African Women In Development

Material Information

African Women In Development
Jeffalyn Johnson & Associates
United States -- Agency for International Development
Place of Publication:
Falls Church Va
Jeffalyn Johnson and Associates
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
130 p. in various pagings : ; 29 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Women in rural development ( lcsh )
Women in community development ( lcsh )
Women -- Developing countries ( lcsh )
Women in development ( fast )
Women in economic development ( fast )
Women ( jstor )
AIDS ( jstor )
Personnel evaluation ( jstor )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
journal ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Senegal


This 27 page document, including additional pages, consisting of aspects of the project inputs, outputs, management, local participation, male involvement, external factors, conclusions and recommendations. Starting on page 1 is the Introduction. The Introduction mentions that this evaluation report covers seven of the Women in development projects funded by USAID. The Introduction mentions the fundamental questions but some other objectives were outlines including if the USAID and host country inputs were provided as planned, if the projected outputs were realizes as planned, and whether or not the program goals have been attained resulted in a change of the behavior of the group. The Methodology starts on page 2. The methods mentioned include a review of all available documents at AID/Washington and USAID missions, interviewing of USAID personnel involved with the projects in Washington, interviewing the project staff members and recipients of assistance, and visiting project sites and meetings held by community leaders. A framework was also listed including descriptions of important development problems, individual activities that should fit within the parameters of the national plan, focusing on rural women who are low income farmers, emphasis on the participation of women in identification of their own needs, priority to innovative or experimental activities, and prospects for replications of adaptation elsewhere. Common Threads begins on page 4. The Project Design which explains the analyses of the project papers and the information for the methods. Additional description is given about the data collected. Project Implementation starts on page 10. The first sub-section is the Inputs. Inputs are essential for the project. Outputs are outlined on page 12. Outputs help reflect the quality and timeliness of inputs and the realism of the design of the project. Local Participation descriptions start on page 13. The section mentions that the projects appear to have a strong correlation between the extent of involvement in the project by its beneficiaries or target populations. Male Involvement is mentioned on page 14. This section has an under that "there is no conclusive evidence that WID projects have caused a significant change in the traditional attitudes of males. External Factors- Constraints start on page 14. This external factors mentioned are weather, religion and culture, illiteracy, and economy of the nation.Page 18 starts the Findings and Conclusions. "The team found that all of the projects conform to AID's priority emphasis on rural women, food production, rural development, nutrition and health". "The team concluded that with some modification of design in implementation, the projects would be replicable". "The repeated low level funding of these projects, lack of useful feasibility studies, and absence of sound project design does suggest that WID projects do not enjoy high priority in AID's scheme of assistance programming". It is mentioned that most of the projects could have been successful with enough funding and technical assistance. "The enthusiasm of women is the best answer to the question". The last section of text is the Recommendations. There are recommendations for the project design, project implementation, and strengthening the evaluation process. Appendix #1 is "Senegal: Casamance Vegetable Growers". Appending #1 is and Evaluation Report by Kassack Nord. Appendix #3 is an Evaluation Report for African Women in Development by Tivaouane. Appending #4 is an Evaluation Report for African Women in Development by Ghana Day Care. Appendix #5 is an Evaluation Report for Women in Development by Gara Cloth Industry. Appendix #6 is an Evaluation Report for Women in Development by Silkworm and Vegetal Tannin Study. The last Appendix, #7, is an Evaluation Report for African Women in Development by an Income Producing Feasibility Study.
General Note:
Jeffalyn Johnson and Associates, INC. Two Skyline Plaza, Suite 1210, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia 22041, (703) 578- 4683

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
11525866 ( OCLC )


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text






Two Skyline Plaza, Suite 1210
5203 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia 22041
(703) 578-4633



Chapter I: Chapter !I:

Introduction ......... ..................

Methodology .... .. .......... .......

Chapter III: Common Threads .........

Project Implementition ...................... ....
Inputs .................................. ......
Outputs ........................... ............
Management and Technical Assistance ............
Local Participation ........... ..................
Male Involvement .................................
Host Government Commitment .......................

Chapter IV:

External Factors - Constraints .........

Weather ..........................................
Religion and Culture .............................
Illiteracy ....................... ... ...... .
Economy of the Nation ............................

Chapter V: Chapter VI:

Findings and Conclusions ... ..........

Recommendations .....................

Project Design ...........................
Project Implementation .............
Strengthening the Evaluation Process .............

Chapter VII: Appendices - Sub-Project
Evalration Reports

Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix

#3: #4: #5:

Appendix #7:

Senegal: Casamance Vegetable Growers Senegal: Kassack Nord Senegal: Tivaouane Ghana: Ghana YWCA Day Care Center Sierra Leone: Gara Cloth Industry Upper Volta: Silkworm and Vegetal
Tannin Study
Income Producing Feasibility Study


The Foreign Service Act (Percy Amendment) was amended in 1973 to specify that United States aid shall "give particular attention to programs, projects, and activities which tend to integrate women with the national economy of developing countries, thus improving their status and assisting the total development effort." Since the Percy Amendment, a wide variety of Women in Development (WID) projects have been funded by the Office of Women in Development (AID-PPC/WID), which was established in 1974, and other organizational units within the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID).

This evaluation report focuses on seven of these Women in Development projects funded by USAID. Its purpose is to determine whether discrete WID projects do in fact improve the welfare of women and integrate them into the development process. To determine how successful these projects have been in accomplishing this purpose, two key issues are addressed.

" Should funds continue to be provided for women's

programs per se or are such funds better utilized for

activities which involve women within the framework of larger, more comprehensive development projects?

" Are Women in Development projects improving the welfare of women and extending their potential as contributors to development?

In addition to these two fundamental questions, the evaluation also addressed the objectives which were outlined in the scope of work. They are:

* Determine if USAID and host country inputs were provided as planned and assess the quality, quantity,

and timeliness of these inputs;'

e Determine if the projected outputs were realized as

planned and whether or not these outputs contrib'Ated

directly to the achievement of the program goals; and

0 Determine whether or not the program goals have been

attained anI further, whether or not this has resulted

in changed behavior of the target group. Has there

been a spread effect? Will there be a continuing impact or effect after termination of assistance funding?

Jeffalyn Johnson and Associates, Inc. used two teams composed of two staff members each to conduct the evaluation over a four week period - February 17-March 18, 1980. Both teams were totally composed of minorities and women. The procedures used in the conduct of the study included:

" Review of all available documents at AID/Washington,

USAID Missions in host countries, host government

offices and visits to project sites.

" Interview of USAID personnel involved with the projects in Washington and in the recipient countries.


" Interview of project staff members and recipients of


" Visits to project sites and meetings held with local

community leaders.

* Analyses of quantative and budgetary data.

This methodology emphasized the identification and compilation of as much primary source data as was available. However, the team did experience some difficulty in obtaining requested documents, thus necessitating heavy reliance on secondary material and data obtained from interviews.
The framework within which this study was conducted included the six criteria identified by AID for selection of activities. Those criteria require that:

* The activit must relate to important development

problems or opportunities to the priorities on which

AID puts special emphasis, i.e., food production,

rural development, nutrition, and health.

" Individual activities should fit within the parameters of the national plan of strategy regarding the

advancement of Women in Development where one exists.

If not, there should be a definitive expression of

interest and participation.

" The focus should be on rural women who are low income

farmers, herders, artisans or service workers in rural

areas. The activities should relate to development


opportunities at the micro-economic level that will

improve the status of the target group.

* To the extent possible, there should be emphasis on

the participation of women in identification of their

own needs and in the design and implementation of

programs to address those needs.

* Priority will be given to innovative or experimental


* When possible, prospects for replication or adaptation elsewhere will be considered in the selection

and design of activities.

The report is an evaluation of African Women in Development No. 698-0388 with its seven sub-project evaluations appended.


Project Design

The analyses of the project papers indicate that a number of the objectives of the designs were not stated in quantifiable terms. Measurable baseline data was not furnished, thus it was difficult to measure project performance and accomplishments.

Information about the methods used in the conduct of the feasibility studies and the circumstances surrounding the development of the project is essential and would have greatly facilitated the conduct of this evaluation. Feasibility

studies were not conducted for all the projects. Of the feasibility studies that weLe conducted, the findings appear to have been ignored or not fully utilized. The Kassack Nord Project Paper states that a study was conducted to ascertain the needs of the women. However, these findings do not appear to have been utilized. A similar situation exists with regard to the income feasibility studies in Upper Volta. The studies were not utilized, possibly due to a lack of interest and because they had not been translated.

In addition, the data collected in the studies often

were not adequate to provide the kinds of information necessary for good project design or evaluation. Such studies lacked the following types of information which the evaluation team feels is needed for the design of a successful project.

e Baseline data essential to the quantification of

project progress and the achievement of specific objectives, was often missing, i.e., nutritional status of the population, levels and patterns of migration, approximate level of income, current

workload and division ot labor, etc.

In the Casamance project, two of the stated purposes included improving the nutritional status of

the population and reducing migration of young girls

to the cities. However, the absence of base line


data regarding the pre-project nutritional status of the population or the rate of migration prior to the

initiation of the project made it impossible to evaluate the degree to which these purposes were achieved

by the conclusion of the project.

* Greater input from the target population regarding

the nature and scheduling of project inputs could

contribute to more effective internal management of projects. The Tivaouane project, for example, would

have profited from advice from the female beneficiaries regarding the type of trees best suited for cultivation in tht area.

When a feasibility study is conducted, the contributions expected from the target population should
be established and agreed upon. This might insure

greater, active participation by the beneficiaries in

the planning and design of the project. Then, they

could assist in the scheduling of their contributions so these could be synchronized with the phasing in of AID and government inputs. The Tivaouane serves as a

model for this pattern. Agreements were obtained

prior to the initiation of the project and, for the

most part, it appears as though the villagers are

complying with their agreement. On the other hand, lack of clarity regarding the village contributions


in the Casamance Project has led to confusion,

resentment and declining commitment and interest on

the part of some of the villages.

o The general absence of market studies has resulted in

serious shortcomings in the project design process.

In the Casamance project, no adequate data was collected regarding the marketability of the vegetables produced. As a result, there was saturation of the markets in the area, thereby reducing the ability of individual wcmen to sell their produce and generate

income for themselves.

So far, market studies have not been conducted

for the proposed income producing activities in the Tivaouane (sheep raising) and Kassack Nord (fabric

dyeing, poultry and rice production) projects. Without such studies, the project activities may suffer

from assumptions and miscalculations.

When such studies have been conducted, the time

lapse between completion of the feasibility study and

initiation of project activities is often lengthy.

As a result, in some projects it has been necessary

to conduct additional studies to gather relevant data

for adequate project design.

o In general, the feasibility of project goals and purposes was not realistically assessed and the magnitude


of project outputs was overly ambitious for the allotted budget and time. Additional time would have improved the achievement of project. purposes for all of

tne projects.

