Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Facsimile letter from "Bob"
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Ancient Britain
 The Anglo-Saxons (499-1016)
 Line of Danish and English kings...
 William I, the conqueror (1066...
 William II, Rufus the Red...
 Henry I (1100-1135)
 Stephen (1135-1154)
 Henry II (1154-1189)
 Richard I, (1189-1199)
 John (1199-1216)
 Henry III (1216-1273)
 Edward I (1271-1307)
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: The children's fairy history of England : ancient Britain to Edward I
Title: The children's fairy history of England
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00082011/00001
 Material Information
Title: The children's fairy history of England ancient Britain to Edward I
Physical Description: xxviii, 307, 3 p. : ill., facsims, music ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Winslow, Forbes E ( Forbes Edward ), 1842-1913
Stott, David ( Publisher )
Publisher: David Stott
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1892
Subject: Wit and humor, Juvenile   ( lcsh )
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Battles -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Clergy -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Ship captains -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1892   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1892
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: by Forbes E. Winslow ; with two hundred original illustrations by Ernest Marillier.
General Note: Title page printed in red and black.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements follow text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00082011
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002225264
notis - ALG5536
oclc - 212381354

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
    Facsimile letter from "Bob"
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
    Ancient Britain
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The Anglo-Saxons (499-1016)
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Line of Danish and English kings (1017-1066)
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    William I, the conqueror (1066-1087)
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    William II, Rufus the Red (1087-1100)
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Henry I (1100-1135)
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Stephen (1135-1154)
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Henry II (1154-1189)
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Richard I, (1189-1199)
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    John (1199-1216)
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
    Henry III (1216-1273)
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
    Edward I (1271-1307)
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text




.. ... ... ..

... .... .....
... .... ....
.... ........... .

..... .. ...

..... ...... .
... .......







,, muhhl



Rector of S. Paul's, S. Leonard's-on-Sea

aitb) Clo %unbrctb Original tIllutrationi





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'*tcxn XC~Sl 'Lwciij P "IrPi(4

* This letter embraces in its commendation the other volumes of this veracious history that are shortly to follow.


PREFACE ... ... ...... .

INTRODUCTION... ... ... .. .




THE ANGLO-SAXONS (449-1016) ... ...




WILLIAM I., THE CONQUEROR (lo66-1087) ...


WILLIAM II., RUFUS THE RED (1087-100) ...


HENRY I. (1100-1135).

STEPHEN (1135-1154) ... ... ...

HENRY II. (1154-1189)

... ... ... 137

... ... ... ... xiii

.... xix

... ... ... ... I

... ... ... 18

.. 50

S... 70

... 84

... .. 101

... ... ... ... 120


JOHN (1199-1216) ...

HENRY III. (1216-1273)

EDWARD I. (1271-1307)





... ... ... ...


... 59

..... 107

.... ... 226

.. .... 253


THE GRANGE .. .. .. xx
EXTREMES MEET .. .. .. 3
DID YOU EVER? .. .. .. 5
SEA-SLIDERS .. .. .. .. 10
BOADICEA .. .. .. .. 13
TIVES .. .. .. .. 26
THE SNOW KINGS .. .. .. 41
CATHEDRAL .. .. .. 47
HAROLD'S OATH .. .. 54
FLIGHT OF ARROWS .. .. .. 64
THE FINAL STAND .. .. .. 67


xii List of Illustrations.


How IT IS DONE .. .. .. 188
ARCHDEACON.. .. .. .. 208
THE MAGNA CHARTA (Facsimile) .. 216
WASH .. .. .. 221
THE AIR-SCUDDER .. .. .. 232
MAY THE KEEL ROW" .. .. 262



In the preface to my Children's Fairy Geography"
I have already sufficiently justified my attempt to administer to the pleasure
and the profit of their Serene Highnesses of the rising generation, and I hereby
thank all my numerous correspondents, great and small, who have been kind
enough to express their approval of my first venture into the regions of fancy,
and the realms of fact.
I am now, not without fear and trembling, going to outspread my wings for
a more daring flight, and ask my little friends to study with me, in a light and
airy way, the past history of the great English nation to which we belong.
Far be it from me to gainsay the efforts of my predecessors in this special
branch of study; many most charming and interesting books have been written
upon the subject, and yet, I venture to think there is room for just such a book
as I am now issuing.
A clever humourist once said of his own country America is a big joke,
and we are all in it." This is somewhat the leading idea of my "Fairy History."
It is written in the historic present; my little readers, if they enter, as I am sure
they will, into the spirit of this book, will find that it is "a big joke," a game of
games, and we "are all in it," strictly contemporaneous with all that is going on.,
Right down into the midst of the ancient Britons, the Danes and Anglo-Saxons
we plunge, witnessing with our own eyes many of the great events of our
U1 A


English History, moving in and out, as occasion serves, amongst the great men
and great women, as if we had known them all our lives.
In order to do this, I have at times recourse to what I fear some sober-
minded people regard as one of the black arts, the use of mesmerism, or as it
should be properly called hypnotism. The modus operandi is to be found
described at length in my Introduction." Suffice it to say, that by virtue of the
singular power that one mind, and one strong will can exercise over others, I am
able to place my young friends in whatsoever historical atmosphere I think
desirable, I can transport them in the twinkling of an eye down the gulf of time
to ages ago." In a moment, we all step out of the nineteenth century into the
epoch that preceded the Christian Era, and become in a stroke 2000 years younger,
without feeling, I can assure you, expert crede, the slightest inconvenience. We
deal with space moreover precisely as we have dealt with time: away from our
cheerful firesides, away from all our modern surroundings, under the enchanter's
spell we speed our way, and we are in the midst of

The forest primeval,
Near the murmuring pines and the hemlocks,

witnessing, with awe and wonder, the secret rites of the Druidical priesthood.
And this experience is only on a par with the rest; we live in the past, and help
to make it ourselves.
Just think, dear readers, of the mine of wealth that lies ready to your hand
in the unexplored depths of mesmerism.
For instance, Paterfamilias, as he gets on in life, becomes increasingly
particular in all matters of his diet; his dinner is a very serious business with him.
After his ups and downs on the Stock Exchange, after his little disappointments
in his business transactions, he does not always come home (for we are but
human), in as philosophical a frame of mind as he might otherwise be. He is on
these occasions rather given to find fault with the quality of the soup, the flavour
of the fish, the juiciness of the steak, or the succulence of the humble chop that
may be submitted for his inspection. Materfamilias happens, however, very fortun-
ately to be possessed of what is called a mesmeric influence, and with a wave of
her hand she can hypnotise her recalcitrant spouse (recalcitrant is good). In a
moment he is at a Lord Mayor's banquet; the somewhat watery and flavourless
soup is now real turtle, the vulgar sprat has developed into the lordly salmon
and the princely turbot, the leathery steak has been raised to the Upper House
under the title of Baron of Beef." All the surroundings of the table have been

Preface. xv

transmuted by this wondrous mesmeric alchemy into the delicacies of the season;
-green peas, asparagus, new potatoes, are en evidence in every direction; and
as to rare and costly vintages, with Zoedone as a foundation, Paterfamilias can
have anything he likes to ask for, and cares to drink.
Or, again, as the summer time comes on, London becomes increasingly hot,
and Mrs. Jones and all her youthful belongings are anxious for a few weeks at
the sea. Things have gone rather badly with Mr. Jones, however; the balance
at his bank is reduced to very small proportions, and he cannot encounter the
expense; what is he to do ? Mrs. Jones is bent upon Brighton, or Eastbourne,
or Hastings. Jones happily, on this occasion, is possessed of mesmeric influence,
and he sets to work and hypnotises the whole family, and without all the worry
and trouble of packing, without the unwholesome smells, and multitudinous
black-beetles, that so often confront the luckless seafarer in occasional lodgings,
everybody is satisfied. The dining-room becomes the seaside pure and simple.
Jones has simply to sit in his arm-chair and direct operations. Now the children
are on the beach paddling to their hearts' content, now Mrs. Jones is sunning
herself, with the perambulating babies (hypnotic, or otherwise), on the parade.
Now the pier, now the rocks, now the bathing-machines, are called successively
into requisition. Day by day Jones can give his family this pleasure, and all by
a wave of the hand, and a very slight effort of the imagination. Result-peace,
thrift, economy, patriarchal joy, and conjugal happiness.
As I write, the possibilities seem to be endless. Master John requires a
birching; the preliminaries are humiliating, not to say distressing, to the last
degree-mesmerise Master John, and he will go through all the agonies of that
wholesome discipline without turning a hair.
The boys at your school want a half-holiday, which it is not convenient to
give them, as examination is close at hand. Keep them, 0 Magister, at their
lessons, but mesmerise them into the belief that they are playing cricket and
football ; they have their brief mesmeric interludes of play, and they learn their
lessons with all the greater zest and pleasure.
The old can become young, the sorrowful can become happy, the ugly can be
made handsome. It is true it is but for a while, but during the time of enchant-
ment how pleasurable all the sensations are And then there are no racking
headaches, no depression of spirits, no empty pockets confronting the partici-
pants, when they come out of their Elysium of bliss.
To come back to sterner matters, the history in this book, so far as it goes,
is substantially correct. I do not profess to trace for my young people the

xvi Preface.

germs of the British Constitution in the interior economy and domestic arrange-
ments of the amoeba. I do not undertake to say precisely who was the great
grandmother fifty times removed of each of our English kings. The salient and
important facts of English history, however, are all here.
I have written as a Churchman," but I have tried to prevent myself from
being a partisan. I suppose it is impossible to help taking sides to a certain
extent; at the same time, I have striven honestly to be impartial. May the
young people read and devour the book, and the old ones glance over it, and
may old and young be
"To its virtues very kind,
And to its faults a little blind."
And if any one is disposed to be critical, may I soften him with a story from the
Wild West.
In the old mining days there was in a certain settlement, called "Old Man's
Gulch," a public hall where the miners used to congregate for music and refresh-
ments-the latter for choice-on the platform was a piano, and on it this
touching appeal in large letters,

So pleads
Your respectful Servant,

Preface. xvii

P.S.-To prevent disappointment in trying mesmeric experiments, I ought
to say that almost invariably when the hypnotised come out of their mesmeric
trance they are perfectly unconscious of everything that has happened to them;
their hypnotic experience is a complete blank. I have however discovered a
way by which this forgetfulness may be obviated; and after each one of my
stances my young people as recorded in this book, have an indelible and per-
manent record, stored up in their minds, of what they have seen, and heard
while in their trance. This for the present is my secret, not to be imparted
to any one for love or money, and so I trust I shall not be troubled with
correspondence on the matter.
P.P.S.-It would be tedious to verify my authorities for historical facts by
copious footnotes. I have availed myself freely of the writings of the leading
historians, thus fashioning, I trust, a species of catena area for the young folks
who may read this book.




N your way up to the north, as you look out of
the railway carriage window, first class, of
course-for this is important-you will see, if
you have got your wits about you, and it is a
very clear day, nestling at the foot of the great
S Cumberland mountains, the towers and gable
windows of Westmacott Grange. This is a
delightful old-fashioned country house, like the
fine old country gentleman of the song,

One of the Olden Time."

It was built ever so many years ago, an
has been growing ever since, so that we have in it all the delicious comforts
of a modern country house, such as electric lights, telephones, and high art of
all shapes and sizes, together with a delicate musty flavour of antiquity.
In the Grange there are of course long mysterious passages, leading to
everywhere and to nowhere, here and there branching off by secret doors to
turrets, and hidden chambers, where, after Guy Fawkes had been captured,
Roman Catholic priests used to hide in safety. These passages, like all other
passages that I ever heard of, are haunted by at least two regular ghosts; I

xx Introduction.

call them "regular," because they are always on the spot. They never, poor
things, take even so much as a Bank Holiday, to say nothing of a Long
Vacation; they always have to be attending closely to business. One of these
ghosts is a gentleman who must have suffered from indigestion in his other
days, he is still very uncomfortable in his mind, and somewhat peculiar in his
habits. Sir Amyas, that's his name, walks about even in winter,
The heathen Chinee is peculiar,"
clad in steel armour, and somehow or other he has got mixed up in some


chains, which keep getting round his legs, and make him tumble about like a
ship in the Bay of Biscay. Just when everybody else is asleep, Sir Amyas
begins to take his walks abroad. Clang, clang goes the armour, rattle, rattle
go the chains, and from time to time he gets strangely and sadly entangled
in his belongings.
The other ghost is a Lady, fair and beautiful, like all ladies, especially
ghostly ones. You can see her picture hanging up in the baronial hall; she is
called the Lady Dorothea; she wears a silk dress with furbelows. I don't

Introduction. xxi

know what furbelows are,
but I am told she has
them, and as she walks
along, the train of her
dress rustles as it strikes
the sides of the passages.
She, poor thing, seems
afflicted with a perpetual
cold in the head, and is
always either sneezing or
sighing, and in the dead
of the night, that, I can
tell you, is by no means
the most cheerful lullaby
you can have.
These are our regular
inhabitants; they go with
the property. We have, however, a
number of irregulars, who are not
always with us, but go the round of
various other old castles, and granges, and
manor houses, paying us an occasional visit
only; but when they do come, we have a
good time. They march up and down the
house, slam doors, shake windows, drag
heavy weights in and out the passages, and
generally behave in a very unnecessary and
disorderly way. Not that we who are THE LADY DOROTHEA.
staying in the Grange mind them one wee
bit; they keep us cheerful; it is so cosy to feel oneself warm and comfortable in
bed while others, ghosts especially, are up and about, shivering in the cold.
This may be selfish, but it is a fact; as we hear them marching about the
house we feel less lonesome; in fact we would be quite unhappy without our
"Dear old ghostes," as Betty, the housekeeper, calls them.
The bedrooms They just are bedrooms Why, you could almost put all
the Horse Guards in Europe into some of them. I do not say the Horse Guards
would like their quarters-perhaps not; still you might put them in. And the


beds! particularly King Charles's bed; the one, I mean, he slept in! Whenever
I go into the country I always am introduced to the bed that King Charles slept
in; wherever there is an old house, there the King has been before me. I once
made a calculation, and it summed up something like this-King Charles went
to bed five times a-day, and ten times a-night, all the days of his life, each time
in a separate bed, each bed in a different house, and then there are about 20,000
beds over unaccounted for. The thing seems rather absurd-I can't help that.
Have you, my gentle reader, got a King Charles's bed in your house ? If you
have not, there is something wrong in your establishment. You certainly ought
to have one. Ask papa to get one. Well, King Charles's bed," this particular
one, I mean, was simply the jolliest, funniest bed I ever got into, and that is
saying a great deal. It is so high that you climb up into it by a kind of fire-
escape, and when at the top you lay hold of a trapeze, that hangs from the
ceiling, and then swing yourself into the middle, and down you sink, "down,
down, derry down," into a deep ocean of feather-bed, which closes all around
you; and there you lie, altogether out of sight, oh, so warm and snug, until
Mary comes in with your cup of coffee and buttered toast in the morning.
Of course there are drawing-rooms, very pretty and elegant, and studies full
of learned and unlearned books, and a smoking-room, and a billiard-room-all
these are modern. Then there is a fine old baronial hall. I can't say why it is
called "baronial;" it sounds grand, I think. This hall is full of stained-glass
windows, and pictures, full length for the most part, of all manner of Westmacott
ancestors. I don't, however, between you and me, to tell you the truth-and
that's what I am doing, of course, all through this book-much like the look of
these ancestors. They are such a melancholy lot, there's not a smile amongst
them; they are not pretty, nay, many of them are even downright ugly. I
shouldn't care to meet them at all in the park at night, and if I did come across
them, unless I kept them at a distance, I should probably have my pockets
picked. I may be wrong, but that is my impression. And then their clothes
do not fit at all, always and everywhere excepting the beautiful Lady Dorothea,
whose picture is just lovely. This hall has such a slippery oak floor, which is
bees-waxed every month; why, I don't know, as it seems rather hard on the
bees, and it is such a place when we clear away the tables, for drinking, and
in-door lawn-tennis.
Now, come along with me out of doors, and see in imagination the fruit-
garden. Did you ever see (you must not touch them) such raspberries! such
gooseberries !! and as to the peaches !! plums !!! and strawberries! !!!!


