Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Table of proper names with...
 List of Illustrations
 Father Mikko
 The world's creation and the birth...
 The planting of the trees
 Wainamoinen and Youkahainen
 Aino's fate
 Wainamoinen's search for Aino
 Wainamoinen's unlucky journey
 Wainamoinen's rescue
 The rainbow-maiden
 Ilmarinen forges the sampo
 Lemminkainen and Kyllikki
 Kyllikki's broken vow
 Lemminkainen's second wooing
 Lemminkainen's death
 Lemminkainen's restoration
 Wainamoinen's boat-building
 Wainamoinen finds the lost...
 The rival suitors
 Ilmarinen's wooing
 The brewing of beer
 Ilmarinen's wedding feast
 The origin of the serpent
 The unwelcome guest
 The isle of refuge
 The frost-fiend
 Kullervo's birth
 Kullervo and Ilmarinen's wife
 Kullervo's life and death
 Ilmarinen's bride of gold
 Ilmarinen's fruitless wooing
 Wainamoinen's expedition and the...
 The capture of the sampo
 The sampo is lost at sea
 The birth of the second kantel...
 Louhi attempts revenge
 Louhi steals the sun, the moon,...
 The restoration of the sun and...
 Mariatta and Wainamoinen's...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Children's library
Title: Finnish legends for English children
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082153/00001
 Material Information
Title: Finnish legends for English children
Series Title: Children's library
Uniform Title: Kalevala
Physical Description: xv, 214, 5, 1 p., 7 leaves of plates : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Eivind, R
Unwin, T. Fisher ( Thomas Fisher ), 1848-1935 ( Publisher )
Crawford, John Martin, 1845-1916 ( Translator )
R. & R. Clark (Firm) ( Printer )
Publisher: T. Fisher Unwin
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: R. & R. Clark
Publication Date: 1893
Subject: Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Folklore -- Juvenile fiction -- Finland   ( lcsh )
Legends -- Juvenile fiction -- Finland   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Musicians -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Marriage -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Revenge -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Magic -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1893   ( lcsh )
Fantasy literature -- 1893   ( rbgenr )
Folk tales -- 1893   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1893   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1893
Genre: Children's stories
Fantasy literature   ( rbgenr )
Folk tales   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: by R. Eivind ; seven illustrations.
General Note: Title and illustrated series title pages printed in red and black.
General Note: Translated from the Finnish.
General Note: "The following stories cover almost all of the songs of the Kalevala, the great epic of the Finnish people ... In these stories Mr. T. i.e. J M. Crawford's metrical translation of the Kalevala has been quite closely followed"--Pref.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Funding: Children's library (Cassell Publishing Co.)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082153
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002225735
notis - ALG6011
oclc - 04843663

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Half Title
        Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Table of proper names with pronunciation
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
    List of Illustrations
        Page xvi
    Father Mikko
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 7
    The world's creation and the birth of Wainamoinen
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The planting of the trees
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Wainamoinen and Youkahainen
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Aino's fate
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Wainamoinen's search for Aino
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Wainamoinen's unlucky journey
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Wainamoinen's rescue
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    The rainbow-maiden
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Ilmarinen forges the sampo
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Lemminkainen and Kyllikki
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Kyllikki's broken vow
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Lemminkainen's second wooing
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Lemminkainen's death
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Lemminkainen's restoration
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Wainamoinen's boat-building
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 92a
    Wainamoinen finds the lost words
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    The rival suitors
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Ilmarinen's wooing
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    The brewing of beer
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Ilmarinen's wedding feast
        Page 118
        Page 118a
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    The origin of the serpent
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    The unwelcome guest
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    The isle of refuge
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    The frost-fiend
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 150a
    Kullervo's birth
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Kullervo and Ilmarinen's wife
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Kullervo's life and death
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Ilmarinen's bride of gold
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Ilmarinen's fruitless wooing
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
    Wainamoinen's expedition and the birth of the kantele
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 180a
    The capture of the sampo
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    The sampo is lost at sea
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    The birth of the second kantele
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Louhi attempts revenge
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Louhi steals the sun, the moon, and fire
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
    The restoration of the sun and moon
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
    Mariatta and Wainamoinen's departure
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
        Advertising 3
        Advertising 4
        Advertising 5
        Advertising 6
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

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(Others in the Press.)

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HE following stories cover almost
all of the songs of the Kalevala,
the epic of the Finnish people.
They will lead the English child
into a new region in the fairy world, yet one
where he will recognize many an old friend
in a new form. The very fact that they do
open up a new portion of the world of the
marvellous, will, it is hoped, render them all
the more acceptable, and perhaps, when the
child who reads them grows up to manhood,
will inspire an actual interest in the race
that has composed them.
And this race and their land will repay
study, for nowhere will one find a more
beautiful land than Finland, nor" a braver,
truer, and more liberty-loving people than


the Finns, although, alas, their love for
liberty may soon be reduced to an appar-
ently hopeless longing for a lost ideal. For
the iron hand of Russian despotism has
already begun to close on Finland with its
relentless grasp, and, in spite of former
oaths and promises from the Russian Tsars,
the future of Finland looks blacker and
blacker as time goes on. Yet it is often the
unforeseen that happens, and let us trust that
this may be so in Finland's case, and that a
brighter future may soon dawn, and the
dark clouds that now are threatening may
be once more dispersed.

In these stories Mr. T. M. Crawford's
metrical translation of the Kalevala has been
quite closely followed, even to the adoption
of his Anglicised, or rather Anglo-Swedish,
forms for proper names, though in some
instances the original Finnish form has been
reverted to. This was done reluctantly, but
the actual Finnish forms would seem formid-
able to children in many instances, and
would probably be pronounced even farther
from the original than as they are given here.
It is to be hoped, moreover, that those who
may now read these stories will later on

read an actual translation of the Kalevala,
and this is an additional reason for adopting
the terminology of the only English transla-
tion as yet made.1
As this book is only intended for children,
it would be out of place to discuss the age,
etc., of the Kalevala. Only it would seem
proper to state,that while the incantations and
some other portions of the text are certainly
very old, some of them no doubt dating from
a period prior to the separation of the Finns
and Hungarians, yet, as Professor Yrj6 Kos-
kinen remarks, The Kalevala in its present
state is without doubt the work of the Karelian
tribe of Finns, and probably dates from
after their arrival in Northern and North-
Western Russia." This will of itself largely
justify the making Kalevala synonymous
with the present Finland, Pohjola with the
present Lapland, Karjala with the present
Karjala (Anglice, Karelia) in South-Eastern
Finland, etc. But even if this were not so,
yet the advantage of such localisation in a
book for children is of itself obvious.
As the land and people with which the
stories are concerned is so unknown to
SA Finnish newspaper recently states that Mr. C.
is now at work on an improved translation.


English children, it has seemed best to have
some sort of introduction and framework
in which to present them, and therefore
" Father Mikko was chosen as the story-
If this little volume may in any degree
awake some interest in the Finnish people
its author will be amply satisfied, and its
end will have been attained.
April 1893.





FIRE 199




Akti (dch'-tee). Another name for Lemminkainen.
Ahto (ach'-to). God of the sea.
Ainikki (aE'nik-kMe). Sister of Lemminkainen.
Aino (&a'no). Sister of Youkahainen.
Annikki (an'-nTk-kee). Sister of Ilmarinen.
Hisi (hee'-see). Evil spirit; also called Lempo.
Iku Turso (ee'-koo-tfir'-so). A sea-monster.
Ilmarinen (il'-md-ree'-nen). The famous smith.
Ilmatar (il'-mA-tar). A daughter of the ether, mother
of Wainamoinen.
Imatra (ee'-ma-trd). Celebrated waterfall on the
river Wuvksi, near Viborg.
Kalerwoinen (kal'-er-woi'-nkn) (or Kalervo). Father
of Kullervo.
Kalevala (ka'-lay-vd'-lh). The land of heroes. The
home of the Finns. The name of the Finnish
epic poem.
Karjala (kar'-y-15T). The home of a Finnish tribe-
a portion of Finland (called also Karelen in


Kullervo (ktll'-ler-v6). Slayer of the Rainbow-
Kura (kfl'-ra). Ahti's companion to the North-
Lakko (lak'-ko). Ilmarinen's mother.
Lemminkainen (lem'-min-kae'-nen). Also called
Akhi. Son of Lempo.
Lempo (16m'-po). Same as Hisi; also the father of
Louki (loo'.chee). Mistress of Pobjola.
Lowjatar (low'-ya-tar). Tuoni's daughter; mother
of the nine diseases.
Lylikki(ly'-llk-kee). Maker of snowshoes in Pohjola.
Mana (ma'-na). Also called Tuoni ; god of death.
Manala (ma'-n.-ld). Also called Tuonela; the
abode of Mana; the Deathland.
Marialla (Mar'-Tat'-ta). The virgin mother of
Wainamoinen's conqueror.
Mielikki (meay'-llk-kee). The forest-goddess.
Osmotar (os'-m6-tar). The wise maiden who first
made beer.
Otso (ot'-s6). The bear.
Piltfi (pilt'-tee). Mariatta's maid-servant.
Pokjola (pch'-y6-l.). The Northland.
Ruotus (rf.-6'-tfis). A man who gives Mariatta
shelter in his stable.
Sampo (sam'-p6). The magic mill forged by
Ilmarinen, which brought wealth and happiness
to its possessor.
Suonetar (sw6'-n6-tAr). The goddess of the veins.
Suoyatar (sw6'-yA-tAr). The mother of the serpent.
Tapio (ta'-pe-5). The forest-god.


Tuonela (tuo'-nay-la). The abode of Tuoni ; the
Deathland; Manala.
Tuonetar (tuo'-nay-tar). The goddess of Tuonela.
Tuoni (tuo'-nee). The god of the Deathland;
Ukko (fik'-kb). The greatest god of the Finns.
Untamo (iin'-ta-md). Kalervo's brother.
Wainamoinen (wa'-ni-moy'-nen). The chief hero
of the Kalevala ; son of Kapd.
Wipunen (wl'-pii-nen). The dead magician from
whom Wainamoinen obtained the three lost
Wirokannas (wee'-r6-kan'-nas). The priest who
baptized Mariatta's son.
Wuoksi (wtiok'-see). A river in South-Eastern
Finland, connecting Lakes Saima and Ladoga.
Youkahainen (yoo'-ka-chaE'-nen). A great minstrel
and magician of Pohjola.