* One major factor which retarded the progress of projects was the late delivery of planned inputs. Oftentimes, the slowness of input was caused by routine delays and obstacles encountered in rural environments. External factors such as climatic conditions

and personnel changes also affected delivery. Most of

the planning did not allow for such commonly encountered delays. In short, the time frame for achievement of project purposes should be expanded.

* Budgetary constraints were apparent in most of the

projects. It was found that budget levels were insufficient to supply the projected inputs, and that no contingency funds were included to cover unexpected

increases in costs. These unrealistically low budgets

seemed to have been planned in response to a need to have the project fall within certain funding levels.

However, lower levels of inputs and less numerically

ambitious outputs could, if properly managed, increase

the chance for success of the project.

" Projections regarding the magnitude of outputs were

also determined to be unrealistic. For example, the


target set by the Casamance Project of a yearly income of $9,000 per cooperative, was very unrealistic,

given the allotted time frame, the level of inputs,

the number of women expected to participate, and

their overall workload.

* There is a need to set clearly defined and well-stated goals. In the Tivaouane project, the purposes included lightening the heavy burden of work for women and providing alternative work activities.

However, in spite of the introduction of the millet mill, the likely result for the women was additional work. Care should be taken to ensure that the programmed activities actually represent work alternatives rather than work additives.

* Purposes and goals must be measurable. Increased

income was a stated goal or purpose of every one of

the projects but the measurement of increased income was virtually impossible, given both the reluctance

of village women to reveal their incomes and the

absence of baseline data.

* None of the projects included evaluation plans in the

project designs. Although it was assumed that AID

personnel would conduct mid-project and end-of-project evaluations, there were no procedures for evaluations included in the project papers. Many inappro-


priate decisions regarding project management and

delivery of inputs might have been avoided had there been adequate internal and external monitoring of the project to provide for early detection of such problems. Recognizing the constraints imposed by lack of personnel, limited funds for transportation'and time,

the evaluation team recommends that a model be designed specifically for the evaluation of small projects.

It is conceivable that the Casamance Project would

have identified the need for technical training and

that the Kassack Nord Project might have realized that the gap in communication between SAED and AID constituted a serious constraint to the implementation of the project. Oxen might have been substituted for donkeys

at an earlier stage in the Casamance project and the

Sierra Leone project might have been redesigned to

assure appropriate training and to provide technical


Project Implementation


Adequate, appropriate, and timely inputs are essential

to effective implementation of projects. The absence of just one of these factors has serious consequences for the project. Every one of the projects, except Tivaouane suffered


from the absence of at least one, if not all, of the above factors. The funding for the Ghana Day Care Project arrived eight months after the project commenced. Fortunately, the project was salvaged by the Ghana YWCA which provided the necessary resources to institute the project. The inadequate funding that plagued Kassack Nord resulted in a cutback of other inputs.

The Casamance Project called into question the appropriateness of the inputs when the pumps and vehicles were inoperable. In all fairness to the project, it has been suggested that the mobylettes were not rendered mechanically inoperable, but were none-the-less unavailable for project use. Although such inputs may have been technically appropriate, the totality of the mechanical breakdown suggests that there should not be such inputs where there are no trained personnel to maintain them or where there is an absence of spare parts.

The host country institution Societe d'Amenagement d' Exploitation (SAED) was unable to provide rice fields in the vicinity of Kassack Nord for the villagers. Consequently, the villagers were forced to travel eleven kilometers to cultivate their fields and found it necessary to live at this site for five months. Therefore, their opportunity for participation was seriously limited. In retrospect, the provision of the rice fields adjacent to Kassack Nord is essential to the fulfillment of the purposes and goals of the project.

The requirement that the commodities such as medicines

and vehicles be American produced resulted in greater expense for the communities, and consequently, can hardly be said to be the most appropriate input. Outputs

The project outputs reflect the quality and timeliness

of the inputs, the realism and skillfulness of the design, as well as the effectiveness of systematic management. There is no consistent pattern of achievement of outputs throughout the projects.

Income earning capability for the women was an objective in each of the projects, but it only had modest achievement. Several of the projects were involved in some type of agricultural production - garden production, vegetable growing, millet production - each of which had marginal results. While gardens and crops achieved varying levels of success, most production did not reach income producing levels.

One of the outputs that had immediate effect on both the

men and women waa the literacy instruction in both Kassack Nord and Ghana.

The Tivaouane Project did not have measurable outputs as the project has yet received all of its inputs, nor have the project activities gone into full production. Management and Technical Assistance

The success of the projects could be increaed by incorporating management systems as a component of each. Technical

assistance in the development of good management in the projects could result in more effective implementation and greater benefits to the target population.

Most of the projects indicate a need for technical assistance to develop management skills among the project personnel. This assistance would result in more effective use of inputs, supervision of personnel, appropriate ranking of priorities, improved personal relations with officials, and more realistic planning. For example, technical assistance would have benefited the Casamance Project, particularly in the maintenance of its mobylettes and pumps. The officials of SAED in the Kassack Nord Project desperately needed technical assistance to understand and comply with the requirements of AID accounting and reporting procedures. Local Participation

These projects appear to establish a strong correlation between the extent of involvement in the project by its beneficiaries or target populations and the success of the project. As a result of mothers' requests for assistance in caring for their children between the ages of two and five years old, the Ghana Day Care Center was established. Thus, strong community support for the day care centers has developed.

External factors, such as drought, rather than a lack of

interest of the people, were responsible for the non-production


of income-generating gardens in the Ghana Day Care Project. A similar pattern was observed in Tivaouane in Senegal where the villagers consistently contributed to the project by assisting in manioc and niebe cultivation. In sharp contract, the Kassack Nord Project has lagged with only a few activities underway. There was no evidence to support the claim that women had requested the project. Although men provided labor for some of the construction, there was no indication that the women were participating in decisions regarding implementation of the project. Although the Kassack Nord's disappointing performance is not solely attributable to nonparticipation, it appears that it cannot achieve its purpose without a substantial increase of interest and involvement. The Casamance activity in Senegal suffered from the same disability, but, to a lesser degree. Male Involvement

Interviews with participants indicated that men participated in the projects to a substantial degree, and generally, male attitudes appeared to be positive. However, tiere is no conclusive evidence that WID projects have caused a significant change in the traditional attitudes of p-es

In the Kassack Nord Project, men interviewed stated that they approved of the project because benefits to their women were benefits to them. However, there is some evidence, as stated by women, that the men were reducing the amounts of


money that they normally give to their womenfolk in proportion to the women's increased earnings from the sale of vegetables. Many of the projects had men in management and production positions. In the Ghana Day Care Project, the men are functioning on two committees that plan for and operate the centers for the YWCA. The Cara Cloth Project had men in the bookkeeping and sales positions and many of those who tie the fabric are men. Both the Tivaouane and Kassack Nord Projects had male managers. Host Government Commitment

The local support from official sources was generally

deficient. However, in those projects where the host government project personnel was skilled, committed and cooperative, the level of official support seemed to be greater.

However, this does not necessarily reflect strong government

support, but rather the importance of the selection of the proper staff.


There are many obstacles to project success which are beyond the control of those who design and implement the projects. In some instances, anticipation, creative design, careful planning, and consistent monitoring can convert an obstacle into an asset. However, some external factors can create constraints that cannot be overcome. All of the projects experienced some failures when they were faced with serious constraints imposed by either the weather, culture, economics, or education.



Drought has presented the most fearsome obstacle to the income producing component of vegetable growing in the Casamance, Tiavaouane, and Ghana Projects. The lack of rain caused water tables to drop. Wells went dry and villagers were unable to dig them deeper, thus, seriously impeding their ability to provide adequate water supply for their produce activities.

Religion and Culture

Religion and culture are inseparable and although not

normally spoken of in terms of impediment to progress, nevertheless may constitute strong factors in development. Development implies change. Religion and culture are rooted in tradition which is often in confrontation with change. Traditional patterns of behavior are not easily abandoned, thus, they must be given careful consideration in designing development projects so that they become a part of the process, rather than a barrier to it. Orthodox Moslem attitudes tend to relegate women to secondary status in the society. WID projects are programmed to change that status. The evaluation team did not find clear evidence of cultural or religious resistance to the projects. Illiteracy

Illiteracy constitutes a serious handicap to development but is a concomitant of underdevelopment. The Sierra Leone


Gara Cloth Project is illustrative. The Executive Council of that project controls the operation of the cooperative project. However, the illiteracy of its members is directly related to the problems of management within the project. Reporting requirements, accounting procedures and :ecord keeping are all affected. The Council is unable to monitor or supervise the project and its policy making is severely limited. Economy of the Nation

A development project must be planned and implemented within the economic and political conditions of the nation. All projects require some government commitment. At least there must be government approval before AID can mount the project. Priorities assigned to the project may depend upon the priorities of the national budget. The rising costs of petroleum, the shortages of trained manpower, government competition for budget and manpower have an immediate impact upon the projects funded by AID. The prompt reaction of the YWCA in Ghana to the needs of the Day Care Projects reflects more the nature of the organization than it does the state of the economy. In fact, the economy of Ghana is probably in greater stress than that of any of the project countries visited. It is conceivable that the ready availability of manpower for paying positions with the projects is indicative of high levels of unemployment amor- men rather than the acceptance of programs tailored for women. The failure of the SAED Organization


in the Kassack Nord Project could be attributed to the inability of government to react to the needs of the project rather than willful neglect.


Criteria for Selection of WID Projects

The team found that all of the projects conform to AID's priority emphasis on rural women, food production, rural development, nutrition and _ The projects are innovative, and experimental. The team congluded that with some modification of design and improvement in implementation, the projects would be replicable.

Some of the projects as noted in the body of the report were seriously lacking in local support and participation. This lack of participation is detrimental to the projects.

Host country initiative, interest and commitment were

spotty. The outstanding exception was the Ghana Day Care Project where the host country is represented by a private voluntary organization the YWCA.

Project design was so inadequate as to be non-existent in one project and defective in others.

There were no market studies conducted prior to the implementation of the income-generating activities.

The absence of base line data resulted in weakened design, called into question the validity of projections, and seriously restricted the measurability of project results.


The projects' goals and objectives were unrealistically ambitious. The limitations of budget and time were insurmountable barriers to achievement of the objectives.

Project designs did not build in evaluation procedures. Evaluation should be a part of project implementation for most effective management. Many problems could have been anticipated or corrected if evaluation had been utilized as a management tool during implementation. Project implementation was significantly limited by the lateness and inadequacy of inputs, weak management and the lack of technical assistance.