The resources of the English language fail me here. The flower-garden is, as
you see, filled with old-fashioned flowers-mignonettes, sweet-williams, violets,
primroses, and wall-flowers; and passing through it, down the terrace, here we
are at Merewater, as the lake- is called, and there, under the headland, you can
see, lying at anchor, the cutters and schooners, the Rob Roy canoes, and rowing-
boats, in which we go out yachting and boating in the sweet summer time.
Then, far away, just by that old church spire, you can seethe model dairy,
where we revel in Devonshire cream, and curds and whey, and such butter!
Talk of Irish Pats-just try our English pats, and you will never want to go to
Cork for butter any more. And the eggs Why, they are just as good as if
they were laid on purpose for us. Each egg is a small Lord Mayor's banquet
in itself.
I was talking to you about the sweet summer time, but, alas we were not
there in the summer, but the winter ; and such a winter it was-a regular freeze-
your-bones, and ice-you-all-over concern it was. At first we were happy enough;
we skated on the lake, we went sleighing as the snow began to fall in the park;
and then,as the snow came down thicker and thicker, we made snow-men-such
beauties-and a snow Windsor Castle, and had snow-pudding. It's all the world
like blanc-mange-only different. At last, iowrear-itmsnwed insuih .desperate
earnest, that we could not get out at all.
"Who were we ?"
Oh, I forgot, I haven't introduced you yet.
First and foremost (there's conceit for you) there was the Writer of this
book; he will speak for himself, and you will have quite enough of him by the
time you have got to the end of the last page. Then there were Jack and Ethel,
just fresh from their travels in the air; you can read all about them in the
"Children's Fairy Geography," where you will remember they are described as
sailing about on a wishing carpet, or striding from city to city and country to
country in grand electric boots, that carry them everywhere, in next to no time.
Jack and Ethel, however, are a little older, and we will hope a little more
sensible, than when they first began to go about the world.
This bouncing boy in jackets-or rather in one jacket-is my youngest boy
Bob. He is a very good sort of fellow in his way; he does not shine in writing
or spelling as yet. His great weakness is for always taking photographs, and
such photographs they are. Look at his detective camera hanging round his
neck; he'll photograph you if you don't move on. Here is Hildegarde, called
Hilda for short; she is rather tall and thin, and goes in for High Art, as you can




tell by her lofty French heels. As to all the rest, you may take your pick out
of the Court Circular and Kelly's Directory." It is enough to say that the
Grange is full of uncles, aunts, sisters and brothers and cousins, all gathered
together for the Christmas holidays, and all just now equally lamenting over one
common fate-they were all snowed up !
What were we to do? We had been playing hide-and-seek all over the
house, much to the excitement of the ghosts, who did not like it at all, and who
thought we were coming after them. Then we had the "Westmacott Coloured
Minstrels." Everybody who performed had a different coloured face; we had
blue, red, white, black, yellow, pink, and piebald niggers, and it was such fun;
get your papa to try it next holiday time. You must not paint him too thick,
however, for it would not do to have papa always a coloured minstrel. Then we

had charades, and all the games in the "Boy's Own Book of Sports." Girls'
games were voted silly, and we would not have them at all. At last the children
came to me in despair, and said, What shall we do to-night ? I did not feel
then much like doing anything but resting; for about two hours I had been
Captain Webb, swimming across the channel. To do this you must get your
papa to lie flat on the floor-never mind his saying he had rather not, make him
do it-then he must strike out in a swimming attitude with arms and legs, and



gradually work across the floor; keep him at it a good two hours, doing the
same if you like-that's Captain Webb. Well, I had been doing this, and then
I had been the commodore of a steamboat crossing the channel: we had had a
very rough passage, and everybody was dreadfully ill, and the more ill we were,
and the more noise we made over it, the more we seemed to like it. Rather
exhausted, I had just taken the "Empress Victoria," our steam ship (a great big
old-fashioned sofa with a number of chairs fastened on behind) into Boulogne
harbour, and altogether, what with the sea-sickness, the orders to the sailors
shouted through a speaking trumpet (the "Times" supplement rolled up for the
occasion), and the difficulty of piloting all the small craft I had in tow-for all
the youngsters and babies of the establishment were rocking about on the chairs
in our wake, I was rather'done up-still I have long ago given up the idea of
pleasing myself; I live only for my children and other people's children as well.
"What shall we do?" I said; let me see: yesterday I had been Buffalo Bill
presiding over a very much Wilder West than ever B. B. saw even in the States,
so that would not do; blind man's buff, the magic lantern, conjuring, all had
had their turn, and we were dreadful little people for new things.
Just then a happy thought came to me. I remembered that in the days of
my youth, those dear old happy days of so long ago, I had been considered a
very fair mesmerist; and although I had not cultivated the art of mesmerism in
later years, still I thought to myself I might have the power still remaining
with me: so I told my eager circle of young people that if they liked I would
give them a mesmeric stance that afternoon. I would tell them nothing about
it, except that they were to fit me up a stage at the further end of the baronial
hall, clear away the tables and bring plenty of seats for the audience, and find
me somebody to play the piano.
All this they joyously agreed to do, and now at 4 p.m. behold the hall well
filled by most of the visitors to the Grange, all the children of course being in
the front.
As the lecturer, I came on to the stage, and having made my bow, I began
to explain what Mesmerism is. I need not give you my lecture, for you
wouldn't read it if I did, and you can find all about it in the account I am now
going to give you of the seance. We arranged a row of chairs on the stage
with their backs to the audience, and then I came and invited all who would
like to come and be mesmerised, to step forward. Of course the children came
to the front at once, and with them three of the older people, and William,
the boy in buttons, who always likes to be in everything if he possibly can. I



seated my subjects in the chairs, and then put a little disc made of copper and
zinc into their right hands, and bade them all look stedfastly at the disc. After
they had been looking into their hands for about two minutes, I went from one
to the other making the mesmeric passes; this I repeated twice, and then I went
quietly up to Jack, who was sitting in the outside chair, and bade him look at
me; I then took the disc out of his hand, and holding that hand firmly with my
own, I then put my other hand on the top of his head and raised him up from
his seat; I then passed my fingers over his eyes, gently closing them ; I then said
sharply and firmly, You cannot open your eyes." Jack tried and tried, and
actually he could not; I then blew gently on his eyes, and made a couple of
passes, and then the power of opening his eyes had come back to him. Jack
was thus in a mesmeric state, a fit subject for future experiments. I made him
go and sit at the back of the stage until I had dealt with the others. I then
went round to each one, going through just the same actions I had performed
with Jack. There were out of the twenty people on the stage only three whom
I could not influence, and these three I sent back to the audience.
My dear little friend, if a Mesmerist ever visits your town, and you get your
papa and mamma to take you, you will see exactly the same things done as I
am now describing.
I had now many of my little nephews and nieces, and two of their aunts
and even William, our boy in buttons, entirely under my control. I had but
to make a few passes, or often simply only to point my finger, and they would
do just what I pleased, and not only so, but I could make them imagine and
fancy anything I liked.
I took Jack and Bob and made them first of all believe that they were
in a very hot, tropical country. We had some cushions in the centre of the stage,
and it was great fun to see these two boys fanning themselves and loosening
their collars and neck-ties, and taking off their coats, because they were so hot.
Then I said, The weather has changed, oh, how cold it is !" In a moment they
were shivering with cold, rubbing their hands together, and buttoning up their
coats. Then I said to Jack, Why, Jack, you are frozen to that lump of ice on
which you are sitting, and Bob can't pull you up."
Bob went up to Jack, who was simply sitting on a sofa cushion, and do
what he could he couldn't move him. Jack really thought he was frozen.
I then took a lucifer match, lighted it, and gave it to Bob, and said, "Now thaw
Jack off;" and Bob put the lucifer match just close to the sofa-cushion, where
Jack was sitting. I said, "Now Jack is free," and, sure enough, he came away all


Introduction. xxvii

right. I then waved my hands, and the boys came'to themselves again, and we
all had a merry laugh over their experiences.
I then got a pole and gave it to William, and told him there were some fine
fish just at the foot of the stage, and with a very grave face, everybody else
roaring with laughter, William stood at the edge of the stage, and held his pole
out, every now and then lifting up his imaginary line to see whether it was a
fish. I then said, Why you have hold of a snake," and to see the boy's face
of horror as he dropped the pole he had been holding so carefully ; he got quite
excited, and ran across the stage out of the way of the serpent.
I made Ethel think she was Patti, and the airs that young lady gave herself
as she came to the front of the stage, and sang Home, sweet Home," were
very funny.
Then we got all the children together and made them think they were out
in the woods nutting; of a sudden they come to some wild bees, who fly out
of their hives and buzz around them. Out came the handkerchiefs, which were
waved frantically, and for about five minutes they were rushing about trying to
keep off the imaginary swarm.
And so I went on with my experiments, each one more funny than the one
before, until we were all pretty well tired out with excitement and laughter;
not so the children.
Oh, do let's have this again to-morrow, it's such fun."
In vain I begged off, and proposed something else. My little tyrants, who
had been spoilt by the long holiday, and their fond parents, insisted that I should
mesmerise them again.
"Well," I said at last, "I will tell you what I will do. I feel that it would be
very wrong of me to go on mesmerising you simply for the sake of fun and
nonsense. To-morrow, if you like, I will give you a mesmeric stance of English
You should have seen their faces, little eager faces, fall and lengthen out.
I could sympathise with them, for I know how, as a boy, I used to hate and-
detest those abominations called "holiday tasks," and this idea of mine seemed
only a holiday task" under another name.
Listen, children. I don't mean to give you any disagreeable lessons, I am
going really and truly to mesmerise you, as I have done before; but I am going
to take you when you are mesmerised to pay a visit with me to some famous
places, and to see some great battles and some celebrated people. I shall
introduce you to William the Conqueror, Queen Elizabeth, Henry VIII., Nelson,

and Joan of Arc. You will find them, as the showman said of his wax-works,
'as large as life and twice as natural.'"
Oh, what fun," said Bob, shall we see Joan of Arc burnt ? and will there be
real blood in the battles ? and will Henry VIII. cut off his wives' heads while we
are there? Won't I take jolly photographs but can you really do it, Pa ?"
"Oh, yes, I mean to make you all believe that you are right away from the
Grange, and that you are living when all these people lived. We will begin from
the very beginning, and to-morrow we will pay a visit to the ancient Britons; you
will be able to move in and out amongst them, and talk to them if you like, and
this will be ever so much better, won't it, than merely reading about them in a
book ? Would you all like this ?" I added. Rather," came back the answer, "let's
begin at once." No, not to-day, to-morrow will do," I said.

Accordingly, the next day we all met in the baronial hall, and our first
historical seance began.
I am not going to tell you all about the mesmerising again. You must just
imagine that all the children sat in their chairs, and William, the Buttons, begged
hard to be allowed to come too, so I gave him leave.
I soon had them with their eyes closed, and then with a wave of my hands I
opened them again, and then I could make them believe anything I told them;
so that they saw, really and actually saw, everything I put before them, and were
in a kind of dream-land; as Jack said afterwards, "Conjuring was not in it,"
meaning that it was ever so much more wonderful than ordinary conjuring.
These children became so fond of our little trips into bye-gone times, and so
interested in all the remarkable things they saw and heard about, that time
after time we had a fresh stance, and I have written down our adventures in
order that you may see what they saw, and hear what they heard, of some
of the past history of your own native land.

N.B.-Whenever in this book you see marks like these

you will understand that the mesmerising is taking place. These stars are the
children in their chairs, all ready to be sent into dreamland.
And whenever there are marks like these
0 + 0 + 0 + 0 +
the children are being brought back again out of their mesmeric trance.






SHILDREN, we have made a long jump back-
wards, and we are just 2,000 years younger
than we were a minute ago.
We are now, as you see, walking in a very
Stick forest. Trees are to be seen everywhere,
3 mainly oaks and elms, and here and there plan-
(( stations of pines. You must keep very close to
me, because there are plenty of wild beasts,
such as bears and wolves, prowling about. We
are now in what is called Ancient Britain, the
f old England that we love so well, as it was
when quite a savage land.
Bob, take care, you will be buried in that
moss; it looks firm, but it is only a swamp. Keep all of you in my steps along

2 The Children's Fairy History of England.

this narrow path, which leads up to a place where the trees have been cut
Do you see these huts clustered together? This is a British village. It
reminds me of Robinson Crusoe's home on the desert island. These huts are
made of wicker work, or of branches of trees woven together, and thickly
plastered with mud to strengthen them. There is a fence of rough wood,
surrounded by a deep ditch all round the village.
Everybody seems fast asleep. Jack, take your cornet and give them Rule
Britannia," to wake them up.


See, children, out they come, to find out what all this noise is about. Look
at them. Some of them are for all the world just as if they had come out of a
blue bag ; they are dyed and tattooed from' top to toe with the juice of a plant
called woad. Some people now-a-days-present company of course excepted-
colour their complexions red and white, and their forefathers coloured them-

Ancient Britain. 3

selves blue. I don't see much difference between ancients and moderns in this
matter, do you?
Others are clad in the skins of wild beasts. They have spears in their
hands, fastened by leather thongs to their wrists, so that when they have
thrown their spears at
anything, they can swing .
them back again.
Some have bows
and arrows, and knives
of a very rough kind.
Their hair is very long,
and they have grand .=
curling moustaches,
which, I can see, are
making Jack quite
That's right, Hilda,
kiss that dear little 04_ R
ancient British baby
who has come toddling
up to us. How the good
people smile; you have _
found the right way to their harts.
Yes, Ethel, you are d.,in l th,- -
proper thing too in handing :.r ,cir %,f ,ur
doll to Babadada ; that's u:,r arhciEnt
British baby's name. Isn't h ato- -
ished! And considering that "y Li.
doll, lidl/e. Marie, came onli, a ieel --
ago from Paris, and is fitted uip with -
all the newest improvements. or irn- M
provers," before and behind, and is EXTREMES MEET.
dressed in the height of French fashions, it is quite enough to make any well-
ordered ancient British baby open her eyes.
See, these good,folks are beckoning to us. We cross the ditch, and climb.
the fence, and here is the first hut. What a funny place; it has no windows and
no chimney, and the smoke from the fire in the centre escapes through that tiny

4 The Children's Fairy History of England.

hole in the roof. Rough wooden benches, and a wooden platform for a bed, are
all the -furniture; the floor is covered with dried ferns and reeds.
How delicious this milk is, and how savoury this roast meat; I think it is
roast bear. Our British friends have no proper knives and forks, so we have to
eat as best we can, with our fingers. Still it is very kind of them to think of us
after our long journey.

---a -r


We can only thank them by signs, for they don't even know Volapiik,
the new language that everybody now-a-days knows. And once again
kissing that dear little baby, who is hugging her doll to her heart, off we
are, still walking through the forest. Why Bob, how d'id you manage
to take a photograph with your detective camera? I never saw what you
were doing. Yes, there is the village, and there is Babadada, and there is
Ethel giving her her doll. Well, I never saw a photograph of the ancient
Britons before, and I should not grieve much if I never saw one again.

Ancient Britain. 5

Bravo, Bob, I am glad you are with us; you shall take a number of other
photos by-and-bye.



Now look right ahead. Do you see those men all dressed in white, with
long flowing beards ? Those are Druids, the priests of the ancient Britons. They
are now engaged in some of their religious ceremonies, and are marching in and
out a great circle of large stones. They worship a number of gods, and pray to
the sun, moon, stars, the thunder and the rain. When any trouble comes upon
the tribe to which they belong, they take some unhappy man, usually from
another tribe, and kill him as a sacrifice, upon one of those flat stones that
you see yonder. They make great use of the mistletoe in their religious
ceremonies, and cut it off the oaks when they find it, with golden sickles, and
our love for the mistletoe at Christmas has, strange though it may seem, come
down to us from these Druids. We will not stay any longer, though one of
their bards is singing a very wild chant to a harp that he has in his hand, for
if they saw us they might take a fancy to William, who looks quite irresistible

6 The Children's Fairy History of England.

just now in his buttons, and might want to sacrifice him to their gods, and
that would never do. Fancy William cut up into small pieces-the thought
is too awful!

0 + 0 0 + 0 +

So now we are back at Westmacott Grange.
You don't feel any the worse for the trip, do you?
Before we go on our next fairy journey, you must just listen very carefully
to me. About fifty-five years before our Saviour was born, the Romans were
conquerors of most of the world, and they had a very great general called Julius
Casar, who was always looking out for fresh chances of fighting and winning
more battles; and whenever he heard of a country where the Romans were
not rulers, he wanted to have something to say on the subject, and he would be
there sooner or later; sooner, for choice.
One day, Julius Caesar was taking a walk upon the shores of Gaul, as France
was then called, and looking across the Channel he saw afar off the white cliffs
of Britain, shining as the sun's rays fell upon them. He asked what that land
was, and was told it was a very wild and savage island, famous for its mines, its
pearls, and its splendid native oysters. Now, if there was anything that Caesar
liked above everything else, it was an oyster, and he did not object, as you may
suppose, to a pearl or two thrown in; and I daresay, as Jack sagely remarks, he
was as fond of tin as many people are now-a-days. Looking again at the white
cliffs,.turning now into a rosy red beneath the rays of the setting sun; for even in
those early days the sun was given to setting; he then and there made up his
mind that he would go over to Britain, and conquer it.
So one night with eighty vessels filled with troops, he set sail and landed near
Deal. Here he found the Britons all ready for him, just as we find them ready
for us when we come, pale and sick from a rough channel passage, up the
steamer's gangway, to Dover, or Folkestone pier. Our modern Britons only
laugh, and jeer, and say rude and unkind things. The ancient Britons were
made of sterner stuff, and they set to work to fight these Roman soldiers who
had come to rob them of their land.
But what could they do against trained soldiers ? So after two fierce battles,
the Romans made their way into Britain; but by this time Casar had had
enough; so when the islanders asked him for peace, he agreed, and having
arranged for a regular supply of barrels of oysters, as a tribute, he sailed away
with his soldiers.