REMARKS.-The Finnish h is pronounced as a
guttural; nearly as Ger. ch in ick. This is re-
presented by ch in the above list.
Every vowel should be pronounced by itself-not
run together so as to make a totally different
resultant sound, e.g. Aino should be pronounced
not i-nd, but d'-ee-nd, the d and ee being close
together, with the greatest stress upon the d, etc.
i corresponds to English y in year.



Facing page 7

,, 37
,, 93




AR up in the ice-bound north,
where the sun is almost invisible
in winter, and where the summer
nights are bright as day, there
lies a land which we call Finland; but the
people who live there call it Suomenmaa
now, and long, long ago they used to call it
Kalevala (which means the land of heroes).
And north of Finland lies Lapland, which
the Finns now call Laiii, but in the olden
days they called it Pohjola (that is, North-
land). There the night lasts for whole
weeks and months about Christmas, and in
the summer again they have no night at all
for many weeks. For more than half the
year their country is wrapped in snow and
frost, and yet they are both of them a kind-
hearted people, and among the most honest
and truthful in the world.


One dark winter's day an old man was
driving in a sledge through the fir forest in
the northern part of Finland. He was so
well wrapped up in sheep-skin robes that
he looked more like a huge bundle of rugs,
with, a cord round the middle, than any-
thing else, and the great white sheep-skin
cap which he wore hid all the upper part of
his face, while the lower part was buried in
the high collar of his coat. All one could
see was a pair of bright blue eyes with frost-
fringed eyelashes, blinking at the snow that
was thrown up every now and then by his
horse's feet.
He was a travelling merchant from away
up in the north-western part of Russia, and
had been in southern Finland to sell his
wares, at the winter fairs that are held every
year in the Finnish towns and villages. Now
he was on his way home, and had come
up through Kuopio, and had got on past
Kajana already, but now it had just begun
to snow, and as the storm grew worse, he
pressed on to reach the cabin of a friend
who lived not far ahead; and he intended to
stay there until the storm should subside
and the weather be fit for travelling once
It was not long before he reached the
cabin, and getting out of his sledge slowly,
being stiff from the cold and the cramped
position, he knocked on the door with his

whip-handle. It was opened at once, and
he was invited in without even waiting to
see who it was, and was given the welcome
that is always given in that country to a
wearied traveller. But when he had taken
his wraps off there was a general cry of
recognition, and a second even more hearty
Welcome, Father Mikko 1'
'What good -fortune has brought you
hither ? '
'Come up to the fire,' and a chorus of
cries from two little children, who greeted
' Pappa Mikko' with delight as an old and
welcome acquaintance. Then the father of
the family went out and attended to Father
Mikko's horse and sledge, and in a few
minutes was back again and joined the old
man by the fire. Next his wife brought out
the brandy-bottle and two glasses, and after
her husband had filled them, he and Father
Mikko drank each other's health very
formally, for that is the first thing one must
do when a guest comes in that country.
You must touch your glass against your
friend's, and say 'good health,' and raising
it to your lips drink it straight off, and all
the time you must look each other straight
in the eyes.
When this important formality was
finished the four members of the family and
Father Mikko made themselves comfortable

around the fire, and they began to ask him
how things had prospered with him since
they had seen him last, and to tell him
about themselves-how Erik, the father of
the family, had been sick, and the harvest
had been extra good that year, and one of
the cows had a calf, and all the things that
happen to people in the country.
And then he told them of what was going
on in the towns where he had been, and how
every one was beginning to get ready for
Christmas. And he turned to the two little
children and told them about the children
in the towns-how they had had such a
lovely time at 'Little Christmas,'1 at the
house he was staying in. How the little
ones had a tiny little tree with wee wax
candles on it exactly like the big tree they
were to have at Christmas, and how, when
he left, all the children had begun to be
impatient for Christmas Eve, with its
presents and Christmas fish and porridge.
After the old man had ended his account
it was dinner-time, and they all ate with
splendid appetites, while Father Mikko de-
clared that the herring and potatoes and rye-
bread and beer made a far better dinner than
any he had had in the big cities in the south
-not even in Helsingfors had he had a
better. Then when dinner was over, and they
1 A children's festival about one week before the
real Christmas.

had all gathered round the fire again, little
Mimi climbed up into 'Pappa Mikko's'
lap, and begged him to tell them 'all the
stories he had ever heard, from the very
beginning of the world all the way down.'
And her father and mother joined with her
in her request, for in their land even the
grown-up people have not become too grand
to listen to stories. As for the little boy,
Antero, he was too shy to say anything;
but he was so much interested to hear
'Pappa Mikko' that he actually forgot to
nibble away at a piece of candy which
'Pappa Mikko' had brought from St.
The old man smiled, for he was always
asked for stories wherever he went-he was
a famous story-teller-and, stroking little
Mimi's hair gently, he looked at the group
around the fire before replying. There was
Erik, the father, a broad-shouldered man,
with a dark, weather-beaten face and rather
a sad look, as so many of his countrymen
have. His face showed that his struggle
in the world had not been easy, for he had
to be working from the time he got up
until he went to bed; and then when the
harvest had been bad, and the winter much
longer than usual, and everything seemed
to go wrong-ah! it was so hard then to
see the mother and the little ones have only
bark-bread to eat, and not always enough

of that, and one winter they had had nothing
else for months. Erik wouldn't have minded
for himself, but for them Ah well,
that was all over now; he had been able at
last to save up a little sum of money, and
the harvests were extra good this year, and
he had bought Mother Stina a cloak for
Christmas Just think of it-a fine cloak,
all the way from the fair at Kuopio !
And next to Erik sat his wife Stina, a
short, fat little woman, with such a merry
face and happy-looking eyes that you could
hardly believe that she had lived on any-
thing but the best herring and potatoes and
rye-bread all her life. Close by her side
was her little boy Antero, who was only
seven years old, and in his eagerness for
the stories to commence he still held his
piece of candy in his hand without tasting it.
Then there was little Mimi in Father
Mikko's lap. She was nearly ten years
old, and was not a pretty little girl; but
she had very lovely soft brown eyes and
curly flaxen hair, and a quiet, demure
manner of her own, and her mother de-
clared that when she grew up she would
be able to spin and weave and cook better
than any other girl in the parish, and that
the young man that should get her Mimi for
a wife would get a real treasure.
And lastly, there was Father Mikko him-
self, an old man over sixty, yet strong and

* -,


hearty, with a long gray beard and gray
hair, and eyes that fairly twinkled with good
humour. You could hardly see his mouth
for his beard and moustache, and certainly
his nose was a little too small and turned
up at the end to be exactly handsome, and
his cheek-bones did stand out a little too
high; but yet everybody, young and old,
liked him, and his famous stories made him
a welcome guest wherever he came.
So Father Mikko lit his queer little pipe,
and settled down comfortably with Mimi in
his lap, and a glass of beer at his side to
refresh himself with when he grew weary of
talking. There was only the firelight in
the room, and as the flames roared up the
chimney they cast a warm, cosy light over
the whole room, and made them all feel so
comfortable that they thanked God in their
hearts in their simple way, because they
had so many blessings and comforts when
such a storm was raging outside that it
shook the house and drifted the snow up
higher than the doors and windows.
Then Father Mikko began, and this is
the first story that he told them.


ONG, long ago, before this world
was made, there lived a lovely
maiden called Ilmatar, the daugh-
ter of the Ether. She lived in the
air-there were only air and water then-but
at length she grew tired of always being in
the air, and came down and floated on the
surface of the water. Suddenly, as she lay
there, there came a mighty storm-wind, and
poor Ilmatar was tossed about helplessly
on the waves, until at length the wind died
- down and the waves became still, and Ilma-
tar, worn out by the violence of the tempest,
sank beneath the waters.
Then a magic spell overpowered her, and
she swam on and on vainly seeking to rise
above the waters, but always unable to do
so. Seven hundred long weary years she
swam thus, until one day she could not bear
it any longer, and cried out: Woe is me


that I have fallen from my happy home in
the air, and cannot now rise above the sur-
face of the waters. 0 great Ukko,1 ruler
of the skies, come and aid me in my sorrow !'
No sooner had she ended her appeal to
Ukko than a lovely duck flew down out of the
sky, and hovered over the waters looking for
a place to alight; but it found none. Then
Ilmatar raised her knees above the water,
so that the duck might rest upon them; and
no sooner did the duck spy them than it flew
towards them and, without even stopping to
rest, began to build a nest upon them.
When the nest was finished, the duck
laid in it six golden eggs, and a seventh of
iron, and sat upon them to hatch them.
Three days the duck sat on the eggs, and all
the while the water around Ilmatar's knees
grew hotter and hotter, and her knees began
to burn as if they were on fire. The pain
was so great that it caused her to tremble
all over, and her quivering shook the nest
off her knees, and the eggs all fell to the
bottom of the ocean and broke in pieces.
But these pieces came together into two parts
and grew to a huge size, and the upper one
became the arched heavens above us, and
the lower one our world itself. From the
white part of the egg came the moonbeams,
and from the yolk the bright sunshine.
1 The 'chief god of the Finns before they became

At last the unfortunate Ilmatar was able
to raise her head out of the waters, and she
then began to create the land. Wherever
she put her hand there arose a lovely hill,
and where she stepped she made a lake.
Where she dived below the surface are the
deep places of the ocean, where she turned
her head towards the land there grew deep
bays and inlets, and where she floated on
her back she made the hidden rocks and
reefs where so many ships and lives have
been lost. Thus the islands and the rocks
and the firm land were created.
After the land was made Wainamoinen
was born, but he was not born a child, but
a full-grown man, full of wisdom and magic
power. For seven whole years he swam
about in the ocean, and in the eighth he left
the water and stepped upon the dry land.
Thus was the birth of Wainamoinen, the
wonderful magician.

'Ah!' said little Mimi, with a sigh of
relief, I was afraid you weren't going to tell
us about Wainamoinen at all.'
And then Father Mikko went on again.