In some projects AID funding was not sufficient to supply the inputs necessary to produce the projected outputs. Inputs were often late, inadequate or inappropriate. Although AID is responsive to requests for additional funding in such circumstances, loss of momentum and time plus inflationary pressures inhibit project success. In E-ome instances, the additional funds are not the only answer to the project's problems. Limited funding for inputs resulted from both underestimation and inflation of costs. (See Appendices I, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7).

Many of the projects would have benefited from technical assistance. Technical assistance is needed in these projects to improve marketing, management and mechanical skills.


Projects or inputs to projects that are expensive (American made) or mechanically complex were inappropriate in most projects.

Closer monitoring of inputs and management is needed.

e Local participation in either the design or implementation of projects varied considerably. These projects reflect a close correlation between the extent of local participation and the degree of project success.

Projects that lack community support are not viable.

Host government commitment to these projects was

apparent in some instances but not always to a desirable degree.

A KEY ISSUE: "Are Women in Development Projects improving the welfare of women and extending their potential as contributors to development?*

Although these projects do not provide a conclusive

answer to this question, on the other hand, they certainly do not indicate little or no impact. The inadequacies of the projects and even the failures cannot be attributed to the fact that women have been targeted by these projects, unless there can be a finding that Women in Development projects are the victims of benign neglect. The repeated low level funding of these projects, lack of useful feasibility studies, and

absence of sound project design does suggest that WID projects do not enjoy high priority in AID's scheme of assistance programming.

To the extent that the projects were successful, the lot of the village woman was improved. Not one of the projects has been totally successful but most could be salvaged with the appropriate funding, technical assistance, management and monitoring. There has been enthusiastic reception of project activities that succeeded. Women have taken advantage of new training programs. They have discovered how to work together in cooperative structure. They attend literacy classes and take courses in hygiene and maternal health care. The enthusiasm of the women is the best answer to thi question. These projects improve the welfare of women when they are viable. When they falter or fail they are of little benefit to anyone, but the failure is not the fault of the women. Should funds continue to be provided for women's programs per se or are such funds better utilized for activities which involve women within the framework of larger, more comprehensive development projects?

A conclusive answer cannot be provided unless and until there is an analysis and evaluation of all of the discrete women in development projects funded by AID. If the results of such an evaluation reveal a dominant pattern of inadequate funding, poor design, absence of evaluation procedures, lack of technical assistance and poor planning, then the conclusion is inescapable. Such projects do not enjoy high priority and do not yield a good return on the money invested by AID.


Continuing them will only serve to defeat the intent of the law. Each project must be assessed individually regarding its viability and the cost/benefits trade offs involved. The project evaluation for each project found in the appendix provides additional information regarding findings, conclusions and recommendations.


Project Design

Based on the conclusions drawn from the findings, as

stated earlier in this report, and on the sub-project evaluations found in the appendices, it was found that confusion over what appropriately constitutes a WID project can impact on the design of projects. In an effort both to clarify this question and to improve the design of projects, it is recommended:

* For rural development projects which include activities which are directed at improving several sectors,

such as nutrition, health, agricultural production,

income generation, and education, located in specific geographical areas, and designed for a specific target population, the resources currently used for separate WID projects should be integrated into the design and

implementation of the larger development project.

* To those situations in which specific needs are identified and requested by women to meet their specialized


needs, such as day care or women-specific incomegenerating efforts, it is recommended that welldesigned, carefully implemented, and adequately

funded WID projects be developed.

* In designing any project, feasibility studies which

address the social, economic, cultural, and political impacts of the proposed projects be conducted prior to

project design. Such studies should:

- include base line data upon which progress on project objectives can be measured;

- include market studies which provide data on the

appropriateness and feasibility of proposed activities;

- clarify the contributions that can be expected from

the target populations and contain information on their expected interest and participation in the

proposed project; and

- be conducted in a tim ely manner so that there is

not a significant time lapse between the preparation of the study and the design and start-up of

the project.

* The project design should include:

- realistic and measurable statements of expected

outputs, purposes, and goals for the project;

- sufficient time allotted for project implementation;


- sufficient funding to assure the provision of

required inputs; and

- careful consideration of constraints impacting the

project, wuch as climatic conditions, inflation,

and political circumstances.

- plans for interim and final project evaluations. Project Implementation

In order to assure that projects are effectively implemented, it is recommended that:

* Inputs intended for the projects are appropriate for

the project activities and environment; and ensured by

the existence of budget adequate to support such inputs; and are delivered in a timely manner so as not

to delay the implementation of project activities.

* Expected outputs should be carefully monitored to determine if delays in outputs will affect the achievement of project goals and modifications should be made
in the project design when necessary.

e Improved management and technical assistance for project personnel and participants to increase their abilities to manage and implement project activities.

e Target populations and project beneficiaries should be

involved in the planning and operation of all project

activities. Such participation can insure that the planned inputs and activities reflect the needs and


capabilities of project target groups and can increase

their commitments and contributions to the project.

* Men should be included in the planning and implementation of all projects in order to enlist their support

for and assistance in project activities.

c The cooperation and support of host government efficials in the design and implementation of projects

should be solicited. Whenever possible, personnel who

are skilled, committed, and interested in the project should be selected and involved in project activities.

* Project personnel should monitor the external factorsweather, religion and culture, the economic and political situations in the host country, and the literacy

rates-which can impact on project implementations.

They need to develop "early warning systems" which will

enable them to take corrective action, including budgetary or project redesign, at points early enough so

as not to jeopardize the entire project. Strengthening the Evaluation Process

The evaluation team is cognizant of the many pressures on officials in AID and the time constraints that constantly plague them. It is aware that despite such pressure, AID officials made a diligent effort to assist the team members prior to departure for project sites. The following recommendations are made in appreciative recognition of those efforts:


* Criteria for evaluation of projects should be restructured into two major categories: quantifiable and soft

data. The quantifiable criteria should be measurable and related directly to the base line data upon which

the project was originally designed. The soft data,

which is based on perceptions, intuitive responses, and hearsay, will form the basis for subjective evaluations.

This could assist evaluators in selecting methodologies to be used in gathering data needed to meet the criteria

in each of the two categories.

e In preparing for the evaluation, sufficient time should

be allowed for the evaluation team:

- to review all project documents available in

AID/Washington and to contact and discuss the

project with former and current project personnel

who are in the United States;

- to review all in-country documents, to schedule and

conduct interviews with project personnel, appropriate host government officials and organizations,

and project participants.

- to write and analyze the data collected, and to

prepare a draft report of the project evaluated.

- to write and modify the final report to be submitted

to AID personnel.


* Because evaluations recommendations often contain

valuable information which may be applicable for future evaluations and project designs, mechanisms for the transfer of such recommendations and technology

contained within those recommendations should be


* It is further recommended that a central respositcry/
data base of all evaluations on WID and WID related

projects be developed in order to facilitate the utilization of such evaluations and transfer of technology.


JEFFALYN4 JOHNSON & ASSOCIATES, INC. Management and Organization Specialists





Two Skyline Plaza, Suite 1210
5203 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia 22041
(703) 578-4633

Appendix #1

Senegal: Casamance Vegetable Growers 698-0388.7


The Senegal Vegetable Growers Project was designed to include thirteen villages in three departments of the Casamance Region of Senegal. Project activities were only partially implemented in seven of the thirteen villages, which were originally targeted. The project was funded for two year at $170,000, and implemented jointly through the cooperation of USAID and Promotion Humaine, Government of Senegal. The t-o year period has passed and the project funds have been exhausted.

The project was built around the setting up of women's cooperatives in the villages for vegetable production and marketing. Each cooperative was designed for thirty-six to forty members, so that approximately 500 women would actively participate. In each of the villages, about two hectares (five acres) of land suitable for vegetable production were to be set aside for the use of the women. The project also called for the construction of social centers in each village in which literacy and health instruction would be provided.

In the seven villages where project activities were conducted, the gardens continue to be partially productive, despite the fact that project funding has ceased. Women in some

Appendix #i

villages have shown considerable interest in the project despite problems which arose that were beyond their control.


The purpose and the goals of the project were stated in very general terms.

The primary purpose of the project was to assist women

vegetable producers in thirteen selected villages to increase and expand their commercial vegetable production and to help them improve village social and economic conditions through specialized training.

The stated project goals were:

" To increase the income of women vegetable producers;

* To provide better nutrition for farm families; and " To limit the exodus of girls and young women toward

the cities.

In the Casamance Region, women working in groups is not a new concept. Therefore, the project was designed to build on pre-existing organizational structure.


The evaluation team conducted field visits to four of the project sites; garden plots were inspected, and members of the village were interviewed. In addition, the team conducted a document review on all available, written materials at USAID/Washington and USAID/Senegal. These included project

Appendix #1

proposals, interim project reports, correspondence, and budget documents, as well as a recently completed Project Evaluation Summary prepared by USAID/Senegal. REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF PROJECT DESIGN AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS


Supplies needed to start up vegetable gardening activities presented several problems. The twenty-five wells are operational, but tend to run dry in the drought season; further, the land formations in some areas do not allow for the wells to be made deeper. Only two of the twenty-six pumps delivered are presently in order. Not only was the quality of the pumps poor, but spare parts were difficult to obtain for the American-made equipment. Further, qualified repair and maintenance personnel were not available. The pipes for irrigation proved to be of little use, and sprinklers and buckets continued to be the means of irrigation utilized.

The one vehicle and the eight mobylettes supplied are no longer in working order. Donkeys, which were delivered to only a few villages, proved to be disease-prone, and all but two died. It was suggested that oxen be used in the future, since they tend to be more disease resistant.

The literacy training centers were not constructed in the numbers contemplated. The ones which the team saw are being used for child care, and community meetings and had been built with funds from the vegetable gardening activity.

Appendix #I

Most of the literacy instruction provided has been

utilized by the men of the villages. Women indicated that they did not have time to attend classes or were not interested.

In the area of leadership and cooperative training, the results were mixed. The village women did receive some training cooperative management on an irregular basis. However, when a regional seminar on vegetable production was offered, only ten women attended because of lack of sufficient advance notification and poor transportation facilities.

Inputs from the women included the construction of

pickets for fencing and the fences as well as planting the gardens. The men participated in the land clearing and construction of the fences in some of the villages.

CASAMANCE: Inputs (1)




p 1

26 Wells 26 Pumps


1 Vehicle Irrigation equipment Farming Tools Donkey/ Carts

Extension Agents






25 Wells 20 Pumps

8 Mobylettes

1 Vehicle Some equipment delivered

Some tools delivered

Few donkeys and carts delivered Extension Agents


Most wells are cperational but tend to run dry during the dry season.

Only two pumps are presently in working order due to poor quality, difficulty in obtaining spare parts, and lack of qualified repair and maintenance personnnel. At present, none of the mobylettes are in working order.