Ancient Britain. 7

The islanders, however, failed in keeping up their supplies, so the next
spring, with 800 vessels and a very large army, he came back again, and battle
after battle was fought, the Romans conquering, though with great difficulty.
At last, Caesar finding that he could not be in two places at once, and hearing
that during his absence from Gaul, the people there had become troublesome,
made peace again, and sailed away.
Now, for a long time the, Britons were left to themselves. A mad Roman
Emperor named Caligula gathered a large army near Boulogne, but the more
he looked at the sea, and the white cliffs beyond, the less he liked them. Yes,
Bob, he was afraid of being sea-sick ; so he went on board his own galley or
warship, and then went through a kind of sham fight, a sort of Easter-Monday
sea review. He told his soldiers, when this was over, that they had conquered
the sea, and making them gather up a number of shells that were lying on the
beach as trophies of their victory, he marched off to Rome, where he ordered
himself a grand triumph for his glorious victory.
The Romans, however, would not let the poor Britons alone, and so general
after general was sent to fight and conquer our brave forefathers. In one of the
fiercest of the battles, a British king, Caradoc, called by the Romans Caractacus,
was captured, and with his wife and daughter was sent to Rome, and made to walk
in procession as the Roman army paraded the streets of their city in triumph.
I read in a history written by someone, who evidently was not there, that
Caractacus advanced to the throne where Casar sat and spake to him as
follows :-
If I had had, O Casar, in prosperity a prudence equal to my birth and
fortune, I should have entered this city as a friend and not as a captive; and
possibly thou wouldest not have disclaimed the alliance of a man descended
from illustrious ancestors, who gave laws to several nations. If it is thy will to
command the universe, is it a reason we should voluntarily accept slavery ?
Had I yielded sooner,.thy fortune and my glory would have been less, and
oblivion soon have followed my execution. If thou sparest my life, I shall be an
-eternal monument of thy clemency."
The writer adds, It is impossible not to be struck with the great dignity as
well as simplicity of this address. It is complimentary without weakness, and
truthful without exaggeration." You and I, children, will not believe that an
ancient Briton ever used such ridiculous language. The King's speech
in those days was not like the Queen's Speech in these days, brimful
of grand words as long as your arm, which mean nothing, and which,

8 The Children's Fairy History of England.

as a rule, are not even decent English. What Caractacus really said was
probably ancient British for

"Rule Britannia, Britannia rules the waves."
Britons never, never, never shall be slaves."

If he made the long-winded speech which comes first, Caesar would have cut it
short by telling his soldiers to take Caractacus away and cut off his head with-
out any more ado; such an old bore would not deserve to live. As it was,
" Rule Britannia," as presented in the ancient British language, was so touching,
and so went to the Roman emperor's heart, that he gave Caractacus and his family
their liberty, and told them not to do it again.
When we talk of Britain, we must remember that it was occupied by about
forty different tribes, which may be summed up in three distinct races.
First of all, there were the Celts or Welsh, as they were called, who inhabited
the greater part of the island; we saw them when we paid a visit to the British
Then in South Wales were the Silures, a race of men with dark eyes and
swarthy complexions, somewhat short in stature, the race that may be now seen
in the South of France and what are called the Basque Provinces of Spain.
Strong, hardy, and very independent these Silures were; they had been driven
into a corner of the island by the Celts, who had come over from the continent
of Europe.
Then right up in the north, were some more Celts, who were called Cale-
donians, and in after years Picts and Scots; these are now the Highlanders of
our day, and also the Irish; for, strange though it may seem, the Irish were
called the Scoti, or inhabitants of Scotia.
These northerners were very wild and hardy savages; they lived by hunting
and fishing, and went naked, living mainly in the woods and caves of the
mountain sides. When the Romans came to fight with them, they had to confess
that they never had come across such fierce and courageous men as they
were. You know how sturdy and tough Scotchmen are now-a-days; look, for
example, at our Highland regiments. So you can imagine that their forefathers,
who always lived out of doors and were ever jumping, and walking, and running,
and climbing about their native mountains, were remarkably strong and wiry.
I ought to say that the Welsh were treated in the same way that they treated
the Silures. Step by step, as the Romans, Jutes, Angles, and Danes in turn
invaded Britain, they were driven Westward Ho, until at last they had to stand'

Ancient Britain.

their ground in Wales. Taffy the Welshman is now a real descendant, and the
only pure genuine descendant, of the ancient Britons. You remember that the
Welsh every year have a great gathering at which their bards, their musicians, and
their poets, play, sing, and recite music and poetry for certain prizes that are
bestowed upon the conquerors ; this is certainly a relic of the old days.
Much as I admire the Welsh, as I look around upon the Englishman
of to-day, as exhibited, for instance, in Bob, I cannot help saying that I think
we have very much improved upon our ancestors. A pure unadulterated
Welshman is a capital fellow, but a little Tom Thumb of a Welshman, joined on
to a Goliath of Roman, Saxon, English, Danish, Norman, to say nothing of Irish
and Scotch descent thrown in, as are some of us, is to my mind far better, and is
the jolly, rosy-cheeked, stout and broad-shouldered John Bull of our own day,
who is so much loved and respected all the world over.

Now for a nice little bit of mesmerism.

Children, we are now standing at the Menai Straits, but the country all
around is very different to what it was when we were here in the summer. There
are no pretty white winged yachts and swift steamers bedecked with gay flags ;
we cannot see the smoke of any swift passing train, and all the beautiful villas
that are built on either shore have disappeared. Yonder is Holy Isle, the Isle
of Anglesea, not joined to the mainland as we saw it last, with a graceful
suspension bridge.
Everything around is wild and desolate; great dark woods run down to the
water's edge, for we are back again in the olden times. Now we hear the sound
of loud trumpets and the clash of arms, and the clatter of horses. Yonder is
Suetonius the Roman general, and his soldiers, a large body of infantry, and a
strong force of cavalry. 'They are coming to attack Anglesea, for here the Druids
and their followers have made their final stand; driven out of the rest of Wales,
they have come here. Marching down to the water's edge, Suetonius, you see,
is making his foot-soldiers embark in some large flat bottomed boats, and at his
command the cavalry are preparing to swim across the straits. It is a calm
afternoon, and the horses and men are good swimmers; and I don't think there
is much danger.
Instead of going across with them, we will put on these sea-sliders, an
invention of my own, something like snow-shoes in appearance, and skate across

IO The Children's Fairy History of England.

with our feet just touching the surface of the water, and see what is going on
the other side. Now all start; you need not be afraid, you can't possibly slip

-- = --- ---_----.---.. .

Oh, what a noise See, yonder are the Druids gathered together in large
masses, clad in their white robes, with their long beards and flowing hair. Here
and there are bards singing the wild war songs, here stand the priests
offering up sacrifices to the gods. On the beach, with their hair floating in the
wind, and clad in dark robes, are the priestesses; they seem almost wild with
excitement, and they rush about with torches in their hands, crying, and wailing,
and calling down curses upon the Romans, as they come nearer and nearer.
Behind them stand the Britons ready armed to fight the invaders.
See the dense volumes of smoke that arise from the woods yonder, which
are the sacred grottos of the Druids. Here great fires have been lighted, upon
which the Druids are going to offer as burnt sacrifices any of the Romans who
may chance to be taken prisoners. It is the last stand for life and liberty.
Onward come the heavily laden boats, onward swim the horses; and now they
come near the shore: and as they see all the preparations that have been made,
and hear the terrible wailing, and are now within reach of these great masses

Ancient Britain. I

of frantic men and women, the Romans, brave and sturdy soldiers though they
be, seem inclined to draw back. Surely this is an Island of the Gods, and if they
land here, they will be visited with a curse. Suetonius, who is in yonder boat,
stands up and tells them in a clear ringing voice that he is ashamed of them,
and that Romans should never be afraid of any man or woman on the face of the
earth. He tells them that those Druids are only worshippers of false gods, and
that it is the duty of those who worship the true gods to put them to death.
Cheered by his words the soldiers press on, and now they land.


12 The Children's Fairy History of England.

At first the Britons fight fiercely, and seem as if theywould hold their own;
but gradually, step by step, they are driven back. See, children, they are flying
fast back into their woods,'followed- by the cavalry. Now the Roman horse-
men halt for a moment, for they fear that a trap has been laid for them, and
that some of the Britons are lying in wait in ambush. Soon, however, they find
that this is not the case.
Oh, what a terrible scene ; let us get away from it as fast as we can.

That is right. You see you soon learn how to use the sea-sliders. Let's
have a race across.
Jack is first, Bob second, the rest nowhere.
Here we are, safe at the other side again. See the smoke rising higher and
higher, as the Britons, the Druids and Druidesses are now cast on the
flames that they kindled for their enemies. In a short space of time all the
groves are cut down, all the temples destroyed, and about 80,ooo people are put
to death. This day sees the downfall of the Druids, and no more will they
trouble the Romans with their sorceries and enchantments.

As your nerves are well strung up to see a battle, 'I must ask you to come
with me now back again into Central Britain, and as we are going, I will tell
you, that while Suetonius was absent, a British Queen, named Boadicea, has
taken advantage of his absence, to stir up the people in rebellion against the
Romans. She is the widow of a British king, and both she and her daughters
have been very badly treated by the Romans. She was cruelly scourged with
the terrible lashes tongued with sharp pieces of lead, that the Roman lictors use.
She vowed vengeance, and now she has taken it. She has attacked the
Roman settlements Verulam, London, Colchester, burning them with fire, and
has slain their inhabitants to the number of 70,000, and now she is going to
meet the Romans under Suetonius, who have been hastily gathered together
to fight her.
Here, in this open plain, the battle is going to take place. Yonder is
Boadicea, a strong-minded looking woman, with keen blue eyes, and long golden
hair that almost touches the ground. She has, as you see, a helmet of hard leather
on her head. She is covered with a plaited tunic of many colours, and a long
mantle cast over that. Round her is wound a thick gold chain, and in her hand
she holds a long spear. Her daughters are with her; and she is now standing
up in a chariot drawn by two fiery horses, driving about from one part to another

Ancient Britain. 13

of the field of battle, exhorting and encouraging her countrymen to fight to
the death.


Here are the Britons, drawn up in small bodies round their different chief-
tains; and away yonder, far behind, are the wagons and carts, where their
wives and children are waiting to see what will be the result of the fight.
On this side are the Roman soldiers, drawn up in their cohorts and

14 The Children's Fairy History of England.

battalions. They stand perfectly still and silent, like a solid wall of masonry,
waiting the attack that is so soon to be made upon them. And now see the
Britons rushing forward, with their swords and their spears, and their fierce
eager shouts, led on by Queen Boadicea herself in her chariot. Still the
Romans, like the British soldiers at Waterloo, do not move. And just as you
may see a great granite breakwater stand up against the wild waves that roll in
upon it, and dash themselves helplessly into empty showers of spray as they
meet the solid wall, so now the Britons, rushing against the great compact
irresistible mass of the trained legions fall into confusion, and are scattered
right and left. And now hear the trumpets sound the advance," and onwards,
with a force that there is no resisting, the Roman army marches. In vain
Boadicea rushes into the fight; in vain she shouts to her followers to be brave
men and stand firm, the Romans carry everything before them. I cannot bear
to look on any longer, so we will go away. What happened then ? Why, all
those we saw on that battle-field-all the men, all the women and children in
the wagons, save a very few who escaped-were put to the sword. The
Romans were so angry at what Boadicea had done that they gave no quarter.
The queen herself, seeing that all was lost, in order that she should not fall
again into the hands of the Romans, and be still more cruelly treated, took a
dose of a strong poison that she carried about with her, and died on the spot.

O + o + o + o +

Here we are back again. All those terrible things are over long, long ago,
and they need trouble us no more.
Now there was peace for some years, and Agricola was appointed governor.
He behaved very kindly to the Britons, and did his very best to civilize them.
He pushed his way right up into the north, and fought and defeated the Cale-
donians, and built a chain of forts right across the narrowest part of Scotland,
from the Firth of Clyde to the Firth of Forth, and there he left posted
a strong garrison of soldiers ; for, although he had killed Io,ooo in one battle in
a pass of the Grampians, these fierce northerners soon recovered themselves, and
were always fighting their way down to the south. Thirty years after Agricola
left the country, the Emperor Hadrian came over, and finding that the first line
of forts did not keep the Caledonians back, he dug a ditch, and built a rampart,
or earthen wall, from the Solway Firth to the mouth of the Tyne. Many years
after this, the Emperor Severus came, and, to make assurance doubly sure, he built

Ancient Britain. 15

a solid stone wall a few paces to the north of Hadrian's ditch and rampart.
This wall kept at first on a line with Hadrian's, but on leaving level ground it
ran along the summit of the mountains and along the edge of the precipices. It
was twelve feet high and three yards wide, and at intervals there were eighteen
stations, garrisoned by soldiers. In front of it was a deep ditch, so that at last
the Caledonians were nicely barred out.
The Romans had the privilege of giving to Britain her first martyr, a
soldier called Alban, who lived at Verulam.
The Roman Emperor, Diocletian, had ordered a persecution of all Christians,
and a Christian priest, named Amphibalus, came to Alban and sought shelter
from the officers who were after him. While he was staying with Alban, the
priest instructed him in the true faith. Amphibalus then escaped, and it was
soon discovered who had sheltered him. Alban was then brought before the
judge, and was charged with concealing the priest. He avowed himself a
Christian, and was put to the torture, and steadily refused to burn incense on the
heathen altars. He was then beheaded, and his courage converted a great many
of the witnesses of his death to Christianity. A church was soon erected to his
memory, and by-and-bye the magnificent cathedral, that is now standing, was
built over his shrine, and that of Amphibalus. The old town of Verulam was
afterwards destroyed, and the new town of St. Albans was built round the
minster, which has in its walls many of the old Roman bricks of which Verulam
was built.
Constantine the Great, the first Christian Emperor of the East, was born at
York, and he had for his mother a British Christian lady, named Helena. It
was this Constantine who had a dream, in which he saw before him the Cross
with this motto under it, in hoc signo vinces,"-" in this sign thou shalt con-
quer." Awakening from his sleep, he resolved that the Cross should be always
on his royal standard.

It was not a singular thing that Helena should be a Christian, for there was
in Britain, under the Romans, a regular British Church, with its bishops, priests,
and deacons, long before Augustine came to preach the gospel to the men of

The Romans remained in the island altogether about three hundred and
fifty years. They made good, solid, straight roads, some of which are existing
to-day. Our principal railways follow pretty well the route of the old Roman

16 The Children's Fairy History of England.

roads. They built towns, castles, villas, and splendid baths, for they delighted
in bathing.
Their baths were not merely places for bathing, but magnificent halls
for public meetings, and such like.
All towns that end in caster and chester, like Manchester, Cirencester,
Doncaster, Colchester, were once Roman towns, built upon the site of a camp
or castra.
You remember how we saw last year the remains of a Roman light-house
at Dover; and, Jack, you must have a very keen recollection of that summer's
day when I took you to the "Roman bath" in the Strand in London, how I
laughed when you plunged into the icy-cold water, and came up again gasping
for breath.
In our entrance hall we have a Roman altar of stone dedicated to the God
of Good Fortune; this was dug up. not far from here in the midst of an old
Roman camp.
To finish up all we have to say on this part of our history, here are two
dates to remember:
B.C. 55, Julius Casar landed in Britain.
A.D. 426, the Romans left Britain altogether.
Now, that you may master these dates, we will wind up by singing a little


The restless old Romans
Were not stop-at-home-uns,
But wandered o'er lowland and highland,
Till Casar did hit on
The white cliffs of Britain;
Why," says he, I will visit that island."

"For oh, it's a tight little island,
A bright little, white little island ;
With its oysters and tin,
It would be a sin
To turn all our backs on that island."

Ancient Britain. 17

B.C. Fifty-five
His troops did arrive,
And landed at Deal upon dry land;
In Four twenty-six
They quite cut their sticks,
For they'd had quite enough of our island.

For oh, it's a tight little island,
A bright little, white little island;
The old Britons then
Were as good fighting men
As those who now live on the island.

Sing that again and again until you know it by heart.