BAINAMOINEN lived for many
years upon the island on which
he had first landed from the sea,
pondering how he should plant
the trees and make the mighty forests grow.
At length he thought of Sampsa, the first-
born son of the plains, and he sent for him
to do the sowing. So Sampsa came and
scattered abroad the seeds of all the trees
and plants that are now on the earth,-firs
and pine-trees on the hills, alders, lindens,
and willows in the lowlands, and bushes and
hawthorn in the secluded nooks.
Soon all the trees had grown up and
become great forests, and the hawthorns
were covered with berries. Only the acorn
lay quiet in the ground and refused to sprout.
Wainamoinen watched seven days and nights
to see if it would begin to grow, but it lay
perfectly still. Just then he saw ocean

maidens on the shore, cutting grass and
raking it into heaps. And as he watched
them there came a great giant out of the
sea and pressed the heaps into such tight
bundles that the grass caught fire and burnt
to ashes. Then the giant took an acorn
and planted it in the ashes, and almost in-
stantly it began to sprout, and a tree shot
up and grew and grew until it became a
mighty oak, whose top was far above the
clouds, and whose branches shut out the light
of the Sun and the Moon and the stars.
When Wainamoinen saw how the oak
had shut off all the light from the earth, he
was as deeply perplexed how to get rid of it,
as he had been before to make it grow. So
he prayed to his mother Ilmatar to grant him
power to overthrow this mighty tree, so that
the sun might shine once more on the plains
of Kalevala.
No sooner had he asked Ilmatar for help
than there stepped out of the sea a tiny man
no bigger than one's finger, dressed in cap,
gloves, and clothes of copper, and carrying
a small copper hatchet in his belt. Waina-
moinen asked him who he was, and the tiny
man replied: I am a mighty ocean-hero, and
am come to cut down the oak-tree.' But
Wainamoinen began to laugh at the idea of
so little a man being able to cut down so
huge a tree.
But even while Wainamoinen was laugh-


ing, the dwarf grew all at once into a great
giant, whose head was higher than the
clouds, and whose long beard fell down to
his knees. The giant began to whet his axe
on a huge piece of rock, and, before he had
finished he had worn out six blocks of the
hardest rock and seven of the softest sand-
stone. Then he strode up to the tree and
began to cut it down. When the third blow
had fallen the fire flew from his axe and
from the tree; and before he had time to
strike a fourth blow, the tree tottered and fell,
covering the whole earth, north, south, east,
and west, with broken fragments. And
those who picked up pieces of the branches
received good fortune; those who found
pieces of the top became mighty magicians;
and those who found the leaves gained last-
ing happiness.
And then the sunlight came once more
to Kalevala, and all things grew and
flourished, only the barley had not yet been
planted. Now Wainamoinen had found
seven magic barley-grains as he was wan-
dering on the seashore one day, and he took
these and was about to plant them; but the
titmouse stopped him, saying : The magic
barley will not grow unless thou first cut
down and burn the forest, and then plant
the seeds in the wood-ashes.'
So Wainamoinen cut down the trees
as the titmouse had said, only he left

the birch trees standing. After all the
rest were cut down an eagle flew down,
and, alighting on a birch-tree, asked why
all the others had been destroyed, but the
birches left. And Wainamoinen answered
that he had left them for the birds to build
their nests on, and for the eagle to rest on,
and for the sacred cuckoo to sit in and sing.
The eagle was so pleased at this that he
kindled a fire amongst the other trees for
Wainamoinen, and they were all burnt except
the birches.
Wainamoinen then brought forth the
seven. magic barley-seeds from his skin-
pouch, and sowed them in the ashes, and
as he sowed he prayed to great Ukko to send
warm rains from the south to make the seeds
sprout. And the rain came, and the barley
grew so fast that in seven days the crop was
almost ripe.


U HUS Wainamoinen finished his
labours and began to lead a happy
life on the plains of Kalevala.
He passed his evenings singing
of the deeds of days gone by and stories of
the creation, until his fame as a great
singer spread far and wide in all directions.
At this time, far off in the dismal North-
land, there lived a young and famous singer
and magician named Youkahainen. He was
sitting one day at a feast with his friends,
when some one came and told about the
famous singer Wainamoinen, and how he
was a sweeter singer and a more powerful
magician than any one else in the world.
This filled Youkahainen's heart with envy,
and he vowed to hasten off to the south and
to enter into a contest with Wainamoinen to
see if he could not beat him.
His mother tried to persuade him not to

go, but in vain, and he made ready for the
journey, declaring that he would sing such
magic songs as would turn old Waina-
moinen into stone. Then he brought out
his noble steed and harnessed. him to a
golden sledge, and then jumping in, he
gave the steed a cut with his pearl-handled
whip, and dashed off towards Kalevala.
On the evening of the third day he drew
near to Wainamoinen's home, and there he
met Wainamoinen himself driving along the
Now Youkahainen was too proud to turn
out of the road for any one, and so their
sledges dashed together and were smashed
to pieces, and the harnesses became all
twisted up together. Then Wainamoinen
said: 'Who art thou, 0 foolish youth,
that thou drivest so badly that thou hast
run into my sledge and broken it to pieces ?'
And Youkahainen answered proudly : I am
Youkahainen, and have come hither to beat
the old magician Wainamoinen in singing
and in magic.'
Wainamoinen then told him who he was,
and accepted the challenge, and so the con-
test began. But Youkahainen soon found
that he was no match for his opponent, and
at length he cried out in anger: If I can-
not beat thee at singing and in magic, at
least I can conquer thee with my bright


Wainamoinen answered that he would
not fight so weak an opponent, and then
Youkahainen declared that he was a coward
and afraid to fight. At last these taunts
made Wainamoinen so angry that he could
not restrain himself any longer, and he be-
gan to sing. He sang such wondrous spells
that the mountains and the rocks began to
tremble, and the sea was upheaved as if by
a great storm. Youkahainen stood trans-
fixed, and as Wainamoinen went on singing
his sledge was changed to brushwood and
the reins to willow branches, the pearl-
handled whip became a reed, and his steed
was transformed into a rock in the water,
and all the harness into seaweed. And still
the old magician sang his magic spells, and
Youkahainen's gaily-painted bow became a
rainbow in the sky, his feathered arrows
flew away as hawks and eagles, and his dog
was turned to a stone at his feet. His cap
turned into a curling mist, his clothing into
white clouds, and his jewel-set girdle into
And at length the spell began to take
effect on Youkahainen himself. Slowly,
slowly he felt himself sinking into a quick-
sand, and all his struggles to escape were
in vain. When he had sunk up to his
waist he began to beg for mercy, and cried
out: 0 great Wainamoinen, thou art the
greatest of all magicians. Release me, I


beg, from this quicksand, and I will give
thee two magic bows. One is so strong
that only the very strongest men can draw
it, and the other a child can shoot.'
But Wainamoinen refused the bows and
sank Youkahainen still deeper. And as he
sank, Youkahainen kept begging for mercy,
and offering first two magic boats, and then
two magic steeds that could carry any
burden, and finally all his gold and silver
and his harvests, but Wainamoinen would
not even listen to him. At length Youka-
hainen had sunk so far that his mouth be-
gan to be filled with water and mud,
and he cried out as a last hope: 0
mighty Wainamoinen, if thou wilt release
me I will give thee my sister Aino as thy
This was the ransom that Wainamoinen
had been waiting for, for Aino was famous
for her beauty and loveliness of character,
and so he released poor Youkahainen and
gave him back his sledge and everything
just as it had been before. And when it
was all ready Youkahainen jumped into
it and drove off home without saying a
When he reached home he drove so
carelessly that his sledge was broken to
pieces against the gate-posts, and he left
the broken sledge there and walked straight
into the house with hanging head, and at

first would not answer any of his family's
questions. At length he said: Dearest
mother, there is cause enough for my grief,
for I have had to promise the aged Waina-
moinen my dear sister Aino as his bride.'
But his mother arose joyfully and clapped
her hands and said : That is no reason to
be sad, my dear son, for I have longed for
many years that this very thing should
happen-that Aino should have so brave
and wise a husband as Wainamoinen.'
So the mother told the news to Aino, but
when she heard it she wept for three whole
days and nights and refused to be com-
forted, saying to her mother: 'Why should
this great sorrow come to me, dear mother,
for now I shall no longer be able to adorn
my golden hair with jewels, but must hide
it all beneath the ugly cap that wives have
to wear. All the golden sunshine and the
silver moonlight will go from my life.'
But her mother tried to comfort her by
telling her that the sun and moon would
shine even more brightly in her new home
than in her old, and that Kalevala was a
land of flowers.

'I think Aino was very stupid not to
want to leave that horrid Lapland,' said
Mimi; but then I suppose she didn't know

what a beautiful country ours is,' she added
Here Antero, who only cared for the
stories, mustered up enough courage to ask
Pappa Mikko to go on, which the old man
did at once.


c HE next morning the lovely Aino
went early to the forest to gather
birch shoots and tassels. After
she had finished gathering them
she hastened off towards home, but as she
was going along the path near the border
of the woods she met Wainamoinen, who
began thus:
'Aino, fairest maid of the north, do not
wear thy gold and pearls for others, but only
for me; wear for me alone thy golden
'Not for thee,' Aino replied, 'nor for
others either, will I wear my jewels. I
need them no longer; I would rather wear
the plainest clothing and live upon a crust
of bread, if only I might live for ever with
my mother.'
And as she said this she tore off her
jewels and the ribbons from her hair, and

threw them from her into the bushes, and
then she hurried home, weeping. At the
door of the dairy sat her mother, skimming
milk. When she saw Aino weeping she
asked her what it was that troubled her.
Aino, in reply, told her all that had happened
in the forest, and how she had thrown away
from her all her ornaments.
Her mother, to comfort her, told her to
go to a hill-top near by and open the store-
house there, and there in the largest room,
in the largest box in that room, she would
find six golden girdles and seven rainbow-
tinted dresses, made by the daughters of
the Moon and of the Sun. When I was
young,' her mother said, I was out upon
the hills one day seeking berries. And by
chance I overheard the daughters of the
Sun and Moon as they were weaving and
spinning upon the borders of the clouds
above the fir-forest. I went nearer to them,
and crept up on a hill within speaking dis-
tance of them. Then I began to beseech
them, saying: Give some of your silver,
lovely daughters of the Moon, to a poor but
worthy maid; and I beg you, daughters of
the Sun, give me some of your gold." And
then the Moon's daughters gave me silver
from their treasure, and the Sun's daughters
gave me gold that I might adorn my hair
and forehead. I hastened joyfully home
with my treasures to my mother's house,

