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Agronomy facts

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Agronomy facts
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Agronomy facts
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Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida
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t 1110111
iorida Cooperative Extension Service


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES



AGRONOMY FACTS


October 7, 1983 Number 150


WHEAT FOR GRAZING AND GRAIN



it has been widely accepted that wheat could not be used for both grazing and grain I without',making a large sacrifice in grain yields. However, recent field trials with Florida 301 wheat show that it may be grazed for upto six weeks during late December and January without greatly reducing grain yields. This will also ensure some use of the wheat crop in case of severe grain loss from disease or drought, or a low market price. Wheat forage is more palatable to cattle than rye, and cattle make better gains from it. There are some important practices that must be followed to use wheat for forage without reducing final grain yields. The following practices are the best information available for use as grazing and grain.

Wheat should be planted between November 15 and December 15 for grain production while wheat grown for grazing must be planted earlier (October 15 to November 15) to begin grazing by late December. If Florida 301, Coker 797, or Hunter are planted in October with the intention of grazing and for some reason they are not grazed, the grain crop may be lost to a late season freeze. These varieties all have a relatively low vernalization (chilling) requirement and may head out too early in the spring unless their growth and development is retarded by grazing. Do not plant early if wheat is not to be grazed. Wait until at least mid-November to plant these three varieties for grain. A seeding rate of 1 1/2 bushels should be used if drilled in rows and up to 2 bushels per acre if broadcast and disked in.

Wheat planted for grazing and grain should have 60 lbs/A of nitrogen at planting. If the above practices are followed, and if rainfall and temperature 'are favorable, grazing can begin during late December. Large animals tend to pull instead of cut the wheat leaves. Well developed roots are needed to prevent young plants from being pulled up when larger animals are grazing. The wheat crop should be well established before grazing begins.

The number of animals that can be grazed on an acre varies with soil and environmental conditions. However, no more than 1,000 pounds of animal weight per acre should be allowed on a pasture, It is important to use caution when grazing wheat. Rye is normally grazed very close for long periods of time. Grazing pressure on wheat should never be high enough to result in less than a 3-inch canopy height at any one time. Higher grazing pressure will result in serious losses in wheat grain yields. If plant growth is slow due to cold temperatures, lack of fertilizer or dry weather, reduce the number of animals to less than 1,000 pounds animal weight per acre. Graze for no more than six weeks. Grazing should not be continued beyond the time when stem elongation









begins and just before jointing (Fig. 1) . This will be at different calendar dates for different varieties and will depend on seasonal temperatures as well. Cattle will have to be removed from the early maturing varieties earlier than from later maturing varieties.

The second application of 60 lbs/A nitrogen along with sulfur and potash on sandy soils should be made as soon as the cattle are removed to stimulate tiller growth and seed production. This would make.a total of 120-150 lbs nitrogen/A for grazing and grain as compared to a total of 80 needed for grain. After cattle.are removed management practices used in grain production should be followed.

Where grazing is desired for the entire season, wheat may be substituted for rye though production through the coldest winter months may be less with wheat. Reasons to consider planting wheat for grazing over rye include, higher rye seed prices, plentiful wheat supply, and a rather.-short rye seed supply. Results of the wheat clipping trial conducted at Quincy in 1983 are presented in Table 1. It is apparent from this data that there are considerable differences among varieties in forage production and season of production. Usually the best forage producers are the later maturing varieties since they produce their forage over a longer period and are less affected by cold periods during the winter. Florida 301 is an excellent early season forage producer but does not produce forage over an extended period while Coker 916, a later maturing variety, produces little early season forage but does well in the late portion of the grazing season.

Where, wheat is to be grazed without regard for seed production, seeding
an early season wheat with ryegrass will -extend the grazing period and produce more total forage than either species alone.



D. L. Wright E. C. French
R. D. Barnett M. Swisher




Use of trade names in this publication is solely for:the purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of others of suitable composition'.



This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ * 130.81 or .07 cents per copy to inform interested persons of wheat for grazing and grain. I


- 2 -








Table 1. Wheat Forage Trial at Quincy in 1983.