OW, children, we are going to have a
game of pirates.
Just clear away the tables and chairs,
and let us have the centre of the hall
quite free.
I take this piece of chalk, and I mark
out very plainly on the floor this large
outline of the island of Britain. Here
up in the north I want someone to
represent the Picts and Scots. Yes,
William, you will do. Put on this Scotch
cap, and fasten that tartan plaid shawl on
your shoulders. Now you have to be a
kind of hop-scotch, you have "to keep
dodging about, backwards and forwards
over Hadrian's wall, not "over the gar-
den wall," Jack-over the Roman wall,
which is well imitated by those logs of wood from the fire-place, which I have
put, as you see, right across the country from west to east.
I must tell you, William, that you are supposed to be very bloodthirsty
and savage ; you like nothing better than pouncing down upon the Britons, and
carrying off their sheep and oxen, setting fire to the villages, and generally
making yourself an awful nuisance. Of course, I don't expect you to go through
that pleasant performance now. If you tried it on I am afraid that Bob, who is
going to be an ancient Briton, would (as he has just muttered under his breath)
"punch your head." Still you have to look very unpleasant, and "That's not so
hard for you to do," as Jack says.

The Anglo-Saxons. 19

Bob, you are our ancient Briton, or rather all the ancient Britons combined;
not so ancient, by the way, as when we saw them last; you are five hundred
years younger.
Here is a wigwith long hair, and a pair of fierce moustaches, and a cloth
tunic fastened by a leather belt, and a pair of untanned leather buskins. Sling
this hunting horn (never mind about blowing it), round your shoulders, and put
this sword into your belt, and I think you- make a very respectable Briton
indeed. You are supposed to. inhabit all England, and you had better, keep
moving up and down, sometimes the Picts and Scots (William), will worry you
sometimes the North. Sea pirates will come and fight with you, and you have
to be down on the south and east coast to meet them when they land. I must
tell you that
"Take one consideration with another, another,
The Briton's life is not a happy one, happy one."
Chorus-Happy one.

You are continually being beaten; it's no use clenching your fist, you are,-your
enemies are too strong, the Picts and Scots, and the pirates, and step by step
you will be driven back; you must obey my orders, and when and where I tell
you to go, off you must march.
Now for the pirates ;, vho will be pirates?
Bob, you can't be a pirate and an ancient Briton at the same time, so you
must just stop where you are.
Yes, you will do, Ethel, Mabel, Jack, Tommy, Hilda, Mary,. Dick, and
Charley and all the babies of the establishment. We live. in- the-. days of
baby-vocalists, pianists, and: dancers, why should we not have baby-pirates; as
well ?
Now all of you go over there. Take some chairs, and sheets, and blankets,
and make yourselves some cosy little huts. Those will do very well.
Right up there at the further end is what is called -Jutland, a part of
Denmark; here is North Germany, or Sleswick, inhabited in those days by the
Saxons and Angles or English. They are, as you can see by the very look of
those who are peeping out of their huts (peep out, children), a very wild set of
people. They live in small settlements or villages;in a barren, waste and sandy
country, where they find it very difficult to keep body and soul together. They
farm their grass lands, such grass as it is, and use their timber, for the country
abounds in large forests, for fire-wood and building purposes. They hunt wild
animals, and catch fish.

The Children's Fairy History of England.

They are so afraid of each other that when a stranger comes near to any of
their little homesteads or settlements, he is obliged to sound his horn to say he is
coming. They have their simple laws and rules of life which we need not trouble
ourselves about, for they will bring them all over with them for the benefit of the
Britons. Just as the Germans of these days always rejoice to make their way
over to our little Island, and you may find them everywhere-in the palace, the
mansion, the cottage, on the stock exchange, in the bank, in the counting-house,
in the shop, and in the factory, everywhere on our Tom Tiddler's ground, picking
up gold and silver, so it was with these North Germans or English; they became
wearied of their sandy wastes and lonesome lives, and longed for something
better and brighter, and over they came, as you shall see.
Now, you children, come out of those huts a minute; you must all put on
these red caps, and tie these red sashes round your waists (whoever heard
of a pirate without a red sash?) and with these pieces of burnt cork make
yourselves- boys only, of course, in this case some very fierce-looking
This green baize is the sea, and you have to come across to get to Britain,
and these sofa-cushions represent the long boats in which the pirates sail
Weapons! Oh, anything will do, pokers, shovels, tongs; here are wooden
paper-cutters, put them in your belts.
No, Jack, revolvers are not allowed; besides, they were not invented in
those days.
Now as I call you, you are to come. I am going to give you each a name,
and as you come you will be representing the invasion of Britain by the old
North-sea pirates.
I want two good pirates to start with. Yes, Jack and Tommy, you will do.
You must go up to Jutland and start from there in your two boats, these two
sofa cushions. Now get on board. I must tell you that your names are Hengist
and Horsa, that is to say the horse and the mare; and that the history books
describe you as being men of large size, with blue eyes (Jack, if you don't take
care, you will have, as you say, "what a surprise, two lovely black eyes,") and
long yellow hair, and you are armed with long swords, battle-axes, and
Now off you go, sailing across the deep blue sea, I mean the green baize;
take care you do not ruffle up the sea too much, as others have to come across

The Anglo-Saxons. 21

What are you boys about ? don't you know that proper pirates are always
on the sea, and of course are never sea-sick? there you are, Hengist and Horsa,
behaving as badly and making as much noise as if you were crossing on a rough
day from Boulogne to Folkestone in one of our modern steamers. I am ashamed
of you, call yourselves pirates, 'indeed !
Well, here you come, and now you land on the island of Thanet; leave your
boats here on the beach.
Bob, who is the British King Vortigern (try and look like a King, Bob, put
your head a little higher and turn your toes out), has asked you to come over


and help him against the Picts and Scots. William, come over that wall and
stand here looking unpleasant. Bob sees you landing and now comes to shake
you by the hand. All shake hands; not you, William, you are the enemy, stupid.
Now, William, you are beaten. You need not kick him, Jack, and you must get
back again to the north.
Now, Hengist, take this piece of red chalk and write just here in large letters
This is the kingdom you have founded. You like Britain so well that you
and your followers, having beaten Bob the Briton soundly in the meanwhile,
settle down here and make it your home.

22 The Children's Fairy History of England.

.. Ethel, your pirate name is Ella, and you come over from Saxony and found
your kingdom here; where:the present counties of Surrey, Sussex; and part of
Hampshire are, you must write Sussex.
Bob, you must now get-out of Sussex.
Hilda, you also must come from Saxony, and your name is Cerdic, and you
take Hants; Dorset, and Wilts, and the Isle of Wight, as your kingdom, and label
it Wessex.
Bob, get out of Wessex.
Mabel, you also come from Saxony, and your name is Ercenwin; you are
king over Essex. Please write it here.
Bob, out you go from Essex.
Mary, you are an Anglo-Saxon, and you must come across the sea and join
the others; your name is Ida, and you are the king of Northumbria; mark it here
in the north.
Bob, I am sorry to trouble you, but you are not wanted in Ida's kingdom.
I know it's very poor fun having to be shunted about like that," but what are
we to do, Bob ? You are an ancient historical Briton, and you must act accord-
ingly; if you were to stand your ground as you wanted to do, and were to send
any of these pirates, "these girls" as you call them, back again into the sea,
everything would go wrong.
Dick, you are King of East Anglia, and your name is Uffa; you are an
Anglo-Saxon. Write East-Anglia very plainly just here.
And you, Charley, otherwise Cridda, and all the babies that are left, must
come over from Saxony to the midland counties; write Mercia as your kingdom's
These seven kingdoms form what is called the heptarchy. Let us look at
our map.
Kent. Essex. Mercia.
Sussex. Northumbria.
Wessex. East Anglia.

Dear me, I had forgotten that poor Bob was being driven from pillar to post.
I must tell you for your satisfaction, Bob, now that all our pirates are
settled down comfortably in Britain, and are leading reformed lives, that you, as
a stalwart Briton, have been fighting all the invaders very desperately for at least
130 years, until at last you were driven to take refuge amongst the mountains of
Wales, and in the wilds of Cornwall and Devon in the west, or amongst the

The Anglo-Saxons. 23

mountains and dales of Cumberland and Westmoreland in the north. It's hard
lines, but it is a fact.
I need not tell you children all about the fighting that took place. I should,
however, say that Cedric had to fight very hard with a celebrated King called
Arthur, who had what was called a "round table" and a large number of knights,
who were banded together to defend their country. He fought for four and
twenty years, and at last died of wounds received in battle.
When we next go to the west of England I will, show you Tintagel Castle,
on the wild Cornish coast, where King Arthur used to live.
Now, before we go on our next excursion, come here, all of you, and sit down
while I tell you -a little more about our forefathers.
When these savage men, that you have been representing, landed on the
Island, they fought with the natives, destroyed their towns and villages, and as
they were idolaters and the Britons were now Christians, according to the amiable
practices of those days, they burned their churches, together with such bishops
and priests as they could lay hold of.
You may well say Oh !" When you put on those red caps and sashes, you
little knew what rascals you were going to be.
Well, it's all over now, and we won't shed any more tears over the fate of
those poor creatures. Some of the clergy escaped and took refuge up in the
mountains of Cumberland and of Wales, so that when Augustine came to England,
as we shall see shortly, he found a British church already in existence.
These Saxons, as I told you, were idolaters, and worshipped the sun and
moon and a number of other gods. Of course we have altogether done with
idolatry, but strange to say, every day of our lives we make mention of some of
these Saxon gods, for the days of the week are named after them:
Sunday....................... ... Sun's Day.
M onday............................. Moon's Day.
Tuesday.............................. Tui's Day.
Wednesday........... ............. Woden's Day.
Thursday.............................Thor's Day.
Friday................ .............. Freya's Day.
Saturday... ................. ......: Saturn's Day.

Our great Christian festival of Easter is named after the Saxon goddess of
Spring, Eostre; so you see we cannot get away altogether from our Saxon

24 The Children's Fairy History of England.

But now I have a surprise for you. You must all go and make yourselves
respectable, for you are a very bad lot indeed, Bob being the only one who has
any character to speak of. You need not look so proud, Bob, you could not help
it, you know; besides you wanted to be a blood-thirsty pirate as well.
Go to your rooms and wrap up very warmly in your furs, and great coats, and
ulsters. Farmer Giles has been hard at work with his snow-plough, and he has
cleared the road right away down to the lake, and we have had the lake swept of
its snow, and I am told it is in perfect order for skating, so we will go and have a
good skate, and stretch our limbs.

I call this real fun! How fresh and crisp the air is, and how beautiful all
the trees look with their branches loaded with snow, and how smooth the ice is.
You see the snow has not yet hurt it at all. You need not any of you be a wee
bit afraid of skating anywhere, for the ice is at least two feet thick; at the same
time, do not go too far from me.


What! Mesmerise you on the ice! Well, I never! Did any one ever
hear of such a thing? Oh, you all want it, do you? Well, I will try. You
need not take off your skates. I will mesmerise you skating, and we will be
here, and there, and everywhere, at the same time. Just come close round me
and look at me; don't speak, simply watch my hands.

* *

* *

* *

The Anglo-Saxons. 25

There, it is done; and as we skate along I am going to take you to a beauti-
ful city.
Here we are in the midst of one of the grandest cities of the world, the
great city of Rome. This is the Forum, where the Romans meet for all their
public business. To-day there is a great market going on. Jack and Bob,
don't take too many of those peaches; they will upset you. Here children, are
a bunch of grapes and a handful of walnuts apiece. Are they not nice ?
Everything seems to be sold here-luscious fruit, bread, cheese, maccaroni,
boots, frying-pans, furniture, glass, crockery, cutlery, and such like.
Oh, how hot it is No wonder that the stalls are covered with large
awnings, and the people get into the shade as much as they can. No, children,
don't take off your furs ; fan yourselves, if you like, with your handkerchiefs.
Let us take a walk through this gay, noisy crowd. How they chatter, and
how their hands and fingers move. Do you see these groups of half-frightened
people, in dress, and face, and figure so unlike the dark-skinned, black-eyed
Italians all around them ? These are captives taken from various nations, and
they are slaves, who are going to be sold to-day to the highest bidder. Here are
a number of interesting-looking little children. See what blue eyes and golden
hair they have. They are captives from Britain, and they have been brought
here to be sold. Let us draw near to them, and look. at them. Poor things, it
was a great shame to take them from their home.
No, Jack, we cannot set them free, much as I should like to do so. You
see we can't interfere with history.
As we stand looking at them, and offering them some of our cakes and our
grapes, do you notice that stately-looking priest coming up to join us ? That is
Gregory, the Archdeacon of Rome, a very great man in the Roman Church.
"Who are these ? he asks, as he looks at the blue-eyed little ones.
"These are Angles." Angli. (I must tell you they are speaking Latin.
Here's a chance for you boys that know Latin.)
No," he says, not Angles, but angels," non Angli sed Angeli.
"And where do they come from ?" asks he.
From Deira, a province of Britain."
It is true," says Gregory, "they should come de ira, away from the wrath,
and be brought to the mercy of Christ."
"And who is their King?" "Ella."
Yes, may alleluias be sung there," echoes Gregory, and goes away with his
mind full of these pretty little British children, who had so won his heart.

26 The Children's Fairy History of England.

I am afraid Gregory is a great punster, but he is also a very great man,
and years after, when he becomes Pope of Rome under the name of Gregory the
Great, he remembers these poor little children, and the country from which they


have come, and he does what he can to save their souls by bringing them to the
truth. So he then sends for the Prior of a monastery, named Augustine, and
bids him take a number of his fellow-workers, and go over to Britain and
preach the gospel to the natives.

The Anglo-Saxons.

And: now, .taking one last look' around this lively market, and helping
ourselves to some more grapes, peaches, and pears (I will pay for all you have),
we are going to leave sunny Italy, and travel back again rapidly to Britain, now
called England, and in the twinkling of an eye we shall find ourselves at
Canterbury, the capital of Kent.

Here we are, in the streets of this Kentish town. Surely, something is going
on to-day out of the common, for there are flags and banners flying, and the
fair-haired people are about in the streets, and at the windows, looking out for
something that is about to happen. What can it be ?
I must tell you that Ethelbert, King of Kent, had married a Christian
princess, called Bertha, and although he himself was still a heathen, he allowed
his Queen to have the Bishop of Senlis, in France, as her chaplain, and to worship
God in a Christian way. Ethelbert had repaired a very old British church,
St. Martin's, which can still be seen, and fitted it up for her use.
To-day is a great day at Canterbury, for Augustine is coming to pay a visit
to Ethelbert. Now look down the street, and you will see a procession passing.
First there is a cross-bearer carrying aloft a large silver crucifix, which gleams
brightly in the sun. Then some black-robed monks two and two, and then
another monk bearing a large painted banner of our Lord, and then more monks,
forty in number, chanting as they pass along the streets, a Latin litany, in which
these words occur, We beseech Thee, O Lord, in all Thy mercy, that Thy
anger and wrath be turned away from this city and from Thy holy house,
because we have sinned. Hallelujah." Last of all comes the head of this
mission, Augustine, the Prior of the monastery of which all these monks were
fathers. And now, see, King Ethelbert comes forward to meet them, accom-
panied by his chief officers of state. He receives them very kindly, and tells
them that he will think over what they have to say, although at present he does
not see how he can forsake the religion of the, English nation. On they go to
St. Martin's to sing their Te Deum. We shall not be here to see it, but on
Christmas Day, about four months after this procession, there will be a grand
baptismal service held, at which Ethelbert and Io,ooo of his Anglo-Saxon
subjects were admitted into the Church. Augustine then went over to France,
and was consecrated by the Archbishop of Arles, the Bishop of the English
nation ; he afterwards became the first Archbishop of Canterbury.
As I have before told you, there was an ancient British Church in England

28 The Children's Fairy History of England.

long before Augustine came. This Church, which had been driven by the Danes
into the west, had manners and customs, laws and ritual, quite different to those
of the Church of Rome as represented by Augustine. Now, of course, as
Archbishop of Canterbury he was very anxious to get all the Bishops of the


Church to conform to his ways, and so he managed to have a conference with
them. He met them at a place called Augustine's Oak, on the Severn; a blind
man was brought forward, the Britons tried in vain to cure him, Augustine

The Anglo-Saxons. 29

then prayed that the man might receive his sight, and (so the story goes) the
blind man was immediately cured. The Britons had to acknowledge that
Augustine's prayers were answered, while their own prayers were not; still they
said they would not change their customs unless their own countrymen agreed
thereto, and another conference was arranged, at which seven British bishops
appeared, and with them the Abbot of a famous Welsh monastery, at Bangor.
Before the next conference, the Bishops had consulted a hermit as to what they
should do. He told them that if Augustine were a man of God it was their duty
to yield to him; and to find out whether he was or not, they were to notice
whether he rose to greet them at the place of meeting.
The day came for the conference, and when the bishops appeared they
found Augustine sitting in his chair, and he remained sitting, merely acknowledg-
ing their "presence by waving his hand.
They thereupon decided that he was proud and arrogant, and they resolved
that they would not listen to his advice, and alter their date for keeping Easter,
and their manner of administering baptism; in fact that they would keep to their
own old ways. Augustine was very angry with them; but if he had only been
polite and courteous, I am sure he could have easily managed them.
In parting with them, Augustine told them that as they would not have peace
with their brethren they would have war with their enemies, and suffer death at
their hands. Some years after, Ethelfrid, the heathen King of Bernicia, invaded
Wales, and in a battle at Caerleon he saw a number of unarmed men standing
grouped together not far from the battle field. He asked who they were, and was
told they were the monks of Bangor, who had come out to pray for the success
of their countrymen. "Then," said the King, "although they have no weapons,
they are really fighting against us; fall upon them and kill them." Twelve
hundred of them were then killed, and only about fifty managed to escape.
Thus Augustine's prophecy was fulfilled.