The vehicle is no longer in working condition. Sprinkles and buckets were most the a==in means of irrigation used. Pipes have been of little or no use.

Of donkeys delivered, all but two died. may be indicated in future projects.

Choice of oxen

Extension agents provided assistance with delivery of project inputs, explanation of project purposes and goals in villages and training in cooperative management and agricultural techniques. Services rendered were not equitably distributed among all villages and %ere provided infrequently and irregularly.

________ _________ I ______ I I

Appendix #1

CASAMAM: Inputs (2)


Literacy Training

Leadership and


Fertilizer/ Pesticides


5 hectares Land

Contruction materials & equipment for 13
Social Centers

Training for village leaders;
sponsoring of 10 seminars

agents for training






Village Villages AID



Some fertilizer & and pesticides delivered

Seed and fencing suppled

From 2 to 5 hectares supplied per village

Some centers
constructed and equipped

1 Regional seminar on vegetable production; Training in Cooperative management provided

Agents provided some training in cooperative management

Appendix #I vi

Villages in most cases supplied their own seeds and constructed their own fences.

Few centers have been constructed and are used primarily for child care. most literacy instruction has been taken advantage of by village men.

10 women attended seminar on vegetable preservation; low attendence was due to insufficient advance notification and poor transportation facilities. Village women have received training in financial management of ooperative.

Some training of women provided by GOS extension agents.

Appendix #1


A graphic description and analysis of the projected and achieved outputs are contained in the charts that follow. Materials from the chart are highlighted below for purposes of further explanation.

In the majority of the thirteen villages, most of the

planned outputs have not been fully achieved. Project reports indicated that vegetable gardens were successfully implemented in seven of the villages. However, the evaluation team visited four of the seven and observed that only two had producing gardens. When questioned about the obvious inactivity in vegetable production, the women in one village replied that improperly timed planting resulted in a loss of crop, income and membership.

Another handicap experienced by the vegetable growers

concerned the lack of coordination among government extension agents in their supervision of inputs and provision of technical assistance to the villages.


CASAC: Outputs




Vegetable Garden

Social Action

women ' s agricultura cooperative formed in 13 villages
involving 450 women

Women trained to lead coops

Women growing and selling vegetables at a yearly profit of $9,000

A center constructed in
each village to coordinate social activities

A specially designed curriculum


women's Agricultural Cooperatives formed in 7 villages

Training provided wcmen in financial management of coops

Some profits realized

Completion of some centers

Curriculum developed for training in vegetable preservation

Appendix #1 viii


In 7 of the 13 villages women are cooperatively producing vegetables for sale. Reasons for lack of development of coops in remaining villages include insufficient attention by G(fS officials, non-delivery of inputs, and social and/or political problems in the village.

Although training in maintenance of a general fund ("caisse" formation) debt amortization, and cooperative organization was provided, it appears that it was not sufficient for the women to grasp the principles.

Although yielding a profit at times, it is clear that the vegetable gardens are not providing village women with $9,000 per year. Due to a reluctance to disclose information on income to outsiders for fear of taxation, actual profits made are difficult to verify.

While some centers have been completed, they do not aapear to be serving the coodinating role as intended. In somae instances, they are used for child care and infrequently for literacy training, mostly for men.

A potentially replicable workshop on vegetable preservation was held for village women. Additional work on coop training module is necessary before it can be used effectively in training village women.

Appendix #1


Appendix #1


External Factors

" Drought caused water tables to drop resulting in dry

wells. There was not sufficient water for the gardens.

" Repair and maintenance of American-made pumps, as

well as other American-made equipment, was not possible because spare parts were difficult to acquire. Male Attitudes

e One or two men were usually present at interviews

conducted with the women, and they expressed general

support for the project. Male Involvement

* Most of the extension agents and government

officials concerned with the project were men;

* Village men contributed to the project by clearing

land and setting up fence posts;

* One unplanned benefit for the men included the

literacy training they received from the GOS


Appendix #I


General Pindings

The following findings of the evaluation team are related to the project as a whole.

* With the exception of one of the villages visited,

there was little evidence that the project was requested by the project beneficiaries; rather it was

imposed on them.

* The project impacted differently on each of the participating villages. Each village experienced a different level of achievement of outputs and program impacts. The inputs, also varied, and the villages

received different treatment from the government

extension agents. The villages expressed different

degrees of satisfaction with the project.

* There was a lack of coordination between SOMIVAC and

PIVAC, the two Government of Senegal agencies responsible for implementing the project, with regarcd to

delivery of inputs and provision of training. Program Goal Findings

The following findings relate specifically to the program's stated goals. They are based on observation and interviews, since quantifiable data was not made available to the team.

Appendix #1

* There was some evidence, in the villages visited,

that additional income had acrued to the women as a result of their vegetable production activities.

" It appears that, in the villages where vegetables are

actuafly produced, consumption of the vegetables by

the villagers has led to improvement in the nutritional status of the population.

" There was no evidence that the migration of girls and

young women to the cities has been reduced -s a result

of the implementation of project activities.


The general conclusion of the evlauation team is that the Casamance project was at best, a marginal success and that it could have benefited from a pre-design study, closer monitoring and supervision and appropriate levels of technical assistance.

Specific conclusions are as follows:

o Inadequate supervision, uneven monitoring and poor

management of inputs by the GOS and AID seriously

impeded the accomplishment of project purposes.

o The absence of a pre-design marketing study hindered

effective commercialization of the vegetables and

reduced the possibility of increased income for


Appendix #1

o In some villages, the commitment of the village men

and women to the project, never clearly ascertained from the beginning, declined during the life of the project as a result of disagreement regarding their contributiois and poor arl infrequent monitoring by

project managers.

* The non-delivery of a number of project inputs points

to a serious misuse of project funds. This fund

mismanagement was never thoroughly investigated by

either the GOS or AID project managers.

* In the villages visited by the team, the greatest

achievement toward project goals and purposes was made in that village where women previously functioned in a

cooperative unit and where they had input into the decisions made regarding their participation in the



If projects similar to this are to be considered for

funding in the future, it is essential that several factors be taken into consideration before implementation. In light of this evaluation, several recommendations for future projects follow.

* Prior to the establishment of any vegetable production activity by village women for market distribution xii


Appendix #i

it is essential that marketing studies be conducted to avoid the problems of market saturation encountered in

this project. To avoid this in the future, alternative markets need to be explored.

* Training in several areas is indicated.

- The workshop held on vegetable preservation is an

innovative idea which should be expanded. Preservation of vegetables not immediately absorbed by markets is an alternative which needs further exploration.

- Training in vehicle and pump maintenance operation

is indicated by the loss of all the mobylettes

purchased for this projet and most of the pumps.

Maintenance operation training should precede

inputs of equipment.

- Training in animal care is indicated. The loss of

donkeys in this project has been partially attributed to disease. This recommendation will apply even if it is decided to replace the donkey with


* The monitoring and timing of inputs needs to be improved. The team makes the following recommendations:

- In future contracts, inputs of the government

should be listed by the participating agency to


I 7

Appendix #1

allow for effective monitoring of timeliness, quality and quantity.

Inputs should be programmed to arrive in the villages at carefully spaced intervals, to insure that the women show interest in the project, and make their contributions as a condition precedent to the delivery of further inputs. Closer and more consistent monitoring on the pait of AID and local government is needed for projects of this scale and complexity (thirteen villages spread over three administrative dis .ricts) to assure that inputs and technical assistance are evenly distributed.


JEFFALYN JOHNSON & ASSOCIATES, INC. Management and Organization Specialists





Two Skyline Plaza, Suite 1210
5203 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia 22041
(703) 578-4633

Appendix #2

Senegal: Kassack Nord 698-0388.4


In 1977, the Agency for International Development provided the Government of Senegal with $25,000 to implement the Kassack Nord sub-project (No. 698-0388.4). This activity was to be conducted in the relocation village of Kassack Nord, in the Delta River Region of Senegal. The implementing agency for the project was SAED (la Societe d'Amenagement et d'Exploitation du Delta), the GOS unit responsible for relocation and development in the Delta region. The village was created in 1966 and the project paper states that in 1977 the village women requested that SAED assist them to organize a broader range of economic activities. Through a survey conducted by SAED and village elders, men and women, several concerns were identified. They included the women's heavy workload of wood gathering, millet pounding, child rearing and far ing. The women expressed a desire for improved health care and sanitary conditions, literacy training and income generating activities.

At the conception of the project, activities were planned to commence in October, 1977 and be completed by December, 1978. Due to a variety of bureaucratic and budgetary difficulties, both on the part of AID and SAED, activities did not commence until January, 1979. At the time of the site visit,

Appendix #2

February, 1980, the project had been underway approximately one year.


The purpose of this project was to lighten the heavy

burden of daily chores performed by the women, and fo establish a pre-cooperative structure which would offer as work alternatives a variety of economic and social activities including:

" construction of a women's activity center

" vegetable, rice and poultry production

" literacy training

" health training (to include nutrition and hygiene



training and maternity services) fabric dyeing

animal traction (donkey and cart) grain milling


Inputs and outputs are to be found in the charts that

follow. Materials found in the charts are highlighted below for purposes of further explanation.
Due to initial undercosting'of the budget, the amount of input was significantly reduced. Although construction of an eight-building activity center has been completed, most project activities have not yet been implemented. Inputs supplied

Appendix #2

to the project to date include construction materials, seeds, a grain mil, maternity instruction, literacy and hygiene instruction, and crocheting.

A few project activities have functioned on an intermittent and irregular basis. The vegetable gardening activity, while implemented, had ceased operation after one season due to the women's involvement in rice production away from the village. Literacy instruction pre-dated the project, but continues to be implemented on an intermittent basis. Crocheting instruction, an unplanned activity, has been provided by the assistant project manager, who is a woman. The grain mill has been put into place but is not being utilized. There is little evidence that these work activities have taken place within the pre-cooperative AIR structure as planned. Several sensitization seminars on organization of AIR structure have been held by the SAED project manager and literacy instructor, but the existence of the AIR as a functioning coordinating unit was not apparent.

As of February, 1980, the project funds had been expended, and additional funding had been requested. AID has agreed to provide up to $10,000 to support the cost of the additional inputs.

At the time the project was proposed, SAED promised that

land in the vicinity of Kassack Nord would be prepared for rice


Appendix #2

cultivation at the start of the project. However, as of February, 1980, the fields were not yet ready for rice planting. Consequently, for at least five months a year, the villagers live in temporary encampments eleven kilometers away, near rice fields provided by the government. It was the opinion of the evaluation team that the frequent absences of women from the village minimized local pressure on SAED to implement project activities.


For the most part, the projected outputs have not been realized. The only perceptible outputs achieved include the produce and small margin of profit from the vegetable garden, the literacy instruction received and the hygiene and maternity instruction received from the midwife.

