking into the larger bushes, without
any knowledge derived from the movements of the parents; but, as
BRITISH BIRDS 253

arule, much time is wasted in this way, and we should do much
better to work on the hints suggested by the behaviour of the birds
themselves.

If the presence of a nest is suspected in a large bush, our best
plan will be to push our way underneath and look upward ; for,
looking in this direction, with the sky as a background, any collec-
tion of materials amidst the leaves and branches will be far more
easily detected.

A glance at our table of British Birds will show us that we must
by no means confine our attention to bushes and trees. In fact,
the sites chosen are so varied in character, that, unless we regard
the birds as our guides, we are quite at a loss as to where we shall
search. Old hollow trees, holes in walls, rabbit burrows, corn fields,
hedges by the roadside, holes in the banks of streams, crevices of
rocks, and among reeds in a marsh, are only a few of the many
spots chosen by birds.

On the discovery of a nest, or of any peculiar habit of a bird that
has been watched, notes should be made of points of interest. In
the case of eggs, one only should be taken from each nest. This
should be immediately wrapped in a piece of wadding and placed
in a small box, the cover of which is numbered. An entry should
then be made in the note book, showing the number on the box,
position of the nest, materials of which it is built, the number of
eggs in the ‘ clutch,’ and any other useful information.

As soon as possible after arriving home, your eggs should be
prepared for the cabinet. For this purpose you will require a few











Fic. 862.—Buowrrrre ror Browne and Wasutna Eces.

egg drills of different sizes, one or two glass blowpipes, a basin of
water, and some blotting-paper. The drills and blowpipes may be
obtained from any dealer in natural history objects, but the latter
254 ANIMAL LIFE

can be easily made by drawing out a piece of ordinary glass tubing
after softening it in a gas flame. They are far more convenient if
bent into a large angle at the small end, and a bulb at the middle
part is a great advantage, but not necessary. When your apparatus
is quite ready, deal with each egg as follows:

Lay it down on the wadding in which it was wrapped, and
examine it till you are satisfied as to which side best shows the
characteristic markings; then pierce the side opposite this with a
fine needle, selecting a point just midway between the two ends.
Now take a drill of suitable size, and turn it alternately right
and left between the finger and thumb till the hole is large enough
to discharge the contents. It is surprising how small a hole will
allow of tiis. In the case of small eggs, it should seldom be more
than a sixteenth of an inch in diameter, and an eighth is generally
sutticient for the largest of eggs. While drilling, the egg should be
held over a vessel of water, so that, should it fall, no damage will
be done.

Now turn the egg till the hole is beneath, holding it by ap-
plying finger and thumb to the two ends, and blow upwards into
it, keeping the jet of the blowpipe quite owtside, and allowing the
contents to fall into the water below. In this manner you speedily
empty the shell. Next, put the jet of the blowpipe into clean water,
and suck up the liquid till it is quite or nearly full. Blow this
water into the shell, turn it over, and then blow in air till the water
is expelled, just in the same manner as that in which you sent out
the original contents. Repeat the washing, if necessary, till you are
satisfied that the interior is perfectly clean. If now the outside of
the shell is stained with the yellow of the egg, wipe it off gently
with a little pellet of cotton-wool, and then place the empty egg,
hole downwards, on a piece of blotting-paper to drain.

Never wash an egg unless very dirty; for, by so doing, you may
often remove some of the natural markings—many eggs are seriously
damaged by washing, and few are in the least improved by it. A
little dirt often adds to the natural appearance.

The old plan of varnishing the egg should never be entertained
for an instant; nor should we ever do anything to improve (?) its
appearance ; for our object in making the collection is not to produce
a set of brilliant ornaments, but a group of objects to assist us in
the study of nature. We no longer applaud the reckless schoolboy
when he exhibits a yard or so of eggs, blown with an ugly hole at
each end, and dangling on a coarse string.

e
BRITISH BIRDS 255

An egg collector will occasionally meet with incubated eggs, the
blowing of which will cause considerable trouble. If freshly laid
specimens of the same kinds can be secured, it will be better not to
attempt the clearing of these; but if the incubated eggs are valuable,
and there seems to be but little chance of obtaining newer ones,
then they may be cleared as follows: Make the hole much larger
than usual, and remove as much as possible of the contents with
the blowpipe as before directed. The projecting solid portions
should then be cut off with a fine pair of scissors. Repeat both the
blowing and cutting in this way till all the interior has been
removed.

Cabinet for Birds’ Eggs

Almost any kind of shallow box will serve for storing your eggs ;
but, of course, the general neatness of the affair is a matter for con-
sideration. You may obtain shallow wooden boxes from your
grocer, and these, neatly papered both inside and out, will answer
your purpose admirably. Whatever be the number required, all
should be of the same size as regards length and breadth, but the
depth may vary according to the size of the eggs they are to contain.
The eggs may simply be arranged on a layer of wadding, but it is
far better to have your boxes divided into a number of partitions.
This may be done by fixing strips of cardboard at convenient
distances apart, or you may construct a number of little cardboard
trays of such a size that they completely fill up the space.

The accompanying illustrations show how the little cardboard
trays may be easily constructed. First mark out a piece of card as



Fic. 863.—Snowrna How To MAKE THE Carp Trays.

shown in fig. 868, the central portion being the size of the bottom
of the tray, and the border the intended depth. Cut out the corners,
and then cut halfway through the card on the dotted lines. The
256 ANIMAL LIFE

edges are now easily turned up in position, strips of paper glued
at the corners, and the tray is complete.

As your collection extends, you will often find it necessary to
rearrange your specimens to make room for the new comers, for
you must never permit your store boxes to run into disorder. If
you are a very ambitious collector you may start by providing a
tray for the egg of each British bird, excluding, perhaps, the very
rare kinds. But, if you do this, the number of blanks will at first
be appalling, and you must remember that you have thus set your-
self a task of years, unless, with a deep and well-filled purse at
your comma