Here I have been keeping you standing in the High Street, while I have been
0 + 0 + 0 + 0 +
Hey presto, as the conjurors say, why here we are again, all back again on the ice.
Get your hockey sticks and let us have a good game. Who'll have a race with
me to the further end and back? What, all of you? Come along then. Hilda!
what a girl you are never mind, jump up, pick up the pieces, and come along
again. Why, fancy your old papa and uncle beating the whole lot of you!

30 The Children's Fairy History of England.

Take off your skates now, we have to hurry home, for we are going to have
a regular good meat tea, "a high tea" as it's called, and then we are going to
have such a game of "hide and seek." We, are going, as Jack says, to "hurry
up the jolly old ghosts."
If you come with me by-and-bye, Charley and Tommy, I'll show you such
a grand place to hide in. I found it the other day.
No, children, I am not going to tell you all about it now. That would spoil
the fun. I know of a secret hidden chamber with a secret panel, and by-and-
bye when you are passing.by, Charley and Tommy and I are going to pounce
out upon you. Won't we. boys? So look out.

I hope you are feeling all the better for our game of hide and seek; we did
not see or hear the ghosts after all, though you were startled when I pressed the
panel of that picture in the long gallery, and came suddenly out upon you, as I
told you I would. I will show you that secret chamber to-morrow. I fancy it
leads into another still more secret, and we will try and find out whether there
are any more hidden mysteries.
We have now a good hour before you youngsters go to bed, and we will
gather in a large circle before this cosy library fire. We will not have any lights
brought in; I like the gleam of the burning logs best. And while we are sitting
thus, I am going to talk to you about some more of the early kings.-
Ethelbert died, and his daughter, Ethelburga, married Edwin, King of
Northumbria. She, however, very rightly did as her mother Bertha had done,
and arranged to carry her Christian religion with her into her husband's home.
Edwin was a pagan, but he agreed to this; and so Ethelburga had Paulinus, a
very clever priest, as her court chaplain. Edwin ruled so wisely and so well
that it was a common saying amongst the people for years and years after,
that "A woman with her babe might walk without being harmed, from sea to
sea, in Edwin's time." He rode and walked about in great state, with a grand
standard of purple and gold, and a spear all adorned with magnificent feathers
borne before him, to show the sort of man he was.
His kingdom reached right up to Edinburgh, which was called after his
name, Edwin's-burgh, and it also included a great part of Wales, and all
England, save Kent. But,, as he had already married the daughter of the
King of Kent, even that in a way belonged to him.
Ethelburga, like a good wife, set to work to convert her husband to the

The Anglo-Saxons. 31
| --- ------~ ~~ ~ ~
Christian religion, and of course Paulinus helped her very much in the matter.
The wise men of the kingdom were gathered .together, and the subject'was
argued out before them; and a certain heathen priest, called Corfi, stood out
and said that he had been a worshipper of the heathen gods a great many
years; he did not, however, find that they had done him any good, and that for
his part, he was willing to try whether the Christian God would not be kinder
and more useful to him. He therefore took his spear, and went up to the
heathen temple, over which he was priest, and threw his spear inside the
enclosure, thereby making it unholy; he then rushed in, turned 'all the idols
upside down, and broke them to pieces. He then danced a kind of war dance
over their remains, and finally ended up by making a regular good bonfire of
idols, vestments, temple, and all.
All this very much impressed and edified Edwin, and he placed himself in
the hands of Paulinus for instruction in the Christian faith, building, moreover,
at York, a small wooden church, where eventually he was baptized. Some ten
thousand Northumbrians are said to have followed his example. So you see
how a good thing spreads, and a good deed multiplies itself.
By-and-bye the King said that a wooden church was not worthy of. the
religion he had adopted, and so he built d stone church, dedicated to St. Peter,
all around the wooden church, enclosing it, just as the shell of a walnut encloses
the kernel. This was the origin of the famous minster. Paulinus was then
consecrated Archbishop of York, and it seemed as if Christianity were established
for ever in the north. But alas! alas Penda, king of Mercia, (the midland
counties), who was a downright heathen, came and killed Edwin. Ethelburga
and Paulinus fled to Kent, and the people went back to their old heathenism.
Penda after a few years was slain by Oswy, who became king of Northumbria,
Wolfere, Penda's son, becoming king of Mercia. Both these men were Christians.
There were some famous Churchmen in those days, who, in the midst of all
the surrounding sin and wickedness, lived holy and godly lives, and did much
patient work for God.
There was, for instance, Columba, the Irish monk, who came over about
563 A.D. to the little island of lona, off the promontory of Mull, in Argyleshire.
He was a wonderful man-a good man all round. He founded in lona a mon-
astery of missionary brethren. The brothers would, under Columba's direction,
labour and toil at their farming, sowing and reaping their corn, milking their cows,
and making fresh cheese and butter; and then, for a change, they would go
on board their little wicker hide-bound coracles, and paddle out to sea and fish.

32 The Children's Fairy History of Eng2and.

A great part of their time was spent in very earnest prayer to God, in
writing out parts of the Bible and other religious books, and in making beautiful
illuminations. Those were not the days of printing, and so it was necessary to
write and illuminate. Some of their books have come down to us, and very
beautiful they are. Columba used to leave his monastery from time to time, and
sometimes he would go across to Ireland and visit other monasteries which were
under his care; at other times he would pass over to Scotland, and through the
length and breadth of the country he and others would go forth and preach the
gospel, building here and there, ozier churches for their converts to worship
in. And although it was very dangerous in those stormy seas, he went out in his
tiny wicker coracle to the distant islands of the Hebrides and the Orkneys, and
preached the gospel. Iona became very celebrated, and many of the Scottish
kings were crowned there, upon the very stone that you may see now in West-
minsterAbbey, under the coronation chair.
It was from lona, after Columba's death, that Aidan was sent, at the request
of Oswald, the Christian King of Northumbria, to preach the gospel to the people.
Aidan resolved to set up a monastery, like that of lona, so he took possession
of a little island called Lindisfarne, on the coast of Northumberland-you can
see it now from the,train as you go to Scotland-and there he founded a grand
brotherhood of missionaries, who went all over the north of England converting
the people to the faith.
Other famous Churchmen of those days were Theodore of Tarsus, Arch-
bishop of York, and Bede, usually called the Venerable, who was a monk. at
Jarrow, and who wrote a number of religious books, and whose Church History
of England has told us nearly everything we know about the Church of those
Egbert died, and then there followed him quite a number of Ethels as Kings;
as they were not of much account, we will dispose of them thus :-
'acreti to tbe 9rtnorp of


Ringo of Onglanb,
tbo libet, ifeb, anb toere burfci,
being muct tcoublez in theic lifetime bf tle 3Dani0) ~ea=fing,
btoo inbatbe tjfeir country

The Anglo-Saxons. 33

These Danish Vikings, as they were called, came over in very large, long
boats, full of armed men, and murdered everybody right and left. Whenever the
English got a chance, of course, they fell upon these Danes, and I remember once
seeing upon a church door a piece of skin that had been stripped from the body
of a captive Dane. If the natives caught a Dane red-handed, that is to say in
the act of plundering and burning, they would flay him alive, and take his skin
and nail it on their church door.
No, Jack, I have not got a piece of the skin in my pocket; fancy thinking
that I would go about with such a thing, but I really saw under a very old nail,
upon a very old door of a very old church, an actual piece of a very old Dane's
skin ; perhaps it's there yet.

i. :1


These Danes were once plundering in East Anglia, and they came upon the
King named Edmund, and having made him prisoner, they tried to make him
give up his Christianity. Edmund was a brave and good man, just as I am sure
all you boys will be, and he said he would not; so they took him and stripped
off all his clothes and fastened him to a tree, and then just like the wild Indians

34 The Children's Fairy History of England.

of America, they amused themselves by shooting arrows at him until he was
dead. He was buried afterwards at a place which is called Bury-St.-Edmunds,
and there, to honour his brave and fearless death, a very large monastery, the
ruins of which are still to be seen, was erected to his memory.

And now we come to the greatest of all the early English Kings, Alfred
the Great, brother of King Ethelred, who was slain in a battle by the
He was quite a young man when he came to the throne, and he had to fight
the Danes from the very beginning. In the first year of his reign, he had
actually nine battles with them. He made them make peace with him, and
swear they would leave his country alone, but no sooner was his back turned
than they were at work again.
And so it went on. Alfred felt that he must attack the Danes on their own
element, the sea; so he formed an English fleet. And when the Danes came
near the land with 120 vessels full of soldiers, he attacked them, and sank nearly
all their ships. Then he set to work to rout his enemies on the land. At first
he succeeded ; but they kept coming from Denmark in such swarms, that it was
impossible to keep them under. Just as in the wild woods of Russia, a number
of hungry wolves will get scent of an unhappy traveller, who is passing through
on his sleigh: at first, when the head of the pack begins to attack him, he
whips up his horses, and takes out his gun and his revolver, and shoots his
enemies down. Still they come pouring in from every side. Now they
surge all around the sleigh; now they leap on to the frightened horses;
and now, by sheer force of numbers, the traveller and his servant and his
gallant horses are dragged to the ground, and very soon nothing is left of them
but a few bare bones. You may well shudder, children. So it was with these
Danish pirates. They had heard of the pleasant land beyond the seas, or the
rich spoil that awaited them ; they had been told by their fellow-countrymen,
who had come back again with their travellers' tales, of the green meadows, and
waving cornfields, and the running streams full of trout and salmon, and the
estuaries abounding in pearls, and the cities fair and beautiful, and in they
rushed from their own wild, bleak, and barren shores in thousands upon
thousands to take possession of the island. It was of no use killing them, for
others were only too ready to take their places.
The English held out against them for a long time; but at last a
great battle was fought at Chippenham, the English were defeated, many

The Anglo-Saxons. 35

ran right away, and those who remained became slaves and servants to
their Danish conquerors.
King Alfred had a few friends left to him, but he sent them all away, and
sought refuge in the hut of a cowherd near Athelney in Somersetshire, a very
wild spot in the midst of a marshy country. While he was there, as the
herdsman's wife was attending to her household duties, she asked Alfred to
mind some cakes that were baking on the hearth. Alfred promised to attend
to them; but he was so full of his own troubles, and so occupied in thinking
over his plans for the future, that he clean forgot all about the cakes. (No, I
daresay, Jack, you wouldn't have done so; I am sure your eyes would have been
upon them, all the time.) And when the good woman came to 'look at her
pastry, lo and behold, her cakes were all burnt to a cinder ; and a downright
good scolding she gave the King for his carelessness. She told him that he was
always quite ready to eat his meals, but was not quite so ready to work for
them. In fact, she lost her temper finely. The good King let her have her say,
as is always the best thing to do with an angry woman, and then promised to
do better next time. Afterwards, when he was restored to his throne, he did
not forget the kind herdsman Danewulf, but sent for him, and placed him
where he could be taught to read and write, and at last made him Bishop of
Winchester, so the story goes.
For six months Alfred stayed at Athelney. And his friends came to him
there. And every now and then, in the dead of the night, they would go
quietly out, and fall upon any Danes who might be near. This, of course,
made their enemies somewhat uncomfortable, for they could not make out
where these sudden attacks had come from.
As time went on the Earl of Devonshire fell upon the Danish leader,
Hubba, who had landed in the country with a large body of men, and attacking
his forces before the break of day, he put them to utter rout, slaying their leader,
and capturing the reafen, or raven, the famous Magical Standard with a picture
of a raven, which the Danes believed led them on to certain victory. Hearing
of this, Alfred took heart again, and dressed himself up as a minstrel, and with
his harp found his way into the Danish camp. He was brought into the tent
of Guthrun, who was the Danish King of East Anglia, and there he stayed for
several days, playing and singing and jesting, all the time keeping his eyes
and his ears open to learn what the enemy was about. He soon found out
S their plans, and how many soldiers they had, and stealing away again he sent
word to his friends to meet him at Sherwood forest (Robin Hood's forest),

The Children's Fairy History of England.

and gathering an army rapidly together, he attacked the Danes and utterly
routed them.
At a place called Wedmore, a treaty was signed. Guthrun and thirty of his
principal officers consented to be baptised as Christians, and Alfred stood God-
father. All those who followed their leader's example were allowed to remain in
East Anglia. All those, however, who preferred to remain heathen were soon
sent about their business, and were backed off in ships, as returned empties
to their own land.


Nearly all the East of England was given to these converted Danes as their
settlement, and it went by the name of the Danelagh. And now, although every
now and then Alfred had to fight with other bodies of Danes in different parts
of England, still, from henceforth, he was left to reign pretty well in peace, and
he had time to arrange those great things for his country which have given to
him in English history the name of Alfred the Great."

The Anglo-Saxons.

He was very particular about the management of his time. Those were not
the days of" Waterbury watches" and grand chiming clocks; in fact, no one had
ever heard of such things. How was Alfred to measure his time ? Well, he had
a number of wax candles, and these were made so that they burned a certain
number of hours, and to mark off the hours he had at certain intervals lines
of different colours drawn round the candles; when the candles had burnt down
to the red line it had burnt one hour, when it had gone down to the blue line,
two hours, and so on; and to prevent them from flickering, and so burning away
faster, he put them into lanterns.
Alfred divided his day of twenty-four hours into three parts. Eight hours
he gave to sleep, food and exercise; eight hours he set apart for business; eight
hours he gave to study and devotion.
Let us try and ,map out King Alfred's day. Who will be King Alfred
for the time being?
Well, Jack, you shall, if you like. I wonder how long you could stand
it though ?

To start with, as King Alfred, you would have to be out of
bed at.......................... ............. 3.3 a.m.
You would have half-an-hour for dressing, you couldn't do it
in less as a King, that brings you to ...................................... 4 a.m.
(All the year round, mind you)
Then follow prayers, study, reading and writing books ......from 4 a.m. to 7 a.m.
Then the King takes a walk round his garden in fine weather;
in wet weather he has active exercise with dumb bells,
&c. (that's a part of the programme you would not
mind, Jack). This exercise is .............................from 7 a.m..to 8 a.m.
Now with a fine appetite he goes to breakfast .................8 a.m. to 8.30. a.m.
Directly breakfast is over, almost before the things are cleared
away, he has to attend to business, reading his letters,
seeing his ministers, receiving reports, interviewing his
officers, attending to all the matters of his kingdom, he
takes at least from............................................8.30 a.m. to 12.30. p.m.
And now he has to go to dinner, as this was the great meal of
the day he takes from ...................................12.30 p.m. to 1.30 p.m.
Dinner over, he goes to his studies (I should like to see you
doing this, Jack) ........................ .............1.30 p.m. to 3 p.m.

38 The Children's Fairy History of England.

And now they bring his horse for him to take a ride ...............3 p.m. to 4 p.m.
He is back again in an hour and gives more time to business...4.30 p.m. to 8 p.m.
Tired and exhausted he is glad to go in to supper .............. 8.30 p.m. to 9 p.m.
Now he has some quiet time which he gives to prayer and
study ...............................................................9 p.m. to 11.30 p.m .
At last he is glad to get to bed, but he is only there four
hours .................................... ...................... 1 .30 p.m. to 3.30. a.m.
And then has to be up again for the next day.

I don't think there would be much left of you at the end of a week, Jack,
if you had to fill up your time like this.
During his hours of study he wrote a number of books, and as the Church-
service, and all the principal writings of the day, were written in Latin, which
the common people could not understand, he set to work to translate them into
English himself.
We have seen what a brave soldier he was; he fought fifty-six battles, and
he was the first to form a British fleet.
He made his people take an interest in arts and manufactures, and he taught
them to make beautiful things to adorn their houses and make life more pleasant.
In those days people lived very rudely, and they had none of the comforts that
we have, so that it was very good of the King to take such an interest in them.
He founded schools and colleges at Oxford, where a good education could be
He drew up some very wise laws and was very particular about their being
obeyed. England at that time, owing to the frequent attacks of the Danish
pirates, was in a very disturbed state, and it was most necessary for the King to
be strict. So strict was he, we are told, that in orie year he caused forty-four
judges to be put to death because they allowed themselves to be bribed. Just
fancy what a commotion there would be if we had forty-four of our judges hanged
in one year for bribery and corruption.
The people became so orderly that Alfred caused large golden bracelets to
be hung up near the public roads, and no one would dare to touch them.
You have seen twelve men sitting together in a box, in one of our
law-courts ; these men are called the jury, and they are chosen out of the general
public, and as they hear the case that is tried before them, they are allowed to
pass a verdict of guilty," or not guilty," as they think right. It was Alfred who,
it is said, first invented this mode of trial. He was the founder also of what are

The Anglo-Saxons. 39

called county courts. He divided all England into shires, so called from the
Saxon word seyre, to divide.
Now to show you what a good King he was, I will tell you how he divided
his money.
First of all, he separated it into two parts.