and for three days I wore them. Then I
took them off and laid them in boxes, and I
have never seen them since. But now, my
daughter, go and adorn thyself with gold
and silk ribbons; put a necklace of pearls
around thy neck, and a golden cross upon
thy bosom; dress thyself in pure white
linen; put on the richest frock that is there
and tie it with a belt of gold; put silk
stockings on thy feet and the finest of shoes.
Then come back to us that we may admire
thee, for thou wilt be more beautiful than
the sunlight, more lovely than the moon-
But Aino would not be consoled, and kept
on weeping. 'How happy I was in my
childhood,' she sang, when I used to roam
the fields and gather flowers, but now my
heart is full of grief and all my life is filled
with darkness. It would have been better
for me if I had died a child;-then my
mother would have wept a little, and my
father and sisters and brothers mourned a
little while, and then all their sorrow would
have been ended.'
Aino wept for three days more, and then
her mother once more asked her why she
wept so, and Aino replied: I weep, 0
mother, because thou hast promised me to
the aged Wainamoinen, to be his comforter
and caretaker in his old age. Far better if
thou hadst sent me to the bottom of the sea,


to live with the fishes and to become a mer-
maid and ride on the waves. This had been
far better than to be an old man's slave and
When she had said this she left her
mother and hastened to the storehouse on
the hill. There she opened the largest box
and took off six lids, and at the bottom
found six golden belts and seven silk dresses.
She chose the best of all the treasures there
and adorned herself like a queen, with rings
and jewels and gold ornaments of every
When she was fully arrayed she left the
storehouse and wandered over fields and
meadows and on through the dim and
gloomy fir-forest, singing as she went:
'Woe is me, poor broken-hearted Aino!
My grief is so heavy that I can no longer
live. I must leave this earth and go to
Manala, the country of departed spirits.
Father, mother, brothers, sisters, weep for
me no longer, for I am going to live beneath
the sea, in the lovely grottos, on a couch
of sea-moss.'
For three long weary days Aino wan-
dered, and as the cold night came on she
at last reached the seashore. There she
sank down, weary, on a rock, and sat there
alone in the black night, listening to the
solemn music of the wind and the waves, as
they sang her funeral melody. When at

last the day dawned Aino beheld three
water-maidens sitting on a rock by the sea.
She hastened to them, weeping, and then
began to take off all her ornaments and lay
them carefully away. When at length she
had laid all her gold and silver decorations
on the ground, she took the ribbons from
her hair and hung them in a tree, and then
laid her silken dress over one of the branches
and plunged into the sea. At a distance
she saw a lovely rock of all the colours of
the rainbow, shining in the golden sunlight.
She swam up and climbed upon it to rest.
But suddenly the rock began to sway, and
with a loud crash it fell to the bottom of the
sea, carrying with it the unhappy Aino.
And as she sank down she sang a last sad
farewell to all her dear ones at home-a
song that was so sweet and mournful that
the wild beasts heard it, and were so touched
by it that they resolved to send a messenger
to tell her parents what had happened.
So the animals held a council, and first
the bear was proposed as messenger, but
they were afraid he would eat the cattle.
Next came the wolf, but they feared that he
might eat the sheep. Then the fox was pro-
posed, but then he might eat the chickens.
So at length the hare was chosen to bear
the sad tidings, and he promised to perform
his office faithfully.
He ran like the wind, and soon reached


Aino's home. There he found no one in
the house, but on going to the door of the
bath-cabin he found some servants there
making birch brooms. They had no sooner
caught sight of him than they threatened to
roast him and eat him, but he replied: Do
not think I have .come hither to let you
roast me. For I come with sad tidings to
tell you of the flight of Aino and how she
died. The rainbow-coloured stone sank
with her to the bottom of the sea, and she
perished, singing like a lovely song-bird.
There she sleeps in the caverns at the
bottom of the sea, and on the shore she has
left her silken dress and all her gold and
When these tidings came to her mother
the bitter tears poured from her eyes, and
she sang, '0 all other mothers, listen:
never try to force your daughters from the
house they long to stay in, unto husbands
whom they love not. Thus I drove away
my daughter, Aino, fairest in the North-
Singing thus she sat and wept, and the
tears trickled down until they reached her
shoes, and began to flow out over the ground.
Here they formed three little streams, which
flowed on and grew larger and larger until
they became roaring torrents, and in each
torrent was a great waterfall. And in the
midst of the waterfalls rose three huge rocky

pillars, and on the rocks were three green
hills, and on each of the hills was a birch-
tree, and on each tree sat a cuckoo. And
all three sang together. And the first one
sang 'Love! 0 Love!' for three whole
moons, mourning for the dead maiden,
And the second sang Suitor Suitor !'
wailing six long moons for the unhappy
suitor. And the third sang sadly 'Con-
solation Consolation!' never ending all
his life long for the comfort of the broken-
hearted mother.

Mother Stina looked at little Mimi very
solemnly when this story was ended, as if
she wondered whether she herself would ever
need to take to heart the warning of Aino's
mother. But no one said anything, and
Father Mikko continued on with the next


HEN the news reached Waina-
moinen he began to weep most
bitterly, and the tears fell all
that day and night ; but the next
day he hastened to the water's edge and
prayed to the god of dreams to tell him
where the water-gods dwelt. And the
dream-god answered him lazily, and told
him where the island was around which the
sea-gods and the mermaids lived.
Then Wainamoinen hastened to his boat-
house, and chose a copper boat, and in it
placed fishing lines and hooks and nets, and
when all was ready he rowed off swiftly to-
wards the forest-covered island which the
dream-god had told him of. No sooner
had he arrived there than he began to fish,
using a line of silver and a hook of gold.
But for many days he fished in vain, yet

still he'persevered. At last one day a won-
drous fish was caught, and it played about
and struggled a long time until at length it
was exhausted, and the hero landed it in the
When Wainamoinen saw it he was
astonished at its beauty, but after gazing at
it for some time he drew out his knife and
was about to cut it up ready for eating.
But no sooner had he touched the fish with
his knife than it leapt from the bottom of
the boat and dived under the water. Then
it rose again out of his reach and said to
him: 0 ancient minstrel, I did not come
hither to be eaten by thee, merely to give
thee food for a day.'
'Why didst "thou come then ?' asked
I came, 0 minstrel, to rest in thine
arms and to be thy companion and wife for
ever,' the fish replied; 'to keep thy home
in order and to do whatever thou pleased.
For I am not a fish; I am no salmon of the
Northern Seas, but Youkahainen's youngest
sister. I am the one thou wert fishing for
-Aino, whom thou lovest. Once thou
wert wise, but now art foolish, cruel. Thou
didst not know enough to keep me, but
wouldst eat me for thy dinner !'
Then Wainamoinen begged her to return
to him, but the fish replied: Nevermore
will Aino's spirit come to thee to be so

treated,' and as it spoke the fish dived out
of sight.
Still Wainamoinen did not give up, but
took out his nets and began dragging the
waters. And he dragged all the waters in
the lands of Lapland and of Kalevala, and
caught fish of every sort, only Aino, now
the water-maiden, never came into his net.
' Fool that I am,' he said at length, surely
I was once wise, had at least a bit of
wisdom, but now all my power has left me.
For I have had Aino in my boat, but did
not know until too late that I had even
caught her.' And with these words he
gave up his search and set off to his home
in Kalevala. And on his way he mourned
that the joyous song of the sacred cuckoo
had ceased, and he sang: I shall never
learn the secret how to live and prosper.
If only my ancient mother were still living,
she could give me good advice that this
sorrow might leave me.'
Then his mother awoke from her tomb in
the depths and spoke to him: Thy mother
was but sleeping, and I'll now advise thee
how this sorrow may pass over. Go at once
to the Northland, where dwell wise and
lovely maidens, far lovelier than Aino.
Take one of them for thy wife; she will
make thee happy and be an honour to thy

I don't think he had much of a heart if
he could be consoled so easily as all that,'
said Mother Stina, a little indignantly.
'Wait and you shall see,' said old
Father Mikko with a smile; and he con-


AINAMOINEN made ready for a
journey to the Northland, to the
land of cold winters and of little
sunshine, where he "-was to seek
a wife. He saddled his swift steed, and
mounting, started towards the north. On
and on he went upon his magic steed, gal-
loping over the plains of Kalevala. And
when he came to the shores of the wide sea,
he did not halt, but galloped on over the
water without.even so much as wetting a
hoof of his magic courser.
But wicked Youkahainen hated Waina-
moinen for what he had done when he de-
feated him in magic, and so he made ready
a bow of steel. He painted it with many
bright colours and trimmed it with gold and
silver and copper. Then he chose the
strongest sinews from the stag, and at

length the great bow was ready. On the
back was painted a courser, at each end a
colt, near the bend a sleeping maiden, near
the notch a running hare. And after that
he. cut some arrows out of oak, put tips of
sharpened copper on them, and five feathers
on the end. Then he hardened the arrows
and steeped them in the blood of snakes
and the poison of the adder to give them
magic power.
When all was ready Youkahainen went
out to wait for his enemy. For many days
and nights he watched in vain, but still he
did not weary, and at last one day at dawn
he saw what seemed to be a black cloud on
the waters. But by his magic art he knew
that it was Wainamoinen on his magic
steed. Then he went after his bow, but his
mother stopped him and asked him whom
he meant to shoot with his bow and
poisoned arrows. Youkahainen replied:
' I have made this mighty bow and these
poisoned arrows for the old magician
Wainamoinen, that I may destroy my
His mother reproved him, saying, If
thou slayest Wainamoinen all our joy will
vanish, all the singing and music will die
with him. It is better that we have his
magic music in this world than to have it
all go to the underground world Manala,
where the spirits of the dead dwell'

Youkahainen hesitated for a moment, but
then envy and hatred filled his heart, and he
replied :"' Even though all joy and pleasure
vanish from the world, yet will I shoot this
rival singer, let the end be what it will.'
With these words he hastened out and
took his stand in a thicket near the shore.
He chose the three strongest arrows from
his quiver, and selecting the best among
these three, he laid it against the string and
aimed at Wainamoinen's heart. And as he
still waited for him to come nearer, he sang
this incantation: Be elastic, bow-string
mine, swiftly fly, 0 oaken arrow, swift as
light, 0 poisoned arrow, to the heart of
Wainamoinen. If my hand too low shall
aim thee, may the gods direct thee higher.
If mine eye too high shall aim thee, may
the gods direct thee lower.'
Then he let the arrow fly, but it flew
over Wainamoinen's head and pierced and
scattered the clouds above. Again he shot
a second, but it flew too low and penetrated
to the depths of the sea. Then he aimed
the third, and it flew from his bow swift as
lightning. Straight forward it flew, and
struck the magic steed full in the shoulder
so that Wainamoinen was plunged headlong
into the waves. And then arose a mighty
storm-wind, and the old magician was carried
far out into the wide open sea.
But Youkahainen believed that he had

killed his rival, and so went home, rejoicing
and singing as he went. And his mother
asked him, Hast thou slain great Waina-
moinen ?' and he replied, I have slain old
Wainamoinen. Into the salt sea he plunged
headlong, and the old magician is now at
the bottom of the deep.'
But his mother replied: Woe to earth
for what thou hast done. Joy and singing
are gone for ever, for thou hast slain the
great wise singer, thou hast slain the joy of

All his listeners seemed very much dis-
satisfied at the turn the story had taken, so
Father Mikko hastened to assure them that
Wainamoinen was not really dead, and then
he began the next story.