As noted above, the projected funding was inadequate to

supply the level of inputs planned. A decision was made to complete construction of project buildings prior to initiation of major -rject activities. Consequently, project funds were exhausted before equipment and materials could be purchased for the activities. It is assumed that this decision was motivated by SAED knowledge that the rice fields close to Kassack Nord would not be completed as soon as promised. Therefore the women would have to leave the village for an extended length of time, preventing their full participation in the project.

KASSACK NORD: Iputs and Outputs

source IAchieved 2/EU


Projected I1 1/7

Achieved 2/U

I-- .. . 1 .. . . . .. . . . 1 /77

-construction materials
-training materials

-construction materials
-training materials

literacy classroom,
1 to 300 women functionally alphabetized

Literacy instructor, Mr. Kamera, lives in village,
conducts classes for women who
choose to attend in temporary building.
No figures cailable for attendence or literacy rates.
Cement classroom building constructed in women's activity area, not
yet been used.

Appendix #2


Village women expressed appreciation for Kamara's work. Observation of their interaction ith him clearly indicates he has their confidence and encourages them to speak .,, One wnan stated she had assunmad her time for leaning was over, but is happy to discover she can still learn. Waoen say they attend classes whenever their work will let them.

Rice -6 hectares G0S -land harvest of 6 Fields surrounding Fields expected to be ready Production -seed AID hectares of village not yet for 1980 planting season.
-pesticide AID rice readied for -fertilizer AID cultivation cultivation.
-water GOS -training for GOS



Projected 1 1177






Grain Milling

KASSACK NCOID: InpMts and Outputs



P'roiecteo 11i/ I ource

-6 hectares land
-crop protection products
-horticulture agent
-diesel pump for irrigation




I - - - -

AdIlieved 2/80

All inputs applied in smaller quantities than planned due to insufficient cost


Achieved ..-, Pro cted 11/77 A .at. "/I"f

Vegetable products fvr auto-consumption

One successful season of garden produce consumed by villagers. Some products sold to neighboring villa gers. Vegetable garden not presently in use.

Appendix #2 EXPLAWMTIO4

Due to the need to aid in the cultivation of rice crops far from Kossack Nard, the w.en's vegetable gardens are not being saintained. Once the rice fields are prepared adjacent to Kossack 1brd in 1980,
vegetable production will continue.

I t I + 4 1

-grain mill
-construction materials for
grain mill hut
-cart and donkey
-fuel and oil
-guard salary
-training in
grain mill




grain mill construction

50 tons of
threshed millet

Grain mill in place, and mill hut
Mill has not yet been used. Donkey cart not delivered.

SAED project director
explained that the entire complex will be opened simultaneously, at which titrie the millet mill will be utilized. Limited funds do not permit other projected inputs at this time.

I _________ I 1 1. � I


Health Ccmponents


Post and

KASSACK NOR: Inputs and Outputs


- I

Achieved 2/80

Projected 11/771 source

-construction materials
-maternity training
-furnishing and equipment

-sanitation agent training


Projected 11/77 IAchieved 2/80

Appendix #2


Prjce lt~ Achieved 2/8




-construction materials



Up to 70 aseptic deliveries per

Health post and medicine supply

Two room, cement maternity clinic, 3 labor huts
constructed. None yet cpen for use.
Trained midwife located in village, aiding deliveries.

Midwife has instructed villagers in basic hygiene and dispensed non
perscription parmicuticals.

SAED Project Director explained that the cmplex will be cpened in September, 1980, at uhich time the plumbing will have been connected for maternity clinic use. Dimensions of clinic smaller than planned due to insufficient initial cost estimates.

Village wzien expressed considerable appreciation for the midwife's activities and are eagerly looking forward to the cpening of
the maternity clinic.

I I ________ 4 A I


KASSACK NORD: Inputs and Outputs


Projected 11/77

- I

Source IAchieved 2/80 IProjected 11/77


Achieved 2/80

Apendix #2


Poultry -construction AID -construction Profits from Cement poultry Original cost estimates Production materials materials sale of: hut has been insufficient to allow for
-poultry stock GOS -25 chicks constructed in additional inputs.
-feed AID -7,200 eggs wanen's activity
-fencing AID -20 roasting area
-veterinary GOS chickens
agent -50 spring
-training for GOS chickens

Fabric -construction AID -construction Sale of cloth Cement hut for Original cost estimate Dying materials materials produced fabric dying insufficient to allow for
-equipment AID constructed in additional inputs.
-cloth AID wcmen's activity Village wmxen voiced
-training for GOS area, not yet appreciation for their new
women utilized, found skills and anticipated Project coordi- incce in the future fran nator taught these new marketable skills. village women to
sew and knit
resulting in
better clothing
for children and
sale of individual items to
other villages.



Cooperative Structure

KASSACK NOD: Inputs and Outputs


Proj prctL' 11/77 1Source


Achieved 2/80 I: roiected 11/77

Achieved 2/80

Appendix #2


-rice 117 I~ucl~hee 2j0 Iice 17 civd28

Sensitization session on formation ard management of AIR and functioning of cooperative in Senegal

Creation of an Association of Rural Interest
(AIR) to provide framework for
wcmen' s collective activities

Sensitization sessions held

Traditional wamen's organizations have not yet provided leadership for
establishing formal AIR structure. Further information regarding these organizations and their functions is needed to assist their usefulness in establishing AIR groups.


Appendix #2


Male Attitudes

The village men stated that they were pleased with the project because whatever is good for their women is good for them. There is no compelling evidence that traditional male dominance has lessened. Local tradition requires prior male approval to ensure success of any project. There is some evidence that husbands ceased providing some income to their wives after the women experienced small increases in income from the vegetable gardening activity. Male Involvement

There has been significant male input into the project.

The project Director, literacy instructor and two construction personnel are male. Village males have also helped construct roofing for some of the project buildings.


The evaluation team found that the project has not yet

achieved its stated purpose and goals. However, the following findings reflect what has occurred to date.

9 The literacy training, which pre-dated the project, has

been successful.

9 The hygiene training and maternity services have been

well-received, and have helped to sustain the villager's

interest in, and hopes for, future implementation of

other project components.


Appendix #2

* Activities designed to alleviate the women's work burden, such as the millet mill, have yet to be implemented.

* Work alternatives have been provided for the women,

including crocheting and vegetable gardening. It is

unclear whether these activities are taking place

within a pre-cooperative structure as planned.

o It is not possible, in the absence of quantifiable

data, to determine whether the limited vegetable production activity actually resulted in increased income

for the women, or improved the overall nutritional

status of the women and their families.

" The women demonstrated a certain amount of satisfaction with the results of the project activities tnat have occurred, and were enthusiastic about the benefits of possible future activities.

* The village women have not exerted a decisive role in

the development process and have had diffuculty articulating their needs and expectations for future project activities.


Based on its findings, the evaluation team has reached the following conclusions:

Appendix #2

* In view of the enthusiasm generated by the few activities implemented, there is an opportunity to salvage

the project if SAED and USAID/Senegal reassess the

activities that can be realistically implemented and

if AID provides technical assistance in the implementation.

o In view of the past management problems of the project

and the failure of SAED to complete the Kassack Nord

rice fields, it is the opinion of the evaluation team that the additional funding requested will not result in successful implementation of the project unless the

following steps are taken:

- careful reassessment of current feasibility of

planned activities is undertaken;

- specific commitments regarding project inputs and

project management are obtained from SAED;

- an increase in the amount of supervision and technical assistance is provided to SAED project managers by USAID/DAKAR.


Additional funding for this project has been requested. To insure that the project has the maximum potential for success, the evaluation team makes the following recommendations:


Appendix #2

a. '' e Prior to the onset of additional project activities,

SAED should undertake its promised preparation of the

Kassack Nord rice fields.

v/ e A reassessment of the feasibility of planned activities should be conducted, including a marketing survey.

%, J * A plan should be designed by AID/DAKAR and SAED to

encourage the creation of an AIR, so women will have

the opportunity to participate more actively in the

project. The plan could emphasize the following elements:

- Agreements regarding specific contributions of the

women to the project should be outlined. The

phasing-in of certain inputs to the project should

be contingent upon the fulfillment of the contributions. For example, some of the income produced from the grain mill could be applied toward the purchase of cloth in the fabric dyeing activity

or the purchase of some of the chicks for poultry


- Activities presenting the greatest possibilities

for success should be initiated first. Successful

collaboration by women in an income-generating activity such as vegetable gardening and grain


Appendix 02

milling will encourage growth and development of the

pre-cooperative structure. Working together successfully in this pre-cooperative structure will

give women a stronger voice in the project and

enable them to exert a more decisive role in its


5, V e The AIR members should receive technical assistance to

assist them in conducting a succerssful project. The

following are some suggested areas:
- Training in record-keeping.

- Training in the use of new technologies, e.g., grain

mill, poultry production, fabric dyeing.

- Training in equipment maintenance.

- Training in social organization and managing the

participation of all members in project activities.

Technical assistance should be provided to SAED project managers by AID to assist them in improving their management of the project.

V1 *. Familiarize the SAED project managers with AID reporting and accounting procedures and requirements.

* � Assist the SAED project managers to develop a plan for
the scheduling of inputs and establishing priorities for the project activities. The plan developed must

harmonize the scheduling of project activities with the


Appendix #2

planned contributions of the women and seek to implement activities with a potential for early success to

encourage continued participation by the women.

V / AID/DAKAR should provide more frequent and consistent

monitoring of the project once additional funding is granted to insure that the above recommendations are


JEFFALYN JOHNSON & ASSOCIATES, INC. Management and Organization Specialists






AID No. 698-0388.10

Two Skyline Plaza, Suite 1210
5203 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia 22041
(703) 578-4633

Appendix #3

Dakar, Senegal: Tivaouane 698-0388.10


The Tivaouane project is a two year, $210,000 project

designed to alleviate the heavy work load of, and provide work alternatives to women in twelve villages. Six project activities were planned: millet mills, sheep raising, manioc and niebe fields, village pharmacies, wells, and village wood lots. Prier to project implementation, La Promotion Humaine

(PH), the Government of Senegal implementing agency, conducted outreach activities to ascertain village interest and inform villages of proposed activities.

The twelve villages involved differ in size, location, accessibility, and prior government development activities. Project activities were originally designed to be two years in duration; due to the remoteness of some villages, the time needed to acquaint villagers with project programs, and weather problems, a one year extension has been requested. No further funding should be needed to extend the project time line.

The stated purpose of the project is to alleviate the heavy workload of women and to offer a variety of economic and social activities within a pre-cooperative structure as work alternatives. Project activities are also designed to improve the quality of village life through a program which increases women's economic incomes and promotes their role in rural development.