Part I. he subdivided into four quarters, of which
One was given as alms to the poor.
Swas given to support monasteries.
Swas given to provide professors, and pay the expenses of scholars
at Oxford.
Swas given to poor monks.

Part II. was subdivided into thirds;
One was given to his own family.
Swas given to architects and skilled workmen, who rebuilt the cities,
and monasteries, and churches, which had been destroyed by
the Danes.
Swas given to the clever men he had invited to his court, to teach
his people.

To more fully understand how Alfred divided his money, we will imagine
that Bob is King Alfred.
How much pocket money do you have, Bob ? Sixpence a week and every-
thing found? Well, you are a rich boy.
Now as King Alfred, you are going to divide this money weekly, and are
going to put it into boxes set apart for different purposes; we shall subdivide
your 6d. into two parts of 3d. each.
The first threepence we divide into portions of three farthings.

Three farthings are put into the poor box, as alms for the poor.
S. are put into a box for a sisterhood, or deaconess house.
S. are set apart for the schooling of a poor boy, at our
national schools.
we put in a box for The Poor Clergy Relief Corpora-

We have thus 12 farthings, or half of your weekly pocket-money accounted

40 The Children's Fairy History of England.

Part II., 3d., is divided according to Alfred's plan, into three parts, of a
penny each.
I. Id. is divided amongst Bob's family; for Bob; 4 for his sister May;
for his sister Jane ; and for his baby brother Bill, = id.
This does not leave much for toffee and caramels, does it?
2. Id. is given to the restoration fund of Westmacott church.
3. Id. is given as a pension to some clever artists or scholars, let us say,
i to the School of Art at South Kensington, and 2 to "The Royal
College of Musicians;" total, 3d.

What a long face you have, Bob well, if you were King Alfred, that is how,
every week, you would spend your money.
Well at last this good man died at the early age of 53. I dare say he would
have lived much longer, had it not been for the hardships he had gone through.
No better and wiser King has ever sat upon our English throne, and we may all
well strive to imitate Alfred the Great.
And now, children, you must be off, or I shall get a scolding from your
papas and mammas for keeping you up too late. To-morrow I will tell you a
little more about these early days and early Kings. Remember, that Alfred
died'a little over one thousand years ago.
After breakfast, children, while I am reading the paper and answering my
letters, and correcting some proofs for my printers, I want you to wrap up very
warm, and go and make me about fourteen Kings.
Well, you need not seem so much astonished. Fourteen Kings is rather a
large order, still, I mean it. There are about thirty of you children, more or less,
not including the babies; and you are all to go out of doors (except those who
have colds), and you are to set to work in the snow, which will bind grandly
to-day, as a slight thaw has set in, and you are to make me fourteen figures
of Saxon and Danish Kings.
A King is very easily made: first of all you roll up a very big snow-ball,
that does for his feet and his legs, then on the top of that put another smaller
snowball, and still another; bent twigs cased in snow make very good arms, and
as to hair and eyes and mouth and nose, well, you can easily make those for
Jack and. Ethel are to start with two grown up Kings, and then six of you
youngsters-yes, you, who have your hands up-can make the next six, who are
boy Kings, and must be little tiny Kings, or Kinglings. Then I want six more

The Anglo-Saxons.

Full-sized ,ones. Put them all in a row, about two yards apart, on the lawn
Outside the drawing-room windows, and when you have done, which will be in
about two hours' time, come and tell me.
You can make them crowns of laurel leaves, if you like; circles of stones
put round their heads will do ; and each one of you can cut and carve your own
special King about with spades to suit your own fancy. When you have done,
come and tell me.


Well, here is a fine array of royalty. Talk of Madame Tussaud's, why,
it would make the old lady, if she were alive, speechless with astonishment.
I am not sure she would not send a telegram to her London establishment
telling them to put up the shutters at once. How calm, how self-possessed,"
as Mark Twain says, they look; some of them are rather dilapidated as Kings.
There is, however, an air of plaintive sadness about them which is very touching.
They are evidently in a melting mood, and even now are somewhat limp and
watery about the eyes, and, judging from the pools of water at their feet, have
been weeping copiously over their sad fate.


42 The Children's Fairy History of England.

That is right, Bob, take their photographs with your detective camera.
You needn't be in a hurry this time, whether you take five seconds or five hours
focussing them; it matters little to them, they won't mind, and they will keep'
perfectly still.
Now we are going to make a beginning. We are now standing opposite the
snow image of King Edward, the son of Alfred. Jack, put this label round his
neck. He began his reign, as usual, by fighting everybody right and left and all
round, Northumbrians, East Angles, Danes and such like, and then, having
conquered all his earthly enemies, he himself was conquered by the last great
enemy of all, death, and departed this life.
We are now opposite King Atkelstan. He also was much given to fighting
(everybody was in those days). He was not satisfied with fighting in England,
but he must needs go into Wales, and across the border into Scotland, where he
conquered the Scotch King.
Athelstan was very anxious for his people to read the Bible, which was
then written in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek; but mainly in Latin, for use in
the churches. And, accordingly, he empowered some very clever men to
translate the scriptures into the Saxon language. This was very good of
He also wished the English to trade with other countries, and he passed
a law, that if any merchant would make three long sea voyages on his own
account, he should from thence be called a thane, or gentleman.
Now we come to the Kinglings, or boy-Kings.
This is Edmund. He began by fighting the Northumbrians. He con-
quered them, and pardoned them on condition that they became Christians.
He only reigned six years, and came to a sad end. He was at a great banquet,
and he saw there a famous robber named Leolf, who had come in to join in the
festivities. Highly indignant at his impudence, Edmund told Leolf to take
himself off. This he refused to do, whereupon the King said he would make
him, and rushed upon and seized him by his long hair, whereupon Leolf drew a
dagger and stabbed him.
Bob, you may be Leolf if you like.
I am sure Leolf did not act so fiercely as you are doing to the poor old
snow-King. Why, not content with scooping him out, you have cut him right in
two. I forgot to say, that when Edmund's friends saw what Leolf had done,
they rushed upon the robber, who stood with his back to the wall fighting
desperately. At last he was cut down and killed.

The Anglo-Saxons.

Children, you may all snowball Bob, roll him in the snow and sit on him ;
he deserves it, for having killed poor King Edmund.
This next snow image is King Edred. He is chiefly noted for having put
himself under the control of a monk called Dunstan, who was then Abbot of
Glastonbury, and who was very clever and very devoted to his church.
Dunstan used to live in a cell underground, which was scarcely bigger than a
grave, where he used to occupy himself in working metals. One night, so
the old story goes, the people living all around were disturbed by a most
unearthly howling, unlike anything they had ever heard before; and the next
morning Dunstan told them that while he was hard at work, all of a sudden
the devil appeared, and laughed at him and taunted him. The Abbot, not a
bit afraid, took some red hot pincers out of the fire and laid hold of the devil's
nose, and naturally enough the devil did not approve of this arrangement, and
the more he struggled, the more Dunstan clenched the pincers tighter and
tighter, until at last, groaning and howling, the devil thought that he had had
enough for one night. And off he went, leaving Dunstan alone in his glory.
If people did not believe it, there were the pincers and there was the fire. And
if it was not the devil who howled, well it ought to have been. So Dunstan
became a saint forthwith. For it is not everybody who can tweak the devil's
nose and live to tell the story.
Dunstan, who belonged to the monks, who were all bachelors, and were
called regulars, did not like what were called the secular or worldly clergy, who
had wives, accordingly he was always trying to snub them, and to make things
generally uncomfortable for them, and as afterwards he became Archbishop of
Canterbury, he was able to do pretty well what he liked.
Dunstan got such power over Edred, that he was made his treasurer and
his prime-minister. Edred, after reigning nine years, died. Dunstan was on
horseback, on his way to visit him, when an angel appeared on the way and
told him of Edred's death; the angel spoke so loudly that the horse died in
consequence, so the story goes.
Edwy is the next King whom we are looking at. I say, Charley, you are
responsible for Edwy; just fix his right eye properly, it is thawing out.
Poor Edwy was very unkindly treated by Dunstan and Odo, who was then
Archbishop of Canterbury. He had married a princess called Elgiva, who was
his cousin, and in those days the Church did not approve of the marriage of
cousins, and this made the clergy very angry. The day of his coronation came,
and there was a great banquet, and all the nobles of the land were gathered

The Children's Fairy History of England.

together in the hall of the King's palace. In those days banquets were not the
quiet, orderly things they are now, such as you may see when you get an invita-
tion to the Mansion House. The people drank deeply, and were very boisterous
in their way, both in their speeches and in their songs. Edwy, who was quite a
boy, began to get a little weary of all this, and, without thinking of what he was
doing, slipped out when he thought no one was looking. But he soon was
missed, and out came Odo and Dunstan to seek for him, They found
him with Elgiva, and they were very angry, and they used very strong
language to him, and accused him of disrespect to his guests, and laid
hold of him, and brought him back to the banqueting hall. Edwy was
highly indignant at this, and directly he had the chance he accused Dunstan of
dishonesty as his treasurer, and banished him from the kingdom. Odo, as
Dunstan's friend, retaliated by sending some soldiers to Edwy's palace (fancy an
Archbishop with soldiers). They took the Queen, and burnt her beautiful face
with a red-hot iron, and carried her over to Ireland. She remained there until
the cruel wounds were healed, and then she came back to her husband. Again
Odo seized her, and she was cut about so cruelly with swords and knives that
she died in agony a few days after; and her poor husband, the boy-King, having
had Edgar, his younger brother, placed on the throne in his stead, was driven
right away to the south, and.at last died of a broken heart.
This is Edgar whom we have just been speaking about. He was called the
Peaceable, because, thanks to his large army and powerful fleet, he kept the
Danes in good order. Once, it is said, that while he was at Chester, he sat
in the stem of a boat, and was rowed on the River Lee by eight Kings, who paid
tribute to him. Fancy an eight of Kings I wonder whether they knew any-
thing about feathering their oars in those days. Edgar was a great friend of
Dunstan's, and helped him to turn all the married secular priests out of their
livings, in order that the monks might take their place.
It was during his reign that wolves ceased to exist in England. Edgar was
very fond of wolf-hunting, and at last drove all the wolves into the wild parts of
Wales. As he could not get at them there himself, he told the Welsh that
instead of paying him the fixed sum of money they had to pay him every year,
he would be satisfied with 300 heads of wolves instead. This set all the Welsh
wolf-hunting, and gradually every wolf was hunted down and killed.
We are now standing opposite the figure of Edmund the Martyr. From the
somewhat sad and doleful expression of his countenance, and his lopsided
condition altogether, he looks very much the martyr; does he not?

The Anglo-Saxons. 45

Who made this King? Oh, it was Hilda, was it? Well, it's a good thing
he's thawing fast, otherwise we should have to ask you to remake him, he is
scarcely fit to stand up amongst all the others.
Edmund's stepmother, the wicked Elfrida, had a son Ethelred, whom she
wanted to ascend the throne, but Dunstan and the monks were on the side
of Edmund. Dunstan used to have his own way at the synods or gatherings
of the clergy. Once, so the story goes, votes were going against him, and he
told the astonished clergy that he had had a special revelation from heaven then
and there in his favour. No one could say anything, of course, to that. At
another time, a voice sounded out from the crucifix which was hanging up in the
hall of the assembly, saying that the monks were right, and to resist them was
very wrong. You remember how ventriloquists can throw their voices anywhere,
they like; I have no doubt that some trickery of that sort was then practised,
if the crucifix-really happened to speak.
Another time, the floor upon which the synod was gathered gave way, and
most of those there present were either killed or very much hurt. It was thought
at the time very strange: that Dunstan had prevented the King from attending
the meeting, and equally strange that Dunstan's own chair did not tumble with
the rest. His friends said that he was saved by a special miracle, his enemies,
that the beams of the room had been carefully sawn through beforehand. I can-
not think myself that Dunstan would have. done such a wicked thing.
However, though Edmund was a favourite of Dunstan's, his step-mother
hated him, and one day when he was hunting, he came near Corfe Castle, where
she lived. Edmund, as indeed he was bound to do, went to pay her a visit.
Just as he was saying good-bye, he mounted his horse, and took the usual
cup of wine in his hand, and, as he was about to drink it, saying, Health," at a
sign from Elfrida, one of her servants stole behind the King, and stabbed him in
the back. He immediately put spurs to his horse to get out of danger, but as
the blood flowed from the wound, he became weaker and weaker, and was
dragged along with his foot in the stirrup until he was dead.
The people, on account of his sudden death, called him ever after "the martyr."
And although, of course, Hilda did not know this sad story when she made her
King so infinitely sad to look upon, I think you will agree with me that her
figure of Edmund is just about right.
This is Ethelred the Unready, the last of the boy-Kings. Just ruffle up his
hair a little, make him look wild and dishevelled; that is better.
Elfrida did not gain much by her cruel murder of Edmund, for Dunstan man-

46 The Children's Fairy History of England.

aged to get her shut up in a nunnery, and he then ruled her son Ethelred himself
until he died, and then the Danes came swarming into England, and the poor,
weak, timid King paid them a large sum of money, oI0,ooo, to go away.
Having got this, they went off only to come back again. Like Oliver Twist,
they asked for more." Now they attacked England in two directions under
Sweyn, King of Denmark, and Olave, King of Norway. They sailed up the
Humber and laid waste the north of England, and then they sailed up the
Thames and laid siege to London. Beaten back from there they devastated
Essex, Sussex, and Hampshire; and again they were bought off with /16,ooo
(about 160o,ooo of our money). Olave became a Christian and a saint, and gave
up his piratical doings. In recognition of this, he is now St. Olave in the Church
Four years after, the Danes under Sweyn appeared again, this time sailing up
the Severn and laying waste Wales, Devonshire, and Cornwall; they then entered
the Thames and the Medway, and fought a great battle at Rochester, where they
defeated the Kentish men. This time they demanded 24,ooo, which was paid
them : you see how their appetite for English gold increased.
And now Ethelred did a very wicked thing; his advisers told him that so
long as any Danes were living on the island there would be no peace. I must tell
you that besides these piratical Danes who kept coming in swarms, there were a
good many of Danish blood, who had settled down very quietly in the country;
some of them were even serving in the English army. Ethelred listened to these
advisers of his, and on St. Brice's day, November 13th, A.D. 1002, every Dane
found living in England, rich and poor, old and young, was cruelly put to death.
Sweyn's sister Gunilda was amongst the victims; she had married a Dane
who had settled in England. The murderers first killed her husband and her
children, right in her very presence, and then they slew her.
Wicked, cruel deeds like this, never do any good, and Sweyn very soon
heard what had been done. He was mad with rage, and he made a solemn
oath that he would revenge the slaughter of his fellow-countrymen and the murder
of his sister and her children. Time after time he attacked different parts of
England. He destroyed Exeter, Norwich, and Thetford by fire, and then he
allowed himself to be bought off for 36,000 pounds of silver.
Although Sweyn himself was obliged to keep the peace, yet he had not
forgiven Ethelred his slaughter of the Danes, so he made an arrangement with
another Danish leader named Thirchil, whose brother had been slain in a previous
invasion, to carry on the war. For three years Thirchil ravaged the southern and

The Anglo-Saxons. 47

eastern counties; and at last he came to the city of Canterbury. He could not,
however, obtain admission, as the city was defended by walls and sturdy gates,
and for twenty days he had to remain outside. A traitor within the city, however,


set fire to a number of houses, and in the confusion Thirchil and his soldiers
burst open the gates and marched in.
Alphege the Archbishop, seeing his people being slaughtered in the streets,
came to their rescue, and besought the Danes to have mercy. They seized him

*14-ax"-- 1W '