S UT Wainamoinen was not dead,
but swam on for eight days and
seven nights trying to reach
land. And when the evening
of the eighth day came and still no land
was in sight, he began to grow tired and to
despair of ever getting out alive.
But just then he spied an eagle of
wonderful size flying towards him from the
west. And the eagle flew up to him and
asked who he was and how he had come
there in the ocean.
And Wainamoinen replied: I am Waina-
moinen, the great singer and magician. I
had left my home for the distant Northland,
and as I galloped over the ocean and neared
the shore, the wicked Youkahainen killed
my steed with his magic arrows, and I was
cast headlong into the waters. And then a
mighty wind arose and drove me farther



and ever farther out to sea, and now I have
been struggling with the winds and waves
for eight long weary days, and I fear that I
shall perish of cold and hunger before I
reach any land.'
The eagle replied: Do not be discouraged,
but seat thyself upoif my back and I will
carry thee to land, for I have not forgotten
the day when thou left the birch-trees stand-
ing for the birds to sing in and the eagle
to rest on.'
So Wainamoinen climbed upon the eagle's
broad back and seated himself- securely
there, and off the eagle flew, straight to
the nearest land. There on the shore of
the dismal Northland the eagle left him, and
flew off to join his mate.
Wainamoinen found himself upon a bare,
rocky point of land, without a trace of
human life about it, nor any path through
the woods by which it was surrounded.
And he wept bitterly, for he was far from
home,. covered with wounds from his battle
with the winds and waters, and faint with
hunger: three days and three nights he
wept without ceasing.
Now the fair and lovely daughter of old
Louhi had laid a wager with the Sun, that
she would rise before him the next morning.
And so she did, and had time to shear six
lambs before the Sun had left his couch
beneath the ocean. And after this she

swept up the floor of the stable with a
birch broom, and collecting the sweepings
on a copper shovel, she carried them to
the meadow near the seashore. There she
heard the sound of some one weeping, and
hastening back she told her mother of it.
Then Louhi, ancient mistress of the North-
land, hurried out from her house and down
to the seashore. There she heard the sound
of weeping, and quickly pushed off from the
shore in a boat and rowed to where the
weeping Wainamoinen sat.
When she came to him she said to him:
'What folly hast thou done to be in so sad
a state ? '
Wainamoinen replied : It is indeed folly
that has brought me into this trouble. I
was happy enough at home before I went
on this expedition.'
Then Louhi asked him to tell her who he
was of all the great heroes.
Wainamoinen replied: Formerly I was
honoured as a great singer and magician : I
was called the "Singer of Kalevala," the
wise Wainamoinen.'
Then Louhi said: Rise, 0 hero, from
thy lowly couch among the willows, come
with me to my home and there tell me the
story of thy adventures.' So she took the
starving hero into her boat and rowed him
to the shore, and took him to her house.
There she gave him food, and the warmth

and rest and shelter soon restored to him
all his strength. Then Louhi asked him
to relate his adventures, and he told her all
that had happened to him.
When he had finished Louhi said to him :
'Weep no more, Wainamoinen, for thou
shalt be welcome in our homes, thou shalt
live with us and eat our salmon and other
Wainamoinen thanked her for her kind-
ness, but added: 'One's own country and
table and home are the best and dearest.
May the great god, Ukko, the Creator,
grant that I may once more reach my dear
home and country. It is better to drink
clear water from a birchen cup in one's own
home, than in foreign lands to drink the
richest liquors from the golden beakers of
Then Louhi asked him: What reward
wilt thou give me, if I carry thee back to
thy beloved home, to the plains of Kale-
vala ?'
Wainamoinen asked her what reward she
would consider sufficient, whether gold or
silver treasures, but Louhi answered: I
ask not for gold or silver, 0 wise Waina-
moinen, but canst thou forge for me the
magic Sampo, with its lid of many colours,
the magic mill that grinds out flour on one
side, and salt from another side, and turns
out money from the third? I will give

thee, too, my daughter, as a reward, to be
thy wife and to care for thy home.'
But Wainamoinen answered sadly : I
cannot forge for thee the magic Sampo, but
take me to my country and I will send thee
Ilmarinen, who will make it for thee, and
wed thy lovely daughter. Ilmarinen is a
wondrous smith ; he it was who forged the
heavens, and so perfectly did he do it that
we cannot see a single mark of the hammer
on them.'
Louhi replied: Only to him who can
forge the magic Sampo for me will I give
my daughter.' Then she harnessed up
her sledge and put Wainamoinen in it and
made him all ready for his journey home.
And as he started off she spoke these words
to him: 'Do not raise thy eyes to the
heavens, do not look upward while the day
lasts, before the evening star has risen, or a
terrible misfortune will happen to you.'
Then Wainamoinen drove off, and his
heart grew light as he left the dismal North-
land behind him on his way to Kalevala.


-SHE fair Rainbow-maiden, Louhi's
daughter, sat upon a rainbow in
the heavens, and was clad in the
most splendid dress of gold and
silver. She was busy weaving golden webs
of wonderful beauty, using a shuttle of gold
and a silver weaving-comb.
As Wainamoinen came swiftly along the
way which led from the dark and dismal
Northland to the plains of Kalevala, before
he had gone far on his way he heard in the
sky above him the humming of the Rain-
bow-maiden's loom. Without thinking of
old Louhi's warning, he looked up and be-
held the maiden seated on the gorgeous
rainbow weaving beauteous cloths. No
sooner had he seen the lovely maiden than
he stopped, and calling to her asked her to
come to his sledge.

The Rainbow-maiden replied: 'Tell me
what thou wishest of me.'
Thou shalt come with me,' Wainamoinen
replied, to bake me honey-biscuit, to fill my
cup with foaming beer, to sing beside my
table, to be a queen within my home in the
land of Kalevala.'
But the maiden replied: Yesterday I
went at twilight to the flowery meadows.
There I heard a thrush singing, and I asked
him, Tell me, pretty song-bird, how shall I
live most happily, as a maiden in my father's
home or as a wife by my husband's side ? "
And the bird sang in reply, "The summer
days are bright and warm, and so is a
maiden's freedom; the winter is cold and
dark, and so are the lives of married women.
They are like dogs chained in a kennel, no
favours are given to wives." '
But Wainamoinen answered the maiden :
'The thrush sings only nonsense. Maidens
are treated like little children, but wives are
like queens. Come to my sledge, 0 maiden,
for I am not the least among heroes, nor am
I ignorant of magic. Come, and I will make
thee my wife and queen in Kalevala.'
Then the Rainbow-maiden promised to be
his wife if he would split a golden hair with
a knife that had no edge, and take a bird's
egg from the nest with a snare that no one
could see. Wainamoinen did both these
things, and then begged her to come to

his sledge, for he had done what she
But she set another task for him, telling
him she would marry him if he could peel
a block of sandstone and cut a whip-handle
from ice without making a single splinter.
And Wainamoinen did both these things,
but still the maiden refused to go until he
had performed a third task. This was to
make from the splinters of her distaff a little
ship, and to launch it into the water without
touching it.
Then Wainamoinen took the pieces of her
distaff and set to work. He took them to a
mountain from which he got the iron for his
work, and for three days he laboured with
hatchet and hammer. But on the evening
of the third day a wicked spirit, Lempo,
caught his hatchet as he raised it up, and
turned it as it fell, so that it hit a rock and
broke in fragments, and one of the pieces
flew into the magician's knee, and cut it, so
that the blood poured out.
Then Wainamoinen began to sing a magic
incantation to stop the blood from flowing,
but his magic was powerless against the
evil Lempo, and he could not stop the blood.
Then he gathered certain herbs with wonder-
ful powers, and put them on the wound, but
still he could not heal it up, for Lempo's
spell was too powerful for his magic. So he
got into his sledge again, and drove off at a

gallop to seek for help. Soon he came to
a place where the road branched off in three
directions. He chose the left-hand one, and
galloped on till he reached a house. When
he went to the door he found only a boy
and a baby inside, and when he had told
them what he wanted, the boy said, There
is no one here that can help thee, but take
the middle road, and perhaps thou wilt find
So off he galloped to where the roads
branched off, and then along the middle one.
to another house. There he found an old
witch lying on the floor, but she gave him
the same answer that the boy had done, and
sent him to the right-hand road.
On this road he came to another cottage,
where an old man with a long gray beard
was sitting by the fire. And when Waina-
moinen told him of his trouble, the old man
replied, Greater things have been done by
but three of the magic words; water has
been turned to land, and land to water.' On
hearing this answer Wainamoinen rose from
his sledge and went into the cottage, and
seated himself there. And all this time his
knee was bleeding, so that the blood was
enough to fill seven huge birchen pots.
Then the old man asked him who he was,
and bade him sing to him the origin1 of the
I For they believed that a magic song that told
the origin of any trouble would also cure it.