Brand or Forage Yield - Pounds Per Acre Dry Matter
Originating 1st Clip 2nd Clip Total Through 3rd Clip 4th Clip Season
State Variety 1- 12-83 2-21-83 2-21-83 3-22-83 4-29--83 Total

Texas Tex. 73-93 130 d-h 560 e-g 690 fg 1746 a-c 2711 b 5147 a
Coker 747 47 gh 227 fg 274 g 1317 ef 3527 a 5118 a
Coker 916 175 c-g 613 e 788 ef 1510 c-e 2720 b 5018 a
Florida Florida 302 306 a-c 1032 bc 1338 bc 1733 a-d 1697 ef 4769 ab
Rohm & Haas HW 3007 131 d-h 565 e-g 696 fg 1518 c-e 2501 b-d 4716 ab

Rohm & Haas HW 3006 428 a 780 c-e 1209 b-e 1143 ef 2288 b-d 4640 ab
Georgia Stacy 235 cd 697 c-e 932 c-f 1542 c-e 2145 c-e 4619 ab
NAPB Southern Belle 147 d-h 539 e-g 685 fg 1305 ef 2549 bc 4539 ab
Florida FL737-G3-12-2-B2 148 d-h 683 c-e 831 d-e 2022 ab 1257 f-g 4110 bc
NAPB Hunter 291 bc 975 b-d 1266 b-d 1883 a-c 659 hi 3808 cd

Coker 762 54 f-h 805 c-e 859 d-f 2135 a 801 g-i 3795 cd
Florida Florida 301 393 ab 1694 a 2087 a 1239 ef 420 i 3746 cd
North Carolina Blueboy II 201 c-e 583 e 784 ef 1150 ef 1715 ef 3649 cd
Georgia Omega 78 102 d-h 805 c-e 907 c-f 1863 a-c 857 g-i 3628 cd
NK-McNair 1003 65 e-h 576 e-f 641 fg 1793 a-c 1179 f-h 3613 cd

NK-McNair 1813 187 c-f 755 c-e 941 c-f 1795 a-c 845 g-i 3581 cd
Indiana Arthur 71 49 gh 210 g 260 g 1337 d-f 1964 de 3561 cd
Florida FL74265-10-A2-B2 51 f-h 620 de 671 fg 1884 a-c 811 g-i 3366 d
Coker 797 408 ab 1196 b 1604 b 970 f 651 hi 3225 d
Arkansas Doublecrop 32 h 504 e-g 536 fg 1728 b-d 867 g-i 3131 d


Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the Planting date 11-12-82. 5 replications in a randomized complete block Applied 700 lbs/A 7-8-8 preplant. Topdressed with 50 Ibs N/A twice


5% level according to Tukey's test. design. Plot size = 10' x 4', harvested 26.7 ft2. during the season.















Stage
I One shoot (number of leaves can be added)
= "brairding"
2 Beginning of tillering
3 Tillers formed, leaves often twisted spirally. In
some varieties of winter wheats, plants may
be "creeping" or prostrate
4 Beginning of the erection of the pseudo-stem,
leaf sheaths beginning to lengthen
5 Pseudo-stem (formed by sheaths of leaves)
strongly erected
6 First node of stem visible at base of shoot
7 Second node of stem formed, next-to-last leaf
just visible
8 Last leaf visible, but still rolled up, spike
beginning to swell
9 Ligule of last leaf just visible
10 Sheath of last leaf completely grown out,
spike swollen but not yet visible
10.1 First spikes just visible (awns just showing in barley, spike escaping through split of
sheath in wheat or oats)
10.2 Quarter of heading process completed 10.3 Half of heading process completed 10.4 Three-quarters of heading process completed 10.5 All spikes out of sheath 10.5.1 Beginning of flowering (wheat) 10.5.2 Flowering complete to top of spike 10.5.3 Flowering over at base of spike 10.5.4 Flowering over, kernel watery ripe 11.1 Milky ripe
11.2 Mealy ripe, contents of kernel soft but dry 11.3 Kernel hard (difficult to divide by thumb-nail) 11.4 Ripe for cutting. Straw dead

(After E. C. Large. 1954. Plant Pathol. 3:128-129)


GROWTH STAGES
IN CEREALS
T ILLE RING




STAGE
STAGE
STAGE 4 leof
STAGE she oth$
STAGE 3 leof stror.gy
2 sheaths ertcted
Itillt~r$ lengt hen
W hirering ormed mhoot bgins


Growth stages of wheat.


Remove cattle at this stage (stage 5).


Figure 1.