48 The Children's Fairy History of England.

and bound him, and dragged him to the Cathedral, where the monks and the
women and children had fled for refuge, vainly hoping that the sanctity of the
place would save them from their cruel enemies. Short lived were their hopes.
The Danes piled up great heaps of wood against the walls of the church, and set
them on fire; higher and higher the flames mounted, the Danes looking on with
frantic glee and loud shouts of triumph. And now the flames spread over the
roof and down came the burning timbers, and great streams of molten lead, upon
the unfortunate crowds below. At last they could endure it no longer, and they
rushed to the doors, and there the Danes were waiting, sword in hand, to slay them
ruthlessly as they fly out from the burning church. Poor Alphege had to witness
all this, as he stood there bound hand and foot. For some weeks after this the
Archbishop remained a prisoner in the hands of his enemies. They tried by per-
suasion, and then by torture to make him consent to pay a ransom of 3,ooo, but the
old man was brave and said he would not tax his friends and his clergy. At last,
when he was trying to convert some of his cruel tormentors to the Christian
religion, they ended the matter by pelting him with the bones that they were
picking at the time, (they must have been pretty large ones, by the way; I expect
they ate more like wild beasts than men), and the poor Archbishop sank down
under the weight of the bones that he had received. Another Dane whom
he had baptised and confirmed the day before, out of pity," so they say, seeing
that all was over with the poor old man, took his heavy mace, and drove in his
skull. I can only say, save us from such friends.
This happened at Greenwich, where to this day there is a church dedicated
to the memory of St. Alphege.
This was no solitary case, for the Danes would come to a place, and then
make all the leading inhabitants prepare for them a grand banquet, and then
they would have a night of carousing. After they had eaten and drunk their
fill, they first of all put their hosts to the torture in order that they might extort
money from them, and, having got all they could, they then put them to a cruel
death, and, going out into the streets, burnt all the houses and destroyed the
inhabitants. Most of the southern counties were overcome by them, and the
deeds of horror that were committed by these revengeful Danes were awful.
Ethelred tried to buy them off with large gifts of money; once he gave them
36,ooo, at another time 46,ooo. At last in despair he fled to Normandy and
took refuge with his wife's brother, who was then Duke of Normandy, and Sweyn
became King. He was crowned and died in six weeks, and then back came
Ethelred, who instead of learning to be wise by his past experience, began to ill-

The Anglo-Savons. 49

treat those who fell into his power. Canute, the son of Sweyn, now attacked the
east coast, and having had some Englishmen given into his hands as hostages, he
cut off their noses, their feet and their hands, and left them lying in this piteous
condition on the sea-shore, while he sailed on to Denmark. Back he came to
England, and there fought with Ethelred's son, Edmund. Edric, his brother-in-
law, who had always been a traitor privately, now proved an open traitor, and
deserted to the Danes with forty ships. Edmund then called his troops together
and went to London, determined to fight to the very last. While he was there,
Ethelred died, and Edmund came to the throne.
This is Edmund Ironside, so called because he was brave-from the look of
him he should be called Snowside. Edric pretended to desert to him from the
Danes, and was placed in command of a large body of troops. In a battle
which Edmund fought with Canute, Edric and his soldiers went right over to the
Danes again (yes, Jack, he was a regular sneak), this occurring just in the thick of
the battle, the English soldiers became dismayed, for they did not know what
would happen next. The Danes took advantage of this, and a large number of
English nobles were slain. Still Edmund held on, until at last thoroughly
wearied out with all this fighting, as we have been with listening to these dread-
ful things, Canute agreed to take possession of Mercia, East Anglia, and the
northern counties, leaving Edmund the southern ones. And now there might
have been a time of peace for the English King, but the wicked Edric bribed
two of Edmund's chamberlains to murder him at Oxford.
Oh dear, I have had enough of fighting for to-day, and we shall have to
leave all the rest of these Kings out in the cold while we go in-doors and do
something to get up our spirits again.
Let us have another turn at Buffalo Bill. Some of you shall be cow-boys,
and some of you the bucking horses, and then we'll have an attack upon the
Deadwood Coach by wild Indians ; there will be no danger, for pea-shooters shall
take the place of pistols, and it will be great fun to dress up as wild Indians.
Now off you go; remember that when next you see me, I am Buffalo Bill.



Sw ELL, all you wild Indians and cow-boys
I hope you are satisfied. As I don't
think it would be quite safe for you,
heated as you are with riding the bucking
horses, and attacking the Deadwood
Coach, to go out into the cold, especially
as it has begun to snow very fast again,
we will finish up the history of our snow-
Kings. By looking at them out of the
drawing-room window, we can see very
Yonder stands the first of the Danish
Kings, Canute. You remember how we left
him settled in the north of Englanld, hav-
ing made peace with Edmund Ironsides,
who was killed shortly afterwards, leaving two little boys, Edwin and Edmund.
Canute first of all took the boys and sent them over to his friend, the King of
Sweden, asking him to kill them as soon as he could. The King of Sweden was
not a cruel man, and he spared the lives of the little ones, and sent them on to
the king of Hungary. Canute then feeling afraid of the traitor Edric, had him
executed, and threw his body into the Thames. He then married Queen Emma,
the widow of Ethelred. After sailing over to Denmark, and fighting from
there the Swedes and Norwegians, in which campaign Earl Godwin pleased the
King so much that he gave him his daughter to wife, Canute came back to

Line of Danish Kings and English Kings. 51

England, and settled down as a religious man. He went on a pilgrimage to
Rome, and on his return he built churches and monasteries, and founded some
charities for the poor.
You remember the story of his taking his courtiers, who were grossly
flattering him, to the sea-shore when the tide was coming in, and sitting on his

S--.--, '

I -%


chair on the sand, as the waves came up, he told them to retire, instead of doing
this they kept coming up higher and higher, until they quite surrounded him.
Thereupon Canute told them that though he, as King, could do much, there was
only One who could say to the sea, Thus far shalt thou go and no farther."
E 2

52 The Children's Fairy History of England.

It is a very pretty story, but somehow I don't much believe in it. I fancy
Canute went down in the summer-time, as you and I go down to Brighton, or
Hastings, or Eastbourne, and he simply went paddling, perhaps shrimping, and
as he was a King, his friends made up this grand story about him.
He attacked Malcolm, King of Scotland, who held Cumberland as part of
his possessions, because he would not pay the customary tribute to the Danes,
and he very soon made Malcolm acknowledge that he was in the wrong.
Very shortly after this Canute died, leaving three sons, Sweyn, Harold
and Hardicanute.
That next King is Harold Harefoot, so called because he was such a
splendid athlete in walking and running. He is running now, but he's running
water, as he is thawing fast.
Both Harold and Hardicanute wanted to have the crown ; but after much
talking and preparing to fight, it was arranged that Harold should keep London
and the country to the north of the Thames, and Hardicanute should have all the
Alfred and Edward, sons of Ethelred, had come over from Normandy on a
visit to their mother Emma, who was living at Winchester. Harold sent an
invitation to Alfred to come and see him at London ; but alas when he arrived
at Guildford, Harold's soldiers surprised him in the night, and killed,
in the most cruel manner, six hundred of his followers. Alfred was taken
prisoner, his eyes were put out (a cheerful custom they had in those days), and,
blind as he was, he was shut up in a monastery, where, poor fellow, he soon died.
Harold then took possession of the land which was given to Hardicanute, and
very soon after, reigning only three years, he died, and was succeeded by Hardi-
canute, whom you see standing next to him. Hardicanute did nothing much
except vent his rage on his brother Harold's body, which he caused to be dug up
and thrown into the Thames. He was a very hard drinker, and one day, in the
midst of a banquet, where he had been drinking heavily, as he was just about
to drink some wine, he fell back dead.
The throne went back now to the Saxons again, for Edward the Confessor,
the son of Ethelred, now became King. He obtained the throne through the
influence of the powerful Earl of Godwin, who had once been a cow-boy (not an
American one, however). Godwin made Edward promise to marry his daughter
Editha, and then he persuaded the English to overlook the Danes, and make
Edward their King. Things went on very well for awhile, but at last Edward
who had been brought up in the Court of Normandy, began to introduce his

Line of Danish Kings and English Kings. 53

Norman friends, and their ways and manners into England. The English nobles,
and especially Earl Godwin, became very jealous. A Norman count, Eustace,
who had married Edward's sister, landed from Boulogne at Dover, with his
soldiers and servants, and he behaved very unkindly to the men of Dover,
entering their houses and taking their goods. One of the inhabitants, however,
would not put up with this insolence, and struck a Norman soldier, who drew his
sword, and was killed himself by the Englishman. Eustace forthwith attacked
the town, and slew a number of the citizens, including the Englishman and his
family. The men of Dover, however, soon rallied, and drove the Normans out.
When Edward heard about this he was very angry, and he told Earl Godwin to
go and punish the men of Dover. When the Earl refused to do this, naturally
taking the part of his own countrymen, Edward banished him from the country,
and became so enraged against the Godwin family that he put aside his own
wife Editha, and shut her up in a convent. It was partly because of his thus
shutting up his wife, and partly because he was a good, quiet, pious King, that he
was called "the Confessor." Godwin soon came back again, with a large fleet from
Flanders, and sailed up the Thames to London. Edward then made peace with
him. Godwin soon after died, and his son, Harold, succeeded to his title and his
property, and was much loved by Edward.
One day Harold thought he should like a little trip on the continent, but,
unfortunately for him, the ship in which he was sailing was driven by bad
weather upon that part of the French coast which belonged to Count Guy of
Ponthieu. It was then a law that whatever was cast from the sea upon the
shore, belonged to the lord of that land. So Count Guy, directly he heard
that Harold had been wrecked upon his property, laid claim to him, put him in
prison, and demanded a heavy ransom for his release.
Guy was, however, a vassal or subject of William, the Duke of Normandy;
so when William had heard from Harold of his misfortune, he sent Word to the
Count of Ponthieu, and by threats and promises he made him deliver Harold
over into his hands. He then persuaded him to join in a war against the Bretons,
in which Harold greatly distinguished himself, and he then gave him the honour
of Norman knighthood. He made Harold promise to marry his daughter, to
deliver up to him the castle of Dover, and to assist him in obtaining the crown
of England. He afterwards gathered all his nobles and barons together, and in
their presence made Harold renew his oath upon a book of the gospels.
When the oath was taken, he lifted up the book on which Harold had been rest-
ing his hand, and showed him, underneath the altar, a chest full of bones and

54 The Children's Fairy History of England.

relics of saints and martyrs, which of course, in those times, made the oath a very
solemn thing indeed, and frightened Harold pretty well out of his wits.


Harold then returned to Edward, and told him of the trick which had been
played him. Edward was very sorry, but of course could do nothing, so he soon
took to his bed, and died.

Line of Danmsh Kings and English Kings. 55

Edward was the first King who allowed people to come and touch him, for
a certain disease that was called "king's evil" ; those who thus touched him were
healed, at least that was the general idea. He it was who built the Abbey of
St. Peter, now called Westminster Abbey. About one hundred years after his
death he was canonized, or declared a saint, by Pope Alexander III., under the
title of Edward the Confessor.
We have now come to the end, to the last but one, of the snow-Kings. You
have seen, children, what dreadful days they lived in. Everybody seemed to fight
everybody else,.and my only wonder is that anyone was left alive. We ought to
be very thankful that we live in quiet, peaceable times. I am afraid it has been
rather dry work hearing me 'talk all about the early'Kings, yet it was very
necessary if we were to know anything about English history.
Harold yonder seems very, very cold; he has been standing out in the snow
a long time, so if you do not mind we will make a little change. Now all of you
stand perfectly still, watch my hands waving over you.

There, look now out of the window, and lo and behold, all the snow-Kings
have come to life, and there they are dressed as they used to be so many years
ago. How glad they seem to see each other; they were not such bad fellows after
all. I daresay they lived in very evil days, and they did not have the same
blessings you and I have, or they would have been, I feel sure, better men.
Anyhow they seem to-day quite happy in each other's company; and they
evidently have a good deal to talk about. Now I am going to give them a little
drill and we will have a Kings' parade.
Attention. Right about face. Left wheel. Quick march. Halt. Dress.
Here they are now standing in front of us. I am going to call over the roll-
call, to see that they are all here, and as I mention the names of each King, he
will answer here."
Edward the Elder. Here.
Athelstan. Here.
Edmund. Here.
Edred. Here.
Edwy. Here.
Edgar. Here.
Edmund the Martyr. Here.
Ethelred the Unready. Here.

56 The Children's Fairy History of England.

Don't talk, children, the Kings don't like personal remarks.
Edmund Ironsides. Here.
Canute. Here.
Harold Harefoot. Here.
Hardicanute. Here.
Edward the Confessor. Here.
Harold. Here.

Attention. Eyes right. Stand at ease. Dismissed.
Off they go as delighted as boys out of school; they actually are beginning
to snowball each other. Oh, this will never do! this is very unhistorical, and
Bob and Jack are out there too, taking part in the fun, and Bob has actually sent
a snowball right into Hardicanute's eye.


Oh, this won't do at all, we must come back again to modern days.
0 + 0 + 0 + 0 +

Why, they have gone, and you and I are looking out at the snow-men
gradually thawing down to the ground. It seems only a dream, but certainly
we saw those Kings with our own eyes. Well, they have gone, and we are
gathering round the warm cosy fire to hear about King Harold.

Line of Danish Kings and English Kings. 57

Directly after Edward's death, Harold presented himself as King, and
although of course he had no real claim, the Londoners and the bishops, and the
clergy, and most of the nobles welcomed him with open arms, and he was
crowned by the Archbishop of York.
Harold then came to Westminster to keep Easter, and lo! and behold, a
large comet was suddenly seen to be shining for a week in the sky, and the wise
men of the day said that it was a sure sign that he King was going to be slain,
and his kingdom destroyed; and, as we shall see, they were not so far out.
William of Normandy, directly he heard of Edvward's death and Harold's
coronation, became very angry, and called his council together and told his
friends that he had made up his mind to go across the channel and fight for the
English crown.
First of all, however, he sent an envoy to remind Harold of the oath that he
had taken. He did not gain much by this, for the answer was sent back from
Harold that as the oath had been extorted by force and trickery it was not a
binding one, and that as he had been elected King by the whole people, he intended
to abide by their choice. Let William come on if he dared, Harold was quite
willing to meet him.
Harold had a brother named Tostig, Earl of Northumberland, who had
been outlawed some years before, because he was so troublesome, and this
Tostig now went to William and arranged to help him to the best of his power.
He made an alliance with Hardrada, King of Norway, and sailed up the Ouse,
fighting there a battle with the English troops under Earls Edwin and Morcar,
in which the English seem to have had considerably the worst of it. Harold
had been waiting quietly in the south for at least six months, quite prepared to
give William a warm reception if he landed upon the English coast. Hearing,
however, of what had happened in the north, he marched up to York to meet his
enemies. He marched so quickly that he took Hardrada by surprise at Stam-
ford Bridge, and there a great battle was fought.
It is told in one of the old histories, that there was one Norwegian who
held the bridge against all the English, slaying one after another all that came
against him, until there were lying before him and all around him forty men,
who had been killed by his battle axe. No one could hurt him. Even arrows
did not seem to touch him, for he bore a charmed life. At last an Englishman
got into a boat, went under the bridge, and managed to smite him unawares
under his corselet, and brought him down. Harold and his soldiers then passed
over the bridge to fight their enemies on the other side.

The Children's Fairy History of England.