iron that had wounded him so, and Waina-
moinen related the following story of how
iron was first made :
Long ago after there were air and water,
fire was born, and after the fire came iron.
Ukko, the creator, rubbed his hands upon
his left knee, and there arose thence three
lovely maidens, who were the mothers of
iron and steel. These three maidens walked
forth on the clouds, and from their bosoms
ran the milk of iron, down unto the clouds
and thence down upon the earth. Ukko's
eldest daughter cast black milk over the
river-beds, and the second cast white milk
over the hills and mountains, and the third
red milk over the lakes and oceans; and
from the black milk grew the soft black iron-
ore; from the white milk the lighter-coloured
ore; and from the red milk the brittle red
After the iron had lain in peace for a
while, Fire came to visit his brother Iron
and tried to eat him up. Then Iron ran
from him and took refuge in the swamps
and marshes, and that is how we now find
iron-ore hidden in the marshes.
Then was born the great smith, Ilmarinen,
and the next morning after he was born he
built his smithy on a hill near the marshland.
There he found the hidden iron-ore, and
carried it to his smithy and put it in the
furnace to be smelted. And Ilmarinen had

not blown more than three strokes of the
bellows before the iron began to grow soft
as dough. But then Iron cried out to him,
' Take me from this furnace, Ilmarinen, save
me from this cruel torture !' for the heat of
the fire had grown unbearable.
Thou art not hurt, but only a little
frightened,' Ilmarinen replied; 'but I will
take thee out, and thou shalt be a great
warrior and slay many heroes.'
But Iron swore by the hammer and anvil,
' I will injure trees and mountains, but I'll
never kill the heroes. I will be men's
servant and their tool, but will not serve for
So Ilmarinen put the iron on his anvil,
and made from it many fine things and tools
of every kind. But he could not harden the
iron into steel, though he pondered over it
for a long time. He made a lye from birch-
ashes and water to harden the iron in, but
it was all in vain.
Just then a little bee came flying up, and
Ilmarinen begged him to bring honey from
all the flowers in the meadows, that he might
put it in the water and so harden the iron
to steel. But a hornet, one of the servants
of the evil spirit Lempo, was sitting on the
roof and overheard Ilmarinen's words. And
the hornet flew off and collected all the
evil charms he could find-the hissing of
serpents, the venom of adders, the poison of


spiders, the stings of every insect-and
brought them to Ilmarinen. He thought
that the bee had come and brought him
honey from the meadows, and so mixed all
these poisons with the water in which he
was to plunge the iron. And when he
thrust the iron into the poisoned water it
was turned to hard steel, but the poisons
made it forget its oath and grow hard-
hearted, and it began to wound men and
cause their blood to flow in streams. This
was the origin of steel and iron.
When Wainamoinen had finished, the old
man rose from the hearth and began an
incantation to make the wound close up.
First he cursed Iron that it had become so
wicked, and then he bade the blood cease
to flow by the power of his magic. And as
he went on he prayed to great Ukko that if
this magic incantation should not prove
sufficient, Ukko himself would come and
stop the wound.
By the time he had finished his words of
magic the blood ceased flowing from the
wound. Then the old man sent his son to
make a healing salve out of herbs, to take
away the soreness from Wainamoinen's
First the youth made a salve from oak-
bark and young shoots, and many sorts of
healing grasses. Three days and three
nights he steeped them in a copper kettle,

but when he had finished the salve would
not do. Then he added still other healing
herbs, and steeped it for three days more,
and at last it was ready. First he tried it
on a birch-tree that had been broken down
by wicked Lempo. He rubbed the salve
on the broken branches and said: With
this salve I anoint thee, recover, 0 birch-
tree, and grow more beautiful than ever !'
And the tree grew together and became
more beautiful and strong than ever before.
Then he tried the salve on broken granite
boulders and on fissures in the mountains,
and it was so powerful that it closed them
all together as if they had never existed.
After this he hurried home and gave the
magic salve to his father, and told him
what he had done with it.
The old man anointed Wainamoinen's
knee with it, saying : Do not rely on thine
own virtue or power, but in thy creator's
strength; do not speak with thine own
wisdom, but with great Ukko's. Whatever
in thee is good comes from Ukko.'
No sooner had the old man put on the
salve and said these words, than Waina-
moinen was seized with a terrible pain, and
lay rolling and writhing on the floor in
agony. But the old man bandaged up his
knee with a silken bandage, and prayed to
Ukko to come to his assistance.
And suddenly the pain left Wainamoinen

and his knee became as strong and well as
ever. Then he raised his eyes in gratitude
to heaven and prayed thus to Ukko : Praise
to thee, 'my Creator, for the aid that thou
hast given me. For thou hast banished all
my pain and trouble. 0 all ye people of
Kalevala, both those now living and those
to come, boast not of the work that ye
have done but give to God the praise, for
the great Ukko alone can make all things
perfect, Ukko is the one master!'

There was a moment's pause, and then
little Mimi said that she was so glad Waina-
moinen was well again, and asked Father
Mikko to tell them what happened to him
next. But the old man answered that he
must have a little time to breathe at least.
So he filled his pipe again and lighted it,
and Erik brought up some more beer, and
they sat and smoked and drank beer and
chatted for a while.
Then, when he felt rested once more,
Father Mikko obeyed Mimi's urgent request
and began again to tell them how Waina-
moinen got home, and what happened


O sooner was Wainamoinen cured
of his wound than he put his
sledge in order and drove off at
lightning speed towards Kalevala.
For three days he journeyed over hills and
valleys, over marshes and meadows, and on
the evening of the third day he reached the
land of Kalevala once again.
There, on the border line he halted, and
began a magic song. And as he sang a
fir-tree began to grow from the earth, and
kept on growing until its top had grown up
above the clouds and reached to the stars.
When the tree had finished growing, Waina-
moinen sang another magic song, so that
the moon was caught fast in the tree's
branches and obliged to shine there until
Wainamoinen should reverse his spell. And
then by another spell he made the stars of
the Great Bear fast in the tree-top, and then

jumped into his sledge and drove on again to
his home, with his cap set awry on his head,
mourning because he had promised to send
Ilmarinen back to the Northland, to forge
the magic Sampo as his ransom.
As he drove on he came to Ilmarinen's
smithy, and he stopped and went in to him.
Ilmarinen welcomed him and asked where
he had been so long, and what had happened
to him.
Then Wainamoinen told him of his
journey to the Northland, and all the
dangers he had gone through, and he
added: 'In a village there I saw a
maiden, who is the fairest in all the North-
land. All there sing her praises, for her
forehead shines like the rainbow and her
face is fair as the golden moonlight. She
is more beautiful than the sun and all the
stars together, but she will not marry any
suitor. But do thou go, dear Ilmarinen,
and see her wondrous beauty ; forge the
magic Sampo for her mother and then thou
shalt win this lovely maiden to be thy
But Ilmarinen replied: 0 cunning
Wainamoinen, I know that thou hast pro-
mised me as a ransom for thyself. But I
will never go to that gloomy country, nor
do I care for thy beautiful maiden ; I will
not go for all the maids in Pohjola.'
Wainamoinen answered: But I can tell

thee of still greater wonders, for I have
seen a giant fir-tree growing on the border
of our own country; its top is higher than
the clouds, and in its branches shine the
moon and the Great Bear.'
I will not believe thy wonderful story,'
replied Ilmarinen, until I see the tree with
my own eyes and the moon and stars shining
in it.'
Come with me,' said Wainamoinen, and
I will show thee that I speak the truth.'
So off they set to see the wondrous tree.
When they had come to it Wainamoinen
asked Ilmarinen to climb the tree and to
bring down the moon and stars, and he at
once began to climb up towards them.
But, while he was climbing, the fir-tree
spoke to him, saying: Foolish hero, why
hast thou so little knowledge as to try to
steal the moon from my branches ?' No
sooner had the tree said these words to
Ilmarinen, than Wainamoinen sang a magic
spell, calling up a great storm-wind, and
saying to it: '0 storm-wind, take Ilmarinen
and carry him in thy airy vessel to the dark
and dismal Northland.'
And the storm-wind came and heaped up
the clouds so that they formed a boat, and
seizing Ilmarinen from the tree it placed
him in the clouds and rushed off to the
north, carrying clouds and all with it. On
and on he sailed, rising higher than the


moon, tossed about by the wind, until at
last he came to the Northland and the
storm-wind set him down in Louhi's court-
Old toothless Louhi saw him as he
alighted, and asked him: Who art thou
that comest through the air, riding on the
storm-wind ? Hast thou ever met the great
smith Ilmarinen, for I have long been
waiting for him to come and forge the magic
Sampo for me.'
I do indeed know him well,' he replied,
'for I myself am Ilmarinen.'
At these words Louhi hurried into the
house and told her youngest daughter to
dress herself in all her most splendid clothes
and ornaments, for Ilmarinen was come to
make the Sampo for them. So the maiden
chose her loveliest silken dresses, and
placed a circlet of copper round her brow,
a golden girdle round her waist, and pearls
about her neck, and in her hair she twisted
threads of gold and silver. When she was
dressed she looked, with her'rosy red cheeks
and bright sparkling eyes, more lovely than
any other maiden in all the Northland, and
then she hurried to the hall to meet
Louhi went to Ilmarinen and led him
into the house, where there was a feast
spread ready for him. She gave him the
best seat at the table, and the choicest

viands to eat, and gave him everything he
wished for. Then she asked him if he
would forge the Sampo for her, and pro-
mised him, if he would, her fairest daughter
as his wife.
Ilmarinen was charmed with her daugh-
ter's beauty, and he promised to do what
she asked. But when he went to look for
a place to work in, he could find no place,
and not even so much as a pair of bellows
to blow his fire with. Still he was not dis-
couraged, but for three days he wandered
about, looking for a place to build a work-
shop. On the evening of the third day he
saw a huge rock that was suited for his pur-
pose, and there he began to build: The
first day he built the chimney and started a
fire; the second day he made his bellows
and put them in place; the third day he
finished his furnace, and had all ready to
begin his work.
Then Ilmarinen made a magic mixture of
certain metals and put them in the bottom
of the furnace. And he hired .some of
Louhi's men to work the bellows and keep
putting fuel on the fire. Three long summer
days the workmen blew the bellows, until at
length the base rock began to blossom in
flames from the magic heat.
On the evening of the first day Ilmarinen
bent over the furnace and took out a magic
bow. It gleamed like the moon, had a

shaft of copper and tips of silver, and was
the most wonderful bow that had ever been
made. But it would not rest satisfied unless
it killed a warrior every day, and two on
feast-days. So Ilmarinen broke it into
pieces and threw them back into the furnace,
and tried again to forge the Sampo.
On the evening of the second day he
looked into the furnace and drew forth a
magic vessel. It was all purple, save the
ribs that were of gold and the vase of copper,
and it was the most beautiful vessel that
ever had been made. But wherever it went
it always led men into quarrels and fights,
so Ilmarinen broke it into pieces and threw
it back into the furnace.
On the evening of the third day he took
out of the furnace a magic heifer, with horns
of gold and the most beautifully-shaped head.
But she was ill-tempered and would not stay
at home, but rushed through the forest and
swamps and wasted all her milk on the
ground. So Ilmarinen cut the magic heifer
in pieces and threw them back into the
And on the fourth evening he took out a
wonderful plough, the ploughshare of gold
and the handles of silver and the beam of
copper. But it ploughed up fields of barley
and the richest meadows, so Ilmarinen threw
it back into the furnace.
Then he drove away all his workmen,

and by his magic called up the storm-winds
to blow his bellows. They came from the
North and South and East and West, and
they blew one day and then another and
then a third, until the fire leapt out through
the windows, the sparks flew from the door,
and the smoke rose up and mingled with
the clouds. And on the third evening Ilma-
rinen looked into the furnace and beheld
the magic Sampo growing there. Quickly
he took it out and placed it on his anvil, and
taking a huge hammer the wonderful smith
forged the luck-bringing Sampo. From one
side it grinds out flour, and from the other
salt, and from the third it coins out money.
And the lid is all the colours of the rainbow,
and as it rocks back and forth it grinds one
measure for the day, and one for the market
and one for the storehouse.
Then old Louhi joyfully took the luck-
bringing Sampo and hid it in the hills of
Lapland. She bound it with nine great
locks, and by her witchcraft made three
roots grow all around it, two deep beneath
the mountains and one beneath the sea-
And when he had finished the Sampo,
Ilmarinen came to the lovely daughter of
Louhi and asked her if she were ready now
to be his wife. But she replied: If I
should go with thee, and leave the North-
land, all the birds would cease to sing.