Appendix #3
At the time of this evaluation, most inputs were still

being set in place. Three of the activities had been partially implemented: grain milling, manioc and niebe production and use of wells. Few outputs have been realized and there has been little progress toward the achievement of project goals. However, with additional time, the project appears to have the potential to attain its stated goals and purposes.


A discussion of the project purposes and the degree to which each has been achieved follows:

* To alleviate the heavy burden of daily tasks

performed by women.

The project has the potential to alleviate the heavy burden of tasks for women. The use of millet mills in two villages, and wells in a number of villages, are viewed as especialy beneficial labor-saving devices by the women. Once the wells are completed and women use monies earned from the project activities to purchase millet mills, as they have been encouraged to do, it is possible that they will experience a significant lightening of their work load.

e To offer as work alternatives, a variety of

economic and social activities within a precooperative struct-ure.

Appendix #3

The variety of activities being made available to women

is expending their work alternatives. The women are especially enthusiastic about the wells, sheep raising and the cultivating of fruit and nut trees. However, careful and close attention must be given to the effective harmonizing of project activities and inputs with the planned contribution of village women. It must be ensured that the women do not experience an increase work load.

Discussions with women indicate that they are progressively developing skills in organizational management through their collaboration on project activities. Increased collaboration among women in providing contributions to the project, such as donation of personal funds to start amortization funds, hauling water during well construction and providing meals for construction workers, has given women a sense of their own organizational potential. It is apparent from this that women in many villages are in the early stages of developing a pre-cooperative structure.

9 To improve the quality of life by increasing

women's economic income and promoting their

role in rural development.

The project has the potential to fulfill this purpose. In a few villages, women have realized a small increase in income from niebe production, but have been unable to sustain


Appendix #3

this activity because of drought. In the villages where millet mills have been utilized, women have generated a pool of funds for their collective use. More assistance in financial management of these funds will be necessary if women are to realize the maximum economic benefits from theii commercial activities.

Through participation in the project, it is expected that village women will receive added income that will be of benefit to themselves and their families. As participants in groups which collectively generate funds, they will have a greater voice in activities in their own communities. Their role as generators of income for the community will not go unnoticed and will enable them to take a more active role in their own communities.

A discussion of the goals and the degree to which each has been achieved follows.

o To improve women's economic and social well-being.

It is felt that the project will ultimately achieve this

goal if project activities are successfully implemented. Since the early stages of project implementation involved organization and structural planning rather than inputs projected by the project paper, project go'ls have not yet been attained. The evaluation team is of the opinion that the project design and methods of implementation are essentially sound, and that

Appendix #3

progress toward improving women's social and economic well-being can be expected to continue.

* To assist women in exerting a more decisive

role in the development of their milieu.

The project is making progress toward the achievement of this goal. Village women interviewed appear to have developed a sense of their own organizational and income-earning potential. In some villages where increased income was generated, women were controlling and managing their own funds. In villages where this was not the case, Promotion Humaine staff were facilitating and encouraging development of village women's financial management and organizational skills. On a national level, this project is aiding women administrators in Promotion Humaine by developing their capacity to administer community development projects.


A document review of all available files were conducted in AID/Washington and AID/Dakar. This included the project paper, interim project reports, correspondence and budget reviews. Interviews were conducted with AID staff in Washington and Dakar. Government of Senegal (GOS) staff were interviewed in French. A representative sample of six villages, of the twelve involved with the project, were visited, and interviews conducted with a representative sample of villagers. A

Appendix #3

total of fifty-nine villagers were interviewed: forty-two women and seventeen men. Village interviews were conducted in Wolof, then translated into French by the Senegalese Project Manager.



Project inputs are presently being put in place and

should be completed in the next six months. With the exception of medical supplies and transportation costs, initial cost estimates appear to have been realistic for completion of project inputs. An extension on the completion date for the project has been requested. Outputs

With the exception of the grain yielded from millet milling and some niebe produced for sale, project outputs have not yet been achieved. This is a result of external factors which have delayed the delivery of project inputs. The project is considered to be at a transitional, breakthrough point, with additional time needed for inputs to be delivered and for outputs to be achieved.

(See matrices on following pages for input/output assessments).

Appendix #3

Projected Achieved Projected Achieved

Wood Lots Eucalyptus Eucalyptus Firewood pro- No firewood Trees planted have suffered from
plants planted duced for produced as insufficient watering, due to low village yet rainfall xrd improperly located Wood fencing Barbed wire residents and/or non-functioning wells.
fences in Barbed wire fence is inadequate prc place tection against graising animals.
Use of eucalyptus plants being reconsidered, alternate trees (cashes
of mango) which yield marketable
fruit, are being considered.

Village Infrastructure No pharmacies Medicines No medicines Medicines have not been purchased Pharmacies training in place or supplied for being supplied because funds proposed ware inadmedicines pur- use of village to village dequate for purchase of U.S. Medicines chased residents residents medicines, a project requirement.
UNICEF village pharmacy program is
seen as a possible source of

Low rainfall is largely responsible
Manioc and -Land Land 10 tons per No manioc pro- for shortfall in crop Production. Niebe -Seeds Seeds hector of duced (Peanuts Manioc was not planted because Production -Fertilizer manioc planted in- insects destroyed other manioc
-Crop protec- stead). Niebe plants in the area. Lack of fencir
tion products field planted allowed animals to wander into
-Labor Labor Niebe for and small har- planted area and destroy crops.
-Fencing auto-consump- vests produced
tion and sold

Appendix #3



Projected I Achieved Projected Achieved

Millet Mills and' 2 millet mills 2 millet mills 32,400 K of 1 mill yielding Delays in mill use are due to Decorticators 2 decorticators in place - one threshed income of lack of proper training in gasoline oil functioning millet @ 10 FiK 128,000 CFA installation. Successful use of mill as source of income for
women will require further
training in financial planning
and management.

Sheep Raising construction 13 sheep pens Sheep for sale No sheep pro- Sheep will be delivered uon materials for 40%-70% duced for sale completion of sheep pens. pens completed as yet Design of pens seen as potentially problematic. The
450 sheep pens are elaborate, may not provide necesszry air flow and
medicine & feed could cause disease in the raining season. They will be
labor for closely monitored during first construction season.

Wells Construction 14 wells 80% 14 Wells sup- Uncoupleted Lack of rain, descending water materials for complete plying water for wells supplying table and changes in Iell wells village resi- a minimal contractors have resulted in dents, vegetable amount of water delays in well obstruction. Th labor plots, wood lots for village contractor must now await end o and sheep. residents dry season (July) to ascertain proper depth before completing
work on wells.


Appendix #3


External Factors

The major eternal factor affecting the project was the

weather. Because of low rainfall during the 1979-1980 growing season, no manioc, and only small amounts of niebe, were produced. Lack of rainfall also accounts for lVmited growth of eucalyptus trees and for delays in well construction.

Male participation in the project has been consistent.

Men have contributed in a moderate way to the start-up of the project activities, mostly by assisting in manioc and niebe cultivation. They have also assisted in the management of funds earned from millet mills and have, in a general way, supported the participation of women in the project. At least two men were present during each interview conducted with village women.

Attitudinal changes are difficult to assess at this

point. The predominant role of men in the management of funds earned by women from millet mills may indicate that little has changed. It is not clear whether this arrangement enables women to realize the maximum benefit from these funds. Additional training in financial management for women may be necessary if they are to develop confidence in their ability to manage collectively earned funds.

.... - '-*-----

Appendix #3


" Women and men in most villages visited have made substantial contributions to the project including providing food for construction workers, hauling water

during construction, assisting with hut construction,

and other activities designed to move the project


" Project managers from the implementing agency, Promotion Humaine, have provided consistent monitoring and supervision of the projects and have provided informal training to project participants during site


" Women appear to be collaborating effectively in most

project activities and are developing leadership and

organizational skills.

* Women participated to a moderate degree in the development and design of the project and were interviewed

regarding their needs prior to the project design.

" Women are participating in the project both as managers and as beneficiaries.

" Women who have succeeded in generating income from

their collective production activities did not demonstrate a thorough understanding of sound financial

management techniques.


Appendix #3

" The eucalyptus trees have not produced as planned, due

to low rainfall and the sophisticated tending methods


" The design of the sheep pen is potentially problematic

because it may not provide the necessary air flow, and

may create an environment conducive to disease during

the rainy season.

* Village pharmacies are not presently in operation due

to the high cost of obtaining American-made medicines.

" Although the project has reached its completion date,

sheep-raising, firewood production, full use of wells, village pharmacy services, manioc and niebe production

have not been fully implemented.

" Well construction has been delayed by poor weather,

drought and changes in personnel.


Based on the findings, the evaluation team feels .hat

this project is benefiting women and has the potential to contribute to their welfare and to that of their families. This assessment is based on the following conclusions:

0 There is, in general, clear commitment to, and support

for, the project by the women and men in most of the

villages visited, as demonstrated by their consistent

contributions to the project and their positive assessment of its impact to date.


Appendix #3

* The relatively high commitment of the Government of
Senegal to the project is reflected in the consistent and competent monitoring of the project by the implementing agency, Promotion Humaine. This commitment

has been a decisive factor in the progress made on the

the project to date.

* Project activities and those furnished by women are

contributing toward increasing their ability to work

together productively in a cooperative structure.

* Baseline data obtaincl prior to project implementation

included a moderate degree of information regarding

the participation of women but does not appear to have sufficiently emphasized the kinds of information necessary for effective evaluation of the project upon


* The participation of women in the project as managers

at the national level is providing women with experience in administration and management of rural development projects.

9 Increased training is needed by the women in techniques of financial management, including debt amortization, record-keeping and depreciation.

* The eucalyptus trees were not an appropriate choice

for wood production. The fact that women recommended


Appendix #3

cashew and fruit trees as alternatives demonstrates that they give higher priority to the production of cash crops than to production of firewood and points

up a lack of thorough investigation during the project

design phase.

" Inadequate investigation of appropriate sheep pen designs led to the construction of pens which may severely restrict the ability of the women to successfully

engage in sheep production.

* Most delays in the implementation of uninitiated

project activities are the result of external factors, such as drought, poor weather and routine delays 'N

encountered in rural environments.


Project goals and purposes are reasonable and achievable if additional time is provided. To ensure the continuing effectiveness of the project, the evaluation team recommends the following:

" That, more frequent and systematic training be provided the women in record-keeping, debt amortization and

depreciation to ensure that they derive the maximum

benefit from their earnings.

* That, prior to the initiation of sheep raising and

fruit and nut tree production, a market study be


Appendix #3

conducted to determine potential markets for the gcods produced from these activities and the ability of the

women to assess the markets.