Full Text
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PAGE 1

Florida Cooperative Extension Service UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTE OF FOOD ANO AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AGRONOMY FACTS October 7, 1983 Number 150 WHEAT FOR GRAZING AND GRAIN It has been widely accepted that wheat could not be used for both grazing ,:a,; and grain without making a large sacrifice in grain yields. However, recent field trials with Florida 301 wheat show that it may be grazed for up to six weeks during late December and January without greatly reducing grain yields. This will also ensure some use of the wheat crop in case of severe grain loss from disease or drought, or a low market price. Wheat forage is more palat able to cattle than rye, and cattle make better gains from it. There are some important practices that must be followed to use wheat for forage without re ducing final grain yields. The following practices are the best information available for use as grazing and grain. Wheat should be planted between November 15 and December 15 for grain production while wheat grown for grazing must be planted earlier (October 15 to November 15) to begin grazing by late December. If Florida 301, Coker 797, or Hunter are planted in October with the intention of grazing and for some reason they are not grazed, the grain crop may be lost to a late season freeze. These varieties all have a relatively low vernalization (chilling) requirement and may head out too early in the spring unless their growth and development is re tarded by grazing. Do not plant early if wheat is not to be grazed. Wait un til at least mid-November to plant these three varieties for grain. A seeding rate of . 1 1 /2 bushels should be used if drilled in rows and up to 2 bushels per acre if broadcast and disked in. Wheat planted for grazing and grain should have 60 lbs/A of nitrogen at planting. If the above practices are followed, and if rainfall and temperature 'are favorable, grazing can begin during late December. Large animals tend to pull instead of cut the wheat leaves. Well developed roots are needed to prevent young plants from being pulled up when larger animals are grazing. The wheat crop should be well established before grazing begins. The number of animals that can be grazed on an acre varies with soil and environmental conditions. However, no more than 1,000 pounds of animal weight per acre should be allowed on a pasture. It is important to use caution when grazing wheat. Rye is normally grazed very close for long periods of time. Grazing pressure on wheat should never be high enough to result in less than a 3-inch canopy height at any one time. Higher grazing pressure will result in serious losses in wheat grain yields. If plant growth is slow due to cold tem peratures, lack of fertilizer or dry weather, reduce the number of animals to less than 1,000 pounds animal weight per acre. Graze for no more than six weeks. Grazing should not be continued beyond the time when stem elongation

PAGE 2

2 begins and just before jointing (Fig. 1). This will be at different calendar dates for different varieties and will depend on seasonal temperatures as well. Cattle will have to be removed from the early maturing varieties earlier than from later maturing varieties. The second application of 60 lbs/A nitrogen along with sulfur and potash on sandy soils should be made as soon as the cattle are removed to stimulate tiller growth and seed production. This would make a total of 120-150 lbs nitrogen/A for grazing and grain as compared to a total of 80 needed for grain. After cattle are removed management practices used in grain production should be followed. Where grazing is desired for the entire season, wheat may be substituted for rye though production through the coldest winter months may be less with wheat. Reasons to consider planting wheat for grazing over rye include, higher rye seed prices, plentiful wheat supply, and a rather _ short rye seed supply. Results of the wheat clipping trial conducted at Quinc y in 1983 are presented in Table 1. It is apparent from this data that there are consider able differences among varieties in forage production and season of production. Usually the best forage producers are the later maturing varieties since they produce their forage over a longer period and are less affected by cold periods during the winter. Florida 301 is an excellent early season forage producer but does not produce forage over an extended period while Coker 916, a later maturing variety, produces little early season forage but does well in the late portion of the grazing season. Where wheat is to be grazed without regard for seed production, seeding an early season wheat with ryegrass will extend the grazing period and produce more total forage than either species alone. 0.JMD. L. Wright R. D. Barnett E. C. French M. Swisher Use of trade names in this publication is solely for = the . purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of others of suitable composition. This public document was promulgated at a cost of $130.81 , or .07 cents per copy to inform interested persons of wheat for grazing and grain.