No, never while I live will I give up my
maiden freedom, lest all the birds should
leave the forest and the mermaids leave
the waters.'
So Ilmarinen had made the Sampo all in
vain, and he was now far from home and
had no way of returning. But Louhi came
to him and asked him why he was grieving,
and when she learned his trouble, and that
he now wished to return to his own home,
she provided him with a boat of copper.
And when he had set sail she sent the north
wind to carry him on his way, and on the
evening of the third day he reached his
There Wainamoinen met him and asked
if he had forged the magic Sampo. 'Yes,'
replied Ilmarinen, I have forged the Sampo,
with its lid of many colours. Louhi has the
wondrous Sampo, but I have lost the beauteous

'Ah!' said little Mimi, 'old Louhi's
daughter was just as mean as could be,
and of course she didn't keep her pro-
mise, because Lapps never can be good
Don't be too hard on the poor Lapps,
my dear,' said Father Mikko, 'for you see
this happened a great many hundreds of

years ago, and the whole world has grown
better since then. But now we will leave
Ilmarinen and Wainamoinen for a while,
and I will tell you about the reckless Lem-
minkainen and his adventures.'
So the old man began as follows :


} ONG, long ago a son was born to
Lempo, and he was named Lem-
minkdinen, but some call him
Ahti. He grew up amongst the
islands and fed upon the salmon until he
became a mighty man, handsome to look at
and skilled in magic. But he was not as
good as he was handsome-he had a wicked
heart, and was more famous for his dancing
than for great deeds.
Now at the time my story begins, there
lived in the Northland a beautiful maiden
named Kyllikki. She was so lovely that
the Sun had begged her to marry his son
and come and live with them. But she
refused, and when the Moon came and
besought her to marry her son, and the
Evening Star sought her for his son, she
refused them both. And after that came
suitors from all the countries round about,

but the lovely Kyllikki would not marry one
of them.
When Lemminkainen heard of this, he
resolved that he would win her himself.
But his aged mother tried to dissuade him,
telling him that the maiden was of a higher
family than his own, that all the Northland
women would laugh at him, and then if he
should try to punish them for their laughter,
that the warriors of the Northland would
fall on him and kill him. But all this did
not make him change his mind, and he
started off for the distant Northland.
When he came near to Kyllikki's home,
all the women and maidens that saw him
began to laugh at him because he looked so
poor, and yet dared to try to win the fair
Kyllikki's hand. When he heard them
laughing, it made him so angry that he
drove on without paying any attention to
how he was driving, and when he came to
the courtyard his sledge hit against the
gate-post and broke to pieces, and threw
him out into the snow.
He rose up angrier than ever, but all
those around only laughed the harder at
him, and made all manner of fun of him.
Then they offered him a place as a shep-
herd on the mountains. So Ahti became a
shepherd, and spent all the days on the
hills, but in the evenings he went to their
dances, and when he had shown them what


a skilful dancer he was, he soon became
a great favourite with all the women, and
they began to praise him instead of laughing
at him.
But fair Kyllikki alone would have nothing
to do with him-would not even look at him
in spite of all his endeavours to win her.
At last she was tired out with his attentions,
and told him that he had better return
home, for she did not like him, and that so
long as he stayed there she would not even
look at him.
Still he did not go away, but waited until
a chance came to carry out his new plan.
About a month after this, all the maidens
were met together for a dance in a glen
among the hills, and among them was
Kyllikki. Suddenly Lemminkainen came
galloping up in his sledge and seized the
fair Kyllikki as she was dancing with the
rest, placed her in his sledge, and drove off
like the whirlwind, and as he flew by the
frightened maidens he cried out to them:
' Never tell that I have taken Kyllikki, or I
will cast a magic spell over your lovers, so
that they will all leave you and go off to the
wars and will never come back to dance and
make merry with you.'
But Kyllikki wept and begged Lemmin-
kainen to give her back her freedom, saying,
Oh, give me back my freedom, cruel
Lemminkainen; let me return on foot to my

grieving father and mother. If thou wilt
not let me go, 0 Ahti, I will curse thee
and will call upon my seven valiant brothers
to pursue and kill thee. Once I was happy
among my people, but now all my joy has
gone since thou hast come to torment me,
0 cruel-hearted Ahti!'
But all her words could not move Lem-
minkainen to release her. Then he said to
her : Dearest maiden, fair Kyllikki, cease
thy weeping and be joyful; I will never
harm thee nor deceive thee. Why shouldst
thou be sorrowful, for I have a lovely home
and friends and riches, and thou shalt never
need to labour. Do not despise me be-
cause my family is not mighty, for I have a
good spear and a sharp sword, and with
these I will gain greatness and power for
thy sake.'
Then Kyllikki asked him: '0 Ahti, son
of Lempo, wilt thou then be to me a faithful
husband; wilt thou swear to me never to go
to battle nor to strife of any sort ?
SI will swear upon my honour,' Lem-
minkainen replied, that I will never go to
battle, if thou wilt promise in return never
to go to dance in the village, however much
thou mayst long for it.'
So the two swore before the great
Ukko, Lemminkainen promising never to
go to battle, and Kyllikki that she would
never go to the village dances. And


then Lemminkainen rejoicing cracked his
whip, and they galloped on like the wind
over hills and valleys towards the plains of
As they came near to Lemminkainen's
home, Kyllikki saw that it looked dreary
and poor, and began to weep again, but
Lemminkainen comforted her, telling her
that now he would build a splendid mansion
for her, and so she grew cheerful once more.
They drove up to his mother's cottage, and
as they entered his mother asked him how
he had fared. Ahti answered: I have
well repaid the scorn of the Northland
maidens, for I have brought the fairest of
them with me in my sledge. I brought her
well wrapt in bear-skins hither, to be my
loving bride for ever. Beloved mother,
make ready for us the best room and pre-
pare a rich feast, that my bride may be
His mother answered: Praised be
gracious Ukko, that hath given me a
daughter. Praise Ukko, myson, that thou
hast won this lovely maiden, the pride of
the Northland, who is purer than the snow,
more graceful than the swan, and more
beautiful than the stars. Let us make our
dwelling larger, and decorate the walls most
beautifully in honour of thy lovely bride, the
fairest maid of all creation.'


f EMMINKAINEN and Kyllikki
lived together happily for many
years, keeping the promises they
had made to each other. But
one day Lemminkainen had not come home
from fishing by sunset, and then the longing
to dance was more than Kyllikki could with-
stand, and she went into the village and
joined the maidens in their dance.
As soon as Lemminkainen came home,
his sister Ainikki came to him and told him
how Kyllikki had broken her promise and had
joined in the dance. Then Lemminkainen
grew angry and sad at the same time, and
he went to his mother and asked her to
steep his clothing in the blood of serpents,
for he was going off to battle since Kyllikki
could not keep her vow.
Kyllikki tried to persuade him not to
leave her, telling him that she had dreamt a

dream, in which she saw their home in
flames and the fire bursting out through the
doors and windows and roof. But Lem-
minkainen replied: 'I have no faith in
women's dreams or maidens' vows. Bring
me my copper armour, mother, for I long to
get to the wars, to go to dismal Pohjola,
there to win great stores of gold and silver.'
Stay at home, my dear son,' his aged
mother said, 'and drink the beer in our
cellars, sitting peaceably by thine own
hearth, for we have more than enough gold
and silver. Only the other day, as our ser-
vants were ploughing the fields they came
upon a chest of gold and silver buried in the
ground-take this and be content.'
When all this had no effect upon Lemmin-
kainen, his mother began to tell him of the
magic of the Northland people, and that
they would sing him into the fire so that he
would be burnt to death. But he replied :
' Long ago three Lapland wizards tried to
bewitch me, and employed their strongest
spells against me, but I stood unmoved.
Then I began my own magic songs, and be-
fore long I overcame them and sank them
to .the bottom of the sea, where they are
still sleeping and the seaweed is growing
through their hair and beards.'
Still his mother tried to stop him, and his
wife Kyllikki begged his forgiveness in tears.
He stood listening to them and brushing out


his long black hair, but at last he became
impatient, and threw the brush from him
and cried out : I will not stay, but keep
that brush, and when ye see blood oozing
from its bristles, then ye may know that
some terrible misfortune has overtaken me.'
Saying this he left them and put on his
armour and harnessed his steed into his
sledge. Then he sang a song, calling on
all the spirits of the woods and the moun-
tains and the waters and on great Ukko
himself to help him against the Northland
wizards, and when his song was ended he
drove off like the wind.
In the evening of the third day he reached
a little village in the Northland. Here he
drove into a courtyard and called out: Is
there any one strong enough to attend to
my horse and take care of my sledge.'
There was a child playing on the floor of
the house, and it replied that there was no
one there to do it. Then Lemminkainen
rode on to another house and asked the
same question ; and a man standing in the
doorway replied: There are plenty here
that are mighty enough not only to unhar-
ness thy steed, but to conquer thee and drive
thee to thy home ere the sun has set.'
Then Lemminkainen told him that he
would return and slay him, and so drove off
to the highest house in the village. Here
he cast a spell over the watch-dog, so that

he should not bark, and drove in. Then he
struck on the ground with his whip, and
from the ground there arose a vapour that
concealed the sledge, and in the vapour was
a dwarf that took his steed and unharnessed
it and gave it food. But Lemminkainen
went on into the house, having first made
himself invisible. There he found a great
many people singing and making merry,
and by the fires the Northland wizards were
seated. He made his way on, and then
took on his own shape again and entered
into the main hall, and cried out to those
that were singing to be silent.
As soon as she saw him the mistress of
the house ran up to him and asked him who
he was, and how he had passed the watch-
dog unnoticed. Then Lemminkainen told
her who he was, and instantly began to
weave his magic spells, while the lightning
shot from his fur mantle and flames from
his eyes. He sang them all under the
power of his magic some beneath the
waters, some into the burning fire, some
beneath the heaped-up mountains. Only
one poor old man, who was blind and lame,
did he leave untouched. And when the
old man asked him why it was that he had
alone been left, cruel Lemminkainen began
to abuse him and to torment him with words,
until the old man, Nasshut, grew almost wild
with anger, and hobbled away, swearing to


have vengeance. Nasshut journeyed on
and on, and at last arrived at the river
Tuoni, which separates the land of the dead
from the land of the living. There he waited
until Lemminkainen should come, for he
knew, by his wizard's skill, that he would
come thither soon.