* That, in view of the women's lack of sheep experience

in raising and alternative tree cultivation, frequent and systematic technical assistance be provided them by extension agents during the early stages of these


* That, there be close monitoring of the sheep pen design by the livestock agent during the first year of


e That, in order to implement the village pharmacy activities consideration be given to the purchase of UNICEF medicines or that a waiver be prepared to enable nonAmerican medicines to be purchased.

* That the project completion date be extended by one

year, to March, 1981. No additional funding is required.


JEFFALYN JOHNSON & ASSOCIATES, INC. Management and C:ganization Specialists





Two Skyline Plaza, Suite 1210
5203 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia 22041
(703) 578-4633

Appendix 14

Ghana YWCA Day Care Centers - Project #698-0388.3


The Ghana YWCA Day Care Center project was initiated after YWCA personnel received requests from village women fbr assistance in caring for their young children. The Ghana YWCA, with the assistance of AID, developed a proposal whose purpose was the establishment of a day care center for children. This center was planned to provide the women with health, nutrition, and family planning services, and to establish activities to increase the earning capacity of village women.

The proposal requested a grant of $25,000 for an 18 month period (September, 1976'- May, 1978) to fund three day care centers. Asokore, Bawaleshie, and Kona were selected as the sites for the three centers. Though the agreement was signed in 1976, the initial funding was not received until April, 1977. However, the project started eight months earlier, in September, 1976, with the YWCA assuming all project costs until funding was received.

In addition, when the agreement was signed, the YWCA found that an $8,000 vehicle was included as an item in the $25,000 budget. The YWCA had not expected that the car would be a part of the $25,000 request, but would be provided by some other funding. This inclusion, in effect, reduced the amount

Appendix #4

of money available for the day care center project to $17,000. At this time, the YWCA made a conscious decision to concentrate most of its efforts, and limited funds, on developing Bawaleshie as a model center, which could be replicated in other areas.

The stated purpose of this project was to provide day care services requested by rural women and to create a basis for activities aimed at increasing income, and improving health, nutrition, and family planning. To a very large extent, the purpose has been achieved. The day care requested is being provided through the operation of the day care centers. Children of the village are receiving health services, either at the day care center or through outreach efforts. Nutritional instructions to village mothers help li. improving the village diets, while the lunches provided to center participant children are currently improving their diets.

The project objerctives included:

* 150-200 children attending day care centers daily;

* women participating in educational services and

utilizing health, nutrition, and family planning

services; and

o development of day care centers into economically

viable units supported by the villagers.

Appendix #4


The evaluation team visited Asokore and Bawaleshie, two of the three day care center sites. In addition, the team conducted a document review of all available YWCA and day care center records and reports, and held interviews with project personnel and participants.



(A chart depicting the inputs in graphic form follows).

The materials below represent further explanation of materials in the charts.

The YWCA began the project prior to the receipt of AID funding, by assuming not only its projected costs, but those of AID also. The YWCA purchased basic commodities for use at the centers and used its own vehicles for transportation until the AID-supplied car arrived in December, 1977. The YWCA also began training of six young women, selected by the village, to become day care center atendants. During the course of the project, older women were trained to function as supervisors.

YWCA personnel also contacted the villages to determine what support they could offer to the project. The villages agreed to donate buildings to house the centers and food for the children's lunches. The facilities donated were generally

Appendix #4

old, dilapidated churches or missions, which are too small to serve the children adequately. Consequently, some parents are reluctant to have their children attend the center because of overcrowding. In April, 1978, the village chief of Asokore donated an uncompleted building to serve as an alternate' facility; however, at the imte of this evaluation, the building is still uncompleted.

While the proposal projected that the villagers would

provide payment for child care and lunches, this payment has been inconsistent, due to a variety of factors. A drought in the area destroyed most crops, thus severely reducing the income generated by the farmer population. The devastation of the crops also restricted the farmers' ability to donate food for the childrens' lunches. A backyard garden, planted at the Bawaleshie Center, was expected to provide both food and income; the drought destroyed both the garden and that expectation.

However, the villagers do periodically donate food to the center. In addition, the YWCA has coordinated activities of the Ministry of Agriculture-Home Extension Unit and the Catholic Relief, both of which have donated food to supplement the childrens' diets. The Ministry of Agriculture provides sorghum and wheat, while the Catholic Relief provides milk. Thus, the children are receiving nutritious lunches while at the centers.


$25,000 grant to Grant would provide AID Agreement signed Because of delay in receipt of AID fundir finance: initial monies to in Sept., 1975. YWCA picked up costs of training workers 1. salaries of workers start and maintain First check and sought assistance from villagers in
2. Co rncdities (except project for 18 months arrived in Aril, gathering necessary cnwodities for for vehicle mainte- (Sept., 1976 - May, 1977 centers. nance and training 1978 costs
3. Feasibility survey
4. Training of 6 workers and 4 supervisors

Overhead Costs YWCA would assume YWCA YWCA supported YWCA is still supporting overhead costs initial overhead overhead costs fran its own budget. costs. It was hoped from start-up of that, through the project and, development of income because of da.Lay generating in receipt of
activities, that the AID funding, village would at some also assumed point be able to other project sustain the operation costs till of the centers funding arrived

Vehicle mainenance and AID would supply car YC AID supplied YWC% used its ons vehicle prior to the running costs for transportation vehicle did not arrival of the AID supplied car in between village, arrive until De- December, 1977. while YWCA would cemrer, 1977 provide maintenance
and running costs


CAIE: Inputs

Appendix 14



Buildings for Centers Villagers would Villagers Donated at start- Buildings %ere donated by village provide buildings to up of project Development Ccmmittee. The facilities

be used as day care all churches or missions, generally in centers delapidated condition.
In April, 1978, the village chief of
Asokore donated to the YWCA an uncemplet building to be used to house the day.cay center.

Payment for lunches Minimal tuition Villagers In Asokore, min- Due to drought and pests, farmers in
-and child care charge would help pay imal tuition Bawalashie lost their own crops and were for lunches and offset some then unable to pay minimal tuition. attendants. costs for lun- Backyard garden at Center was also Villagers would ches and, on destroyed. provide some food for occasion, supple In Asokore, parents had joined together children's lunches. mented the underwrite some of the cost of the day c Some of the output income of the center, through the minimal tuition dar from the backyard attendants. garden planned for In Bawalashie, the day care center backyard garden could be used for was planted, but lunches. failed to produce any crops.

Appendix #4


Four major outputs were expected from this project. They are described on the charts that follow. The information below represents a further explanation of this material.

The outputs included trained workers and supervisors; two buildings outfitted as day care centers; health, nutrition, and family planning programs for mothers and health services for children; and a feasibility survey of income-generating activities. To an important extent, most of these outputs have been achieved.

The proposal projected that 150-200 children would be

served in two buildings, outfitted as day care centers. Currently, there are 85-90 children at the Asokore Center and 69 children in Bawaleshie, all aged 2-5 years. More children would attend if the buildings could accommodate them. However, both center buildings are too small to accommodate additional children. The buildings, also, still need additional equipment and learning aids. Despite these problems, the centers have gained wide acceptance and support in the village communities.

The original staffing plans called for six day care attendants and four supervisors to be trained. The six attendants initially chosen were young girls, ages 18-21, who received training in nutrition, hygiene, and child care from YWCA


Appendix #4

personnel in Accra. Older women were trained as supervisors. These young women, however, tended to get married, have children, and leave their positions at the day care center. Consequently, the turnover in, attendants has been high. Though several attendants have been trained, at the time of this evaluation it was found that of the Bawaleshie staff of two day care attendants and some volunteers, only one attendant has been trained. Of the Asokore staff of three day care attendants and one supervisor, only the supervisor, a former teacher/social worker, has been trained. To reduce this turnover problem, the village day care committees are recommending that slightly older women, ages 25-30, be chosen as attendants.

A significant output for the entire community is the YWCA coordination of activities of the Ministry of Agriculture-Home Extension Unit, and the Ministry of Health, Public Community Health Nurses. The community health nurses provide instructions to village mothers, including non-day care participant mothers, on preparation of high protein diets and food preparation and storage. They also operate a prenatal clinic and examine and innoculate children. While non-day care participant children do receive this care, those attending the day care centers benefit from a systematic program of check-ups and innoculations that is impossible to provide on an outreach basis. Though family planning services were planned, it has


Appendix #4

become apparent that rural communities do not readily accept the idea of family planning. In this area, approaches must be made indirectly, with family planning integrated into a package of health, nutrition, and educational services.

The feasibility survey of income generating activities was completed during the course of the project. This survey indicated that any income generating activities must be geared to meet the needs and lifestyle of the population. Since the villagers are farmers, any assistance should be agriculturally oriented. Because of the drought, efforts aimed at increasing the water supply should be considered.

Assistance in facilitating the marketing of agricultural products would also benefit the area population. Alternative income-generating activities, such as bead making or flower arrangements, might be considered to supplement agricultural efforts.

Appendix #4
,QI DA2Y CARE: Outputs


Workers and 6 attendants and 4 Asokore staff The attendants initially chosen for the project supervisors supervisors trained and (current) 3 day care were young girls, ages 18-21. These girls would trained employed attendants; 1 super- get married, have children, then leave the center.
visor Consequently, there has been a large turnover in Bawalashie staff attendants.
(current) 2 day care
atter dants sne

2 buildings 150-200 children would 69 children in Building in Bawalashie is boo small to accomxmdate outfitted as day be served in buildings Bawalashie; 85-90 children adequately. Equipment and learning aids care centers children in Asokore are still needed in order to provide services.
Lack of space at both center bars the enrollment of additional chirldren at the oenters.

Health, nutrition Women whose children Outreach to oamnunity YWA coordinated activities of the Ministry of and family were enrolled at in health, nutrition, Agriculture, Home Extension Unit, the Ministry of planning programs centers would receive food preparation and Health, Public Ccw.runity Health Nurses, and for mothers, health, nutrition, storage, family Catholic Relief. health services family planning planning and Ministry of Agriculture provides soghum and for children services when they innoculations for wheat, Catholic Relief provides milk for children dropped off and picked children, at centers. up their children and Children at day care Community health nurses provide instructions to during free time. center receive mothers on preparation of high protein diets and Children at centers systematic program of operate a pre-natal clinic. would benefit from check-ups and Rural comnunities do not readily accept the idea health services innoculations. family planning. An indirect aproach in provided at centers. Children at centers necessary on this subject.
receive nutritious

Appendix #4
G-AWh DAY CARE: Outputs


Feasibility sur- Survey report would vey of incce indicate most feasible generating activi- inccie generating ties activities, including project plans and resources required to inplement them.



Appendix #4


External Factors

o Drought and irrigation problems devastated the crops

in Bawaleshie, thus destroying the potential income

producing garden at the center. The drought also had a severe, adverse economic effect on the entire community.