Hardrada wore a blue mantle and a glittering helmet, and rode a spirited
horse. By-and-bye his horse fell. Who is that chieftain," said Harold, on
the ground ?" Being told that it was Hardrada. He is a gallant soldier,"
said Harold; "but his fall shows that his death is at hand."
Not wishing to injure his brother, Harold sent a messenger to Tostig to
offer him the removal of his outlawry and the earldom of Northumberland.
"That offer," said Tostig, should have been made to me many months ago.
But if I accept it what will my brother give to the King of Norway ?"
"Seven feet of land for a grave," was the answer.
Tostig would not leave his ally; and so the battle went on, until
at last Hardrada, Tostig, and all the Norwegian leaders were slain. The
battle was such a fierce one, that for fifty years after, the spot where it
took place was quite whitened with the bones of the dead men. This was the
27th of September, A.D. 1066. Harold spared Hardrada's son Olave, and sent
him back with twelve ships to his own country. Then taking possession of the
Norwegian fleet, he entered York in triumph. While he was seated at a
banquet with his nobles, a messenger brought him tidings that William had
landed with his Norman army exactly two days after the battle of Stamford
While Harold had been occupied elsewhere, William had not been idle.
First of all he sent to Pope Alexander II., and got him over so entirely to
his way of thinking, that Alexander declared that Harold had broken his word,
aid was not really King. He sent William a consecrated banner, and a great
relic, a ring with one of St.Peter's hairs inside it, and threatened to excommuni-
cate Harold and all his followers, if they dared to resist the just, claims of the
Duke of Normandy.
William then assembled a fleet of 3,000 vessels and an army of 60,ooo men,
who were officered by some of the greatest French nobles, to whom William
promised, if victorious, the spoils of England.
And now the fleet was ready to start, headed by the Duke's own vessel,
which was a present from his wife Matilda. It was a very large and handsome
vessel. On the prow was an image of gold, representing a boy, who, with his
right hand pointed forward to England, with his left held a trumpet of ivory to
his mouth.
England, even in those days, was not so easily invaded. And so, after the
fleet had started from the mouth of the river Dive, the wind rose, and a storm set
in; and though many of the ships reached St. Valery, near Dieppe, many of the

Line of Danish Kings and English Kings. 59

vessels were wrecked, and the coast for miles was strewn with broken timber
and dead bodies.
And now there was a grand religious service, the shrine containing the
relics of St. Valery was carried in solemn procession, and prayers were offered
by all for a more favourable wind. At last the wind changed and blew off the
coast, and although it was daik, the fleet got under weigh, the Duke leading, with
a bright lantern suspended from the head of his mast, so that the fleet might not
get scattered during the night. However, when the morning came and the coast
came into sight, in spite of all his precautions the fleet was scattered all over the
channel, and had the English fleet only been on the spot, which of course it was
not, nothing more would have been heard of William, or his grand Norman
knights. Doubtless they would all have gone to Davy Jones' locker.
And so it happened that William landed quite easily in Pevensey Bay, and
marched straight on to Hastings, where he threw up fortifications. I must tell
you that on landing, William happened to trip over and fell to the ground, which is
generally looked upon as a bad omen. He was, however, so sharp-witted that he
caught hold of a piece of the beach, and shouted to his followers that he had thus
taken possession of the country, and a soldier ran to a neighboring cottage, and
plucking a handful of the thatched roof, presented it to the Duke, thus giving
him, according to a practice of Norman law, what was called seizen of England.
Two days after, but two days too late, the English came into the channel,
and blockaded Hastings and Pevensey. The mischief, however, was done.
Directly Harold heard of this he was on the move. In vain his brother
Gurth advised him to let others do the fighting, while he, the King, kept at a safe
distance. Harold's blood was up; had he not beaten the Norwegians? Why
should he not beat the Normans ? And as to keeping at a safe distance, unless
an English King led his soldiers on to battle, and himself was in the thick of the
fight, well, he had no business to be a King at all. I think that most of us
in Harold's place, children, would have argued the same.
Messages passed between the two leaders; Harold offered William a sum
of money to go back again to Normandy, and William responded that Harold
must either surrender or fight. Harold answered that the God of battles should
decide between them.
And now we are going to be present ourselves at the forthcoming battle.
You may all come.
We shall not see anything very dreadful, for all the real horrors (in spite
of Bob's evident disappointment) of a battle, I don't think are necessary.

The Children's Fairy History of England.

We shall now look on, not from a distance, but right from the very centre
of the battle-field. To those who are fighting we shall be just like ghosts. All
their arrows and spears, if they come our way, will pass clean through us,
and we shall not be hurt at all. But first of all I have to mesmerise you. Now
all stand still.

We are now at a place called Senlac, afterwards called Battle, in Sussex. It
is Friday, October 13th, A.D. o166, and it is quite dark, for it is night. Now,
follow me, children; remember that while you can see everything, nobody can see
you, for you are ghosts, and nothing else."
Look at the lights twinkling over hill and dale, far and wide; here and there
are great camp fires, for the night is cold, and the damp south wind is blowing
in from the sea.
Here to the north is the camp of the English; they do not seem to have any
dread of the coming battle. Here they are sitting around their camp fires,
laughing and talking and jesting and singing, telling many a story of bygone
days, as they drain the cups of mead that are handed round. Others more
thoughtful are looking to their arms. But take the camp as a whole, the soldiers
seem to be looking forward to to-morrow more as a great holiday than as any-
thing else.
Never mind the sentries, they will not hurt us; they can't see us, nor hear us.
Now follow me through this wood and down this ravine to the south, and here we
are in the Norman camp which is pitched on Telham Hill. Everything here you see
is in perfect order. The soldiers are very quiet, but very determined. Here they are
gathered together kneeling in prayer before an altar, where the priest is holding a
service. These men are serious, and they evidently look upon their work as religious
work. Look at those bishops,who are going from tent to tent, those are Odo, Bishop
of Bayeux, and Bishop Geoffrey of Coutances, and they are busily employed in
telling their countrymen to repent them of their sins, and where necessary they
hear their confessions, and give them absolution. Outside the tents you can see
by the dim light the knightly banners and pennons, and the shields of the squires
emblazoned with coats of arms. Here and there instead of the boisterous songs
of our countrymen, we hear the soft sweet music of a chant, or psalm. However
wrong they were to come over and try to take possession of a foreign land, these
old Normans knew at any rate how to fear, and how to worship God.
But now the night is passing away, and the grey dawn is breaking. It is
now Saturday morning, October 14th. See out of yonder tents come the knights,

Line of Danish Kings and English Kings. 61

with proud, haughty bearing; they wait awhile, and out of that large tent with
silken canopies, where two sentries are continually on the watch, steps the
Norman leader, William. Greeting his nobles, he passes on with them to a
quiet secluded spot, where under the shade of a large spreading oak, sheltered
moreover from the falling leaves, and any rain-drops that might drip from the
branches, by a stately canopy of silken damask, the Bishop of Bayeux has
erected a temporary altar. Here, bowing the head and still more humbly bowing
the knee, William and his knights receive, many of them for the last time, the
Mass. It is a very solemn thing to witness this outdoor service, this pleading of
the Sacrifice of Christ, this partaking of the Sacrament of Love, just on the eve of
a terrible battle, and by men who are about to die.
The service is now over; listen to the inspiriting clarion calls of the trumpets.
The soldiers waking up, hurriedly dress themselves, and fall in at their respective
stations, and march down to the place of parade.
Let us draw near and stand by William's side and listen to what he has to
He tells them why he has come, and of Harold's broken promise. He
reminds them of their courage and bravery in the past, and that to-day they
must fight like men, for if conquered, all retreat is cut off from them, as the
English fleet is lying in wait for them in the channel. He says to them that he
feels sure they will not retreat, being Normans. The Danes, over and over
again, have conquered these English, why should they not do the same ? These
English, too, deserve to be conquered, for they are a very cruel people. How
badly they -had treated the Danes at the time of the great massacre on St.
Brice's Day; how infamously they had behaved to Alfred and the Normans
who had come with him. It was quite time they were punished, and God had
sent him to avenge His cause.
This speech, as you can see, is very welcome, and a great cry in response
goes forth from the armed men.
And now the soldiers are dismissed for a short time to get their breakfasts.
We will do the same, and have a little picnic of our own under this great oak
tree. You must not expect tea, coffee, beef, mutton, or even eggs and bacon.
All these things belong to the other state. We are ghosts, and we have to fare
on ghostly things.
Here, however, is something for you.
This is mush-push. Who'll have mush-push ? It is a kind of stir-about,
very good for lively ghosts.

The Children's Fairy History of England.

Here is kalidoolah pie. Jack, pass those slices round.
Here is hoonooboonoo, a savoury curry, made of the hind legs and brains of
bats and owls. Oh, it is delicious Ethel, don't up-tilt your ghostly nose in
that manner.
Perhaps you would like this curdle-wurdle better. You must take some
moonbeam-syrup with it to get the full flavour.
Bob, just pour out in these glasses a little-no, that's too much-a very
little of this psocholate. It is very invigorating, but it's satisfying-very satis-
fying. I never find any one ever asks for more. It lingers on the palate.
Ah, it curls up your tongues, does it? Curl them down again.
Oh, how stupid of me. I forgot the sick-a-sicks. These are cigarettes.
Boys only, on this occasion. The girls may have some of these p lgar-shlums, a
species of bon-bon.
The trumpets. are now sounding out the call to arms, and the soldiers are
falling into their ranks, and are already on their march to the battle-
field. The knights, as you see, are mounting their horses. What is
the matter with William ? Why, he has put his armour on wrong side before!
What a silly mistake. He does not seem to mind much, for he is saying, Oh,
this is indeed a stroke of luck, for to-day the Duke shall be turned into a
And now, leaving the Normans, and marching along, we will make our way
to a spot where we can see the whole battle. And as we go, we will sing a
little song.
We are ghosts, we are ghosts,
Of mesmeric kind;
We dance like the sunbeams,
We fly as the wind.
We are ghosts, we are ghosts,
As light as the air,
We flit here, we flit there,
We're just everywhere.
There is nothing can daunt us,
Or stop us at all;
We glide o'er a housetop,
We slip through a wpll.
We're at home in the depths,
As well as the heights;
We love the bright sunshine,
We're partial to nights.


Line of Danish Kings and English Kings. 63

We are ghosts, we are ghosts,
Of a new-fangled kind,
Scarcely troubled with brains,
Without any mind.
We are ghosts, we are ghosts,
And we've no insides ;
No hearts, lungs, or livers,
Or aught else besides.


We are ghosts, we are ghosts,
We do not much care,
So long as we're cosy,
What costumes we wear.
We are ghosts, we are ghosts,
Our clothes never soil,
Our boots never wear out,
Our hats cannot spoil.
There is nothing can touch us
Or cause us alarm,

The Children's Fairy History of England.

No arrow can pierce us,
No spear-thrust can harm.
We've come to the battle,
To join in the fun,
And here we are staying
Until it is done.
We are ghosts, we are ghosts,
Of venturesome turn,
We are out for a lark,
As well as to learn.
We are ghosts, we are ghosts,
All bent on a spree,
In all the round world,
Who so jolly as we ?

I can't help thinking, some of those English yonder heard us; for see a
flight of arrows comes our way. You need not duck, dear children, stand up
boldly to them; see, they have all gone through us, just as if we were so much
thin air; it is a decided advantage to be a ghost now and then.



Now group yourselves round me here, and look down upon the battle-field.
There .you can see the Normans advancing in three great bodies; those on the
right of us are the Bretons, those on the extreme left are soldiers gathered from
different parts of France, and elsewhere. You can see they are rather a mixed
lot by the different uniforms that they wear. In the centre are the Norman

Line of Danish Kings and English Kings. 65

knights, headed by William himself and his brother Odo, the Bishop of Bayeux.
Both of them are armed with heavy maces of iron. Here, too, is William's
half-brother Robert, and beside them is carried the sacred banner which has
been sent them by the Pope.
Here, at Senlac, are the English. In the centre see the King Harold, and
by his side his brothers Gurth and Leofwine. Over his head is floating the
Royal Standard. Massed in front of them and behind them are his foot-
soldiers, clad in coats of mail, and armed with spears and axes. Many of them
have, as you see, bows and arrows. Right away behind, on the hills some
distance off, are men who have been hastily gathered together from the neigh-
bouring country, who, hearing that the Normans have landed, have come to help
drive them out. Some of them have bows and arrows, but the greater part
of them have but such weapons as they could easily find.
See! riding all by himself, far in front of the Norman ranks, a gaily dressed
soldier. His name is Taillefer, or Iron-cutter, Duke William's Minstrel, who has
begged that he may be the first to strike a blow at the English. As he'rides he
sings an old battle-song. And now he draws near to the English ranks. See! he
has run one man through with his lance, and now he cuts down another with his
sword. The Normans cheer him lustily. But out steps a stalwart English
soldier, and, raising his two-handed axe, brings it down with a crash upon
Taillefer, and he and his horse lie dying on the ground.
And now the battle has begun in real earnest. Strong sturdy blows are
given on all sides. And now we can hear the Normans crying, God help us,"
answered by the English cry, God Almighty," or "Holy Cross." The
English stand firm, and down go the foreigners before them, just as corn goes
down before the sickle. Rank after rank keeps falling to the ground. They
have had enough of this, and begin to fall back, and some of the more cowardly
begin to fly from the field, and the cry goes out that the Duke is killed. No,
he is not, for see him yonder, lifting off his helmet and showing his face, and
saying that he is very much alive. And now they turn back again, and the
Duke and his knights come galloping up to the stout wooden paling that
surrounds the place where Harold is defending the Standard. Gurth now hurls
a spear at Williain ; it misses him and kills his horse. Rapidly disentangling
himself from his stirrups, the Duke fights on foot; down comes his heavy axe
upon Gurth's head, and he falls in the dust. Harold's other brother, Leofwine,
is also dead by this time. Still the English are holding their own. What is to
be done? Mounting another horse, William rides off to his soldiers, and bids

66 The Children's Fairy History of England.

them pretend to be routed, and to fly helter-skelter over the hills until they
receive the'order to charge again.
"See, the Normans are flying. Victory! Victory!" shout the English,
and are after them in large numbers. But directly they are scattered, at a word
from the Duke, the Normans turn round and are down upon them, cutting them
to pieces on all sides. Still Harold and his brave soldiers are holding their own
ground, and round them are gathering still the Norman hosts. Shoot up into
the air," shouts William to his archers, and a great flight of arrows goes up into
the sky, falling down upon the heads of the English like a shower of hail.


Alas! alas! how many of these brave fellows are grievously wounded? See,
Harold has fallen, for an arrow has pierced his eye. He tries to pull it out, and
he breaks the shaft off from the head which remains in the wound. Wild with
pain he drops his great battle-axe, with which he has been fighting so long and
so bravely, and now a body of Norman knights rush upon the English, who are
cast into great confusion by the sudden fall of Harold. More desperate fight-
ing follows, and at last Harold is killed as he lies on the ground, and the Royal
Standard is captured, and the shouts of the Normans show that the battle has
been won.

Line of Danish Kings and Englzsm Kings. 67

See, William is making his men clear away the dead bodies, and he is going
to pitch his tent for the night where the English standard was planted.
Shouts from the distance tell us that still men are fighting, over the hills and
plains in the morasses and forests where the English lure the Normans on to
follow them, and then fall upon them and slay them fiercely in revenge for the
death of their King.


But now there is silence; all is over, and the Normans everywhere have
been victorious.
Ere we turn away, I must tell you that to-morrow the King's mother will
come to beg the body of her son. But William sternly refused, and told one of
his knights to take Harold's body and.bury it on the sea-shore under a heap of
stones. He guarded," said William, "the sea-shore, when alive, let him guard
it now he is dead."

68 The Children's Fairy History of England.

But when they came to look for Har6ld, they could not find him, for his
body had been so mangled by his many wounds that no one could recognize him.
At last, an English lady, who loved Harold very much, came and assisted them
in their search, and at last she pointed him out. Oh, so sadly altered and


changed from the fine gallant man who had fought so bravely so short a time
ago. She only knew him, however, by a certain mark on his body, for his face
had been all beaten in. And so at last the poor dead body of the brave King
was taken to Hastings and buried under a great heap of stones. Afterwards,

Line of Danish Kings and English Kings.

when William was King, and was sorry for what he had done, he allowed the
monks of Waltham to take Harold's body and bury it in the choir of their
0 + 0 + + 0 +
We are ourselves again, no longer ghosts, no longer looking with wondering
and frightened eyes at a great battle ; we are back at quiet, peaceful Westmacott
I must tell you a little more, however, about all this.
The place where this great battle was fought was afterwards called Battle,"
and according to a vow that he had made directly he set eyes upon Harold,
and his royal standard, William built an abbey and an abbey church where the
great fight had taken place. The high altar of the church was erected right
over the identical spot where Harold died. And some day we will go out from
Hastings to Battle Abbey and see this for ourselves. The old church is in ruins,
but we can easily find out the very spot where the Royal Standard stood.
And now, children, that poor Harold is dead and buried I think it is time
to stop for awhile. I am obliged to run up to London on a matter of business,
and I shall have to leave you for a couple of days. Do not get into any mischief
while I am away; you can have, if you like, a snow-battle of Hastings. Jack
shall be William the Conqueror (no, Jack, not "Jack, the Giant-killer," William
the Conqueror, I tell you). Bob shall be Harold-mind you make a good fight
of it, Bob-stick to your standard, and after the battle is over, you can all set to
work, Normans and English, those who have been killed can come to life again
for the occasion, and build a beautiful Battle Abbey of snow. Get it ready for
me, so that when I come back I may see it.
Now good-bye, the carriage is at the door.
"Surprises !" Who wants surprises ? What, all of you! Oh, dear !




ELL, here I am back again, as you see-
And I hope you are all satisfied with your
"surprises." Do you know, I spent nearly
half a day in the Lowther Arcade, and I
was almost in despair as I thought of how
S- many I had to please. However, you are,
as a rule, good children, and it is quite a
pleasure to do something for you.
Why, Bob! you have been acting King
Harold in downright earnest. Your beauty
y : will be spoilt for a day or two. And how
.''. ". about that abbey ?
Oh, that's it, is it? It's more like a
dilapidated bathing-machine or a broken-
down four-wheeler than anything else.
Oh, you quarrelled over it, did you ? And you had a strike (Bob's eyes
look like a strike). The Normans wanted to lord it over the English, did they?
And the English headed by Harold (Bob,) who suddenly came to life, and was
very uppish and cheeky, wouldn't stand it, and went off and built an opposition
shop, abbey you mean, of their own over the way. Oh, I understand. Oh, you
boys, you boys!

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