PAGE 3

Table 1. Wheat Forage Trial at Quincy in 1983. Brand or Originating State Texas Coker Coker Florida Rohm & Haas Rohm & Haas Georgia NAPB Florida NAPB Coker Florida North Carolina Georgia NK-McNair NK-McNair Indiana Florida Coker Arkansas Variety Tex. 73-93 747 916 Florida 302 HW 3007 HW 3006 Stacy Southern Bel le FL 737-G3-12-2-B 2 Hunter 762 Florida 301 Blueboy II Omega 78 1003 1813 Arthur 71 FL74265-10-A2-B2 797 Doublecrop 1st Clip 112-83 130 d-h 47 gh 175 c-g 306 a-c 131 d-h 428 a 235 cd 147 d-h 148 d-h 291 be 54 f-h 393 ab 201 c-e 102 d-h 65 e-h 187 c-f 49 gh 51 f-h 408 ab 32 h Forage Yield Pounds Per Acre Dry Matter . 2nd Clip Total Through 3rd Clip 4th Clip 2-21-83 2-21-83 3-22-83 4-29-83 560 e-g 227 fg 613 e 1032 be 565 e g 780 c-e 697 c-e 539 e-g 683 c-e 975 b-d 805 c-e 1694 a 583 e 805 c-e 576 e-f 755 c-e 210 g 620 de 1196 b 504 e-g 690 fg 274 g 788 ef 1338 be 696 fg 1209 b-e 932 c-f 685 fg 831 d-e 1266 b-d 859 d-f 2087 a 784 ef 907 c-f 641 fg 941 c-f 260 g 671 fg 1604 b 536 fg 1746 a-c 1317 ef 1510 c-e 1733 a-d 1518 c-e 1143 ef 1542 c-e 1305 ef 2022 ab 1883 a-c 2135 a 1239 ef 1150 ef 1863 a-c 1793 a-c 1795 a-c 1337 d-f 1884 a-c 970 f 1728 b-d 2711 b 3527 a 2720 b 1697 ef 2501 b-d 2288 b-d 2145 c-e 2549 be 1257 f-g 659 hi 801 g-i 420 i 1715 ef 857 g-i 1179 f-h 845 g-i 1964 de 811 g-i 651 hi 867 g-i Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level according to Tukey's test. Season Total 5147 a 5118 a 5018 a 4769 ab 4716 ab 4640 ab 4619 ab 4539 ab 4110 be 3808 cd 3795 cd 3746 cd 3649 cd 3628 cd 3613 cd 3581 cd 3561 cd 3366 d 3225 d 3131 d Planting date 11-12-82. 5 replications in a randomized complete block design. Plot size= 10 1 x 4', harvested 26.7 ft 2 Applied 700 lbs/A 7-8-8 preplant. Topdressed with 50 lbs N /A twice during the season.

PAGE 4

Stage I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 JO 10.) 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.5.1 10.5.2 10.5.3 10.5.4 I I.I I 1.2 11.3 11.4 One shoo( (numher of leaves can k added) = "hrairding" Be~inning of tillering Tillers formed. leaves often twisted s pirally. In some vari e ties of winter wheats, plants may be "crec.:ping" or pro!-trate Beginning of the erection of the r~eudo-stem, leaf sh e aths beginning to leng t hen Pseudo-stem (formed by sheaths of le a ves) strongly erected First node of stem visible at base of shoot Second node of stem formed, next to last leaf . just visible Last leaf visible, but still rolled up, spike beginning to swell Ligule of last leaf just visible Sheath of last leaf completely grown out, spike swollen but not yet visible First spikes just visible (awns just showing in barley, spike escaping through split of sheath in wheat or oats) Quarter of heading process rompleted Half of heading process completed Three-quarters of heading process completed All spikes out of sheath Beginning of flowering (wheat) Flowering complete to top of spike Flowering over at base of spike Flowering over, kernel watery ripe Milky ripe Mealy ripe, contents of kernel soft but dry . Kernel hard (difficult to divide by thumb-na1l) Ripe for cutting_ Straw dead (After E . C. Large. 1954. Plant Pathol. 3:128 ~ 129) Figure 1. Growth stages of wheat. GROWTH STAGES IN CEREALS ----TILL[ AIN::; ----.,, S T AGE t S T AGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4 STAGE s Ire! ~ h f'Olh1 ,1rongty urctrd Remove cattle at this stage (stage 5). ----STEM EXTENSION -----HEADING STAGE RIPENING STAGE II STAGE 6 STAGE 9 STAGE ligulr of S lo;~~~af vriiblc STAGE lost Ira! ju,t 7 vi,iblc STAGE 10 in boot STAGE 10 . 1 (HC notu) 10 . s llo•crlng (whrot)