Male Attitudes

" Men have been supportive of the day care center projects.

" In April, 1979, the village chief of Asokore, aware of
the benefits accruing to the entire community from the /project, donated an uncompleted building to be used

for the day care center.

Male Involvement

o Men participate on the committees-YWCA Rural Development Committees, village day care committees-which are involved in the planning and operation of the day care

centers. The YWCA has encouraged efforts to involve

men more actively in the entire project.


o The YWCA Day Care Center Project has resulted in the

establishment of two strong day care centers, operating in the villages of Asokore and Bawaleshie. Both


Appendix #4

centers receive significant community acceptance and


" Though the AID funding provided for this project was

inadequate, the financial support, leadership, particularly from Kate Parks, and support from the YWCA, strongly contributed to the development of the day

care centers. This support is evidenced by the YWCA's provision of funds for initiation of the project prior

to the arrival of AID funding, and by the continued

support of the day care centers by the YWCA since the

end of the AID funding.

* There has been significant turnover in the staffs at

the day care centers. This turnover has resulted when the young girls selected as day care attendants, average ages 18-21, have left their positions at the centers to marry and have families of their own.

" The current day care center buildings are small and

dilapidated. The centers also lack certain important

commodities; for example, sleeping mats, educational aids, kitchen utensils, and sanitation facilities in
Asokore, etc.

" The Government of Ghana has shown interest in, and

support for, the project to the extent its limited resources allow. Community health nurses from the


Appendix #4
Ministry of Health are providing health and nutritional services to- village children and mothers, including

non-day care participant children and mothers. The

Home Extension Unit of the Ministry of Agriculture is

providing some nutritional foodstuffs for the childrensO lunches.

* The villagers do provide some support for the day care

centers, in the form of minimal tuition and/or the

provision of food. However, due to the devastation

caused by the drought and the depressed nature of the local economy, the villagers cannot provide the anticipated financial support for the centers, nor can they

provide food on any regular basis.

* The project has had several positive effects for women,

including the provision of nutritional instruction,

health care, an3 child care. Children attending the centers have benefited from the nutritional lunches, health services, and educational activities provided

at the centers. Additionally, health and nutrition

services have been provided to non-participant mothers

and children through outreach efforts. These effects

will be discussed further in later portions of this




Appendix #4

" The day care centers have provided significant benefits for the villages in which they are located.

These .benefits, provided for both participants' families and the c6mmunity as a whole, include the participation of women in activities which promote child

" The AID funding of $25,000, which included approximately $8,000 for a vehicle for the project, was

insufficient to support the development and operation of the three day care centers projected in the initial

project proposal. The YWCA has been supporting the

operation of the centers since the end of AID funding,

and has applied through the Farmer's Association and.

Agribusiness Development (FAAD) program for additional

funding to support the continuation of this project.

* Although the turnover in staff did impair the continuity of provision of experienced care, the nutritional,

health, and hygiene training for the young women attendants has had some unanticipated benefits. Though
these young women have left their positions at the

centers, they have taken the knowledga and experience

gained as day care attendants to their own families and to other village women. Thus, a "spread effect"

has occurred.

Appendix #4

It is important to note, however, that though

this project has had a high turnover rate, the young

women are the ones who have the most intimate involvement with the children and who are most popular with them. There should always be, however, at least one

older, educated person on the staff to provide educational training and supervision for the younger women.

* The current day care center buildings are inadequate

to support the program efffectively. There is not

enough room to accommodate the children currently enrolled, nor is there room to take in additional village children who wish to attend. Also, commodities need to be provided in order to assure optimal services for the children.

* The Government of Ghana appears to be providing as

much as it can in support of the program.

* Due to the depressed nature of the economy in Ghana,

it is unrealistic to expect that the villagers will likely be able to support the operation of the day

care centers entirely on their own. Some form of assistance will probably be necessary for this project.


e The Ghana Day Care Center Project has provided valuable services to the communities in which they are


Appendix #4

located and has promoted rural development, an objective of the AID programs. It is recommended that this

project be continued and improved.

* The proposal for additional funding, placed by the

YWCA with the FAAD program, should be approved and funds allocated for the extension of this project.

" In order to provide both continuity and quality care

for the children at the day care center, the staff

should be composed of persons of different age groups and experiences. For exmple, there should be at least

one older, educated person on staff to provide both

supervision for the day care attendants and educational instruction for the students. There should be

younger women serving as day care attendants, both

because of their ability to work well with the children, and for the opportunity that such employment allows for these young women to gain experience and

skills that they can later bring to their own families

and other village women.

" The current day care center buildings should be replaced. The village chief in Asokore has donated an

uncompleted building for the use by the day care center. This building should be completed.


Appendix #4
In Bawaleshie, if another facility cannot be

found, utilization of the current facility must be

maximized. For example, the children can be divided

into age groups, with each group participating in

different activities. One group could be inside the

building, while the other group could be outside in the shade provided by the frontage of the building.

Some improvements to the front yard area, including

the addition of play equipment, would make this area

more suitable for outside activities.

o The YWCA should continue to coordinate the services

provided to the project by the Government of Ghana. o A handicraft, such as bead or flower making, as has

been suggested, should be considered as a supplemental income generating activity. These supplemental activities could provide income for the villagers until irrigation problems in the area are solved and sufficient

water is available for the villagers' usual agricultural activities. In addition, these activities could provide additional revenue, even if agricultural production increased.


JEFFALYN JOHNSON & ASSOCIATES, INC. Management and Organization Specialists





Two Skyline Plaza, Suite 1210
5203 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia 22041
(703) 578-4633

Sierra Leone: Gara Cloth Indu~~y 698-0388.2


The Gara Cloth Industry project was designed as a part of the regionally funded Women in Development projects (AID No. 698-0388.2). The project is supported by assistance from U.S. AID and the Government of Sierra Leone (GOSL). This evaluation was conducted to determine whether the project has resulted in a more productive integration of the women involved in the project into the national economy of Sierra Leone, both as contributors and beneficiaries of development.

AID involvement with the Gara Cloth Industry began in

1976. During that year, AID agreed to provide $62,000 to the Government of Sierra Leone: (1) to pay for the services of a marketing consultant to analyze and help organize the Gara Cloth Industry; (2) to train members of the women's industry in marketing and design; and (3) to provide logistical support, supplies, and equipment. The project agree..'nt period was 18 months, from December, 1976 through June, 1978, with the amount of AID assistance provided totaling $115,165.

In July, 1978, a pruposal was submitted to AID requesting additional assistance for the project. In July 1979, a two year, bilateral agreement was signed between the U.S. AID and the Government of Sierra Leone, with AID agreeing to provide $205,000.


Sierra Leone: Gara Cloth Industry

Appendix #5

The primary goal of this project is to assist in the growth and development of the indigenous Gara Cloth and handicraft industry in Sierra Leone through aid and technical assistance. As stated in the project agreement, "this assistance would consist of implementing a regular and continuous flow of goods to and from producers to local and foreign markets. Such a flow of goods would include the direct importation and delivery of raw materials to the individual procedures, as well as the pick-up and cash buying of finished products from the producers for delivery to local and foreign markets." AID would fully subsidize the project during the first year, while, during the secnrl year, support would gradually shift to the Government c- Sierra Leone. At the end of the two year period, it is hoped that the project will have become self-sufficient.


This evaluation was conducted during the ninth month of the first year of a two-year project. At this point, it was found that the Gara Cloth Industry Cooperative was producing quality, marketable items. A project staff had been hired, and the structure of the Cooperative itself had been reorganized. Some marketing of products to foreign countries had been conducted.

However,.technical as3istance in the design of management, production, and marketing systems is still necessary ii

Appendix #5

to strengthen the project. Thus, it is too early to assess what the ultimate effects of this project will be.



The following inputs were identified as being necessary

fcr implementation of the project. During the first year, AID would provide salaries for a network of personnel, both incountry and abroad; an in-country vehicle; and seed capital for the purchase of raw materials and cash buying of finished products. The Government of Sierra Leone (GOSL) would provide personnel input and assistance from government staff members and would pay the salaries of these personnel; rent for a showroom and design shop; fuel contribution of two gallons per day; administrative overhead; and reimbursement for the duty on the consignment of raw materials..

Selection of the project staff began in September, 1979, with most of the staff hired and on board by early October. The project staff was to include a U.S. advisor, a Sierra Leonian coordinator, two field representatives to work in the provinces, a driver, a tailor, and a seamstress. Managers for the export office and arts ard crafts store, personnel from the GOSL Department of Cooperatives, were functioning in their positions prior to the staff selection process. At thE time of this evaluation, all personnel, with the exception of one


Appendix #5

field coordinator position have been hired. However, because the field supervisors are expected to deliver raw materials to the craftspeople in the provinces and to return finished goods to Freetown, the continued absence of one field supervisor could significantly interfere with the operations of this project.

Among the first acts of the project staff was the holding of a series of general meetings with cooperative members and general public to inform them of the new agreement. These meetings were held both in Freetown and in the provinces. In addition to informing members of the new plan, these meetings were used to stimulate interest in the idea of a cooperative and encourage participation in and support of the Sierra Leone Arts and Crafts Cooperative. Growth in membership of the coop has been slow, due both to cultural, economic and social factors which mitigate against such organizations and to previous mismanagement of the coop which resulted in a loss of confidence in the venture. However, the Cooperative has now been reorganized, with officers and representatives from each province elected. It is hoped that this new organizational structure, the cooperative officers themselves, will provide new leadership.

Funds for a vehicle were included in the project agreement. This vehicle is necessary for transporting raw materials to and finished goods from the provinces. After some delay

Appendix #5

in the receipt of funds, a vehicle was purchased and a driver from the Department of Cooperatives was assigned to the project. While the GOSL provides petrol for the vehicle, the price of gasoline makes the cost of many trips to the provinces prohibitive. Careful plans must be made for utilization of these transportation resources, since other methods of transportation in Sierra Leone are slow and difficult.

Because the raw materials necessary for the Gara Cloth

industry-fabrics, dyes, solvents, threads, sewing supplies and T-shirts-are not available in Sierra Leone, these goods must be imported. Using the seed capital provided by the AID funds, damask was ordered from a West German firm, dyes were ordered from Abidjan, and silk was ordered from India. These materials arrived and were distributed to cooperative members in Freetown. Likewise, threads were ordered and distributed upon arrival to members in Freetown, Bonthe, Maherie, and Bo, four of the eight villages where coop members are. However, a plan for distributing raw materials to province craftspeople has not yet been developed or implemented on a regular basis. In addition, the expectation was that the GOSL wotild pay the duty on the first consignment of goods. Because of Sierra Leone laws, the coop was forced to pay taxes on goods imported but was reimbursed later by the GOSL.