FTER this Lemminkain'en travelled
on through dismal Pohjola until
he came to the home of aged
Louhi. He went in to Louhi and
begged her to give him one of her daughters
in marriage, but Louhi refused, saying:
' Thou hast already taken one wife from
Lapland, the fair Kyllikki, and I will give
thee neither the loveliest nor yet the ugliest
of my daughters.'
Still Lemminkainen kept urging her, and
at last, to get rid of him, she said: I will
never give one of my daughters to a worth-
less man. Thou mayst not ask me again
until thou bringest me the Hisi-reindeer.'
Then Lemminkainen set to work to make
his arrows and his darts. When these were
done he went to Lylikki, the great snow-
shoe maker, and bade him make a huge

pair of snow-shoes, as he was going to hunt
the Hisi-reindeer. At first Lylikki tried to
dissuade him, telling him he could never
succeed, but perhaps would die in the forest.
But Lemminkainen ordered him again to
make the snow-shoes, and Lylikki set to
work. He made them of wood, only a few
inches wide, but longer than Lemminkainen
was tall, and with straps in the middle to
fasten them on to the feet; and he also
made a staff for Lemminkainen to push
himself along with, or to keep his balance
with when he slid down the hills.
At length they were finished, and Lemmin-
kainen put them on, and his quiver on his
back, and took his snow-staff in his hand,
and as he set off he cried out : There is no
living thing in all the forest that can escape
me now, when I take my mighty strides in
Lylikki's snow-shoes.'
But the evil spirit Hisi overheard him as he
boasted thus, and Hisi set to work to make
an enchanted reindeer, that Lemminkainen
would never be able to catch. So he took
bare willow branches to make the horns, and
wood for the head, the feet and legs were
made of reeds, and the veins from withered
grass, the eyes were made from daisies, the
ears from flowers, and the skin of the rough
fir-bark, and the muscles from strong, sappy
wood. When this magic reindeer was com-
pleted it was the swiftest and the finest-


looking of all reindeer. And Hisi sent it
off to Pohjola, telling it to lure Lemminkainen
into the snow-covered mountains and there
to wear him out with the cold and the fatigue
of the chase. So the reindeer went forth to
dismal Pohjola, and there it ran through the
courtyards and the outhouses, overturning
tubs of water, throwing the kettles from
their hooks, and upsetting the dishes that
were cooking before the fires. There was a
frightful noise there, for all the dogs began
to bark, and the children to cry, and the
women to laugh, and the men to shout.
And then the magic reindeer went on its
Now Lemminkainen had set out, as soon
as his snow-shoes were ready, and had
hunted the whole world over for a trace of
the Hisi-reindeer, rushing like the wind over
mountains and valleys, until the fire shot
from his snow-shoes, and his snow-staff
smoked. But after he had wandered over
the whole world and still had found no trace
of the Hisi-reindeer, he came at last to the
corner of Northland where the magic animal
had just run through the courts upsetting
everything, and the children were still crying
and the women laughing when he arrived.
Lemminkainen asked what the cause was of
their uproar, and they told him how the
reindeer had been there.
No sooner had he heard this than off he

flew over the snow, and as he went he sang
a spell, calling on the powers of Pohjola to
enable him to catch the Hisi-beast. After
he had sung, he gave three huge strides with
his snow-shoes, and at the end of the third
he caught up with the Hisi-reindeer, and in
another moment had it bound fast. Then
he spoke to the reindeer and patted it on
the head, and bade it come with him to
Louhi. But suddenly the animal made a
mighty rush, snapped his bonds in two, and
sprang away over the hills and valleys out
of sight.
Lemminkainen started off after it, but at
the first step his snow-shoes broke right in
two and threw him down, breaking his arrows
and his snow-staff in his fall. Then he
arose and looked sadly at his broken shoes
and arrows and stick, and said to himself:
' How shall I ever succeed in my hunt, now
that my shoes are broken, and the reindeer
is once more free ?'


OR a long time Lemminkainen sat
considering whether he should
give up the chase and return to
Kalevala, or still keep on after
the Hisi-reindeer. At length he regained
hope and courage, and having sung an
incantation that made his snow-shoes and
arrows and staff whole again, he started off
once more.
This time he turned his steps to the
home of Tapio, the god of the forest, and
as he went he began to sing wondrous songs
to Tapio and his wife Mielikki, begging
them to help him, and promising them
great stores of gold and silver if they would
do so.
At last he arrived at Tapio's palace,
which had window-frames of gold, and the
palace itself was of ivory. And within it
Mielikki and her daughters were dressed in

golden garments, and wore gold and gems
in their hair, and pearls round their necks.
And theyall promised to help Lemminkainen,
and went off to drive the reindeer up to the
palace so that he might catch it. Nor had
he long to wait before whole troops of rein-
deer came flocking into the palace courtyard,
and Lemminkainen saw among them the
Hisi-deer, and caught it.
Then Lemminkainen sang a song of
triumph, and having paid to Tapio's wife,
Mielikki, the gold and silver he had promised,
he hastened off with the reindeer to Louhi's
home. But when he gave the Hisi-deer to
her, she said: I will give thee my fairest
daughter if thou wilt catch and bridle for
me the fiery Hisi-horse, that breathes
smoke and fire from his mouth and nostrils.'
So Lemminkainen went off, taking with
him a golden bridle to put on the horse.
For three days he wandered without catching
sight of the Hisi-horse, but on the third day
he climbed to the top of a very high moun-
tain, and from thence he spied the steed on
the plain amongst the fir-trees, breathing
smoke and flames from his mouth and
nostrils and eyes.
When Lemminkainen saw him he prayed
to great Ukko to send a shower of icy hail
upon the fiery Hisi-steed, and presently a
great shower of hail rained down, and every
hailstone was larger than a man's head,

After the hail was over, Lemminkainen
came up to the fiery horse and coaxed him
to let the golden bridle be slipped over his
head. Then off they went like the wind,
the horse obeying Lemminkainen perfectly,
and in a very short time they arrived at
Louhi's house. When he had given the
Hisi-horse to Louhi, Lemminkainen asked
again for the hand of her fairest daughter.
But Louhi told him she would not give him
her daughter until he had killed the swan
that swam on Tuoni's river, which flows
between the land of the living and the dead.
Then Lemminkainen started off fearlessly
to seek the graceful swan of Tuoni, and
journeyed on and on until at length he
came to the coal-black river. There the
old shepherd of Pohjola, Nasshut, was
waiting for him, and, though blind, he heard
Lemminkainen's footsteps, and sent a serpent
from the death-river to meet him. The
serpent stung Lemminkainen just over the
heart, so that he fell down dead almost
instantly, only having time to call upon his
ancient mother to help him.
And Nasshut cast his body into the
dismal river Tuoni, where it was washed
down through the rapids to the Deathland,
Tuonela. There the son of the ruler of the
Deathland took the body, and cutting it into
five portions, cast them back into the stream,
saying: Swim there now, 0 Lemminkainen !

float for ever in this river, so that thou
mayst hunt the wild swan at thy leisure.'
And thus the handsome Lemminkainen
died, and was cast into the river of Tuoni,
that flows along the Deathland.


DEMMINKAINEN'S mother began
to grow uneasy at his long ab-
sence, and to fear that some
trouble had befallen him. At
last one day, as his wife, the fair Kyllikki,
was in her room, she noticed that drops of
blood had begun to flow from the bristles
of Lemminkainen's hair-brush. Then she
began to weep and mourn, and ran and
told his mother, who came and saw the
blood oozing from the brush, and cried
out :
'Woe is me, for my son, my hero, is in
some terrible distress; some awful mis-
fortune has happened to him.' Saying
this she hurried off, and went straight to
Louhi's house. There she asked what had
become of her son, .but Louhi only replied
that she did not know, that he had driven
off long ago in a sledge she had given him,

and perhaps the wolves or bears had eaten
Thou art only telling falsehoods,' replied
Lemminkainen's mother, 'for no bears or
wolves can devour him; he would put them
to sleep with his magic singing. Now, tell
me truly, 0 Louhi, whither thou hast sent
my son, or I will destroy all thy store-
houses and even thy magic Sampo.'
And then Louhi said that she had given
him a copper boat, and he had floated off
on the river; perhaps he had perished in
the rapids below. But Lemminkainen's
mother answered : 'Thou art still speaking
falsely. Tell me the truth this time, or I
will send plague and death upon thee.'
Then Louhi answered the third time:
'I will tell thee the truth. I sent him to
fetch me the Hisi-reindeer, and then after
the fire-breathing horse, and last of all, after
the swan that swims the death stream,
Tuoni, that he might gain the hand of my
fairest daughter. He may have perished
there, for he has not come back since to
ask for my daughter's hand.'
No sooner had Louhi said this than the
anxious mother hurried off to hunt for her
son. Over hills and valleys, through marsh
and forest, and over the wide waters she
went, but looked for him in vain. Then
she asked the Trees if they had seen him
but they answered: We have more than

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